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Sample records for acute ecotoxicity tests

  1. Interest of dynamic tests in acute ecotoxicity assessment in algae

    SciTech Connect

    Jouany, J.M.; Ferard, J.F.; Vasseur, P.; Gea, J.; Truhaut, R.; Rast, C.

    1983-04-01

    Sorption of toxics by algae may be important and occurs very early. Thus, a decrease of the experimental toxic concentrations in the medium results in understating toxicity when tests are conducted under static conditions. In this work, two different methods of exposure of algae (Chlorella vulgaris) are studied, the static test and the pseudodynamic test. Acute effects (biological and analytical effects) of inorganic compounds (Cu/sup 2 +/, Cd/sup 2 +/, Pb/sup 2 +/, Cr/sup 6 +/) have been evaluated for 96 hr of exposure; in each case, IC50 is much lower in the dynamic condition than in the static one. The percentage of reduction varies from 55 to 75% after 96 hr. Accumulation of metal by chlorellae is greater when testing by the pseudodynamic way, with Cu/sup 2 +/ and Pb/sup 2 +/. But in the case of Cd/sup 2 +/ and Cr/sup 6 +/, the concentration factors are similar in the two kinds of exposure. These results point out the advantage of the pseudodynamic test, of which the methodology is very easy, for a more realistic assessment of acute ecotoxicity in these organisms.

  2. Aquatic ecotoxicity tests of some nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Velzeboer, Ilona; Hendriks, A Jan; Ragas, Ad M J; Van de Meent, Dik

    2008-09-01

    Nanoparticles of TiO2, ZrO2, AL2O3, CeO2, fullerene (C60), single-walled carbon nanotubes, and polymethylmethacrylate were tested for ecotoxic effects using one or more ecotoxicity endpoints: Microtox (bacteria), pulse-amplitude modulation (algae), Chydotox (crustaceans), and Biolog (soil enzymes). No appreciable effects were observed at nominal concentrations of up to 100 mg/L. Dilution of nanoparticle suspensions, either in ultrapure (Milli-Q) water or in natural (pond) water, led to formation of larger particles, which settled easily. (Nano)particles in water were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, and spectrophotometry. It is concluded that the absence of ecotoxicity is the result of low concentrations of free nanoparticles in the tests, and it is suggested that colloid (in)stability is of primary importance in explaining ecotoxic effects of nanoparticles in the natural environment. PMID:19086210

  3. Ecotoxicity testing: science, politics and ethics.

    PubMed

    Walker, Colin H

    2008-02-01

    Animal welfare organisations have long been concerned about the use of animals for ecotoxicity testing. Ecotoxicity testing is a necessary part of the statutory risk assessment of chemicals that may be released into the environment. It is sometimes also carried out during the development of new chemicals and in the investigation of pollution in the field. This review considers the existing requirements for ecotoxicity testing, with particular reference to practices in the European Union, including the recent REACH system proposals, before discussing criticisms that have been made of existing practices for environmental risk assessment. These criticisms have been made on scientific and ethical grounds, as well as on questions of cost. A case is made for greater investment in the development of alternative testing methods, which could improve the science, as well as serving the cause of animal welfare. It has frequently been suggested that the statutory requirements for environmental risk assessment are too rigid and bureaucratic. A case is made for flexibility and the greater involvement of scientists in the risk assessment procedure, in the interests of both improved science and improved animal welfare. PMID:18333718

  4. Evaluation of acute ecotoxicity removal from industrial wastewater using a battery of rapid bioassays.

    PubMed

    Dries, Jan; Daens, Dominique; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares conventional wastewater treatment technologies (coagulation-flocculation and activated sludge) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) treatment for the removal of acute ecotoxicity from wastewater generated by tank truck cleaning (TTC) processes. Ecotoxicity was assessed with a battery of four commercially available rapid biological toxicity testing systems, verified by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Chemical coagulation-flocculation of raw TTC wastewater had no impact on the inhibition of the bioluminescence by Vibrio fischeri (BioTox assay). Subsequent biological treatment with activated sludge without PAC resulted in BioTox inhibition-free effluent (<10% inhibition). In contrast, activated sludge treatment without PAC produced an effluent that significantly inhibited (>50%) (i) the bioluminescence by Photobacterium leiognathi (ToxScreen³ test kit), (ii) the photosynthesis by the green algae Chlorella vulgaris (LuminoTox SAPS test kit), and (iii) the particle ingestion by the crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus (Rapidtoxkit test kit). The lowest inhibition was measured after activated sludge treatment with the highest PAC dose (400 mg/L), demonstrating the effectiveness of PAC treatment for ecotoxicity removal from TTC wastewater. In conclusion, the combination of bioassays applied in the present study represents a promising test battery for rapid ecotoxicty assessment in wastewater treatment. PMID:25521143

  5. Reduction in Acute Ecotoxicity of Paper Mill Effluent by Sequential Application of Xylanase and Laccase

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jitender; Kalia, Vipin C.; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the ecotoxicity of paper mill, four different enzymatic pretreatment strategies were investigated in comparison to conventional chemical based processes. In strategy I, xylanase-aided pretreatment of pulp was carried out, and in strategy II, xylanase and laccase-mediator systems were used sequentially. Moreover, to compare the efficiency of Bacillus stearothermophilus xylanase and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora laccase in the reduction of ecotoxicity and pollution, parallel strategies (III and IV) were implemented using commercial enzymes. Conventional CDEOPD1D2 (CD, Cl2 with ClO2; EOP, H2O2 extraction; D1 and D2, ClO2) and X/XLCDEOPD1D2 (X, xylanase; L, laccase) sequences were employed with non-enzymatic and enzymatic strategies, respectively. Acute toxicity was determined by the extent of inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri with different dilutions of the effluent. Two-fold increase was observed in EC50 values for strategy I compared to the control process. On the other hand, sequential application of commercial enzymes resulted in higher acute toxicity compared to lab enzymes. In comparison to the control process, strategy II was the most efficient and successfully reduced 60.1 and 25.8% of biological oxygen demand (BOD) and color of effluents, respectively. We report for the first time the comparative analysis of the ecotoxicity of industrial effluents. PMID:25058160

  6. Reduction in acute ecotoxicity of paper mill effluent by sequential application of xylanase and laccase.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Garg, Gaurav; Sharma, Jitender; Kalia, Vipin C; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the ecotoxicity of paper mill, four different enzymatic pretreatment strategies were investigated in comparison to conventional chemical based processes. In strategy I, xylanase-aided pretreatment of pulp was carried out, and in strategy II, xylanase and laccase-mediator systems were used sequentially. Moreover, to compare the efficiency of Bacillus stearothermophilus xylanase and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora laccase in the reduction of ecotoxicity and pollution, parallel strategies (III and IV) were implemented using commercial enzymes. Conventional C(D)E(OP)D(1)D(2) (C(D), Cl(2) with ClO2; EOP, H2O2 extraction; D1 and D2, ClO2) and X/XLC(D)E(OP)D(1)D(2) (X, xylanase; L, laccase) sequences were employed with non-enzymatic and enzymatic strategies, respectively. Acute toxicity was determined by the extent of inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri with different dilutions of the effluent. Two-fold increase was observed in EC50 values for strategy I compared to the control process. On the other hand, sequential application of commercial enzymes resulted in higher acute toxicity compared to lab enzymes. In comparison to the control process, strategy II was the most efficient and successfully reduced 60.1 and 25.8% of biological oxygen demand (BOD) and color of effluents, respectively. We report for the first time the comparative analysis of the ecotoxicity of industrial effluents. PMID:25058160

  7. Acute and chronic ecotoxicity of carbaryl with a battery of aquatic bioassays.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Hela; Burga-Perez, Karen F; Ferard, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    The ecotoxic effects of carbaryl (carbamate insecticide) were investigated with a battery of four aquatic bioassays. The nominal effective concentrations immobilizing 50% of Daphnia magna (EC50) after 24 and 48 h were 12.76 and 7.47 µg L(-1), respectively. After 21 days of exposure of D. magna, LOECs (lowest observed effect concentrations) for cumulative molts and the number of neonates per surviving adult were observed at carbaryl concentration of 0.4 µg L(-1). An increase of embryo deformities (curved or unextended shell spines) was observed at 1.8 and 3.7 µg L(-1), revealing that carbaryl could act as an endocrine disruptor in D. magna. Other bioassays of the tested battery were less sensitive: the IC50-72h and IC10-72h of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were 5.96 and 2.87 mg L(-1), respectively. The LC50-6d of the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens was 4.84 mg L(-1). A growth inhibition of H. incongruens was registered after carbaryl exposure and the IC20-6d was 1.29 mg L(-1). Our results suggest that the daphnid test sensitivity was better than other used tests. Moreover, carbaryl has harmful and toxic effects on tested species because it acts at low concentrations on diverse life history traits of species and induce embryo deformities in crustaceans. PMID:26549316

  8. Ecotoxicity of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary pharmaceutical company: a comparison of the sensitivities of different standardized tests.

    PubMed

    Maselli, Bianca de S; Luna, Luis A V; Palmeira, Joice de O; Tavares, Karla P; Barbosa, Sandro; Beijo, Luiz A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A; Kummrow, Fábio

    2015-05-01

    Pharmaceutical effluents have recently been recognized as an important contamination source to aquatic environments and the toxicity related to the presence of antibiotics in effluents has attracted great attention. Conventionally, these effluents have been treated using physico-chemical and aerobic biological processes, usually with low rates of pharmaceuticals removal. Due to the complexity of effluents, it is impossible to determine all pharmaceuticals and their degradation products using analytical methods. Ecotoxicity tests with different organisms may be used to determine the effect level of effluents and thus their environmental impacts. The objective of this work was to compare the sensitivities of five ecotoxicity tests using aquatic and terrestrial organisms to evaluate the toxicity of effluents from the production of veterinary medicines before and after treatment. Raw and chemically treated effluent samples were highly toxic to aquatic organisms, achieving 100,000 toxic units, but only few of those samples presented phytotoxicity. We observed a reduction in the toxicity in the biologically treated effluent samples, which were previously chemically pre-treated, however the toxicity was not eliminated. The rank of test organisms' reactions levels was: Daphnia similis > Raphidocelis subcapitata > Aliivibrio fischeri > Allium cepa ~ Lactuca sativa. Effluent treatment employed by the evaluated company was only partially efficient at removing the effluent toxicity, suggesting potential risks to biota. The acute toxicity test with D. similis proved to be the most sensitive for both raw and treated effluents and is a suitable option for further characterization and monitoring of pharmaceutical effluents. PMID:25682103

  9. Fate and effects of CeO2 nanoparticles in aquatic ecotoxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Van Hoecke, Karen; Quik, Joris T K; Mankiewicz-Boczek, Joanna; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Elsaesser, Andreas; Van der Meeren, Paul; Barnes, Clifford; McKerr, George; Howard, C Vyvyan; Van de Meent, Dik; Rydzyński, Konrad; Dawson, Kenneth A; Salvati, Anna; Lesniak, Anna; Lynch, Iseult; Silversmit, Geert; De Samber, Björn; Vincze, Laszlo; Janssen, Colin R

    2009-06-15

    Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are increasingly being used as a catalyst in the automotive industry. Consequently, increasing amounts of CeO2 NPs are expected to enter the environment where their fate in and potential impacts are unknown. In this paper we describe the fate and effects of CeO2 NPs of three different sizes (14, 20, and 29 nm) in aquatic toxicity tests. In each standard test medium (pH 7.4) the CeO2 nanoparticles aggregated (mean aggregate size approximately 400 nm). Four test organisms covering three different trophic levels were investigated, i.e., the unicellular green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, two crustaceans: Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus, and embryos of Danio rerio. No acute toxicity was observed for the two crustaceans and D. rerio embryos, up to test concentrations of 1000, 5000, and 200 mg/L, respectively. In contrast, significant chronic toxicity to P. subcapitata with 10% effect concentrations (EC10s) between 2.6 and 5.4 mg/L was observed. Food shortage resulted in chronic toxicity to D. magna, for wich EC10s of > or = 8.8 and < or = 20.0 mg/L were established. Chronic toxicity was found to increase with decreasing nominal particle diameter and the difference in toxicity could be explained by the difference in surface area. Using the data set, PNEC(aquatic)S > or = 0.052 and < or = 0.108 mg/L were derived. Further experiments were performed to explain the observed toxicity to the most sensitive organism, i.e., P. subcapitata. Toxicity could not be related to a direct effect of dissolved Ce or CeO2 NP uptake or adsorption, nor to an indirect effect of nutrient depletion (by sorption to NPs) or physical light restriction (through shading by the NPs). However, observed clustering of NPs around algal cells may locally cause a direct or indirect effect. PMID:19603674

  10. Rapid screening for soil ecotoxicity with a battery of luminescent bacteria tests.

    PubMed

    Heinlaan, Margit; Kahru, Anne; Kasemets, Kaja; Kurvet, Imbi; Waterlot, Cristophe; Sepp, Kalev; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Douay, Francis

    2007-03-01

    A bacterial test battery, involving i) Microtox, an aquatic test, ii) the Flash assay, a soil-suspension test (with Vibrio fischeri as the test organism), and iii) the Metal Detector assay, a semi-specific aquatic test for heavy metals (with recombinant luminescent Escherichia coli), was used in a combined toxicological and chemical hazard assessment of Estonian soils sampled from a former Soviet military airfield (13 samples) and from traffic-influenced roadsides (5 samples). The soils showed slightly elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), but not of heavy metals. In most of the samples, the levels of TPH did not exceed the Estonian permitted limit values set for residential areas. Toxicity testing was performed on both fresh and dried soils, after aqueous extraction for 1 hour and 24 hours. The toxicity results obtained with the Microtox test did not significantly differ in all of the sample treatment schemes; however, it appeared that the drying and sieving of the soils increased the bioavailability of toxicants, probably due to an enlarged reactive soil surface area. According to chemical analysis of the soils and the data from the Microtox test and the Metal Detector assay (performed on aqueous elutriates of the soils), these soils would not be considered to be hazardous. In contrast, the Flash assay performed on soil-water suspensions of dried soils, showed that most of the soils were toxic and thus probably contained undetermined particle-bound bioavailable toxicants. The photobacterial toxicity test (the Flash assay) can be recommended for the rapid screening of soils, as it is sensitive, cheap and inexpensive, and provides valuable information on particle-bound bioavailable toxicants, useful for complementing a chemical analysis and for assessing the risks originating from polluted soils. PMID:17411358

  11. Can Artemia Hatching Assay Be a (Sensitive) Alternative Tool to Acute Toxicity Test?

    PubMed

    Rotini, A; Manfra, L; Canepa, S; Tornambè, A; Migliore, L

    2015-12-01

    Artemia sp. is extensively used in ecotoxicity testing, despite criticisms inherent to both acute and long-term tests. Alternative endpoints and procedures should be considered to support the use of this biological model. The hatching process comprises several developmental steps and the cyst hatchability seems acceptable as endpoint criterion. In this study, we assessed the reliability of the hatching assay on A. franciscana by comparing with acute and long-term mortality tests, using two chemicals: Diethylene Glycol (DEG), Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS). Both DEG and SDS tests demonstrated a dose dependent hatching inhibition. The hatching test resulted more sensitive than acute mortality test and less sensitive than the long-term one. Results demonstrate the reliability and high sensitivity of this hatching assay on a short time lag and support its useful application in first-tier risk assessment procedures. PMID:26245451

  12. THE ECOTOX DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The database provides chemical-specific toxicity information for aquatic life, terrestrial plants, and terrestrial wildlife. ECOTOX is a comprehensive ecotoxicology database and is therefore essential for providing and suppoirting high quality models needed to estimate population...

  13. SOIL ECOTOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, remedial technologies developed to reduce the risk associated with contaminated soils have been evaluated using specific chemical concentrations as clean up goals. A more complete understanding of remedial treatments can be obtained by evaluating soil ecotoxicity ...

  14. Ecotoxicity on a stick: A novel analytical tool for predicting the ecotoxicity of petroleum contaminated samples

    SciTech Connect

    Parkerton, T.F.; Stone, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrocarbons generally elicit toxicity via a nonpolar narcotic mechanism. Recent research suggests that chemicals acting by this mode invoke ecotoxicity when the molar concentration in organisms lipid exceeds a critical threshold. Since ecotoxicity of nonpolar narcotic mixtures appears to be additive, the ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon mixtures thus depends upon: (1) the partitioning of individual hydrocarbons comprising the mixture from the environment to lipids and (2) the total molar sum of the constituent hydrocarbons in lipids. These insights have led previous investigators to advance the concept of biomimetic extraction as a novel tool for assessing potential narcosis-type or baseline ecotoxicity in aqueous samples. Drawing from this earlier work, the authors have developed a method to quantify Bioavailable Petroleum Hydrocarbons (BPHS) in hydrocarbon-contaminated aqueous and soil/sediment samples. A sample is equilibrated with a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber that serves as a surrogate for organism lipids. The total moles of hydrocarbons that partition to the SPME fiber is then quantified using a simple GC/FID procedure. Research conducted to support the development and initial validation of this method will be presented. Results suggest that BPH analyses provide a promising, cost-effective approach for predicting the ecotoxicity of environmental samples contaminated with hydrocarbon mixtures. Consequently, BPH analyses may provide a valuable analytical screening tool for ecotoxicity assessment in product and effluent testing, environmental monitoring and site remediation applications.

  15. 13th Meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC): alternative testing methodologies for ecotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, C; Kaiser, K; Klein, W; Lagadic, L; Peakall, D; Sheffield, S; Soldan, T; Yasuno, M

    1998-01-01

    There is growing public pressure to minimize the use of vertebrates in ecotoxicity testing; therefore, effective alternatives to toxicity tests causing suffering are being sought. This report discusses alternatives and differs in some respects from the reports of the other three groups because the primary concern is with harmful effects of chemicals at the level of population and above rather than with harmful effects upon individuals. It is concluded that progress toward the objective of minimizing testing that causes suffering would be served by the following initiatives--a clearer definition of goals and strategies when undertaking testing procedures; development of alternative assays, including in vitro test systems, that are based on new technology; development of nondestructive assays for vertebrates (e.g., biomarkers) that do not cause suffering; selection of most appropriate species, strains, and developmental stages for testing procedures (but no additional species for basic testing); better integrated and more flexible testing procedures incorporating biomarker responses, ecophysiological concepts, and ecological end points (progress in this direction depends upon expert judgment). In general, testing procedures could be made more realistic, taking into account problems with mixtures, and with volatile or insoluble chemicals. PMID:9599690

  16. Comparative assessment of ecotoxicity of urban aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turóczi, B.; Hoffer, A.; Tóth, Á.; Kováts, N.; Ács, A.; Ferincz, Á.; Kovács, A.; Gelencsér, A.

    2012-04-01

    In addition to its mass concentration, the health effects of urban particulate matter may depend on its particle size distribution and chemical composition. Yet air pollution regulations rely on exclusively bulk PM10 concentration measurements, without regard to their potentially different health effects under different conditions. Aerosols from various sources are well known to contain a plethora of toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic constituents such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In spite of the fact that tremendous efforts have been put to establish links between aerosol pollution and human health or mortality, the potential acute effects of PM2.5/PM10 have never been assessed for lack of adequate methodology. Here we present the application of a simple and sensitive method for the direct assessment of the overall ecotoxicity of various PM2.5/PM10 samples collected on filters. The method is based on the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition bioassay that has been standardized for solid samples, representing a relevant biological exposure route. Direct emission samples proved to be significantly more ecotoxic than photochemically processed aerosol, thus marked differences were observed between the ecotoxicities of urban PM10 in summer and winter. The previously overlooked acute effects of urban PM10 may add to the established effects of gaseous primary pollutants aggravating health problems during severe air pollution episodes.

  17. Ecotoxicity of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Sachindri; Kalaichelvan, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a science of producing and utilizing nanosized particles that are measured in nanometers. The unique size-dependent properties make the nanoparticles superior and indispensable as they show unusual physical, chemical, and properties such as conductivity, heat transfer, melting temperature, optical properties, and magnetization. Taking the advantages of these singular properties in order to develop new products is the main purpose of nanotechnology, and that is why it is regarded as “the next industrial revolution.” Although nanotechnology is quite a recent discipline, there have already high number of publications which discuss this topic. However, the safety of nanomaterials is of high priority. Whereas toxicity focuses on human beings and aims at protecting individuals, ecotoxicity looks at various trophic organism levels and intend to protect populations and ecosystems. Ecotoxicity includes natural uptake mechanisms and the influence of environmental factors on bioavailability (and thereby on toxicity). The present paper focuses on the ecotoxic effects and mechanisms of nanomaterials on microorganisms, plants, and other organisms including humans. PMID:23724300

  18. Ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships for alcohol ethoxylate mixtures based on substance-specific toxicity predictions.

    PubMed

    Boeije, G M; Cano, M L; Marshall, S J; Belanger, S E; Van Compernolle, R; Dorn, P B; Gümbel, H; Toy, R; Wind, T

    2006-05-01

    Traditionally, ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for alcohol ethoxylate (AE) surfactants have been developed by assigning the measured ecotoxicity for commercial products to the average structures (alkyl chain length and ethoxylate chain length) of these materials. Acute Daphnia magna toxicity tests for binary mixtures indicate that mixtures are more toxic than the individual AE substances corresponding with their average structures (due to the nonlinear relation of toxicity with structure). Consequently, the ecotoxicity value (expressed as effects concentration) attributed to the average structures that are used to develop the existing QSARs is expected to be too low. A new QSAR technique for complex substances, which interprets the mixture toxicity with regard to the "ethoxymers" distribution (i.e., the individual AE components) rather than the average structure, was developed. This new technique was then applied to develop new AE ecotoxicity QSARs for invertebrates, fish, and mesocosms. Despite the higher complexity, the fit and accuracy of the new QSARs are at least as good as those for the existing QSARs based on the same data set. As expected from typical ethoxymer distributions of commercial AEs, the new QSAR generally predicts less toxicity than the QSARs based on average structure. PMID:16256196

  19. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) for baseline toxicity and specific modes of action as a tool to improve interpretation of ecotoxicity testing of environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Escher, Beate I; Bramaz, Nadine; Mueller, Jochen F; Quayle, Pamela; Rutishauser, Sibylle; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M

    2008-05-01

    The toxic equivalency concept is a widely applied method to express the toxicity of complex mixtures of compounds that act via receptor-mediated mechanisms such as induction of the arylhydrocarbon or estrogen receptors. Here we propose to extend this concept to baseline toxicity, using the bioluminescence inhibition test with Vibrio fischeri, and an integrative ecotoxicity endpoint, algal growth rate inhibition. Both bioassays were validated by comparison with literature data and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for baseline toxicity were developed for all endpoints. The novel combined algae test, with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, allows for the simultaneous evaluation of specific inhibition of photosynthesis and growth rate. The contributions of specific inhibition of photosynthesis and non-specific toxicity could be differentiated by comparing the time and endpoint pattern. Photosynthesis efficiency, measured with the saturation pulse method after 2 h of incubation, served as indicator of specific inhibition of photosynthesis by photosystem II inhibitors. Diuron equivalents were defined as toxicity equivalents for this effect. The endpoint of growth rate over 24 h served to derive baseline toxicity equivalent concentrations (baseline-TEQ). By performing binary mixture experiments with reference compounds and complex environmental samples from a sewage treatment plant and a river, the TEQ concept was validated. The proposed method allows for easier interpretation and communication of effect-based water quality monitoring data and provides a basis for comparative analysis with chemical analytical monitoring. PMID:18449398

  20. Optimization of extraction procedures for ecotoxicity analyses: Use of TNT contaminated soil as a model

    SciTech Connect

    Sunahara, G.I.; Renoux, A.Y.; Dodard, S.; Paquet, L.; Hawari, J.; Ampleman, G.; Lavigne, J.; Thiboutot, S.

    1995-12-31

    The environmental impact of energetic substances (TNT, RDX, GAP, NC) in soil is being examined using ecotoxicity bioassays. An extraction method was characterized to optimize bioassay assessment of TNT toxicity in different soil types. Using the Microtox{trademark} (Photobacterium phosphoreum) assay and non-extracted samples, TNT was most acutely toxic (IC{sub 50} = 1--9 PPM) followed by RDX and GAP; NC did not show obvious toxicity (probably due to solubility limitations). TNT (in 0.25% DMSO) yielded an IC{sub 50} 0.98 + 0.10 (SD) ppm. The 96h-EC{sub 50} (Selenastrum capricornutum growth inhibition) of TNT (1. 1 ppm) was higher than GAP and RDX; NC was not apparently toxic (probably due to solubility limitations). Soil samples (sand or a silt-sand mix) were spiked with either 2,000 or 20,000 mg TNT/kg soil, and were adjusted to 20% moisture. Samples were later mixed with acetonitrile, sonicated, and then treated with CaCl{sub 2} before filtration, HPLC and ecotoxicity analyses. Results indicated that: the recovery of TNT from soil (97.51% {+-} 2.78) was independent of the type of soil or moisture content; CaCl{sub 2} interfered with TNT toxicity and acetonitrile extracts could not be used directly for algal testing. When TNT extracts were diluted to fixed concentrations, similar TNT-induced ecotoxicities were generally observed and suggested that, apart from the expected effects of TNT concentrations in the soil, the soil texture and the moisture effects were minimal. The extraction procedure permits HPLC analyses as well as ecotoxicity testing and minimizes secondary soil matrix effects. Studies will be conducted to study the toxic effects of other energetic substances present in soil using this approach.

  1. Blood tests for acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Basnayake, Chamara; Ratnam, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    Summary The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis requires the presence of at least two of the three diagnostic criteria – characteristic abdominal pain, elevated serum amylase or lipase, and radiological evidence of pancreatitis. Serum concentrations of amylase and lipase rise within hours of the pancreatic injury. A threshold concentration 2–4 times the upper limit of normal is recommended for diagnosis. Serum lipase is now the preferred test due to its improved sensitivity, particularly in alcohol-induced pancreatitis. Its prolonged elevation creates a wider diagnostic window than amylase. Neither enzyme is useful in monitoring or predicting the severity of an episode of pancreatitis in adults. New biomarkers including trypsinogen and elastase have no significant advantage over amylase or lipase. PMID:26648641

  2. CRED: Criteria for reporting and evaluating ecotoxicity data.

    PubMed

    Moermond, Caroline T A; Kase, Robert; Korkaric, Muris; Ågerstrand, Marlene

    2016-05-01

    Predicted-no-effect concentrations (PNECs) and environmental quality standards (EQSs) are derived in a large number of legal frameworks worldwide. When deriving these safe concentrations, it is necessary to evaluate the reliability and relevance of ecotoxicity studies. Such evaluation is often subject to expert judgment, which may introduce bias and decrease consistency when risk assessors evaluate the same study. The Criteria for Reporting and Evaluating Ecotoxicity Data (CRED) project attempts to address this problem. It aims to improve the reproducibility, transparency, and consistency of reliability and relevance evaluations of aquatic ecotoxicity studies among regulatory frameworks, countries, institutes, and individual assessors. In the present study, the CRED evaluation method is presented. It includes a set of 20 reliability and 13 relevance criteria, accompanied by extensive guidance. Risk assessors who participated in the CRED ring test evaluated the CRED evaluation method to be more accurate, applicable, consistent, and transparent than the often-used Klimisch method. The CRED evaluation method is accompanied by reporting recommendations for aquatic ecotoxicity studies, with 50 specific criteria divided into 6 categories: general information, test design, test substance, test organism, exposure conditions, and statistical design and biological response. An ecotoxicity study in which all important information is reported is more likely to be considered for regulatory use, and proper reporting may also help in the peer-review process. PMID:26399705

  3. Preliminary Ecotoxicity and Biodegradability Assessment of Metalworking Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerulová, Kristína; Amcha, Peter; Filická, Slávka

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of activated sludge from sewage treatment plant to degrade selected MWFs (ecotoxicity to bacterial consortium) and to evaluate the ecotoxicity by Lemna minor-higher plant. After evaluating the ecotoxicity, biodegradations rate with activated sludge was assessed on the basis of COD measurement. Preliminary study of measuring the ecotoxicity according to OECD 221 by Lemna minor shows effective concentration of Emulzin H at the rate of 81.6 mg l-1, for Ecocool 82.9 mg l-1, for BC 25 about 99.3 mg l-1, and for Dasnobor about 97.3 mg l-1. Preliminary study of measuring the ecotoxicity by bacterial consortium according to OECD 209 (STN EN ISO 8192) shows effective concentration of Blasocut BC 25 at the rate 227.4 mg l-1. According to OECD 302B, the biodegradations level of Emulzin H, Ecocool and BC 25 achieved 80% in 10 days. It can be stated that these MWFs have potential to ultimate degradation, but the statement has to be confirmed by a biodegradability test with other parameters than COD, which exhibits some disadvantages in testing O/W emulsions.

  4. ECOTOX knowledgebase: Search features and customized reports

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOXicology knowledgebase (ECOTOX) is a comprehensive, publicly available knowledgebase developed and maintained by ORD/NHEERL. It is used for environmental toxicity data on aquatic life, terrestrial plants and wildlife. ECOTOX has the capability to refine and filter search...

  5. Ecotoxicity evaluation of selected sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Stolte, Stefan; Arning, Jürgen; Uebers, Ute; Böschen, Andrea; Stepnowski, Piotr; Matzke, Marianne

    2011-10-01

    Sulfonamides (SAs) are a group of antibiotic drugs widely used in veterinary medicine. The contamination of the environment by these pharmaceuticals has raised concern in recent years. However, knowledge of their (eco)toxicity is still very basic and is restricted to just a few of these substances. Even though their toxicological analysis has been thoroughly performed and ecotoxicological data are available in the literature, a systematic analysis of their ecotoxicological potential has yet to be carried out. To fill this gap, 12 different SAs were chosen for detailed analysis with the focus on different bacteria as well as non-target organisms (algae and plants). A flexible (eco)toxicological test battery was used, including enzymes (acetylcholinesterase and glutathione reductase), luminescent marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), soil bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), limnic unicellular green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor), in order to take into account both the aquatic and terrestrial compartments of the environment, as well as different trophic levels. It was found that SAs are not only toxic towards green algae (EC₅₀=1.54-32.25 mg L⁻¹) but have even stronger adverse effect on duckweed (EC₅₀=0.02-4.89 mg L⁻¹) than atrazine - herbicide (EC₅₀=2.59 mg L⁻¹). PMID:21752420

  6. Removal of ecotoxicity and COD from tank truck cleaning wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dries, Jan; De Schepper, Wim; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    Tank truck cleaning (TTC) activities generate highly complex wastewater. In a previous study, we found that a significant ecotoxic effect was still present in biologically treated TTC wastewater. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the removal of acute toxicity from TTC wastewater by a sequence of technologies routinely applied for industrial wastewater. Acute toxicity was assayed with the widely applied and standardized Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test. During a 5-month period, raw wastewater was grab-sampled from a full-scale TTC company and treated by the different unit operations on a laboratory scale. Chemical pretreatment of the wastewater by coagulation with FeCl3 removed approx. 38% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and reduced the bioluminescence inhibition by 8%. Biological treatment with activated sludge subsequently removed another 77% of the remaining COD. This treatment step also reduced the bioluminescence inhibition but the removal efficiency varied strongly from 5 to 92% for the different samples. Powdered activated carbon almost completely removed the remaining COD and inhibition in all samples. The results suggest that conventional technologies did not suffice for complete removal of toxicity from TTC wastewater, and that advanced wastewater treatment technologies such as activated carbon are required for a satisfactory detoxification. PMID:24292468

  7. Ecotoxicity of artificial sweeteners and stevioside.

    PubMed

    Stolte, Stefan; Steudte, Stephanie; Schebb, Nils Helge; Willenberg, Ina; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    Produced, consumed and globally released into the environment in considerable quantities, artificial sweeteners have been identified as emerging pollutants. Studies of environmental concentrations have confirmed the widespread distribution of acesulfame (ACE), cyclamate (CYC), saccharin (SAC) and sucralose (SUC) in the water cycle at levels that are among the highest known for anthropogenic trace pollutants. Their ecotoxicity, however, has yet to be investigated at a larger scale. The present study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by systematically assessing the influence of ACE, CYC and SAC and complementing the data on SUC. Therefore we examined their toxicity towards an activated sewage sludge community (30min) and applying tests with green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus (24h), water fleas Daphnia magna (48h) and duckweed Lemna minor (7d). We also examined the effects caused by the natural sweetener stevioside. The high No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) yielded by this initial evaluation indicated a low hazard and risk potential towards these aquatic organisms. For a complete risk assessment, however, several kinds of data are still lacking. In this context, obligatory ecotoxicity testing and stricter environmental regulations regarding food additives appear to be necessary. PMID:24036324

  8. Beta-blockers in the environment: part II. Ecotoxicity study.

    PubMed

    Maszkowska, Joanna; Stolte, Stefan; Kumirska, Jolanta; Łukaszewicz, Paulina; Mioduszewska, Katarzyna; Puckowski, Alan; Caban, Magda; Wagil, Marta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Białk-Bielińska, Anna

    2014-09-15

    The increasing consumption of beta-blockers (BB) has caused their presence in the environment to become more noticeable. Even though BB are safe for human and veterinary usage, ecosystems may be exposed to these substances. In this study, three selected BB: propranolol, metoprolol and nadolol were subjected to ecotoxicity study. Ecotoxicity evaluation was based on a flexible ecotoxicological test battery including organisms, representing different trophic levels and complexity: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), soil/sediment bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor). All the ecotoxicological studies were supported by instrumental analysis to measure deviation between nominal and real test concentrations. Based on toxicological data from the green algae test (S. vacuolatus) propranolol and metoprolol can be considered to be harmful to aquatic organisms. However, sorption explicitly inhibits the hazardous effects of BB, therefore the risks posed by these compounds for the environment are of minor importance. PMID:24975494

  9. Enabling rapid behavioral ecotoxicity studies using an integrated lab-on-a-chip systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yushi; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral ecotoxicity tests are gaining an increasing recognition in environmental toxicology. Behavior of sensitive bioindicator species can change rapidly in response to an acute exposure to contaminants and thus has a much higher sensitivity as compared to conventional LC50 mortality tests. Furthermore, behavioral endpoints seems to be very good candidates to develop early-warning biomonitoring systems needed for rapid chemical risk assessment. Behavioral tests are non-invasive, fast, do not harm indicator organisms (behavioural changes are very rapid) and are thus fully compatible with 3R (Replacement - Reduction - Refinement) principle encouraging alternatives to conventional animal testing. These characteristics are essential when designing improved ecotoxicity tests for chemical risk assessment. In this work, we present a pilot development of miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices for studying toxin avoidance behaviors of small aquatic crustaceans. As an investigative tool, LOCs represent a new direction that may miniaturize and revolutionize behavioral ecotoxicology. Specifically our innovative microfluidic prototype: (i) enables convening "caging" of specimens for real-time videomicroscopy; (ii) eliminates the evaporative water loss thus providing an opportunity for long-term behavioral studies; (iii) exploits laminar fluid flow under low Reynolds numbers to generate discrete domains and gradients enabling for the first time toxin avoidance studies on small aquatic crustaceans; (iv) integrates off-the-chip mechatronic interfaces and video analysis algorithms for single animal movement analysis. We provide evidence that by merging innovative bioelectronic and biomicrofluidic technologies we can deploy inexpensive and reliable systems for culture, electronic tracking and complex computational analysis of behavior of bioindicator organisms.

  10. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions. PMID:24934557

  11. Ecotoxicity of selected nano-materials to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Blaise, C; Gagné, F; Férard, J F; Eullaffroy, P

    2008-10-01

    Present knowledge concerning the ecotoxic effects of nano-materials is very limited and merits to be documented more fully. For this purpose, we appraised the toxicity of nine metallic nano-powders (copper zinc iron oxide, nickel zinc iron oxide, yttrium iron oxide, titanium dioxide, strontium ferrite, indium tin oxide, samarium oxide, erbium oxide, and holmium oxide) and of two organic nano- powders (fullerene-C60 and single-walled carbon nanotube or SWCNT). After a simple process where nano-powders (NPs) were prepared in aqueous solution and filtered, they were then bioassayed across several taxonomic groups including decomposers (bacteria), primary producers (micro-algae), as well as primary and secondary consumers (micro-invertebrates and fish). Toxicity data generated on the 11 NPs reflected a wide spectrum of sensitivity that was biological level-, test-, and endpoint-specific. With all acute and chronic tests confounded for these 11 NPs, toxicity responses spanned over three orders of magnitude: >463 mg/L (24 h LC50 of the invertebrate Thamnoplatyurus platyurus for fullerene-C60) / 0.3 mg/L (96 h EC50 of the invertebrate Hydra attenuata for indium tin oxide), that is a ratio of 1543. On the basis of the MARA (Microbial Array for Risk Assessment) assay toxic fingerprint concept, it is intimated that NPs may have different modes of toxic action. When mixed in a 1:1 ratio with a certified reference material (CRM) sediment, two solid phase assays and an elutriate assay, respectively, showed that five NPs (copper zinc iron oxide, samarium oxide, erbium oxide, holmium oxide, and SWCNT) were able to increase both CRM sediment toxicity and its elutriate toxicity. This initial investigation suggests that chemicals emerging from nanotechnology may pose a risk to aquatic life in water column and sediment compartments and that further studies on their adverse effects are to be encouraged. PMID:18528913

  12. ECOTOX database; new additions and future direction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOXicology database (ECOTOX) is a comprehensive, publicly available knowledgebase developed and maintained by ORD/NHEERL. It is used for environmental toxicity data on aquatic life, terrestrial plants and wildlife. Publications are identified for potential applicability af...

  13. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish acute toxicity test. 797.1400 Section 797.1400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Aquatic Guidelines § 797.1400 Fish acute toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This...

  14. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Daphnid acute toxicity test. 797.1300 Section 797.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Aquatic Guidelines § 797.1300 Daphnid acute toxicity test. (a) Purpose....

  15. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gammarid acute toxicity test. 795.120 Section 795.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) PROVISIONAL TEST GUIDELINES Provisional Environmental Effects Guidelines § 795.120 Gammarid acute toxicity test....

  16. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test. 797.1930 Section 797.1930 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Aquatic Guidelines § 797.1930 Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Algal acute toxicity test. 797.1050 Section 797.1050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Aquatic Guidelines § 797.1050 Algal acute toxicity test. (a) Purpose. The...

  18. Acute Hypoxic Test in Patients with Prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Shatylo, Valerii B; Serebrovska, Tatiana V; Gavalko, Anna V; Egorov, Egor; Korkushko, Oleg V

    2016-06-01

    Shatylo, Valerii B., Tetiana V. Serebrovska, Anna V. Gavalko, Egor Egorov, and Oleg V. Korkushko. Acute hypoxic test in patients with prediabetes. High Alt Med Biol. 17:101-107, 2016.-Prediabetes is a state of impaired carbohydrate metabolism when not all of the symptoms required to label a person as diabetic are present, but blood glucose is higher than in healthy subjects. Recent evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) might provide a cost-effective strategy for improving metabolic functioning. One of the most important aspects of the successful IHT application is individualized approach to hypoxic dose and regimen prescription. To establish the relationships between indices of carbohydrate metabolism and individual resistance to hypoxia, the acute hypoxic test (AHT, breathing gas mixture with 12% O2 during 20 minutes) was performed in 33 healthy volunteers (mean age, 63.0, range, 44-76; fasting plasma glucose (FPG) less than 5.6 mmol/L and 2 hours postoral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glycemia less than 7.8 mmol/L) and 30 patients with impaired glucose metabolism (mean age, 65.5, range, 44-75; FPG from 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L and 2 hours post-OGTT glycemia from 7.8 to 11 mmol/L). Negative correlation was found between the SaO2 level at 20th minute AHT and FPG (r = -0.83; p < 0.01) and insulin (r = -0.27; p < 0.05), as well as 2 hours post-OGTT glucose and insulin levels (r = -0.75 and -0.40, respectively). Longer recovery time and less effective functioning of respiratory and cardiovascular systems were also registered in patients with prediabetes showing that their cardiovascular resilience is impaired compared to normoglycemic controls. These patterns of relationship must be considered when assigning the individual modes of IHT. PMID:27213550

  19. Ecotoxicity monitoring and bioindicator screening of oil-contaminated soil during bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weihang; Zhu, Nengwu; Cui, Jiaying; Wang, Huajin; Dang, Zhi; Wu, Pingxiao; Luo, Yidan; Shi, Chaohong

    2016-02-01

    A series of toxicity bioassays was conducted to monitor the ecotoxicity of soils in the different phases of bioremediation. Artificially oil-contaminated soil was inoculated with a petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium containing Burkholderia cepacia GS3C, Sphingomonas GY2B and Pandoraea pnomenusa GP3B strains adapted to crude oil. Soil ecotoxicity in different phases of bioremediation was examined by monitoring total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of seed germination and plant growth), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and bacterial luminescence. Although the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was reduced by 64.4%, forty days after bioremediation, the phytotoxicity and Photobacterium phosphoreum ecotoxicity test results indicated an initial increase in ecotoxicity, suggesting the formation of intermediate metabolites characterized by high toxicity and low bioavailability during bioremediation. The ecotoxicity values are a more valid indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques compared with only using the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations. Among all of the potential indicators that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of plant height, shoot weight and root fresh weight), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and luminescence of P. phosphoreum were the most sensitive. PMID:26491984

  20. How reliable are data for the ecotoxicity of trivalent chromium to Daphnia magna?

    PubMed

    Ponti, Benedetta; Bettinetti, Roberta; Dossi, Carlo; Vignati, Davide Anselmo Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Risk assessments from the European Union and the World Health Organization report values for acute and chronic toxicity of Cr(III) to Daphnia magna in the range of 0.6 mg/L to 111 mg/L and 0.047 mg/L to 3.4 mg/L, respectively. To understand whether factors other than the use of different test media and data reporting contribute to this variability, the authors tested the acute (48-h) and chronic (21-d) toxicities of Cr(III) to D. magna according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) methods. Filterable (0.45-µm) chromium concentrations were measured at 0 h, 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h, the latter value corresponding to the total duration of the acute tests and to the interval between medium renewals in chronic tests. In highly alkaline media (4.9 meq/L), Cr concentrations decreased rapidly below the analytical detection limit, and no toxicity was observed. In less alkaline media (approximately 0.8 meq/L), the decrease in filterable Cr concentrations was inversely proportional to the quantity of added Cr(III). The authors concluded that existing data likely underestimate the ecotoxicity of Cr(III) to D. magna. A reliable assessment of the hazard of Cr(III) to D. magna must consider that exposure concentrations can decrease markedly from the beginning to the end of a test and that medium alkalinity strongly influences the outcome of laboratory toxicity tests. PMID:24943496

  1. Acute oral toxicity test of chemical compounds in silkworms.

    PubMed

    Usui, Kimihito; Nishida, Satoshi; Sugita, Takuya; Ueki, Takuro; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Okumura, Hidenobu; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    This study performed an acute oral toxicity test of 59 compounds in silkworms. These compounds are listed in OECD guidelines as standard substances for a cytotoxicity test, and median lethal dose (LD(50)) werecalculated for each compound. Acute oral LD(50) values in mammals are listed in OECD guidelines and acute oral LD(50) values in silkworms were determined in this study. R(2) for the correlation between LD(50) values in mammals and LD(50) values in silkworms was 0.66. In addition, the acute oral toxicity test in silkworms was performed by two different facilities, and test results from the facilities were highly reproducible. These findings suggest that an acute oral toxicity test in silkworms is a useful way to evaluate the toxicity of compounds in mammals. PMID:26971557

  2. Exploring waiving opportunities for mammalian acute systemic toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Graepel, Rabea; Asturiol, David; Prieto, Pilar; Worth, Andrew P

    2016-07-01

    A survey was carried out to explore opportunities for waiving mammalian acute systemic toxicity tests. We were interested in finding out whether data from a sub-acute toxicity test could be used to predict the outcome of an acute systemic toxicity test. The survey was directed at experts in the field of toxicity testing, and was carried out in the context of the upcoming 2018 final registration deadline for chemicals under the EU REACH Regulation. In addition to the survey, a retrospective data analysis of chemicals that had already been registered with the European Chemicals Agency, and for which both acute and sub-acute toxicity data were available, was carried out. This data analysis was focused on chemicals that were administered via the oral route. The answers to the questionnaire showed a willingness to adopt waiving opportunities. In addition, the responses showed that data from a sub-acute toxicity test or dose-range finding study might be useful for predicting chemicals that do not require classification for acute oral toxicity (LD50 > 2000mg/kg body weight). However, with the exception of substances that fall into the non-classified category, it is difficult to predict current acute oral toxicity categories. PMID:27494626

  3. Exercise test in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hsi, W L; Lai, J S

    1996-01-01

    Although maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and oxygen consumption at anaerobic threshold (VO2AT) were used to measure cardiac function, the clinical significance in acute myocardial infarction (MI) has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare VO2max and VO2AT between post-MI patients and healthy men and to correlate the parameters to other clinical measures. Forty-three active healthy men, 44 sedentary healthy men, and 43 post-MI patients were studied using incremental cycle exercise test. Their work rates, oxygen consumption, heart rates, oxygen pulses, ventilation, and other parameters at VO2max and VO2AT were determined with spirometer, gas concentration analyzer, and electrocardiograph. Anaerobic threshold was determined by analyzing the ventilatory parameters. Most of the exercise test parameters at VO2max were greatest in the active men, intermediate in the sedentary men, and least in the post-MI patients (P < 0.01) whereas the rate-pressure products of the active men and sedentary men were not significantly different from each other and were greater than those of the post-MI patients (P < 0.01). In the post-MI patients, VO2max was inversely correlated to the peak serum level of creatine phosphokinase MB isoenzyme (P < 0.01) and associated with extensive infarction (P < 0.05). Most of the parameters at VO2AT were greater in the active men than in the sedentary men (P < 0.01) but not significantly different between the sedentary men and post-MI patients. In the post-MI patients, VO2AT was significantly correlated to left ventricular ejection fraction (P < 0.01) and associated with heart failure (P < 0.05). The results revealed that VO2max and VO2AT had different clinical significance in post-MI patients; VO2max was related to the infarct size, and VO2AT was related to the pumping function of heart. PMID:8777021

  4. Chlorpropham and phenisopham: phototransformation and ecotoxicity of carbamates in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Passananti, Monica; Lavorgna, Margherita; Iesce, Maria Rosaria; DellaGreca, Marina; Criscuolo, Emma; Parrella, Alfredo; Isidori, Marina; Temussi, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a comparison of two carbamic pesticides, chlorpropham and phenisopham, was carried out in terms of both photodegradability and ecotoxicity. The photochemical behaviour of the two pesticides was investigated under environmental-like conditions (aqueous media, UVB or solar irradiation). The photochemical kinetic parameters were calculated by irradiating 5 × 10(-5) M solutions (H₂O-CH₃CN, 9 : 1 v/v) using UVB lamps. For chlorpropham and phenisopham similar half-life times (39.0 and 55.0 min) were determined. Irradiation by sunlight leads to longer degradation half-life times (about 3 months), while it is possible to observe the formation of the same photoproducts. The well-known dechlorination reaction to a hydroxyphenylcarbamate was observed for chlorpropham. Phenisopham undergoes photo-Fries reaction to give rearranged products (hydroxybenzamides) and fragmentation products (hydroxyphenylcarbamate and N-ethylaniline). Acute and chronic toxicity tests of pesticides and their photoproducts were performed on organisms from two levels of the freshwater aquatic chain, the anostraca crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus, the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus and the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The acute results showed that chlorpropham had median lethal concentrations for the crustacean T. platyurus and the rotifer B. calyciflorus of 10.16 and 35.19 mg L(-1), respectively, and phenisopham did not show any acute toxicity as the derivatives up to 10 mg L(-1). The only exception was N-ethylaniline which exhibited an acute LC₅₀ value of 0.46 mg L(-1). Phenisopham was the most toxic in the long term exposure while its five derivatives showed lower chronic potential for rotifers and algae. The same trend was observed for chlorpropham except for rotifers. PMID:24166079

  5. Heterogeneous photocatalysis of moxifloxacin in water: chemical transformation and ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Van Doorslaer, Xander; Haylamicheal, Israel Deneke; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; Janssen, Colin R; Demeestere, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    This work provides new insights on the impact of TiO2/UV catalyzed chemical transformation of moxifloxacin on ecotoxicity effects towards the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The moxifloxacin median effect concentration (EC-50=0.78 [0.56, 1.09] mg L(-1)), determined in accordance to the OECD 72-h growth inhibition test guideline, was 7 times lower than that of the older and widely used fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin (EC-50=5.57 [4.86, 6.38] mg L(-1)). Applying heterogeneous photocatalysis as an advanced oxidation technique to degrade moxifloxacin in aqueous solution decreased the average growth inhibition from 72% to 14% after 150 min of treatment. No significant carbon mineralization was observed and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis revealed the formation of 13 degradation products for which a chemical structure could be proposed based on accurate mass determination. Combined chemical and ecotoxicological analysis showed that as long as moxifloxacin is present in the reaction solution, it is the main compound affecting algal growth inhibition. However, also the contribution of the degradation products to the observed ecotoxicity cannot be neglected. Photocatalytically induced modifications of moxifloxacin mainly occur at the diazobicyclo-substituent as ring opening, oxidation into carbonyl groups, and hydroxylation. This results into the formation of more hydrophilic compounds with a decreased biological activity compared with moxifloxacin. The change in lipophilicity, and possibly a modified acid-base speciation, most probably also affect the cell membrane permeation of the degradation products, which might be another factor explaining the observed lower residual ecotoxicity of the photocatalytically treated reaction solutions. PMID:24735961

  6. Ecotoxicity of mercury to Folsomia candida and Proisotoma minuta (Collembola: Isotomidae) in tropical soils: Baseline for ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Niemeyer, Júlia Carina; Fernandes Correia, Maria Elizabeth; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2016-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic nonessential trace metal. Despite its natural occurrence in the Earth's Crust, its concentrations have been steadily increasing in the environment due to anthropogenic sources. Recent studies have showed great concern about soil fauna, once the potential adverse effects of mercury concentrations in the environment of these invertebrates are still poorly understood, especially when linked to forest soils and tropical biota. Different collembolan species can show distinct toxicity effects to the contaminants, impairing its developing lifelong and affecting its diversity and abundance in the environment. Laboratory studies were performed to evaluate the ecotoxicity of Hg(II) to collembolan species collected in Brazil, Proisotoma minuta (autochthonous) and Folsomia candida (allochthonous), as a tool to predict effects in ecological risk assessment of tropical regions. Behavioral, acute and chronic tests were carried under temperatures of 20°C and 24°C using two test soils, natural and artificial, spiked with increasing mercury concentrations. F. candida was more sensitive to mercury contamination than P. minuta, presenting the most restrictive values of EC50 and LC50. Reproduction was a considerably more sensitive endpoint than avoidance and mortality. The 28-day lower EC50 values were found in chronic tests for F. candida in natural soil to 24°C (3.32mgHgkg(-1)), while for P. minuta was in tropical artificial soil to 20°C (4.43mgHgkg(-1)). There were similarity for each collembolan species to respond at the Hg(II) effects when exposed at 20°C and 24°C. F. candida can be suitable as a bioindicator species to mercury ecotoxicity tests in tropical forest soils. PMID:26796529

  7. A review of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) for assessing the ecotoxicity of phthalate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Parkerton, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    Dialkyl phthalate esters represent an important class of high production volume, industrial chemicals spanning a wide range of chemical properties. Over the last two decades, numerous studies have been conducted to characterize the ecotoxicity of phthalate esters. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a synthesis of the available ecotoxicity literature using a QSAR paradigm. Results from this analysis provide several important insights. First, a mechanistic explanation is provided to account for the general lack of ecotoxicity observed for higher molecular weight phthalates possessing alkyl chains of six or more carbons. Second, studies that appear as outliers are identified due to either experimental artifacts (e.g., physical effects on daphnids due to testing at concentrations exceeding water solubility) or questionable experimental methods (e.g., toxicity tests based on nominal concentrations). Lastly, differences in ecotoxicity between species appear to be due, in part, to differences in test organisms biotransformation capacities. The utility of adopting a QSAR-based approach for risk assessment will be discussed.

  8. Nanomaterials in the aquatic environment: A European Union-United States perspective on the status of ecotoxicity testing, research priorities, and challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Selck, Henriette; Handy, Richard D; Fernandes, Teresa F; Klaine, Stephen J; Petersen, Elijah J

    2016-05-01

    The European Union-United States Communities of Research were established in 2012 to provide a platform for scientists to develop a "shared repertoire of protocols and methods to overcome nanotechnology environmental health and safety (nanoEHS) research gaps and barriers" (www.us-eu.org/). Based on work within the Ecotoxicology Community of Research (2012-2015) the present Focus article provides an overview of the state of the art of nanomaterials (NMs) in the aquatic environment by addressing different research questions, with a focus on ecotoxicological test systems and the challenges faced when assessing NM hazards (e.g., uptake routes, bioaccumulation, toxicity, test protocols, and model organisms). The authors' recommendation is to place particular importance on studying the ecological effects of aged/weathered NMs, as-manufactured NMs, and NMs released from consumer products in addressing the following overarching research topics: 1) NM characterization and quantification in environmental and biological matrices; 2) NM transformation in the environment and consequences for bioavailability and toxicity; 3) alternative methods to assess exposure; 4) influence of exposure scenarios on bioavailability and toxicity; 5) development of more environmentally realistic bioassays; and 6) uptake, internal distribution, and depuration of NMs. Research addressing these key topics will reduce uncertainty in ecological risk assessment and support the sustainable development of nanotechnology. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1055-1067. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27089437

  9. Stormwater retention basin efficiency regarding micropollutant loads and ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sébastian, Christel; Barraud, Sylvie; Gonzalez-Merchan, Carolina; Perrodin, Yves; Visiedo, Régis

    2014-01-01

    Retention basin efficiency in micropollutant removal has not been very well studied, in particular for pollutants highlighted by the European Water Framework Directive of 2000 such as pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alkylphenols. This study is based on in situ experiments carried out on a stormwater retention basin with the aim of estimating the basin efficiency in trapping and removing micropollutants from stormwater run-off from an industrial catchment drained by a separate sewer system. Along with stormwater, the basin receives some dry weather effluent flows, which are supposedly non-polluted. Ninety-four substances from five families (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PBDEs, alkylphenols and pesticides) were analyzed during 10 event campaigns in urban wet weather discharges at the inlet and outlet of the basin. The ecotoxicity of the samples was also tested. The results show high inter-event variability in both chemical and ecotoxic characteristics. They indicate good event efficiency concerning heavy metals and most PAHs. The studied pesticides, mainly found in the dissolved fraction, were not trapped. Particulate fraction study highlighted that settling is not the main process explaining micropollutant removal in a retention basin, as was noted for alkylphenols and PBDEs. PMID:24622545

  10. Tamoxifen ecotoxicity and resulting risks for aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Orias, Frédéric; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain; Durrieu, Claude; Aubrat, Marion; Hombert, Thibault; Wigh, Adriana; Perrodin, Yves

    2015-06-01

    Tamoxifen, a drug used to treat cancer, is regularly found in hydrosystems at concentrations of several hundred ng L(-1). To characterize its ecotoxicity, we implemented a battery of bioassays on organisms belonging to 3 different trophic levels: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, for primary producers, Daphnia magna (immobilization, grazing and reproduction) for primary consumers, and Danio rerio for secondary consumers (embryotoxicity test). In view of the results obtained and the ecotoxicity values of tamoxifen available in the literature, we established a PNEC (Predictive No Effect Concentration) equal to 81 ng L(-1) for continental water. This PNEC allowed us to calculate Risk Quotients (RQ) for 4 continental hydrosystems in 4 different countries in which measures of tamoxifen had already been performed on surface waters. In two of the situations studied, RQs were higher than 1, reaching a maximum of 2.6. These results show the need to deepen the characterization of ecotoxicological risks linked to the discharge of tamoxifen in surface waters. In addition, we propose applying this approach to other drug residues detected in the environment. PMID:25666175

  11. Violacein/poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/chitosan nanoparticles against bovine mastistis: Antibacterial and ecotoxicity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, E.; Marcato, P. D.; Nakazato, G.; Kobayashi, R. K. T.; Vacchi, F. I.; Umbuzeiro, G. A.; Durán, N.

    2013-04-01

    The nanocarrier was synthesized by nanoprecipitation, using poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) as polymer, Tween 80 as surfactant and the biopolymer chitosan (CS) as a charge modification agent. Charge, size and morphology were analyzed by zeta potential, photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Bactericidal assays were carried out using a resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus, and the acute ecotoxicity tests were performed with Daphnia similis. The nanoparticle without CS (PCLnp) exhibited an average size of 200 nm and zeta potential of -4.28 mV, while the nanoparticle with 0.04% (w/v) of CS (CS_PCLnp) had 250 nm and +21.3 mV. Both were stables for at least 30 days. 200 μg mL-1 violacein was encapsulated in CS_PCLnp, which was dissolved in the polymer matrix, a shown by DSC analysis. The minimal inhibitory concentration against S. aureus of CS_PCLnp-vio was 25 μmol L-1, while for free violacein it was > 25 μmol L-1. Nanoparticles exhibited an EC50 between 0.3 - 1.1 μmol L-1 with Daphnia, while free violacein was around 3.3 - 5.0 μmol L-1. Thus, it was possible to control the charge of the nanoparticles, without extreme changes in size and that it is possible also to encapsulate a powerful antibactericidal compound such as violacein in nanoparticle.

  12. In Silico Models for Ecotoxicity of Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kunal; Kar, Supratik

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and their active metabolites are one of the significantly emerging environmental toxicants. The major routes of entry of pharmaceuticals into the environment are industries, hospitals, or direct disposal of unwanted or expired drugs made by the patient. The most important and distinct features of pharmaceuticals are that they are deliberately designed to have an explicit mode of action and designed to exert an effect on humans and other living systems. This distinctive feature makes pharmaceuticals and their metabolites different from other chemicals, and this necessitates the evaluation of the direct effects of pharmaceuticals in various environmental compartments as well as to living systems. In this background, the alarming situation of ecotoxicity of diverse pharmaceuticals have forced government and nongovernment regulatory authorities to recommend the application of in silico methods to provide quick information about the risk assessment and fate properties of pharmaceuticals as well as their ecological and indirect human health effects. This chapter aims to offer information regarding occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment, their persistence, environmental fate, and toxicity as well as application of in silico methods to provide information about the basic risk management and fate prediction of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Brief ideas about toxicity endpoints, available ecotoxicity databases, and expert systems employed for rapid toxicity predictions of ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals are also discussed. PMID:27311470

  13. Comparative assessment of ecotoxicity of urban aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turóczi, B.; Hoffer, A.; Tóth, Á.; Kováts, N.; Ács, A.; Ferincz, Á.; Kovács, A.; Gelencsér, A.

    2012-08-01

    In addition to its mass concentration, the health effects of urban particulate matter may depend on its particle size distribution and chemical composition. Yet air pollution regulations rely on exclusively bulk PM10 concentration measurements, without regard to their potentially different health effects under different conditions. Aerosols from various sources are well known to contain a plethora of toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic constituents such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Extensive public health studies established the link between mass concentrations of PM2.5 / PM10 and health problems within the population. However, little is known about the relative importance of PM from different sources and the effect of seasonality on the toxicity. Here we present the application of a simple and sensitive method for the direct assessment of the overall ecotoxicity of various PM2.5 / PM10 samples collected on filters. The method is based on the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition bioassay that has been standardized for solid samples, representing a relevant biological exposure route. Direct emission samples proved to be significantly more ecotoxic than photochemically processed aerosol, thus marked differences were observed between the ecotoxicities of urban PM10 in summer and winter. These effects of urban PM10 may be useful supplementary indicators besides the mass concentrations of PM2.5 / PM10 in cities.

  14. Resolving some practical questions about Daphnia acute toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Barera, Y.; Adams, W.J.

    1981-10-01

    Acute toxicity tests were performed with six age groups of Daphnia magna, ranging from less than or equal to6 h to 216 h, and with five chemicals, selected on the basis of their physical and chemical properties as well as their acute toxicity to D. magna. The age of the daphnids did not significantly alter the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values for the chemicals tested. The maximum difference observed in the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values between the 6-h and 216-h age groups was a factor of 3.9 for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). For purposes of standardization, it appears that D. magna up to 48 h of age at the beginning of the test can be used to conduct acute toxicity tests with most chemicals. The results of static acute toxicity tests conducted with butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and D. magna in the presence and absence of several commonly used solvents indicate that the acute toxicity of this chemical is not altered by the use of a solvent carrier. The 48-h EC/sub 50/ value for BBP without a solvent was 1.0 mg/L, compared with a range of 1.6 to 2.2 mg/L when acetone, dimethylformamide, ethanol, or triethylene glycol were used as solvent carriers. The acute toxicities of the solvents in the absence of BBP were also determined for D. magna. The values ranged from 9.3 to 52.4 g/L. The results of static acute tests performed with D. magna and BBP in the presence of various concentrations of daphnid foods (algae or trout chow), indicate that the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values increase proportionally with an increase in food concentrations. These results suggest that acute toxicity tests with D. magna should be conducted in the presence of food with chemicals with a high Ksigma if the results are to be used to select the test concentrations for a chronic study with daphnids. The type of food and the concentration used in the acute test should be the same as those used in a chronic test.

  15. Acute toxicity of furazolidone on Artemia salina, Daphnia magna, and Culex pipiens molestus larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Macri, A.; Stazi, A.V.; Dojmi di Delupis, G.

    1988-10-01

    As a result of evidence of the ecotoxicity of nitrofurans, the acute toxicity of furazolidone was tested in vivo on two aquatic organisms, Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, which are both crustaceans. Toxicity studies were also performed on larvae of Culex pipiens molestus. Results indicated a significant toxicity of the compound on Culex pipiens and Daphnia magna, while Artemia salina proved to be the least sensitive.

  16. Research Trends of Ecotoxicity of Nanoparticles in Soil Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo-Mi; Kim, Shin Woong; Kwak, Jin Il; Nam, Sun-Hwa; Shin, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    We are consistently being exposed to nanomaterials in direct and/or indirect route as they are used in almost all the sectors in our life. Nations across the worlds are now trying to put global regulation policy on nanomaterials. Sometimes, they are reported to be more toxic than the corresponding ion and micromaterials. Therefore, safety research of nanoparticles has huge implications on a national economics. In this study, we evaluated and analyzed the research trend of ecotoxicity of nanoparticles in soil environment. Test species include terrestrial plants, earthworms, and soil nematode. Soil enzyme activities were also discussed. We found that the results of nanotoxicity studies were affected by many factors such as physicochemical properties, size, dispersion method and test medium of nanoparticle, which should be considered when conducting toxicity researches. In particular, more researches on the effect of physico chemical properties and fate of nanoparticles on toxicity effect should be conducted consistently. PMID:24278532

  17. Procalcitonin Strip Test as an Independent Predictor in Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Dias, Brendan Hermenigildo; Rozario, Anthony Prakash; Olakkengil, Santosh Antony; V, Anirudh

    2015-12-01

    Plasma procalcitonin (PCT) is a highly specific marker for the diagnosis of bacterial infection and sepsis. Studies have demonstrated its role in the setting of sepsis and acute pancreatitis. This study aims to analyze and compare the prognostic efficacy of plasma procalcitonin strip test in acute pancreatitis. A prospective study was conducted in the department of general surgery from June 2012 to June 2013. Plasma procalcitonin was estimated by the semiquantitative strip test. The study included a total of 50 patients diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. Data was collected and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 17. Thirty-nine out of the 50 patients (78 %) were males with a mean age of 46.8 years (range, 25-78 years) and 25 patients (50 %) had ethanol-induced pancreatitis, while 13 patients (26 %) had gall stone pancreatitis. Plasma PCT values were found to correlate better than CRP levels and total leukocyte count with the total duration of hospitalization, ITU, and ICU stay, as well as with the progression to severe acute pancreatitis. A cut off for plasma PCT of >2 ng/mL was found to be 100 % sensitive and 100 % specific and a cut off for CRP of >19 mg/dL was 70 % sensitive and 65 % specific for predicting the progression to severe acute pancreatitis. Plasma PCT also correlated well with antibiotic requirement. A cut off value of >0.5 ng/mL for plasma PCT was 100 % sensitive and 80 % specific and a cut off value of >18 mg/dL for CRP was 86 % sensitive and 63 % specific for predicting antibiotic requirement. Plasma procalcitonin is an early and reliable prognostic indicator in acute pancreatitis. The procalcitonin strip test is a rapid test which is useful in analyzing prognosis in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:27011501

  18. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; Schalie, W.H. van der; Leather, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  19. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  20. Ecotoxicity and fungal deterioration of recycled polypropylene/wood composites: effect of wood content and coupling.

    PubMed

    Sudár, András; López, María J; Keledi, Gergely; Vargas-García, M Carmen; Suárez-Estrella, Francisca; Moreno, Joaquín; Burgstaller, Christoph; Pukánszky, Béla

    2013-09-01

    Recycled polypropylene (rPP) was recovered from an industrial shredder and composites were prepared with a relatively wide range of wood content and with two coupling agents, a maleated PP (MAPP) and a maleated ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer (MAEPDM). The mechanical properties of the composites showed that the coupling agents change structure only slightly, but interfacial adhesion quite drastically. The durability of the materials was determined by exposing them to a range of fungi and, ecotoxicity was studied on the aquatic organism Vibrio fischeri. The composites generally exhibit low acute toxicity, with values below the levels considered to have direct ecotoxic effect on aquatic ecosystems (<2 toxic units). Their toxicity to V. fischeri depended on the presence of the coupling agents with larger E50 values in 24-h aqueous extracts from composites containing MAPP or MAEPDM in comparison to composites without any coupling agent. Evaluation of resistance against fungal colonization and deterioration proved that wood facilitates fungal colonization. Fungi caused slight mass loss (below 3%) but it was not correlated with substantial deterioration in material properties. MAPP seems to be beneficial in the retention of mechanical properties during fungal attack. rPP/wood composites can be considered non-ecotoxic and quite durable, but the influence of wood content on resistance to fungal attack must be taken into account for materials intended for applications requiring long-term outdoor exposure. PMID:23769467

  1. Acute toxicity testing of chemicals-Opportunities to avoid redundant testing and use alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Creton, Stuart; Dewhurst, Ian C; Earl, Lesley K; Gehen, Sean C; Guest, Robert L; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Indans, Ian; Woolhiser, Michael R; Billington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the acute systemic oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicities, skin and eye irritancy, and skin sensitisation potential of chemicals is required under regulatory schemes worldwide. In vivo studies conducted to assess these endpoints can sometimes be associated with substantial adverse effects in the test animals, and their use should always be scientifically justified. It has been argued that while information obtained from such acute tests provides data needed to meet classification and labelling regulations, it is of limited value for hazard and risk assessments. Inconsistent application of in vitro replacements, protocol requirements across regions, and bridging principles also contribute to unnecessary and redundant animal testing. Assessment of data from acute oral and dermal toxicity testing demonstrates that acute dermal testing rarely provides value for hazard assessment purposes when an acute oral study has been conducted. Options to waive requirements for acute oral and inhalation toxicity testing should be employed to avoid unnecessary in vivo studies. In vitro irritation models should receive wider adoption and be used to meet regulatory needs. Global requirements for sensitisation testing need continued harmonisation for both substance and mixture assessments. This paper highlights where alternative approaches or elimination of tests can reduce and refine animal use for acute toxicity requirements. PMID:20144136

  2. Ecotoxicity assessment using ciliate cells in millifluidic droplets.

    PubMed

    Illing, Rico; Burkart, Corinna; Pfitzner, Daniel; Jungmann, Dirk; Baraban, Larysa; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-03-01

    Precise analysis of the aquatic cells and their responses to the toxic chemicals, i.e., water disinfective agents, is of crucial importance due to their role in the ecosystem. We demonstrate the application of the droplets based millifluidic tool for isolating and longtime monitoring of single Paramecium tetraurelia cells using a large number of water-in-oil emulsion droplets. Due to the automated monitoring of the fluorescence signal, the droplets containing cells are distinguished from the empty reservoirs. A viability indicator is used to follow the metabolic dynamic of the cells in every single droplet. Finally, we perform ecotoxicity tests in droplets, exposing the encapsulated paramecia cells to silver nitrate for determination of EC50 levels, and compare the output with the conventional microtiter plate assay. PMID:27051472

  3. Acute inhalation toxicity testing: considerations of technical and regulatory aspects.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, J; Bury, D; Föst, U; Gamer, A; Hoernicke, E; Hofmann, T; Kunde, M; Neustadt, T; Schlede, E; Schnierle, H; Wettig, K; Westphal, D

    1996-01-01

    The EU regulatory statute for the acute hazard identification of chemicals requires selection of the two most appropriate routes of administration. Testing employing the oral route is mandatory, whereas selection of the dermal or inhalation route requires expert judgement, i.e. considerations of structural alerts with regard to the inherent acute inhalation toxicity as well as the likelihood of dermal and inhalation exposure, respectively. Currently, testing of chemicals requires acute inhalation exposure of 4-h and 1-h durations according the EU classification and labelling and UN Transport Guidelines, respectively. The analysis made revealed that 1-h exposures appear to add little knowledge in addition to existing 4-h LC50 values and a default value of 4 should be used for conversion of 4-h to 1-h LC50 values, independently of the physical state of the chemical. Therefore, also the unit of concentration of exposure atmospheres should be independent of nominal features of the test substance. Hence, the preferred dose metric is mass (mg/liter air) rather than volume (ppm). Taking into account the overall variability of acute toxicity data the recommendations given are classification into the following groups of 4-h LC50 values: < or = 0.05, > 0.05-0.2, > 0.2-1, > 1-5 and > 5.0 mg/l. No distinction should be made concerning vapours and aerosols with regard to units and conversion factors from 4-h to 1-h LC50 values and the default factor of 4 appears to be most suitable. Further differentiation of classification is not indicated due to technical variability of acute inhalation testing and resolution of the acute bioassay. PMID:9010579

  4. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium in different marine trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Pavlaki, Maria D; Araújo, Mário J; Cardoso, Diogo N; Silva, Ana Rita R; Cruz, Andreia; Mendo, Sónia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Calado, Ricardo; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium ecotoxicity and genotoxicity was assessed in three representative species of different trophic levels of marine ecosystems - the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, the decapod shrimp, Palaemon varians and the pleuronectiform fish Solea senegalensis. Ecotoxicity endpoints assessed in this study were adult survival, hatching success and larval development ratio (LDR) for A. tonsa, survival of the first larval stage (zoea I) and post-larvae of P. varians, egg and larvae survival, as well as the presence of malformations in the larval stage of S. senegalensis. In vivo genotoxicity was assessed on adult A. tonsa, the larval and postlarval stage of P. varians and newly hatched larvae of S. senegalensis using the comet assay. Results showed that the highest sensitivity to cadmium is displayed by A. tonsa, with the most sensitive endpoint being the LDR of nauplii to copepodites. Sole eggs displayed the highest tolerance to cadmium compared to the other endpoints evaluated for all tested species. Recorded cadmium toxicity was (by increasing order): S. senegalensis eggs < P. varians post-larvae < P. varians zoea I < S. senegalensis larvae < A. tonsa eggs < A. tonsa LDR. DNA damage to all species exposed to cadmium increased with increasing concentrations. Overall, understanding cadmium chemical speciation is paramount to reliably evaluate the effects of this metal in marine ecosystems. Cadmium is genotoxic to all three species tested and therefore may differentially impact individuals and populations of marine taxa. As A. tonsa was the most sensitive species and occupies a lower trophic level, it is likely that cadmium contamination may trigger bottom-up cascading effects in marine trophic interactions. PMID:27203468

  5. Relationship between pollutant content and ecotoxicity of sewage sludges from Spanish wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Roig, Neus; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Martí; Martí, Esther; Navalón-Madrigal, Pedro; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2012-05-15

    Chemical and ecotoxicological properties of 28 sewage sludge samples from Spanish wastewater treatment plants were studied in order to assess their suitability for agricultural purposes. Sludge samples were classified into five categories according to specific treatment processes in terms of digestion (aerobic/anaerobic) and drying (mechanical/thermal). Composted samples, as indicative of the most refined process, were also considered. Sludges were subjected to physical-chemical characterization, being the sludge stabilization degree respirometrically assessed. The concentrations of seven metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Hg) and organic substances (phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds) were determined. Finally, two ecotoxicological tests were performed: i) Microtox® toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri, and ii) root elongation test with Allium cepa, Lolium perenne and Raphanus sativus seeds. Significant differences were found in the following parameters: dry matter, electrical conductivity, nitrogen, organic matter and its stability, phytotoxicity and ecotoxicity, depending on the sludge treatment. In turn, no significant differences were found between categories in the concentrations of most metals and organic pollutants, with the exception of free phenolic compounds. Furthermore, no correlation between total heavy metal burden and ecotoxicity was observed. However, a good correlation was found between phenolic compounds and most ecotoxicological tests. These results suggest that sludge stability (conditioned by sludge treatment) might have a greater influence on sludge ecotoxicity than the pollutant load. Composting was identified as the treatment resulting in the lowest toxicity. PMID:22483948

  6. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of exhaust particulates from diesel-powered buses.

    PubMed

    Kováts, Nora; Acs, András; Ferincz, Arpád; Kovács, Anikó; Horváth, Eszter; Kakasi, Balázs; Jancsek-Turóczi, Beatrix; Gelencsér, András

    2013-10-01

    Diesel exhaust is one of the major sources of fine and ultra-fine particulate matter in urban air. Toxicity of diesel-powered engine emissions has been quite widely assessed; however, much less information is available on their ecotoxicity. In our study, the kinetic version of the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition bioassay based on the ISO 21338:2010 standard was used to characterise the ecotoxicity of diesel-powered buses. It is a direct contact test in which solid samples are tested in suspension and test organisms are in direct contact with toxic particles. The age of the selected buses fell into a wide range; the oldest one was produced in 1987. Diesel engines of different emission standards (Euro0-Euro4) were included. Measured EC50 values of Euro0-Euro1 engine emissions fell into the same range, 1.24-0.96 μg ml(-1), respectively. On the contrary, emission of Euro4 vehicle proved to be non-toxic. Genotoxic potential of the samples was also estimated, using the colorimetric SOS-chromotest™. Genotoxicity was detected also for Euro0 and Euro1 buses, showing correlation with the ecotoxic potential. The fact that the particulates from Euro4 vehicles did not show ecotoxic/genotoxic effect implies that replacing old Euro1 and Euro2 buses can be a highly effective solution for reducing environmental hazard of automotive emissions. The whole-aerosol testing method is a cheap alternative that can be used in engine developments and emission control. PMID:23609923

  7. ANA testing in the presence of acute and chronic infections.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Christine M; Binder, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibody testing is performed to help diagnose patients who have clinical symptoms suggestive of possible autoimmune diseases. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are present in many systemic autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, a positive ANA test may also be seen with non-autoimmune inflammatory diseases, including both acute and chronic infections. When the ANA test is used as an initial screen in patients with non-specific clinical symptoms, such as fever, joint pain, myalgias, fatigue, rash, or anemia, the likelihood of a positive result due to infection will increase, especially in children. This article identifies acute and chronic infectious diseases that are likely to produce a positive ANA result and summarizes recent literature addressing both the causes and consequences of these findings. PMID:27050929

  8. Useful laboratory tests for studying thrombogenesis in acute cardiac syndromes.

    PubMed

    Fareed, J; Hoppensteadt, D A; Leya, F; Iqbal, O; Wolf, H; Bick, R

    1998-08-01

    We review laboratory tests that evaluate thrombogenesis during acute coronary syndromes. These tests have been found to be valuable research tools in more clearly understanding the pathophysiology of acute coronary syndromes. In particular, we describe tissue factor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, prothrombin fragment 1.2, thrombin-antithrombin complex, fibrinopeptide A, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), t-PA-PAI complex, Bbeta 15-42-related peptides, fibrinogen degradation products, fibrin degradation products, D-dimer, platelet factor 4, beta-thromboglobulin, 5-hydroxytryptamine, thromboxane B2, prostacyclin, endothelin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, soluble thrombomodulin, C1-esterase inhibitor, anaphylotoxins C3a, C4a, and C5a, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor, leukotriene C4, platelet activating factor, anti-phospholipid antibody, and von Willebrand factor. Some of these tests may prove to be useful in clinical diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndromes. Clinical outcome studies are needed to determine which tests may be cost effective and medically useful. PMID:9702994

  9. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients. PMID:26256397

  10. Impact of ozonation on ecotoxicity and endocrine activity of tertiary treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Dominik; Schaar, Heidemarie; Bartel, Cordula; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; Miller, Ingrid; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Möstl, Erich; Grillitsch, Britta

    2012-07-01

    Tertiary wastewater treatment plant effluent before and after ozonation (0.6-1.1g O₃/g DOC) was tested for aquatic ecotoxicity in a battery of standardised microbioassays with green algae, daphnids, and zebrafish eggs. In addition, unconjugated estrogen and 17β-hydroxyandrogen immunoreactive substances were quantified by means of enzyme immunoassays, and endocrine effects were analysed in a 21-day fish screening assay with adult male and female medaka (Oryzias latipes). Ozonation decreased estrogen-immunoreactivity by 97.7±1.2% and, to a lesser extent, androgen-immunoreactivity by 56.3±16.5%. None of the short-term exposure ecotoxicity tests revealed any adverse effects of the tertiary effluent, neither before nor after the ozonation step. Similarly in the fish screening assay, reproductive fitness parameters showed no effects attributed to micropollutants, and no detrimental effects of the effluents were observed. Based on the presented screening, ozonation effectively reduced steroid hormone levels in the wastewater treatment plant effluent without increasing the effluent's ecotoxicity. PMID:22551818

  11. Residual organic matter and microbial respiration in bottom ash: Effects on metal leaching and eco-toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, A; Persson, K M; Persson, M

    2015-09-01

    A common assumption regarding the residual organic matter, in bottom ash, is that it does not represent a significant pool of organic carbon and, beyond metal-ion complexation process, it is of little consequence to evolution of ash/leachate chemistry. This article evaluates the effect of residual organic matter and associated microbial respiratory processes on leaching of toxic metals (i.e. arsenic, copper, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony and zinc), eco-toxicity of ash leachates. Microbial respiration was quantified with help of a respirometric test equipment OXITOP control system. The effect of microbial respiration on metal/residual organic matter leaching and eco-toxicity was quantified with the help of batch leaching tests and an eco-toxicity assay - Daphnia magna. In general, the microbial respiration process decreased the leachate pH and eco-toxicity, indicating modification of bioavailability of metal species. Furthermore, the leaching of critical metals, such as copper and chromium, decreased after the respiration in both ash types (fresh and weathered). It was concluded that microbial respiration, if harnessed properly, could enhance the stability of fresh bottom ash and may promote its reuse. PMID:25999368

  12. Terrestrial ecotoxicity of short aliphatic protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Peric, Brezana; Martí, Esther; Sierra, Jordi; Cruañas, Robert; Iglesias, Miguel; Garau, Maria Antonia

    2011-12-01

    A study of the ecotoxicity of different short aliphatic protic ionic liquids (PILs) on terrestrial organisms was conducted. Tests performed within the present study include those assessing the effects of PILs on soil microbial functions (carbon and nitrogen mineralization) and terrestrial plants. The results show that the nominal lowest-observed-adverse-effect concentration (LOAEC) values were 5,000 mg/kg (dry soil) for the plant test in two species (Lolium perenne, Allium cepa), 1,000 mg/kg (dry soil) for the plant test in one species (Raphanus sativus), and 10,000 mg/kg (dry soil) for carbon and nitrogen microbial transformation tests (all concentrations are nominal). Most of the median effective concentration values (EC50) were above 1,000 mg/kg (dry soil). Based on the obtained results, these compounds can be described as nontoxic for soil microbiota and the analyzed plants, and potentially biodegradable in soils, as can be deduced from the respirometric experiment. The toxicity rises with the increase of complexity of the PILs molecule (branch and length of aliphatic chain) among the three PILs analyzed. PMID:21935980

  13. Seawater ecotoxicity of monoethanolamine, diethanolamine and triethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Volpi Ghirardini, A; Avezzù, F

    2010-04-15

    Monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) are compounds with potential acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity effects towards aquatic species. A literature review highlighted the existence of a gap in the knowledge on their toxicity with saltwater testing species. A battery of toxicity tests including the alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, the bivalve molluscs Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk), and the crustacean Artemia franciscana, was considered to update and improve the existing ecotoxicological information. Data were provided as the Effective Concentration that induces a 50% effect in the observed population (EC50), Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) and No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC). EC50, LOEC and NOEC values were compared with a reviewed database containing the existing ecotoxicological data from saltwater organisms. PMID:20022426

  14. Bioavailability, ecotoxicity, and geological characteristics of trace lead in sediments from two sites on Negro River, Uruguay, South America.

    PubMed

    Míguez, Diana M; Huertas, Raquel; Carrara, María V; Carnikián, Agustín; Bouvier, María E; Martínez, María J; Keel, Karen; Pioda, Carolina; Darré, Elena; Pérez, Ramiro; Viera, Santiago; Massa, Enrique

    2012-04-01

    Bioassays of two sites along the Rio Negro in Uruguay indicate ecotoxicity, which could be attributable to trace concentrations of lead in river sediments. Monthly samples at two sites at Baygorria and Bonete locations were analyzed for both particle size and lead. Lead was determined by atomic spectrometry in river water and sediment and particle size by sieving and sedimentation. Data showed that Baygorria's sediments have greater percentage of clay than Bonete's (20.4 and 5.8%, respectively). Lead was measurable in Baygorria's sediments, meanwhile in Bonete's, it was always below the detection limit. In water samples, lead was below detection limit at both sites. Bioassays using sub-lethal growth and survival test with Hyalella curvispina amphipod, screening with bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi, and acute toxicity bioassay with Pimephales promelas fish indicated toxicity at Baygorria, with much less effect at Bonete. Even though no lethal effects could be demonstrated, higher sub-lethal toxicity was found in samples from Baygorria site, showing a possible concentration of the contaminant in the clay fraction. PMID:21968803

  15. Acute Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction after a Negative Exercise Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alawi, Abdullah M.; Janardan, Jyotsna; Peck, Kah Y.; Soward, Alan

    2016-01-01

    A myocardial infarction is a rare complication which can occur after an exercise stress test. We report a 48-year-old male who was referred to the Mildura Cardiology Practice, Victoria, Australia, in August 2014 with left-sided chest pain. He underwent an exercise stress test which was negative for myocardial ischaemia. However, the patient presented to the Emergency Department of the Mildura Base Hospital 30 minutes after the test with severe retrosternal chest pain. An acute anteroseptal ST segment elevation myocardial infarction was observed on electrocardiography. After thrombolysis, he was transferred to a tertiary hospital where coronary angiography subsequently revealed significant left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. Thrombus aspiration and a balloon angioplasty were performed. The patient was discharged three days after the surgical procedure in good health. PMID:27226918

  16. Ecotoxicity of bare and coated silver nanoparticles in the aquatic midge, Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Chung, Jiwoong; Colman, Benjamin P; Matson, Cole W; Kim, Younghun; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Kim, Phil-Je; Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Jinhee

    2015-09-01

    Although sediment is generally considered to be the major sink for nanomaterials in aquatic environments, few studies have addressed the ecotoxicity of nanomaterials in the presence of sediment. In the present study, the ecotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a range of organic coatings was examined in a freshwater sediment-dwelling organism, Chironomus riparius, using acute and chronic ecotoxicity endpoints, including molecular indicators. The toxicity of AgNPs coated with different organic materials, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone, gum arabic, and citrate, to C. riparius was compared with that of bare-AgNPs and AgNO3 (ionic silver). Total silver concentration was also measured to monitor the behavior of the AgNPs in water and sediment and to determine how ion dissolution affects the toxicity of all AgNPs. The coated- and bare-AgNPs caused DNA damage and oxidative stress-related gene expression. In addition, the bare-AgNPs and AgNO3 had a significant effect on development and reproduction. The surface coatings generally mitigated the toxicity of AgNPs to C. riparius, which can be explained by the reduced number of ions released from coated-AgNPs. Citrate-AgNPs caused the most significant alteration at the molecular level, but this did not translate to higher-level effects. Finally, comparing previously conducted studies on AgNP-induced gene expression without sediments, the authors show that the presence of sediment appears to mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs. PMID:25892495

  17. Ecotoxicological assessment of silica and polystyrene nanoparticles assessed by a multitrophic test battery.

    PubMed

    Casado, Maria P; Macken, Ailbhe; Byrne, Hugh J

    2013-01-01

    The acute ecotoxicity of different diameters of silica and polyethyleneimine polystyrene (PS-PEI) nanoparticles (NPs) was assessed on a test battery of aquatic organisms representing different trophic levels. Daphnia magna, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Vibrio fischeri, were employed in a series of standard acute ecotoxicity tests and work was complemented with two cytotoxicological end points on a rainbow trout gonadal cell line (RTG-2). Physico-chemical characterization of the NPs was performed in the different test media employed, using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potentiometry. In contrast to silica NPs exposure, for which no effect was observed for concentrations up to 1000 μg ml(-1) for all in vivo aquatic organisms tested, significant toxicity was detected after exposure to PS-PEI NPs at concentrations from 0.40 μg ml(-1) to 416.5 μg ml(-1). Differing sensitivities for each NP diameter for the different organisms were observed as: P. subcapitata≥D. magna>T. platyurus>V. fischeri. The effects observed were dependent in some cases on the NP size, a higher effect being observed for the larger NPs. Finally, cytotoxicity studies showed an effect at the highest concentrations for both sets of NPs which was greater in the case of the PS-PEI NPs. However, as agglomeration and sedimentation of the nanoparticles was observed at these concentrations, the cytotoxicity studies were found not to be a reliable ecotoxicity test model. PMID:23202535

  18. Biodegradability and ecotoxicity of commercially available geothermal heat transfer fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Kathrin R.; Körner, Birgit; Sacher, Frank; Conrad, Rachel; Hollert, Henner; Tiehm, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Commercially available heat transfer fluids used in borehole heat exchangers were investigated for their composition, their biodegradability as well as their ecotoxicity. The main components of the fluids are organic compounds (often glycols) for freezing protection. Biodegradation of the fluids in laboratory studies caused high oxygen depletion as well as nitrate/iron(III) reduction under anaerobic conditions. Additives such as benzotriazoles for corrosion protection were persistent. Ecotoxicity data show that the commercially available fluids caused much higher ecotoxicity than their main organic constituents. Consequently, with regard to groundwater protection pure water as heat transfer medium is recommended. The second best choice is the usage of glycols without any additives. Effects on groundwater quality should be considered during ecological-economical cost-benefit-analyses of further geothermal energy strategies. The protection of groundwater as the most important drinking water resource must take priority over the energy gain from aquifers.

  19. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick) to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. Methods: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Results: Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+); for rapid strep== 84(-) and16 (+); For LE== 80(-) and 20(+) Statistics: From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don’t seem to be a random (independent) assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001) reject Null Hypothesis and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children. PMID:27335975

  20. Ecotoxicity of arsenic contaminated sludge after mixing with soils and addition into composting and vermicomposting processes.

    PubMed

    Vašíčková, Jana; Maňáková, Blanka; Šudoma, Marek; Hofman, Jakub

    2016-11-01

    Sludge coming from remediation of groundwater contaminated by industry is usually managed as hazardous waste despite it might be considered for further processing as a source of nutrients. The ecotoxicity of phosphorus rich sludge contaminated with arsenic was evaluated after mixing with soil and cultivation with Sinapis alba, and supplementation into composting and vermicomposting processes. The Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida reproduction tests and the Lactuca sativa root growth test were used. Invertebrate bioassays reacted sensitively to arsenic presence in soil-sludge mixtures. The root elongation of L. sativa was not sensitive and showed variable results. In general, the relationship between invertebrate tests results and arsenic mobile concentration was indicated in majority endpoints. Nevertheless, significant portion of the results still cannot be satisfactorily explained by As chemistry data. Composted and vermicomposted sludge mixtures showed surprisingly high toxicity on all three tested organisms despite the decrease in arsenic mobility, probably due to toxic metabolites of bacteria and earthworms produced during these processes. The results from the study indicated the inability of chemical methods to predict the effects of complex mixtures on living organisms with respect to ecotoxicity bioassays. PMID:27348256

  1. Identification and Avoidance of Potential Artifacts and Misinterpretations in Nanomaterial Ecotoxicity Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Novel physicochemistries of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) offer considerable commercial potential for new products and processes, but also the possibility of unforeseen and negative consequences upon ENM release into the environment. Investigations of ENM ecotoxicity have revealed that the unique properties of ENMs and a lack of appropriate test methods can lead to results that are inaccurate or not reproducible. The occurrence of spurious results or misinterpretations of results from ENM toxicity tests that are unique to investigations of ENMs (as opposed to traditional toxicants) have been reported, but have not yet been systemically reviewed. Our objective in this manuscript is to highlight artifacts and misinterpretations that can occur at each step of ecotoxicity testing: procurement or synthesis of the ENMs and assessment of potential toxic impurities such as metals or endotoxins, ENM storage, dispersion of the ENMs in the test medium, direct interference with assay reagents and unacknowledged indirect effects such as nutrient depletion during the assay, and assessment of the ENM biodistribution in organisms. We recommend thorough characterization of initial ENMs including measurement of impurities, implementation of steps to minimize changes to the ENMs during storage, inclusion of a set of experimental controls (e.g., to assess impacts of nutrient depletion, ENM specific effects, impurities in ENM formulation, desorbed surface coatings, the dispersion process, and direct interference of ENM with toxicity assays), and use of orthogonal measurement methods when available to assess ENMs fate and distribution in organisms. PMID:24617739

  2. Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

    2012-04-01

    As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

  3. FOCUS AREA 4 BACKGROUND PAPER: AQUATIC ECOTOXICITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In parallel with a growing literature on the presence of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) in effluents and surface waters, recent years have witnessed a steady increase in published studies on the ecotoxicity of APIs to aquatic organisms. Against this background, key issu...

  4. Freshwater ecotoxicity characterisation factor for metal oxide nanoparticles: a case study on titanium dioxide nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Salieri, Beatrice; Righi, Serena; Pasteris, Andrea; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2015-02-01

    The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is widely applied in several industrial sectors to evaluate the environmental performance of processes, products and services. Recently, several reports and studies have emphasized the importance of LCA in the field of engineered nanomaterials. However, to date only a few LCA studies on nanotechnology have been carried out, and fewer still have assessed aspects relating to ecotoxicity. This is mainly due to the lack of knowledge in relation on human and environmental exposure and effect of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). This bottleneck is continued when performing Life Cycle Impact Assessment, where characterization models and consequently characterization factors (CFs) for ENPs are missing. This paper aims to provide the freshwater ecotoxicity CF for titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO₂). The USEtox model has been selected as a characterisation model. An adjusted multimedia fate model has been developed which accounts for nano-specific fate process descriptors (i.e. sedimentation, aggregation with suspended particle matter, etc.) to estimate the fate of nano-TiO₂ in freshwater. A literature survey of toxicity tests performed on freshwater organism representative of multiple trophic levels was conducted, including algae, crustaceans and fish in order to collect relevant EC₅₀ values. Then, the toxic effect of nano-TiO₂ was computed on the basis of the HC₅₀ value. Thus, following the principle of USEtox model and accounting for nano-specific descriptors a CF for the toxic impact of freshwater ecotoxicity of 0.28 PAFdaym(3)kg(-1) is proposed. PMID:25461051

  5. Ecotoxicity of a brominated flame retardant (tetrabromobisphenol A) and its derivatives to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Debenest, T; Gagné, F; Petit, A-N; André, C; Kohli, M; Blaise, C

    2010-11-01

    The large use of tetrabromobisphenol A (B(4)BPA) in common products (plastics, electric and electronic equipments) has raised concern about its ecotoxicity. Physical and bio-degradations may lead to the formation of tetrabromobisphenol A derivatives like tri- (B(3)BPA), di- (B(2)BPA), monobromobisphenol A (B(1)BPA) and bisphenol A (BPA). However, little is known about the toxicity of these brominated derivatives. An appraisal on the ecotoxicity of B(4)BPA and its derivatives was carried out with several bioassays representing organisms (bacteria, algae, micro-invertebrates and fish) of different taxonomic groups present in aquatic ecosystems. Endpoint values showed that B(4)BPA was significantly less toxic than the other chemicals when tested with the Microtox and algal asssays. A similar trend was observed with other bioassays for BPA. One of the brominated derivatives was particularly toxic: B(2)BPA. The LuminoTox assay and the rainbow trout hepatocytes assay reported the most significant toxicity for this derivative. Its toxicity was also significantly higher than the other compounds barring B(3)BPA when tested with the micro-crustacean test. PMID:20601118

  6. Integrated microfluidic technology for sub-lethal and behavioral marine ecotoxicity biotests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yushi; Reyes Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos; Persoone, Guido; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-06-01

    Changes in behavioral traits exhibited by small aquatic invertebrates are increasingly postulated as ethically acceptable and more sensitive endpoints for detection of water-born ecotoxicity than conventional mortality assays. Despite importance of such behavioral biotests, their implementation is profoundly limited by the lack of appropriate biocompatible automation, integrated optoelectronic sensors, and the associated electronics and analysis algorithms. This work outlines development of a proof-of-concept miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform for rapid water toxicity tests based on changes in swimming patterns exhibited by Artemia franciscana (Artoxkit M™) nauplii. In contrast to conventionally performed end-point analysis based on counting numbers of dead/immobile specimens we performed a time-resolved video data analysis to dynamically assess impact of a reference toxicant on swimming pattern of A. franciscana. Our system design combined: (i) innovative microfluidic device keeping free swimming Artemia sp. nauplii under continuous microperfusion as a mean of toxin delivery; (ii) mechatronic interface for user-friendly fluidic actuation of the chip; and (iii) miniaturized video acquisition for movement analysis of test specimens. The system was capable of performing fully programmable time-lapse and video-microscopy of multiple samples for rapid ecotoxicity analysis. It enabled development of a user-friendly and inexpensive test protocol to dynamically detect sub-lethal behavioral end-points such as changes in speed of movement or distance traveled by each animal.

  7. [Acute toxicity testing (LD50) of Chinese mineral drugs].

    PubMed

    Yue, W; Liu, W H; Wang, L F; Fu, S X; Li, Y S; Kong, Z K; Tang, Z X; Chen, Z L

    1989-02-01

    Acute toxicity and LD50 of 62 mineral drugs were determined by ig, ip or iv in mice, in order to provide some guidelines for safety in clinical use, as well as for pharmacological and toxicological studies. In the present investigation, the difference in the acute toxicity and LD50 between raw drugs and medicines prepared by roasting is explained. PMID:2506896

  8. Copeptin Testing in Acute Myocardial Infarction: Ready for Routine Use?

    PubMed Central

    Reinstadler, Sebastian Johannes; Klug, Gert; Metzler, Bernhard; Mair, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Suspected acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of admission to emergency departments. In the last decade, biomarkers revolutionized the management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes. Besides their pivotal assistance in timely diagnosis, biomarkers provide additional information for risk stratification. Cardiac troponins I and T are the most sensitive and specific markers of acute myocardial injury. Nonetheless, in order to overcome the remaining limitations of these markers, novel candidate biomarkers sensitive to early stage of disease are being extensively investigated. Among them, copeptin, a stable peptide derived from the precursor of vasopressin, emerged as a promising biomarker for the evaluation of suspected acute myocardial infarction. In this review, we summarize the currently available evidence for the usefulness of copeptin in the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction in comparison with routine biomarkers. PMID:25960596

  9. A comparative study of the terrestrial ecotoxicity of selected protic and aprotic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Peric, Brezana; Sierra, Jordi; Martí, Esther; Cruañas, Robert; Garau, Maria Antonia

    2014-08-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a fairly new and very promising group of compounds with a vast variety of possible structures and uses. They are considered to be potentially "green", but their impact on the environment tends to be neglected or not studied enough, especially when it comes to terrestrial ecotoxicity, where there are very few studies performed to date. This work presents a comparative study of the terrestrial ecotoxicity of selected representatives of two ILs groups: a new family of protic ILs (derived from aliphatic amines and organic acids) and some frequently used aprotic ILs (substituted imidazolium and piridinium chlorides). Toxicity of the ILs towards three terrestrial plant species (Allium cepa, Lolium perenne and Raphanus sativus) and soil microorganisms involved in carbon and nitrogen transformation was analyzed. Protic ILs have shown no toxic effect in most of the tests performed. The EC50 values for aprotic ILs are various orders of magnitude lower than the ones for protic ILs in all of the tests. The most toxic ILs are the most complex ones in both of the analyzed groups. Protic ILs seem to have a potential for biodegradation in soil, while aprotic ILs exhibit inhibitory effects towards the carbon transforming microbiota. These findings indicate that protic ILs can be considered as less toxic and safer for the terrestrial environment than the aprotic ILs. PMID:24630250

  10. Arsenate (As V) in water: quantitative sensitivity relationships among biomarker, ecotoxicity and genotoxicity endpoints.

    PubMed

    Silva, Valéria C; Almeida, Sônia M; Resgalla, Charrid; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-06-01

    It is useful to test ecotoxicity and genotoxicity endpoints in the environmental impact assessment. Here, we compare and discuss ecotoxicity and genotoxicity effects in organisms in response to exposure to arsenate (As V) in solution. Eco(geno)toxicity responses in Aliivibrio fischeri, Lytechinus variegatus, Daphnia magna, Skeletonema costatum and Vicia faba were analyzed by assessing different endpoints: biomass growth, peroxidase activity, mitotic index, micronucleus frequency, and lethality in accordance with the international protocols. Quantitative sensitivity relationships (QSR) between these endpoints were established in order to rank endpoint sensitivity. The results for the QSR values based on the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) ratios varied from 2 (for ratio of root peroxidase activity to leaf peroxidase activity) to 2286 (for ratio of higher plant biomass growth to root peroxidase activity). The QSR values allowed the following sensitivity ranking to be established: higher plant enzymatic activity>daphnids≈echinoderms>bacteria≈algae>higher plant biomass growth. The LOEC values for the mitotic index and micronucleus frequency (LOEC=0.25mgAsL(-1)) were similar to the lowest LOEC values observed in aquatic organisms. This approach to the QSR of different endpoints could form the basis for monitoring and predicting early effects of pollutants before they give rise to significant changes in natural community structures. PMID:23597676

  11. Degradation models and ecotoxicity in marine waters of two antifouling compounds: sodium hypochlorite and an alkylamine surfactant.

    PubMed

    López-Galindo, Cristina; Garrido, M Carmen; Casanueva, José F; Nebot, Enrique

    2010-03-15

    Industrial wastes have a substantial impact on coastal environments. Therefore, to evaluate the impact of cooling water discharges from coastal power plants, we studied the kinetics of the degradative processes and the ecotoxicity of two antifouling products: (1) a classic antifouling product; sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and (2) an alternative one; aliphatic amines (commercial under the registered trade mark Mexel432). To assess the persistence of both compounds the decay of sodium hypochlorite and the primary biodegradation rate of Mexel432 were determined in natural seawater at 20 degrees C. The results indicated a more rapid decay of NaClO than Mexel432. The degradation behavior of both chemicals was described following a logistic model, which permitted calculating kinetic parameters such as t(50) or t(90). The t(50) was 1h and 2d for NaClO and Mexel432, respectively. To evaluate the potential risks of the aforementioned treatments to marine organisms, the acute toxicity of both antifouling products was studied on the microalgae Isochrysis galbana and Dunaliella salina, and on the invertebrate Brachionus plicatilis, using growth inhibition and death tests as toxic response, respectively. For I. galbana, the 96-h EC(50) values were 2.91+/-0.15mg/L of NaClO and 4.55+/-0.11mg/L of Mexel432. D. salina showed values of 96-h EC(50) of 1.73+/-0.16mg/L of NaClO and 7.21+/-0.1mg/L of Mexel432. Brachionus plicatilis showed a 24-h LC(50) of 1.23+/-0.1mg/L of NaClO and 3.62+/-0.37mg/L of Mexel432. Acute toxicity was highly dependent on the chemical and species tested. NaClO presented more toxic effects than Mexel432, also B. plicatilis was the most sensitive species in both cases. The lowest NOECs obtained, 0.25mg/L for NaClO and 2.12mg/L for Mexel432, were similar to the theoretical residual concentrations of these biocides in cooling water discharges. Therefore, these discharges can cause undesirable negative effects upon the aquatic organisms present. PMID:20153019

  12. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV mediates acute nicotine-induced antinociception in acute thermal pain tests

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kia J.; Damaj, M. Imad

    2014-01-01

    Calcium activated second messengers such as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II have been implicated in drug-induced antinociception. The less abundant calcium activated second messenger, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV), mediates emotional responses to pain and tolerance to morphine analgesia; however its role in nicotine-mediated antinociception is currently unknown. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of CaMKIV in the acute effects of nicotine, primarily acute nicotine- induced antinociception. CaMKIV knockout (−/−), heterozygote (+/−), and wild-type (+/+) mice were injected with various doses of nicotine and evaluated in a battery of tests, including the tail-flick and hot-plate tests for antinociception, body temperature, and locomotor activity. Our results show a genotype-dependent reduction in tail-flick and hot- plate latency in CaMKIV (+/−) and (−/−) mice after acute nicotine treatment, while no difference was observed between genotypes in the body temperature and locomotor activity assessments. The results of this study support a role for CaMKIV in acute nicotine-induced spinal and supraspinal pain mechanisms, and further implicate involvement of calcium-dependent mechanisms in drug-induced antinociception. PMID:24196027

  13. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  14. THE ECOTOX DATABASE AND ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVEL (ECO-SSL) WEB SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's ECOTOX database (http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/) provides a web browser search interface for locating aquatic and terrestrial toxic effects information. Data on more than 8100 chemicals and 5700 terrestrial and aquatic species are included in the database. Information is ...

  15. Graphene oxide alleviates the ecotoxicity of copper on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changwei; Hu, Naitao; Li, Xiuling; Zhao, Yongjun

    2016-10-01

    The extensive industrial application of graphene oxide (GO), has increased its exposure risk to various aquatic organisms and its potential to affect the toxicity of other environmental pollutants. In this study, we investigated the combined toxicity of GO and copper on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus obliquus, using the MIXTOX model. The effects of low concentration (1mg/L) exposure to GO were investigated with environmentally relevant concentrations of copper by using a 12-d subacute toxicity test, with pre- and post-GO treatment. Results showed that there were significant antagonistic effects between GO and copper on S. obliquus, and GO was found to reduce ecotoxicity of copper even at low and environmentally relevant concentrations (1mg/L). PMID:27376350

  16. Ecotoxicity and biodegradability in soil and aqueous media of lubricants used in forestry applications.

    PubMed

    Cecutti, Christine; Agius, Dominique

    2008-11-01

    The work presented in this article focuses on the environmental impact of hydraulic fluids used in forestry. Migration and biodegradability of three biolubricants and a mineral lubricant were monitored in two forest soils and in a liquid medium. These studies proved that biolubricants were easily degradable products and showed ultimate biodegradability rates significantly higher than those of the fluid of mineral origin, specially in a soil environment. This superiority was even greater when fluid behaviour was observed after 1000h of use. Ecotoxicity test enabled the classification and comparison of biolubricants and showed that toxicity levels of the biolubricants were never high however, even after use, as compared to petroleum-based fluid. PMID:18472418

  17. Extractability of metals and ecotoxicity of soils from two old wood impregnation sites in Finland.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Eija; Joutti, Anneli; Räisänen, Marja-Liisa; Lintinen, Petri; Martikainen, Esko; Lehto, Olli

    2004-06-29

    Four metal-contaminated soil samples were classified using physical methods, extracted by selective extraction procedures and analyzed for chemical concentrations. De-ionized water, 0.01 mol/l barium chloride, 1 mol/l ammonium acetate and concentrated nitric acid were used as extraction solutions. Ecotoxicity of water extracts and soil samples was analyzed in order to describe the bioavailability of the contaminants. Samples from old wood impregnation plants contained high amounts of As, Cu, Cr and Zn, which originated from chromated copper arsenate, ammoniacal copper-zinc arsenate, and ammoniacal copper quaternary compound. Total As concentrations of the heavily contaminated samples varied from 752 to 4340 mg/kg, Cu concentrations from 339 to 2330 mg/kg, Cr concentrations from 367 to 2,140 mg/kg and Zn concentrations from 79 to 966 mg/kg. The extractabilities of metals differed according to soil type, extractant and element. Cu and Zn were proposed to cause the highest toxicity in the water extracts of the soils. Ecotoxicity tests displayed rather high differences in sensitivity both for water extracts and for solid soil samples. Reproduction of Enchytraeus sp. was the most sensitive and seed germination of Lactuca sativa the least sensitive and the other tests were in decreasing order of sensitivity: Folsomia candida>reverse electron transport>MetPLATE>Toxichromotest>Allium cepa root growth>Lemna sp. growth. As a conclusion, polluted soils rich in sand retain heavy metals with less firm bindings, particularly in the case of Cu and Zn, than soils rich in clay, indicating that chemical methods for measuring the bioavailability of metals need to be optimized taking into account the soil type, acidity, redox state and the individual contaminants. PMID:15142767

  18. SIMULTANEOUS MULTIPLE SPECIES TESTING: ACUTE TOXICITY OF 13 CHEMICALS TO 12 DIVERSE FRESHWATER AMPHIBIAN, FISH, AND INVERTEBRATE FAMILIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The test series developed methods for testing a compliment of aquatic organisms in a single test that satisfies the freshwater acute toxicity requirements for setting water quality criteria. Species tested included fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, rainbow trout Salmo gairdner...

  19. Behaviour of ceria nanoparticles in standardized test media - influence on the results of ecotoxicological tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manier, Nicolas; Garaud, Maël; Delalain, Patrice; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier; Pandard, Pascal

    2011-07-01

    The main objectives of this work were to establish the behaviour of a ceria nanopowder in different ecotoxicological media commonly used in standardized aquatic ecotoxicity tests and consequently to assess the acute and chronic ecotoxicity in two micro-invertebrates: Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia and in a freshwater green algae: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Different approaches to disperse the ceria nanoparticles (i.e. stirring, use of probe sonication, addition of humic acids) were tested and the influence on the biological endpoints was investigated. Despite the agglomeration phenomena observed in all the tested media, the results obtained indicated higher stability in the lower ionic strength media with addition of humic acid (2 mg.L-1 TOC). No acute toxicity were observed with D. magna, whatever the dispersal method performed and the nCeO2 concentration tested (up to 1000 mg.L-1), as no acute toxicity was recorded with C. dubia following exposure to the stirring suspensions. On contrary, acute toxicity was recorded in C. dubia with EC50 values comprise between 11.9 and 25.3 mg.L-1 using the probe sonicated suspension with or without humic acids addition. Significant chronic effect on the reproduction capability was also recorded in C. dubia. The estimated EC10 values were comprised between 2.1 and 2.9 mg.L-1. Focusing on P. subcapitata, despite the different agglomerate size recorded in the tested media at the end of the exposure periods, results obtained were similar. Adverse effect on algal growth around 5 mg.L-1 were reported (mean EC10 = 4 ± 1.8 mg.L-1). Those results suggested the needed for standardized testing protocol concerning the aqueous media used or the sample preparation for laboratory testing.

  20. An Evaluation of Ecotoxicity Test Guidelines: Their Adequacy for Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in nanotechnology are resulting in the production of new nanomaterials at a rapid pace. Driving the dramatic development of new materials and products is the prospect of stronger and lighter materials, better and more efficient energy systems, potential tremendous benefi...

  1. Respiratory Viral Testing and Influenza Antiviral Prescriptions During Hospitalization for Acute Respiratory Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Rolfes, Melissa A.; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly M.; Meek, James I.; Fry, Alicia M.; Chaves, Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined respiratory viral testing and influenza antiviral prescriptions at a US tertiary care hospital. During the 2010–11 to 2012–13 influenza seasons, antiviral prescriptions among acute respiratory illness (ARI) hospitalizations were associated with viral testing (rate ratio = 15.0), and empiric prescriptions were rare (<1% of ARI hospitalizations). PMID:26885545

  2. Evaluation of a Western Blot Test in an Outbreak of Acute Pulmonary Histoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Pizzini, Claudia V.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Reiss, Errol; Hajjeh, Rana; Kaufman, Leo; Peralta, José Mauro

    1999-01-01

    A western blot (WB) test was evaluated for detection of antibodies against native glycosylated and chemically deglycosylated M and H antigens of Histoplasma capsulatum in serum obtained from patients during the acute phase of pulmonary histoplasmosis that occurred during an outbreak. Of 275 serum samples tested by immunodiffusion and complement fixation (CF) samples from 40 patients affected during this outbreak and from 37 negative controls were tested by WB test. A group of patients whose sera were negative for CF antibodies and precipitins early in the acute stage of histoplasmosis but who all seroconverted during convalescence 6 weeks later were tested with the WB test. Antibodies against untreated H and M antigens were detected at a 1:100 dilution by WB test in 45% of the 20 acute-phase serum samples and in all 20 of the convalescent-phase specimens. The WB test’s sensitivity for acute-phase specimens increased to 90% (18 of 20 specimens) when H and M antigens were treated by periodate oxidation to inactivate susceptible carbohydrate epitopes. When native glycosylated antigens were used in the WB test, positive reactions were observed in negative control serum specimens (3 of 37 specimens; 8%) and in serum specimens obtained from asymptomatic persons screened as part of the outbreak investigation (13 of 20 specimens; 65%). These positive reactions were also attributed to glycosidic epitopes since the specificity of the WB test increased from 78 to 100% when periodate-treated H and M antigens were used. WB test with deglycosylated H and M antigens of histoplasmin provides a rapid, sensitive, and specific test to diagnose acute pulmonary histoplasmosis before precipitins can be detected. PMID:9874658

  3. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Agency will use data from this test in assessing the hazard a chemical may present in the aquatic... ratio of daphnid biomass (grams, wet weight) to the volume (liters) of test solution in a test chamber... chosen in a geometric series in which the ratio is between 1.5 and 2.0 (e.g., 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64...

  4. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and sterilization. New test containers may contain substances which inhibit growth of algae. They.... (A) Formulation and sterilization of nutrient medium used for algal culture and preparation of...

  5. Biotic and abiotic studies on the biological fate, transport and ecotoxicity of toxic and hazardous waste in the Mississippi River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelghani, A.; Pramar, Y.; Mandal, T.

    1996-05-02

    This project assesses the levels of xenobiotics in Devils Swamp and studies their biological fate, transport, ecotoxicity, and potential toxicity to man. This article reports on the following studies: assessment of the acute toxicity of individual xenobiotics and toxicity of organic compounds hexachlorobutadience (HCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCBD) on juvenile crayfish; determination of the biotic influence of temperature, salinity, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, and sediment composition on the migration of xenobiotics; development of a pharmacokinetics model for xenobiotic absorption and storage, distribution and excretion by fish and crayfish.

  6. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants.

    PubMed

    Hentati, Olfa; Abrantes, Nelson; Caetano, Ana Luísa; Bouguerra, Sirine; Gonçalves, Fernando; Römbke, Jörg; Pereira, Ruth

    2015-08-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a metal and radionuclide rich-waste produced by the phosphate ore industry, which has been used as soil fertilizer in many parts of the world for several decades. The positive effects of PG in ameliorating some soil properties and increasing crop yields are well documented. More recently concerns are emerging related with the increase of metal/radionuclide residues on soils and crops. However, few studies have focused on the impact of PG applications on soil biota, as well as the contribution to soils with elements in mobile fractions of PG which may affect freshwater species as well. In this context the main aim of this study was to assess the ecotoxicity of soils amended with different percentages of Tunisian phosphogypsum (0.0, 4.9, 7.4, 11.1, 16.6 and 25%) and of elutriates obtained from PG - amended soil (0.0, 6.25, 12.5 and 25% of PG) to a battery of terrestrial (Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Zea mays, Lactuca sativa) and aquatic species (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Lemna minor). Both for amended soils and elutriates, invertebrates (especially D. magna and E. andrei) were the most sensitive species, displaying acute (immobilization) and chronic (reproduction inhibition) effects, respectively. Despite the presence of some concerning metals in PG and elutriates (e.g., zinc and cadmium), the extremely high levels of calcium found in both test mediums, suggest that this element was the mainly responsible for the ecotoxicological effects observed. Terrestrial and aquatic plants were the most tolerant species, which is in line with studies supporting the application of PG to increase crop yields. Nevertheless, no stimulatory effects on growth were observed for any of the species tested despite the high levels of phosphorus added to soils by PG. Given the importance of soil invertebrates for several soil functions and services, this study gives rise to new serious

  7. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concentration of test substance that is calculated to kill 50 percent of a test population during continuous..., procedures, and mysids from the same population or culture container, except that none of the chemical is..., growth and reproduction of the mysids. A recommended food is live Artemia spp. (48-hour-old nauplii)....

  8. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interval shall be calculated. (d) Test conditions—(1) Test species—(i) Selection. (A) The mysid shrimp... with netting material of appropriate mesh size. (iv) Dilution water. (A) Natural or artificial seawater.... (C) Artificial seawater can be prepared by adding commercially available formulations or by...

  9. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas... concentration below 20 µg/l. (ii) Dissolved oxygen concentration. (A) During static tests with rainbow trout the... minnow and 12 °C for rainbow trout. Excursions from the test temperature shall be no greater than ±2...

  10. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas... concentration below 20 µg/l. (ii) Dissolved oxygen concentration. (A) During static tests with rainbow trout the... minnow and 12 °C for rainbow trout. Excursions from the test temperature shall be no greater than ±2...

  11. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas... concentration below 20 µg/l. (ii) Dissolved oxygen concentration. (A) During static tests with rainbow trout the... minnow and 12 °C for rainbow trout. Excursions from the test temperature shall be no greater than ±2...

  12. New perspectives on nanomaterial aquatic ecotoxicity: production impacts exceed direct exposure impacts for carbon nanotoubes.

    PubMed

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Mauter, Meagan S; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-03-01

    Environmental impacts due to engineered nanomaterials arise both from releases of the nanomaterials themselves as well as from their synthesis. In this work, we employ the USEtox model to quantify and compare aquatic ecotoxicity impacts over the life cycle of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). USEtox is an integrated multimedia fate, transport, and toxicity model covering large classes of organic and inorganic substances. This work evaluates the impacts of non-CNT emissions from three methods of synthesis (arc ablation, CVD, and HiPco), and compares these to the modeled ecotoxicity of CNTs released to the environment. Parameters for evaluating CNT ecotoxicity are bounded by a highly conservative "worst case" scenario and a "realistic" scenario that draws from existing literature on CNT fate, transport, and ecotoxicity. The results indicate that the ecotoxicity impacts of nanomaterial production processes are roughly equivalent to the ecotoxicity of CNT releases under the unrealistic worst case scenario, while exceeding the results of the realistic scenario by 3 orders of magnitude. Ecotoxicity from production processes is dominated by emissions of metals from electricity generation. Uncertainty exists for both production and release stages, and is modeled using a combination of Monte Carlo simulation and scenario analysis. The results of this analysis underscore the contributions of existing work on CNT fate and transport, as well as the importance of life cycle considerations in allocating time and resources toward research on mitigating the impacts of novel materials. PMID:22296240

  13. Life-Cycle Perspectives on Aquatic Ecotoxicity of Common Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Mehrkesh, Amirhossein; Karunanithi, Arunprakash T

    2016-07-01

    This study compares the aquatic ecotoxicity impacts of production- and use-phase release of five common ionic liquids (ILs). Integrating toxicity data, physical properties, and fate and transport parameters with the USEtox model, we report, for the first time, the freshwater ecotoxicity characterization factors for [Bmim](+)[Br](-), [Bmim](+)[Cl], [Bmim](+)[BF4](-), [Bmim](+)[PF6](-), and [BPy](+)[Cl](-) as 624, 748, 823, 927, and 1768 CTUe/kg, respectively. IL Production life cycle inventories were modeled and utilized to estimate their production-side ecotoxicity impacts. Literature on environmental aspects of ILs propagates either their green characteristics (no air emissions and high recyclability) or their nongreen aspects due to toxicity concerns of their release to water. This study adds a third dimension by showing that the upstream ecotoxicity impacts of producing ILs could outweigh the potential ecotoxicity impacts of direct release during use. Furthermore, for the studied ILs, an average of 83% of ecotoxicity impacts associated with their production can be linked to chemicals and materials released during the upstream synthesis steps, while only 17% of ecotoxicity impacts relate to life-cycle energy consumption. The findings underscore the need to develop sustainable synthesis routes, tight control over chemical releases during production, and careful selection of precursor materials and production processes. PMID:26599072

  14. An accurate test for acute appendicitis: In-111 WBC imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, D.A.; Weber, P.M.; Kang, I.Y.; dosRemedios, L.V.; Jasko, I.A.

    1985-05-01

    The decision to operate when acute appendicitis (APPY) is suspected is often difficult. Surgeons accept up to a 20% false positive rate to avoid any delay that may result in appendiceal rupture and peritonitis. The authors have successfully improved early diagnostic accuracy by using abdominal imaging beginning 2 hours after injecting In-111 labeled WBC. Patients with clear-cut (APPY) had laparotomy and were not studied. Those who were to be observed in the ER for possible (APPY) had their leukocytes harvested, labeled with In-111 oxine, and reinjected. Abnormal localized activity in the right lower quadrant (RLQ) imaged at 2 hours was graded relative to bone marrow activity (8M): 0, 1+BM. When available the surgical specimen was imaged for In-111 activity. Of 31 patients studied there were 13 with positive scans for (APPY) all surgically confirmed. There were 4 additional abnormal studies all demonstrating known diagnostic patterns, 2 of pertonitis and 2 of colitis. There were 14 negative studies in 8 of whom the clinical course was benign; the remaining 6 had laparotomy with 3 having (APPY) and 3 not. Thus there were no false positives and 3 false negatives. One case negative at 2 hours had appendiceal activity later. The 3 cases with 3+ activity all had apendiceal abscesses. This new application of In-111 oxine WBC imaging is safe, simple, sensitive and specific. It shortens the time to surgical intervention and should reduce the surgical false positive rate.

  15. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will use data from these tests in assessing the hazard of a chemical to... exposure over a specified period of time. (9) Loading means the ratio of fish biomass (grams, wet...

  16. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from these tests in assessing the hazard of a chemical to the aquatic environment. (b) Definitions. The... exposure over a specified period of time. (4) “Loading” means the ratio of test organisms biomass (grams... the ratio is between 1.5 and 2.0 (e.g., 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 mg/l). An equal number of mysids...

  17. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) prediction of (eco)toxicity of short aliphatic protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Peric, Brezana; Sierra, Jordi; Martí, Esther; Cruañas, Robert; Garau, Maria Antonia

    2015-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered as a group of very promising compounds due to their excellent properties (practical non-volatility, high thermal stability and very good and diverse solving capacity). The ILs have a good prospect of replacing traditional organic solvents in vast variety of applications. However, the complete information on their environmental impact is still not available. There is also an enormous number of possible combinations of anions and cations which can form ILs, the fact that requires a method allowing the prediction of toxicity of existing and potential ILs. In this study, a group contribution QSAR model has been used in order to predict the (eco)toxicity of protic and aprotic ILs for five tests (Microtox®, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna minor growth inhibition test, and Acetylcholinestherase inhibition and Cell viability assay with IPC-81 cells). The predicted and experimental toxicity are well correlated. A prediction of EC50 for these (eco)toxicity tests has also been made for eight representatives of the new family of short aliphatic protic ILs, whose toxicity has not been determined experimentally to date. The QSAR model applied in this study can allow the selection of potentially less toxic ILs amongst the existing ones (e.g. in the case of aprotic ILs), but it can also be very helpful in directing the synthesis efforts toward developing new "greener" ILs respectful with the environment (e.g. short aliphatic protic ILs). PMID:25728357

  18. Bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have numerous industrial applications and may be released to the environment. In the aquatic environment, pristine or functionalized CNT have different dispersion behavior, potentially leading to different risks of exposure along the water column. Data included in this review indicate that CNT do not cross biological barriers readily. When internalized, only a minimal fraction of CNT translocate into organism body compartments. The reported CNT toxicity depends on exposure conditions, model organism, CNT-type, dispersion state and concentration. In the ecotoxicological tests, the aquatic organisms were generally found to be more sensitive than terrestrial organisms. Invertebrates were more sensitive than vertebrates. Single-walled CNT were found to be more toxic than double-/multi-walled CNT. Generally, the effect concentrations documented in literature were above current modeled average environmental concentrations. Measurement data are needed for estimation of environmental no-effect concentrations. Future studies with benchmark materials are needed to generate comparable results. Studies have to include better characterization of the starting materials, of the dispersions and of the biological fate, to obtain better knowledge of the exposure/effect relationships. PMID:24034413

  19. Evaluation of chemical parameters and ecotoxicity of a soil developed on gossan following application of polyacrylates and growth of Spergularia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; de Varennes, Amarilis; Macías, Felipe; Leitão, Sara; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics and ecotoxicity of a mine soil developed on gossan materials and amended with hydrophilic polyacrylate polymers after a growth cycle of Spergularia purpurea. Different acute bioassays (Daphnia magna immobilization; microalgae growth inhibition; germination and growth of lettuce and oat) were carried out with simulated leachates, pore water and soil samples. The germination and growth of native shrubs (Cistus ladanifer and Lavandula sampaioana) were also evaluated in the lysimeters where S. purpurea had grown. The soil had high total concentrations (g/kg) of Al (3.50-8.60), As (2.55-2.73), Cu (0.13-0.91) and Pb (4.48-6.16). However, the percentages of elements in aqueous extracts (simulating leachates, pore water, and the conditions of the rhizosphere soil) were small when compared to their total soil concentrations (less than 9% except for Na in leachates). Growth of S. purpurea and other natural colonization of plant species (Poaceae, Fabaceae and Asteraceae families) improved chemical characteristics but the application of the polyacrylate polymers contributed to a further improvement of soil quality. However, this was not sufficient to ensure the growth of a large number of shrubs despite a great germination rate. Among the several species used on the ecotoxicological assessment, the D. magna test was the only bioassay that showed a clear toxicity of soil leachates, suggesting the importance of using several ecotoxicological tests to assess the environmental risk of soil contamination and its rehabilitation. Although the studied soil can be considered contaminated taking into account the total soil concentrations of Al, As, Cu and Pb, the low concentrations of the same chemical elements in extractable solutions, that simulated the fractions really available for organisms, did not demonstrate a substantial toxic effects in the organisms and, consequently, negative impact on the environment. PMID

  20. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Algistatic means having the property of inhibiting algal growth. (3) ECx means the experimentally derived chemical concentration that is calculated to effect X percent of the test criterion. (4) Growth means a relative measure of the viability of an algal population based on the number and/or weight of algal...

  1. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Algistatic means having the property of inhibiting algal growth. (3) ECx means the experimentally derived chemical concentration that is calculated to effect X percent of the test criterion. (4) Growth means a relative measure of the viability of an algal population based on the number and/or weight of algal...

  2. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Algistatic means having the property of inhibiting algal growth. (3) ECx means the experimentally derived chemical concentration that is calculated to effect X percent of the test criterion. (4) Growth means a relative measure of the viability of an algal population based on the number and/or weight of algal...

  3. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will use data from this test in assessing the hazard... organisms within a particular period of exposure (which shall be stated). Loading means the ratio of the... chosen in a geometric series in which the ratio is between 1.5 and 2.0 (e.g., 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64...

  4. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., conductivity, TOC or COD, and particulate matter of the dilution water shall be measured at the beginning of..., acclimation and test periods; (4) Apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or... dark photoperiod with a 15- to 30-minute transition period. (B) Facilities should be well...

  5. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., acclimation, and test periods; (3) apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or aerating the water as necessary; and (4) an apparatus for providing a 16-hour light and 8-hour dark... concentration Particulate matter 20 mg/liter. Total organic carbon or 2 mg/liter. Chemical oxygen demand 5...

  6. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., acclimation, and test periods; (3) apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or aerating the water as necessary; and (4) an apparatus for providing a 16-hour light and 8-hour dark... concentration Particulate matter 20 mg/liter. Total organic carbon or 2 mg/liter. Chemical oxygen demand 5...

  7. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., conductivity, TOC or COD, and particulate matter of the dilution water shall be measured at the beginning of..., acclimation and test periods; (4) Apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or... dark photoperiod with a 15- to 30-minute transition period. (B) Facilities should be well...

  8. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., conductivity, TOC or COD, and particulate matter of the dilution water shall be measured at the beginning of..., acclimation and test periods; (4) Apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or... dark photoperiod with a 15- to 30-minute transition period. (B) Facilities should be well...

  9. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., acclimation, and test periods; (3) apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or aerating the water as necessary; and (4) an apparatus for providing a 16-hour light and 8-hour dark... concentration Particulate matter 20 mg/liter. Total organic carbon or 2 mg/liter. Chemical oxygen demand 5...

  10. Maintaining the Constant Exposure Condition for an Acute Caenorhabditis elegans Mortality Test Using Passive Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyuck-Chul; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Lim, Dongyoung; Choi, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Maintaining the constant exposure to hydrophobic organic compouds in acute toxicity tests is one of the most difficult issues in the evaluation of their toxicity and corresponding risks. Passive dosing is an emerging tool to keep constant aqueous concentration because of the overwhelming mass loaded in the dosing phase. The primary objectives of this study were to develop the constant exposure condition for an acute mortality test and to compare the performance of the passive dosing method with the conventional spiking with co-solvent. Methods A custom cut polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tubing loaded with benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) was placed in each well of a 24-well plate containing assay medium. The rate of the release of BBP from PDMS was evaluated by measuring the change in the concentration of BBP in the assay medium. The efficiency of maintaining constant exposure condition was also evaluated using a simple two-compartment mass transport model employing a film-diffusion theory. An acute mortality test using 10 C. elegans in each well was conducted for the evaluation of the validity of passive dosing and the comparative evaluation of the passive dosing method and the conventional spiking method. Results Free concentration in the assay medium reached 95% steady state value within 2.2 hours without test organisms, indicating that this passive dosing method is useful for an acute toxicity test in 24 hours. The measured concentration after the mortality test agreed well with the estimated values from partitioning between PDMS and the assay medium. However, the difference between the nominal and the free concentration became larger as the spiked concentration approached water solubility, indicating the instability of the conventional spiking with a co-solvent. Conclusions The results in this study support that passive dosing provides a stable exposure condition for an acute toxicity test. Thus, it is likely that more reliable toxicity assessment can be

  11. EPA MED-DULUTH'S ECOTOX AND ECO-SSL WEB APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOX (ECOTOXicology Database) system developed by the USEPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Mid-Continent Ecology Division in Duluth, MN (MED-Duluth), provides a web browser search interface for locating aquatic and terrestrial toxic...

  12. Sildenafil versus nitric oxide for acute vasodilator testing in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Janine F.; Voswinckel, Robert; Sommer, Natascha; Franco, Oscar H.; Grimminger, Friedrich; Reichenberger, Frank; Seeger, Werner; Gall, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vasoreactivity testing with inhaled NO is recommended for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) because of its therapeutic and prognostic value. Sildenafil has acute pulmonary vasodilating properties, but its diagnostic and prognostic impact in PAH is unknown. Our objective was to compare acute vasodilating responses to sildenafil and those to NO during right heart catheterization and also their prognostic values in patients with PAH. Ninety-nine patients with idiopathic PAH and 99 with associated PAH underwent vasoreactivity testing with NO and sildenafil. Only mild adverse effects of sildenafil, in the form of hypotension, were observed, at a rate of 4.5%. The acute responder rate was 8.1% for NO and 11.6% for sildenafil. The NO-induced response in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac output correlated with the response to sildenafil. Thirteen patients were long-term responders to calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and 3 of them were correctly identified by acute vasoreactivity test with both drugs. The specificity of the vasoreactivity test for identifying long-term CCB responders was 88.9% for NO and 85.1% for sildenafil testing. A trend toward better survival was found in sildenafil and NO responders, compared with nonresponders. Use of sildenafil for vasoreactivity testing is safe. Sildenafil may be useful as alternative vasoreactivity-testing agent, identifying the same number of long-term CCB responders as NO. However, NO seems to be a more ideal testing drug because of its pharmacologic properties. Moreover, sildenafil vasoreactivity testing might contribute to an improved estimate of prognosis among patients with PAH. PMID:26064455

  13. Toxicity testing of polymer materials for dialysis equipment: reconsidering in vivo testing.

    PubMed

    Sauer, U G; Liebsch, M; Kolar, R

    2000-01-01

    In fulfilment of the aims of the European Union Biocidal Directive (Directive 98/8/EC), Technical Guidance Documents are currently being compiled. Part I of these Technical Guidance Documents covers data requirements for active substances and biocidal products. The Three Rs principle has been applied in certain parts of the toxicity and ecotoxicity testing scheme for pesticides, such as testing for acute oral toxicity, skin and eye irritation, skin sensitisation, and dermal absorption. Further recommendations on how to proceed with regard to the continuing replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments in this field of regulatory testing are included for consideration. In this context, besides stressing the necessity to validate and accept further alternatives, emphasis is placed on providing the possibility of waiving unnecessary tests and on the continuous evaluation of whether certain tests are needed at all. PMID:25419935

  14. Results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted at SRS NPDES outfalls, July--October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Acute (48 hour LC50) and chronic (7-day reproductive impairment) toxicity tests were conducted on Ceriodaphnia dubia in water collected from 53 NPDES outfalls. All tests were conducted at the in-stream waste concentration. only 12 of the 53 outfalls showed no evidence of toxicity. Twenty-eight of the outfalls were acutely toxic, often producing 100% mortality during the first day of exposure. Fourteen outfalls had no discharge at the time of sampling and could not be tested. Three outfalls were not tested because their toxicity has been adequately characterized in other investigations. Elevated concentrations of total residual chlorine are suspected to be responsible for the observed toxicity of many NPDES outfalls, particularly the sanitary wastewater treatment plants. Chemical data from previous studies indicate that metals may also be present in toxic concentrations at many outfalls. Toxicity identification and reduction options are discussed.

  15. Tigriopus fulvus: The interlaboratory comparison of the acute toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Faraponova, Olga; Giacco, Elisabetta; Biandolino, Francesca; Prato, Ermelinda; Del Prete, Francesco; Valenti, Alessandra; Sarcina, Stefania; Pasteris, Andrea; Montecavalli, Adele; Comin, Stefano; Cesca, Claudia; Francese, Marco; Cigar, Monica; Piazza, Veronica; Falleni, Fabrizio; Lacchetti, Ines

    2016-02-01

    The paper reports the results of an interlaboratory comparison involving 11 laboratories, with the objectives of apply and validate a new standardized ecotoxicological method on marine crustacean Tigriopus fulvus. Copper was chosen as reference toxicant as indicated in the official method. The results of two independent tests performed by all the participants, demonstrated that the new method is simple, fast and easy to learn. This is confirmed even by the values of z-score index calculated for each laboratory and the relative coefficient of variation (CV) which are 6.32% after 24h, 6.56 after 48h and 35.3% after 96h, mentioned in the ISO standards for the precision of interlaboratory assays. Therefore its use could be recommended in environmental studies and monitoring. PMID:26584461

  16. [Are urgent imaging tests indicated in the management of acute pancreatitis?].

    PubMed

    Fornell Pérez, R; Lozano Rodríguez, A

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common emergency within abdominal disease. It is accepted that two of three conditions must be fulfilled for its diagnosis: characteristic clinical presentation, characteristic laboratory findings, and/or characteristic diagnostic imaging findings. The first two conditions are the most often used, probably for reasons of efficiency and frequency. Nevertheless, the need for imaging studies is sometimes a source of conflict. For this reason, we decided to review the current evidence regarding the indication of urgent imaging tests in the management of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26655802

  17. NanoE-Tox: New and in-depth database concerning ecotoxicity of nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ivask, Angela; Blinova, Irina; Mortimer, Monika; Kahru, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Summary The increasing production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) inevitably results in their higher concentrations in the environment. This may lead to undesirable environmental effects and thus warrants risk assessment. The ecotoxicity testing of a wide variety of ENMs rapidly evolving in the market is costly but also ethically questionable when bioassays with vertebrates are conducted. Therefore, alternative methods, e.g., models for predicting toxicity mechanisms of ENMs based on their physico-chemical properties (e.g., quantitative (nano)structure-activity relationships, QSARs/QNARs), should be developed. While the development of such models relies on good-quality experimental toxicity data, most of the available data in the literature even for the same test species are highly variable. In order to map and analyse the state of the art of the existing nanoecotoxicological information suitable for QNARs, we created a database NanoE-Tox that is available as Supporting Information File 1. The database is based on existing literature on ecotoxicology of eight ENMs with different chemical composition: carbon nanotubes (CNTs), fullerenes, silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), cerium dioxide (CeO2), copper oxide (CuO), and iron oxide (FeOx; Fe2O3, Fe3O4). Altogether, NanoE-Tox database consolidates data from 224 articles and lists altogether 1,518 toxicity values (EC50/LC50/NOEC) with corresponding test conditions and physico-chemical parameters of the ENMs as well as reported toxicity mechanisms and uptake of ENMs in the organisms. 35% of the data in NanoE-Tox concerns ecotoxicity of Ag NPs, followed by TiO2 (22%), CeO2 (13%), and ZnO (10%). Most of the data originates from studies with crustaceans (26%), bacteria (17%), fish (13%), and algae (11%). Based on the median toxicity values of the most sensitive organism (data derived from three or more articles) the toxicity order was as follows: Ag > ZnO > CuO > CeO2 > CNTs > TiO2 > FeOx. We

  18. NanoE-Tox: New and in-depth database concerning ecotoxicity of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Juganson, Katre; Ivask, Angela; Blinova, Irina; Mortimer, Monika; Kahru, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) inevitably results in their higher concentrations in the environment. This may lead to undesirable environmental effects and thus warrants risk assessment. The ecotoxicity testing of a wide variety of ENMs rapidly evolving in the market is costly but also ethically questionable when bioassays with vertebrates are conducted. Therefore, alternative methods, e.g., models for predicting toxicity mechanisms of ENMs based on their physico-chemical properties (e.g., quantitative (nano)structure-activity relationships, QSARs/QNARs), should be developed. While the development of such models relies on good-quality experimental toxicity data, most of the available data in the literature even for the same test species are highly variable. In order to map and analyse the state of the art of the existing nanoecotoxicological information suitable for QNARs, we created a database NanoE-Tox that is available as Supporting Information File 1. The database is based on existing literature on ecotoxicology of eight ENMs with different chemical composition: carbon nanotubes (CNTs), fullerenes, silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), cerium dioxide (CeO2), copper oxide (CuO), and iron oxide (FeO x ; Fe2O3, Fe3O4). Altogether, NanoE-Tox database consolidates data from 224 articles and lists altogether 1,518 toxicity values (EC50/LC50/NOEC) with corresponding test conditions and physico-chemical parameters of the ENMs as well as reported toxicity mechanisms and uptake of ENMs in the organisms. 35% of the data in NanoE-Tox concerns ecotoxicity of Ag NPs, followed by TiO2 (22%), CeO2 (13%), and ZnO (10%). Most of the data originates from studies with crustaceans (26%), bacteria (17%), fish (13%), and algae (11%). Based on the median toxicity values of the most sensitive organism (data derived from three or more articles) the toxicity order was as follows: Ag > ZnO > CuO > CeO2 > CNTs > TiO2 > FeO x . We

  19. A Rapid In-Clinic Test Detects Acute Leptospirosis in Dogs with High Sensitivity and Specificity.

    PubMed

    Kodjo, Angeli; Calleja, Christophe; Loenser, Michael; Lin, Dan; Lizer, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A rapid IgM-detection immunochromatographic test (WITNESS® Lepto, Zoetis) has recently become available to identify acute canine leptospirosis at the point of care. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated by comparison with the microscopic agglutination assay (MAT), using a positive cut-off titer of ≥800. Banked serum samples from dogs exhibiting clinical signs and suspected leptospirosis were selected to form three groups based on MAT titer: (1) positive (n = 50); (2) borderline (n = 35); and (3) negative (n = 50). Using an analysis to weight group sizes to reflect French prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 93.5% (88.2% unweighted), respectively. This test rapidly identifies cases of acute canine leptospirosis with high levels of sensitivity and specificity with no interference from previous vaccination. PMID:27110562

  20. Early work load tests for evaluation of long-term prognosis of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Granath, A; Södermark, T; Winge, T; Volpe, U; Zetterquist, S

    1977-01-01

    Exercise tests performed 3 and 9 weeks after acute myocardial infarction in 205 patients were found to give prognostic information on the survival during a follow-up period of 2 to 5 years. The appearance of tachycardia, major ventricular arrhythmias, or anginal complaints during these early exercise tests was thus accompanied by a significantly increased mortality during the observation period. Ventricular arrhythmias disclosed by exercise proved to be of higher prognostic significance than those recorded at rest on the same occasions. The usefulness of early exercise tests in the evaluation of the response to antiarrhythmic treatment after acute myocardial infarction as well as of the prognostic importance of the effects was documented in a smaller series of patients. PMID:884025

  1. A Rapid In-Clinic Test Detects Acute Leptospirosis in Dogs with High Sensitivity and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Kodjo, Angeli; Calleja, Christophe; Loenser, Michael; Lin, Dan; Lizer, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A rapid IgM-detection immunochromatographic test (WITNESS® Lepto, Zoetis) has recently become available to identify acute canine leptospirosis at the point of care. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated by comparison with the microscopic agglutination assay (MAT), using a positive cut-off titer of ≥800. Banked serum samples from dogs exhibiting clinical signs and suspected leptospirosis were selected to form three groups based on MAT titer: (1) positive (n = 50); (2) borderline (n = 35); and (3) negative (n = 50). Using an analysis to weight group sizes to reflect French prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 93.5% (88.2% unweighted), respectively. This test rapidly identifies cases of acute canine leptospirosis with high levels of sensitivity and specificity with no interference from previous vaccination. PMID:27110562

  2. Preliminary ecotoxicity assessment of new generation alternative fuels in seawater.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Gunther; Dolecal, Renee E; Colvin, Marienne A; George, Robert D

    2014-06-01

    The United States Navy (USN) is currently demonstrating the viability of environmentally sustainable alternative fuels to power its fleet comprised of aircraft and ships. As with any fuel used in a maritime setting, there is potential for introduction into the environment through transport, storage, and spills. However, while alternative fuels are often presumed to be eco-friendly relative to conventional petroleum-based fuels, their environmental fate and effects on marine environments are essentially unknown. Here, standard laboratory-based toxicity experiments were conducted for two alternative fuels, jet fuel derived from Camelina sativa (wild flax) seeds (HRJ5) and diesel fuel derived from algae (HRD76), and two conventional counterparts, jet fuel (JP5) and ship diesel (F76). Initial toxicity tests performed on water-accommodated fractions (WAF) from neat fuels partitioned into seawater, using four standard marine species in acute and chronic/sublethal tests, indicate that the alternative fuels are significantly less toxic to marine organisms. PMID:24315182

  3. Ecotoxicity of neutral red (dye) and its environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Kastury, Farzana; Juhasz, Albert; Beckmann, Sabrina; Manefield, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Neutral red (NR) is a synthetic phenazine with promising prospect in environmental biotechnology as an electron shuttle. Recently, NR injections into coal seam associated groundwater in Australia (final dissolved NR concentration: 8 µM ± 0.2) were shown to increase methanogenesis up to ten-fold. However, information about NR toxicity to ecological receptors is sorely lacking. The main aim of this study was to investigate the concentration dependent toxicity of NR in microorganisms and plants. Acute toxicity of NR was determined by the modified Microtox™ assay. Microbial viability was determined using Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Germination and early growth of plants was studied using Lactuca sativa, Daucus carota, Allium cepa and an Australian native Themeda triandra. Lastly, mutagenicity of the coal seam associated groundwater was assessed using the Ames test. The EC50 of acute NR toxicity was determined to be 0.11 mM. The EC50 of microbial viability was between 1 and 7.1mM NR. Among the concentrations tested, only 0.01, 0.10 and 100mM of NR significantly affected (p<0.001) germination of L. sativa. The EC50 for root elongation in seeds was between 1.2 and 35.5mM NR. Interestingly, root elongation in seeds was significantly stimulated (p<0.001) between 0.25 and 10mM NR, showing a hormetic effect. A significant increase in mutagenicity was only observed in one of the three wells tested. The results suggest that the average dissolved NR concentration (8 µM ± 0.2) deployed in the field trial at Lithgow State Coal Mine, Australia, appears not to negatively impact the ecological receptors tested in this study. PMID:26247897

  4. Acute moderate exercise elicits increased dorsolateral prefrontal activation and improves cognitive performance with Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Hiroki; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Kato, Morimasa; Okamoto, Masako; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Soya, Hideaki

    2010-05-01

    A growing number of human studies have reported the beneficial influences of acute as well as chronic exercise on cognitive functions. However, neuroimaging investigations into the neural substrates of the effects of acute exercise have yet to be performed. Using multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we sought cortical activation related to changes in the Stroop interference test, elicited by an acute bout of moderate exercise, in healthy volunteers (N=20). The compactness and portability of fNIRS allowed on-site cortical examination in a laboratory with a cycle ergometer, enabling strict control of the exercise intensity of each subject by assessing their peak oxygen intake (VO2peak). We defined moderate exercise intensity as 50% of a subject's peak oxygen uptake (50%VO2peak). An acute bout of moderate exercise caused significant improvement of cognitive performance reflecting Stroop interference as measured by reaction time. Consistent with previous functional neuroimaging studies, we detected brain activation due to Stroop interference (incongruent minus neutral) in the lateral prefrontal cortices in both hemispheres. This Stroop-interference-related activation was significantly enhanced in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex due to the acute bout of moderate exercise. The enhanced activation significantly coincided with the improved cognitive performance. This suggests that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is likely the neural substrate for the improved Stroop performance elicited by an acute bout of moderate exercise. fNIRS, which allows physiological monitoring and functional neuroimaging to be combined, proved to be an effective tool for examining the cognitive effects of exercise. PMID:20006719

  5. A confirmatory study of the up-and-down method for acute oral toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Bruce, R D

    1987-01-01

    Ten materials have been tested in parallel both by the "classical" method for acute oral toxicity (LD50) and by the up-and-down method. Materials tested included laundry and dishwashing detergents, a shampoo, a flavor, potassium hydroxide, and caffeine. All testing was done in Sprague-Dawley rats. Excellent agreement was seen between the two methods. The classical method typically used 40 to 50 animals while the up-and-down method required only six to nine animals per material. PMID:3556826

  6. Comparison of dissolved and total metals concentrations from acute tests with saltwater organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Lussier, S.M.; Boothman, W.S.; Champlin, D.; Poucher, S.; Helmstetten, A.

    1999-05-01

    Aquatic life criteria (ALC) have traditionally been expressed for meals in terms of total-recoverable or acid-soluble concentrations. Recent US Environmental protection Agency policy recommended use of dissolved metal concentrations for setting water quality standards. Criteria derived from previous tests could be expressed in terms of dissolved metals if ratios of dissolved-to-total concentrations in those tests were consistent. Using those metals with insufficient dissolved metals data to directly derive criteria (arsenic (III), cadmium, chromium (VI), lead, nickel, selenium (IV), and zinc), the authors measured both total and dissolved metal concentrations in acute saltwater static and flow-through tests. Exposure conditions simulated those of original tests used to derive ALC. Partitioning of metals between dissolved and particulate forms was very consistent. Dissolved metal concentrations were greater than 90% of total concentrations in all tests, exceeding 95% in 10 of 13 tests. Dissolved-to-total metal ratios did not vary significantly with concentration, time, or type of test. Biological responses were consistent with historical data. Results implied that in acute saltwater toxicity tests used to establish ALC, metals were primarily dissolved. Thus criteria developed for metals based on total concentrations should be equally valid when expressed in terms of dissolved concentrations.

  7. Is digestate safe? A study on its ecotoxicity and environmental risk on a pig manure.

    PubMed

    Tigini, Valeria; Franchino, Marta; Bona, Francesca; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Digestate represents a precious by-product in particular in agriculture, however its impact on the environment and human health is still unexplored. In this work, the toxicity of a pig slurry digestate was assessed through 7 ecotoxicity tests and considering 10 different endpoints. Besides, a synthetic index was applied to the outputs of the battery of tests for the environmental risk assessment, in order to evaluate the opportunity to use directly this kind of digestate in agriculture or to introduce an additional treatment. All the organisms were sensitive to digestate toxicity (EC50 ranged from 14.22% for Cucumissativus to 0.77% for Raphidocelis subcapitata). The physical-chemical features at the base of this toxicity seem to be the high content of ammonium, salinity, COD, phosphate and colour. The synthetic index showed that the digestate was very toxic and associated to an extremely high environmental risk. Thus, a pre-treatment is needed to reduce its toxicity and environmental impact, whatever could be its exploitation. PMID:26874769

  8. Use of fish embryo toxicity tests for the prediction of acute fish toxicity to chemicals.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Scott E; Rawlings, Jane M; Carr, Gregory J

    2013-08-01

    The fish embryo test (FET) is a potential animal alternative for the acute fish toxicity (AFT) test. A comprehensive validation program assessed 20 different chemicals to understand intra- and interlaboratory variability for the FET. The FET had sufficient reproducibility across a range of potencies and modes of action. In the present study, the suitability of the FET as an alternative model is reviewed by relating FET and AFT. In total, 985 FET studies and 1531 AFT studies were summarized. The authors performed FET-AFT regressions to understand potential relationships based on physical-chemical properties, species choices, duration of exposure, chemical classes, chemical functional uses, and modes of action. The FET-AFT relationships are very robust (slopes near 1.0, intercepts near 0) across 9 orders of magnitude in potency. A recommendation for the predictive regression relationship is based on 96-h FET and AFT data: log FET median lethal concentration (LC50) = (0.989 × log fish LC50) - 0.195; n = 72 chemicals, r = 0.95, p < 0.001, LC50 in mg/L. A similar, not statistically different regression was developed for the entire data set (n = 144 chemicals, unreliable studies deleted). The FET-AFT regressions were robust for major chemical classes with suitably large data sets. Furthermore, regressions were similar to those for large groups of functional chemical categories such as pesticides, surfactants, and industrial organics. Pharmaceutical regressions (n = 8 studies only) were directionally correct. The FET-AFT relationships were not quantitatively different from acute fish-acute fish toxicity relationships with the following species: fathead minnow, rainbow trout, bluegill sunfish, Japanese medaka, and zebrafish. The FET is scientifically supportable as a rational animal alternative model for ecotoxicological testing of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish. PMID:23606235

  9. Ecotoxicity of climbazole, a fungicide contained in antidandruff shampoo.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elisabeth; Wick, Arne; Ternes, Thomas A; Coors, Anja

    2013-12-01

    Emerging pollutants such as personal care products can reach the environment via effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and digested sludge. Only recently, the antidandruff agent and antimycotic climbazole was detected for the first time in a WWTP effluent with concentrations up to 0.5 µg/L. Climbazole acts as a C14-demethylase inhibitor (DMI) fungicide and thus has a high efficacy against fungi, but knowledge of its potential environmental impact is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize climbazole's ecotoxicity by conducting standard biotests with organisms representing different trophic levels from the aquatic as well as the terrestrial ecosystems. It was found that the toxicity of climbazole is mostly similar to that of other DMI fungicides, whereas it proved to be particularly toxic to primary producers. The lowest median effective concentrations (EC50s) were determined for Lemna minor, at 0.013 mg/L (biomass yield), and Avena sativa, at 18.5 mg/kg soil dry weight (shoot biomass). Reduction of frond size in water lentils and shoot length in higher plants suggested an additional plant growth-retarding mode of action of climbazole. In addition, it was demonstrated here that for an ionizable compound such as climbazole, the soil pH can have a considerable influence on phytotoxicity. PMID:23982925

  10. Leaching behaviour and ecotoxicity evaluation of chars from the pyrolysis of forestry biomass and polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, M; Mendes, S; Lapa, N; Gonçalves, M; Mendes, B; Pinto, F; Lopes, H

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental risk of chars derived from the pyrolysis of mixtures of pine, plastics, and scrap tires, by studying their leaching potential and ecotoxicity. Relationships between chemical composition and ecotoxicity were established to identify contaminants responsible for toxicity. Since metallic contaminants were the focus of the present study, an EDTA washing step was applied to the chars to selectively remove metals that can be responsible for the observed toxicity. The results indicated that the introduction of biomass to the pyrolysis feedstock enhanced the acidity of chars and promote the mobilisation of inorganic compounds. Chars resulting from the pyrolysis of blends of pine and plastics did not produce ecotoxic eluates. A relationship between zinc concentrations in eluates and their ecotoxicity was found for chars obtained from mixtures with tires. A significant reduction in ecotoxicity was found when the chars were treated with EDTA, which was due to a significant reduction in zinc in chars after EDTA washing. PMID:24905691

  11. The value of assessment tests in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun-feng; Jiang, Yan-ping; Zhou, Lin-fu; Wu, Xue-ling

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT), serum copeptin, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels as potential predictive factors for recurrence of acute exacerbation and all-cause mortality in 6 months of COPD inpatients. One hundred fifty-nine patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled and followed up for 6 months. The CAT scores, serum copeptin, procalcitonin and CRP levels were measured on admission and 14 days and 3 months later in all patients. The primary endpoint was recurrence of acute exacerbation in 6 months. The secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality after 6 months. The CAT scores, serum copeptin, procalcitonin and CRP levels were significantly elevated on admission and stabilized at 14 days (P < 0.01). In a univariate logistic regression analysis, CAT scores (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10), forced expiratory volume in 1 second % (OR = 1.01), serum copeptin (OR = 1.32) and CRP levels (OR = 1.01) were significantly related to recurrence of acute exacerbation in 6 months (P < 0.05). In a multivariate logistic regression model, increasing CAT scores (OR = 1.10) and serum copeptin levels (OR = 1.29) were still associated with an increased odds of exacerbation (P < 0.05). In a univariate logistic regression analysis, increasing CAT scores (OR = 1.19), forced expiratory volume in 1 second % (OR = 1.05), serum copeptin levels (OR = 1.44) and hospitalization in the previous years (OR = 1.24) were significant determinants of death over a follow-up period of 6 months (P < 0.05). But only serum copeptin (OR = 1.53) and CAT scores (OR = 1.37) were associated with mortality in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Hence, high CAT scores and serum copeptin levels link with recurrence of acute exacerbation and all-cause mortality during 6 months in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. PMID:24270077

  12. Ecotoxicity of engineered TiO2 nanoparticles to saltwater organisms: an overview.

    PubMed

    Minetto, D; Libralato, G; Volpi Ghirardini, A

    2014-05-01

    The innovative properties of nanomaterials make them suitable for various applications in many fields. In particular, TiO2 nanoparticles (nTiO2) are widely used in paints, in cosmetics and in sunscreens that are products accessible to the mass market. Despite the great increase in the use of such nanomaterials, there is a paucity of general information about their potential effects to the aquatic species, especially to saltwater ones. Moreover, the difficulties of determining the effective exposure scenario make the acquired information low comparable. In this work, questions about the complexity of the real exposure scenario determination are discussed. The state of the art, concerning the experimental activities with nTiO2 toward the saltwater organisms is firstly illustrated, providing statistical information about the different matrices, organisms and nanoparticles employed. A comparison of the nTiO2 ecotoxicity effects, grouped by taxonomic classes, is provided illustrating their relative experimental conditions. Findings show the need to develop specific protocols for toxicity tests with ENPs to control the variability of experimental conditions. Some advices are finally proposed for the future experimental activities. PMID:24509165

  13. Formation and Ecotoxicity of N-Heterocyclic Compounds on Ammoxidation of Mono- and Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ammoxidation of technical lignins under mild conditions is a suitable approach to artificial humic substances. However, carbohydrates as common minor constituents of technical lignins have been demonstrated to be a potential source of N-heterocyclic ecotoxic compounds. Ethyl acetate extracts of ammoxidation mixtures of the monosaccharides glucose and xylose exhibited considerable growth inhibiting activity in the OECD 201 test, with 4-methyl-1H-imidazole, 4-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-imidazole, and 3-hydroxypyridine being the most active compounds. The amount of N-heterocyclic compounds formed at moderate ammoxidation conditions (70 °C, 0.2 MPa O2, 3 h) was significantly lower for the polysaccharides cellulose and xylan (16–30 μg/g of educt) compared to glucose (15.4 mg). Ammoxidation at higher temperature is not recommendable for carbohydrate-rich materials as much higher amounts of N-heterocyclic compounds were formed from both monosaccharides (100 °C: 122.4–160.5 mg/g of educt) and polysaccharides (140 °C: 5.52–16.03 mg/g of educt). PMID:23967874

  14. Evaluation of an eventual ecotoxicity induced by textile effluents using a battery of biotests.

    PubMed

    Bedoui, Ahmed; Tigini, Valeria; Ghedira, Kamel; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Chekir Ghedira, Leila

    2015-11-01

    Textile industry is considered as one of the important factors of the economic growth in Tunisia. However, this prominent role has certainly some drawbacks mainly represented by the huge amounts of textile wastewaters generated that become a real menace to nature. Many previous studies showed the purifying potential of some activated sludge and bacteria (Pseudomonas putida) to decolourize textile effluents. However, in many cases, decolourization of wastewaters is not necessary associated with detoxification, generating a real risk for the ecosystem in general. We evaluated in this work the induced toxicity of a textile effluent before and after its treatment with activated sludge followed by P. putida, using a battery of biotests. This study proved the detoxifying power of the activated sludge according to most of ecotoxicity tests. The treatment with P. putida did not improve the quality of the effluent; on the contrary, it could increase its toxicity. Daphnia magna and Raphidocelis subcapitata appear to be the most sensitive organisms in assessing eventual toxicity caused by this kind of wastewaters. PMID:26087930

  15. Progress Towards the Development of a Fathead Minnow Embryo Test and Comparison to the Zebrafish Embryo Test for Assessing Acute Fish Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Zebrafish Embryo Test (ZFET) for acute fish toxicity is a well developed method nearing adoption as an OECD Test Guideline. Early drafts of the test guideline (TG) envisioned a suite of potential test species to be covered including zebrafish, fathead minnow, Japanese Medaka...

  16. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  17. Design of a testing strategy using non-animal based test methods: lessons learnt from the ACuteTox project.

    PubMed

    Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Prieto, Pilar; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Stanzel, Sven

    2013-06-01

    In the framework of toxicology, a testing strategy can be viewed as a series of steps which are taken to come to a final prediction about a characteristic of a compound under study. The testing strategy is performed as a single-step procedure, usually called a test battery, using simultaneously all information collected on different endpoints, or as tiered approach in which a decision tree is followed. Design of a testing strategy involves statistical considerations, such as the development of a statistical prediction model. During the EU FP6 ACuteTox project, several prediction models were proposed on the basis of statistical classification algorithms which we illustrate here. The final choice of testing strategies was not based on statistical considerations alone. However, without thorough statistical evaluations a testing strategy cannot be identified. We present here a number of observations made from the statistical viewpoint which relate to the development of testing strategies. The points we make were derived from problems we had to deal with during the evaluation of this large research project. A central issue during the development of a prediction model is the danger of overfitting. Procedures are presented to deal with this challenge. PMID:22951946

  18. Intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.; Bidwell, Joseph R.; Cope, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Geis, S.; Greer, I.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kane, C.M.; May, T.W.; Neves, R.J.; Newton, T.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Whites, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the performance and variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and newly transformed juvenile mussels using the standard methods outlined in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Multiple 48-h toxicity tests with glochidia and 96-h tests with juvenile mussels were conducted within a single laboratory and among five laboratories. All tests met the test acceptability requirements (e.g., ???90% control survival). Intralaboratory tests were conducted over two consecutive mussel-spawning seasons with mucket (Actinonaias ligamentina) or fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. For the glochidia of both species, the variability of intralaboratory median effective concentrations (EC50s) for the three toxicants, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV), ranged from 14 to 27% in 24-h exposures and from 13 to 36% in 48-h exposures. The intralaboratory CV of copper EC50s for juvenile fatmucket was 24% in 48-h exposures and 13% in 96-h exposures. Interlaboratory tests were conducted with fatmucket glochidia and juveniles by five laboratories using copper as a toxicant. The interlaboratory CV of copper EC50s for glochidia was 13% in 24-h exposures and 24% in 48-h exposures, and the interlaboratory CV for juveniles was 22% in 48-h exposures and 42% in 96-h exposures. The high completion success and the overall low variability in test results indicate that the test methods have acceptable precision and can be performed routinely. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  19. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Pesce, Caterina; Chiang, Yi-Te; Kuo, Cheng-Yuh; Fong, Dong-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity. PMID:25914634

  20. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of bisphenol A with aquatic invertebrates and plants.

    PubMed

    Mihaich, Ellen M; Friederich, Urs; Caspers, Norbert; Hall, A Tilghman; Klecka, Gary M; Dimond, Stephen S; Staples, Charles A; Ortego, Lisa S; Hentges, Steven G

    2009-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA, 4,4'-isopropylidine diphenol) is a commercially important chemical used primarily as an intermediate in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Extensive effect data are currently available, including long-term studies with BPA on fish, amphibians, crustaceans, and mollusks. The aim of this study was to perform additional tests with a number of aquatic invertebrates and an aquatic plant. These studies include acute tests with the midge (Chironomus tentans) and the snail (Marisa cornuarietis), and chronic studies with rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and plants (Lemna gibba). The effect data on different aquatic invertebrate and plant species presented in this paper correspond well with the effect and no-effect concentrations (NOECs) available from invertebrate studies in the published literature and are within the range found for other aquatic species tested with BPA. PMID:19327838

  1. Environmental properties and aquatic hazard assessment of anionic surfactants: physico-chemical, environmental fate and ecotoxicity properties.

    PubMed

    Könnecker, Gustav; Regelmann, Jürgen; Belanger, Scott; Gamon, Konrad; Sedlak, Richard

    2011-09-01

    This paper summarizes the environmental hazard assessment of physicochemical properties, environmental fate and behavior and the ecotoxicity of a category of 61 anionic surfactants (ANS), comprised of alkyl sulfates (AS), primary alkane sulfonates (PAS) and alpha-olefin sulfonates (AOS) under the High Production Volume Chemicals Program of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The most important common structural feature of the category members examined here is the presence of a predominantly linear aliphatic hydrocarbon chain with a polar sulfate or sulfonate group, neutralized with a counter-ion. The hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain (with a length between C(8) and C(18)) and the polar sulfate or sulfonate groups confer surfactant properties and enable the commercial use of these substances as anionic surfactants. The close structural similarities lead to physico-chemical properties and environmental fate characteristics which follow a regular pattern and justify the applied read-across within a category approach. Common physical and/or biological properties result in structurally similar breakdown products and are, together with the surfactant properties, responsible for similar environmental behavior. The structural similarities result in the same mode of ecotoxic action. Within each of the three sub-categories of ANS the most important parameter influencing ecotoxicity is the varying length of the alkyl chain. Although the counter-ion may also influence the physico-chemical properties, there is no indication that it significantly affects chemical reactivity, environmental fate and behavior or ecotoxicity of these chemicals. Deduced from physico-chemical and surfactancy properties, the main target compartment for the substances of the ANS category is the hydrosphere. They are quantitatively removed in waste water treatment plants, mainly by biodegradation. Quantitative removal in biological treatment plants is reflected by low AS

  2. The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.

    PubMed

    Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 μg dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 μg dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were <1.0 when using acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments. PMID:21779820

  3. Development of miniaturized acute toxicity tests for Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.L.; Kimerle, R.A.; Moser, E.M.; McKee, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard EPA methods for conducting static, 48-hour, acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) can be miniaturized to successfully yield accurate LC50/EC50 values. The screening procedure involves exposing the test organisms to 1 mL of test solution, in test chambers which consist of the wells on 48-well microliter plates. Toxicity of the microliter plates and solvent, DO concentration, organism biomass to test solution ratio, partitioning of the chemicals and dilution of the test solution during transfer of the test organisms were examined. Survival and exposure were not significantly altered using non-standard test chambers. Toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), pentachlorophenol (PCP), kepone, and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was determined using D. magna and fathead minnows. Serial dilutions were made and 1 mL aliquots pipetted into the wells. Daphnia magna, < 24 hours old, and newly hatched fathead minnows, were transferred into the wells, twenty individuals per concentration, one per well. Dose-response curves were established for all test compounds. LC50/EC50`s values obtained using miniaturized methods strongly correlated with those obtained using standard EPA procedures. The tests were repeated a number of times with coefficient of variances for D. magna ranging from 10% with kepone to 64% with SLS. For fathead minnows CVs ranged from 0% with PCP to 23% with kepone. It was concluded that current methods can be miniaturized, yet still provide accurate information regarding toxicity for compounds in limited supply. This method may also be amenable to effluent testing i.e. TIE fractions. Other benefits include reducing the amount of equipment and space needed to conduct a test and the time involved.

  4. Ecotoxicity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Eom, I C; Rast, C; Veber, A M; Vasseur, P

    2007-06-01

    Soil samples from a former cokery site polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed for their toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms and for their mutagenicity. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs listed as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) was 2634+/-241 mg/kgdw in soil samples. The toxicity of water-extractable pollutants from the contaminated soil samples was evaluated using acute (Vibrio fischeri; Microtox test, Daphnia magna) and chronic (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dubia) bioassays and the EC values were expressed as percentage water extract in the test media (v/v). Algal growth (EC50-3d=2.4+/-0.2% of the water extracts) and reproduction of C. dubia (EC50-7d=4.3+/-0.6%) were the most severely affected, compared to bacterial luminescence (EC50-30 min=12+/-3%) and daphnid viability (EC50-48 h=30+/-3%). The Ames and Mutatox tests indicated mutagenicity of water extracts, while no response was found with the umu test. The toxicity of the soil samples was assessed on the survival and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and collembolae (Folsomia candida), and on the germination and growth of higher plants (Lactuca sativa L.: lettuce and Brassica chinensis J.: Chinese cabbage). The EC50 values were expressed as percentage contaminated soil in ISO soil test medium (weight per weight-w/w) and indicated severe effects on reproduction of the collembola F. candida (EC50-28 d=5.7%) and the earthworm E. fetida (EC50-28 d=18% and EC50-56 d=8%, based on cocoon and juvenile production, respectively). Survival of collembolae was already affected at a low concentration of the contaminated soil (EC50-28 d=11%). The viability of juvenile earthworms was inhibited at much lower concentrations of the cokery soil (EC50-14 d=28%) than the viability of adults (EC50-14 d=74%). Only plant growth was inhibited (EC50-17d=26%) while germination was not. Chemical analyses of water extracts allowed

  5. Acute Toxicity Comparison of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Various Freshwater Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young Shin; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Yong Hwa; Kang, Sung Wook

    2015-01-01

    While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris), a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna), and a fish (Oryzias latipes) based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203). According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50) of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing “acute category 3” in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish. PMID:25654094

  6. Acute toxicity comparison of single-walled carbon nanotubes in various freshwater organisms.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Eun Kyung; Chung, Young Shin; Johari, Seyed Ali; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Yong Hwa; Kang, Sung Wook; Yu, Il Je

    2015-01-01

    While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris), a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna), and a fish (Oryzias latipes) based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203). According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50) of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing "acute category 3" in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish. PMID:25654094

  7. Clinical investigation: thyroid function test abnormalities in cardiac arrest associated with acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Iltumur, Kenan; Olmez, Gonul; Arıturk, Zuhal; Taskesen, Tuncay; Toprak, Nizamettin

    2005-01-01

    Introduction It is known that thyroid homeostasis is altered during the acute phase of cardiac arrest. However, it is not clear under what conditions, how and for how long these alterations occur. In the present study we examined thyroid function tests (TFTs) in the acute phase of cardiac arrest caused by acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and at the end of the first 2 months after the event. Method Fifty patients with cardiac arrest induced by ACS and 31 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who did not require cardioversion or cardiopulmonary resuscitation were enrolled in the study, as were 40 healthy volunteers. The patients were divided into three groups based on duration of cardiac arrest (<5 min, 5–10 min and >10 min). Blood samples were collected for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), tri-iodothyronine (T3), free T3, thyroxine (T4), free T4, troponin-I and creatine kinase-MB measurements. The blood samples for TFTs were taken at 72 hours and at 2 months after the acute event in the cardiac arrest and AMI groups, but only once in the control group. Results The T3 and free T3 levels at 72 hours in the cardiac arrest group were significantly lower than in both the AMI and control groups (P < 0.0001). On the other hand, there were no significant differences between T4, free T4 and TSH levels between the three groups (P > 0.05). At the 2-month evaluation, a dramatic improvement was observed in T3 and free T3 levels in the cardiac arrest group (P < 0.0001). In those patients whose cardiac arrest duration was in excess of 10 min, levels of T3, free T3, T4 and TSH were significantly lower than those in patients whose cardiac arrest duration was under 5 min (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.005 and P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion TFTs are significantly altered in cardiac arrest induced by ACS. Changes in TFTs are even more pronounced in patients with longer periods of resuscitation. The changes in the surviving patients were characterized by euthyroid sick

  8. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50`s in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests.

  9. Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.

    PubMed

    Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

    2013-11-01

    Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute

  10. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  11. Marble burying as a test of the delayed anxiogenic effects of acute immobilisation stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Sonal; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2014-08-15

    A majority of rodent studies characterizing the anxiogenic effects of stress have utilized exploration-based models, such as the elevated plus-maze. An alternative strategy has relied on ethologically natural behavior such as defensive burying. One such paradigm, marble burying, has proven to be an effective behavioral assay of the anxiolytic effects of pharmacological manipulations, and of genetically modified mouse models. Relatively little, however, is known about the sensitivity of this test in assessing the anxiogenic effects of stress. Most of the earlier reports have examined the immediate, but not more long-term, effects of pharmacological or environmental manipulations in mice. Hence, we used the marble burying test to examine if acute immobilization stress leads to enhanced anxiety-like behavior in C57Bl/6 mice if the test is employed with a significant time delay. We find this test to be sensitive enough to detect the anxiogenic effects even 10 days after a single episode of 2-h immobilization stress. Our results suggest that the marble burying test could serve as a useful behavioral paradigm for not only estimating the gradual progression of the anxiogenic impact of stress over time, but also raises the possibility of using the temporal delay after stress to test the potential efficacy of post-stress interventions with anxiolytic drugs. PMID:24932962

  12. Ecotoxicity evaluation of an amended soil contaminated with uranium and radium using sensitive plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, M. M.; Lopes, J.; Magalhães, M. C. F.; Santos, E.

    2012-04-01

    In the centre-north granitic regions of Portugal, during the twenty century radium and uranium were exploited from approximately 60 mines. The closure of all uranium mines, in 2001, raised concerns regarding the possible chemical and radiological effects on the inhabitants health around the mine areas. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of organic amendments and organic hydroxiapatite in the ecotoxicity reduction of agricultural soils contaminated with uranium and radium, by germination and growth tests of two sensitive plants (Lactuca sativa L. and Zea mays L.). Pot experiments, under controlled conditions, were undertaken during two months of incubation at 70% of the soil water-holding capacity. Fluvisol from Urgeiriça region containing large concentration of Utotal (635 mg/kg) and 226Ra (2310 Bq/kg) was used. The soil available fraction, extracted with ammonium acetate, corresponds to 90% and 25% of total concentration of Utotal and 226Ra, respectively. Fine ground bone (FB) and sheep manure (OM) single or mixtures were used as amendments. Four treatments, plus control were carried out in triplicate: (A) soil+40 Mg/ha of FB; (B) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM; (C) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM+40 Mg/ha of FB; (D) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM+20 Mg/ha of FB. After the incubation moist soils were kept at 4-5 °C and subsamples were used for leachates extraction following DIN 38414-S4 method. Maize and lettuce seeds were sown in filter paper moistened with the leachates aqueous solutions and in the moist soil for germination and growth tests. Seedlings after three days of germination were used for growth tests in hydroponic, during seven days, using the leachates. Five seeds per replicate were used. Soil presented: pH(H2O)=5.15, EC=7.3 µS/cm; and Corgnic=12.5 g/kg. After two months of incubation soil pH increased to a maximum of 6.53 in amended samples, and EC showed a dramatic increase when compared to the control (0.398 dS/m), from 1.5 dS/m (treatment-A) to 4.7 d

  13. Effort test performance in clinical acute brain injury, community brain injury, and epilepsy populations.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Natalie E; Kemp, Steven; Coughlan, Anthony K; Moulin, Chris J A; Bhakta, Bipin B

    2014-01-01

    Effort tests have become commonplace within medico-legal and forensic contexts and their use is rising within clinical settings. It is recognized that some patients may fail effort tests due to cognitive impairment and not because of poor effort. However, investigation of the base rate of failure among clinical populations other than dementia is limited. Forty-seven clinical participants were recruited and comprised three subgroups: acute brain injury (N = 11), community brain injury (N = 20), and intractable epilepsy (N = 16). Base rates of failure on the Word Memory Test (WMT; Green, 2003 ) and six other less well-validated measures were investigated. A significant minority of patients failed effort tests according to standard cutoff scores, particularly patients with severe traumatic brain injury and marked frontal-executive features. The WMT was able to identify failures associated with significant cognitive impairment through the application of profile analysis and/or lowered cutoff levels. Implications for clinical assessment, effort test interpretation, and future research are discussed. PMID:25084843

  14. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. PMID:21309017

  15. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Schmidt, Stine N; Stinckens, Evelyn; Maho, Walid; Blust, Ronny; Mayer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Knapen, Dries

    2015-11-01

    High throughput testing according to the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test (OECD Testing Guideline 236) is usually conducted in well plates. In the case of hydrophobic test substances, sorptive and evaporative losses often result in declining and poorly controlled exposure conditions. Therefore, our objective was to improve exposure conditions in FET tests by evaluating a passive dosing format using silicone O-rings in standard 24-well polystyrene plates. We exposed zebrafish embryos to a series of phenanthrene concentrations until 120h post fertilization (hpf), and obtained a linear dilution series. We report effect values for both mortality and sublethal morphological effects based on (1) measured exposure concentrations, (2) (lipid normalized) body residues and (3) chemical activity. The LC50 for 120hpf was 310μg/L, CBR50 (critical body residue) was 2.72mmol/kg fresh wt and La50 (lethal chemical activity) was 0.047. All values were within ranges expected for baseline toxicity. Impaired swim bladder inflation was the most pronounced morphological effect and swimming activity was reduced in all exposure concentrations. Further analysis showed that the effect on swimming activity was not attributed to impaired swim bladder inflation, but rather to baseline toxicity. We conclude that silicone O-rings (1) produce a linear dilution series of phenanthrene in the 120hpf FET test, (2) generate and maintain aqueous concentrations for reliable determination of effect concentrations, and allow for obtaining mechanistic toxicity information, and (3) cause no toxicity, demonstrating its potential as an extension of the FET test when testing hydrophobic chemicals. PMID:26026258

  16. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible. PMID:26467150

  17. Amygdala lesions produce analgesia in a novel, ethologically relevant acute pain test.

    PubMed

    Hebert, M A; Ardid, D; Henrie, J A; Tamashiro, K; Blanchard, D C; Blanchard, R J

    1999-08-01

    Acute pain tests using mechanical stimuli typically do not involve objects important in the evolutionary history of the subjects, and may fail to evaluate the contribution of biobehavioral defensive reactions to the total pain response. Spines are common structural defenses that protect plants and animals against predation. The present studies examined the reaction to contact with such natural, mechanical pain stimuli in the laboratory rat, utilizing a floor board with protruding pins located in the middle of a novel alley (the "fakir" test). Behavioral responses were characterized in 10-min tests (Experiment 1). Subjects showed voluntary contact with the pins followed by patterns of avoidance and risk assessment (stretch attend and stretch approach). Few subjects crossed the array of pins. The amygdala has been implicated in the perception of pain, particularly in stressful or fearful contexts. In Experiment 2, the fakir test was used to examine, concurrently, the effects of amygdala lesions on analgesiometric (frequency and duration of pin crossings) and anxiometric (risk assessment) measures. Large, bilateral, lesions of the amygdala significantly increased both the number of pin crossings and time spent on the pins without affecting the risk assessment measures. These findings suggest a possible dissociation between anxiety and pain perception with an important (nonaffective) role for the amygdala in the latter. PMID:10463635

  18. Dexamethasone acutely down-regulates genes involved in steroidogenesis in stallion testes.

    PubMed

    Ing, Nancy H; Forrest, David W; Riggs, Penny K; Loux, Shavahn; Love, Charlie C; Brinsko, Steven P; Varner, Dickson D; Welsh, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, livestock and primate species, a single dose of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone acutely lowers testosterone biosynthesis. To determine the mechanism of decreased testosterone biosynthesis, stallions were treated with 0.1mg/kg dexamethasone 12h prior to castration. Dexamethasone decreased serum concentrations of testosterone by 60% compared to saline-treated control stallions. Transcriptome analyses (microarrays, northern blots and quantitative PCR) of testes discovered that dexamethasone treatment decreased concentrations of glucocorticoid receptor alpha (NR3C1), alpha actinin 4 (ACTN4), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR), squalene epoxidase (SQLE), 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24), glutathione S-transferase A3 (GSTA3) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNAs. Dexamethasone increased concentrations of NFkB inhibitor A (NFKBIA) mRNA in testes. SQLE, DHCR24 and GSTA3 mRNAs were predominantly expressed by Leydig cells. In man and livestock, the GSTA3 protein provides a major 3-ketosteroid isomerase activity: conversion of Δ(5)-androstenedione to Δ(4)-androstenedione, the immediate precursor of testosterone. Consistent with the decrease in GSTA3 mRNA, dexamethasone decreased the 3-ketosteroid isomerase activity in testicular extracts. In conclusion, dexamethasone acutely decreased the expression of genes involved in hormone signaling (NR3C1, ACTN4 and LHCGR), cholesterol synthesis (SQLE and DHCR24) and steroidogenesis (GSTA3 and CYP19A1) along with testosterone production. This is the first report of dexamethasone down-regulating expression of the GSTA3 gene and a very late step in testosterone biosynthesis. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved may lead to new approaches to modulate androgen regulation of the physiology of humans and livestock in health and disease. PMID:25010478

  19. Ecotoxicity of xanthene dyes and a non-chlorinated bisphenol in soil.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Ellyn E; Princz, Juliska I; Robidoux, Pierre Yves; Scroggins, Rick P

    2013-02-01

    Soil eco-toxicity testing was conducted in support of Canada's Chemical Management Plan (CMP) to fill data gaps for organic chemicals known to primarily partition to soil, and of which the persistence and inherent toxicity are uncertain. Two compounds representative of specific classes of chemicals: non-chlorinated bisphenols containing an -OH group (4,4'-methylenebis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (Binox)) and xanthene dyes (2',4',5',7'-tetrabromo-4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-3',6'-dihydroxy-, disodium salt (Phloxine B), 2',4',5',7'-tetrabromofluorescein (TBF), 4',5'-dibromofluorescein (DBF), and 4,5,6,7-tetrachlorofluorescein (TCF)) were evaluated. The effect of these substances on plant growth (Elymus lanceolatus and Trifolium pratense) and soil invertebrate survival and reproduction (Folsomia candida and Eisenia andrei) were assessed using a field-collected sandy soil. Binox was persistent throughout testing (up to 63 d) with an average recovery of 77±2.9% at test end. Binox was not toxic to plants (IC50s>1076 mg kg(-1)) or E. andrei (IC50s>2651 mg kg(-1)); however, a significant reduction in F. candida adult survival and reproduction (IC50=89 (44-149) mg kg(-1)) was evident. Phloxine B was also persistent throughout testing, with an average recovery of 82±3.0% at test end. Phloxine B was significantly more toxic than Binox, with significant reductions in plant root growth (IC50s ≥ 11 mg kg(-1)) and invertebrate reproduction (IC50s ≥ 22 mg kg(-1)). DBF toxicity was not significantly different from that of Phloxine B for plant root growth (IC50s ≥ 30 mg kg(-1)), but was significantly less toxic for shoot growth (IC50s ≥ 1758 mg kg(-1)), and invertebrate adult survival (IC50s ≥ 2291 mg kg(-1)) and reproduction (IC50s ≥ 451 mg kg(-1)). A comparison between all four xanthene dyes was completed using F. candida, with the degree of toxicity in the order of Phloxine B ≥ TBF∼DBF>TCF. The results from these studies will contribute to data gaps for poorly understood

  20. Dissolved:total metals concentrations in marine acute toxicity test simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lussier, S.M.; Boothman, W.S.; Champlin, D.; Poucher, S.; Helmstetter, A.

    1995-12-31

    Use of water quality criteria expressed as dissolved metal is recommended by the US EPA, Office of Water, because ``dissolved metal more closely approximates the bioavailable fraction of metal in the water column than does total recoverable metal.`` Water quality criteria (WQC) are expressed in terms of total recoverable or acid-soluble metals concentrations; in part because few toxicity tests with aquatic organisms include measurement of dissolved metals. Therefore, if WQC are to be expressed as dissolved, complete retesting or derivation of dissolved:total (D:T) metals relationships to adjust existing criteria were required. To derive D:T ratios, simulated tests were conducted using concentrations and species similar to those used to derive original criteria. Dissolved (<0.45/{micro}) and total recoverable metals were measured to determine the partitioning relationship under these experimental conditions and convert criteria to reflect dissolved metals concentrations. Simulations were conducted with arsenic (III), cadmium, chromium (VI), lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc. In all simulations, average dissolved metals comprised 93--100% of total metals measured. Dissolved:total ratios did not significantly differ for a given metal throughout each test among test type or treatment concentration. Biological results, while insufficient to derive criteria directly, were generally consistent with results of historical biological response data. These results demonstrate that, under the conditions employed, i.e, short exposure periods (2--4 days) and low particulate load typical of these tests, metals are essentially not removed from solution onto particles. This does not imply that such partitioning is representative of conditions in natural waters, but rather that in the historical acute toxicity tests used to establish water quality criteria, metals were primarily dissolved.

  1. Ecotoxicological effects of carbofuran and oxidised multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the freshwater fish Nile tilapia: nanotubes enhance pesticide ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Campos-Garcia, Janaína; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T; Alves, Oswaldo L; Leonardo, Antônio Fernando Gervásio; Barbieri, Edison

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of carbon nanotubes with pesticides, such as carbofuran, classical contaminants (e.g., pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and dyes) and emerging contaminants, including endocrine disruptors, are critical components of the environmental risks of this important class of carbon-based nanomaterials. In this work, we studied the modulation of acute carbofuran toxicity to the freshwater fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes, termed HNO3-MWCNT. Nitric acid oxidation is a common chemical method employed for the purification, functionalisation and aqueous dispersion of carbon nanotubes. HNO3-MWCNT were not toxic to Nile tilapia at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L for exposure times of up to 96 h. After 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the LC50 values of carbofuran were 4.0, 3.2, 3.0 and 2.4 mg/mL, respectively. To evaluate the influence of carbofuran-nanotube interactions on ecotoxicity, we exposed the Nile tilapia to different concentrations of carbofuran mixed together with a non-toxic concentration of HNO3-MWCNT (1.0 mg/L). After 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, the LC50 values of carbofuran plus nanotubes were 3.7, 1.6, 0.7 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. These results demonstrate that HNO3-MWCNT potentiate the acute toxicity of carbofuran, leading to a more than five-fold increase in the LC50 values. Furthermore, the exposure of Nile tilapia to carbofuran plus nanotubes led to decreases in both oxygen consumption and swimming capacity compared to the control. These findings indicate that carbon nanotubes could act as pesticide carriers affecting fish survival, metabolism and behaviour. PMID:25450925

  2. Diagnosing Stroke in Acute Vertigo: The HINTS Family of Eye Movement Tests and the Future of the "Eye ECG".

    PubMed

    Newman-Toker, David E; Curthoys, Ian S; Halmagyi, G Michael

    2015-10-01

    Patients who present to the emergency department with symptoms of acute vertigo or dizziness are frequently misdiagnosed. Missed opportunities to promptly treat dangerous strokes can result in poor clinical outcomes. Inappropriate testing and incorrect treatments for those with benign peripheral vestibular disorders leads to patient harm and unnecessary costs. Over the past decade, novel bedside approaches to diagnose patients with the acute vestibular syndrome have been developed and refined. A battery of three bedside tests of ocular motor physiology known as "HINTS" (head impulse, nystagmus, test of skew) has been shown to identify acute strokes more accurately than even magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging (MRI-DWI) when applied in the early acute period by eye-movement specialists. Recent advances in lightweight, high-speed video-oculography (VOG) technology have made possible a future in which HINTS might be applied by nonspecialists in frontline care settings using portable VOG. Use of technology to measure eye movements (VOG-HINTS) to diagnose stroke in the acute vestibular syndrome is analogous to the use of electrocardiography (ECG) to diagnose myocardial infarction in acute chest pain. This "eye ECG" approach could transform care for patients with acute vertigo and dizziness around the world. In the United States alone, successful implementation would likely result in improved quality of emergency care for hundreds of thousands of peripheral vestibular patients and tens of thousands of stroke patients, as well as an estimated national health care savings of roughly $1 billion per year. In this article, the authors review the origins of the HINTS approach, empiric evidence and pathophysiologic principles supporting its use, and possible uses for the eye ECG in teleconsultation, teaching, and triage. PMID:26444396

  3. Diagnostic value of latex agglutination test in diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Syeda Fasiha; Patil, Asha B.; Nadagir, Shobha D.; Nandihal, Namrata; Lakshminarayana, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To know the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children below five years of age. To compare conventional culture and antigen detection methods (Latex agglutination test). Materials and Methods: 100 CSF samples of clinically suspected meningitis cases in children below 5 years of age were included. The samples were subjected to cell count, Gram stain, culture and LAT. The organisms isolated in the study were characterized according to standard procedures. Results: Of the 100 cases studied, 31 cases were diagnosed as ABM by Gram stain, culture and latex agglutination test as per WHO criteria. The hospital frequency of ABM was 1.7%. 15 (48.38) cases were culture positive. Gram stain was positive in 22(70.96) cases and LAT in 17(54.83) cases. Haemophilus influenzae was the most common causative agent of acute bacterial meningitis followed by S.pneumoniae. Case fatality rate was 45.16%. The sensitivity and specificity of LAT was 66.66% and 87.91% respectively. Conclusion: Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and early diagnosis and treatment is life saving and reduces chronic morbidity. LAT was more sensitive compared to conventional Gram stain and Culture technique in identifying the fastidious organisms like H.influenzae, S.pneumoniae and Group B Streptococcus. However, the combination of Gram stain, Culture and LAT proved to be more productive than any of the single tests alone. PMID:24339598

  4. γ-Oryzanol protects against acute cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mice testes.

    PubMed

    Spiazzi, Cristiano C; Manfredini, Vanusa; Barcellos da Silva, Fabiana E; Flores, Erico M M; Izaguirry, Aryele P; Vargas, Laura M; Soares, Melina B; Santos, Francielli W

    2013-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal that is present at low levels mainly in food and water and also in cigar smoke. The present study evaluated the testicular damage caused by acute cadmium exposure and verified the protective role of γ-oryzanol (ORY). Mice were administrated with a single dose of 2.5mg/kg of CdCl2, and then treated with ORY (50mM in canola oil, 5mL/kg). Testes were removed after 24h and tested for lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonylation, DNA breakage, ascorbic acid, cadmium and non-proteic thiols contents, and for the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and δ-aminolevulic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D). Cadmium presented a significant alteration in all parameters, except GPx and CAT activities. Therapy reduced in a slight degree cadmium concentration in testes (around 23%). ORY restored SOD and GST activities as well as TBARS production to the control levels. Furthermore, ORY partially recovered δ-ALA-D activity inhibited by cadmium. This study provides the first evidence on the therapeutic properties of ORY in protecting against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:23395783

  5. Ecotoxicity of contaminated suspended solids for filter feeders (Daphnia magna).

    PubMed

    Weltens, R; Goossens, R; Van Puymbroeck, S

    2000-10-01

    It is generally assumed that the dissolved fraction of a toxic substance in surface water is mainly responsible for toxicity to aquatic organisms. However, toxic compounds are often adsorbed or chemically bound to suspended particles in the water column, depending upon the physico-chemical conditions. In the present study potential adverse effects to filter feeding organisms by metal contaminated particles were investigated. In our hypotheses the adsorbed metals might desorb in the gastrointestinal tract-due to different physico-chemical conditions-and exert toxic effects. Clay and sand particles, algae and organic material (peat) were artificially contaminated with cadmium and zinc. The contaminated materials were resuspended in standard conditions and toxicity was measured for the water flea Daphnia magna (mortality at 48 hours). As a reference, supernatant solutions were used containing the same concentration of dissolved metal as the suspensions. It was also established that the test concentrations of solid material (250 and 500 mg/l uncontaminated particles) did not cause any mortality within 48 hours. Daphnids are filter feeders: they filtrate large amounts of surrounding water, redrawing particles as a food source. Results strongly indicate that contaminated particles threaten the health of these particle-feeding organisms. Compared to the reference severe acute toxic effects were seen and cadmium accumulation was increased when contaminated solid material was present. Results were essentially the same for the different materials used in the experiments, except for sand contaminated with cadmium. This shows that mineral as well as organic materials can contribute to the particle bound toxicity. Different results were obtained when a static set up was used instead of a flow through set up, illustrating that the route of administration is important to make particles available and thus to evaluate their toxicity. Contaminated particles clearly have toxic

  6. Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Dutka, B.

    1997-11-01

    The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents.

  7. Assessing and monitoring the ecotoxicity of pulp and paper wastewater for irrigating reed fields using the polyurethane foam unit method based on monitoring protozoal communities.

    PubMed

    Ding, Cheng; Chen, Tianming; Li, Zhaoxia; Yan, Jinlong

    2015-05-01

    Using the standardized polyurethane foam unit (PFU) method, a preliminary investigation was carried out on the bioaccumulation and the ecotoxic effects of the pulp and paper wastewater for irrigating reed fields. Static ectoxicity test had shown protozoal communities were very sensitive to variations in toxin time and effective concentration (EC) of the pulp and paper wastewater. Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H) was a more suitable indicator of the extent of water pollution than Gleason and Margalef diversity index (d), Simpson's diversity index (D), and Pielou's index (J). The regression equation between S eq and EC was S eq  = - 0.118EC + 18.554. The relatively safe concentration and maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) of the wastewater for the protozoal communities were about 20 % and 42 %, respectively. To safely use this wastewater for irrigation, more than 58 % of the toxins must be removed or diluted by further processing. Monitoring of the wastewater in representative irrigated reed fields showed that the regularity of the protozoal colonization process was similar to the static ectoxicity, indicating that the toxicity of the irrigating pulp and paper wastewater was not lethal to protozoal communities in the reed fields. This study demonstrated the applicability of the PFU method in monitoring the ecotoxic effects of pulp and paper wastewater on the level of microbial communities and may guide the supervision and control of pulp and paper wastewater irrigating within the reed fields ecological system (RFES). PMID:25772871

  8. A Miniature Bioassay for Testing the Acute Phytotoxicity of Photosystem II Herbicides on Seagrass

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Adam D.; Collier, Catherine J.; Flores, Florita; Mercurio, Phil; O’Brien, Jake; Ralph, Peter J.; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) herbicides have been detected in nearshore tropical waters such as those of the Great Barrier Reef and may add to the pressure posed by runoff containing sediments and nutrients to threatened seagrass habitats. There is a growing number of studies into the potential effects of herbicides on seagrass, generally using large experimental setups with potted plants. Here we describe the successful development of an acute 12-well plate phytotoxicity assay for the PSII herbicide Diuron using isolated Halophila ovalis leaves. Fluorescence images demonstrated Diuron affected the entire leaf surface evenly and responses were not influenced by isolating leaves from the plant. The optimum exposure duration was 24 h, by which time the inhibition of effective quantum yield of PSII (∆F/Fm’) was highest and no deterioration of photosystems was evident in control leaves. The inhibition of ∆F/Fm’ by Diuron in isolated H. ovalis leaves was identical to both potted and hydroponically grown plants (with leaves remaining attached to rhizomes), indicating similar reductions in photosynthetic activity in these acute well-plate assays. The sensitivity of the assay was not influenced by irradiance (range tested 40 to 400 μmol photons m-2 s-1). High irradiance, however, caused photo-oxidative stress in H. ovalis and this generally impacted in an additive or sub-additive way with Diuron to damage PSII. The bioassay using isolated leaves is more rapid, uses far less biological material and does not rely on specialised aquarium facilities in comparison with assays using potted plants. The development and validation of this sensitive bioassay will be useful to reliably screen and monitor the phytotoxicity of existing and emerging PSII herbicides and contribute to risk assessments and water quality guideline development in the future. PMID:25674791

  9. Four-Stage Audit Demonstrating Increased Uptake of HIV Testing in Acute Neurology Admissions Using Staged Practical Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sokhi, Dilraj Singh; Oxenham, Chantal; Coates, Rebecca; Forbes, Mhairi; Gupta, Nadi K.; Blackburn, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background UK National Guidelines (UKNG) advise HIV testing in clinically indicated neurological presentations. We audited the impact of our practical strategies to increase uptake of HIV testing at a regional acute neurology admissions unit. Methods We audited HIV testing in 4 periods over 2 years: before we designed a UKNG-based “HIV testing in Neurology” protocol (“pre-protocol”); after dissemination of the protocol alone (“post-protocol”); post-protocol dissemination combined with both a tailored departmental admissions clerking proforma to prompt for HIV testing & consenting, and regular focussed tutorials to doctors on HIV testing in neurological patients (“post-proforma”); and finally one year after the post-proforma period (“+1 year”). We also looked at the total number of HIV tests sent from the unit during the two-year period. We assessed significance using Fisher’s exact test. Results 47.8% of all acute neurology non-stroke admissions were eligible for HIV testing during all the audit periods. Testing rates were as follows: pre-protocol 21.9%; post-protocol 36.6%; post-proforma 83.3%; and at +1 year 65.4% (p<0.05 for both post-protocol and +1 year when compared to pre-protocol). Documentation of consent for HIV testing improved from 25% to 67.6% with the HIV-tailored clerking proforma. The total number of HIV tests requested from the unit doubled in the post-proforma period compared to pre-protocol (p<0.05). Conclusion In conclusion: the combination of an HIV testing protocol, a tailored departmental clerking proforma and regular focussed teaching to doctors on indications for HIV testing led to a sustained increase in HIV testing uptake in our regional acute neurology admissions unit. PMID:26335351

  10. Echocardiography, nuclear scintigraphy, and stress testing in the emergency department evaluation of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mather, P J; Shah, R

    2001-05-01

    open after review of all these analytical modalities is the duration of time these test results remain valid; when does an individual patient need to be reevaluated as to their specific pretest probability? The answer to this question lies in the presenting clinical scenario. If the patient presents with a similar inciting trigger for his or her symptoms, and the cardiac risk profile has not changed appreciably, then the previous study (whether a provocative stress test or even a cardiac catheterization) probably can be reliably counted. If the patient's risk profile has changed or the symptoms are new or more intense, the physician is compelled to pursue this encounter as a new, acute event. This can be true even in the setting of a previous cardiac catheterization that showed nonobstructive coronary disease, because plaque rupture can be acute and unpredictable. Ultimately, optimal care calls for each institution to develop a specific approach, in conjunction with their consultative cardiologist or critical care specialist, to enhance patient care, safety, and diagnostic outcome, while maintaining cost efficiency. PMID:11373982

  11. Multilaboratory evaluation of 15 bioassays for (eco)toxicity screening and hazard ranking of engineered nanomaterials: FP7 project NANOVALID.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Olesja M; Heinlaan, Margit; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Ivask, Angela; Kurvet, Imbi; Joonas, Elise; Jemec, Anita; Mannerström, Marika; Heinonen, Tuula; Rekulapelly, Rohit; Singh, Shashi; Zou, Jing; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Drobne, Damjana; Kahru, Anne

    2016-11-01

    Within EU FP7 project NANOVALID, the (eco)toxicity of 7 well-characterized engineered nanomaterials (NMs) was evaluated by 15 bioassays in 4 laboratories. The highest tested nominal concentration of NMs was 100 mg/l. The panel of the bioassays yielded the following toxicity order: Ag > ZnO > CuO > TiO2 > MWCNTs > SiO2 > Au. Ag, ZnO and CuO proved very toxic in the majority of assays, assumingly due to dissolution. The latter was supported by the parallel analysis of the toxicity of respective soluble metal salts. The most sensitive tests/species were Daphnia magna (towards Ag NMs, 24-h EC50 = 0.003 mg Ag/l), algae Raphidocelis subcapitata (ZnO and CuO, 72-h EC50 = 0.14 mg Zn/l and 0.7 mg Cu/l, respectively) and murine fibroblasts BALB/3T3 (CuO, 48-h EC50 = 0.7 mg Cu/l). MWCNTs showed toxicity only towards rat alveolar macrophages (EC50 = 15.3 mg/l) assumingly due to high aspect ratio and TiO2 towards R. subcapitata (EC50 = 6.8 mg Ti/l) due to agglomeration of TiO2 and entrapment of algal cells. Finally, we constructed a decision tree to select the bioassays for hazard ranking of NMs. For NM testing, we recommend a multitrophic suite of 4 in vitro (eco)toxicity assays: 48-h D. magna immobilization (OECD202), 72-h R. subcapitata growth inhibition (OECD201), 30-min Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition (ISO2010) and 48-h murine fibroblast BALB/3T3 neutral red uptake in vitro (OECD129) representing crustaceans, algae, bacteria and mammalian cells, respectively. Notably, our results showed that these assays, standardized for toxicity evaluation of "regular" chemicals, proved efficient also for shortlisting of hazardous NMs. Additional assays are recommended for immunotoxicity evaluation of high aspect ratio NMs (such as MWCNTs). PMID:27259032

  12. Risk stratification by treadmill testing in acute myocardial infarction following thrombolytic therapy.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Debnath, N B; Roy, S; Banerjee, A; Maity, A K

    1998-02-01

    Survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) should have risk stratification for assessment of their future risk of cardiovascular events. One of the important means of risk stratification is by treadmill test (TMT). Most of the algorithms for assessment were done in the prethrombolytic era. But in the post-thrombolytic era, risk stratification by TMT should be properly evaluated. Fifty males with confirmed AMI with age ranging from 38-62 years (mean 48 years) were tested with a symptom limited (Modified Bruce Protocol) TMT. The patients were followed up for a minimum of 6 months (range 6-10 months). Out of 50 patients, 38 reported for follow up. Among them 22 (Group A) had cardiac events and 16 (Group B) had no events. Among the patients (Group A), 6 had unstable angina, 7 had reinfarction, 2 had sudden death, 4 had coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and 3 had angioplasty. Comparison between the two groups, A and B in TMT parameters like ST segment depression > 2.5 mm (12 vs 9), no. of leads where ST depression occurred (66 vs 48) during exercise, mean work capacity (8.1 vs 7.9 mets), mean systolic blood pressure response were all statistically insignificant. Though TMT was believed to be a good prognostic indicator to assess further cardiac events after AMI, its efficacy in risk stratification after thrombolysis is yet to be determined. This study does not show its worth in post MI risk assessment. PMID:11273111

  13. Two 6-minute Walk Tests Are Required During Hospitalisation for Acute Exacerbation of COPD.

    PubMed

    Osadnik, Christian R; Borges, Rodrigo C; McDonald, Christine F; Carvalho, Celso R F; Holland, Anne E

    2016-06-01

    The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is recommended to be performed twice to accurately assess exercise performance in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to the presence of a learning effect. It is unknown whether a learning effect exists when the 6MWT is performed during hospitalisation for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). This study investigated whether repeat 6MWTs are necessary when conducted in inpatients with AECOPD. Pooled analysis was undertaken of data from two studies (Australia and Brazil) involving 46 participants (25 males, mean age 67.2 years, FEV1 43% predicted) admitted with AECOPD. Two 6MWTs, separated by ≥20 minutes, were performed on the day of discharge. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD; primary outcome), perceived dyspnoea (Borg scale), heart rate and oxyhaemoglobin saturation were recorded. 6MWD data from tests one (T1) and two (T2) were analysed via visual inspection of Bland-Altman plots. Factors associated with test improvement or decline were explored. Mean 6MWD difference between T1 and T2 was 6.2 m, however limits of agreement were wide (-92.2 m to 104.5 m). 32 (70%) participants improved (by any distance) from T1 to T2 by a mean (± standard deviation) of 32 m ± 28 m. Of these, 14 (30%) improved by a distance > 30 m. Fourteen (30%) participants recorded poorer 6MWD at T2 by a mean of 52 m ± 36 m. No factors were able to identify participants who improved or declined upon repeat testing. When performed in patients admitted to hospital with AECOPD, the 6MWT needs to be conducted twice in order to better estimate 6MWD. PMID:26643192

  14. Evaluation of reduced sediment volume procedures for acute toxicity tests using the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jacob K; Kennedy, Alan J; Farrar, J Daniel; Mount, David R; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2010-12-01

    The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost because of sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs associated with organism recovery at the conclusion of the exposure. The objective of the current study was to evaluate reduced sediment volume versions of the standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 10-d acute Leptocheirus plumulosus method that uses a beaker size of 1,000 ml and 20 organisms. The test design used evaluated the effects of beaker size (250 and 100 ml) and associated sediment volume (75 and 30 ml, respectively) as well as organism loading density (10 and 20 organisms) on test endpoint responsiveness relative to the standard 10-d test method. These comparisons were completed with three different types of contaminated sediments: a field-collected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment, a lead-spiked control sediment, and a control sediment spiked with mineral oil. Assessment criteria included test endpoint sensitivity, endpoint consistency, statistical power, water quality, and logistical assessments. Results indicate that the current U.S. EPA method is preferable to the reduced sediment volume methods we assessed, but that a 250-ml beaker/10 organism experimental design is of comparable utility and may be advantageous when reduced sediment volumes are desirable because of high contaminant (spiking studies) or sediment disposal costs. In addition, the results of the current study provide toxicity reference values for PAHs, lead, and an oil surrogate for petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:20890914

  15. Validity of acute and chronic tactile sensory testing after spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Detloff, Megan Ryan; Clark, Leslie M.; Hutchinson, Karen J.; Kloos, Anne D.; Fisher, Lesley C.; Basso, D. Michele

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) impairs sensory systems causing allodynia. Measuring the development of allodynia in rodent models of SCI is challenging due to spinal shock and marked motor impairments. Assessment of SCI-induced allodynia is not standardized across labs, making interpretation of results difficult. Therefore, we validated sensory threshold assessment after SCI and developed a novel assessment of allodynia prior to motor recovery in a rat SCI model. One hundred fifty-six Sprague–Dawley rats received T8 laminectomy or mild to moderate SCI using the OSU SCI device (0.3 mm to 1.3mm cord displacement). To determine tactile thresholds, von Frey hairs (VFH) were applied in Up–Down or ascending order to the dorsal or plantar hindpaw. The most efficient and valid procedures that maintain high sensitivity and specificity were identified. Ten Up–Down VFH applications yielded stable thresholds; reducing the risk of threshold decay and unnecessary exposure to painful stimuli. Importantly, distraction of SCI-rats with food revealed differential decay of thresholds than when distraction is not provided. The new test uses dorsal VFH stimulation and is independent of trunk or hindlimb control. Acute dorsal VFH thresholds collected before recovery of hindlimb weight support accurately predicted plantar VFH thresholds measured at late timepoints (χ2=8.479; p<0.05). Thus, standardized testing early after SCI using the dorsal VFH test or later using 10 stimuli in the Up–Down test produces valid measures of tactile sensation across many SCI severities. Early detection of allodynia in experimental SCI will allow identification of mechanisms responsible for pain development and determine targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:20643128

  16. Validity of acute and chronic tactile sensory testing after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Detloff, Megan Ryan; Clark, Leslie M; Hutchinson, Karen J; Kloos, Anne D; Fisher, Lesley C; Basso, D Michele

    2010-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) impairs sensory systems causing allodynia. Measuring the development of allodynia in rodent models of SCI is challenging due to spinal shock and marked motor impairments. Assessment of SCI-induced allodynia is not standardized across labs, making interpretation of results difficult. Therefore, we validated sensory threshold assessment after SCI and developed a novel assessment of allodynia prior to motor recovery in a rat SCI model. One hundred fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats received T8 laminectomy or mild to moderate SCI using the OSU SCI device (0.3 mm to 1.3 mm cord displacement). To determine tactile thresholds, von Frey hairs (VFH) were applied in Up-Down or ascending order to the dorsal or plantar hindpaw. The most efficient and valid procedures that maintain high sensitivity and specificity were identified. Ten Up-Down VFH applications yielded stable thresholds; reducing the risk of threshold decay and unnecessary exposure to painful stimuli. Importantly, distraction of SCI-rats with food revealed differential decay of thresholds than when distraction is not provided. The new test uses dorsal VFH stimulation and is independent of trunk or hindlimb control. Acute dorsal VFH thresholds collected before recovery of hindlimb weight support accurately predicted plantar VFH thresholds measured at late timepoints (chi(2)=8.479; p<0.05). Thus, standardized testing early after SCI using the dorsal VFH test or later using 10 stimuli in the Up-Down test produces valid measures of tactile sensation across many SCI severities. Early detection of allodynia in experimental SCI will allow identification of mechanisms responsible for pain development and determine targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:20643128

  17. Screening for Wilson Disease in Acute Liver Failure: A Comparison of Currently Available Diagnostic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Korman, Jessica D.; Volenberg, Irene; Balko, Jody; Webster, Joe; Schiodt, Frank V.; Squires, Robert H.; Lee, William M.; Schilsky, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) due to Wilson disease (WD) is invariably fatal without emergency liver transplantation. Therefore, rapid diagnosis of WD should aid prompt transplant listing. To identify the best method for diagnosis of ALF due to WD (ALF-WD), data and serum were collected from 140 ALF patients (16 with WD), 29 with other chronic liver diseases and 17 with treated chronic WD. Ceruloplasmin (Cp) was measured by both oxidase activity and nephelometry and serum copper levels by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In patients with ALF, a serum Cp <20 mg/dL by the oxidase method provided a diagnostic sensitivity of 21% and specificity of 84% while, by nephelometry, a sensitivity of 56% and specificity of 63%. Serum copper levels exceeded 200 g/dL in all ALF-WD patients measured (13/16), but were also elevated in non-WD ALF. An alkaline phosphatase (AP) to total bilirubin (TB) ratio <4 yielded a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 96%, and a likelihood ratio of 23 for diagnosing fulminant WD. In addition, an AST:ALT ratio > 2.2 yielded a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 86%, and a likelihood ratio of 7 for diagnosing fulminant WD. Combining the tests provided a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. In conclusion, conventional WD testing utilizing serum ceruloplasmin and/or serum copper levels are less sensitive and specific in identifying patients with ALF-WD than other available tests. More readily available laboratory tests including alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and serum aminotransferases by contrast provides the most rapid and accurate method for diagnosis of ALF due to WD. PMID:18798336

  18. 77 FR 43089 - Evaluation of an Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Testing: Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... (NICEATM), in collaboration with the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative... validation status of an up-and-down procedure (UDP) for acute dermal systemic toxicity testing. NICEATM... Panel and made available to the public. The Panel will meet in public session to review the...

  19. Evaluation of Four Commercial Multiplex Molecular Tests for the Diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Salez, Nicolas; Vabret, Astrid; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Andreoletti, Laurent; Carrat, Fabrice; Renois, Fanny; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs) are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Documentation of respiratory specimens can help for an appropriate clinical management with a significant effect on the disease progress in patient, the antimicrobial therapy used and the risk of secondary spread of infection. Here, we compared the performances of four commercial multiplex kits used in French University Hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratories for the detection of ARI pathogens (i.e., the xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel Fast, RespiFinder SMART 22, CLART PneumoVir and Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory Pathogen 33 kits). We used a standardised nucleic acids extraction protocol and a comprehensive comparative approach that mixed reference to well established real-time PCR detection techniques and analysis of convergent positive results. We tested 166 respiratory clinical samples and identified a global high degree of correlation for at least three of the techniques (xTAG, RespiFinder and FTD33). For these techniques, the highest Youden’s index (YI), positive predictive (PPV) and specificity (Sp) values were observed for Core tests (e.g., influenza A [YI:0.86–1.00; PPV:78.95–100.00; Sp:97.32–100.00] & B [YI:0.44–1.00; PPV:100.00; Sp:100.00], hRSV [YI:0.50–0.99; PPV:85.71–100.00; Sp:99.38–100.00], hMPV [YI:0.71–1.00; PPV:83.33–100.00; Sp:99.37–100.00], EV/hRV [YI:0.62–0.82; PPV:93.33–100.00; Sp:94.48–100.00], AdV [YI:1.00; PPV:100.00; Sp:100.00] and hBoV [YI:0.20–0.80; PPV:57.14–100.00; Sp:98.14–100.00]). The present study completed an overview of the multiplex techniques available for the diagnosis of acute respiratory infections. PMID:26107509

  20. Acute heat stress induces differential gene expressions in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C) for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group). The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (p<0.05) during the heat stress. The numbers of apoptotic cells increased 2 h after the acute heat stress (79 ± 7 vs. 322 ± 192, control vs. heat stress; p<0.05), which was earlier than the time of increase in layer-type roosters. Based on a chicken 44 K oligo microarray, 163 genes were found to be expressed significantly different in the testes of the heat-stressed chickens from those of the controls, including genes involved in the response to stimulus, protein metabolism, signal transduction, cell adhesion, transcription, and apoptosis. The mRNA expressions of upregulated genes, including HSP25, HSP90AA1, HSPA2, and LPAR2, and of downregulated genes, including CDH5, CTNNA3, EHF, CIRBP, SLA, and NTF3, were confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, numerous transcripts in the testes exhibited distinct expressions between the heat-stressed broiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration. PMID:25932638

  1. Acute response test to adaptive servo-ventilation, a possible modality to assessing the reversibility of pulmonary vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Hieda, Michinari; Seguchi, Osamu; Mutara, Yoshihiro; Sunami, Haruki; Sato, Takuma; Yanase, Masanobu; Hiroki, Hata; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Nakatani, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Since pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left-sided heart failure (HF) with elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is contraindication for heart transplantation (HTx), correct evaluation of reversibility in PVR is essential for adequate therapeutic decision-making. However, guidelines or recommended protocols for pharmacological testing to evaluate the reversibility of PVR have not been established yet. In this report, we presented a 34-year-old male with advanced HF complicated by severe PH with high PVR [5.93 Wood units (WU)] who was deemed eligible for HTx. To evaluate his HTx candidacy, oxygen inhalation test was applied during right heart catheterization (RHC) and PVR was drastically decreased to 2.29 WU. At that time, acute response test to adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) was also applied and use of ASV temporarily but substantially decreased PVR to 2.15 WU. From the results of both oxygen inhalation test and acute response test to ASV, reversibility of PVR in this patient was confirmed, and the patient was approved as HTx candidate and received left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation for bridge to transplant. After LVAD implantation, PVR substantially and persistently decreased to 2.4 WU. These findings indicate that acute response test to ASV during RHC may be a possible modality to evaluate the reversibility of PVR in HF patients with PH complicated by elevated PVR. PMID:25809453

  2. Potential impacts of water injection dredging on water quality and ecotoxicity in Limehouse Basin, River Thames, SE England, UK.

    PubMed

    Spencer, K L; Dewhurst, R E; Penna, P

    2006-04-01

    The use of water injection dredging (WID) is increasing in the UK's inland waterways and marinas. Jets of water are injected under low pressure directly into bottom sediment creating a turbulent water-sediment mixture that flows under the influence of gravity. Many of these sediments are highly contaminated and little is known of the effects of contaminant release on water quality or the risk to biota living in both the sediment and the water column. Sediment cores were collected from Limehouse Basin, a proposed WID site in SE England and current sediment toxicity was assessed using a number of techniques. Comparison of metal data to US sediment quality guidelines indicated intermediate levels of toxicity while, calculation of acid volatile sulphide to simultaneously extracted metal ratios underestimated the potential toxicity to sediment dwelling organisms. In contrast, porewater ammonia concentrations were in excess of all published ecotoxicological guidelines and indicate serious risk to biota. Re-suspension experiments were used to mimic the effects of WID on overlying water quality and ecotoxicity tests were carried out on elutriates using Daphnia magna to examine the impacts on biota. Concentrations of a range of metals in the elutriates predict that adverse biological effects would be observed during WID, however only 10% of the elutriate samples caused an adverse effect on Daphnia. Limehouse Basin is a complex aquatic environment receiving predominantly fresh waters while the sediments have high porewater chloride concentrations reminiscent of previous tidal inputs to the basin, making the choice of test organism problematic. PMID:16271380

  3. An integrated study on antimicrobial activity and ecotoxicity of quantum dots and quantum dots coated with the antimicrobial peptide indolicidin.

    PubMed

    Galdiero, Emilia; Siciliano, Antonietta; Maselli, Valeria; Gesuele, Renato; Guida, Marco; Fulgione, Domenico; Galdiero, Stefania; Lombardi, Lucia; Falanga, Annarita

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and the ecotoxicity of quantum dots (QDs) alone and coated with indolicidin. To meet this objective, we tested the level of antimicrobial activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and we designed an ecotoxicological battery of test systems and indicators able to detect different effects using a variety of end points. The antibacterial activity was analyzed against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 1025), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 10031), and the results showed an improved germicidal action of QDs-Ind. Toxicity studies on Daphnia magna indicated a decrease in toxicity for QDs-Ind compared to QDs alone, lack of bioluminescence inhibition on Vibrio fisheri, and no mutations in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100. The comet assay and oxidative stress experiments performed on D. magna showed a genotoxic and an oxidative damage with a dose-response trend. Indolicidin retained its activity when bound to QDs. We observed an enhanced activity for QDs-Ind. The presence of indolicidin on the surface of QDs was able to decrease its QDs toxicity. PMID:27616887

  4. An integrated study on antimicrobial activity and ecotoxicity of quantum dots and quantum dots coated with the antimicrobial peptide indolicidin

    PubMed Central

    Galdiero, Emilia; Siciliano, Antonietta; Maselli, Valeria; Gesuele, Renato; Guida, Marco; Fulgione, Domenico; Galdiero, Stefania; Lombardi, Lucia; Falanga, Annarita

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and the ecotoxicity of quantum dots (QDs) alone and coated with indolicidin. To meet this objective, we tested the level of antimicrobial activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and we designed an ecotoxicological battery of test systems and indicators able to detect different effects using a variety of end points. The antibacterial activity was analyzed against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 1025), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 10031), and the results showed an improved germicidal action of QDs-Ind. Toxicity studies on Daphnia magna indicated a decrease in toxicity for QDs-Ind compared to QDs alone, lack of bioluminescence inhibition on Vibrio fisheri, and no mutations in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100. The comet assay and oxidative stress experiments performed on D. magna showed a genotoxic and an oxidative damage with a dose–response trend. Indolicidin retained its activity when bound to QDs. We observed an enhanced activity for QDs-Ind. The presence of indolicidin on the surface of QDs was able to decrease its QDs toxicity. PMID:27616887

  5. Artemia salina as test organism for assessment of acute toxicity of leachate water from landfills.

    PubMed

    Svensson, B M; Mathiasson, L; Mårtensson, L; Bergström, S

    2005-03-01

    Artemia salina has, for the first time, been used as test organism for acute toxicity of leachate water from three landfills (the municipal landfills at Kristianstad, Sweden and Siauliai, Lithuania, and an industrial landfill at Stena fragmenting AB, Halmstad, as well as for leachate from Kristianstad treated in different ways in a pilot plan). Artemia can tolerate the high concentrations of chloride ions found in such waters. Large differences in toxicities were found, the leachate from Siauliai being the most toxic one. To increase the selectivity in the measurements, a fractionation was done by using ion exchange to separate ammonium/ammonia and metal ions from the leachate, and activated carbon adsorbents for organic pollutants. The influence of some metals and phenol compounds on the toxicity was investigated separately. It was found that most of the toxicity emanated from the ammonium/ammonia components in the leachate. However, there was also a significant contribution n from organic pollutants, other than phenol compounds, since separate experiments had in this latter case indicated negligible impact. The concentrations of metals were at a level, shown by separate experiments, where only small contribution to the toxicity could be expected. PMID:15869192

  6. ACOUSTICALLY ACTIVE INJECTION CATHETER GUIDED BY ULTRASOUND: NAVIGATION TESTS IN ACUTELY ISCHEMIC PORCINE HEARTS

    PubMed Central

    Belohlavek, Marek; Katayama, Minako; Zarbatany, David; Fortuin, F. David; Fatemi, Mostafa; Nenadic, Ivan Z.; McMahon, Eileen M.

    2014-01-01

    Catheters are increasingly used therapeutically and investigatively. With complex usage comes a need for more accurate intracardiac localization than traditional guidance can provide. An injection catheter navigated by ultrasound was designed and then tested in an open-chest model of acute ischemia in eight pigs. The catheter is made “acoustically active” by a piezoelectric crystal near its tip, electronically controlled, vibrating in the acoustic frequency range, and uniquely identifiable using pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler. Another “target” crystal was sutured to the epicardium within the ischemic region. Sonomicrometry was used to measure distances between the two crystals and then compared to measurements from 2D echocardiographic images. Complete data were obtained from 7 pigs, and the correlation between sonomicrometry and ultrasound measurements was excellent (p < 0.0001, ρ = 0.9820), as was the intraclass correlation coefficient (0.96) between 2 observers. These initial experimental results suggest high accuracy of ultrasound navigation of the acoustically active catheter prototype located inside the beating left ventricle. PMID:24785441

  7. In vitro cytotoxicity testing of 30 reference chemicals to predict acute human and animal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Barile, F.A.; Arjun, S.; Borges, L. )

    1991-03-11

    This study was conducted in cooperation with the Scandinavian Society of Cell Toxicology, as part of the Multicenter Evaluation for In Vitro Cytotoxicity (MEIC), and was designed to develop an in vitro model for predicting acute human and animal toxicity. The technique relies on the ability of cultured transformed rat lung epithelial cells (L2) to incorporate radiolabled amino acids into newly synthesized proteins in the absence or presence of increasing doses of the test chemical, during a 24-hr incubation. IC50 values were extrapolated from the dose-response curves after linear regression analysis. Human toxic blood concentrations estimated from rodent LD50 values suggest that our experimental IC50's are in close correlation with the former. Validation of the data by the MEIC committee shows that our IC50 values predicted human lethal dosage as efficient as rodent LD50's. It is anticipated that this and related procedures may supplement or replace currently used animal protocols for predicting human toxicity.

  8. A biology-based dynamic approach for the reconciliation of acute and chronic toxicity tests: application to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Zaldívar, José-Manuel; Baraibar, Joaquín

    2011-03-01

    There is the need to integrate existing toxicity data in a coherent framework for extending their domain of applicability as well as their extrapolation potential. This integration would also reduce time and cost-consuming aspects of these tests and reduce animal usage. In this work, based on data extracted from literature, we have assessed the advantages that a dynamic biology-toxicant fate coupled model for Daphnia magna could provide when assessing toxicity data, in particular, the possibility to obtain from short-term (acute) toxicity test long-term (chronic) toxicity values taking into account the inherent variability of D. magna populations and the multiple sources of data. The results show that this approach overcomes some of the limitations of existing toxicity tests and that the prediction errors are considerably reduced when compared with the factor from 2 to 5 obtained using acute-to-chronic ratios. PMID:21168184

  9. An experimental test of the capture-restraint protocol for estimating the acute stress response.

    PubMed

    Pakkala, Jesse J; Norris, D Ryan; Newman, Amy E M

    2013-01-01

    Stress-induced increases in glucocorticoids (GCs) modulate behavior and are key in directing energy reserves. The capture-restraint protocol was developed to experimentally stimulate and quantify the magnitude of the acute stress response by comparing baseline GC levels with those collected after restraining a subject for a period of time, typically 30 min. This protocol has been used extensively in the field and lab, yet few studies have investigated whether it parallels hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation under natural acute stressors. We examined the hypothesis that acute stress from the capture-restraint protocol accurately mimics the adrenocortical response induced by a natural acute stressor. Using wild-caught rock pigeons Columba livia in a repeated-measures design, we compared plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations at baseline, after exposure to acute capture-restraint (30 min in a cloth bag), after tethering in a harness (30 min), and after a real but nonlethal attack by a predatory raptor. As found in previous studies, the capture-restraint treatment significantly increased CORT levels of pigeons compared with baseline. However, we also found that when pigeons were exposed to an attack by a raptor, their CORT levels were more than twice as high compared with the capture-restraint treatment. Our results provide evidence that an authentic acute stressor can activate the HPA axis to a greater extent than the capture-restraint protocol and also suggest that real predation attempts can have a significant effect on acute stress levels of wild birds. PMID:23434787

  10. Investigation on the eco-toxicity of lake sediments with the addition of drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-08-01

    Drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) have a potential to realize eutrophication control objectives by reducing the internal phosphorus (P) load of lake sediments. Information regarding the ecological risk of dewatered WTR reuse in aquatic environments is generally lacking, however. In this study, we analyzed the eco-toxicity of leachates from sediments with or without dewatered WTRs toward algae Chlorella vulgaris via algal growth inhibition testing with algal cell density, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase activity, and subcellular structure indices. The results suggested that leachates from sediments unanimously inhibited algal growth, with or without the addition of different WTR doses (10% or 50% of the sediment in dry weight) at different pH values (8-9), as well as from sediments treated for different durations (10 or 180days). The inhibition was primarily the result of P deficiency in the leachates owing to WTR P adsorption, however, our results suggest that the dewatered WTRs were considered as a favorable potential material for internal P loading control in lake restoration projects, as it shows acceptably low risk toward aquatic plants. PMID:27521931

  11. A Spectral-SAR Model for the Anionic-Cationic Interaction in Ionic Liquids: Application to Vibrio fischeri Ecotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lacrămă, Ana-Maria; Putz, Mihai V.; Ostafe, Vasile

    2007-01-01

    Within the recently launched the spectral-structure activity relationship (S-SAR) analysis, the vectorial anionic-cationic model of a generic ionic liquid is proposed, along with the associated algebraic correlation factor in terms of the measured and predicted activity norms. The reliability of the present scheme is tested by assessing the Hansch factors, i.e. lipophylicity, polarizability and total energy, to predict the ecotoxicity endpoints of wide types of ionic liquids with ammonium, pyridinium, phosphonium, choline and imidazolium cations on the aquatic bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The results, while confirming the cationic dominant influence when only lipophylicity is considered, demonstrate that the anionic effect dominates all other more specific interactions. It was also proved that the S-SAR vectorial model predicts considerably higher activity for the ionic liquids than for its anionic and cationic subsystems separately, in all considered cases. Moreover, through applying the least norm-correlation path principle, the complete toxicological hierarchies are presented, unfolding the ecological rules of combined cationic and anionic influences in ionic liquid toxicity.

  12. Acute Pulmonary Vasodilator Testing With Inhaled Treprostinil in Children With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Takatsuki, Shinichi; Parker, Donna K.; Doran, Aimee K.; Friesen, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Acute pulmonary vasodilator testing (AVT) is essential to determining the initial therapy for children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This study aimed to report the initial experience with inhaled treprostinil used for AVT in children with PAH and to evaluate the hemodynamic change after inhaled treprostinil compared with inhaled nitric oxide. This prospective cohort study was designed for 13 children who underwent AVT with inhaled treprostinil or oxygen plus inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) during catheterization. Inhaled treprostinil was delivered during cardiac catheterization by adapting the Optineb ultrasonic nebulizer via either a flow-inflating bag or the manual mode of the anesthesia system. The median age of the patients was 10 years (range 4–17 years). The etiologies of PAH included idiopathic PAH and associated PAH. All the patients tolerated inhaled treprostinil without marked clinical worsening and received six or nine breaths (36 or 54 µg) of treprostinil. The median of the total treprostinil doses was 1.53 µg/kg (range 0.71–2.89 µg/kg). Inhaled treprostinil was administrated via an endotracheal tube (n = 8), anesthesia mask (n = 3), or laryngeal mask airway (n = 2). Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and inhaled treprostinil significantly decreased the mean pulmonary artery pressure and the pulmonary vascular resistance index compared with baseline. Three adverse events were reported after inhaled treprostinil, including cough and mild to moderate hypotension with higher doses. All adverse events resolved without any intervention. This study report is the first to describe the use of inhaled treprostinil for AVT in children with PAH. In this small pediatric cohort, inhaled treprostinil was effectively delivered and well tolerated and may be useful for AVT. PMID:23184020

  13. Aquatic Animal Models – Not Just for Ecotox Anymore

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of internationally harmonized toxicity test guidelines employing aquatic animal models have been established for regulatory use. For fish alone, there are over a dozen internationally harmonized toxicity test guidelines that have been, or are being, validated. To dat...

  14. Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris).

    PubMed

    Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mazzia, Christophe; Auffan, Mélanie; Foucault, Yann; Austruy, Annabelle; Dumat, Camille

    2013-08-01

    Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) collected from a lead recycling facility on two earthworm species belonging to different ecological types and thus likely to have contrasted behavioural responses (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris). The combination of behavioural factors measurements (cast production and biomass) and physico-chemical parameters such as metal absorption, bioaccumulation by earthworms and their localization in invertebrate tissues provided a valuable indication of pollutant bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Soil characteristics influenced ecotoxicity and metal uptake by earthworms, as well as their soil bioturbation. PMID:23688736

  15. Evaluation of biological methods for a future methodological implementation of the Hazard criterion H14 'ecotoxic' in the European waste list (2000/532/EC).

    PubMed

    Moser, Heidrun; Roembke, Joerg; Donnevert, Gerhild; Becker, Roland

    2011-02-01

    The ecotoxicological characterization of waste is part of its assessment as hazardous or non-hazardous according to the European Waste List. For this classification 15 hazard criteria are derived from the Council Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste. Some of the hazard criteria are based on the content of dangerous substances. The criterion H14 'ecotoxic' lacks of an assessment and testing strategy and no specific threshold values have been defined so far. Based on the recommendations of CEN guideline 14735 (2005), an international round robin test (ring test) was organized by the German Federal Environment Agency in order to define suitable test methods for the biological assessment of waste and waste eluates. A basic test battery, consisting of three aquatic and three terrestrial tests, was compiled. In addition, data were submitted for ten additional tests (five aquatic (including a genotoxicity test) and five terrestrial ones). The tests were performed with three representative waste types: an ash from an incineration plant, a soil containing high concentrations of organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and a preserved wood waste. The results of this ring test confirm that a combination of a battery of biological tests and chemical residual analysis is needed for an ecotoxicological characterization of wastes. With small modifications the basic test battery is considered to be well suitable for the hazard and risk assessment of wastes and waste eluates. All results and documents are accessible via a web-based data bank application. PMID:20430803

  16. The role of experiential avoidance in acute pain tolerance: a laboratory test.

    PubMed

    Feldner, Matthew T; Hekmat, Hamid; Zvolensky, Michael J; Vowles, Kevin E; Secrist, Zachary; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2006-06-01

    The present investigation examined the role of experiential avoidance in terms of acute pain tolerance and subsequent recovery. Seventy nonclinical participants completed the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire and underwent a well-established cold pressor task. Results indicated that individuals reporting higher levels of experiential avoidance had lower pain endurance and tolerance and recovered more slowly from this particular type of aversive event. Consistent with theoretical prediction, these findings suggest that experiential avoidance may play a role in tolerance of acute pain. PMID:15882839

  17. Ciprofloxacin-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis mimicking bullous drug eruption confirmed by a positive patch test.

    PubMed

    Hausermann, P; Scherer, K; Weber, M; Bircher, A J

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of an 80-year-old woman presenting with ciprofloxacin-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) confirmed by a positive patch test. Cutaneous morphology, course and histological findings were consistent with a definite diagnosis according to the AGEP validation score of the EuroSCAR study group. We point to the rarity of quinolone-induced AGEP and discuss immunological mechanisms, the value of in vivo and in vitro tests as well as the main differential diagnosis. Furthermore, we highlight in this particular case the challenging differentiation from bullous drug eruption. PMID:16205075

  18. Environmental chemistry, ecotoxicity, and fate of lambda-cyhalothrin.

    PubMed

    He, Li-Ming; Troiano, John; Wang, Albert; Goh, Kean

    2008-01-01

    Lambda-cyhalothrin is a pyrethroid insecticide used for controlling pest insects in agriculture, public health, and in construction and households. Lambda-cyhalothrin is characterized by low vapor pressure and a low Henry's law constant but by a high octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) and high water-solid-organic carbon partition coefficient (K(oc)) values. Lambda-cyhalothrin is quite stable in water at pH < 8, whereas it hydrolyzes to form HCN and aldehyde under alkaline conditions. Although lambda-cyhalothrin is relatively photostable under natural irradiation, with a half-life > 3 wk, its photolysis process is fast under UV irradiation, with a half-life < 10 min. The fate of lambda-cyhalothrin in aquatic ecosystems depends on the nature of system components such as suspended solids (mineral and organic particulates) and aquatic organisms (algae, macrophytes, or aquatic animals). Lambda-cyhalothrin residues dissolved in water decrease rapidly if suspended solids and/or aquatic organisms are present because lambda-cyhalothrin molecules are strongly adsorbed by particulates and plants. Adsorbed lambda-cyhalothrin molecules show decreased degradation rates because they are less accessible to breakdown than free molecules in the water column. On the other hand, lambda-cyhalothrin adsorbed to suspended solids or bottom sediments may provide a mechanism to mitigate its acute toxicity to aquatic organisms by reducing their short-term bioavailability in the water column. The widespread use of lambda-cyhalothrin has resulted in residues in sediment, which have been found to be toxic to aquatic organisms including fish and amphipods. Mitigation measures have been used to reduce the adverse impact of lambda-cyhalothrin contributed from agricultural or urban runoff. Mitigation may be achieved by reducing the quantity of runoff and suspended solid content in runoff through wetlands, detention ponds, or vegetated ditches. PMID:18418954

  19. Toxicological assessment of enzyme-treated asparagus extract in rat acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies and genotoxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Ono, Tomoko; Sato, Atsuya; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    The safety of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) developed as a novel anti-stress functional material was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and genotoxicity assays. In the acute oral dose toxicity study, all rats survived during the test period and ETAS did not influence clinical appearance, body weight gain and necropsy findings at a dosage of 2000mg/kg body weight. Thus, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ETAS was determined to be greater than 2000mg/kg. The 90-day subchronic study (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight, delivered by gavage) in rats reported no significant adverse effects in food consumption, body weight, mortality, urinalysis, hematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. In the micronucleus test of mice, the incidence of micronuclei in ETAS-administered groups (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg/day, injected twice) was equivalent to that of the negative control group, while the positive control group receiving mitomycin C showed a high incidence. The potential of ETAS to induce gene mutation was tested using four Salmonella typhimurium strains and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. The test sample was not mutagenic to the test strains. These results support the safety of ETAS as food and dietary supplement. PMID:24389363

  20. ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTIONAL, MORPHOLOGICAL AND ENZYMATIC TEST FOR ACUTE NEPHROTOXICITY INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative merits of a comprehensive series of contemporary methods for detection of acute nephrotoxicity were evaluated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 30.0 mg mercuric chloride (HgCl2)/kg body weight by ip injection. Indices of nephrotoxicity were e...

  1. The value of acute toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals for estimation of human response.

    PubMed

    Barle, Ester Lovšin; Looser, Roland; Cerne, Manica; Bechter, Rudolf

    2012-04-01

    The determination of single high doses of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is used mostly to fulfill regulatory demands. Oral LD(50) values in animals for over 300 API were compared to the minimal effective therapeutic doses (METD) in humans in order to find a correlation between animal and human data. The highest correlation between human METD and animal LD(50) was found for the dog (R=0.323), the lowest for the rat (0.287). It was determined that acute oral LD(50) of rats have poor correlation with the METD, and cannot be used as a classification criteria into official acute toxic categories. Only 13% of API has been classified as fatal if swallowed according to the EU CLP regulation, none of the substances with very low therapeutic dose have been identified as EU CLP acute toxicity category 1. Substances with very low therapeutic doses, which could potentially have toxic effects in humans, are not identified with the use of oral LD(50) and current classification system. We propose that the acute toxicity based on rat LD(50) dose is not used as a basis for classification of pharmaceuticals, and that the METD is applied as basis for classification. PMID:22306828

  2. Water chemistry and ecotoxicity of an acid mine drainage-affected stream in subtropical China during a major flood event.

    PubMed

    Lin, C; Wu, Y; Lu, W; Chen, A; Liu, Y

    2007-04-01

    Field and laboratory work was carried out to investigate the chemistry and ecotoxicity of stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a tributary catchment of the Pearl River in subtropical China during a major flood that corresponded to a return period of 100 years. The results indicate that stream water was affected by acid mine drainage from the Dabaoshan mine at least to a distance of 25 km downstream of the mine water discharge point. It appears that H(+) generated from sulfide oxidation in the waste rock dumps was readily available for exporting. The amount of H(+) being discharged into the receiving stream depended on the volume of out-flowing waters. However, there was a lag time for the discharges of the metals. This may be attributed to the slower release of metals, relative to H(+), because it might take more time for the dissolution of heavy metal-bearing compounds, particularly the sparsely soluble jarosites. Fe, Zn and Al were the major metals of potential toxicity contained in the AMD-affected stream water, followed by Mn, Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Ni. The concentrations of these metals in the water decreased rapidly down the stream. This corresponds with an increase in the concentrations of reactive heavy metal fractions in benthic mud down the stream, reflecting the precipitation of heavy metal compounds with increasing pH and their subsequent deposition in the streambed. Toxicity tests show that the AMD-affected stream water at 3.5 km downstream of the discharge point was highly toxic to the test organism. At 25 km downstream of the discharge point where stream water pH was as high as 5.75, marked toxic responses of the test organism were still observed. PMID:16979817

  3. Comparative ecotoxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lavtižar, Vesna; Berggren, Kristina; Trebše, Polonca; Kraak, Michiel H S; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-09-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is gaining importance in agricultural practice, but data on its possible negative effects on non-target organisms is severely deficient. This study therefore determined CAP toxicity to non-target soil invertebrates playing a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, including springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus) and oribatid mites (Oppia nitens). In sublethal toxicity tests in Lufa 2.2 soil, chronic exposure to CAP concentrations up to 1000 mg/kgdw did not affect the survival and reproduction of E. crypticus and O. nitens nor the survival, body weight and consumption of P. scaber. In contrast, the survival and reproduction of F. candida was severely affected, with an EC50 for effects on reproduction of 0.14 mg CAP/kgdw. The toxicity of CAP to the reproduction of F. candida was tested in four different soils following OECD guideline 232, and additionally in an avoidance test according to ISO guideline 17512-2. A significantly lower toxicity in soils rich in organic matter was observed, compared to low organic soils. Observations in the avoidance test with F. candida suggest that CAP acted in a prompt way, by affecting collembolan locomotor abilities thus preventing them from escaping contaminated soil. This study shows that CAP may especially pose a risk to non-target soil arthropods closely related to insects, while other soil invertebrates seem rather insensitive. PMID:27337437

  4. Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring Verification Report and Statement

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SEA Ring (U.S. Patent No. 8,011,239) is an integrated, field tested, toxicity and bioavailability assessment device. This device was developed at SPAWAR in San Diego, California and is commercially available from Zebra-Tech, Ltd. The SEA Ring was designed to evaluate toxicity...

  5. Role of the 13C-methacetin breath test in the assessment of acute liver injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Mao, Jing-Yi; Wang, Hong-Yan; Li, Xin; Xu, You-Qing

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of the 13C-methacetin breath test (13C-MBT) in the assessment of acute liver injury in a rat model. METHODS: Acute liver injury in rats was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (D-GalN). Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 8) and five model groups (each n = 8), and acute liver injury was assessed at different time points (6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h) after D-GalN injection. The 13C-MBT, biochemical tests, 15-min retention rate of indocyanine green (ICGR15), and liver biopsy were performed and compared between the control and model groups. Correlations between parameters of the 13C-MBT (Tmax, MVmax, CUM120 and DOBmax), biochemical tests, ICGR15 and liver necrosis score were also analyzed using Spearman’s correlation analysis. RESULTS: Tmax, MVmax, CUM120 and DOBmax, as well as most of the traditional methods, correlated with the liver necrosis score (r = 0.493, P < 0.05; r = -0.731, P < 0.01; r = -0.618, P < 0.01; r = -0.592, P < 0.01, respectively). MVmax, CUM120 and DOBmax rapidly decreased and were lower than those in the controls as early as 6 h after D-GalN injection (3.84 ± 0.84 vs 5.06 ± 0.78, P < 0.01; 3.35 ± 0.72 vs 4.21 ± 1.44, P < 0.05; 52.3 ± 20.58 vs 75.1 ± 9.57, P < 0.05, respectively) and reached the lowest point 24 h after D-GalN injection. MVmax, CUM120 and DOBmax returned to normal levels 72 h after D-GalN injection and preceded most of the traditional methods, including liver biopsy. CONCLUSION: The 13C-MBT is a sensitive tool for the timely detection of acute liver injury and early prediction of recovery in a rat model. Further clinical studies are warranted to validate its role in patients with acute liver injury. PMID:25170215

  6. Aqueous chlorination of mefenamic acid: kinetics, transformation by-products and ecotoxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Adira Wan Khalit, Wan Nor; Tay, Kheng Soo

    2016-05-18

    Mefenamic acid (Mfe) is one of the most frequently detected nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the environment. This study investigated the kinetics and the transformation by-products of Mfe during aqueous chlorination. The potential ecotoxicity of the transformation by-products was also evaluated. In the kinetic study, the second-order rate constant (kapp) for the reaction between Mfe and free available chlorine (FAC) was determined at 25 ± 0.1 °C. The result indicated that the degradation of Mfe by FAC is highly pH-dependent. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, it was found that the kapp for the reaction between Mfe and FAC was decreased from 16.44 to 4.4 M(-1) s(-1). Characterization of the transformation by-products formed during the chlorination of Mfe was carried out using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight accurate mass spectrometry. Four major transformation by-products were identified. These transformation by-products were mainly formed through hydroxylation, chlorination and oxidation reactions. Ecotoxicity assessment revealed that transformation by-products, particularly monohydroxylated Mfe which is more toxic than Mfe, can be formed during aqueous chlorination. PMID:27062128

  7. Colloidal stability and ecotoxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Influence of select organic matters.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, Cristina; Barandika, Gotzone; Igartua, Amaya; Areitioaurtena, Olatz; Uranga, Nerea; Mendoza, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the release of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into the environment has raised serious concerns regarding their fate and potential impacts. Aquatic organisms constitute an important pathway for their entrance and transfer throughout the food web, and the current demand for standardization of methodologies to analyze the interactions of MWCNTs with them requires aquatic media that represent natural systems. However, the inherent hydrophobicity of MWCNTs and the substances present in natural waters may greatly affect their stability and bioavailability. The present study analyzes the influence of the most referenced synthetic and natural organic matters (Sigma-Aldrich humic acid and Suwannee River natural organic matter) in the agglomeration kinetics and ecotoxicity of MWCNTs, with the aim of determining their suitability to fulfill the current standardization requirements. Natural organic matter provides increased colloidal stability to the MWCNTs' dispersions, which results in higher adverse effects on the key invertebrate organism Daphnia magna. Furthermore, the results obtained with this type of organic matter allow for observation of the important role of the outer diameter and content impurities of MWCNTs in their stability and ecotoxicity on daphnids. Sigma-Aldrich humic acid appeared to alter the response of the organisms to carbon nanotubes compared with that observed in the presence of natural organic matter. PMID:26189503

  8. Utilizing Eisenia andrei to assess the ecotoxicity of platinum mine tailings disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Jubileus, Mandy T; Theron, Pieter D; van Rensburg, Leon; Maboeta, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    South Africa is an important platinum mining country which results in environmental impacts due to the construction of tailing disposal facilities (TDFs). It is unclear what the effects of ageing are on the ecotoxicity of TDFs and whether it increases or decreases over time. The aim of this study was to determine the ecotoxicity of differently aged TDFs by investigating earthworm (Eisenia andrei) responses viz. growth, reproduction, neutral red retention times (NRRT) and tissue metal concentrations. Further, to evaluate the status of these in terms of a geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), pollution index and integrated pollution index. Results indicated that earthworms showed reduced reproductive success (hatchlings per cocoon) and decreased NRRT in all the sites. Juveniles per cocoon between all of the different treatment groups were; control (2.83 ± 0.54) > site 2 (20 years old; 1.83 ± 0.27) > sites 1 and 3 (40 years old; 1.06 ± 0.15 and 6 years old; 0.88 ± 0.39). This might be ascribed to the elevated levels of Cr (±200 to 1,166 μg g(-1)) and Ni (±100 to 316 μg g(-1)) in all of the sites. Earthworms did not bioaccumulate metals with bioconcentration factors for all the different treatments <0.01. Studies like these could be useful when establishing a ranking of TDFs in the future to provide legislative institutions with an indication of the environmental liabilities of platinum mines. PMID:23229136

  9. Marine ecotoxic effect of pulse emissions in life cycle impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Johan; Peters, Glen P; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2006-01-01

    Characterization factors for ecotoxicity in life cycle impact assessment are traditionally calculated as the product of effect and fate factors. Steady-state multiple compartment models are used to calculate the fate factor, while effect factors are derived from species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for multiple substances using average or marginal gradients. Others have shown that steady-state multicompartment models can be used to calculate characterization factors if linear dose-response functions are used. Average gradients are linear dose-response functions per definition. Marginal gradients are first-order Taylor approximations of the effect function and require marginal exposure at all points of the compartment. Instantaneous mixing, giving marginal exposure within compartments, is an implicit assumption of the multicompartment model. This paper investigates if the assumption of marginal exposure results in significant errors for the characterization factor. Ecotoxic effect of pulse emissions is simulated in a transient three-dimensional single compartment model of the marine aquatic environment. Results show that the error in characterization factors for the Taylor approximation is less than a factor of two for multisubstance SSDs assuming concentration addition only in the aggregation of toxic effect of substances. Assuming a combination of response and concentration addition may result in a deviation of several orders of magnitude. PMID:16494255

  10. Permutation tests for centre effect on survival endpoints with application in an acute myeloid leukaemia multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Biard, L; Porcher, R; Resche-Rigon, M

    2014-07-30

    When analysing multicentre data, it may be of interest to test whether the distribution of the endpoint varies among centres. In a mixed-effect model, testing for such a centre effect consists in testing to zero a random centre effect variance component. It has been shown that the usual asymptotic χ(2) distribution of the likelihood ratio and score statistics under the null does not necessarily hold. In the case of censored data, mixed-effects Cox models have been used to account for random effects, but few works have concentrated on testing to zero the variance component of the random effects. We propose a permutation test, using random permutation of the cluster indices, to test for a centre effect in multilevel censored data. Results from a simulation study indicate that the permutation tests have correct type I error rates, contrary to standard likelihood ratio tests, and are more powerful. The proposed tests are illustrated using data of a multicentre clinical trial of induction therapy in acute myeloid leukaemia patients. PMID:24676752

  11. (Eco)toxicity and biodegradability of protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria V S; Vidal, Bruna T; Melo, Claudia M; de Miranda, Rita de C M; Soares, Cleide M F; Coutinho, João A P; Ventura, Sónia P M; Mattedi, Silvana; Lima, Álvaro S

    2016-03-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are often claimed to be "environmentally friendly" compounds however, the knowledge of their potential toxicity towards different organisms and trophic levels is still limited, in particular when protic ionic liquids (PILs) are addressed. This study aims to evaluate the toxicity against various microorganisms and the biodegradability of four PILs namely, N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium acetate, m-2-HEAA; N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium propionate, m-2-HEAPr; N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium butyrate, m-2-HEAB; and N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium pentanoate, m-2-HEAP. The antimicrobial activity was determined against the two bacteria, Sthaplylococcus aureus ATCC-6533 and Escherichia coli CCT-0355; the yeast Candida albicans ATCC-76645; and the fungi Fusarium sp. LM03. The toxicity of all PILs was tested against the aquatic luminescent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri using the Microtox(®) test. The impact of the PILs was also studied regarding their effect on lettuce seeds (Lactuta sativa). The biodegradability of these PILs was evaluated using the ratio between the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The results show that, in general, the elongation of the alkyl chain tends to increase the negative impact of the PILs towards the organisms and biological systems under study. According to these results, m-2-HEAA and m-2-HEAP are the less and most toxic PILs studied in this work, respectively. Additionally, all the PILs have demonstrated low biodegradability. PMID:26796340

  12. Genotyping Test with Clinical Factors: Better Management of Acute Postoperative Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Hajj, Aline; Peoc’h, Katell; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Jabbour, Hicham; Naccache, Nicole; Abou Zeid, Hicham; Yazbeck, Patricia; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Individualization of acute postoperative pain treatment on an evidence-based decision process is a major health concern. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of genetic and non-genetic factors on the variability of response to morphine in acute postoperative pain. A group of nighty-five patients undergoing major surgery were included prospectively. At 24 h, a logistic regression model was carried out to determine the factors associated with morphine doses given by a Patient Controlled Analgesia device. The dose of morphine was associated with age (p = 0.011), patient weight (p = 0.025) and the duration of operation (p = 0.030). This dose decreased with patient’s age and duration of operation and increased with patient’s weight. OPRM1 and ABCB1 polymorphisms were significantly associated with administered dose of morphine (p = 0.038 and 0.012 respectively). Patients with at least one G allele for c.118A>G OPRM1 polymorphism (AG/GG) needed 4 times the dose of morphine of AA patients. Additionally, patients with ABCB1 CT and CC genotypes for c.3435C>T polymorphism were 5.6 to 7.1 times more prone to receive higher dose of morphine than TT patients. Our preliminary results support the evidence that OPRM1/ABCB1 genotypes along with age, weight and duration of operation have an impact on morphine consumption for acute postoperative pain treatment. PMID:25809606

  13. Comparative acute and chronic sensitivity of fish and amphibians: a critical review of data.

    PubMed

    Weltje, Lennart; Simpson, Peter; Gross, Melanie; Crane, Mark; Wheeler, James R

    2013-04-01

    The relative sensitivity of amphibians to chemicals in the environment, including plant protection product active substances, is the subject of ongoing scientific debate. The objective of this study was to compare systematically the relative sensitivity of amphibians and fish to chemicals. Acute and chronic toxicity data were obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) ECOTOX database and were supplemented with data from the scientific and regulatory literature. The overall outcome is that fish and amphibian toxicity data are highly correlated and that fish are more sensitive (both acute and chronic) than amphibians. In terms of acute sensitivity, amphibians were between 10- and 100-fold more sensitive than fish for only four of 55 chemicals and more than 100-fold more sensitive for only two chemicals. However, a detailed inspection of these cases showed a similar acute sensitivity of fish and amphibians. Chronic toxicity data for fish were available for 52 chemicals. Amphibians were between 10- and 100-fold more sensitive than fish for only two substances (carbaryl and dexamethasone) and greater than 100-fold more sensitive for only a single chemical (sodium perchlorate). The comparison for carbaryl was subsequently determined to be unreliable and that for sodium perchlorate is a potential artifact of the exposure medium. Only a substance such as dexamethasone, which interferes with a specific aspect of amphibian metamorphosis, might not be detected using fish tests. However, several other compounds known to influence amphibian metamorphosis were included in the analysis, and these did not affect amphibians disproportionately. These analyses suggest that additional amphibian testing is not necessary during chemical risk assessment. PMID:23381988

  14. [Clinical application of blood matching with hemolytic test in vitro for transfusion treatment of crisis puerpera with acute hemolytic anemia].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Min; Tang, Cong-Hai; Gan, Wei-Wei; Wu, A-Yang; Yang, Hui-Cong; Zhang, Tian-Xin; Huang, Yan Xue; Qiu, Lu-Zhen; Chen, Hong-Pu; Lin, Feng-Li

    2014-08-01

    This study was aimed to establish the matching method of hemolytic test in vitro, and to guide the transfusion treatment for puerpera with acute hemolytic disease. The donor's erythrocytes were sensibilized by all the antibodies in plasma of patient in vitro and were added with complement, after incubation for 6.5 hours at 38 °C, the hemolysis or no hemolysis were observed. It is safe to transfuse if the hemolysis did not occur. The results showed that when the matching difficulty happened to puerpera with acute hemolytic disease, the compatible donor could be screened by hemolytic test in vitro. There were no untoward effects after transfusion of 6 U leukocyte-depleted erythrocyte suspension. The all hemoglobin, total bilirubins, indirect bilirubin, reticulocyte, D-dimex and so on were rapidly improved in patient after transfusion , showing obvious clinical efficacy of treatment. It is concluded that when the matching results can not judge accurately compatible or incompatible through the routine method of cross matching, the agglutinated and no-hemolytic erythrocytes can be screened by hemolytic test in vitro and can be transfused with good efficacy; the hemoglobin level can be promoted rapidly, and no untoward effects occur. PMID:25130835

  15. Automation of an in vitro cytotoxicity assay used to estimate starting doses in acute oral systemic toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Bouhifd, Mounir; Bories, Gilles; Casado, Juan; Coecke, Sandra; Norlén, Hedvig; Parissis, Nicholaos; Rodrigues, Robim M; Whelan, Maurice P

    2012-06-01

    Application of High Throughput Screening (HTS) to the regulatory safety assessment of chemicals is still in its infancy but shows great promise in terms of facilitating better understanding of toxicological modes-of-action, reducing the reliance on animal testing, and allowing more data-poor chemicals to be assessed at a reasonable cost. To promote the uptake and acceptance of HTS approaches, we describe in a stepwise manner how a well known cytotoxicity assay can be automated to increase throughput while maintaining reliability. Results generated with selected reference chemicals compared very favourably with data obtained from a previous international validation study concerning the prediction of acute systemic toxicity in rodents. The automated assay was then included in a formal ECVAM validation study to determine if the assay could be used for binary classification of chemicals with respect to their acute oral toxicity, using a threshold equivalent to a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. in a rodent bioassay (LD50). This involved the blind-testing of 56 reference chemicals on the HTS platform to produce concentration-response and IC50 data. Finally, the assay was adapted to a format more suited to higher throughput testing without compromising the quality of the data obtained. PMID:22465836

  16. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25259848

  17. A False Positive Dengue Fever Rapid Diagnostic Test Result in a Case of Acute Parvovirus B19 Infection.

    PubMed

    Izumida, Toshihide; Sakata, Hidenao; Nakamura, Masahiko; Hayashibara, Yumiko; Inasaki, Noriko; Inahata, Ryo; Hasegawa, Sumiyo; Takizawa, Takenori; Kaya, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of dengue fever occurred in Japan in August 2014. We herein report the case of a 63-year-old man who presented with a persistent fever in September 2014. Acute parvovirus B19 infection led to a false positive finding of dengue fever on a rapid diagnostic test (Panbio Dengue Duo Cassette(TM)). To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of a false positive result for dengue IgM with the dengue rapid diagnostic test. We believe that epidemiological information on the prevalence of parvovirus B19 is useful for guiding the interpretation of a positive result with the dengue rapid diagnostic test. PMID:27181552

  18. Ecotoxicity and biodegradability of antielectrostatic dicephalic cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Piętka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Frąckowiak, Renata; Maliszewska, Irena; Kołwzan, Barbara; Wilk, Kazimiera A

    2012-11-01

    Four series of dicephalic cationic surfactants, considered as new antielectrostatic agents have been investigated in order to establish their toxicity and biodegradability. Among them N,N-bis[3,3'-(dimethylamine)propyl]alkylamides, N,N-bis[3,3'-(dimethylamine)propyl]alkylamide dihydrochlorides, N,N-bis[3,3'-(trimethylammonio)propyl]alkylamide dibromides and N,N-bis[3,3'-(trimethylammonio)propyl]alkylamide dimethylsulphates with different hydrophobic chain length (n-C(9)H(19) to n-C(15)H(31)) and type of counterion (chloride, bromide and methylsulfate) have been studied. The inhibitory effect against microorganisms has been examined using model gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. None of the tested surfactants have shown antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida) and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula glutinis) at a concentration below 1000 μg mL(-1), however some of them were moderately active against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis). The Microtox® test was successfully applied to measure EC(50) values of the studied dicephalic cationic surfactants. Their toxicity to Vibrio fischeri depended upon the alkanoyl chain length with the EC(50) values in a range of 2.6-980 mg L(-1). N,N-bis[3,3'-(dimethylamine)propyl]alkylamide dihydrochlorides 2a-b and N,N-bis[3,3'-(trimethylammonio)propyl]alkylamide dibromides 3a-b comprising n-decanoyl and n-dodecanoyl hydrophobic tails appeared to be the least toxic. Furthermore, the biodegradability under aerobic conditions of 2a-b, 3a-b was evaluated using OECD Method 301F. According to the obtained results 2a, 3a-3b can be considered as almost readily biodegradable and they are not expected to be persistent in the environment. Additionally, partial biodegradation was observed for 2b, indicating its possible biodegradation in wastewater treatment systems. PMID:22743183

  19. Degradation and ecotoxicity of the biomedical drug artemisinin in soil.

    PubMed

    Jessing, Karina K; Cedergreen, Nina; Jensen, John; Hansen, Hans C B

    2009-04-01

    The plant Artemisia annua L. is cropped in many countries for production of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. Artemisinin is phytotoxic and has insecticidal activity. Large-scale cultivation of A. annua may cause transfer of artemisinin to soil and, hence, may affect both soil organisms and the aquatic environment if the compound is leachable. In the present study, a new method for extraction of artemisinin from soil was developed, and field concentrations and degradation kinetics of artemisinin in sandy and loamy soils were measured. The soil concentrations in a Danish A. annua field were up to 11.7 mg/kg. The degradation kinetics could be modeled as the sum of two first-order reactions, a fast initial degradation followed by a reaction that was 11- to 25-fold slower. It took at least 35 d before artemisinin could not be detected (<0.36 mg/kg) at 20 degrees C, classifying artemisinin as being relatively persistent in the environment. Combined with its water solubility of 49.7 +/- 3.7 mg/L, this makes it potentially leachable. In soil, artemisinin repelled the earthworm (Eisenia fetida; the 10 and 50% effect concentrations [EC10s and EC50s, respectively] were 5.24 +/- 2.64 and 21.57 +/- 4.73 mg/kg, respectively) and inhibited growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.; EC50, 2.48 mg/kg). Springtails (Folsomia candida) were not affected in the tested concentration range of 1 to 100 mg/kg. Artemisinin had toxicity to the freshwater algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata; EC50, 0.24 +/- 0.01 mg/L) and duckweed (Lemna minor; EC50, 0.19 +/- 0.03 mg/L) similar to that of the commercial herbicide atrazine. Based on the presented data, the risks of adverse environmental effects because of cultivation of A. annua are high and comparable to those when using commercial pesticides. PMID:19391681

  20. Runoff rates and ecotoxicity of zinc induced by atmospheric corrosion.

    PubMed

    Karlén, C; Wallinde, I O; Heijerick, D; Leygraf, C; Janssen, C R

    2001-09-28

    Initiated by regulatory restrictions on the use of zinc for various building and construction applications, together with a lack of knowledge related to the release of zinc induced by atmospheric corrosion, a major interdisciplinary research project was implemented to generate data to be used in future risk assessment. Runoff rates from a large number of commercially available zinc-based materials have been determined on panels inclined 45 degrees from the horizon, facing south, during a 1-year atmospheric exposure in an urban environment in Sweden. Possible environmental effects of runoff water immediately after leaving the surface of the various materials have been evaluated during two different sampling periods of varying season and zinc concentration, using the standard growth inhibition test with algae. Raphidocelis subcapitata (formerly Selenastrum capricornutum). Zinc-specific biosensors with the bacterial strain of Alcaligenes eutrophus, and computer modeling using the water-ligand model MINTEQA2 and the humic aquatic model WHAM, have been used to assess the bioavailability and chemical speciation of zinc in the runoff water. An excellent consistency between the different methods was observed. The results show considerably lower runoff rates of zinc (0.07-3.5 g m(-2) year(-1)) than previously being used for regulatory restrictions, and the concentration of zinc to be predominantly responsible for the observed toxicity of the runoff water towards the green algae. The majority of the released zinc quantity was found to be present as free hydrated zinc ions and, hence, bioavailable. The data do not consider changes in bioavailability and chemical speciation or dilution effects during entry into the environment, and should therefore only be used as an initial assessment of the potential environmental effect of zinc runoff from building applications. This interdisciplinary approach has the potential for studies on the environmental fate of zinc in soil or

  1. Acute In Vivo Testing of a Respiratory Assist Catheter: Implants in Calves Versus Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Eash, Heide J.; Frankowski, Brian J.; Litwak, Kenneth; Wagner, William R.; Hattler, Brack G.; Federspiel, William J.

    2007-01-01

    A respiratory catheter that is inserted through a peripheral vein and placed within the vena cava is being developed for CO2 removal in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The catheter uses a rapidly pulsating balloon to enhance gas exchange. In this study, the CO2 removal performance of our catheter was assessed in acute sheep implants and compared with calf implants, primarily because sheep have cardiac outputs (CO) that are more comparable with human CO and lower than calves. Respiratory catheters (25 mL balloon, 0.17 m²) were inserted acutely in sheep (n = 2) and calves (n = 6) through the jugular vein and placed within the vena cava in two positions: spanning the right atrium (RA) and within the inferior vena cava (IVC). The postinsertion CO in the sheep ranged from 4.1 to 7.2 L/min compared with 6.2 to 15.5 L/min for the calves. The maximum CO2 removal rates (vCO2) were 297 ml/min/m² (calf) and 282 ml/min/m² (sheep) in the RA position and 240 ml/min/m² (calf) and 248 ml/min/m² (sheep) in the IVC position. The respective removal rates between animal models were not statistically different (p values > 0 .05 for all data sets). The dependence of the vCO2 on balloon pulsation was also not statistically different between the animal models. PMID:12918576

  2. Ecotoxicity of triphenyltin on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus at various biological organisations: from molecular to population-level effects.

    PubMed

    Yi, Andy Xianliang; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-09-01

    Triphenyltin compounds (TPTs), as effective biocides for different industrial and agricultural purposes, have been detected in coastal marine environments worldwide, in particular in Asian countries. However, little is known about their toxicity to marine organisms. This study comprehensively investigated the molecular, individual and population responses of the marine copepod, Tigriopus japonicus upon waterborne exposure to TPT chloride (TPTCl). Our results indicated that TPTCl was highly toxic to adult T. japonicus, with a 96-h LC50 concentration at 6.3 μg/L. As shown in a chronic full life-cycle test, T. japonicus exposed to 1.0 μg/L TPTCl exhibited a delay in development and a significant reduction of population growth, in terms of the intrinsic rate of increase (r m ). Based on the negative relationship between the r m and exposure concentration, a critical effect concentration was estimated at 1.6 μg/L TPTCl; at or above which population extinction could occur. At 0.1 μg/L TPTCl or above, the sex ratio of the second generation of the copepod was significantly altered and changed to a male-biased population. At molecular level, the inhibition of the transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase related genes might lead to dysfunction of detoxification, and the inhibition of retinoid X receptor mRNA expression implied an interruption of the growth and moulting process in T. japonicus. As the only gene that observed up-regulated in this study, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating its function in protecting the copepod from TPT-mediated oxidative stress. The study advances our understanding on the ecotoxicity of TPT, and provides some initial data on its toxic mechanisms in small crustaceans like copepods. PMID:24981692

  3. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, their metabolites/transformation products and their mixtures.

    PubMed

    Česen, Marjeta; Eleršek, Tina; Novak, Matjaž; Žegura, Bojana; Kosjek, Tina; Filipič, Metka; Heath, Ester

    2016-03-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF) are commonly used cytostatic drugs that repress cell division by interaction with DNA. The present study investigates the ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of CP, IF, their human metabolites/transformation products (TPs) carboxy-cyclophosphamide (CPCOOH), keto-cyclophosphamide (ketoCP) and N-dechloroethyl-cyclophosphamide (NdCP) as individual compounds and as mixture. The two parent compounds (CP and IF), at concentrations up to 320 mg L(-1), were non-toxic towards the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and cyanobacterium Synecococcus leopoliensis. Further ecotoxicity studies of metabolites/TPs and a mixture of parent compounds and metabolites/TPs performed in cyanobacteria S. leopoliensis, showed that only CPCOOH (EC50 = 17.1 mg L(-1)) was toxic. The measured toxicity (EC50 = 11.5 mg L(-1)) of the mixture was lower from the toxicity predicted by concentration addition model (EC50 = 21.1 mg L(-1)) indicating potentiating effects of the CPCOOH toxicity. The SOS/umuC assay with Salmonella typhimurium revealed genotoxic activity of CP, CPCOOH and the mixture in the presence of S9 metabolic activation. Only CPCOOH was genotoxic also in the absence of metabolic activation indicating that this compound is a direct acting genotoxin. This finding is of particular importance as in the environment such compounds can directly affect DNA of non-target organisms and also explains toxicity of CPCOOH against cyanobacteria S. leopoliensis. The degradation study with UV irradiation of samples containing CP and IF showed efficient degradation of both compounds and remained non-toxic towards S. leopoliensis, suggesting that no stable TPs with adverse effects were formed. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing the ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of the commonly used cytostatics CP and IF, their known metabolites/TPs and their mixture. The results indicate the importance of toxicological evaluation and monitoring of

  4. Acute Pancreatitis Induced by Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine Proven by Single and Low Dose Challenge Testing in a Child with Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Yi, Geum-Chae-Won; Yoon, Ka-Hyun; Hwang, Jin-Bok

    2012-12-01

    We report here a case of drug-induced acute pancreatitis proved by elimination and single, low dose challenge test in a child with Crohn disease. A 14-year-old boy with moderate/severe Crohn disease was admitted due to high fever and severe epigastric pain during administration of mesalazine and azathioprine. Blood test and abdominal ultrasonography revealed acute pancreatitis. After discontinuance of the medication and supportive care, the symptoms and laboratory findings improved. A single, low dose challenge test was done to confirm the relationship of the adverse drug reaction and acute pancreatitis, and to discriminate the responsible drug. Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine showed positive responses, and mesalazine showed a negative response. We introduce the method of single, low dose challenge test and its interpretation for drug-induced pancreatitis. PMID:24010098

  5. Ecotoxicity of uranium to Tubifex tubifex worms (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae) exposed to contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Lagauzère, Sandra; Terrail, Raphaële; Bonzom, Jean-Marc

    2009-02-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, sediments act as an accumulation compartment for metallic pollutants as uranium. However, they are also the habitats of numerous benthic macroinvertebrates that directly influence the structure and functioning of such environments. Consequently, these organisms could be affected by uranium. This laboratory study aimed to assess the ecotoxicity of uranium on Tubifex tubifex through 12-day exposure to contaminated sediment (0-5980 microg U g(-1) dry wt). At high concentrations (>599 microg U g(-1) dry wt), malformations were observed, and survival, biomass and burrowing activity were all reduced. This relative high resistance in polluted environments can be explained mainly by the implementation of several processes as autotomy, regeneration ability, increased production of mucus, a hormetic effect on biomass and a probable strategy for avoiding the contaminated sediment. This study represents the first assessment of uranium impact on T. tubifex at realistic concentrations in sediments near mining sites. PMID:18555526

  6. There is need for antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests to identify common acute tropical illnesses.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Henry; Suankratay, Chusana

    2007-01-01

    Enteric fever, typhus, leptospirosis, dengue, melioidosis, and tuberculous meningitis present urgent diagnostic problems that require experience and clinical judgment to make early evidence-based management decisions. Basic and applied research dealing with reliable antigen-based diagnostics has been published and confirmed for several of these infections. This should have initiated commercial production but has not. Established international firms see little profit in such diagnostic kits since they would be used in poor countries with little prospects for return of investment capital. We attempt to illustrate this issue, using common causes of acute febrile illnesses in the Southeast Asian region. We believe that rapid diagnostic technology could prevent significant delay in starting appropriate therapy, reduce hospital expenses, and even save lives. PMID:17617848

  7. Molecular genetic tests for FLT3, NPM1, and CEBPA in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Bai, Shaochun; Vance, Gail H

    2013-01-01

    Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and a normal karyotype constitute the single largest cytogenetic group of AML. It is important to identify prognostic markers that predict patients' outcome more precisely. The presence of mutations in FLT3 (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3), NPM1 (Nucleophosmin), and CEBPA (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha) genes hold prognostic significance in patients with AML and normal cytogenetics. Therefore, mutation identification may help to optimize therapeutic approaches in this group of patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based fragment length analysis for mutations in FLT3 and NPM1 has been shown to be a fast and sensitive method, while nucleotide sequencing represents a gold standard for CEBPA heterogeneous mutational screening. We describe both fragment length assay and sequencing methods for mutational analysis of these three genes. PMID:23666693

  8. Arterial damages in acute elbow dislocations: which diagnostic tests are required?

    PubMed

    Lutter, Christoph; Pfefferkorn, Ronny; Schoeffl, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Blunt vessel injuries of peripheral arteries caused by a direct trauma are rare. Studies have described the frequency of arterial ruptures following closed elbow dislocations in 0.3-1.7% of all cases. However, arterial damage does not always necessarily appear as a complete rupture of the vessel with a loss of peripheral circulation and ischaemic symptoms; a relatively strong periarticular system of collaterals can maintain circulation. Furthermore, the traumatic dislocation can also cause intimal tears, arterial dissections and aneurysms or thrombosis. In all cases of vessel injury, including total disruption, a peripheral pulse might still be palpable. 3 weeks after an acute elbow dislocation, we have diagnosed a patient with a long-segment stenosis of the brachial artery and a thrombosis of the radial artery. Therefore, the close anatomic proximity to the neurovascular structures should always be considered in cases of elbow dislocations, even if peripheral pulses are traceable. PMID:27436035

  9. Surveillance of Acute Respiratory Infections Using Community-Submitted Symptoms and Specimens for Molecular Diagnostic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Jennifer; Rowe, Aaron; Brownstein, John S.; Chunara, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory systems for surveillance of acute respiratory infection give real-time information about infections circulating in the community, yet to-date are limited to self-reported syndromic information only and lacking methods of linking symptom reports to infection types. We developed the GoViral platform to evaluate whether a cohort of lay volunteers could, and would find it useful to, contribute self-reported symptoms online and to compare specimen types for self-collected diagnostic information of sufficient quality for respiratory infection surveillance. Volunteers were recruited, given a kit (collection materials and customized instructions), instructed to report their symptoms weekly, and when sick with cold or flu-like symptoms, requested to collect specimens (saliva and nasal swab). We compared specimen types for respiratory virus detection sensitivity (via polymerase-chain-reaction) and ease of collection. Participants were surveyed to determine receptivity to participating when sick, to receiving information on the type of pathogen causing their infection and types circulating near them. Between December 1 2013 and March 1 2014, 295 participants enrolled in the study and received a kit. Of those who reported symptoms, half (71) collected and sent specimens for analysis. Participants submitted kits on average 2.30 days (95 CI: 1.65 to 2.96) after symptoms began. We found good concordance between nasal and saliva specimens for multiple pathogens, with few discrepancies. Individuals report that saliva collection is easiest and report that receiving information about what pathogen they, and those near them, have is valued and can shape public health behaviors. Community-submitted specimens can be used for the detection of acute respiratory infection with individuals showing receptivity for participating and interest in a real-time picture of respiratory pathogens near them. PMID:26075141

  10. An Analysis of Hematological Parameters as a Diagnostic test for Malaria in Patients with Acute Febrile Illness: An Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim; Rana, Safia; Hassan, Mohd Jaseem; Nabi, Farhat; Jetley, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hematological changes are among the most common complications encountered in malaria. This study analyzes and statistically evaluates the hematological changes as a diagnostic test for malaria in patients with acute febrile illness and whether these could guide the physician to institute specific antimalarial treatment. Methods The present study was an observational study, conducted from January to December 2012. A total of 723 patients presenting with acute febrile illness at our hospital were evaluated. A complete blood count and malarial parasite microscopy were performed for each patient. Results The findings showed that 172 out of 723 patients (24%) were diagnosed to have malaria by positive smear report. There were 121 males and 51 females with a male to female ratio of 2.3:1. Maximum number of cases were seen in the 20-30 years age group. There was a statistically significant reduction in hemoglobin (p<0.005), platelet count (p<0.001) and total leukocyte count (p<0.001) levels in patients with malaria compared to those without the disease. Likelihood ratios for a positive result of platelets (6.2) and total leukocyte count (3.4) was relevant as compared to hemoglobin (1.61) and Red cell distribution width (1.79). The negative predictive values for hemoglobin (79%), total leukocyte count (86%), platelets (94%) and Red cell distribution width (93%) were significant. Red cell distribution width values were found to be higher in patients with malaria than in patients without malaria (p<0.001). Conclusion This study revealed that routinely used laboratory findings such as hemoglobin, leukocytes, platelet counts and even red cell distribution width values can provide a diagnostic clue in a patient with acute febrile illness in endemic areas, thus increasing the probability of malaria and enhancing prompt initiation of treatment. PMID:24498476

  11. Acute toxicity of the cationic surfactant C12-benzalkonium in different bioassays: how test design affects bioavailability and effect concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Geurts, Marc; Sjollema, Sascha B; Kramer, Nynke I; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J

    2014-03-01

    Using an ion-exchange-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method, the freely dissolved concentrations of C12-benzalkonium were measured in different toxicity assays, including 1) immobilization of Daphnia magna in the presence or absence of dissolved humic acid; 2) mortality of Lumbriculus variegatus in the presence or absence of a suspension of Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) sediment; 3) photosystem II inhibition of green algae Chlorella vulgaris; and 4) viability of in vitro rainbow trout gill cell line (RTgill-W1) in the presence or absence of serum proteins. Furthermore, the loss from chemical adsorption to the different test vessels used in these tests was also determined. The C12-benzalkonium sorption isotherms to the different sorbent phases were established as well. Our results show that the freely dissolved concentration is a better indicator of the actual exposure concentration than the nominal or total concentration in most test assays. Daphnia was the most sensitive species to C12-benzalkonium. The acute Daphnia and Lumbriculus tests both showed no enhanced toxicity from possible ingestion of sorbed C12-benzalkonium in comparison with water-only exposure, which is in accordance with the equilibrium partitioning theory. Moreover, the present study demonstrates that commonly used sorbent phases can strongly affect bioavailability and observed effect concentrations for C12-benzalkonium. Even stronger effects of decreased actual exposure concentrations resulting from sorption to test vessels, cells, and sorbent phases can be expected for more hydrophobic cationic surfactants. PMID:24273010

  12. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and interlaboratory testing, life stage, and species.

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Sandy; Lilavois, Crystal R; Lee, Larisa; Augspurger, Tom; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Chris G; Bauer, Candice; Hammer, Edward; Barron, Mace G

    2016-03-01

    The authors developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the 2 life stages; and the variation in sensitivity among commonly tested mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea, Utterbackia imbecillis, and Villosa iris), commonly tested cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), and fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Pimephales promelas, and Lepomis macrochirus). The results of these analyses indicate that intralaboratory variability for median effect concentrations (EC50) averaged about 2-fold for both life stages, whereas interlaboratory variability averaged 3.6-fold for juvenile mussels and 6.3-fold for glochidia. The EC50s for juveniles and glochidia were within a factor of 2 of each other for 50% of paired records across chemicals, with juveniles more sensitive than glochidia by more than 2-fold for 33% of the comparisons made between life stages. There was a high concurrence of sensitivity of commonly tested L. siliquoidea, U. imbecillis, and V. iris to that of other mussels. However, this concurrence decreased as the taxonomic distance of the commonly tested cladocerans and fish to mussels increased. The compiled mussel database and determination of data variability will advance risk assessments by including more robust species sensitivity distributions, interspecies correlation estimates, and availability of taxon-specific empirically derived application factors for risk assessment. PMID:26369904

  13. Blood tests: One too many? Evaluating blood requesting guidance developed for acute patients admitted to trauma and orthopaedic units.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Alastair; Reidy, Mike; Scicluna, Gabrielle; Love, Gavin J; Joss, Judith

    2016-03-01

    In a recently published report from the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, around 20% of clinical practice which encompasses blood science investigations is considered wasteful. Blood tests including liver function tests (LFTs), C-reactive protein (CRP), coagulation screens, and international normalising ratios (INR) are frequently requested for patients who undergo emergency hospital admission. The paucity of guidance available for blood requesting in acute trauma and orthopaedic admissions can lead to inappropriate requesting practices and over investigation. Acute admissions over a period of one month were audited retrospectively for the frequency and clinical indications of requests for LFTs, coagulation screens/INR, and CRP. The total number of blood tests requested for the duration of the patient's admission was recorded. Initial auditing of 216 admissions in January 2014 demonstrated a striking amount of over-investigation. Clinical guidelines were developed with multidisciplinary expert input and implemented within the department. Re-audit of 233 admissions was carried out in September 2014. Total no. of LFTs requested: January 895, September 336 (-62.5%); coagulation screens/INR requested: January 307, September 210 (-31.6%); CRPs requested: January 894, September 317 (-64.5%). No. of blood requests per patient: January (M=4.81, SD 4.75), September (M=3.60, SD=4.70). Approximate combined total cost of LFT, coagulation/INR, CRP in January £2674.14 and September £1236.19 (-£1437.95, -53.77%). A large decrease was observed in admission requesting and subsequent monitoring (p<0.01) following the implementation. This both significantly reduced cost and venepuncture rates. PMID:26696248

  14. Types, Risk Factors, Clinical symptoms and Diagnostic Tests of Acute Adult Meningitis in Northern Iran During 2006-2012

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Babamahmoodi, Farhang

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment and otherwise associated with serious morbidity and mortality. Aim The aim of this study was to assess types, risk factors, clinical symptoms and diagnostic tests of meningitis in hospitalized patients of Mazandaran University of medical sciences hospitals during 2006-2012. Matherials and Methods This is a retrospective descriptive study. Following approval of the ethics committee of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, records of adult patients diagnosed with acute meningitis from 2006 to 2012 were extracted from Mazandaran Provincial Health Center and patients attending hospitals affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, standard deviation, and median). Results In this study, of the 137 patients with meningitis, 73 (53.9%) were viral, 61 (46%) bacterial, 1 (0.7%) fungal, and 2 (1.4%) unknown. The majority of risk factors in patients were head trauma, upper respiratory infection, and drug addiction. The most common clinical signs were headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, and stiff neck. Conclusion In this study, the incidence of meningitis was much lower than any other country. It could be due to geographic variation or incomplete recording of patient's data. It is recommended to perform a longitudinal study during the coming years on patients with meningitis. PMID:26155497

  15. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  16. Review of nucleic acid amplification tests and clinical prediction rules for diagnosis of tuberculosis in acute care facilities.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Amit S; Davis, J Lucian; Schecter, Gisela F; Barry, Pennan M; Flood, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of hospitalization and mortality in the United States. Prevention of TB transmission in acute care facilities relies on prompt identification and implementation of airborne isolation, rapid diagnosis, and treatment of presumptive pulmonary TB patients. In areas with low TB burden, this strategy may result in inefficient utilization of airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs). We reviewed TB epidemiology and diagnostic approaches to inform optimal TB detection in low-burden settings. Published clinical prediction rules for individual studies have a sensitivity ranging from 81% to 100% and specificity ranging from 14% to 63% for detection of culture-positive pulmonary TB patients admitted to acute care facilities. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have a specificity of >98%, and the sensitivity of NAATs varies by acid-fast bacilli sputum smear status (positive smear, ≥95%; negative smear, 50%-70%). We propose an infection prevention strategy using a clinical prediction rule to identify patients who warrant diagnostic evaluation for TB in an AIIR with an NAAT. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether use of clinical prediction rules and NAATs results in optimized utilization of AIIRs and improved detection and treatment of presumptive pulmonary TB patients. PMID:26166303

  17. Comparative proteomic profiling and possible toxicological mechanism of acute injury induced by carbon ion radiation in pubertal mice testes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong

    2016-07-01

    We investigated potential mechanisms of acute injury in pubertal mice testes after exposure to carbon ion radiation (CIR). Serum testosterone was measured following whole-body irradiation with a 2Gy carbon ion beam. Comparative proteomic profiling and Western blotting were applied to identify potential biomarkers and measure protein expression, and terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was performed to detect apoptotic cells. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to investigate protein localization. Serum testosterone was lowest at 24h after CIR, and 10 differentially expressed proteins were identified at this time point that included eIF4E, an important regulator of initiation that combines with mTOR and 4EBP1 to control protein synthesis via the mTOR signalling pathway during proliferation and apoptosis. Protein expression and localization studies confirmed their association with acute injury following exposure to CIR. These three proteins may be useful molecular markers for detecting abnormal spermatogenesis following exposure to environmental and cosmic radiation

  18. Laboratory Measures of Postural Control During the Star Excursion Balance Test After Acute First-Time Lateral Ankle Sprain

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris M.; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-01-01

    Context No researchers, to our knowledge, have investigated the immediate postinjury-movement strategies associated with acute first-time lateral ankle sprain (LAS) as quantified by center of pressure (COP) and kinematic analyses during performance of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Objective To analyze the kinematic and COP patterns of a group with acute first-time LAS and a noninjured control group during performance of the SEBT. Design Case-control study. Setting University biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 81 participants with acute first-time LAS (53 men, 28 women; age = 23.22 ± 4.93 years, height = 1.73 ± 0.09 m, mass = 75.72 ± 13.86 kg) and 19 noninjured controls (15 men, 4 women; age = 22.53 ± 1.68 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.08 m, mass = 71.55 ± 11.31 kg). Intervention Participants performed the anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) reach directions of the SEBT. Main Outcome Measure(s) We assessed 3-dimensional kinematics of the lower extremity joints and associated fractal dimension (FD) of the COP path during performance of the SEBT. Results The LAS group had decreased normalized reach distances in the ANT, PL, and PM directions when compared with the control group on their injured (ANT: 58.16% ± 6.86% versus 64.86% ± 5.99%; PL: 85.64% ± 10.62% versus 101.14% ± 8.39%; PM: 94.89% ± 9.26% versus 107.29 ± 6.02%) and noninjured (ANT: 60.98% ± 6.74% versus 64.76% ± 5.02%; PL: 88.95% ± 11.45% versus 102.36% ± 8.53%; PM: 97.13% ± 8.76% versus 106.62% ± 5.78%) limbs (P < .01). This observation was associated with altered temporal sagittal-plane kinematic profiles throughout each reach attempt and at the point of maximum reach (P < .05). This result was associated with a reduced FD of the COP path for each reach direction on the injured limb only (P < .05). Conclusions Acute first-time LAS was associated with bilateral deficits in postural control, as evidenced by the bilateral

  19. EVALUATION OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTS WITH LARVAL STRIPED BASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) appear to be a desirable test species for the estuarine environment because their critical life stages are spent in estuaries, they have wide tolerance to salinity, and they are available through government and private hatcheries. oxicity test proc...

  20. Challenges in Obtaining HIV Testing in an Acute Involuntary Inpatient Psychiatric Setting.

    PubMed

    Weller, Jennifer; Levitt, Gwen; Myers, Robert; Riley, Aaron; Gesmundo, Celsius-Kit

    2016-01-01

    Even in health care professions, a stigma remains for patients with co-occurring HIV and serious mental illness. Researchers at a large, urban medical center encountered this stigma when they attempted to initiate a study of cognition in psychiatric inpatients with and without HIV who were seen as vulnerable in the context of research. Education efforts and advocacy on the part of the research team was instrumental and resulted in system-wide changes in the hospital, including the addition of HIV testing to the psychiatric admission laboratory panel. Within the first year that routine laboratory orders included an HIV test, the rate of testing ordered by inpatient-attending psychiatrists reached 60% of admissions. As of 2014, 13 HIV tests were found to be HIV seropositive in inpatients, with four of those cases classified as new-onset, as opposed to two positive tests in the year prior to our study. PMID:27426407

  1. Testing an application of a biotic ligand model to predict acute toxicity of metal mixtures to rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yuichi; Kamo, Masashi; Naito, Wataru

    2015-04-01

    The authors tested the applicability of a previously developed biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict acute toxicity of single metals and metal mixtures (cadmium, lead, and zinc) to rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a single available dataset. The BLM used in the present study hypothesizes that metals inhibit an essential cation (calcium) and organisms die as a result of its deficiency, leading to an assumption that the proportion of metal-binding ligand (f) is responsible for the toxic effects of metals on the survival of rainbow trout. The f value is a function of free-ion concentrations of metals computed by a chemical speciation model, and the function has affinity constants as model parameters. First, the survival effects of single metals were statistically modeled separately (i.e., f-survival relationship) by using the generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution. The modeled responses of survival rates to f overlapped reasonably irrespective of metals tested, supporting the theoretical prediction from the BLM that f-survival relationships are comparable regardless of metal species. The authors thus developed the generalized linear mixed model based on all data pooled across the single-metal tests. The best-fitted model well predicted the survival responses observed in mixture tests (r = 0.97), providing support for the applicability of the BLM to predict effects of metal mixtures. PMID:25323464

  2. Increased RO concentrate toxicity following application of antiscalants - acute toxicity tests with the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli.

    PubMed

    Feiner, Mona; Beggel, Sebastian; Jaeger, Nadine; Geist, Juergen

    2015-02-01

    In reverse osmosis, a frequently used technology in water desalination processes, wastewater (RO concentrate) is generated containing the retained solutes as well as so-called antiscalants (AS), i.e. chemical substances that are commonly applied to prevent membrane-blocking. In this study, a risk assessment of a possible discharge of concentrate into a small stream was conducted. The acute toxicity of two concentrates containing two different ASs and of concentrate without AS to the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli was studied. Mortality of gammarids exposed to the concentrate without AS was not different to the control, whereas concentrates including ASs caused mortality rates up to 100% at the highest test concentrations after 168 h. Resulting EC50-values were 36.2-39.4% (v/v) after 96 h and 26.6-58.0% (v/v) after 168 h. These results suggest that the ecotoxicological relevance of antiscalants is greater than currently assumed. PMID:25476491

  3. Comparison of ethanol toxicity to Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia tested at two different temperatures: static acute toxicity test results

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, I.T.; Cowgill, U.M.; Murphy, P.G.

    1987-08-01

    Ethanol is a commonly used solvent in toxicity testing, yet there are few studies in the literature devoted to its toxicity to zooplankton. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of Daphnia magna Straus 1820 and Ceriodaphnia dubia J. Richard 1894 to ethanol. Two temperatures were selected because most toxicity data involving D. magna has been carried out at 20/sup 0/C while all discussions concerning C. dubia appear to relate to temperatures oscillating around 25/sup 0/C. Thus, the response of these two organisms to ethanol was examined at 20/sup 0/C and at 24/sup 0/C.r

  4. Non-invasive cardiac index monitoring during cardiopulmonary functional testing provides additional prognostic value in patients after acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Feng; Chen, Wei-Siang; Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Liu, Min-Hui; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Huang, Yu-Yen; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Wang, Chao-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The prognostic value of parameters derived from a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is well established in patients stabilized after acute heart failure (HF). Under multidisciplinary disease management, this study sought to test whether noninvasive cardiac output (CO) monitoring (NICOM) during the CPET provides additional prognostic value. In total, 131 patients stabilized after acute HF agreed to undergo the CPET with NICOM. Outcome follow-up focused on composite events of death and HF-related rehospitalization. Patients with a peak cardiac index (CI) of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/ m(2) (n = 32), compared to those with a peak CI of > 4.5 L/minute/m(2) (n = 99), had higher incidences of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension, but had lower hemoglobin levels, estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)). During the 1.2 ± 0.7 years of follow-up, there were 8 (6.1%) deaths, and 16 (12.2%) HF-related rehospitalizations. In a Cox univariable analysis, a lower event-free survival was associated with a history of DM, a higher Ve/VCO(2) slope, lower peak VCO(2) and eGFR, and a peak CI of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/ m(2) (P < 0.05). The Cox multivariable analysis showed that the Ve/VCO(2) slope (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01~1.16, P = 0.02) and peak CI of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/m(2 )(HR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.18~9.01, P = 0.02) were significant independent predictors. In conclusion, NICOM during the CPET was demonstrated to provide prognostic information in addition to traditional risk factors, biomarkers, and other well-established CPET parameters. PMID:23258137

  5. Developing and testing a patient information booklet for thrombolysis used in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Peter; Wanklyn, Peter; Raynor, D K; Waxman, Robin

    2010-12-01

    Objective  Thrombolysis decreases the chance of post-stroke dependence, although its use carries significant risk, notably of intra-cerebral haemorrhage. Patients (and families) face an important risk/benefit decision before consenting. We drafted a patient information booklet for this purpose, and applied performance-based readability testing with the aim that the most important information in the booklet could be found and understood. Methods  The booklet was developed with reference to best practice in information writing and design. We User-Tested its performance on 56 people without prior experience of stroke. After reading the booklet they were asked to find and explain 15 pieces of information. The booklet was revised according to its performance and re-tested, until each item was found and understood by at least 80% of participants. Key findings  The four-page information booklet contained approximately 900 words, organised into six sections. A risk-palette graphic showed the chance of positive and negative outcomes. The booklet was tested on four participant cohorts and revised, including more bold text, re-wording, changing the title and changing the graphic to a coloured bar chart. Testing the final version on the fourth cohort of 20 people showed that each of the 15 tested items of information met the target of at least 80% participants being able to find and understand it. Conclusions  The use of information design and User Testing produced a booklet that is understandable by people with no prior experience of stroke. User Testing is an inexpensive and quick method to ensure that information intended for patients is usable. PMID:21054597

  6. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Y; Lévêque, T; Xiong, T; Schreck, E; Austruy, A; Shahid, M; Dumat, C

    2013-10-01

    Borage, white mustard and phacelia, green manure plants currently used in agriculture to improve soil properties were cultivated for 10 wk on various polluted soils with metal(loid) concentrations representative of urban brownfields or polluted kitchen gardens. Metal(loid) bioavailability and ecotoxicity were measured in relation to soil characteristics before and after treatment. All the plants efficiently grow on the various polluted soils. But borage and mustard only are able to modify the soil characteristics and metal(loid) impact: soil respiration increased while ecotoxicity, bioaccessible lead and total metal(loid) quantities in soils can be decreased respectively by phytostabilization and phytoextraction mechanisms. These two plants could therefore be used for urban polluted soil refunctionalization. However, plant efficiency to improve soil quality strongly depends on soil characteristics. PMID:23968553

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol by N-F-TiO2: identification of intermediates, mechanism involved, genotoxicity and ecotoxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulou, M; Vlastos, D; Konstantinou, I

    2015-03-01

    In the present study the photocatalytic degradation of a toxic priority pollutant, PCP, in the presence of N-F codoped TiO2 was explicitly investigated. The efficiency of the process to remove PCP was monitored for the first time through combined evaluation of several aspects: the kinetic study of the PCP degradation, identification of transformation products by a combination of mass spectrometric techniques (HR-LC-MS and GC-MS), assessment of total mineralization during the process, and evaluation of the genotoxicity and ecotoxicity of the initial and treated solutions applying the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and Microtox assay, respectively. On the basis of identified products, a proposed degradation pathway is presented, involving mainly oxidative dechlorination reactions. Genotoxicity and ecotoxicity studies clearly demonstrated the efficiency of the photocatalytic process in the detoxification as well as in the elimination of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the irradiated solutions. PMID:25266636

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy Assessment of Immunochromatographic Tests for the Rapid Detection of Antibodies against Orientia tsutsugamushi Using Paired Acute and Convalescent Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Watthanaworawit, Wanitda; Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Jintaworn, Suthatip; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Richards, Allen L.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Nosten, François

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of two immunochromatographic tests (ICTs), the Access Bio CareStart Scrub Typhus test (Somerset, NJ) (IgM), and the SD BIOLINE Tsutsugamushi test (Kyonggi-do, Republic of Korea) (IgG, IgM, or IgA) compared with indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and real-time PCR results as reference tests using 86 paired acute and convalescent specimens from febrile patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the CareStart test were 23.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.8–38.6) and 81.4% (95% CI: 66.6–91.6), respectively, for acute specimens and 32.6% (95% CI: 19.1–48.5) and 79.1% (95% CI: 64.0–90.0), respectively, for convalescent specimens. For the SD BIOLINE test, sensitivity and specificity were 20.9% (95% CI: 10.0–36.0) and 74.4% (95% CI: 58.8–86.5), respectively, for acute specimens and 76.7% (95% CI: 61.4–88.2) and 76.7% (95% CI: 61.4–88.2), respectively, for convalescent specimens. The poor sensitivity obtained for both ICTs during this study when performed on acute specimens highlights the difficulties in prompt diagnosis of scrub typhus. PMID:26458778

  9. Acute Oxidative Effect and Muscle Damage after a Maximum 4 Min Test in High Performance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes Filho, José; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine lipid peroxidation markers, physiological stress and muscle damage in elite kayakers in response to a maximum 4-min kayak ergometer test (KE test), and possible correlations with individual 1000m kayaking performances. The sample consisted of twenty-three adult male and nine adult female elite kayakers, with more than three years’ experience in international events, who voluntarily took part in this study. The subjects performed a 10-min warm-up, followed by a 2-min passive interval, before starting the test itself, which consisted of a maximum 4-min work paddling on an ergometer; right after the end of the test, an 8 ml blood sample was collected for analysis. 72 hours after the test, all athletes took part in an official race, when then it was possible to check their performance in the on site K1 1000m test (P1000m). The results showed that all lipoproteins and hematological parameters tested presented a significant difference (p≤0.05) after exercise for both genders. In addition, parameters related to muscle damage such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) presented significant differences after stress. Uric acid presented an inverse correlation with the performance (r = -0.76), while CK presented a positive correlation (r = 0.46) with it. Based on these results, it was possible to verify muscle damage and the level of oxidative stress caused by indoor training with specific ergometers for speed kayaking, highlighting the importance of analyzing and getting to know the physiological responses to this type of training, in order to provide information to coaches and optimize athletic performance. PMID:27111088

  10. Stress testing for risk stratification of patients with low to moderate probability of acute cardiac ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Rudraiah, L; Zalenski, R J

    2001-02-01

    In summary, this article focused on the use of stress testing to risk-stratify patients at the conclusion of their emergency evaluation for ACI. As discussed, those patients in the probably not ACI category require additional risk stratification prior to discharge. It should be kept in mind that patients in this category are heterogeneous, containing subgroups at both higher and lower risk of ACI and cardiac events. The patients with lower pretest probability for ACI may only need exercise testing in the ED. Patients with higher pretest probability should undergo myocardial perfusion or echocardiographic stress testing to maximize diagnostic and prognostic information. Prognostic information is the key to provocative testing in the ED. Prognostic information is the component that will help emergency physicians identify the patients who may be discharged home safely without having to worry about a 6% annual cardiac death rate and a 10% overall death rate over the next 30 months. Stress testing provides this key prognostic data, and it can be obtained in short-stay chest pain observation units in a safe, timely, and cost-effective fashion. PMID:11214405

  11. Nanoparticles in wastewater treatment plants: a novel acute toxicity test for ciliates and its implementation in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Corinna; von Tümpling, Wolf; Berendonk, Thomas; Jungmann, Dirk

    2015-05-01

    Nanomaterial (NM) release into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is inevitable due to increased production and application throughout past decades and in the future. Concern arose about environmental risks and impact on activated sludge. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) for NMs according to established guidelines is considered not suitable, because NMs exhibit unique characteristics. For hazard identification on activated sludge, standard test organisms for aquatic toxicity testing are not meaningful. In this study, we developed an acute toxicity test for ciliates (Paramecium tetraurelia) as representatives of the important functional group of microbial predators and filter feeders. We chose silver nanoparticles (nAg) exemplarily for ion releasing nanoparticles and regarded toxicity by ions as well. Our results indicate that ions are more toxic (EC₅₀ 0.73 mg/L) than nanoparticles themselves (EC₅₀ 2.15 mg/L). However, nAg must be considered as a source of ions and requires size, surface coating, and compartment-specific ERA. We strived to develop such ERA based on our results, modeled environmental concentration data from literature, and surface area concentrations. Results indicated a probable risk toward activated sludge. This likely has effects on effluent water quality. We conclude that carefully modeled environmental concentrations are vital for more exact ERA for nAg and other NMs. PMID:25592910

  12. USEtox - The UNEP-SETAC toxicity model: recommended characterisation factors for human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Bachmann, Till M.; Swirsky Gold, Lois; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Jolliet, Olivier; Juraske, Ronnie; Koehler, Annette; Larsen, Henrik F.; MacLeod, Matthew; Margni, Manuele; McKone, Thomas E.; Payet, Jerome; Schuhmacher, Marta; van de Meent, Dik; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2008-02-03

    Background, Aim and Scope. In 2005 a comprehensive comparison of LCIA toxicity characterisation models was initiated by the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, directly involving the model developers of CalTOX, IMPACT 2002, USES-LCA, BETR, EDIP, WATSON, and EcoSense. In this paper we describe this model-comparison process and its results--in particular the scientific consensus model developed by the model developers. The main objectives of this effort were (i) to identify specific sources of differences between the models' results and structure, (ii) to detect the indispensable model components, and (iii) to build a scientific consensus model from them, representing recommended practice. Methods. A chemical test set of 45 organics covering a wide range of property combinations was selected for this purpose. All models used this set. In three workshops, the model comparison participants identified key fate, exposure and effect issues via comparison of the final characterisation factors and selected intermediate outputs for fate, human exposure and toxic effects for the test set applied to all models. Results. Through this process, we were able to reduce inter-model variation from an initial range of up to 13 orders of magnitude down to no more than 2 orders of magnitude for any substance. This led to the development of USEtox, a scientific consensus model that contains only the most influential model elements. These were, for example, process formulations accounting for intermittent rain, defining a closed or open system environment, or nesting an urban box in a continental box. Discussion. The precision of the new characterisation factors (CFs) is within a factor of 100-1000 for human health and 10-100 for freshwater ecotoxicity of all other models compared to 12 orders of magnitude variation between the CFs of each model respectively. The achieved reduction of inter-model variability by up to 11 orders of magnitude is a significant improvement.Conclusions. USEtox

  13. Changes in the geochemistry and ecotoxicity of a Zn and Cd contaminated dredged sediment over time after land disposal.

    PubMed

    Piou, Stéphanie; Bataillard, Philippe; Laboudigue, Agnès; Férard, Jean-François; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2009-08-01

    The management of dredged sediments is of environmental concern worldwide since they may be overloaded with myriads of pollutants. For inland waters' sediments, disposal on land is a common practice. For the long-term risks assessment of such a management, a better understanding of the fate of pollutants over time and an assessment of possible associated biological consequences are needed. Here, we studied the geochemical distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd in sediment dredged from the Scarpe canal (Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region, France). Analyses were carried out immediately after dredging and 12, 18 and 24 months after disposal in field conditions. In parallel, ecotoxicity of sediment leachates was assessed using standardized bioassays. The results reflected an initial oxidation of sulphides (first year) followed by changes explained by a reversible binding of metals to organic matter in winter and to Fe oxihydroxides in summer. The water-leachable fraction represented less than 2% of the total metal and its ecotoxicity was higher for deposited sediments than for the fresh one. After first year of disposal, sediment ecotoxicity remained stable. A long-term natural attenuation of metals within disposed sediment seemed unlikely since their speciation seemed to fluctuate seasonally without any time trend over years. PMID:19464680

  14. The Time between Paraquat Ingestion and a Negative Dithionite Urine Test in an Independent Risk Factor for Death and Organ Failure in Acute Paraquat Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Sujin; Kim, Young-hee; Gil, Hyo-wook; Song, Ho-yeon

    2012-01-01

    To identify a prognostic marker that is less sensitive to variations in the elapsed time since paraquat ingestion, we assessed the time between paraquat ingestion and a negative dithionite urine test as a prognostic parameter in patients with acute paraquat intoxication. Forty-one patients with acute paraquat intoxication were enrolled in this study and analyzed to verify significant determinants of mortality and organ dysfunction. The amount of paraquat ingested, paraquat plasma levels, and the time to a negative urine dithionite test were significant independent risk factors predicting mortality. The amount of paraquat ingestion, and the time to a negative urine dithionite test were independent risk factors predicting organ dysfunction. With a cut-off value of 34.5 hr for the time to negative conversion of the urine dithionite test, the sensitivity and specificity for mortality were 71.4% and 75.0%, respectively. The incidence of acute kidney injury and respiratory failure above 34.5 hr were 100% and 85.0%, respectively. In conclusion, the time to a negative urine dithionite test is the reliable marker for predicting mortality and/or essential organ failure in patients with acute paraquat intoxication, who survive 72 hr. PMID:22969243

  15. Incorporating Acute HIV Screening into Routine HIV Testing at Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinics, and HIV Testing and Counseling Centers in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Pettifor, Audrey E.; Phiri, Sam; Kamanga, Gift; Hoffman, Irving F.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Rosenberg, Nora E.; Nsona, Dominic; Pasquale, Dana; Tegha, Gerald; Powers, Kimberly A.; Phiri, Mcleod; Tembo, Bisweck; Chege, Wairimu; Miller, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Integrating acute HIV-infection (AHI) testing into clinical settings is critical to prevent transmission, and realize potential treatment-as-prevention benefits. We evaluated acceptability of AHI testing and compared AHI prevalence at sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and HIV testing and counseling (HTC) clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods: We conducted HIV RNA testing for HIV-seronegative patients visiting STI and HTC clinics. AHI was defined as positive RNA and negative/discordant rapid antibody tests. We evaluated demographic, behavioral, and transmission-risk differences between STI and HTC patients and assessed performance of a risk-score for targeted screening. Results: Nearly two-thirds (62.8%, 9280/14,755) of eligible patients consented to AHI testing. We identified 59 persons with AHI (prevalence = 0.64%)–a 0.9% case-identification increase. Prevalence was higher at STI [1.03% (44/4255)] than at HTC clinics [0.3% (15/5025), P < 0.01], accounting for 2.3% of new diagnoses vs 0.3% at HTC clinic. Median viral load (VL) was 758,050 copies per milliliter; 25% (15/59) had VL ≥10,000,000 copies per milliliter. Median VL was higher at STI (1,000,000 copies/mL) compared with HTC (153,125 copies/mL, P = 0.2). Among persons with AHI, those tested at STI clinics were more likely to report genital sores compared with those tested at HTC clinics (54.6% vs 6.7%, P < 0.01). The risk score algorithm performed well in identifying persons with AHI at HTC clinics (sensitivity = 73%, specificity = 89%). Conclusions: The majority of patients consented to AHI testing. AHI prevalence was substantially higher in STI clinics than HTC clinics. Remarkably high VLs and concomitant genital scores demonstrate the potential for transmission. Universal AHI screening at STI clinics, and targeted screening at HTC centers, should be considered. PMID:26428231

  16. Utilization of fecal occult blood test in the acute hospital setting and its impact on clinical management and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghi, S; Ren, H; Catungal, J; Yen, I; Liu, B; Wong, RJ; Bhuket, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite lack of evidence supporting the use of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in the acute hospital setting, FOBT is commonly used in the inpatient setting for reasons other than colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Aims: To evaluate practice trends in utilizing FOBT on inpatients and its impact on affecting clinical management and outcomes. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of consecutive adult patients undergoing FOBT from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011 during an acute medical admission at a large urban safety net hospital was performed. Indications for FOBT, and the impact of FOBT results on endoscopic procedures performed and clinical outcomes were assessed. The number of inpatient endoscopic procedures before and after discontinuing inpatient FOBT was also assessed. Results: A total of 207 inpatient FOBTs were performed in 2011. The most common reason cited for FOBT was anemia (36%, n = 74) followed by gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding (27%, n = 55). Interestingly, 23% (n = 47) of the patients undergoing inpatient FOBT had overt GI bleeding. As expected, patients with positive FOBT were significantly more likely to undergo endoscopic examinations (P < 0.01). After discontinuing the availability of inpatient FOBT, patients were less likely to undergo endoscopic examinations [odds ratio (OR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-0.85]. Conclusion: Inappropriate utilization of FOBT in the inpatient setting is common, even when the indication does not support its use. Setting limitations on inpatient FOBT may reduce the inappropriate utilization of inpatient FOBT. Quality improvement initiatives are needed to educate clinicians on the appropriate use of FOBT, which is primarily for average risk CRC screening. PMID:27089107

  17. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old) immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Results Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %), but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP), leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent) and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine. PMID:22691230

  18. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species - SETAC Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and inter-laboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the two life stages; and the variation in sensitiv...

  19. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the 2 life stages; and the variation in se...

  20. Acute toxicity of 31 different nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio) tested in adulthood and in early life stages – comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Kovrižnych, Jevgenij A.; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena; Wimmerová, Soňa

    2013-01-01

    At present, nanoparticles are beginning to influence our lives in many ways and understanding the environmental health and safety aspect of nanomaterials has become a crucial issue. The aim of the work was to assess and compare the acute toxicity of 31 different nanomaterials to fish mature individuals Danio rerio with that to fish early life stages on using evaluation of the 48- and 96- hour LC50 values. A further aim was to evaluate teratogenicity of the nanoparticles tested to fish eggs. The nanoparticles tested were: 8 pure metals, 10 metal oxides, 5 other metal compounds and their mixtures, 2 silicon compounds, 3 calcium compounds, and 3 carbon compounds. Using 48-h and 96-h tests of acute toxicity (according to OECD 203), we evaluated mortality data, LC50 values, occurrence of malformations, as well as hatching time. In our study, 6 kinds of nanoparticles – calcium oxide, copper, copper in the form of oxide and CuZnFe4O4, magnesium oxide, and nickel – caused cumulative mortality. Two kinds of nanoparticles – copper and silver – were toxic for fish with LC50 values of approximately 3 mg/L. We did not observe marked differences between the 48-hour and 96-hour acute toxicity LC50 values, yet the possibility to evaluate hatching time in the 96-h acute fish toxicity test seems to be an advantage against that of the 48-hour toxicity. PMID:24179431

  1. CHALLENGE WITH BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS BY EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENTLY INFECTED CALVES: PROTECTION BY VACCINATION AND NEGATIVE RESULTS OF ANTIGEN TESTING IN NONVACCINATED ACUTELY INFECTED CALVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calves persistently infected (PI) with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) represent an important source of infection for susceptible cattle. We evaluated vaccine efficacy using calves PI with noncytopathic BVDV2a for the challenge and compared tests to detect BVDV in acutely or transiently infected ...

  2. Interim report on the genetic and animal toxicity testing of SRC-I products, intermediates, and waste materials. Appendix D. Acute animal studies reports

    SciTech Connect

    Drozdowicz, B.Z.; Kelly, C.M.

    1983-09-01

    Appendix D is a collection of 25 individual reports on the toxicity of SRC-I products, intermediates and residues to rabbits, rats and guinea pigs with acute oral, dermal and inhalation exposure. It includes also eye and dermal irritation tests in rabbits and guinea pigs and dermal sensitization studies in albino guinea pigs. (LTN)

  3. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of TPH-contaminated soils with the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Nazerias, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    Responses of Eisenia foetida to petroleum-contaminated soils are being assessed using a 21-day test described previously. The authors prepared dilutions of two soils, referred to as A and B, using their reference-soil counterparts, collected from near the contaminated sites. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of each soil was measured by latroscan before the dilutions were prepared. References for the A and B soils contained 167 and 1,869 ppm of TPH, respectively. Thus, neither reference soil was pristine. Dilutions of the A soil tested with E. foetida contained from 179 to 305 ppm TPH; dilutions of the B soil contained from 1,875 to 1,950 ppm TPH. E foetida survival was 100% in both dilution series. Mean growth of Eisenia in dilutions of the A soil ranged from 48 to 74 mg dry-weight growth per pair of worms; these values were lower than those in any dilution of the B soil series. Lipid levels of worms in higher concentrations of the A and B soils were similar to one another and to published values, suggesting little inhibition of feeding in either dilution series. Earthworm reproduction was zero in the A series, but moderately high in the B series. Thus, the A soil apparently contained materials other than TPH that inhibited earthworm growth and reproduction. This study shows that (1) TPH at concentrations as high as 1,800 ppm may not always be inhibitor to earthworm growth or reproduction and (2) that earthworm survival, as a test endpoint, is much less sensitive than either growth or reproduction.

  4. Acute toxicological effects on the earthworm Eisenia fetida of 18 common pharmaceuticals in artificial soil.

    PubMed

    Pino, Ma Rosa; Val, Jonatan; Mainar, Ana Ma; Zuriaga, Estefanía; Español, Cecilia; Langa, Elisa

    2015-06-15

    Following soil applications of recycled water and biosolids, pharmaceutical residues can eventually enter the terrestrial environment. In vitro and in vivo assays have largely focused on the acute ecotoxicity of these compounds in aquatic systems. However, studies on the ecotoxicological effects of pharmaceuticals in soil biota are especially scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity of 18 pharmaceuticals (4 NSAIDs, 5 blood lipid-lowering agents, 6 β-blockers and 3 antibiotics) that are usually found in the environment by using an Eisenia fetida bioassay. In addition, the presence of these pharmaceuticals in artificial soil was verified at the end of the test. Our results indicate that seven of the studied drugs cause acute adverse effects in E. fetida, in particular, the NSAIDs and the blood lipid-lowering agents. Ibuprofen (LC50=64.80 mg/kg) caused the highest acute toxicity for all tested compounds, followed by diclofenac (LC50=90.49 mg/kg) and simvastatin (LC50=92.70 mg/kg). Other tested pharmaceuticals from NSAIDs and blood lipid-lowering families have toxicity effects, from a LC50=140.87 mg/kg for gemfibrozil to 795.07 mg/kg for lovastatin. Atorvastatin, bezafibrate, β-blockers and antibiotics showed no detectable lethality in E. fetida. The four NSAIDs showed evidence of modification of their original chemical structure after 14 days so the detected toxicity may be due to the original product as well as their degradation products. The three blood lipid-lowering agents seem to be more stable in soil. From an environmental perspective, the lethal concentrations of the tested drugs are much greater than those reported in wastewater and biosolids, therefore acute toxic effects may be improbable. However, little is known about the accumulation of these substances in soils after regular applications, so accumulative and chronic effects cannot be excluded. Moreover, more studies are needed to determine the role of the degradation

  5. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  6. Fish embryo toxicity test: identification of compounds with weak toxicity and analysis of behavioral effects to improve prediction of acute toxicity for neurotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; König, Maria; Ortmann, Julia; Massei, Riccardo; Paschke, Albrecht; Kühne, Ralph; Scholz, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The fish embryo toxicity test has been proposed as an alternative for the acute fish toxicity test, but concerns have been raised for its predictivity given that a few compounds have been shown to exhibit a weak acute toxicity in the fish embryo. In order to better define the applicability domain and improve the predictive capacity of the fish embryo test, we performed a systematic analysis of existing fish embryo and acute fish toxicity data. A correlation analysis of a total of 153 compounds identified 28 compounds with a weaker or no toxicity in the fish embryo test. Eleven of these compounds exhibited a neurotoxic mode of action. We selected a subset of eight compounds with weaker or no embryo toxicity (cyanazine, picloram, aldicarb, azinphos-methyl, dieldrin, diquat dibromide, endosulfan, and esfenvalerate) to study toxicokinetics and a neurotoxic mode of action as potential reasons for the deviating fish embryo toxicity. Published fish embryo LC50 values were confirmed by experimental analysis of zebrafish embryo LC50 according to OECD guideline 236. Except for diquat dibromide, internal concentration analysis did not indicate a potential relation of the low sensitivity of fish embryos to a limited uptake of the compounds. Analysis of locomotor activity of diquat dibromide and the neurotoxic compounds in 98 hpf embryos (exposed for 96 h) indicated a specific effect on behavior (embryonic movement) for the neurotoxic compounds. The EC50s of behavior for neurotoxic compounds were close to the acute fish toxicity LC50. Our data provided the first evidence that the applicability domain of the fish embryo test (LC50s determination) may exclude neurotoxic compounds. However, neurotoxic compounds could be identified by changes in embryonic locomotion. Although a quantitative prediction of acute fish toxicity LC50 using behavioral assays in fish embryos may not yet be possible, the identification of neurotoxicity could trigger the conduction of a conventional fish

  7. Aquatic ecotoxicity of lanthanum - A review and an attempt to derive water and sediment quality criteria.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Henning; Nolde, Jürgen; Berger, Svend; Heise, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) used to be taken as tracers of geological origin for fluvial transport. Nowadays their increased applications in innovative environmental-friendly technology (e.g. in catalysts, superconductors, lasers, batteries) and medical applications (e.g. MRI contrast agent) lead to man-made, elevated levels in the environment. So far, no regulatory thresholds for REE concentrations and emissions to the environment have been set because information on risks from REE is scarce. However, evidence gathers that REE have to be acknowledged as new, emerging contaminants with manifold ways of entry into the environment, e.g. through waste water from hospitals or through industrial effluents. This paper reviews existing information on bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity of lanthanum in the aquatic environment. Lanthanum is of specific interest as one of the major lanthanides in industrial effluents. This review focuses on the freshwater and the marine environment, and tackles the water column and sediments. From these data, methods to derive quality criteria for sediment and water are discussed and preliminary suggestions are made. PMID:26528910

  8. Chemical footprint method for improved communication of freshwater ecotoxicity impacts in the context of ecological limits.

    PubMed

    Bjørn, Anders; Diamond, Miriam; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2014-11-18

    The ecological footprint method has been successful in communicating environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities in the context of ecological limits. We introduce a chemical footprint method that expresses ecotoxicity impacts from anthropogenic chemical emissions as the dilution needed to avoid freshwater ecosystem damage. The indicator is based on USEtox characterization factors with a modified toxicity reference point. Chemical footprint results can be compared to the actual dilution capacity within the geographic vicinity receiving the emissions to estimate whether its ecological limit has been exceeded and hence whether emissions can be expected to be environmentally sustainable. The footprint method was illustrated using two case studies. The first was all inventoried emissions from European countries and selected metropolitan areas in 2004, which indicated that the dilution capacity was likely exceeded for most European countries and all landlocked metropolitan areas. The second case study indicated that peak application of pesticides alone was likely to exceed Denmark's freshwater dilution capacity in 1999-2011. The uncertainty assessment showed that better spatially differentiated fate factors would be useful and pointed out other major sources of uncertainty and some opportunities to reduce these. PMID:25347848

  9. Ecotoxicity by the biodegradation of alkylphenol polyethoxylates depends on the effect of trace elements.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Yudai; Hosoda, Akifumi; Sano, Fumihiko; Wakayama, Manabu; Niwa, Katsuki; Yoshikawa, Hiromichi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2010-01-27

    The bacteria Sphingomonas sp. strain BSN22, isolated from bean fields, degraded octylphenol polyethoxylates (OPEO(n)) to octylphenol (OP) under aerobic conditions. This biodegradation mechanism proceeded by the following two-step degradation process: (1) degradation of OPEO(n) to octylphenol triethoxylate (OPEO(3)), (2) degradation from OPEO(3) to OP via octylphenoxy acetic acid (OPEC(1)). The chemical structure of OPEC(1) was confirmed by analysis using (18)O-labeled water. Quantitative studies revealed that magnesium (Mg(2+)) and calcium (Ca(2+)) ions were essential for the biodegradation of OPEO(n). Furthermore, the rate of biodegradation was especially accelerated by ferric ions (Fe(3+)), and the accumulated amounts of endocrine active chemicals, such as OP, OPEO(1), and OPEC(1), significantly increased to the concentration of 22.8, 221.7, and 961.1 microM in the presence of 37.0 microM Fe(3+), respectively. This suggests that environmental elements significantly influence the resultant ecotoxicity as well as the rate of their biodegradation in the environment. This study on the mechanism of OPEO(n) biodegradation may play an important role in understanding and managing environmental safety, including drinking water safety. PMID:20025273

  10. Ecotoxicity evaluation and removal of sulfonamides and their acetylated metabolites during conventional wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    García-Galán, María Jesús; González Blanco, Susana; López Roldán, Ramón; Díaz-Cruz, Silvia; Barceló, Damiá

    2012-10-15

    The present study describes the evaluation of the risk posed by the occurrence of sulfonamides (SAs) in wastewaters. A fully automated analytical method based on on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on line SPE-LC-MS/MS) was developed, validated and applied for the analysis of sixteen SAs and, for the first time in wastewaters and sewage sludge, five of their acetylated metabolites. Influent and effluent samples from twenty two different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Catalonia (Spain) and sewage sludge from fifteen of them were analyzed; removal rates (RE%) and half-lives (t(1/2)) for each SA were calculated. The estimated correlations between RE% and to the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the different plants indicated no clear influence of HRT on removals. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfapyridine (SPY) and their corresponding acetylated metabolites were detected with the highest frequencies of detection and at the highest concentrations. The ecotoxicity of both SPY and AcSPY was evaluated for the first time through bioluminescent inhibition assays, resulting in a higher toxicity being attributed to the metabolite. Finally, the potential environmental risk posed by the levels of SAs detected was evaluated calculating the hazard quotients (HQ) to different non-target aquatic organisms in treated wastewaters. SMX was the only SA posing a risk to algae, with an HQ>10. PMID:22960452

  11. Comprehensive review of several surfactants in marine environments: Fate and ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mathew; Eadsforth, Charles; Schowanek, Diederik; Delfosse, Thomas; Riddle, Andrew; Budgen, Nigel

    2016-05-01

    Surfactants are a commercially important group of chemicals widely used on a global scale. Despite high removal efficiencies during wastewater treatment, their high consumption volumes mean that a certain fraction will always enter aquatic ecosystems, with marine environments being the ultimate sites of deposition. Consequently, surfactants have been detected within marine waters and sediments. However, aquatic environmental studies have mostly focused on the freshwater environment, and marine studies are considerably underrepresented by comparison. The present review aims to provide a summary of current marine environmental fate (monitoring, biodegradation, and bioconcentration) and effects data of 5 key surfactant groups: linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxysulfates, alkyl sulfates, alcohol ethoxylates, and ditallow dimethyl ammonium chloride. Monitoring data are currently limited, especially for alcohol ethoxysulfates and alkyl sulfates. Biodegradation was shown to be considerably slower under marine conditions, whereas ecotoxicity studies suggest that marine species are approximately equally as sensitive to these surfactants as freshwater species. Marine bioconcentration studies are almost nonexistent. Current gaps within the literature are presented, thereby highlighting research areas where additional marine studies should focus. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1077-1086. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26526979

  12. Complex evaluation of ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of antimicrobials oxytetracycline and flumequine used in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Zounková, Radka; Klimešová, Zdeňka; Nepejchalová, Leona; Hilscherová, Klára; Bláha, Luděk

    2011-05-01

    Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of widely used veterinary antimicrobials oxytetracycline and flumequine was studied with six model organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Lemna minor, Daphnia magna, Escherichia coli). Overall median effective concentration (EC50) values ranged from 0.22 mg/L to 86 mg/L. Pseudomonas putida was the most sensitive organism (EC50 values for 16-h growth inhibition were 0.22 and 0.82 mg/L for oxytetracycline and flumequine, respectively), followed by duckweed Lemna minor (7-d growth inhibition, EC50 2.1 and 3.0 mg/L) and green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (4-d growth inhibition, EC50 3.1 and 2.6 mg/L). The least sensitive organism was Daphnia magna (48-h immobilization, lowest-observed-effect concentration [LOEC] of oxytetracycline of 400 mg/L). Oxytetracycline showed limited genotoxicity (SOS-chromotest with Escherichia coli, minimal genotoxic concentration of 500 mg/L), and flumequine was genotoxic at 0.25 mg/L. Based on the reported measured concentrations (MECs) and predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs), oxytetracycline may be concluded to be of ecotoxicological concern (calculated risk quotient = 8), whereas flumequine seems to represent lower risk. PMID:21312248

  13. The clock-drawing test as a possible indicator of acute psychosis.

    PubMed

    Tene, Oren; Sigler, Mayanit; Shiloh, Roni; Weizman, Abraham; Aizenberg, Dov

    2016-05-01

    The clock-drawing test (CDT) is used widely to evaluate cognitive disorders, but its role in the assessment of psychotic disorders has not been studied. We sought to examine whether the CDT plays a role as an indicator of psychosis and to establish its sensitivity to clinical improvement of psychosis. The CDT was administered twice to 53 hospitalized patients without dementia but with psychosis: once at admission and again before discharge. The CDT scores were calculated in a random order by two independent senior psychiatrists who were blinded to the patients' status (admission or discharge). The inter-rater reliability was high (0.89 at admission, 0.85 at discharge, P<0.01 for both). The severity of psychosis was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Patients had significantly lower CDT scores at admission than at discharge (2.87±1.39 vs. 3.91±1.08, respectively, P<0.01). The PANSS-total score of the patients showed a significant improvement (84.90±17.77 vs. 69.18±16.23, P<0.01). An inverse correlation was found between CDT performance and psychosis severity, as reflected by the PANSS-positive symptom subscale at admission (R=-0.279, P<0.05). Our findings suggest that the CDT may aid in the assessment of psychotic states and in their clinical monitoring. PMID:26752620

  14. Terrestrial and aquatic ecotoxicity assessment of Cr(VI) by the ReCiPe method calculation (LCIA): application on an old industrial contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Adam, Véronique; Quaranta, Gaétana; Loyaux-Lawniczak, Stéphanie

    2013-05-01

    The most stable forms of chromium in the environment are chromium (III) and chromium (VI), the former being relatively immobile and necessary for organisms, and the latter being highly soluble and toxic. It is thus important to characterise ecotoxicological impacts of Cr(VI). However, there are still some important uncertainties in the calculation of ecotoxicological impacts of heavy metals in the LCIA global approach. The aim of this paper is to understand how the spatial and dynamic characterization of life cycle inventory (LCI) data can be exploited in life cycle impact assessment and particularly for the evaluation of the aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity of Cr(VI). To quantify these impacts, we studied an industrial waste landfill in the North of France that was contaminated with chromium. On the polluted area, the aquatic contamination is due to the slag heap as well as to chromium spots in soil. The soil contamination is mainly due to infiltration of chromium from the infill. The concentration of Cr(VI) in soil and water varies according to seasonal climatic variations and groundwater level. These variations have an effect on the Cr(VI) fate factor, in particular on transfer and residence time of the substance. This study underlines the spatial distribution of aquatic ecotoxicity and the temporal variation of freshwater ecotoxicity. We analysed the correlation between precipitation, temperature, concentration and ecotoxicity impact. With regards to the terrestrial ecotoxicity, the study focused on the vertical variation of the ecotoxicity and the major role of the soil layer composition into terrestrial pollution. PMID:23093416

  15. Microalgae treatment removes nutrients and reduces ecotoxicity of diluted piggery digestate.

    PubMed

    Franchino, Marta; Tigini, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Mussat Sartor, Rocco; Bona, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    Liquid digestate is considered as an important by-product of anaerobic digestion of agriculture wastes. Currently, it is very often directly spread on local agricultural land. Yet recently concerns on its environmental risk of this processing has begun to rise. On the other hand, investigations on the effectiveness of microalgae for wastewater treatment have started to consider also this complex matrix. In this study, we cultured the green alga Chlorella vulgaris in diluted digestate coming from the anaerobic digestion of pig slurry and corn, with the aim to significantly reduce its toxicity and its very high nutrient concentration. For this purpose, a battery of toxicity tests composed of four acute and two chronic bioassays was applied after the alga cultivation. Results were compared with those obtained in the initial characterization of the digestate. Results show that highly diluted piggery digestate can be a suitable medium for culturing microalgae, as we obtained a high removal efficiency (>90%) for ammonia, total nitrogen and phosphate, though after a few days phosphorus limitation occurred. Toxicity was significantly reduced for all the organisms tested. Possible solutions for optimizing this approach avoiding high dilution rates are discussed. PMID:27328398

  16. Ecotoxicity in the Reconquista River, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J; Perez-Coll, C S; Herkovits, F D

    1996-01-01

    The Reconquista River in Argentina is considered a "supercritical" river basin due to environmental degradation. Within its valley of 1.547 km2, there are more than 3 million inhabitants and 12,000 industries. Using early-life-stage toxicity tests with Bufo arenarum embryos (the most sensitive of three native species), we determined the water quality at six sampling stations of the river valley and expressed the results as acute and chronic toxicity units. Along most of the river, the toxicity was higher than the allowable level of whole industrial effluent toxicity recommended by U.S. EPA. In a tributary stream, Arroyo Moron, the water was about 10 times more toxic than the criteria maximum concentration (CMC) recommended by U.S. EPA for industrial effluents. Similar degradation of the water quality was found taking as a reference value an upstream sampling station. In all places where the water quality was worse than the CMC, no macroorganisms were found, and in one of these places, a large number of dead fishes was observed. Our study points out that amphibian early-life-stage toxicity tests could be appropriate for assessing water contamination and water quality, which is essential for diagnosis, protection of environmental services, monitoring, and restoration purposes. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8820587

  17. The ecotoxic potential of a new zero-valent iron nanomaterial, designed for the elimination of halogenated pollutants, and its effect on reductive dechlorinating microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Schiwy, Andreas; Maes, Hanna M; Koske, Daniel; Flecken, Mirkko; Schmidt, Kathrin R; Schell, Heico; Tiehm, Andreas; Kamptner, Andre; Thümmler, Silke; Stanjek, Helge; Heggen, Marc; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Braun, Jürgen; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ecotoxic potential of a new zero-valent iron nanomaterial produced for the elimination of chlorinated pollutants at contaminated sites. Abiotic dechlorination through the newly developed nanoscale zero-valent iron material and its effects on dechlorinating bacteria were investigated in anaerobic batch and column experiments. The aged, i.e. oxidized, iron material was characterization with dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffractometry and cell-free reactive oxygen measurements. Furthermore, it was evaluated in aerobic ecotoxicological test systems with algae, crustacean, and fish, and also applied in a mechanism specific test for mutagenicity. The anaerobic column experiments showed co-occurrence of abiotic and biological dechlorination of the common groundwater contaminant perchloroethene. No prolonged toxicity of the nanomaterial (measured for up to 300 days) towards the investigated dechlorinating microorganism was observed. The nanomaterial has a flake like appearance and an inhomogeneous size distribution. The toxicity to crustacean and fish was calculated and the obtained EC50 values were 163 mg/L and 458 mg/L, respectively. The nanomaterial showed no mutagenicity. It physically interacted with algae, which had implications for further testing and the evaluation of the results. Thus, the newly developed iron nanomaterial was slightly toxic in its reduced state but no prolonged toxicity was recorded. The aquatic tests revealed a low toxicity with EC50 values ≥ 163 mg/L. These concentrations are unlikely to be reached in the aquatic environment. Hence, this nanomaterial is probably of no environmental concern not prohibiting its application for groundwater remediation. PMID:27317494

  18. Acute administration of toluene affects memory retention in novel object recognition test and memory function-related gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Fujimaki, Hidekazu

    2012-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the acute effect of a single administration of toluene (300 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on memory retention in the hippocampus-dependent novel object recognition test and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit expression in the hippocampus of C3H/HeN female mice using real-time RT-PCR. We performed a novel object recognition test including a habituation phase, training phase and test phase in each mouse. Twenty-four hours after the training phase, to determine the effect of acute toluene administration on memory retention, half of the mice (n=10) were injected with toluene 60 min before the test phase. Toluene-injected mice did not prefer novel objects and showed poor discrimination between novel and familiar objects and decreased expression of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B mRNA in the hippocampus. This is the first study to show that acute toluene injection impairs hippocampus-dependent nonspatial memory retention accompanied by selective modulation of NMDA receptor subunit expression. PMID:21607994

  19. A possible approach to large-scale laboratory testing for acute radiation sickness after a nuclear detonation.

    PubMed

    Adalja, Amesh A; Watson, Matthew; Wollner, Samuel; Toner, Eric

    2011-12-01

    After the detonation of an improvised nuclear device, several key actions will be necessary to save the greatest number of lives possible. Among these tasks, the identification of patients with impending acute radiation sickness is a critical problem that so far has lacked a clear solution in national planning. We present one possible solution: the formation of a public-private partnership to augment the capacity to identify those at risk for acute radiation sickness. PMID:21988186

  20. Boussignac CPAP system for brain death confirmation with apneic test in case of acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome – series of cases

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Andrzej; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are some patients with severe respiratory disturbances like adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and suspicion of brain death, for whom typical performance of the apneic test is difficult to complete because of quick desaturation and rapid deterioration without effective ventilation. To avoid failure of brain death confirmation and possible loss of organ donation another approach to apneic test is needed. We present two cases of patients with clinical symptoms of brain death, with lung pathology (acute lung injury, ARDS, lung embolism and lung infection), in whom apneic tests for recognizing brain death were difficult to perform. During typical performance of apneic test involving the use of oxygen catheter for apneic oxygenation we observed severe desaturation with growing hypotension and hemodynamic destabilization. But with the use of Boussignac CPAP system all necessary tests were successfully completed, confirming the patient’s brain death, which gave us the opportunity to perform procedures for organ donation. The main reason of apneic test difficulties was severe gas exchange disturbances secondary to ARDS. Thus lack of positive end expiratory pressure during classical performance of apneic test leads to quick desaturation and rapid hemodynamic deterioration, limiting the observation period below dedicated at least 10-minute interval. Conclusion The Boussignac CPAP system may be an effective tool for performing transparent apneic test in case of serious respiratory disturbances, especially in the form of acute lung injury or ARDS. PMID:26124664

  1. Terrestrial ecotoxicity and effect factors of metals in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Haye, Sébastien; Slaveykova, Vera I; Payet, Jérôme

    2007-07-01

    Life cycle impact assessment aims to translate the amounts of substance emitted during the life cycle of a product into a potential impact on the environment, which includes terrestrial ecosystems. This work suggests some possible improvements in assessing the toxicity of metals on soil ecosystems in life cycle assessment (LCA). The current available data on soil ecotoxicity allow one to calculate the chronic terrestrial HC50(EC50) (hazardous concentration affecting 50% of the species at their EC50 level, i.e. the level where 50% of the individuals of the species are affected) of nine metals and metalloids (As(III) or (V), Be(II), Cr(III) or (VI), Sb(III) or (V), Pb(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II)). Contrarily to what is generally advised in LCIA, the terrestrial HC50 of metals shall not be extrapolated from the aquatic HC50, using the Equilibrium Partitioning method since the partition coefficient (K(d)) of metals is highly variable. The experimental ecotoxicology generally uses metallic salts to contaminate artificial soils but the comparison of the EC50 or NOEC obtained for the same metal with different salts reveals that the kind of salt used insignificantly influences these values. In contrast, depending on the metallic fraction of concern, the EC50 may vary, as for cadmium: the EC50 of Folsomia candida, expressed as free Cd in pore water is almost 2.5 orders of magnitude lower than that expressed as total metal. A similar result is obtained with Eisenia fetida, confirming the importance of metals speciation in assessing their impact on soils. By ranking the metals according to the difference between their terrestrial and aquatic HC50 values, two groups are distinguished, which match the hard soft acids and bases (HSAB) concept. This allows to estimate their affinity for soil components and potential toxicity according to their chemical characteristics. PMID:17467037

  2. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria Exhibit a Species-Specific Response to Dispersed Oil while Moderating Ecotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Overholt, Will A.; Marks, Kala P.; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David J.; Snell, Terry W.

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in April 2010 represented the largest accidental marine oil spill and the largest release of chemical dispersants into the environment to date. While dispersant application may provide numerous benefits to oil spill response efforts, the impacts of dispersants and potential synergistic effects with crude oil on individual hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are poorly understood. In this study, two environmentally relevant species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were utilized to quantify the response to Macondo crude oil and Corexit 9500A-dispersed oil in terms of bacterial growth and oil degradation potential. In addition, specific hydrocarbon compounds were quantified in the dissolved phase of the medium and linked to ecotoxicity using a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved rotifer assay. Bacterial treatment significantly and drastically reduced the toxicity associated with dispersed oil (increasing the 50% lethal concentration [LC50] by 215%). The growth and crude oil degradation potential of Acinetobacter were inhibited by Corexit by 34% and 40%, respectively; conversely, Corexit significantly enhanced the growth of Alcanivorax by 10% relative to that in undispersed oil. Furthermore, both bacterial strains were shown to grow with Corexit as the sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial species demonstrate a unique response to dispersed oil compared to their response to crude oil, with potentially opposing effects on toxicity. While some species have the potential to enhance the toxicity of crude oil by producing biosurfactants, the same bacteria may reduce the toxicity associated with dispersed oil through degradation or sequestration. PMID:26546426

  3. Assessment of four calculation methods proposed by the EC for waste hazardous property HP 14 'Ecotoxic'.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Pierre; Humez, Nicolas; Conche, Isabelle; Bishop, Ian; Rebischung, Flore

    2016-02-01

    established as well, that is when the waste is classified "H" in the LoW and "NH" by calculation (i.e. an under-estimation of the hazard). For Data Set #1, Method 2 with extended M-factors matches best with the LoW (80% concordant H and non-H by LoW, and 13% discordant for H waste by LoW). This method more correctly classifies wastes containing substances with high ecotoxicity. Methods 1 and 3 have nearly as good matches (76% and 72% concordant H and non-H by LoW, and 13% and 6% respectively discordant for H waste by LoW). Method 2 with extended M-factors, but limited to the M-factors published in the CLP has insufficient concordance (64% concordant H and non-H by LoW, and 50% discordant for H waste by LoW). As the same method with extended M-factors gives the best performance, the lower performance is due to the limited set of M-factors in the CLP. Method 4 is divergent (60% concordant H and non-H by LoW, and 56% discordant for H waste by LoW). For Data Set #2, Methods 2 and 4 do not correctly classify 24 air pollution control residues from incineration 19 01 07(∗) (3/24 and 2/24 respectively), and should not be used, while Methods 3, 1 and 2 with extended M-factors successfully classify 100% of them as hazardous. From the two sets of data, Method 2 with extended M-factors (corresponding more closely to the CLP methods used for products) matches best with the LoW when the LoW code is safely known, and Method 3 and 1 will deviate from the LoW if the samples contain substances with high ecotoxicity (in particular PAHs). Methods 2 and 4 are not recommended. Formally, this conclusion depends on the waste streams that are used for the comparison of methods and the relevancy of the classification as hazardous for ecotoxicity in the LoW. Since the set is large (120 waste streams) and no selection has been made here in the available data, the conclusion should be robust. PMID:26690049

  4. A test of the diathesis-stress model in the emergency department: Who develops PTSD after an acute coronary syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Donald; Kronish, Ian M.; Wasson, Lauren Taggart; Giglio, James F.; Davidson, Karina W.; Whang, William

    2014-01-01

    Most acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients first present to the emergency department (ED). Patients who present to overcrowded EDs develop more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms due to the ACS than do patients who present to less crowded EDs, but no research has indicated whether some patients may be more vulnerable to the effects of ED crowding than others. In an observational cohort study, we tested whether depressed patients developed more ACS-induced PTSD symptoms under conditions of ED overcrowding than patients who had never been depressed. We conducted psychiatric interviews for current and past depression in 189 ACS patients admitted through the ED within a week of hospitalization, and screened for PTSD symptoms 1 month later using the Impact of Events Scale-Revised. The sum of ED admissions for the 12 hours prior to and 12 hours after each participant's admission was categorized into tertiles for analysis. In a 3 (ED crowding tertile) by 3 (never, past, current depression) analysis of covariance adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, we found significant effects for ED crowding, depression status, and their interaction (all p's <.05). Mean PTSD scores were significantly higher (p=.005) for participants who were currently depressed and were treated during times of high ED crowding [25.38, 95% CI= 16.18-34.58], or had a history of depression [10.74, 95% CI= 6.86-14.62], relative to all other participants, who scored 5.6 or less. These results suggest that depressed ACS patients may be most vulnerable to the stress-inducing effects of ED crowding. PMID:24612925

  5. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of an Induction Regimen for In Vivo Combined Testing of Novel Drugs against Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min H.; Liem, Natalia L. M.; Carol, Hernan; Boehm, Ingrid; Groepper, Daniel; Reynolds, C. Patrick; Stewart, Clinton F.; Lock, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Current regimens for induction therapy of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), or for re-induction post relapse, use a combination of vincristine (VCR), a glucocorticoid, and l-asparaginase (ASP) with or without an anthracycline. With cure rates now approximately 80%, robust pre-clinical models are necessary to prioritize active new drugs for clinical trials in relapsed/refractory patients, and the ability of these models to predict synergy/antagonism with established therapy is an essential attribute. In this study, we report optimization of an induction-type regimen by combining VCR, dexamethasone (DEX) and ASP (VXL) against ALL xenograft models established from patient biopsies in immune-deficient mice. We demonstrate that the VXL combination was synergistic in vitro against leukemia cell lines as well as in vivo against ALL xenografts. In vivo, VXL treatment caused delays in progression of individual xenografts ranging from 22 to >146 days. The median progression delay of xenografts derived from long-term surviving patients was 2-fold greater than that of xenografts derived from patients who died of their disease. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that systemic DEX exposure in mice increased 2-fold when administered in combination with VCR and ASP, consistent with clinical findings, which may contribute to the observed synergy between the 3 drugs. Finally, as proof-of-principle we tested the in vivo efficacy of combining VXL with either the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL/Bcl-w inhibitor, ABT-737, or arsenic trioxide to provide evidence of a robust in vivo platform to prioritize new drugs for clinical trials in children with relapsed/refractory ALL. PMID:22479469

  6. Antibiotic treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis based on rapid urine test and local epidemiology: lessons from a primary care series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) is an ideal target of optimization for antibiotic therapy in primary care. Because surveillance networks on urinary tract infections (UTI) mix complicated and uncomplicated UTI, reliable epidemiological data on AUC lack. Whether the antibiotic choice should be guided by a rapid urine test (RUT) for leukocytes and nitrites has not been extensively studied in daily practice. The aim of this primary care study was to investigate local epidemiology and RUT-daily use to determine the optimal strategy. Methods General practitioners included 18–65 years women with symptoms of AUC, performed a RUT and sent urines for analysis at a central laboratory. Different treatment strategies were simulated based on RUT and resistance results. Results Among 347 enrolled patients, 78% had a positive urine culture. Escherichia coli predominated (71%) with high rates of susceptibility to nitrofurantoin (100%), fosfomycin (99%), ofloxacin (97%), and even pivmecillinam (87%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (87%). Modelization showed that the systematic use of RUT would reduce by 10% the number of patients treated. Fosfomycin for patients with positive RUT offered a 90% overall bacterial coverage, compared to 98% for nitrofurantoin. 95% for ofloxacin, 86% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 78% for pivmecillinam. Conclusion Local epidemiology surveillance data not biased by complicated UTI demonstrates that the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance has not affected AUC yet. Fosfomycin first line in all patients with positive RUT seems the best treatment strategy for AUC, combining good bacterial coverage with expected low toxicity and limited effect on fecal flora. Trial registration The current study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00958295) PMID:24612927

  7. Bisphenol A migration from plastic materials: direct insight of ecotoxicity in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Mansilha, Catarina; Silva, Poliana; Rocha, Sónia; Gameiro, Paula; Domingues, Valentina; Pinho, Carina; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2013-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) whose migration from food packaging is recognized worldwide. However, the real overall food contamination and related consequences are yet largely unknown. Among humans, children's exposure to BPA has been emphasized because of the immaturity of their biological systems. The main aim of this study was to assess the reproductive impact of BPA leached from commercially available plastic containers used or related to child nutrition, performing ecotoxicological tests using the biomonitoring species Daphnia magna. Acute and chronic tests, as well as single and multigenerational tests were done. Migration of BPA from several baby bottles and other plastic containers evaluated by GC-MS indicated that a broader range of foodstuff may be contaminated when packed in plastics. Ecotoxicological test results performed using defined concentrations of BPA were in agreement with literature, although a precocious maturity of daphnids was detected at 3.0 mg/L. Curiously, an increased reproductive output (neonates per female) was observed when daphnids were bred in the polycarbonate (PC) containers (145.1 ± 4.3 % to 264.7 ± 3.8 %), both in single as in multigenerational tests, in comparison with the negative control group (100.3 ± 1.6 %). A strong correlated dose-dependent ecotoxicological effect was observed, providing evidence that BPA leached from plastic food packaging materials act as functional estrogen in vivo at very low concentrations. In contrast, neonate production by daphnids cultured in polypropylene and non-PC bottles was slightly but not significantly enhanced (92.5 ± 2.0 % to 118.8 ± 1.8 %). Multigenerational tests also revealed magnification of the adverse effects, not only on fecundity but also on mortality, which represents a worrying trend for organisms that are chronically exposed to xenoestrogens for many generations. Two plausible explanations for the observed results

  8. Ecotoxicity of nanoparticles of CuO and ZnO in natural water.

    PubMed

    Blinova, I; Ivask, A; Heinlaan, M; Mortimer, M; Kahru, A

    2010-01-01

    The acute toxicity of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles in artificial freshwater (AFW) and in natural waters to crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus and protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila was compared. The L(E)C(50) values of nanoCuO for both crustaceans in natural water ranged from 90 to 224 mg Cu/l and were about 10-fold lower than L(E)C(50) values of bulk CuO. In all test media, the L(E)C(50) values for both bulk and nanoZnO (1.1-16 mg Zn/l) were considerably lower than those of nanoCuO. The natural waters remarkably (up to 140-fold) decreased the toxicity of nanoCuO (but not that of nanoZnO) to crustaceans depending mainly on the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The toxicity of both nanoCuO and nanoZnO was mostly due to the solubilised ions as determined by specific metal-sensing bacteria. PMID:19800155

  9. Jarosite-related chemical processes and water ecotoxicity in simplified anaerobic microcosm wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Lin, C.; Wu, Y.; Lu, W.; Liu, Y.; Ma, Y.; Chen, A.

    2008-02-01

    Simulation experiments were conducted to examine whether jarosite is decomposed and toxic products are produced under anaerobic microcosm wetland conditions. The results show that jarosite was stable under water inundation in the microcosm wetland for a period of at least 56 days when no organic substance was added. However, jarosite became increasingly unstable with increasing amount of added organic matter. This resulted in entry of ferrous Fe into the soil solutions. Concentration of other heavy metals in the leachates was extremely low except for Mn. This is attributed to the maintenance of a high pH in the microcosm wetlands, which might cause re-precipitation of originally jarosite-borne heavy metals, if any. No acute toxicity was observed for leachate from the control (non organic matter-added treatment). However, leachates from various organic matter-added treatments show varying degrees of toxicity to the test organism and soluble Fe was likely to be the dominant metal of potential toxicity. Atmospheric exposure of leachate led to oxidation of ferrous Fe and precipitation of iron hydroxide, which caused a drop in leachate pH. This, in turn, inhibited further oxidation of ferrous Fe.

  10. Including ecotoxic impacts on warm-blooded predators in life cycle impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Golsteijn, Laura; van Zelm, Rosalie; Veltman, Karin; Musters, Gijs; Hendriks, A Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2012-04-01

    In current life cycle impact assessment, the focus of ecotoxicity is on cold-blooded species. We developed a method to calculate characterization factors (CFs) for the impact assessment of chemical emissions on warm-blooded predators in freshwater food chains. The method was applied to 329 organic chemicals. The CF for these predators was defined as a multiplication of the fate factor (FF), exposure factor (XF), bioaccumulation factor (BF), and effect factor (EF). Fate factors and XFs were calculated with the model USES-LCA 2.0. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated with the model OMEGA, for chemical uptake via freshwater, food, and air. Effect factors were calculated based on experimental, median lethal doses (LD50). The concentration buildup (CB) of the chemicals (i.e., FF, XF, and BF over the 3 routes of exposure) showed a range of 7 to 9 orders of magnitude, depending on the emission compartment. Effect factors displayed a range of 7 orders of magnitude. Characterization factors ranged 9 orders of magnitude. After emissions to freshwater, the relative contribution of the uptake routes to CB were 1% (90% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-2%) for uptake from air, 43% (11%-50%) for uptake from water, and 56% (50%-87%) for uptake from food. After an emission to agricultural soil, the contribution was 11% (0%-80%) for uptake from air, 39% (5%-50%) for uptake from water, and 50% (11%-83%) for uptake from food. Uptake from air was mainly relevant for emissions to air (on average 42%, 90% CI: 5%-98%). Characterization factors for cold-blooded species were typically 4 orders of magnitude higher than CFs for warm-blooded predators. The correlation between both types of CFs was low, which means that a high relative impact on cold-blooded species does not necessarily indicate a high relative impact on warm-blooded predators. Depending on the weighing method to be considered, the inclusion of impacts on warm-blooded predators can change the relative ranking of toxic chemicals

  11. Routine HIV testing in acute medical admissions in a high prevalence area reduces morbidity and mortality of HIV: a full cycle audit.

    PubMed

    Hill-Tout, Rachel; Cormack, Ian; Elgalib, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Late HIV diagnosis in the UK remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In line with British HIV Association recommendations, we implemented routine HIV Screening in Croydon University Hospital Acute Medical Unit in London after an audit in 2011 revealed very high levels of late diagnosis. Our re-audit assessed the impact of Acute Medical Unit screening and found that patients identified by screening, compared to those tested due to clinical suspicion of HIV, were significantly less likely to be diagnosed late, had fewer AIDS-defining illnesses and shorter hospital admissions. In addition, screening identified patients who were not in traditional 'high-risk' groups and patients who had defaulted HIV care and who subsequently re-engaged with care. PMID:26378190

  12. Testing payment-for-performance in French acute care hospitals: a point of view from the French Federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, France began a diagnosis related groups-based financing system for both public and private acute care hospitals. France opted for a mix of financing systems with over 80% of funding based on diagnosis related groups (DRG). After seven years of DRG-based financing, the French government is testing a payment-for-performance system in acute care hospitals, based on the USA experience. France is currently fine-tuning this model. So far, observations have raised doubts as to whether this approach will improve the value of health care in French hospitals: the budget appears insufficient, the quality of the available indicators is poor and the model is complex. However, it has focused attention on the question of health care quality. PMID:24683810

  13. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or though physical contact (for example, on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Less often, bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute ...

  14. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... control. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  15. Aquatic ecotoxicity of a pheromonal antagonist in Daphnia magna and Desmodesmus subspicatus.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Esmeralda; Barata, Carlos; Damásio, Joana; Bosch, Maria Pilar; Guerrero, Angel

    2006-09-12

    Evaluation of the ecotoxicological potential of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl trifluoromethyl ketone (Z11-16:TFMK), a new biorational agent with high prospective features to control the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides in infested maize fields, in comparison to the parent pheromone compound (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac) is described. Acute and sublethal toxicity tests of both compounds against the cladoceran Daphnia magna and the chlorophyte Desmodesmus subspicatus were conducted, the endpoints being immobilisation and feeding inhibition for Daphnia and growth rate inhibition for Desmodesmus. In addition, effects on B esterases including cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities in Daphnia were also assessed to evaluate the mode of action of both chemicals. Toxicities of both compounds were moderate with EC(50) values ranging from 3.11 to 103.74mgl(-1) in algae growth, from 0.07 to 1.20mgl(-1) in Daphnia survival, and from 0.10 to 0.53mgl(-1) in Daphnia feeding rate. In all cases Z11-16:TFMK was more toxic than the naturally occurring pheromone component. Serine esterase assays showed a strong inhibition of the carboxylesterase activities in Daphnia at concentrations with apparently no effects on survival or feeding, suggesting that inhibition of other key esterases may be the possible mechanism of toxicity of this compound. The results obtained have been related with some physico-chemical properties of the compounds, such as water solubility and octanol-water partition coefficient, suggesting that Z11-16:TFMK may affect aquatic organisms at lower concentrations than expected from non-polar narcosis. PMID:16899308

  16. Application of the Liver Maximum Function Capacity Test in Acute Liver Failure: A Helpful Tool for Decision-Making in Liver Transplantation?

    PubMed Central

    Vondran, Florian Wolfgang Rudolf; Schumacher, Carsten; Johanning, Kai; Hartleben, Björn; Knitsch, Wolfgang; Wiesner, Olaf; Jaeckel, Elmar; Manns, Michael Peter; Klempnauer, Juergen; Bektas, Hueseyin; Lehner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite aggressive intensive medical management acute liver failure (ALF) may require high-urgency liver transplantation (LTx). Available prognostic scores do not apply for all patients; reliable tools to identify individuals in need of LTx are highly required. The liver maximum function capacity test (LiMAx) might represent an appropriate option. Referring to a case of ALF after Amanita phalloides-intoxication the potential of the LiMAx-test in this setting is discussed. Presentation of Case. LiMAx was performed in a 27-year-old patient prior to and after high-urgency LTx. In accordance with clinical appearance of hepatic encephalopathy, coagulopathy, and acute kidney failure, the LiMAx-test constituted a fulminant course of ALF with hardly any detectable metabolic activity. Following LTx with a marginal donor organ (95% hepatosteatosis), uptake of liver function was demonstrated by postoperative increase of the LiMAx-value. The patient was discharged from hospital on postoperative day 26. Discussion. ALF often is associated with a critical state of the patient that requires almost immediate decision-making regarding further therapy. Application of a noninvasive liver function test might help to determine the prognosis of ALF and support decision-making for or against LTx as well as acceptance of a critical donor organ in case of a critically ill patient. PMID:27274881

  17. Acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Barr, Wendy; Smith, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Acute diarrhea in adults is a common problem encountered by family physicians. The most common etiology is viral gastroenteritis, a self-limited disease. Increases in travel, comorbidities, and foodborne illness lead to more bacteria-related cases of acute diarrhea. A history and physical examination evaluating for risk factors and signs of inflammatory diarrhea and/or severe dehydration can direct any needed testing and treatment. Most patients do not require laboratory workup, and routine stool cultures are not recommended. Treatment focuses on preventing and treating dehydration. Diagnostic investigation should be reserved for patients with severe dehydration or illness, persistent fever, bloody stool, or immunosuppression, and for cases of suspected nosocomial infection or outbreak. Oral rehydration therapy with early refeeding is the preferred treatment for dehydration. Antimotility agents should be avoided in patients with bloody diarrhea, but loperamide/simethicone may improve symptoms in patients with watery diarrhea. Probiotic use may shorten the duration of illness. When used appropriately, antibiotics are effective in the treatment of shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, Clostridium difficile, traveler's diarrhea, and protozoal infections. Prevention of acute diarrhea is promoted through adequate hand washing, safe food preparation, access to clean water, and vaccinations. PMID:24506120

  18. Impact of rapid antigen detection testing on antibiotic prescription in acute pharyngitis in adults. FARINGOCAT STUDY: a multicentric randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute pharyngitis is one of the most frequent consultations to the general practitioner and in most of the cases an antibiotic is prescribed in primary care in Spain. Bacterial etiology, mainly by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), accounts for 10-20% of all these infections in adults. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of rapid antigen detection testing (RADT) to identify GABHS in acute pharyngitis on the utilization of antibiotics in primary care. Methods/design Multicentric randomized controlled trial in which antibiotic prescription between two groups of patients with acute pharyngitis will be compared. The trial will include two arms, a control and an intervention group in which RADT will be performed. The primary outcome measure will be the proportion of inappropriate antibiotic prescription in each group. Two hundred seventy-six patients are required to detect a reduction in antibiotic prescription from 85% in the control group to 75% in the intervention group with a power of 90% and a level of significance of 5%. Secondary outcome measures will be specific antibiotic treatment, antibiotic resistance rates, secondary effects, days without working, medical visits during the first month and patient satisfaction. Discussion The implementation of RADT would allow a more rational use of antibiotics and would prevent adverse effects of antibiotics, emergence of antibiotic resistance and the growth of inefficient health expenses. Trial registration ISRCTN23587778 PMID:20331895

  19. Impact of choice of imaging modality accompanying outpatient exercise stress testing on outcomes and resource use after revascularization for acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Federspiel, Jerome J.; Shah, Bimal R.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Chang, Patricia P.; Stearns, Sally C.; Mudrick, Daniel W.; Cowper, Patricia A.; Green, Cynthia L.; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise stress testing is commonly obtained after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We compared the relationships between exercise echocardiography and nuclear testing after ACS-related PCI on outcomes and resource use. Methods Longitudinal observational study using fee-for-service Medicare claims to identify patients undergoing outpatient exercise stress testing with imaging within 15 months after PCI performed for ACS between 2003 and 2004. Results Of 63,100 patients undergoing stress testing 3 to 15 months post-PCI, 31,731 (50.3%) underwent an exercise stress test with imaging. Among 29,279 patients undergoing exercise stress testing with imaging, 15.5% received echocardiography. Echocardiography recipients had higher rates of repeat stress testing (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.60, CI 2.19–3.10) compared with those undergoing nuclear imaging in the 90 days after testing, but lower rates of revascularization (adjusted HR 0.87, CI 0.76–0.98) and coronary angiography (adjusted HR 0.88, CI 0.80–0.97). None of these differences persisted subsequent to 90 days after stress testing. Rates of death and readmission for myocardial infarction rates were similar. Total Medicare payments were lower initially after echocardiography (incremental difference $498, CI 488–507), an effect attributed primarily to lower reimbursement for the stress test itself, but not significantly different after 14 months after testing. Conclusions In this study using administrative data, echocardiography recipients initially had fewer invasive procedures but higher rates of repeat testing than nuclear testing recipients. However, these differences between echo and nuclear testing did not persist over longer time frames. PMID:24093861

  20. Anticonvulsant and acute neurotoxic effects of imperatorin, osthole and valproate in the maximal electroshock seizure and chimney tests in mice: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Wojda, Ewa; Andres-Mach, Marta; Cisowski, Wojciech; Glensk, Michal; Glowniak, Kazimierz; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the anticonvulsant and acute adverse (neurotoxic) effects of imperatorin and osthole (two natural coumarin derivatives) with valproate (a classical antiepileptic drug) in the maximal electroshock seizure and chimney tests in mice. The anticonvulsant and acute adverse effects of imperatorin, osthole and valproate were determined at 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after their systemic (i.p.) administration. The evaluation of time-course and dose-response relationships for imperatorin, osthole and valproate in the maximal electroshock seizure test revealed that the compounds produced a clear-cut antielectroshock action in mice and the experimentally derived ED(50) values for imperatorin ranged between 167 and 290 mg/kg, those for osthole ranged from 253 to 639 mg/kg, whereas the ED(50) values for valproate ranged from 189 to 255 mg/kg. The evaluation of acute neurotoxic effects in the chimney test revealed that the TD(50) values for imperatorin ranged between 329 and 443 mg/kg, the TD(50) values for osthole ranged from 531 to 648 mg/kg, while the TD(50) values for valproate ranged from 363 to 512 mg/kg. The protective index (as a ratio of TD(50) and ED(50) values) for imperatorin ranged between 1.13 and 2.60, for osthole ranged from 0.83 to 2.44, and for valproate ranged between 1.72 and 2.00. In conclusion, both natural coumarin derivatives deserve more attention from a preclinical point of view as compounds possessing some potentially favorable activities in terms of suppression of seizures, quite similar to those reported for valproate. PMID:19406619

  1. The added value of the 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity test for industrial chemicals with a low (sub)acute toxicity profile in a high quality dataset.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy; Andrew, David J; Rego, Laura

    2014-08-01

    A survey conducted on the EU Notification of New Substances (NONS) database suggested that for industrial chemicals with a profile of low toxicity in (sub)acute toxicity tests there is little added value to the conduct of the 90-day repeated dose study. Avoiding unnecessary animal testing is a central aim of the EU REACH chemicals legislation; therefore we sought to verify the profile using additional data. The OECD's eChemPortal was searched for substances that had both a 28-day and a 90-day study and their robust study summaries were then examined from the ECHA CHEM database. Out of 182 substances with high quality 28-day and 90-day study results, only 18 reported no toxicity of any kind in the (sub)acute tests. However, for 16 of these there were also no reported signs of toxicity at or close to the limit dose (1000mg/kgbw/d) in the 90-day study. Restricting the 'low (sub)acute toxicity in a high quality dataset' profile to general industrial chemicals of no known biological activity, whilst allowing irritant substances, increases the data set and improves the prediction to 95% (20 substances out of 21 substances). The low toxicity profile appears to be of low prevalence within industrial chemicals (10-15%), nevertheless, avoidance of the conduct of a redundant 90-day study for this proportion of the remaining REACH phase-in substances would avoid the use of nearly 50,000 animals and save industry 50million Euros, with no impact on the assessment of human health. PMID:24768988

  2. Acute contact toxicity test of insecticides (Cipermetrina 25, Lorsban 48E, Thionex 35) on honeybees in the southwestern zone of Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Branchiccela, María Belén

    2012-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation is expanding rapidly in Uruguay, with its land area having increased by 95 times during the past 10 years. Because of the region's Neotropical conditions, insecticide use is required to ensure adequate soybean productivity. However, in areas shared by soybean crops and beekeepers - such as the southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU) - the use of insecticides can increase the risks of honeybee death and honey contamination. Uruguayan commercial and legal guidelines set out practices and field doses designed to prevent acute intoxication with insecticides. However, honeybees in the SWZU are predominantly a polyhybrid subspecies different from that used to set international reference values, and hence they may have a different acute toxicity response, thus rendering such precautions ineffective. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity response of polyhybrid honeybees in the SWZU to cypermethrin (commercial formulation: Cipermetrina 25 Agrin®), chlorpyrifos (commercial formulation: Lorsban 48E®), and endosulfan (commercial formulation: Thionex 35®). Acute toxicity bioassays were conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of each insecticide for the honeybees. The results indicate that, compared with EU reference values, SWZU honeybees have a higher toxicological sensitivity to chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, and a lower toxicological sensitivity to cypermethrin, based on the commercial formulations tested. However, when these results were adjusted according to their field dose equivalents, only chlorpyrifos emerged as a potential problem for beekeeping, as the maximum recommended field dose of Lorsban 48E® for soybean crops in Uruguay is 23 times the corresponding LD(50) for honeybees in the SWZU. PMID:22440636

  3. Analysis of alpha particle-driven toroidal Alfv{acute e}n eigenmodes in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor deuterium{endash}tritium experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G.Y.; Cheng, C.Z.; Budny, R.; Chang, Z.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.; Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.; Wong, K.L.; Zweben, S.

    1996-11-01

    The toroidal Alfv{acute e}n eigenmodes (TAE) are calculated to be stable in the presently obtained deuterium{endash}tritium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Plasma Phys. Controlled Nucl. Fusion Res. {bold 26}, 11 (1984)]. However, the core localized TAE mode can exist and is less stable than the global TAE modes. The beam ion Landau damping and the radiative damping are the two main stabilizing mechanisms in the present calculation. In future deuterium{endash}tritium experiments, the alpha-driven TAE modes are predicted to occur with a weakly reversed shear profile. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Neutral red cytotoxicity assays for assessing in vivo carbon nanotube ecotoxicity in mussels--Comparing microscope and microplate methods.

    PubMed

    Miller, M A; Bankier, C; Al-Shaeri, M A M; Hartl, M G J

    2015-12-30

    The purpose of the present study was to compare two neutral red retention methods, the more established but very labour-intensive microscope method (NRR) against the more recently developed microplate method (NRU). The intention was to explore whether the sample volume throughput could be increased and potential operator bias avoided. Mussels Mytilus sp. were exposed in vivo to 50, 250 and 500 μg L(-1) single (SWCNTs) or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Using the NRR method, SWCNTs and MWCNTs caused concentration dependent decreases in neutral red retention time. However, a concentration dependent decrease in optical density was not observed using the NRU method. We conclude that the NRU method is not sensitive enough to assess carbon nanotube ecotoxicity in vivo in environmentally relevant media, and recommend using the NRR method. PMID:26549297

  5. Elicitation of the most important structural properties of ionic liquids affecting ecotoxicity in limnic green algae; a QSAR approach.

    PubMed

    Izadiyan, Parisa; Fatemi, M H; Izadiyan, Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Many ionic liquids are soluble in water and their impact on the aquatic environment has to be evaluated. However, due to the large number of ionic liquids and lack of experimental data, it is necessary to develop estimation procedures in order to reduce the materials and time consumption. In this study using multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP), ant colony optimization (ACO) and multiple linear regression (MLR) strategies, good predictive quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) models were introduced and structural parameters affecting ecotoxicity of ionic liquids in limnic green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus) were revealed. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) approaches were also applied to visualize any possible patterns or relationships among ionic liquids data. It was revealed that selected descriptors of the MLR model are also capable of clustering ionic liquids according to their four level of toxicity. PMID:23107477

  6. Ecotoxicity assessment of artificial groundwater recharge with reclaimed water: a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Xuan

    2013-11-01

    A demonstration of artificial groundwater recharge with tertiary effluent was evaluated using a set of bioassays (acute toxicity to Daphnia, genotoxicity, estrogenic and antiestrogenic toxicity). Around 95 % genotoxicity and 53 % antiestrogenicity were removed from the feed water by ozonation, whereas significant reduction of acute toxicity to Daphnia magna was achieved during a 3 days vadose soil treatment. The toxicity was further removed to the same level as the local groundwater during a 20 days aquifer soil treatment. The pilot study has shown that ozonation and soil treatments can improve the quality of municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents for possible groundwater recharge purposes. PMID:24072260

  7. Use of life tables and LC50 tests to evaluate chronic and acute toxicity effects of copper on the marine copepod Tisbe furcata (Baird)

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann, R.K. . Dept. of Marine Zoology and Marine Chemistry)

    1994-09-01

    Cohorts of the epiphytic marine copepod Tisbe furcata were chronically exposed to copper in life-table experiments to test whether ecologically relevant impacts can occur at sublethal concentrations. Data on fecundity, longevity, and rate of development were used to calculate r[sub m]--the intrinsic rate of natural increase. Acute toxicity tests were done to compare the concentrations of copper affecting individual lethality and population biology. The LC50 value for Tisbe furcata nauplii was 2.8 [mu]M copper. The results from the life-table experiments show that 0.9 [mu]M copper can cause significant negative effects on demographic parameters (total production of nauplii, life span, and reproductive period for fertile females) and reduce the percentage of fertile females leading to a 61% reduction of r[sub m]. However, r[sub m] was still positive at 0.9 [mu]M copper, and the net reproductive rate (R[sub 0]) indicated a fivefold increase in population size from one generation to the next. Although there were no significant effects of copper at 0.5 [mu]M, there was a negative trend in almost all the demographic parameters, indicating that the observed 10% reduction of r[sub m] at this concentration was an effect of copper. For the substances tested so far with both acute LC50 tests and life-table experiments, r[sub m] was not reduced at concentrations below LC50/10. When life-table experiments are used as part of environmental hazard assessments, concentrations below LC50/10 should be tested to detect substances that are potentially harmful to the environment at sublethal concentrations, rather than testing concentrations close to LC50.

  8. Agro-industrial wastes as effective amendments for ecotoxicity reduction and soil health improvement in aided phytostabilization.

    PubMed

    Galende, María A; Becerril, José M; Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Barrutia, Oihana; Garbisu, Carlos; Hernández, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Aided phytostabilization is a technology that uses metal tolerant plants and organic and/or inorganic amendments to reduce soil metal bioavailability, while improving soil health. Our objective was to determine the effects of the application of amendments [sheep manure (SHEEP), poultry litter (POULTRY), cow slurry (COW), and paper mill sludge mixed with poultry litter (PAPER)], together with the growth of a metallicolous Festuca rubra L. population, on (i) chemical and microbial indicators of soil health and (ii) soil ecotoxicity, during the aided phytostabilization of a Zn/Pb contaminated mine soil. Amendment application led to an increase in soil pH, organic matter content, and inorganic salts, resulting in a decrease in Pb and Zn CaCl2-extractable concentrations in soil, which, in turn, contributed to lower ecotoxicity and a stimulation of plant growth and soil microbial communities. The factor most affecting the metal extractability was probably soil pH. POULTRY was the best amendment in terms of increasing plant growth, chlorophylls content, and soil microbial biomass and activity, but resulted in higher levels of phytoavailable Pb and Zn. SHEEP and PAPER were more effective at reducing metal CaCl2-extractability and, consequently, led to lower values of metal accumulation in plant tissues, thereby reducing the risk of metals entering into the food chain. When combined with the application of organic amendments, the metallicolous F. rubra population studied here appears an excellent candidate for aided phytostabilization. Our results indicate that the application of organic amendments is essential for the short-term recovery of highly contaminated metalliferous soils during aided phytostabilization. PMID:24870283

  9. Recombinant protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunochromatographic tests for detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus in SARS patients.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ming; Chen, Hsiao Ying; Foo, Shen Yun; Tan, Yee-Joo; Goh, Phuay-Yee; Wee, Shock Hwa

    2004-03-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a rapid immunochromatographic test for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients were developed by utilizing the well-characterized recombinant proteins Gst-N and Gst-U274. The ELISA detected IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV in all 74 convalescent-phase samples from SARS patients while weakly cross-reacting to only 1 of the 210 control sera from healthy donors. This finding thus led to a kit sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100, 99.5, and 99.6%, respectively. The test thus provided a positive predictive value (PPV) of 98.7% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. In addition, the ELISA gave a positive delta of 5.4 and a negative delta of 3.6, indicating an excellent differentiation between positives and negatives. The same recombinant proteins were also applied to a newly developed platform for the development of a 15-min rapid test. The resulting rapid test has an excellent agreement of 99.6%, with a kappa value of 1.00, with the ELISA. Again, this rapid test was able to detect 100% of the samples tested (n = 42) while maintaining a specificity of 99.0% (n = 210). The PPV and NPV for the rapid test thus reached 95.3 and 100%, respectively. PMID:15013977

  10. The clinical utility of genetic testing for t(8;16)(p11;p13) in congenital acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Daifu, Tomoo; Kato, Itaru; Kozuki, Kagehiro; Umeda, Katsutsugu; Hiramatsu, Hidefumi; Watanabe, Ken-Ichiro; Kamiya, Ichiro; Taki, Tomohiko; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Heike, Toshio; Adachi, Souichi

    2014-07-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;16)(p11;p13) is known to have very poor prognosis in adults. In contrast, the prognosis is not clear in pediatric patients and chemotherapy is generally started immediately in cases of congenital leukemia because of its association with hyperleukocytosis and poor prognosis. This study reports a case of congenital AML where chemotherapy was discontinued after detection of a MOZ-CBP fusion, which remains in remission without additional treatment. This article stresses the importance of examination for the presence of the MOZ-CBP fusion at diagnosis to inform treatment decisions in congenital AML. PMID:24390445

  11. STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR SCREENING ORGANIC CHEMICALS FOR POTENTIAL ECOTOXICITY EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents structure-activity relationships (QSAR) for estimating the bioconcentration factor and acute toxicity of some classes of industrial chemicals using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (Log P) which is derived from chemical structure. The bioconcentra...

  12. Biochemical and photochemical feedbacks of acute Cd toxicity in Juncus acutus seedlings: The role of non-functional Cd-chlorophylls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, D.; Duarte, B.; Caçador, I.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing metal pollution in salt marshes and its influence on the plants that inhabit these ecosystems, has become a major concern with serious implications on the species establishment. Juncus acutus is a highly common halophyte specie in Portuguese marshes. Seeds from his specie were exposed to a range of different Cd concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 μM) in order to evaluate the effects of acute Cd stress on seed germination and growth as well as on seedling pigment composition, photosynthetic apparatus and oxidative stress biomarkers. Seedling length was higher than in control in every Cd treatment, however biomass showed a decrease. It was also observed that increasing Cd treatments, lead to a proportional increase in the Cd tissue concentration. Also the Cd-substituted chlorophylls showed an increase with increasing Cd doses that were applied. This substitution results in a non-functional chlorophyll molecule, highly unstable under moderate light intensities which inevitably reduces the efficiency of the LHC II. As consequence, there was a decrease in the use-efficiency of the harvested energy, leading to a decay in the photosynthetic capacity and energy accumulation, which was dissipated as heat. As for the antioxidant enzymes, SOD and APX presented higher activity, responding to increasing cadmium concentrations. Thus, becomes evident that Cd affects negatively, both biochemically and photochemically, the establishment by seed process of J. acutus highlighting the potential of the use of this specie seed as potential sentinel and ecotoxicity test in extreme conditions.

  13. Usefulness of C-reactive protein testing in acute cough/respiratory tract infection: an open cluster-randomized clinical trial with C-reactive protein testing in the intervention group

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Point of care testing for C-reactive protein (CRP) has shown promise as a measure to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing in respiratory tract infections (RTI), but its use in primary care is still controversial. We aimed to evaluate the effect of CRP testing on the prescription of antibiotics, referral for radiography, and the outcome of patients in general practice with acute cough/RTI. Methods An open-cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted, with CRP testing performed in the intervention group. Antibiotic prescribing and referral for radiography were the main outcome measures. Results A total of 179 patients were included: 101 in the intervention group and 78 in the control group. The two groups were similar in clinical characteristics. In the intervention group, the antibiotic prescribing rate was 37.6%, which was significantly lower than that in the control group (58.9%) (P = 0.006). Referral for chest X-ray was also significantly lower in the intervention group (55.4%) than in the control group (75.6%) (P = 0.004). The recovery rate, as recorded by the GPs, was 92.9% and 93.6% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Conclusion The study showed that CRP testing in patients with acute cough/RTI may reduce antibiotic prescribing and referral for radiography, probably without compromising recovery. Trial registration The trial was registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration System (identification number: NCT01794819). PMID:24886066

  14. Risk analysis of pyrolyzed biochar made from paper mill effluent treatment plant sludge for bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Devi, Parmila; Saroha, Anil K

    2014-06-01

    The risk analysis was performed to study the bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals in biochar obtained from pyrolysis of sludge of pulp and paper mill effluent treatment plant. The sludge was pyrolyzed at different temperatures (200-700°C) and the resultant biochar were analyzed for fractionation of heavy metals by sequential extraction procedure. It was observed that all the heavy metals get enriched in biochar matrix after pyrolysis, but the bioavailability and eco-toxicity of the heavy metals in biochar were significantly reduced as the mobile and bioavailable heavy metal fractions were transformed into the relatively stable fractions. Moreover, it was observed that the leaching potential of heavy metals decreased after pyrolysis and the best results were obtained for biochar pyrolyzed at 700°C. PMID:24762760

  15. Assessment of the effects of Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb soil contamination by ecotoxicological tests.

    PubMed

    Maisto, Giulia; Manzo, Sonia; De Nicola, Flavia; Carotenuto, Rita; Rocco, Annamaria; Alfani, Anna

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to assess soil quality by chemical and ecotoxicological investigations and to check the correspondence between soil metal concentrations and ecotoxicity. For these purposes, surface soils collected at four adjacent roadside urban parks and at a former industrial area were characterized for C/N, organic matter content, texture, and pH. Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb, chosen among the most representative soil metal contaminants, were measured as total content and as available and water soluble fractions. In addition, the total concentrations of the investigated metals were used to calculate two chemical indices: the contamination and the potential ecological risk factors. The toxicity of the investigated soils was evaluated by an ecotoxicity test battery carried out on both soil samples (Vibrio fischeri, Heterocypris incongruens and Sinapis alba) and elutriates (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum). The findings, both by the chemical and ecotoxicological approaches, would suggest that the soils with high metal contamination pose ecological risks. On the other hand, moderately metal contaminated soils did not exclude soil ecotoxicity. In fact, toxic effects were also highlighted in soils with low metal content, toxicity being affected by metal availability and soil characteristics. Moreover, the results suggest the importance of using a battery of tests to assess soil ecotoxicity. PMID:21918769

  16. Effects of acute or chronic environmental enrichment on regional Fos protein expression following sucrose cue-reactivity testing in rats.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Jeffrey W; Barnes, Jesse L; Koerber, Jonathon; Glueck, Edwin; Ginder, Darren; Hyde, Jeff; Eaton, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) reduces sucrose seeking by rats with a history of sucrose self-administration. The present experiment examined whether acute or chronic EE also reduces brain Fos levels, a protein marker indicative of neuronal activation. Fos levels were also examined after either 1 or 30 days of forced abstinence to examine whether Fos levels vary with the incubation of sucrose craving. Fos expression was examined in 18 regions and was identified in brain slices using immunohistochemistry. Fos levels were higher in most regions after 30 days of forced abstinence and were decreased in most regions by either acute or chronic EE. Eleven regions had some statistically significant effect and/or interaction of EE or incubation on Fos; the most salient of these are listed here. In the prelimbic cortex, there was an incubation of Fos and EE reduced Fos at both forced abstinence time points. In contrast, in the orbitofrontal cortex, there was no Fos incubation but EE reduced Fos at both forced abstinence time points. An interaction of EE and incubation was observed in the anterior cingulate cortex and nucleus accumbens core and shell where Fos incubated but EE only decreased Fos at the day 30 forced abstinence time point. In contrast, in the dorsolateral striatum Fos incubated, but EE robustly decreased Fos expression at both forced abstinence time points. These differential expression patterns provide rationale for more detailed, site-specific molecular functional studies in how they relate to the ability of EE to reduce sucrose seeking. PMID:26068175

  17. Assessment of carotid plaque neovascularization by contrast-enhanced ultrasound and high sensitivity C-reactive protein test in patients with acute cerebral infarction: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Yin, Xiaohua; Xu, Weixin; Jin, Lin; Lu, Min; Wang, Yingchun

    2016-07-01

    Vulnerable carotid plaque easily ruptures and causes cerebral infarction. Plaque inflammation and neovascularization have both been shown as important characteristics in vulnerable plaque. We assessed neovascularization within carotid plaque using contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and also assessed inflammation, using high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) testing, in acute cerebral infarction patients. A total of 106 patients with acute cerebral infarction and 40 controls were enrolled in the study. All subjects had been previously found to have carotid atherosclerotic plaques, and the plaques were classified as soft plaque, hard plaque, mixed plaque, and calcified plaque, using carotid artery ultrasound. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed on the plaques for quantitative analysis and hs-CRP levels were measured. The results showed that plaque enhancement was present in 81.1 % of cerebral infarction patients and 40.0 % of controls. The contrast parameters for cerebral infarction patients were significantly different from controls. For cerebral infarction patients, soft plaque showed the highest enhanced percentage, 95.1 %, with contrast parameters significantly different to other types of plaque. The hs-CRP levels of enhanced cerebral infarction patients were higher than in non-enhanced patients. Correlation analysis in cerebral infarction patients showed that hs-CRP levels were closely related to the contrast parameters. Acute cerebral infarction patients showed intense contrast enhancement and inflammation in carotid plaque, and different types of plaque had various degrees of enhancement, suggesting that contrast-enhanced ultrasound and hs-CRP might be used for plaque risk stratification. PMID:27021564

  18. Influence of acute or chronic administration of ovarian hormones on the effects of desipramine in the forced swim test in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Aparna; Frazer, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Gender may influence antidepressant (AD) treatment outcome. In order to address this pre-clinically, the potential effects of ovarian hormones on AD treatment in ovariectomized female rats were investigated. Objectives In the first study, the effect of acute administration of estrogen and progesterone on the antidepressant-like effects of desipramine (DMI), a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), was investigated in the forced swimming test (FST). In the second study, the effect of chronic administration of these hormones on the effects of chronically administered DMI was investigated. Results In the acute study, the hormones blocked the effects of DMI in the FST as demonstrated by the absence of either a reduction in immobility or an increase in climbing behavior in animals treated with DMI in combination with the hormones. Concentration-response experiments on hippocampal synaptosomes revealed no changes in the Km or Bmax for uptake of 3H-NE in hormone-treated rats. In the chronic study, the antidepressant-like effects of DMI in the FST were not blocked by chronic administration of hormones. Interestingly, the hormones affected the serum concentrations of DMI. These levels were significantly higher in animals receiving 10 or 15 mg/kg/day in hormone-treated rats as compared to those with placebo. Conclusions Acute administration of hormones blocked the effects of DMI (given three times over 24 h) in the FST. However, chronic administration of these hormones failed to block the effects of chronically administered DMI (at a dose that produces clinically relevant serum concentrations). PMID:24590054

  19. Intermittent exposure to social defeat and open-field test in rats: acute and long-term effects on ECG, body temperature and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity. After implantation of a transmitter for the radiotelemetric recording of electrocardiogram (ECG), body temperature and physical activity, adult male rats (Rattus norvegicus, Wild Type Groningen strain) were repeatedly exposed (10 consecutive times, on alternate days) to either a social stressor (defeat by a con-specific, n = 15) or an open-field, control challenge (transfer to a new cage; n = 8). ECGs, body temperature and physical activity were continuously recorded in baseline, test and recovery periods (each lasting 15 min), at the 1st and 10th episodes of both defeat and open-field challenge. The circadian rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and physical activity were monitored before (5 days), during (16 days) and after (21 days) the intermittent stress protocol. This study indicates that there is no clear habituation of either acute cardiac autonomic responsivity (as estimated by means of time-domain indexes of heart rate variability) or arrhythmia occurrence to a brief, intermittent, homotypic challenge, regardless of the nature of the stressor (social or non-social). On the other hand, rats exposed to social challenge also failed to show adaptation of acute temperature and activity stress responsiveness, whereas rats facing open-field challenge developed habituation of activity and sensitization of temperature responses. Repeated social challenge produced remarkable reductions of the heart rate circadian rhythm amplitude (this effect being significantly greater than that produced by intermittent open-field), but only minor changes in the daily rhythms of body temperature and physical activity. PMID:12171764

  20. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raimondo, Sandy; Lilavois, Crystal R.; Lee, Larisa; Augspurger, Tom; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Bauer, Candice R.; Hammer, Edward J.; Barron, Mace G.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and inter-laboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the two life stages; and the variation in sensitivity among commonly tested mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea, Utterbackia imbecillis, Villosa iris), commonly tested cladocerans (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Pimephales promelas, Lepomis macrochirus). The results of these analyses indicate intra-laboratory variability for median effect concentrations (EC50) averaged about 2 fold for both life stages, while inter-laboratory variability averaged 3.6 fold for juvenile mussels and 6.3 fold for glochidia. The EC50s for juveniles and glochidia were within a factor of 2 of each other for 50% of paired records across chemicals, with juveniles more sensitive than glochidia by more than 2 fold for 33% of the comparisons made between life stages. There was a high concurrence of the sensitivity of commonly tested L. siliquoidea, U. imbecillis, and V. iris to that of other mussels. However, this concurrence decreases as the taxonomic distance of the commonly tested cladocerans and fish to mussels increases. The compiled mussel database and determination of data variability will advance risk assessments by including more robust species sensitivity distributions, interspecies correlation estimates, and availability of taxon-specific empirically derived application factors for risk assessment.

  1. Prediction of Short-Term Outcome in Acute Superior Vestibular Nerve Failure: Three-Dimensional Video-Head-Impulse Test and Caloric Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Rambold, Holger A.

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study examines acute unilateral vestibular failure (up to seven days after onset) with modern vestibular testing (caloric irrigation and video-head-impulse test, vHIT) in 54 patients in order to test if the short-term outcome of the patients depends on the lesion pattern defined by the two tests. Patients were grouped according to a pathological unilateral caloric weakness without a pathological vHIT: group I; additional a pathological vHIT of the lateral semicircular canal (SCC): group II; and an additional pathological vHIT of the anterior SCC: group III. Patients with involvement of the posterior SCC were less frequent and not included in the analysis. Basic parameters, such as age of the subjects, days after symptom onset, gender, side of the lesion, treatment, and dizziness handicap inventory, were not different in groups I to III. The frequency of pathological clinical findings and pathological quantified measurements increased from groups I to III. The outcome parameter “days spent in the hospital” was significantly higher in group III compared to group I. The analysis shows that differential vestibular testing predicts short-term outcome of the patients and might be in future important to treat and coach patients with vestibular failure. PMID:26649042

  2. Study of the variation of ecotoxicity at different stages of domestic wastewater treatment using Vibrio-qinghaiensis sp.-Q67.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyan Y; Wang, Xiaochang C; Liu, Yongjun J

    2011-06-15

    A bioassay using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio-qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 associated with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for evaluating the variation of ecotoxicity along with the reduction of organic substances in a domestic wastewater treatment plant employing an oxidation ditch process. With effective elimination of the interference from all inorganic substances by the SPE operation, the ecotoxicity of the water, as expressed by the toxicity impact index, TII(50) (%) after a model-based regression and parameter transformation, was found to decrease from 50.51% in the influent to 25.84% after the grid chamber and then to 1.38% for the secondary effluent, but the final chlorination stage resulted in a slight TII(50) increase. Of the two typical tertiary treatment processes, coagulation could not assist further reduction of the ecotoxicity while carbon adsorption could reduce the TII(50) to as low as 0.96%. When enhanced primary treatment was conducted, the influent TII(50) could be directly reduced to 7.36%. A good correlative relationship was found between the total COD concentration and the TII(50) value at different stages of the wastewater treatment process. PMID:21440989

  3. Poor performance of the determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab combo fourth-generation rapid test for detection of acute infections in a National Household Survey in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Duong, Yen T; Mavengere, Yvonne; Patel, Hetal; Moore, Carole; Manjengwa, Julius; Sibandze, Dumile; Rasberry, Christopher; Mlambo, Charmaine; Li, Zhi; Emel, Lynda; Bock, Naomi; Moore, Jan; Nkambule, Rejoice; Justman, Jessica; Reed, Jason; Bicego, George; Ellenberger, Dennis L; Nkengasong, John N; Parekh, Bharat S

    2014-10-01

    Fourth-generation HIV rapid tests (RTs) claim to detect both p24 antigen (Ag) and HIV antibodies (Ab) for early identification of acute infections, important for targeting prevention and reducing HIV transmission. In a nationally representative household survey in Swaziland, 18,172 adults, age 18 to 49 years, received home-based HIV rapid testing in 2010 and 2011. Of the 18,172 individuals, 5,822 (32.0%) were Ab positive (Ab(+)) by the Determine HIV-1/2 Ab/Ab combo test, and 5,789 (99.4%) of those were confirmed to be reactive in the Uni-Gold test. Determine combo identified 12 individuals as having acute infections (Ag(+)/Ab negative [Ab(-)]); however, none had detectable HIV-1 RNA and 8 of 12 remained HIV negative at their 6-week follow-up visit (4 were lost to follow-up). All RT-nonreactive samples were pooled and tested by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) to identify acute infections. NAAT identified 13 (0.1%) of the 12,338 HIV antibody-negative specimens as HIV RNA positive, with RNA levels ranging from 300 to >10,000,000 copies/ml. However, none of them were Ag(+) by Determine combo. Follow-up testing of 12 of the 13 NAAT-positive individuals at 6 months demonstrated 12 seroconversions (1 individual was lost to follow-up). Therefore, the Determine combo test had a sensitivity of 0% (95% confidence interval, 0 to 28) and positive predictive value of 0% for the detection of acute infections. The ability of the 4th-generation Determine combo to detect antigen was very poor in Swaziland. Thus, the Determine combo test does not add any value to the current testing algorithm; rather, it adds additional costs and complexity to HIV diagnosis. The detection of acute HIV infections may need to rely on other testing strategies. PMID:25122853

  4. EDIT: A New International Multicentre Programme to Develop and Evaluate Batteries of In Vitro Tests for Acute and Chronic Systemic Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ekwall, B; Clemedson, C; Ekwall, B; Ring, P; Romert, L

    1999-01-01

    The Multicenter Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity (MEIC) programme provided a battery of three basal cytotoxicity tests with a good (R2 = 0.77) prediction of human acute lethal blood concentrations. The predictive power of this battery would be considerably improved by the addition of new supplementary in vitro tests. The development of these new tests will be facilitated by a close coupling of test development to evaluation. The Cytotoxicology Laboratory, Uppsala (CTLU), is therefore inviting all interested in vitro toxicologists to take part in the Evaluation-guided Development of In Vitro Toxicity and Toxicokinetic Tests (EDIT). All EDIT activities (subprojects) will be designed on a case-by-case basis, but will follow a common pattern. The CTLU will use the accumulated MEIC/EDIT data, and its experience from the previous MEIC evaluation, to suggest priority areas, i.e. the need for certain in vitro toxicity data/tests as supplements to existing in vitro models/batteries on human systemic toxicity. Detailed research programmes corresponding to these areas will be published on the Internet. The CTLU will also try to raise funds for some projects and will coordinate multilaboratory studies. Interested laboratories developing or already using priority tests are encouraged to join the subprojects and to test specific sets of substances (usually sets of MEIC reference chemicals) in their new assays. The CTLU will provide adequate human reference data and will also evaluate results as single components of complex models, together with the laboratory conducting the test. At present, ten priority areas have been identified: a) repeat dose toxicity in vitro; b) urgent mechanistic information from in vitro studies of protein denaturation, morphology of cell injury, differential toxicity between various rapidly measured endpoints (10-60 minutes) and 24-hour cytotoxicity, toxicity to aerobic cells, and discrimination between rapid and slow cytotoxic mechanisms; c) in

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Pooled Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing for Acute HIV Infection after Third-Generation HIV Antibody Screening and Rapid Testing in the United States: A Comparison of Three Public Health Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Angela B.; Patel, Pragna; Sansom, Stephanie L.; Farnham, Paul G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Bennett, Berry; Kerndt, Peter R.; Bolan, Robert K.; Heffelfinger, James D.; Prabhu, Vimalanand S.; Branson, Bernard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Detection of acute HIV infection (AHI) with pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) following HIV testing is feasible. However, cost-effectiveness analyses to guide policy around AHI screening are lacking; particularly after more sensitive third-generation antibody screening and rapid testing. Methods and Findings We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of pooled NAAT screening that assessed the prevention benefits of identification and notification of persons with AHI and cases averted compared with repeat antibody testing at different intervals. Effectiveness data were derived from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention AHI study conducted in three settings: municipal sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, a community clinic serving a population of men who have sex with men, and HIV counseling and testing sites. Our analysis included a micro-costing study of NAAT and a mathematical model of HIV transmission. Cost-effectiveness ratios are reported as costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained in US dollars from the societal perspective. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on key variables, including AHI positivity rates, antibody testing frequency, symptomatic detection of AHI, and costs. Pooled NAAT for AHI screening following annual antibody testing had cost-effectiveness ratios exceeding US$200,000 per QALY gained for the municipal STD clinics and HIV counseling and testing sites and was cost saving for the community clinic. Cost-effectiveness ratios increased substantially if the antibody testing interval decreased to every 6 months and decreased to cost-saving if the testing interval increased to every 5 years. NAAT was cost saving in the community clinic in all situations. Results were particularly sensitive to AHI screening yield. Conclusions Pooled NAAT screening for AHI following negative third-generation antibody or rapid tests is not cost-effective at recommended antibody testing intervals for high-risk persons

  6. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  7. Acute and chronic intakes of fallout radionuclides by Marshallese from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak and related internal radiation doses.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L; Weinstock, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  8. ACUTE AND CHRONIC INTAKES OF FALLOUT RADIONUCLIDES BY MARSHALLESE FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTING AT BIKINI AND ENEWETAK AND RELATED INTERNAL RADIATION DOSES

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L.; Weinstock, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  9. Cholescintigraphy in acute acalculous cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanna, L.; Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Berman, D.S.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-08-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a relatively rare but potentially lethal condition if not treated promptly. Since stones are not present, diagnostic procedures such as ultrasound or other radiological procedures are frequently not helpful. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid scan results were analyzed in 11 proven cases of acute acalculous cholecystitis. All had positive tests with nonvisualization of the gallbladder giving a sensitivity of 100%. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy is a highly reliable test and is easily performed even in acutely ill patients and should be the test of choice in all patients predisposed to and suspected of acute acalculous cholecystitis.

  10. Utility of the Tourniquet Test and the White Blood Cell Count to Differentiate Dengue among Acute Febrile Illnesses in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Christopher J.; Lorenzi, Olga D.; Colón, Lisandra; Sepúlveda García, Arleene; Santiago, Luis M.; Cruz Rivera, Ramón; Cuyar Bermúdez, Liv Jossette; Ortiz Báez, Fernando; Vázquez Aponte, Delanor; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm3) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2–7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

  11. Prognostic evaluation by clinical exercise test scores in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention or fibrinolysis for acute myocardial infarction (a Danish Trial in Acute Myocardial Infarction-2 Sub-Study).

    PubMed

    Valeur, Nana; Clemmensen, Peter; Grande, Peer; Saunamäki, Kari

    2007-10-01

    The prognostic accuracy of exercise testing after myocardial infarction is low, and different models have been proposed to enhance the predictive value for subsequent mortality. This study tested a simple score against 3 established scores. Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarctions were randomized in the Danish Trial in Acute Myocardial Infarction-2 (DANAMI-2) to either primary percutaneous coronary intervention or fibrinolysis with predischarge exercise testing. Clinical and exercise test data were collected prospectively and were available for 1,115 patients. A simple score was derived, awarding 1 point for history or new signs of heart failure, 1 point for a left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, 1 point for age >65 years in men and age >70 years in women, and 1 point for exercise capacity <5 METs in men and exercise capacity <4 METs in women. This DANAMI score was compared with the Veterans Affairs Medical Center score, the Duke treadmill score, and the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio Della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-2 (GISSI-2) score in multivariate Cox models and receiver-operating characteristic plots. All scoring systems were predictive of adverse outcomes. The DANAMI score performed better, with greater chi-square values (142 vs 53 to 88 for the prediction of death). Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves were compared and were larger for the DANAMI score (C-statistic 0.79 vs 0.71 to 0.74 for the other tests regarding mortality). The DANAMI score stratified patients into a small high-risk group (8% of the population with 43% mortality in 6 years), an intermediate-risk group (13% with 16% mortality in 6 years), and a low-risk group (79% with 4% mortality in 6 years). In conclusion, a simple exercise test score composed of age, METs, heart failure, and a left ventricular ejection fraction <40% seems to outperform the Duke treadmill score, Veterans Affairs Medical Center score, and GISSI-2 score in risk stratifying

  12. Acute toxicity test of a natural iron chelator and an antioxidant, extracted from Triticum aestivum Linn. (wheat grass).

    PubMed

    Das, Priyabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Mandal, Suvra; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Pal, Amartya; Sarkar, Nirmal Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2014-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (wheat grass) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. Previously the purified compounds and crude extract of T. aestivum were established to have iron chelation potency and antioxidant activity. So it is necessary to evaluate the toxic properties of any compound isolated from plant extract to prevent any untoward side effects. The aim of this study was to determine the acute oral toxicity level of our purified compounds, i.e. mugineic acids and methylpheophorbide a., and crude extract of T. aestivum, on Swiss albino mice at dosage of 2000 mg/kg for a period of 14 days using the organisation for economic co-operation and development guidelines 423. There was no mortality. No change in behavioural pattern, clinical signs, body weight and blood biochemistry profile were observed. Kidney and liver showed normal histo-pathological architecture. Hence, the oral administration of compounds and extract of T. aestivum did not produce any significant toxic effect on mice. Thus we may conclude that the extract can be utilised for pharmaceutical formulations as iron chelator and antioxidant agent for various diseases. PMID:24697628

  13. Toxicity of sodium molybdate and sodium dichromate to Daphnia magna straus evaluated in acute, chronic, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition tests.

    PubMed

    Diamantino, T C; Guilhermino, L; Almeida, E; Soares, A M

    2000-03-01

    As a result of a widespread application in numerous industrial processes, chromium is a contaminant of many environmental systems. Chromium and their compounds are toxic to both invertebrates and vertebrates and, for this reason, there has been a search for suitable and less toxic alternatives. Molybdenum compounds have been studied as alternative to chromium compounds for some industrial applications. The toxicity of chromium is well known but the effects of molybdenum and molybdenum mining on natural populations and communities of freshwater invertebrates have not often been studied. However, chromium, and molybdenum (and their compounds) are included in the same list (List II) of European Union dangerous substances. In this study, the acute and chronic effects of sodium molybdate and sodium dichromate to Daphnia magna Straus were evaluated. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo effects of these two metals on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of D. magna Straus were investigated. LC(50) values determined at 48 h were 0.29 and 2847.5 mg L(-1) for chromium (as sodium dichromate) and molybdenum (as sodium molybdate), respectively. No significant in vitro effects of both metals on AChE were found. However, both toxicants inhibited AChE in vivo at concentrations under the respective 48-h LC(50) values. Both sodium dichromate and sodium molybdate inhibited the reproduction and growth of D. magna, but the concentrations inducing significant effects were different for the two chemicals. Sodium molybdate had significant lower toxicity to D. magna Straus than sodium dichromate. PMID:10702344

  14. Prevalence of patients with acute febrile illnesses and positive dengue NS1 tests in a tertiary hospital in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Asigau, Viola; Lavu, Evelyn K; McBride, William J H; Biloh, Eric; Naroi, Francis; Koana, Egi; Ferguson, John K; Laman, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Because the prevalence of dengue fever in urban settings in Papua New Guinea is unknown, we investigated the presence of dengue using the NS1 antigen test in an outpatient-based prospective observational study at Port Moresby General Hospital. Of 140 patients with acute febrile illnesses, dengue fever was diagnosed in 14.9% (20 of 134; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 9.6-22.4). Malaria (2 of 137; 1.5%; 95% CI = 0.3-5.7), chikungunya (3 of 140; 2.1%; 95% CI = 0.6-6.6), and bacterial bloodstream infections (0 of 80; 0%; 95% CI = 0-5.7) were uncommon. Dengue fever should no longer be considered rare in Papua New Guinea. PMID:25331803

  15. Trends in Cardiac Biomarker Testing in China for Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction, 2001 to 2011: China PEACE-Retrospective AMI Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Hu, Shuang; Spertus, John A.; Lin, Zhenqiu; Desai, Nihar R.; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe trends in the availability of biomarker testing in Chinese hospitals and how practice complies with established standards for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Background Cardiac biomarker testing is standard in high-income countries, but little is known about the availability and use of cardiac biomarker testing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as China. Methods Based on a nationally representative sample of Chinese hospitals in 2001, 2006 and 2011, we describe the temporal trends and regional differences in the hospital capability and rates of use of cardiac biomarker testing, as well as the variation in use across hospitals with testing capability, for patients labeled with the diagnosis of AMI. Results We sampled 175 hospitals (162 participated in the study) and 18,631 AMI admissions. 14,370 patients were included in analysis of biomarker use. The proportion of hospitals with biomarker testing capability was 57.4% in 2001 (25.0% troponin and 32.4% creatine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB) only) and 96.3% (81.4% troponin and 14.9% CK-MB only) in 2011. The proportion of hospitals with troponin testing capability in 2011 was significantly higher in urban compared with rural hospitals (96.8% vs. 71.4%, p< 0.001). In 2011, only 55.9% of hospitals with troponin testing capability (71 out of 127 hospitals) used the assay for more than 80% of their patients with AMI. Among hospitals with either biomarker testing capability, there was marked variation in use in both rural (from 7.1% to 100.0% of patients) and urban hospitals (from 57.9% to 100.0% of patients). In 2011, 36.1% of the patients with AMI did not have troponin tested and 4.9% did not have either biomarker measured. Conclusions The recommended biomarker tests for AMI diagnosis are not universally available and the testing is not consistently applied when it is available in China. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01624883 PMID:25893247

  16. Systematic, theoretically-grounded development and feasibility testing of an innovative, preventive web-based game for children exposed to acute trauma

    PubMed Central

    Marsac, Meghan L.; Winston, Flaura K.; Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Kohser, Kristen L.; March, Sonja; Kenardy, Justin; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Millions of children are affected by acute medical events annually, creating need for resources to promote recovery. While web-based interventions promise wide reach and low cost for users, development can be time- and cost-intensive. A systematic approach to intervention development can help to minimize costs and increase likelihood of effectiveness. Using a systematic approach, our team integrated evidence on the etiology of traumatic stress, an explicit program theory, and a user-centered design process to intervention development. Objective To describe evidence and the program theory model applied to the Coping Coach intervention and present pilot data evaluating intervention feasibility and acceptability. Method Informed by empirical evidence on traumatic stress prevention, an overarching program theory model was articulated to delineate pathways from a) specific intervention content to b) program targets and proximal outcomes to c) key longer-term health outcomes. Systematic user-testing with children ages 8–12 (N = 42) exposed to an acute medical event and their parents was conducted throughout intervention development. Results Functionality challenges in early prototypes necessitated revisions. Child engagement was positive throughout revisions to the Coping Coach intervention. Final pilot-testing demonstrated promising feasibility and high user-engagement and satisfaction. Conclusion Applying a systematic approach to the development of Coping Coach led to the creation of a functional intervention that is accepted by children and parents. Development of new e-health interventions may benefit from a similar approach. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of Coping Coach in achieving targeted outcomes of reduced trauma symptoms and improved health-related quality of life. PMID:25844276

  17. Bortezomib has little ex vivo activity in chronic myeloid leukemia: individual tumor response testing comparative study in acute and chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Lidia; Czyżewski, Krzysztof; Kołodziej, Beata; Kuryło-Rafińska, Beata; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Gniot, Michał; Lewandowska, Maria; Komarnicki, Mieczysław; Wysocki, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Resistance to imatinib is one of the most important issues in treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. The objective of the study was to analyze the ex vivo drug resistance profile to bortezomib and 22 other antileukemic drugs, including three tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), in CML in comparison to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Material and methods A total of 82 patients entered the study, including 36 CML and 46 AML adults. Among CML patients, 19 had advanced disease, 16 were resistant to imatinib, and 6 had ABL-kinase domain mutations. The ex vivo drug resistance profile was studied by the MTT assay. Results CML cells were more resistant than AML blasts to the following drugs: prednisolone, vincristine, doxorubicin, etoposide, melphalan, cytarabine, fludarabine, thiotepa, 4-HOO-cyclophosphamide, thioguanine, bortezomib, topotecan, and clofarabine. CML cells were 2-fold more sensitive to busulfan than AML cells. CML patients with clinical imatinib resistance had higher ex vivo resistance to vincristine, daunorubicin, etoposide, and busulfan. No significant differences to all tested drugs, including TKIs, were observed between CML patients with non-advanced and advanced disease. CML patients with mutation had higher ex vivo resistance to vincristine, idarubicin, thiotepa, and busulfan. Conclusions CML cells are ex vivo more resistant to most drugs than acute myeloid leukemia blasts. Busulfan is more active in CML than AML cells. In comparison to AML cells, bortezomib has little ex vivo activity in CML cells. No differences between CML subgroups in sensitivity to 3 tested TKIs were detected. PMID:23788881

  18. Point-of-care procalcitonin test to reduce antibiotic exposure in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Corti, Caspar; Fally, Markus; Fabricius-Bjerre, Andreas; Mortensen, Katrine; Jensen, Birgitte Nybo; Andreassen, Helle F; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to investigate whether point-of-care (POC) procalcitonin (PCT) measurement can reduce redundant antibiotic treatment in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Methods One-hundred and twenty adult patients admitted with AECOPD were enrolled in this open-label randomized trial. Patients were allocated to either the POC PCT-guided intervention arm (n=62) or the control arm, in which antibiotic therapy followed local guidelines (n=58). Results The median duration of antibiotic exposure was 3.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 0–10) days in the PCT-arm vs 8.5 (IQR 1–11) days in the control arm (P=0.0169, Wilcoxon) for the intention-to-treat population. The proportion of patients using antibiotics for ≥5 days within the 28-day follow-up was 41.9% (PCT-arm) vs 67.2% (P=0.006, Fisher’s exact) in the intention-to-treat population. For the per-protocol population, the proportions were 21.1% (PCT-arm) vs 73.9% (P<0.00001, Fisher’s exact). Within 28-day follow-up, one patient died in the PCT-arm and two died in the control arm. A composite harm end point consisting of death, rehospitalization, or intensive care unit admission, all within 28 days, showed no apparent difference. Conclusion Our study shows that the implementation of a POC PCT-guided algorithm can be used to substantially reduce antibiotic exposure in patients hospitalized with AECOPD, with no apparent harm. PMID:27382274

  19. LPS-Induced Lung Inflammation in Marmoset Monkeys – An Acute Model for Anti-Inflammatory Drug Testing

    PubMed Central

    Seehase, Sophie; Lauenstein, Hans-Dieter; Schlumbohm, Christina; Switalla, Simone; Neuhaus, Vanessa; Förster, Christine; Fieguth, Hans-Gerd; Pfennig, Olaf; Fuchs, Eberhard; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Bleyer, Martina; Hohlfeld, Jens M.; Braun, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Increasing incidence and substantial morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases requires the development of new human-specific anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying therapeutics. Therefore, new predictive animal models that closely reflect human lung pathology are needed. In the current study, a tiered acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model was established in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) to reflect crucial features of inflammatory lung diseases. Firstly, in an ex vivo approach marmoset and, for the purposes of comparison, human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor roflumilast. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β) were measured. The corticosteroid dexamethasone was used as treatment control. Secondly, in an in vivo approach marmosets were pre-treated with roflumilast or dexamethasone and unilaterally challenged with LPS. Ipsilateral bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was conducted 18 hours after LPS challenge. BAL fluid was processed and analyzed for neutrophils, TNF-α, and MIP-1β. TNF-α release in marmoset PCLS correlated significantly with human PCLS. Roflumilast treatment significantly reduced TNF-α secretion ex vivo in both species, with comparable half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). LPS instillation into marmoset lungs caused a profound inflammation as shown by neutrophilic influx and increased TNF-α and MIP-1β levels in BAL fluid. This inflammatory response was significantly suppressed by roflumilast and dexamethasone. The close similarity of marmoset and human lungs regarding LPS-induced inflammation and the significant anti-inflammatory effect of approved pharmaceuticals assess the suitability of marmoset monkeys to serve as a promising model for studying anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:22952743

  20. Feigning Acute Intermittent Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Elkhatib, Rania; Idowu, Modupe; Brown, Gregory S.; Jaber, Yasmeen M.; Reid, Matthew B.; Person, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant genetic defect in heme synthesis. Patients with this illness can have episodic life-threatening attacks characterized by abdominal pain, neurological deficits, and psychiatric symptoms. Feigning this illness has not been reported in the English language literature to date. Here, we report on a patient who presented to the hospital with an acute attack of porphyria requesting opiates. Diligent assessment of extensive prior treatment records revealed thirteen negative tests for AIP. PMID:25525547

  1. Review of OECD/OPPTS-harmonized and OPPTS ecotoxicity test guidelines for their applicability to manufactured nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the environmental risk of manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) presents a significant and growing challenge for environmental regulators. These materials, defined as having at least one physical dimensions between 1 and 100 nanometers are being developed, produced, and inco...

  2. Artificial neural network modeling enhances risk stratification and can reduce downstream testing for patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes, negative cardiac biomarkers, and normal ECGs.

    PubMed

    Isma'eel, Hussain A; Cremer, Paul C; Khalaf, Shaden; Almedawar, Mohamad M; Elhajj, Imad H; Sakr, George E; Jaber, Wael A

    2016-04-01

    Despite uncertain yield, guidelines endorse routine stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes, unremarkable serial electrocardiograms, and negative troponin measurements. In these patients, outcome prediction and risk stratification models could spare unnecessary testing. This study therefore investigated the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) to improve risk stratification and prediction of MPI and angiographic results. We retrospectively identified 5354 consecutive patients referred from the emergency department for rest-stress MPI after serial negative troponins and normal ECGs. Patients were risk stratified according to thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) scores, ischemia was defined as >5 % reversible perfusion defect, and obstructive coronary artery disease was defined as >50 % angiographic obstruction. For ANN, the network architecture employed a systematic method where the number of neurons is changed incrementally, and bootstrapping was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the models. Compared to TIMI scores, ANN models provided improved discriminatory power. With regards to MPI, an ANN model could reduce testing by 59 % and maintain a 96 % negative predictive value (NPV) for ruling out ischemia. Application of an ANN model could also avoid 73 % of invasive coronary angiograms while maintaining a 98 % NPV for detecting obstructive CAD. An online calculator for clinical use was created using these models. The ANN models improved risk stratification when compared to the TIMI score. Our calculator could also reduce downstream testing while maintaining an excellent NPV, though further study is needed before the calculator can be used clinically. PMID:26626458

  3. Acute effects of Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) on hemorheological parameters in female volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Kilic-Toprak, Emine; Yapici, Ayşegül; Kilic-Erkek, Ozgen; Koklu, Yusuf; Tekin, Volkan; Alemdaroglu, Utku; Bor-Kucukatay, Melek

    2015-07-16

    In the present study, we investigated possible alterations in red blood cell (RBC) deformability, plasma and whole blood viscosities (WBV) and hematological parameters in response to Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) which is currently used to assess endurance performance, in female volleyball players. Eight volleyball player volunteers from Pamukkale University (mean age19,9 ± 2,2 years; mean body height 177.5 ± 1.99 cm; mean body mass index 21.66 ± 0.64 kg/m2) participated to the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after test. Red blood cell (RBC) deformability was determined by ektacytometer, plasma and whole blood viscosities (WBV) by a cone-plate rotational viscometer. Hematological parameters were determined using an electronic hematology analyzer. The Yo-YoIR1 applied, induced acute increments in WBV at native hematocrit (Hct) measured at a shear rate of 150 s-1 and 375 s-1, RBC deformability and WBC count. The results of the current study indicate that, the Yo-Yo IR1 test used to determine physical capacity of the player, by resulting in increments in RBC deformability contributes blood flow and thus, athletic performance of the individual. PMID:24840339

  4. Effects of Methyl Jasmonate on Acute Stress Responses in Mice Subjected to Forced Swim and Anoxic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Aluko, Oritoke M.; Umukoro, Solomon; Annafi, Olajide S.; Adewole, Folashade A.; Omorogbe, Osarume

    2015-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is an anti-stress hormone released by plants in response to external stressors and aids adaptation to stress. In this study, we evaluated the anti-stress activity of MJ using the forced swim endurance test (FSET) and anoxic tolerance test in mice. Male Swiss mice were given MJ (25–100 mg/kg, i.p) 30 min before the FSET and anoxic test were carried out. The first occurrence of immobility, duration of immobility, time spent in active swimming, and latency to exhaustion were assessed in the FSET. The onset to anoxic convulsion was measured in the anoxic tolerance test. MJ significantly (p < 0.05) delayed the first occurrence of immobility and shortened the period of immobility, which indicates anti-stress property. MJ also increased the time spent in active swimming and prolonged the latency to exhaustion, which further suggests anti-stress activity. In addition, it also exhibited anti-stress property as evidenced by prolonged latency to first appearance of anoxic convulsions. The results of this study suggest that MJ demonstrated anti-stress activity and may be useful as an energizer in times of body weakness or exhaustion. Although more studies are necessary before concluding on how MJ exerts its anti-stress activity, the present data suggest an action similar to adaptogens in boosting energy and resilience in the face of stress. PMID:26839844

  5. METHOD FOR AQUATIC MULTIPLE SPECIES TOXICANT TESTING: ACUTE TOXICITY OF 10 CHEMICALS TO 5 VERTEBRATES AND 2 INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed to simultaneously ascertain 96 h LC50 values for seven freshwater species in a single flow through test with measured concentrations. It allows interspecific comparisons, easy determination of the most sensitive species, and cuts cost of labor, materials, a...

  6. Acute sensitivity of freshwater mollusks and commonly tested invertebrates to select chemicals with different toxic models of action

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies indicate that freshwater mollusks are more sensitive than commonly tested organisms to some chemicals, such as copper and ammonia. Nevertheless, mollusks are generally under-represented in toxicity databases. Studies are needed to generate data with which to comp...

  7. Acute toxicities of pharmaceuticals toward green algae. mode of action, biopharmaceutical drug disposition classification system and quantile regression models.

    PubMed

    Villain, Jonathan; Minguez, Laetitia; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Durrieu, Gilles; Bureau, Ronan

    2016-02-01

    The acute toxicities of 36 pharmaceuticals towards green algae were estimated from a set of quantile regression models representing the first global quantitative structure-activity relationships. The selection of these pharmaceuticals was based on their predicted environmental concentrations. An agreement between the estimated values and the observed acute toxicity values was found for several families of pharmaceuticals, in particular, for antidepressants. A recent classification (BDDCS) of drugs based on ADME properties (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) was clearly correlated with the acute ecotoxicities towards algae. Over-estimation of toxicity from our QSAR models was observed for classes 2, 3 and 4 whereas our model results were in agreement for the class 1 pharmaceuticals. Clarithromycin, a class 3 antibiotic characterized by weak metabolism and high solubility, was the most toxic to algae (molecular stability and presence in surface water). PMID:26590695

  8. Ecotoxicity of sediments in rivers: Invertebrate community, toxicity bioassays and the toxic unit approach as complementary assessment tools.

    PubMed

    de Castro-Català, Núria; Kuzmanovic, Maja; Roig, Neus; Sierra, Jordi; Ginebreda, Antoni; Barceló, Damià; Pérez, Sandra; Petrovic, Mira; Picó, Yolanda; Schuhmacher, Marta; Muñoz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the real toxicity of sediments in aquatic ecosystems is challenging and necessary for an appropriate risk assessment. Different approaches have been developed and applied over the last several decades. Currently, the joint implementation of chemical, ecological and toxicological tools is recommended for an appropriate and successful toxicity risk assessment. We chose the combination of the toxic unit approach with acute pore water tests (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Daphnia magna) and whole-sediment exposure tests (V. fischeri, Chironomus riparius), together with invertebrate community composition (multivariate analyses) to detect short and long-term responses of the organisms in four rivers of the Iberian Peninsula. High toxicity was detected in three sites (the downstream sites of the Llobregat and the Júcar, and the most upstream site of the Ebro). We identified organophosphate insecticides and metals as the main variables responsible for this toxicity, particularly in the whole-sediment tests. In particular, chlorpyrifos was mostly responsible for the toxicity (TUs) of D. magna, coinciding with the C. riparius mortality (long-term toxicity) in the mentioned sites, and copper was the main pollutant responsible for the short-term toxicity of P. subcapitata. The combination of the different approaches allowed us to detect ecotoxicological effects in organisms and identify the main contributors to the toxicity in these multi-stressed rivers. PMID:26118861

  9. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test.

    PubMed

    Vigotsky, Andrew D; Lehman, Gregory J; Contreras, Bret; Beardsley, Chris; Chung, Bryan; Feser, Erin H

    2015-01-01

    Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM) during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test. Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 ± 3.3 years; height = 170 ± 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 ± 14.9 kg) performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated. Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86° (+0.11, +3.61); z(22) = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearson's r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72)) was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = -1.39° (-5.53, +2.75); t(22) = -0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohen's d = - 0.15 (-0.58, 0.29)) or rectus femoris length (change = -0.005 (-0.013, +0.003); t(22) = -1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohen's d = - 0.27 (-0.70, 0.16)) were not due to chance alone. Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol. PMID:26421244

  10. Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, D. Montgomery; Wang, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a set of diseases, each representing an individual defect in one of the eight enzymes mediating the pathway of heme synthesis. The diseases are genetically distinct but have in common the overproduction of heme precursors. In the case of the acute (neurologic) porphyrias, the cause of symptoms appears to be overproduction of a neurotoxic precursor. For the cutaneous porphyrias, it is photosensitizing porphyrins. Some types have both acute and cutaneous manifestations. The clinical presentation of acute porphyria consists of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasionally seizures. Only a small minority of those who carry a mutation for acute porphyria have pain attacks. The triggers for an acute attack encompass certain medications and severely decreased caloric intake. The propensity of females to acute attacks has been linked to internal changes in ovarian physiology. Symptoms are accompanied by large increases in delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in plasma and urine. Treatment of an acute attack centers initially on pain relief and elimination of inducing factors such as medications; glucose is administered to reverse the fasting state. The only specific treatment is administration of intravenous hemin. An important goal of treatment is preventing progression of the symptoms to a neurological crisis. Patients who progress despite hemin administration have undergone liver transplantation with complete resolution of symptoms. A current issue is the unavailability of a rapid test for urine porphobilinogen in the urgent-care setting. PMID:26357631

  11. Male golden hamster in male reproductive toxicology testing: Assessment of protective activity of selenium in acute cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Wiodarczyk, B.; Biernacki, B.; Minta, M.; Juszkiewicz, T.; Kozaczynski, W.

    1995-06-01

    The golden hamster has a short history as a laboratory animal. In spite of this, it has been extensively used as a subject for biomedical research. The hamster has also been utilized in toxicological evaluations, especially in teratology studies. Results of these investigations reveal that laboratory hamsters are very sensitive to many chemical compounds, including: drugs, food additives, industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and other environmental contaminants. The animals most frequently used in toxicological investigations are rats and mice. This is also true in male reproductive toxicology. Apparent differences in species sensitivity to chemical compounds suggest a need to examine a new species in this field of toxicology. A good example of chemical specific differences in species sensitivity is the testicular toxicity of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), which was a testicular toxicant in humans and in rats, but it was not effective, even at relatively high dose levels, in the mouse. From our own vast experience in using hamsters in toxicological studies, we decided to use this laboratory animal in male reproductive toxicology screening tests. The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of golden hamsters as an experimental animal species for male reproductive toxicology testing. To this effect we have chosen selenium and cadmium as test agents as they were well known for their spectacular effect on the male reproductive system. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Acute nephritic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Glomerulonephritis - acute; Acute glomerulonephritis; Nephritis syndrome - acute ... Acute nephritic syndrome is often caused by an immune response triggered by an infection or other disease. Common causes ...

  13. Significance of a negative exercise thallium test in the presence of a critical residual stenosis after thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, J.M.; Topol, E.J. )

    1991-04-01

    After thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction, increasing emphasis is placed on early submaximal exercise testing, with further intervention advocated only for demonstrable ischemia. Although significant residual coronary artery lesions after successful thrombolysis are common, many patients paradoxically have no corresponding provokable ischemia. The relation between significant postthrombolytic residual coronary artery disease and a negative early, submaximal exercise thallium-201 tomogram was studied among 101 consecutive patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction and at least 70% residual stenosis of the infarct artery. A negative test occurred in 49 (48.5%) patients with a mean 88% residual infarct artery stenosis. Further characteristics of the group were as follows: mean time to treatment was 3.1 hours; mean age was 54 +/- 10 years; 80% were male; 47% had anterior infarction; 39% had multivessel disease; mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 53 +/- 14%; and mean peak creatine kinase level was 3,820 +/- 3,123 IU/ml. A similar group of 52 (51.5%) patients, treated within 3.3 hours from symptom onset, with a mean postthrombolysis stenosis of 90%, had a positive exercise test. Characteristics of this group were as follows: age was 58 +/- 10 years; 92% were male; 56% had anterior infarction; 40% had multivessel disease; and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 54 +/- 15%. The peak creatine kinase level associated with the infarction, however, was lower: 2,605 +/- 1,805 IU/ml (p = 0.04). There was no difference in performance at exercise testing with respect to peak systolic pressure, peak heart rate, or time tolerated on the treadmill between the two groups. By multivariate logistic regression, only peak creatine kinase level predicted a negative stress result in the presence of a significant residual stenosis.

  14. Detection of acute effects of cigarette smoking on airway dynamics: A critical and comparative study of pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed Central

    Sobol, B J; Van Voorhies, L; Emirgil, C

    1977-01-01

    In an effort to determine which measure of airway dynamics was the most sensitive to airway obstruction, comparisons were made between a variety of tests. Twenty cigarette smokers were studied both before and immediately after smoking a cigarette. The maximum midexpiratory flow (FEV25-75) and the FEV1/FVC per cent were abnormal in the largest number of cases. Closing volume was abnormal in only one case. Significant worsening in function after smoking a cigarette occurred in airway resistance and specific conductance. A lesser degree of impairment in airway dynamics was evident from FEV25-75 and first-second expired volume. The closing volume showed no change. PMID:882945

  15. Comparison of Rates of Coronary Angiography and Combined Testing Procedures in Patients Seen in the Emergency Room With Chest Pain (But No Objective Acute Coronary Syndrome Findings) Having Coronary Computed Tomography Versus Exercise Stress Testing.

    PubMed

    Grunau, Brian; Leipsic, Jonathon; Purssell, Elizabeth; Kasteel, Naomi; Nguyen, Kimchi; Kazem, Mikameh; Naoum, Christopher; Raju, Rekha; Blanke, Philipp; Heilbron, Brett; Taylor, Carolyn; Scheuermeyer, Frank X

    2016-07-15

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) appears comparable to standard care, including exercise stress testing (EST), in diagnosing acute coronary syndrome in emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain but may increase downstream testing. The objective of this study was to investigate rates of post-CCTA versus post-EST testing for (1) invasive angiography and (2) all combined cardiac testing. This was a retrospective cohort study performed at 2 urban Canadian EDs involving patients aged up to 65 years with chest pain but no objective ACS findings that were evaluated with CCTA or EST at the physician's discretion. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had 30-day invasive angiography in each group; secondary outcomes included all subsequent 30-day cardiac testing, including nuclear medicine scanning. From July 1, 2012, to June 30, 2014, we collected 1,700 patients: 521 CCTA and 1,179 EST. Demographics and risk factors were similar in both cohorts. In the following 30 days, 30 CCTA (5.8%) and 297 EST (25.2%) patients underwent any type of additional cardiac testing (difference 19.4%, 95% CI 16.0 to 22.6), whereas 12 CCTA (2.3%) and 20 EST patients (1.7%) underwent angiography (difference 0.6%, 95% CI -0.8% to 2.6%). No patients in either group died or had a myocardial infarction within 30 days. For ED patients with chest pain who underwent brief observation, CCTA and EST had similar 30-day angiography rates, but CCTA patients underwent significantly less overall cardiac investigations. PMID:27236251

  16. [Effects of aging time on the form transformation and eco-toxicity threshold (ECx) of added Zn in typical China soils].

    PubMed

    Lin, Lei; Chen, Shi-Bao; Liu, Ji-Fang; Ma, Yi-Bing

    2013-07-01

    Six typical China soils with different properties were selected and added with seven concentrations of ZnCl2 to study the effects of different aging time (14, 90, 180, 360, and 540 days) on the form transformation and eco-toxicity threshold (ECx) of added Zn in the soils, with the main affecting factors analyzed. The results indicated that with the increase of aging time, the fraction of 0.01 mol x L(-1) CaCl2-extracted Zn in the soils decreased sharply initially, then slowed down, and reached the dynamic balance after 540 d incubation. The eco-toxicity thresholds (ECx, x = 10, 50) of Zn to bok choy increased significantly with aging time (P < 0.05), which implied the marked decrease of the phyto-toxicity of Zn. The measured aging factors AF10 and AF50 of Zn ranged from 1.077-1.743 and 1.174-1.441, respectively, and increased with aging time. The balanced concentration of Zn in the soils was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, CEC, and organic carbon (Org-C) content, and soil pH was the most important controlling factor, followed by CEC and Org-C. It took shorter time to reach Zn balance in the soils with higher pH. The prediction model of the ECx of Zn was developed based on the aging factors and the main soil properties, and could be well validated by the measured ECx under field condition. This study would provide theoretical basis for the normalization of the eco-toxicity thresholds of added Zn in different soils and the formulation of the environmental criterion of Zn in China soils. PMID:24175536

  17. Ecotoxicity and Biodegradability Assessment of Metalworking Fluids by Activated Sludge Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerulová, Kristína; Mihálková, Adriána; Šergovičová, Magdaléna; Guoth, Alexander; Nádašská, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate toxicity of metalworking fluids to bacterial consortium of activated sludge according to OECD 209 (STN EN ISO 8192) and a potential of the same sludge to degrade a part of the fluids according to OECD 302B. Toxic impact can affect different responses, particularly the inhibition of respiration measured from the oxygen consumption in a closed bottle. The degradation rate was calculated from COD according to the authors such as van der Gast and Ian Thompson (1, 2) who tested the degradability of some MWFs in bioreactors by measuring the COD. The lowest toxic MWF's were Cimstar 597 and Emulzin H (the highest tested concentration was below EC50), then Zubora TXS (EC50 - 11 349 mg l-1), Aquamet LAK-E (EC50 - 5 228 mg l-1), Adrana D 407 (EC50 - 4 351 mg l-1) followed, and finally, Hocut 3380 (EC50 - 2 339 mg l-1) was assessed as the most toxic. Important in this test (OECD 302B) is that the starting concentration of the tested substance must not decrease below 20% after 3 hours of cultivating. After that, it is impossible to distinguish biological degradation of organic matter from abiotic elimination from the suspension through adsorption. Tested were 8 MWFs of similar concentration and different addition of activated sludge - 0.25 g l-1, 0.50 g l-1 and 1.00 g l-1. The test showed that, after the first 3 hours of cultivating, adsorption grew with the increasing amount of inoculums, except of Akvol B (the decrease of the starting concentration after the first 3 hours of cultivating was the lowest of all and below 20%). It can be stated that, according to the test basic conditions, all the tested MWFs have a potential to ultimate degradation.

  18. Acute sacroiliitis.

    PubMed

    Slobodin, Gleb; Rimar, Doron; Boulman, Nina; Kaly, Lisa; Rozenbaum, Michael; Rosner, Itzhak; Odeh, Majed

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the data on the etiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, and diagnosis of acute sacroiliitis. A Pubmed search utilizing the indexing term "acute sacroiliitis" was conducted and the data pertinent to the aim of the review was extracted and organized in accordance with the preplanned structure of the manuscript. The diagnosis of acute sacroiliitis is often challenging because of both the relative rarity of this presentation and diverse character of acute sacroiliac pain, frequently mimicking other, more prevalent disorders. Technetium bone scintigraphy can localize the disease process to the sacroiliac joint, while computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used for the detailed characterization and the extent of the disease as well as the diagnosis of complications. Pyogenic sacroiliitis is by far the most common cause of acute sacroiliitis. Brucellosis, acute sacroiliitis in the course of reactive arthritis, and crystalline-induced sacroiliitis frequently imitate pyogenic sacroiliitis. Acute sacroiliitis can rarely be also related to hematological malignancies or treatment with isotretinoin. Awareness to the possibility of acute sacroiliitis and a thorough physical examination are the necessary prerequisites to its timely diagnosis, while the appropriate laboratory and imaging studies should confirm the precise diagnosis and direct the appropriate treatment strategy. PMID:26847855

  19. Marine ecotoxicity of nitramines, transformation products of amine-based carbon capture technology.

    PubMed

    Coutris, Claire; Macken, Ailbhe L; Collins, Andrew R; El Yamani, Naouale; Brooks, Steven J

    2015-09-15

    In the context of reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, chemical absorption with amines is emerging as the most advanced technology for post-combustion CO2 capture from exhaust gases of fossil fuel power plants. Despite amine solvent recycling during the capture process, degradation products are formed and released into the environment, among them aliphatic nitramines, for which the environmental impact is unknown. In this study, we determined the acute and chronic toxicity of two nitramines identified as important transformation products of amine-based carbon capture, dimethylnitramine and ethanolnitramine, using a multi-trophic suite of bioassays. The results were then used to produce the first environmental risk assessment for the marine ecosystem. In addition, the in vivo genotoxicity of nitramines was studied by adapting the comet assay to cells from experimentally exposed fish. Overall, based on the whole organism bioassays, the toxicity of both nitramines was considered to be low. The most sensitive response to both compounds was found in oysters, and dimethylnitramine was consistently more toxic than ethanolnitramine in all bioassays. The Predicted No Effect Concentrations for dimethylnitramine and ethanolnitramine were 0.08 and 0.18 mg/L, respectively. The genotoxicity assessment revealed contrasting results to the whole organism bioassays, with ethanolnitramine found to be more genotoxic than dimethylnitramine by three orders of magnitude. At the lowest ethanolnitramine concentration (1mg/L), 84% DNA damage was observed, whereas 100mg/L dimethylnitramine was required to cause 37% DNA damage. The mechanisms of genotoxicity were also shown to differ between the two compounds, with oxidation of the DNA bases responsible for over 90% of the genotoxicity of dimethylnitramine, whereas DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites were responsible for over 90% of the genotoxicity of ethanolnitramine. Fish exposed to >3mg/L ethanolnitramine had virtually no DNA

  20. Assessment of the predictive capacity of the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity test method to identify substances not classified for acute oral toxicity (LD50>2000 mg/kg): results of an ECVAM validation study.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar; Cole, Thomas; Curren, Rodger; Gibson, Rosemary M; Liebsch, Manfred; Raabe, Hans; Tuomainen, Anita M; Whelan, Maurice; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka

    2013-04-01

    Assessing chemicals for acute oral toxicity is a standard information requirement of regulatory testing. However, animal testing is now prohibited in the cosmetics sector in Europe, and strongly discouraged for industrial chemicals. Building on the results of a previous international validation study, a follow up study was organised to assess if the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity assay could identify substances not requiring classification as acute oral toxicants under the EU regulations. Fifty-six coded industrial chemicals were tested in three laboratories, each using one of the following protocols: the previously validated protocol, an abbreviated version of the protocol and the protocol adapted for an automation platform. Predictions were very similar among the three laboratories. The assay exhibited high sensitivity (92-96%) but relatively low specificity (40-44%). Three chemicals were under predicted. Assuming that most industrial chemicals are not likely to be acutely toxic, this test method could prove a valuable component of an integrated testing strategy, a read-across argument, or weight-of-evidence approach to identify non toxic chemicals (LD50>2000 mg/kg). However, it is likely to under predict chemicals acting via specific mechanisms of action not captured by the 3T3 test system, or which first require biotransformation in vivo. PMID:23246604

  1. Ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish near the Hanford Site (USA).

    PubMed

    Delistraty, Damon

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to quantify three groups of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (i.e., dioxin-like toxic equivalents [TEQ], non-dioxin-like PCBs, total PCBs) in fish in several species, tissues, and locations in the Columbia River near the Hanford Site. For TEQ and total PCBs, fish ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers were also evaluated. Non-dioxin-like PCBs were not assessed for toxicity, due to lack of available benchmarks. In sturgeon liver, TEQ was significantly higher (P<0.05) within the Hanford Site study areas, relative to upriver. However, this same spatial relationship in sturgeon liver did not attain statistical significance for non-dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs. Non-dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs were significantly higher (P<0.05) in whitefish fillet than in other species (except carp) and significantly higher (P<0.05) in carp fillet, relative to bass. All PCB residues in carcass were significantly elevated (P<0.005) in comparison to fillet. In addition to PCB source, many factors (e.g., dietary composition, tissue lipid content, fish mobility and home range, age, toxicokinetic processes, seasonal adaptations) influence patterns in PCB bioaccumulation across species, tissues, and locations. TEQ and total PCB residues in liver, fillet, and carcass, observed in this study, were below corresponding no effect residues for TEQ and Aroclors in the literature for fish survival, growth, and reproduction. In contrast, TEQ and total PCBs in fillet in this study exceeded USEPA tissue screening levels for cancer (1E-6 risk) and noncancer (hazard quotient [HQ]=1) toxicity for human fish consumers. Key uncertainties in these comparisons to assess toxicity relate to variation in fish species sensitivity to PCBs and use of Aroclor data in the literature to represent total PCBs. PMID:23314118

  2. Acute toxicity and biochemical effects of azinphos methyl in the amphipod Hyalella curvispina.

    PubMed

    Anguiano, Olga Liliana; Castro, Claudia; Venturino, Andrés; Ferrari, Ana

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the acute toxicity and biochemical effects of the organophosphorus pesticide azinphos methyl (AM) in the amphipod Hyalella curvispina that inhabits ponds and irrigation channels of an intensive fruit-producing region in Rio Negro and Neuquén valley, North Patagonia, Argentina. The analysis by nonlinear regression of data from the 96 h-acute toxicity tests indicated the coexistence of two subpopulations of H. curvispina with different susceptibilities to AM. The 96 h-LC₅₀ for the resistant subpopulation (166 ± 56 μg/L) was 216-fold higher than the 96h-LC₅₀ value for the susceptible one (0.77 ± 1.33 μg/L).The two subpopulations could not be distinguished based on the biochemical measurements in control amphipods. Cholinesterase activity was significantly inhibited in AM-exposed amphipods in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC₅₀ value obtained after 96 h of exposure (2.18 ± 1.95 μg/L) was significantly lower than the 48 h-IC₅₀ value (29.6 ± 17.4 μg/L). Carboxylesterase activity was significantly inhibited after 48 h of exposure to 12.5 and 62.5 μg/L AM (inhibition, 51%). This enzyme was thus able to protect cholinesterase from inhibition at 12.5 μg/L AM. Reduced glutathione and catalase showed a significant increase after 24 h of exposure as an adaptive response to AM, whereas glutathione S-transferase activity was not significantly modified. The analysis of species sensitivity distribution showed that both subpopulations of H. curvispina were more tolerant to AM than most amphipod species, and that the susceptible subpopulation was more sensitive to AM than the other local aquatic species analyzed. The maximum concentration of AM in drainage water within the fruit-producing area reported by other studies would affect most of the amphipod species (99%) and also a 44% of local aquatic ones. The results obtained in this study point out the usefulness of including amphipods like H. curvispina in ecotoxicity studies and

  3. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  4. Use of viral lysate antigen combined with recombinant protein in Western immunoblot assay as confirmatory test for serodiagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ming; Chen, Hsiao Ying; Tan, Phuay Heng; Shen, Shuo; Goh, Phuay-Yee; Tan, Yee-Joo; Pang, Peow Hoon; Lu, Yang; Fong, Priscilla Yiquan; Chin, Daria

    2004-11-01

    A Western immunoblot assay for confirmatory serodiagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was developed utilizing viral lysate antigens combined with a recombinant nucleocapsid protein, GST-N (glutathione S-transferase-nucleocapsid) of the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The viral lysate antigens were separated by electrophoresis and transblotted onto nitrocellulose membranes. The resultant membrane was subsequently added with the GST-N recombinant protein at a specific location. The positions of bands corresponding to some of the structural proteins immobilized on the membrane were then located and verified with mouse or rabbit antisera specific to the respective proteins. The Western immunoblot assay was able to detect antibodies to SARS-CoV in all 40 serum specimens from SARS patients and differentiate the SARS-positive samples from those of the healthy donor or non-SARS patient controls (150 samples) when set criteria were followed. In addition, when the immunoblot was used to test samples considered falsely positive by an in-house-developed SARS-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, band patterns different from those with samples from SARS patients were obtained. PMID:15539520

  5. Biomarkers as point-of-care tests to guide prescription of antibiotics in patients with acute respiratory infections in primary care.

    PubMed

    Aabenhus, Rune; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik S; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are by far the most common reason for prescribing an antibiotic in primary care, even though the majority of ARIs are of viral or non-severe bacterial aetiology. Unnecessary antibiotic use will, in many cases, not be beneficial to the patients' recovery and expose them to potential side effects. Furthermore, as a causal link exists between antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance, reducing unnecessary antibiotic use is a key factor in controlling this important problem. Antibiotic resistance puts increasing burdens on healthcare services and renders patients at risk of future ineffective treatments, in turn increasing morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. One strategy aiming to reduce antibiotic use in primary care is the guidance of antibiotic treatment by use of a point-of-care biomarker. A point-of-care biomarker of infection forms part of the acute phase response to acute tissue injury regardless of the aetiology (infection, trauma and inflammation) and may in the correct clinical context be used as a surrogate marker of infection,possibly assisting the doctor in the clinical management of ARIs.Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of point-of-care biomarker tests of infection to guide antibiotic treatment in patients presenting with symptoms of acute respiratory infections in primary care settings regardless of age.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2013, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2014), EMBASE (2010 to January 2014), CINAHL (1981 to January 2014), Web of Science (1955 to January 2014) and LILACS (1982 to January 2014).Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in primary care patients with ARIs that compared use of point-of-care biomarkers with standard of care. We included trials that randomised individual patients as well as trials that randomised clusters of patients(cluster-RCTs).Two review authors independently extracted data on the following outcomes: i

  6. Technical note: Intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reliabilities of an assessment of vaginal discharge from cows with and without acute puerperal metritis.

    PubMed

    Sannmann, I; Heuwieser, W

    2015-08-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) in dairy cows is a common disease occurring in the first 10 d after calving. According to a widely accepted definition, the diagnosis is primarily based on body temperature and sensorial assessment of vaginal discharge. The scope of this study was to evaluate the reliability for color, smell, and viscosity of vaginal discharge from healthy cows and cows with APM. Fifteen investigators evaluated 6 vaginal discharge samples 10 times. Subsequently, the investigators rated the health status of the cows and the diagnostic value of color, smell, and viscosity. In a final questionnaire, the investigators estimated their ability to diagnose APM correctly and the influence of experience. Reliability was tested using Cohen's kappa (κ). Our study revealed slight to moderate reliabilities concerning the assessment of vaginal discharge. Overall interobserver reliability for color, smell, and viscosity was κ=0.15, 0.27, and 0.44, respectively. Overall intraobserver reliability for color, smell, and viscosity was κ=0.35, 0.39, and 0.6, respectively. By means of a questionnaire, overall personal expertise to detect cows suffering from APM correctly as such was estimated to be 59%, whereas the diagnostic value of a combination of color, smell, and viscosity to detect cows with APM correctly was estimated to be 91.1% perfect. We found a discrepancy between reliability and the personal perception of diagnostic value. Our study shows that the sensorial assessment of color, smell, and viscosity of vaginal discharge in cows postpartum is subjective. PMID:26026759

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of the Investigational Pleuromutilin Compound BC-3781 Tested against Gram-Positive Organisms Commonly Associated with Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections

    PubMed Central

    Biedenbach, Douglas J.; Paukner, Susanne; Ivezic-Schoenfeld, Zrinka; Jones, Ronald N.

    2012-01-01

    BC-3781 is a novel semisynthetic pleuromutilin antimicrobial agent developed as an intravenous and oral therapy for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and respiratory tract infections (RTI). BC-3781 and comparator agents were tested by the broth microdilution method against 1,893 clinical Gram-positive organisms predominantly causing ABSSSI. BC-3781 exhibited potent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.25 μg/ml), coagulase-negative staphylococci (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 μg/ml), β-hemolytic streptococci (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 μg/ml), viridans group streptococci (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.5 μg/ml), and Enterococcus faecium (including vancomycin-nonsusceptible strains) (MIC50/90, 0.12/2 μg/ml). Compared with other antibiotics in use for the treatment of ABSSSI, BC-3781 displayed the lowest MICs and only a minimal potential for cross-resistance with other antimicrobial classes. PMID:22232289

  8. Characterization of Size-Fractionated Airborne Particles Inside an Electronic Waste Recycling Facility and Acute Toxicity Testing in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Ho; Wyrzykowska-Ceradini, Barbara; Touati, Abderrahmane; Krantz, Q Todd; Dye, Janice A; Linak, William P; Gullett, Brian; Gilmour, M Ian

    2015-10-01

    Disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in landfills, incinerators, or at rudimentary recycling sites can lead to the release of toxic chemicals into the environment and increased health risks. Developing e-waste recycling technologies at commercial facilities can reduce the release of toxic chemicals and efficiently recover valuable materials. While these e-waste operations represent a vast improvement over previous approaches, little is known about environmental releases, workplace exposures, and potential health impacts. In this study, airborne particulate matter (PM) was measured at various locations within a modern U.S.-based e-waste recycling facility that utilized mechanical processing. In addition, composite size fractionated PM (coarse, fine and ultrafine) samples were collected, extracted, chemically analyzed, and given by oropharyngeal aspiration to mice or cultured with lung slices for lung toxicity tests. Indoor total PM concentrations measured during the study ranged from 220 to 1200 μg/m(3). In general, the coarse PM (2.5-10 μm) was 3-4 times more abundant than fine/ultrafine PM (<2.5 μm). The coarse PM contained higher levels of Ni, Pb, and Zn (up to 6.8 times) compared to the fine (0.1-2.5 μm) and ultrafine (<0.1 μm) PM. Compared to coarse PM measurements from a regional near-roadway study, Pb and Ni were enriched 170 and 20 times, respectively, in the indoor PM, with other significant enrichments (>10 times) observed for Zn and Sb, modest enrichments (>5 times) for Cu and Sr, and minor enrichments (>2 times) for Cr, Cd, Mn, Ca, Fe, and Ba. Negligible enrichment (<2 times) or depletion (<1 time) were observed for Al, Mg, Ti, Si, and V. The coarse PM fraction elicited significant pro-inflammatory responses in the mouse lung at 24 h postexposure compared to the fine and ultrafine PM, and similar toxicity outcomes were observed in the lung slice model. We conclude that exposure to coarse PM from the facility caused substantial inflammation in the

  9. Acute, chronic and reproductive toxicity of complex cyanobacterial blooms in Daphnia magna and the role of microcystins.

    PubMed

    Smutná, Marie; Babica, Pavel; Jarque, Sergio; Hilscherová, Klára; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Haeba, Maher; Bláha, Ludek

    2014-03-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are a global threat to human health and aquatic biota. While the ecotoxicity of cyanobacterial toxins such as microcystins has been studied extensively, little is known about the risks they pose in the wild, i.e. within complex biomasses. In this work, crustaceans (Daphnia magna) were exposed to varying concentrations (0-405 mg d.w L(-1)) of eight complex cyanobacterial water bloom samples in a series of acute (48 h) and chronic (21 day) toxicity experiments. Further acute and chronic exposure assays were performed using aqueous extracts of the crude biomass samples and two fractions prepared by solid phase extraction (SPE) of the aqueous extracts. The cyanobacterial biomasses differed with respect to their dominant cyanobacterial species and microcystin contents. High acute toxicity was observed for 6 of the 8 crude biomass samples. Chronic exposure assays were performed using one complex biomass sample and its various subsamples/fractions. The complex biomass, the crude aqueous extract, and the microcystin-free SPE permeate all elicited similar and significant lethal effects, with LC50 values of around 35.6 mg biomass d.w L(-1) after 21 days. The cyanobacterial biomass samples also affected reproductive health, significantly increasing the time to the first brood (LOEC = 45 mg d.w L(-1) exposure) and inhibiting fecundity by 50% at 15 mg d.w L(-1). Conversely, the microcystin-containing C18-SPE eluate fraction had only weak effects in the chronic assay. These results indicate that cyanobacterial water blooms are highly toxic to zooplankton (both acutely and chronically) at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, the effects observed in the acute and chronic assays were independent of the samples' microcystin contents. Our results thus point out the importance of other cyanobacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides, various peptides and depsipeptides, polar alkaloid metabolites or other unidentified metabolites in the

  10. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Gregory J.; Contreras, Bret; Beardsley, Chris; Chung, Bryan; Feser, Erin H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM) during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test. Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 ± 3.3 years; height = 170 ± 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 ± 14.9 kg) performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated. Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86° (+0.11, +3.61); z(22) = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearson’s r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72)) was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = −1.39° (−5.53, +2.75); t(22) = −0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohen’s d = − 0.15 (−0.58, 0.29)) or rectus femoris length (change = −0.005 (−0.013, +0.003); t(22) = −1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohen’s d = − 0.27 (−0.70, 0.16)) were not due to chance alone. Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol. PMID:26421244

  11. Comparative value of maximal treadmill testing, exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and exercise radionuclide ventriculography for distinguishing high- and low-risk patients soon after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, J.; Goris, M.L.; Nash, E.; Kraemer, H.C.; DeBusk, R.F.; Berger, W.E.; Lew, H.

    1984-05-01

    The prognostic value of symptom-limited treadmill exercise electrocardiography, exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography was compared in 117 men, aged 54 +/- 9 years, tested 3 weeks after a clinically uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (MI). During a mean follow-up period of 11.6 months, 8 men experienced ''hard'' medical events (cardiac death, nonfatal ventricular fibrillation or recurrent MI) and 14 were hospitalized for unstable angina pectoris, congestive heart failure or coronary bypass surgery (total of 22 combined events). By multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards model), peak treadmill work load and the change in left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) during exercise were significant (p less than 0.01) predictors of hard medical events; these 2 risk factors and recurrent ischemic chest pain in the coronary care unit were also significantly predictive (p less than 0.001) for combined events. A peak treadmill work load of 4 METs or less or a decrease in EF of 5% or more below the value at rest during submaximal effort distinguished 22 high-risk patients (20% of the study population) from 89 low-risk patients. The rate of hard medical events within 12 months was 23% (5 of 22 patients), vs 2% (2 of 89 patients) in the high- and low-risk patient subsets, respectively (p less than 0.001). Thus, in patients who underwent evaluation 3 weeks after a clinically uncomplicated MI, exercise radionuclide ventriculography contributed independent prognostic information to that provided by symptom-limited treadmill testing and was superior to exercise thallium scintigraphy for this purpose.

  12. CYP2C19*2 and Other Allelic Variants Affecting Platelet Response to Clopidogrel Tested by Thrombelastography in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Yun; Shi, Lu-Wen; Wang, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the contributions of CYP2C19 polymorphisms to the various clopidogrel responses tested by thrombelastography (TEG) in Chinese patients with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: Patients were screened prospectively with ACS diagnose and were treated with clopidogrel and aspirin dual antiplatelet therapy. CYP2C19 loss of function (LOF) and gain of function (GOF) genotype, adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP)-channel platelet inhibition rate (PIR) tested by TEG and the occurrence of 3-month major adverse cardiovascular events and ischemic events were assessed in 116 patients. Results: High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) prevalence defined by PIR <30% by TEG in ADP-channel was 32.76% (38/116). With respect to the normal wild type, CYP2C19*2, and *3 LOF alleles, and *17 GOF alleles, patients were classified into three metabolism phenotypes: 41.38% were extensive metabolizers (EMs), 56.90% were intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and 1.72% were poor metabolizers (PMs). Of the enrolled patients, 31.47%, 5.17%, and 0.43%, respectively, were carriers of *2, *3, and *17 alleles. The HTPR incidence differed significantly according to CYP2C19 genotypes, accounting for 18.75%, 41.54%, and 100.00% in EMs, IMs, and PMs, respectively. Eighteen (17.24%) ischemic events occurred during the 3-month follow-up, and there was a significant difference in ischemic events between HTPR group and nonhigh on-treatment platelet reactivity group. Conclusions: Genetic CYP2C19 polymorphisms are relative to the inferior, the antiplatelet activity after clopidogrel admission and may increase the incidence of ischemic events in patients with ACS. PMID:26265611

  13. Effect of Text Message, Phone Call, and In-Person Appointment Reminders on Uptake of Repeat HIV Testing among Outpatients Screened for Acute HIV Infection in Kenya: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wahome, Elizabeth W.; Gichuru, Evanson N.; Mwashigadi, Grace M.; Thiong’o, Alexander N.; Prins, Henrieke A. B.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Graham, Susan M.; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Following HIV-1 acquisition, many individuals develop an acute retroviral syndrome and a majority seek care. Available antibody testing cannot detect an acute HIV infection, but repeat testing after 2–4 weeks may detect seroconversion. We assessed the effect of appointment reminders on attendance for repeat HIV testing. Methods We enrolled, in a randomized controlled trial, 18–29 year old patients evaluated for acute HIV infection at five sites in Coastal Kenya (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01876199). Participants were allocated 1:1 to either standard appointment (a dated appointment card) or enhanced appointment (a dated appointment card plus SMS and phone call reminders, or in-person reminders for participants without a phone). The primary outcome was visit attendance, i.e., the proportion of participants attending the repeat test visit. Factors associated with attendance were examined by bivariable and multivariable logistic regression. Principal Findings Between April and July 2013, 410 participants were randomized. Attendance was 41% (85/207) for the standard group and 59% (117/199) for the enhanced group, for a relative risk of 1.4 [95% Confidence Interval, CI, 1.2–1.7].Higher attendance was independently associated with older age, study site, and report of transactional sex in past month. Lower attendance was associated with reporting multiple partners in the past two months. Conclusions Appointment reminders through SMS, phone calls and in-person reminders increased the uptake of repeat HIV test by forty percent. This low-cost intervention could facilitate detection of acute HIV infections and uptake of recommended repeat testing. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01876199 PMID:27077745

  14. Acute malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Dupont, John S

    2006-01-01

    Acute malocclusion can result from disturbances in the maxillary/mandibular tooth relationship. These alterations in the occlusal position can result from high fillings, sinus problems, abscesses, periodontal disease, and moving or erupting teeth. Conditions seen less frequently include acute malocclusions secondary to an event (such as trauma) that make a stable dental relationship an unstable one. Patients can demonstrate any of a number of clinical conditions that interfere with their comfort and ability to function. This article provides information on some of the less familiar causes of acute malocclusion. PMID:16689064

  15. A pilot study: portable out-of-center sleep testing as an early sleep apnea screening tool in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chernyshev, Oleg Y; McCarty, David E; Moul, Douglas E; Liendo, Cesar; Caldito, Gloria C; Munjampalli, Sai K; Kelley, Roger E; Chesson, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prompt diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is critical for optimal clinical outcomes, but in-laboratory conventional polysomnograms (PSG) are not routinely practical. Though portable out-of-center type III cardiopulmonary sleep studies (out-of-center cardiopulmonary sleep testing [OCST]) are widely available, these studies have not been validated in patients who have recently suffered from AIS. We hypothesized that OCST in patients with AIS would yield similar results when compared to conventional PSG. Methods Patients with AIS had simultaneous type III OCST and PSG studies performed within 72 hours from symptom onset. The accuracy of OCST was compared to PSG using: chi-square tests, receiver operatory characteristic curves, Bland–Altman plot, paired Student’s t-test/Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and calculation of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Results Twenty-one out of 23 subjects with AIS (age 61±9.4 years; 52% male; 58% African-American) successfully completed both studies (9% technical failure). Nearly all (95%) had Mallampati IV posterior oropharynx; the mean neck circumference was 16.8±1.6 in. and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 30±7 kg/m2. The apnea hypopnea index (AHI) provided by OCST was similar to that provided by PSG (19.8±18.0 vs 22.0±22.7, respectively; P=0.49). On identifying subjects by OCST with an AHI ≥5 on PSG, OCST had the following parameters: sensitivity 100%, specificity 85.7%, PPV 93%, and NPV 100%. On identifying subjects with an AHI ≥15 on PSG, OCST parameters were as follows: sensitivity 100%, specificity 83.3%, PPV 81.8%, and NPV 100%. Bland–Altman plotting showed an overall diagnostic agreement between OCST and PSG modalities for an AHI cutoff >5, despite fine-grained differences in estimated AHIs. Conclusion Compared with PSG, OCST provides similar diagnostic information when run simultaneously in AIS

  16. Spatial distribution of trace elements and ecotoxicity of bottom sediments in Rybnik reservoir, Silesian-Poland.

    PubMed

    Baran, Agnieszka; Tarnawski, Marek; Koniarz, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    The aim of study was to integrate chemical analyses and toxicity bioassays in order to assess the environmental risk connected with the presence of trace elements in the sediments. This study examined the ecological significance of trace elements in bottom sediments by applying a set of complementary sediment quality assessment methods sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) (mean probable effect concentration quotient (PECQ)), potential ecological risk index (PERI), contamination degree (C d) and two bioassays: the bacterial luminescence inhibition test with Vibrio fischeri on sediment elutriates and the direct contact test with the ostracod crustacean Heterocypris incongruens. The samples were collected from 50 stations of Rybnik reservoir. The reservoir is a region with enormous concentration of industry, mainly hard coal mining, electric power industry, and transportation. Despite the high diversity in metal concentration in the sediments, the spatial distribution of trace elements in the sediments was very similar. Moreover, the strong positive correlations between individual pairs of trace elements indicate that they may derive from a similar source and move together. According to mean PECQs, 68 % of the samples were potentially non-toxic and 32 % of the samples were potentially toxic. PERI values suggested that 70 % of the sediment sampling sites exhibited low ecological risk from metal pollution while 24 % of the samples had severe and serious risk. Based on our combined evaluation, we believe that Cd and Cu in the sediment samples frequently caused adverse biological effects. Higher toxic responses were observed in the Microtox test than in the Ostracodtoxkit test. All the sediment samples were found toxic to V. fischeri, and 96 % of the samples had effect percentages >50 %. For H. incongruens, 12 % of the sediments were not toxic and 44 % had effect percentages >50 %. In order to perform a complex assessment of the environmental impact of metal

  17. The influence of natural organic matter and aging on suspension stability in guideline toxicity testing of silver, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles with Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Cupi, Denisa; Hartmann, Nanna B; Baun, Anders

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated changes in suspension stability and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) by addition of Suwannee River natural organic matter and aging of stock and test suspensions prior to testing. Acute toxicity tests of silver (Ag), zinc oxide (ZnO), and titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) ENPs with Daphnia magna were carried out following Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guidelines. Daphnia magna was found to be very sensitive to Ag ENPs (48-h 50% effective concentration 33 μg L(-1) ), and aging of the test suspensions in M7 medium (up to 48 h) did not decrease toxicity significantly. Conversely, the presence of Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM; 20 mg L(-1) ) completely alleviated Ag ENP toxicity in all testing scenarios and did not aid in stabilizing suspensions. In contrast, addition of Suwannee River NOM stabilized ZnO ENP suspensions and did not decrease toxicity. Aging for 48 h generated monotonous concentration-response curves in the presence and absence of Suwannee River NOM. At concentrations up to 100 mg L(-1) TiO2 ENPs did not cause immobilization of D. magna under any of the tested conditions. Presence of Suwannee River NOM caused agglomeration in stock suspensions. The authors' results suggest that aging and presence of Suwannee River NOM are important parameters in standard toxicity testing of ENPs, which in some cases may aid in gaining better control over the exposure conditions but in other cases might contribute to agglomeration or elimination of ENP toxicity. Therefore, modifications to the current guidelines for testing ENPs should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:497-506. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25546145

  18. C-reactive protein point-of-care testing and antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in rural primary health centres of North Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yebyo, Henock; Medhanyie, Araya Abrha; Spigt, Mark; Hopstaken, Rogier

    2016-01-01

    Unjustified antibiotic prescribing for acute upper respiratory infections (URTIs) is probably more common in poor-resource settings where physicians are scarce. Introducing C-reactive protein (CRP) point-of-care testing in such settings could reduce the misuse of antibiotics, which could avert antibiotic resistance. However, information useful for the applicability of CRP test in resource-limited settings is lacking. This study aimed to elicit the frequency of antibiotic prescribing and distribution of CRP levels in remote, rural settings in Ethiopia. We included 414 patients with acute URTIs from four health centres. Health professionals recorded the clinical features of the patients, but the laboratory professionals measured the CRP levels of all patients at the point of care. The most prominent respiratory causes for consultation were acute URTIs combined (44.4%), and lower respiratory tract infections—pneumonia (29.71%) and acute bronchitis (25.84%). The CRP distribution was <20 mg/l, 20–99 mg/l and 100 mg/l or more in 66.6%, 27.9% and 5.5% of the patients, respectively. The CRP levels were significantly different among these clinical diagnoses (X2=114.3, P<0.001, d.f.=4). A wide range of antibiotics was administered for 87.8% of the patients, regardless of the diagnostic or prognostic nature of their diseases. Antibiotic prescribing for acute URTIs in the rural areas of Ethiopia is unduly high, with high proportions of mild, self-limiting illness, mostly URTIs. Implementation of CRP point-of-care testing in such resource-constrained settings, with low- or middle-grade healthcare professionals, could help reconcile the inappropriate use of antibiotics by withholding from patients who do not benefit from antibiotic treatment. PMID:26769226

  19. C-reactive protein point-of-care testing and antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in rural primary health centres of North Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yebyo, Henock; Medhanyie, Araya Abrha; Spigt, Mark; Hopstaken, Rogier

    2016-01-01

    Unjustified antibiotic prescribing for acute upper respiratory infections (URTIs) is probably more common in poor-resource settings where physicians are scarce. Introducing C-reactive protein (CRP) point-of-care testing in such settings could reduce the misuse of antibiotics, which could avert antibiotic resistance. However, information useful for the applicability of CRP test in resource-limited settings is lacking. This study aimed to elicit the frequency of antibiotic prescribing and distribution of CRP levels in remote, rural settings in Ethiopia. We included 414 patients with acute URTIs from four health centres. Health professionals recorded the clinical features of the patients, but the laboratory professionals measured the CRP levels of all patients at the point of care. The most prominent respiratory causes for consultation were acute URTIs combined (44.4%), and lower respiratory tract infections-pneumonia (29.71%) and acute bronchitis (25.84%). The CRP distribution was <20 mg/l, 20-99 mg/l and 100 mg/l or more in 66.6%, 27.9% and 5.5% of the patients, respectively. The CRP levels were significantly different among these clinical diagnoses (X(2)=114.3, P<0.001, d.f.=4). A wide range of antibiotics was administered for 87.8% of the patients, regardless of the diagnostic or prognostic nature of their diseases. Antibiotic prescribing for acute URTIs in the rural areas of Ethiopia is unduly high, with high proportions of mild, self-limiting illness, mostly URTIs. Implementation of CRP point-of-care testing in such resource-constrained settings, with low- or middle-grade healthcare professionals, could help reconcile the inappropriate use of antibiotics by withholding from patients who do not benefit from antibiotic treatment. PMID:26769226

  20. Modeling potential freshwater ecotoxicity impacts due to pesticide use in biofuel feedstock production: the cases of maize, rapeseed, salix, soybean, sugar cane, and wheat.

    PubMed

    Nordborg, Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Berndes, Göran

    2014-10-01

    The inclusion of ecotoxicity impacts of pesticides in environmental assessments of biobased products has long been hampered by methodological challenges. We expanded the pesticide database and the regional coverage of the pesticide emission model PestLCI v.2.0, combined it with the impact assessment model USEtox, and assessed potential freshwater ecotoxicity impacts (PFEIs) of pesticide use in selected biofuel feedstock production cases, namely: maize (Iowa, US, two cases), rapeseed (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany), Salix (South Central Sweden), soybean (Mato Grosso, Brazil, two cases), sugar cane (São Paulo, Brazil), and wheat (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany). We found that PFEIs caused by pesticide use in feedstock production varied greatly, up to 3 orders of magnitude. Salix has the lowest PFEI per unit of energy output and per unit of cultivated area. Impacts per biofuel unit were 30, 750, and 1000 times greater, respectively, for the sugar cane, wheat and rapeseed cases than for Salix. For maize genetically engineered (GE) to resist glyphosate herbicides and to produce its own insecticidal toxin, maize GE to resist glyphosate, soybeans GE to resist glyphosate and conventional soybeans, the impacts were 110, 270, 305, and 310 times greater than for Salix, respectively. The significance of field and site-specific conditions are discussed, as well as options for reducing negative impacts in biofuel feedstock production. PMID:25207789

  1. An examination of the physical properties, fate, ecotoxicity and potential environmental risks for a series of propylene glycol ethers.

    PubMed

    Staples, Charles A; Davis, John W

    2002-10-01

    Propylene glycol ethers (PGEs) are comprised of mono-, di- and tri-PGEs and several of their acetate esters. The nature of the range of applications that use PGEs suggests that there is a potential for both intentional and unintentional entry of the materials into the environment. Selected physical/chemical properties, fate characteristics, aquatic toxicity data and calculated environmental concentrations were used to assess potential risks from the manufacture, handling, use, and disposal of PGEs. In general, the PGEs are low to moderately volatile, have high aqueous solubilities, low octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow), and bioconcentration factor values of <10, which indicate they are unlikely to accumulate in aquatic food chains. Both abiotic and biological degradation processes reduce environmental concentrations of PGEs. In air, vapor-phase PGEs react with photo-chemically produced hydroxyl radicals and have half-lives ranging from 5.5 to 34.4 h. A variety of ready and inherent biodegradation test methods, as well as tests that simulate biodegradation in wastewater treatment plants, surface water and soil have been conducted on PGEs. Significant aerobic biodegradation was generally observed, with a range of biodegradation half-lives on the order of 5-25 d. Acute aquatic toxicity studies with PGEs resulted in LC50 values ranging from approximately >100 to >20,000 mg/l for freshwater fish, the pelagic invertebrate Daphnia magna, green algae Selenastrum capricornutum (now called Pseudokirchneriella capricornutum) and bacteria. Level 3 multi-media modeling (EQC model of Mackay) was used to simulate regional-scale concentrations of PGEs in air, soil, water, and sediment. Toxicity thresholds were then compared with regional-scale water, soil and sediment concentrations to determine hazard quotients. Based upon this analysis, concentrations of PGEs are unlikely to pose adverse risks to the environment. PMID:12243331

  2. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  3. Acute Pericarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large pericardial effusions). Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen ) taken ... reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. ...

  4. Assessing the ecotoxicity of metal nano-oxides with potential for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, V; Lopes, I; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Rasteiro, M G; Abrantes, N; Gonçalves, F; Soares, A M V M; Duarte, A C; Pereira, R

    2015-09-01

    The rapid development of nanotechnology and the increasing use of nanomaterials (NMs) raise concern about their fate and potential effects in the environment, especially for those that could be used for remediation purposes and that will be intentionally released to the environment. Despite the remarkable emerging literature addressing the biological effects of NMs to aquatic organisms, the existing information is still scarce and contradictory. Therefore, aimed at selecting NMs for the treatment of organic and inorganic effluents, we assessed the potential toxicity of NiO (100 and 10-20 nm), Fe2O3 (≈85 × 425 nm), and TiO2 (<25 nm), to a battery of aquatic organisms: Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Lemna minor, Daphnia magna, Brachionus plicatilis, and Artemia salina. Also a mutagenic test was performed with two Salmonella typhimurium strains. Suspensions of each NM, prepared with the different test media, were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and eletrophoretic light scattering (ELS). For the assays with marine species, no toxicity was observed for all the compounds. In opposite, statistically significant effects were produced on all freshwater species, being D. magna the most sensitive organism. Based on the results of this study, the tested NMs can be classified in a decreasing order of toxicity NiO (100 nm) > NiO (10-20 nm) > TiO2 (<25 nm) > Fe2O3, allowing to infer that apparently Fe2O3 NMs seems to be the one with less risks for receiving aquatic systems. PMID:25940480

  5. From QASC to QASCIP: successful Australian translational scale-up and spread of a proven intervention in acute stroke using a prospective pre-test/post-test study design

    PubMed Central

    Lydtin, Anna; Comerford, Daniel; Cadilhac, Dominique A; McElduff, Patrick; Dale, Simeon; Hill, Kelvin; Longworth, Mark; Ward, Jeanette; Cheung, N Wah; D'Este, Cate

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To embed an evidence-based intervention to manage FEver, hyperglycaemia (Sugar) and Swallowing (the FeSS protocols) in stroke, previously demonstrated in the Quality in Acute Stroke Care (QASC) trial to decrease 90-day death and dependency, into all stroke services in New South Wales (NSW), Australia's most populous state. Design Pre-test/post-test prospective study. Setting 36 NSW stroke services. Methods Our clinical translational initiative, the QASC Implementation Project (QASCIP), targeted stroke services to embed 3 nurse-led clinical protocols (the FeSS protocols) into routine practice. Clinical champions attended a 1-day multidisciplinary training workshop and received standardised educational resources and ongoing support. Using the National Stroke Foundation audit collection tool and processes, patient data from retrospective medical record self-reported audits for 40 consecutive patients with stroke per site pre-QASCIP (1 July 2012 to 31 December 2012) were compared with prospective self-reported data from 40 consecutive patients with stroke per site post-QASCIP (1 November 2013 to 28 February 2014). Inter-rater reliability was substantial for 10 of 12 variables. Primary outcome measures Proportion of patients receiving care according to the FeSS protocols pre-QASCIP to post-QASCIP. Results All 36 (100%) NSW stroke services participated, nominating 100 site champions who attended our educational workshops. The time from start of intervention to completion of post-QASCIP data collection was 8 months. All (n=36, 100%) sites provided medical record audit data for 2144 patients (n=1062 pre-QASCIP; n=1082 post-QASCIP). Pre-QASCIP to post-QASCIP, proportions of patients receiving the 3 targeted clinical behaviours increased significantly: management of fever (pre: 69%; post: 78%; p=0.003), hyperglycaemia (pre: 23%; post: 34%; p=0.0085) and swallowing (pre: 42%; post: 51%; p=0.033). Conclusions We obtained unprecedented statewide scale-up and spread

  6. Ketoprofen removal by O₃ and O₃/UV processes: kinetics, transformation products and ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Illés, Erzsébet; Szabó, Emese; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László; Dombi, András; Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina

    2014-02-15

    Ozonation (O3) and its combination with ultraviolet radiation (O3/UV) were used to decompose ketoprofen (KET). Depending on the initial KET concentration, fourteen to fifty time's faster KET degradation was achieved using combined O3/UV method compared to simple ozonation. Using both methods, formation of four major aromatic transformation products were observed: 3-(1-hydroxyethyl)benzophenone, 3-(1-hydroperoxyethyl) benzophenone, 1-(3-benzoylphenyl) ethanone and 3-ethylbenzophenone. In the combined treatment the degradation was mainly due to the direct effect of UV light, however, towards the end of the treatment, O3 highly contributed to the mineralization of small carboxylic acids. High (~90%) mineralization degree was achieved using the O3/UV method. Toxicity tests performed using representatives of three trophic levels of the aquatic ecosystems (producers, consumers and decomposers) Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata green algae, Daphnia magna zooplanktons and Vibrio fischeri bacteria showed that under the used experimental conditions the transformation products have significantly higher toxicity towards all the test organisms, than KET itself. The bacteria and the zooplanktons showed higher tolerance to the formed products than algae. The measured toxicity correlates well with the concentration of the aromatic transformation products, therefore longer treatments than needed for complete degradation of KET are strongly suggested, in order to avoid possible impact of aromatic transformation products on the aquatic ecosystem. PMID:24291560

  7. Electrochemical degradation of sulfonamides at BDD electrode: kinetics, reaction pathway and eco-toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fabiańska, Aleksandra; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan; Siedlecka, Ewa Maria

    2014-09-15

    The investigation dealt with electrochemical oxidation of five sulfonamides (SNs): sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethazine (SMN) and sulfadimethoxine (SDM) in aqueous solution at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. All studied sulfonamides were degraded according to a pseudo first order kinetics. The structure of SNs had no significant effect on the values of pseudo first order rate constants. Increased degradation efficiency was observed in higher temperature and in acidic pH. Due to the presence of chlorine and nitrate SNs were more effectively oxidized from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents than from pure supporting electrolyte Na2SO4. The intermediates identified by LC-MS and GC-MS analysis suggested that the hydroxyl radicals attack mainly the SN bond, but also the aromatic ring systems (aniline, pyrimidine or triazole) of SNs. Finally, the toxicity of the SNs solutions and effluents after electrochemical treatment was assessed through the measurement of growth inhibition of green algae (Scenedesmus vacualatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor). Toxicity of SMR, STZ, SMN solutions before and after electrochemical oxidation and SDM solution after the process in L. minor test was observed. No significant toxicity of studied SNs was observed in algae test. PMID:25215656

  8. Ecotoxicity of mixtures of metals to the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha

    SciTech Connect

    Kraak, M.H.S.; Lavy, D.; Schoon, H.; Toussaint, M.; Peeters, W.H.M.; Straalen, N.M. . Dept. of Aquatic Ecotoxicology)

    1994-01-01

    The effects of equitoxic mixtures of CuCl[sub 2], ZnCl[sub 2], and CdCl[sub 2] on the filtration rate of the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha were determined. The amounts of added metals were expressed in toxic units, and a range of toxic units was tested. Cu + Zn was less than concentration additive, Zn + Cd was concentration additive, and Cu + Cd was more than concentration additive in their effects on the filtration rate of Dreissena polymorpha. An equitoxic mixture of all three metals was concentration additive. The effects of a mixture could not be predicted from the effects of the single metals. The concentrations at which Cu and Cd contributed to the toxicity of a mixture of Cu + Zn + Cd were at or below the NOECs for these metals, determined in single-metal toxicity tests. At low but elevated Cu and Zn concentrations in water, no accumulation of these metals in the mussels took place; Cd, on the contrary, was accumulated at all Cd concentrations in the water.

  9. Acute oral ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Julia S; Rogers, Roy S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acute oral ulcers can be challenging. Important historic details include the pattern of recurrence, anatomic areas of involvement within the mouth and elsewhere on the mucocutaneous surface, associated medical symptoms or comorbidities, and symptomology. Careful mucocutaneous examination is essential. When necessary, biopsy at an active site without ulceration is generally optimal. Depending on the clinical scenario, supplemental studies that may be useful include cultures; perilesional biopsy for direct immunofluorescence testing; and evaluation for infectious diseases, gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, connective tissue diseases, or hematinic deficiencies. Clinicians should maintain a broad differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with acute oral ulcers. PMID:27343961

  10. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity relating to fish in wastewaters discharged from the Vilnius treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Vosylienė, M Z; Kazlauskienė, N; Baršienė, J; Andreikėnaitė, L; Milukaitė, A; Taujanskis, E

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity and genotoxicity of untreated raw (RWW) and treated wastewaters (TWW) samples from Vilnius wastewater treatment plant was assessed using fish (rainbow trout) at different stages of development. The survival of larvae and fish exposed to RWW in short-term and longterm tests reduced, whereas gill ventilation frequency, heart rate and relative body mass increase of larvae decreased significantly. The long-term exposure of fish to TWW induced significant decreases in white blood cell count and significant increases in micronuclei in blood of treated Oncorhynchus mykiss. The physical, chemical analysis of oil products (C₁₄-C₂₈), benzo(a)pyrene, suspended solids, and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Hg) in RWW demonstrated that the concentrations of xenobiotics and some heavy metals did not exceed their Maximum Permissible Concentrations in the sewerage system and concentrations of substances in TWW corresponded to their criteria for effluents discharged into receiving waters. PMID:20729589

  11. Ecotoxicity of nitroaromatics to aquatic and terrestrial species at Army Superfund sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hovatter, P.S.; Talmage, S.S.; Opresko, D.M.; Ross, R.H.

    1997-09-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds, including 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, RDX, HMX, tetryl, and associated degradation products, are released into the environment during the manufacturing, loading, packing, and assembling of munitions at US Army Ammunition Plants. With the exception of 2A46DNT, nitroaromatic compounds are more toxic to freshwater fishes than to freshwater invertebrates. Rainbow trout are the most sensitive test species with LC{sub 50} values ranging from 0.43 to 6.4 mg/L for TNT, RDX, and HMX. These compounds produce negative effects on reproductive endpoints in terrestrial mammals at doses >1 mg/kg/day. Limited data indicate that nitroaromatics are not toxic to terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates. Additional studies need to be undertaken to completely characterize the toxicity of these compounds; however, the criteria and screening benchmarks presented in this paper can be used to assess the risks to indigenous flora and fauna at Army Superfund sites.

  12. Controlling the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata: an ecotoxicity assessment of four potential biocides.

    PubMed

    Jellyman, P G; Clearwater, S J; Clayton, J S; Kilroy, C; Blair, N; Hickey, C W; Biggs, B J F

    2011-07-01

    In 2004, an invasive mat-forming freshwater diatom, Didymosphenia geminata (didymo), was found in New Zealand causing concern with regard to potential consequences for local freshwater ecosystems. A four-stage research program was initiated to identify methods to control D. geminata. This article reports the results of Stage 2, in which four potential control compounds [Gemex™ (a chelated copper formulation), EDTA, Hydrothol®191, and Organic Interceptor™ (a pine oil formulation)] selected in Stage 1 were evaluated for their biocidal efficacy on D. geminata and effects on non-target organisms using both artificial stream and laboratory trials. Artificial stream trials evaluated the mortality rates of D. geminata and fishes to three concentrations of the four biocides, whereas laboratory toxicity trials tested the response of green alga and cladocera to a range of biocide concentrations and exposure times. In artificial stream trials, Gemex and Organic Interceptor were the most effective biocides against D. geminata for a number of measured indices; however, exposure of fishes to Organic Interceptor resulted in high mortality rates. Laboratory toxicity testing indicated that Gemex might negatively affect sensitive stream invertebrates, based on the cladoceran sensitivity at the proposed river control dose. A decision support matrix evaluated the four biocides based on nine criteria stipulated by river stakeholders (effectiveness, non-target species impacts, stalk removal, degradation profile, risks to health and safety, ease of application, neutralization potential, cost, and local regulatory requirements) and Gemex was identified as the product warranting further refinement prior to an in-river trial. PMID:20803198

  13. Diagnostic test accuracy of D-dimer for acute aortic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis of 22 studies with 5000 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hiroki; Horita, Nobuyuki; Shibata, Yuji; Minegishi, Shintaro; Ota, Erika; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic test accuracy of D-dimer for acute aortic dissection (AAD) has not been evaluated by meta-analysis with the bivariate model methodology. Four databases were electrically searched. We included both case-control and cohort studies that could provide sufficient data concerning both sensitivity and specificity of D-dimer for AAD. Non-English language articles and conference abstract were allowed. Intramural hematoma and penetrating aortic ulcer were regarded as AAD. Based on 22 eligible articles consisting of 1140 AAD subjects and 3860 non-AAD subjects, the diagnostic odds ratio was 28.5 (95% CI 17.6–46.3, I2 = 17.4%) and the area under curve was 0.946 (95% CI 0.903–0.994). Based on 833 AAD subjects and 1994 non-AAD subjects constituting 12 studies that used the cutoff value of 500 ng/ml, the sensitivity was 0.952 (95% CI 0.901–0.978), the specificity was 0.604 (95% CI 0.485–0.712), positive likelihood ratio was 2.4 (95% CI 1.8–3.3), and negative likelihood ratio was 0.079 (95% CI 0.036–0.172). Sensitivity analysis using data of three high-quality studies almost replicated these results. In conclusion, D-dimer has very good overall accuracy. D-dimer <500 ng/ml largely decreases the possibility of AAD. D-dimer >500 ng/ml moderately increases the possibility of AAD. PMID:27230962

  14. Photocatalytic degradation kinetics, mechanism and ecotoxicity assessment of tramadol metabolites in aqueous TiO2 suspensions.

    PubMed

    Αntonopoulou, Μ; Hela, D; Konstantinou, I

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated for the first time the photocatalytic degradation of three well-known transformation products (TPs) of pharmaceutical Tramadol, N-desmethyl-(N-DES), N,N-bidesmethyl (N,N-Bi-DES) and N-oxide-tramadol (N-OX-TRA) in two different aquatic matrices, ultrapure water and secondary treated wastewater, with high (10mgL(-1)) and low (50μgL(-1)) initial concentrations, respectively. Total disappearance of the parent compounds was attained in all experiments. For initial concentration of 10mgL(-1), the target compounds were degraded within 30-40min and a mineralization degree of more than 80% was achieved after 240min of irradiation, while the contained organic nitrogen was released mainly as NH4(+) for N-DES, N,N-Bi-DES and NO3(-) for N-OX-TRA. The degradation rates of all the studied compounds were considerably decreased in the wastewater due to the presence of inorganic and organic constituents typically found in effluents and environmental matrices which may act as scavengers of the HO(•). The effect of pH (4, 6.7, 10) in the degradation rates was studied and for N-DES-TRA and N,N-Bi-DES-TRA, the optimum pH value was 6.7. In contrast, N-OX-TRA showed an increasing trend in the photocatalytic degradation kinetic in alkaline solutions (pH 10). The major transformation products were identified by high resolution accurate mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography (HR-LC-MS). Scavenging experiments indicated for all studied compounds the important role of HO(•) in the photocatalytic degradation pathways that included mainly hydroxylation and further oxidation of the parent compounds. In addition, Microtox bioassay (Vibrio fischeri) was employed for evaluating the ecotoxicity of photocatalytically treated solutions. Results clearly demonstrate the progressive decrease of the toxicity and the efficiency of the photocatalytic process in the detoxification of the irradiated solutions. PMID:26760268

  15. Phthalate esters: Testing for ecological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.; Thompson, R.; Croudace, C.; Stewart, K.; Williams, N.

    1995-12-31

    Ortho-phthalate esters are produced in high tonnages for use as plasticizers, in particular for PVC. Their physical chemical properties are typically very low water solubility and high octanol/water partition coefficient. This combination of properties presents a number of experimental difficulties in the design and interpretation of ecological effect studies. These difficulties are described and results presented showing techniques for the performance of reproduction studies with the water flea, Daphnia magna, in aqueous solution and with the midge, Chironomus riparius, in sediments. The results which showed no effect for the phthalate esters tested are discussed in the context of other ecotoxicity data obtained on these products.

  16. Ecotoxicities of polyquaterniums and their associated polyelectrolyte-surfactant aggregates (PSA) to Gambusia holbrooki.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Janet L; Hawker, Darryl W; Nugent, Kerry W; Chapman, Heather F

    2008-02-01

    The toxicity of 11 polyquaterniums used in cosmetic applications, and polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (poly(DADMAC)) were studied for toxicity of the polyquaternium alone, and of a polyquaternium/anionic surfactant complex as occurs in some cosmetic formulations. The surfactant used in the study was sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), which is used in cosmetic formulations under its International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) name Sodium Laurel Sulfate. In fish immobilization studies with Gambusia holbrooki, the EC(50) of the polyquaternium/surfactant complex was found to be the same as or similar to the EC(50) for the polyquaternium alone. The toxicity of the polyquaterniums investigated was similar to the published values for other cationic polyelectrolytes and cationic surfactants, in the range from < 1.0 to 10 mg/L, with the exception of low charge density cellulosic polyquaterniums. The anionic surfactant alone was not toxic to fish in the concentration range tested. Results thus showed the toxicity of the polyquaternium was not mitigated by the presence of the anionic surfactant. PMID:18172802

  17. Size-dependent ecotoxicity of barium titanate particles: the case of Chlorella vulgaris green algae.

    PubMed

    Polonini, Hudson C; Brandão, Humberto M; Raposo, Nádia R B; Brandão, Marcos Antônio F; Mouton, Ludovic; Couté, Alain; Yéprémian, Claude; Sivry, Yann; Brayner, Roberta

    2015-05-01

    Studies have been demonstrating that smaller particles can lead to unexpected and diverse ecotoxicological effects when compared to those caused by the bulk material. In this study, the chemical composition, size and shape, state of dispersion, and surface's charge, area and physicochemistry of micro (BT MP) and nano barium titanate (BT NP) were determined. Green algae Chlorella vulgaris grown in Bold's Basal (BB) medium or Seine River water (SRW) was used as biological indicator to assess their aquatic toxicology. Responses such as growth inhibition, cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) content and photosynthetic activity were evaluated. Tetragonal BT (~170 nm, 3.24 m(2) g(-1) surface area) and cubic BT (~60 nm, 16.60 m(2) g(-1)) particles were negative, poorly dispersed, and readily aggregated. BT has a statistically significant effect on C. vulgaris growth since the lower concentration tested (1 ppm), what seems to be mediated by induced oxidative stress caused by the particles (increased SOD activity and decreased photosynthetic efficiency and intracellular ATP content). The toxic effects were more pronounced when the algae was grown in SRW. Size does not seem to be an issue influencing the toxicity in BT particles toxicity since micro- and nano-particles produced significant effects on algae growth. PMID:25763523

  18. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) - children

    MedlinePlus

    Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children

  19. Differential diagnostic dilemma between pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Enes Elvin; Nikus, Kjell C.; Erdogan, Halil I.; Ozdemir, Kurtulus

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a frequent life-threatening condition in emergency departments. Careful diagnosis is important, and different diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), biochemical markers, echocardiogram, and computed tomography are required. Although ECG is a cheap and rapid diagnostic test for pulmonary embolism, it has some limitations in the differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome and acute PE. Herein, we report ECG results of a patient diagnosed with acute PE mimicking acute coronary syndrome. PMID:27092202

  20. Ecotoxicity and screening level ecotoxicological risk assessment of five antimicrobial agents: triclosan, triclocarban, resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and p-thymol.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Ikumi; Kagota, Kei-Ichiro; Yasuda, Yusuke; Yoneda, Saori; Morita, Junpei; Nakada, Norihide; Kameda, Yutaka; Kimura, Kumiko; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Acute and chronic (or sub-chronic) toxicity of five selected antimicrobial agents, including triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and p-thymol, was investigated using the conventional three-aquatic-organism battery. These compounds are widely used in cosmetics and other personal care products and their ecological risk has recently become a significant concern. As results of toxicity tests, TCS was found to be most strongly toxic for green algae [e.g. 72 h no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of 0.50 µg l(-1) ] among the selected compounds, followed by TCC, while TCC was more toxic or similar to TCS for Daphnia and fish (e.g. Daphnia 8 day NOEC of 1.9 µg l(-1) ). Having compared the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) determined from the toxicity data with measured environmental concentrations (MEC), the preliminary ecological risk assessment of these five antimicrobials was conducted. The MEC/PNEC ratios of TCS and TCC were over 1 for some monitoring data, especially in urban streams with watershed areas without sewage service coverage, and their potential risk for green algae and Daphnia might be at a level of concern, although the contribution of TCS/TCC on the total toxicity of the those sites needs to be further investigated. For the three other antimicrobials, the maximum MEC/PNEC ratio for resorcinol was 0.1-1, but those for phenoxyethanol and p-thymol were <0.1 and their risk to aquatic organisms is limited, although the additive effects with TCS, TCC and other antimicrobial agents, such as parabens, need to be further examined in future studies. PMID:22806922

  1. Ecotoxicity of chemically stabilised metal(loid)s in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi

    2014-02-01

    Five chemical amendments (soft rock phosphate, lime, commercial phosphate amendment, red mud and magnesium oxide) were applied across four different shooting range soils to chemically stabilise metal(loid)s in the soils. Soils were contaminated with Pb between 2330 and 12,167 mg/kg, Sb from 7.4 to 325 mg/kg and soil pH ranged from 5.43 to 9.29. Amendments were tested for their ability to reduce the bioavailability of Pb, Sb, Zn, Ni, Cu and As in the soils to soil organisms after one year of aging, by measuring a series of ecotoxicological endpoints for earthworms and plants and soil microbial activity. Growth-based endpoints for earthworms and plants were not significantly affected by amendment addition, except in the most contaminated soil. Per cent survival and weight-loss reduction of earthworms was enhanced by amendment addition in only the most contaminated soil. Plant biomass and root elongation was not significantly affected by amendment addition (p=<0.05). Red mud and magnesium oxide appeared toxic to plants and earthworms, probably due to highly alkaline pH (9-12). Lead in soil organisms was relatively low despite the high concentrations of Pb in the soils, suggesting low bioavailability of Pb. Uptake of Pb by earthworms was reduced by between 40 and 96 per cent by amendments, but not across all soils. Amendments reduced Sb in earthworms in Townsville soil by up to 92 per cent. For lettuce the average uptake of Pb was reduced by 40 to 70 per cent with amendment addition in Townsville, Darwin and Perth soil. The effect of amendments on the uptake of Sb, Zn, Ni, Cu and As was variable between soils and amendments. Microbial activity was increased by greater than 50 per cent with amendments addition, with soft rock phosphate and lime being the most effective in Murray Bridge and TV soils and commercial phosphate and MgO being the most effective in Darwin and Perth soils. PMID:24287010

  2. Acute Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Hammad; Fasanya, Adebayo; Cheema, Tariq; Singh, Anil C

    2016-01-01

    Acute pneumonia is an active infection of the lungs that results when an individual at risk gets exposed to a particular microbiological pathogen. Acute pneumonia is the leading cause of death in the United States that is attributable to an infection. The risk factors, pathogenesis, and microbiological organisms involved differ if the pneumonia develops in the community versus health care-associated environment. The development of concise and comprehensive guidelines has led to an improvement in the management of the problem. However, the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms and the increase in the percentage of elderly population keep mortality risk very substantial. PMID:26919676

  3. Fialuridine Induces Acute Liver Failure in Chimeric TK-NOG Mice: A Model for Detecting Hepatic Drug Toxicity Prior to Human Testing

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dan; Nishimura, Toshi; Nishimura, Sachiko; Zhang, Haili; Zheng, Ming; Guo, Ying-Ying; Masek, Marylin; Michie, Sara A.; Glenn, Jeffrey; Peltz, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Background Seven of 15 clinical trial participants treated with a nucleoside analogue (fialuridine [FIAU]) developed acute liver failure. Five treated participants died, and two required a liver transplant. Preclinical toxicology studies in mice, rats, dogs, and primates did not provide any indication that FIAU would be hepatotoxic in humans. Therefore, we investigated whether FIAU-induced liver toxicity could be detected in chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers. Methods and Findings Control and chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers were treated orally with FIAU 400, 100, 25, or 2.5 mg/kg/d. The response to drug treatment was evaluated by measuring plasma lactate and liver enzymes, by assessing liver histology, and by electron microscopy. After treatment with FIAU 400 mg/kg/d for 4 d, chimeric mice developed clinical and serologic evidence of liver failure and lactic acidosis. Analysis of liver tissue revealed steatosis in regions with human, but not mouse, hepatocytes. Electron micrographs revealed lipid and mitochondrial abnormalities in the human hepatocytes in FIAU-treated chimeric mice. Dose-dependent liver toxicity was detected in chimeric mice treated with FIAU 100, 25, or 2.5 mg/kg/d for 14 d. Liver toxicity did not develop in control mice that were treated with the same FIAU doses for 14 d. In contrast, treatment with another nucleotide analogue (sofosbuvir 440 or 44 mg/kg/d po) for 14 d, which did not cause liver toxicity in human trial participants, did not cause liver toxicity in mice with humanized livers. Conclusions FIAU-induced liver toxicity could be readily detected using chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers, even when the mice were treated with a FIAU dose that was only 10-fold above the dose used in human participants. The clinical features, laboratory abnormalities, liver histology, and ultra-structural changes observed in FIAU-treated chimeric mice mirrored those of FIAU-treated human participants. The use of chimeric mice in

  4. Development and validation of the Thai version of the 4 ‘A’s Test for delirium screening in hospitalized elderly patients with acute medical illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Kuladee, Sanchai; Prachason, Thanavadee

    2016-01-01

    Background The English version of the 4 ‘A’s Test (4AT) is a rapid screening tool for delirium with a high sensitivity and specificity among hospitalized elderly patients. Objective To develop the Thai version of the 4AT (4AT-T) and assess its validity. Subjects and setting A total of 97 elderly patients aged 60 years or above who were admitted to the general medical wards were included. Methods Both authors independently translated the English version of the 4AT into Thai and thereafter developed a single reconciled forward translation by consensus. Back translation was performed by a bilingual native English speaker and it was then reviewed to ensure its agreement with the original one. After 24 hours of admission, subjects were enrolled and clinical data collected. Definite diagnosis of delirium was made by a psychiatrist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text-Revision criteria and the 6-item Thai Delirium Rating Scale; the 4AT was then administered to participants by nurses within 30 minutes. A 4AT score ≥4 was considered positive for delirium screening. The optimal cut-off point of the 4AT-T was identified by Youden’s index. Results In all, 24 out of 97 participants met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text-Revision criteria for delirium. At a cut-off score of 4 or greater, the 4AT-T exhibited satisfactory diagnostic performance with a sensitivity of 83.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62.6%–95.3%) and specificity of 86.3% (95% CI: 76.3%–93.2%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.92. The specified score provided maximal Youden’s index, suggesting an optimal criterion value for delirium screening. Conclusion The 4AT-T is a valid delirium-screening instrument for hospitalized elderly patients with acute medical illnesses. PMID:26966365

  5. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  6. Quantitative analysis and reduction of the eco-toxicity risk of heavy metals for the fine fraction of automobile shredder residue (ASR) using H2O2.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jiwan; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Chang, Yoon-Young

    2016-02-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) fraction (size <0.25mm) can be considered as hazardous due to presence of high concentrations of heavy metals. Hydrogen peroxide combined with nitric acid has been used for the recovery of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr) from the fine fraction of ASR. A sequential extraction procedure has also been used to determine the heavy metal speciation in the fine fraction of ASR before and after treatment. A risk analysis of the fine fraction of ASR before and after treatment was conducted to assess the bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals. These results showed that the recovery of heavy metals from ASR increased with an increase in the hydrogen peroxide concentration. A high concentration of heavy metals was found to be present in Cbio fractions (the sum of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions) in the fine fraction of ASR, indicating high toxicity risk. The Cbio rate of all selected heavy metals was found to range from 8.6% to 33.4% of the total metal content in the fine fraction of ASR. After treatment, Cbio was reduced to 0.3-3.3% of total metal upon a treatment with 2.0% hydrogen peroxide. On the basis of the risk assessment code (RAC), the environmental risk values for heavy metals in the fine fraction of ASR reflect high risk/medium risk. However, after treatment, the heavy metals would be categorized as low risk/no risk. The present study concludes that hydrogen peroxide combined with nitric acid is a promising treatment for the recovery and reduction of the eco-toxicity risk of heavy metals in ASR. PMID:26482807

  7. Acute Legionella pneumophila infection masquerading as acute alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jonathan Michael; Chan, Julian; Reid, Angeline Louise; Tan, Chistopher

    2013-01-01

    A middle-aged man had deteriorated rapidly in hospital after being misdiagnosed with acute alcoholic hepatitis. Acute Legionnaires disease (Legionellosis) was subsequently diagnosed on rapid antigen urinary testing and further confirmed serologically. This led to appropriate antibiotic treatment and complete clinical resolution. Physicians caring for patients with alcohol-related liver disease should consider Legionella pneumophila in their differential diagnosis even with a paucity of respiratory symptoms. PMID:23355576

  8. Sinusitis (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1−5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides, different doses [amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides], long-course regimens), antihistamines, cephalosporins or macrolides, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), doxycycline, saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intra-nasal). PMID:19450327

  9. Sinusitis (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1% to 5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and in people with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid [co-amoxiclav], doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides; different doses, long-course regimens), antihistamines, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intranasal). PMID:22189346

  10. Acute glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, N

    2000-09-01

    Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) is a representative disease of acute nephritic syndrome characterized by the sudden appearance of edema, hematuria, proteinuria, and hypertension. The prototype of AGN is acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN). "Nephritogenic streptococci" are defined as organisms that are cultured from a patient who develops AGN. Although only a limited number of M-types of streptococci have been recognized as "nephritogenic streptococci", all M-types of streptococci may have nephritogenic potential because the genes for major putative nephritogenic antigens such as SPEB and NAPIr are found to be present in all group A streptococci thus far examined. Pathogenic mechanisms for APSGN involving both humoral and cell-mediated immunity have been recently proposed. The role of humoral immunity is presumed to be mediated by the in situ formation of nephritogenic streptococcal antigen-antibody complexes and circulating immune complexes. While in the cellular immune component a role for delayed-type hypersensitivity has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of APSGN. PMID:10969898

  11. When to consider acute HIV infection in the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Richard M; Hardwicke, Robin L; Grimes, Deanna E; DeGarmo, D Sean

    2016-01-16

    Patients presenting with fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy are likely to have mononucleosis; however, patients with acute HIV infection may present with similar symptoms. Acute HIV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis if test results for mononucleosis are negative. This article describes when to order HIV testing and discusses the importance of early intervention for acute HIV infection. PMID:26678418

  12. A high-throughput lab-on-a-chip interface for zebrafish embryo tests in drug discovery and ecotoxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng; Akagi, Jin; Hall, Chris J.; Crosier, Kathryn E.; Crosier, Philip S.; Delaage, Pierre; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-12-01

    Drug discovery screenings performed on zebrafish embryos mirror with a high level of accuracy. The tests usually performed on mammalian animal models, and the fish embryo toxicity assay (FET) is one of the most promising alternative approaches to acute ecotoxicity testing with adult fish. Notwithstanding this, conventional methods utilising 96-well microtiter plates and manual dispensing of fish embryos are very time-consuming. They rely on laborious and iterative manual pipetting that is a main source of analytical errors and low throughput. In this work, we present development of a miniaturised and high-throughput Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform for automation of FET assays. The 3D high-density LOC array was fabricated in poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining while the off-chip interfaces were fabricated using additive manufacturing processes (FDM and SLA). The system's design facilitates rapid loading and immobilization of a large number of embryos in predefined clusters of traps during continuous microperfusion of drugs/toxins. It has been conceptually designed to seamlessly interface with both upright and inverted fluorescent imaging systems and also to directly interface with conventional microtiter plate readers that accept 96-well plates. We also present proof-of-concept interfacing with a high-speed imaging cytometer Plate RUNNER HD® capable of multispectral image acquisition with resolution of up to 8192 x 8192 pixels and depth of field of about 40 μm. Furthermore, we developed a miniaturized and self-contained analytical device interfaced with a miniaturized USB microscope. This system modification is capable of performing rapid imaging of multiple embryos at a low resolution for drug toxicity analysis.

  13. Acute arsenic intoxication from environmental arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Franzblau, A.; Lilis, R. )

    1989-11-01

    Reports of acute arsenic poisoning arising from environmental exposure are rare. Two cases of acute arsenic intoxication resulting from ingestion of contaminated well water are described. These patients experienced a variety of problems: acute gastrointestinal symptoms, central and peripheral neurotoxicity, bone marrow suppression, hepatic toxicity, and mild mucous membrane and cutaneous changes. Although located adjacent to an abandoned mine, the well water had been tested for microorganisms only and was found to be safe. Regulations for testing of water from private wells for fitness to drink are frequently nonexistent, or only mandate biologic tests for microorganisms. Well water, particularly in areas near mining activity, should be tested for metals.

  14. [Acute myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Combes, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Myocarditis is defined as inflammation of the myocardium accompanied by myocellular necrosis. Acute myocarditis must be considered in patients who present with recent-onset of cardiac failure or arrhythmia. Fulminant myocarditis is a distinct entity characterized by sudden onset of severe congestive heart failure or cardiogenic shock, usually following a flu-like illness, parvovirus B19, human herpesvirus 6, coxsackievirus and adenovirus being the most frequently viruses responsible for the disease. Treatment of myocarditis remains largely supportive, since immunosuppression has not been proven to be beneficial for acute lymphocytic myocarditis. Trials of antiviral therapies, or immunostimulants such as interferons, suggest a potential therapeutic role but require further investigation. Lastly, early recognition of patients rapidly progressing to refractory cardiac failure and their immediate transfer to a medical-surgical center experienced in mechanical circulatory support is warranted. In this setting, ECMO should be the first-line mechanical assistance. For highly unstable patients, a Mobile Cardiac Assistance Unit, that rapidly travels to primary care hospitals with a portable ECMO system and hooks it up before refractory multiorgan failure takes hold, is the preferred option. PMID:22515999

  15. [Acute myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Combes, Alain

    2013-05-01

    Myocarditis is defined as inflammation of the myocardium accompanied by myocellular necrosis. Acute myocarditis must be considered in patients who present with recent onset of cardiac failure or arrhythmia. Fulminant myocarditis is a distinct entity characterized by sudden onset of severe congestive heart failure or cardiogenic shock, usually following a flu-like illness, parvovirus B19, human herpesvirus 6, coxsackievirus and adenovirus being the most frequently viruses responsible for the disease. Treatment of myocarditis remains largely supportive, since immunosuppression has not been proven to be beneficial for acute lymphocytic myocarditis. Trials of antiviral therapies, or immunostimulants such as interferons, suggest a potential therapeutic role but require further investigation. Lastly, early recognition of patients rapidly progressing to refractory cardiac failure and their immediate transfer to a medical-surgical center experienced in mechanical circulatory support is warranted. In this setting, ECMO should be the first-line mechanical assistance. For highly unstable patients, a Mobile Cardiac Assistance Unit, that rapidly travels to primary care hospitals with a portable ECMO system and hooks it up before refractory multiorgan failure takes hold, is the preferred option. PMID:23789482

  16. Synthesis, Spectral Characterization of Several Novel Pyrene-Derived Aminophosphonates and Their Ecotoxicological Evaluation Using Heterocypris incongruens and Vibrio fisheri Tests.

    PubMed

    Lewkowski, Jarosław; Rodriguez Moya, Maria; Chmielak, Marta; Rogacz, Diana; Lewicka, Kamila; Rychter, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Four diphenyl pyrene-derived aminophosphonates were synthesized. Attempts were made to synthesize diphenyl N-(R)-α-methylbenzylamino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonate (3e) in order to obtain the chiral aminophosphonate bearing a pyrene moiety. Because these attempts failed, dimethyl and dibenzyl N-(R)-α-methylbenzyl substituted aminophosphonates 4 and 5 were synthesized and the predominant diastereoisomer of dimethyl aminophosphonate 4 was isolated. The resolution of the diastereomeric mixture of 5 failed. Aminophosphonates 3a-d and the predominant diastereoisomer of 4 were investigated in terms of their ecotoxicity using tests performed on the ostracode Heterocypris incongruens and the fluorescent bacterium Vibrio fisheri. The tests confirmed the moderate-to-high ecotoxicity of aminophosphonates 3a-d and 4, but no evident correlation between the structure and toxicity has been found. PMID:27447596

  17. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, especially younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  18. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Otitis media - acute; Infection - inner ear; Middle ear infection - acute ... Casselbrandt ML, Mandel EM. Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  19. Bronchitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... or be more short of breath. Exams and Tests Your health care provider will listen to the breathing sounds in ... Tests may include: Chest x-ray , if your health care provider suspects pneumonia Pulse oximetry, a painless test that helps determine the amount of oxygen in ...

  20. Acute pain.

    PubMed

    Good, M

    1999-01-01

    The review of acute pain describes the problem of unresolved pain and its effects on the neural, autonomic, and immune systems. Conceptualizations and mechanisms of pain are reviewed as well as theories of pain management. Descriptive studies of patient and nurse factors that inhibit effective pain management are discussed, followed by studies of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. Critical analysis reveals that most studies were atheoretical, and therefore, this proliferation of information lacked conceptual coherence and organization. Furthermore, the nature and extent of barriers to pain management were described, but few intervention studies have been devised, as yet, to modify the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of nurses and patients that are barriers to pain management. Although some of the complementary therapies have sufficient research support to be used in clinical pain management, the physiological mechanisms and outcomes need to be studied. It is critical at this time to design studies of interventions to improve assessment, decision making, attentive care, and patient teaching. PMID:10418655

  1. Acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.; Haws, R.; Little, D.; Reese, D.; Peterson, C.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    This study develops data on the acute aquatic toxicity of selected biodiesel fuels which may become subject to environmental effects test regulations under the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The test substances are Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Methyl Soyate (MS), a biodiesel mixture of 20% REE and 80% Diesel, a biodiesel mixture of 50% REE and diesel, and a reference substance of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel. The test procedure follows the Daphnid Acute Toxicity Test outlined in 40 CFR {section} 797.1300 of the TSCA regulations. Daphnia Magna are exposed to the test substance in a flow-through system consisting of a mixing chamber, a proportional diluter, and duplicate test chambers. Novel system modifications are described that accommodate the testing of oil-based test substances with Daphnia. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an EC50, an effective concentration producing immobility in 50% of the test specimen.

  2. Streptococcal acute pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Lais Martins Moreira; Marcondes, Mariana Barros; Lima, Mariana Ferreira; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Okoshi, Marina Politi

    2014-07-01

    Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci) is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Symptom onset in streptococcal infection is usually abrupt and includes intense sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, headache, tender enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes, and pharyngeal or tonsillar exudate. Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea are uncommon, and their presence suggests a viral cause. A diagnosis of pharyngitis is supported by the patient's history and by the physical examination. Throat culture is the gold standard for diagnosing streptococcus pharyngitis. However, it has been underused in public health services because of its low availability and because of the 1- to 2-day delay in obtaining results. Rapid antigen detection tests have been used to detect S. pyogenes directly from throat swabs within minutes. Clinical scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of S. pyogenes infection. The most commonly used scoring system is the modified Centor score. Acute S. pyogenes pharyngitis is often a self-limiting disease. Penicillins are the first-choice treatment. For patients with penicillin allergy, cephalosporins can be an acceptable alternative, although primary hypersensitivity to cephalosporins can occur. Another drug option is the macrolides. Future perspectives to prevent streptococcal pharyngitis and post-infection systemic complications include the development of an anti-Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine. PMID:25229278

  3. Comparison of early exercise treadmill test and oral dipyridamole thallium-201 tomography for the identification of jeopardized myocardium in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy for acute Q-wave myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.; Hicks, R.R.; Frantz, D.M.; Myers, G.H.; Rowe, M.W. )

    1990-09-01

    Thrombolytic therapy has become the treatment of choice for patients with acute myocardial infarction. Researchers are not yet able to identify patients with salvage of myocardium who are at risk for recurrent coronary events. Thus, a prospective trial was performed in 46 patients with myocardial infarction (28 anterior and 18 inferior) who received thrombolytic therapy to determine if early thallium tomography (4.7 days) using oral dipyridamole would identify more patients with residual ischemia than early symptom-limited exercise treadmill tests (5.5 days). There were no complications during the exercise treadmill tests or oral dipyridamole thallium tomography. Mean duration of exercise was 11 +/- 3 minutes and the peak heart rate was 126 beats/min. Thirteen patients had positive test results. After oral dipyridamole all patients had abnormal thallium uptake on the early images. Positive scans with partial filling in of the initial perfusion defects were evident in 34 patients. Angina developed in 13 patients and was easily reversed with intravenous aminophylline. Both symptom-limited exercise treadmill tests and thallium tomography using oral dipyridamole were safely performed early after myocardial infarction in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy. Thallium tomography identified more patients with residual ischemia than exercise treadmill tests (74 vs 28%). Further studies are required to determine whether the results of thallium tomography after oral dipyridamole can be used to optimize patient management and eliminate the need for coronary angiography in some patients.

  4. Removal of benzoylecgonine from water matrices through UV254/H2O2 process: Reaction kinetic modeling, ecotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Spasiano, D; Russo, D; Vaccaro, M; Siciliano, A; Marotta, R; Guida, M; Reis, N M; Li Puma, G; Andreozzi, R

    2016-11-15

    Benzoylecgonine (BE), the main cocaine metabolite, has been detected in numerous surface water and treatment plants effluents in Europe and there is urgent need for effective treatment methods. In this study, the removal of BE by the UV254/H2O2 process from different water matrices was investigated. By means of competition kinetics method, the kinetic constant of reaction between BE and the photogenerated hydroxyl radicals (OH) was estimated resulting in kOH/BE=5.13×10(9)M(-1)s(-1). By-products and water matrices scavengers effects were estimated by numerical modeling of the reaction kinetics for the UV254/H2O2 process and validated in an innovative microcapillary film (MCF) array photoreactor and in a conventional batch photoreactor. The ecotoxicity of the water before and after treatment was evaluated with four organisms Raphidocelis subcapitata, Daphnia magna, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Vicia faba. The results provided evidence that BE and its transformation by-products do not have significant adverse effects on R. subcapitata, while D. magna underwent an increase of lipid droplets. C. elegans was the most sensitive to BE and its by-products. Furthermore, a genotoxicity assay, using V. faba, showed cytogenic damages during the cell mitosis of primary roots. PMID:27450344

  5. Evaluation of the Ecotoxicity of Sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and Contribution of Priority PAHs to Ah Receptor-Mediated Activities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Chen, Ling; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Lili; Floehr, Tilman; Xiao, Hongxia; Yan, Yan; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Hollert, Henner; Wu, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in vitro bioassays were performed to assess the ecotoxicological potential of sediments from Yangtze River estuary. The cytotoxicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity of sediment extracts with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cells were determined by neutral red retention and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assays. The cytotoxicity and AhR-mediated activity of sediments from the Yangtze River estuary ranged from low level to moderate level compared with the ecotoxicity of sediments from other river systems. However, Yangtze River releases approximately 14 times greater water discharge compared with Rhine, a major river in Europe. Thus, the absolute pollution mass transfer of Yangtze River may be detrimental to the environmental quality of estuary and East China Sea. Effect-directed analysis was applied to identify substances causing high dioxin-like activities. To identify unknown substances contributing to dioxin-like potencies of whole extracts, we fractionated crude extracts by open column chromatography. Non-polar paraffinic components (F1), weakly and moderately polar components (F2), and highly polar substances (F3) were separated from each crude extract of sediments. F2 showed the highest dioxin-like activities. Based on the results of mass balance calculation of chemical toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs), our conclusion is that priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons indicated a low portion of bio-TEQs ranging from 1% to 10% of crude extracts. Further studies should be conducted to identify unknown pollutants. PMID:25111307

  6. Accounting for the dissociating properties of organic chemicals in LCIA: an uncertainty analysis applied to micropollutants in the assessment of freshwater ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sérgio Alberto; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2013-03-15

    In life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) models, the sorption of the ionic fraction of dissociating organic chemicals is not adequately modeled because conventional non-polar partitioning models are applied. Therefore, high uncertainties are expected when modeling the mobility, as well as the bioavailability for uptake by exposed biota and degradation, of dissociating organic chemicals. Alternative regressions that account for the ionized fraction of a molecule to estimate fate parameters were applied to the USEtox model. The most sensitive model parameters in the estimation of ecotoxicological characterization factors (CFs) of micropollutants were evaluated by Monte Carlo analysis in both the default USEtox model and the alternative approach. Negligible differences of CFs values and 95% confidence limits between the two approaches were estimated for direct emissions to the freshwater compartment; however the default USEtox model overestimates CFs and the 95% confidence limits of basic compounds up to three orders and four orders of magnitude, respectively, relatively to the alternative approach for emissions to the agricultural soil compartment. For three emission scenarios, LCIA results show that the default USEtox model overestimates freshwater ecotoxicity impacts for the emission scenarios to agricultural soil by one order of magnitude, and larger confidence limits were estimated, relatively to the alternative approach. PMID:23434828

  7. In situ experiments to assess effects of constraints linked to caging on ecotoxicity biomarkers of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.).

    PubMed

    Le Guernic, Antoine; Sanchez, Wilfried; Palluel, Olivier; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Turies, Cyril; Chadili, Edith; Cavalié, Isabelle; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Geffard, Alain; Betoulle, Stéphane; Gagnaire, Béatrice

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caging constraints on multiple fish biomarkers used during ecotoxicological studies (biometric data, immune and antioxidant systems, and energetic status). Two of these constraints were linked to caging: starvation and fish density in cages, and one in relation to the post-caging handling: a short transport. Three in situ experiments were conducted with three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The first experiment compared the effects of three densities (low, medium, and high). The second experiment compared effects of starvation in fish fed every two days with fish that were not fed. Finally comparisons between sticklebacks which have suffered a short car transport after caging and sticklebacks killed without preliminary transport were made. The lack of food had no effect on fish energetic reserves but negatively affected their condition index and their immune system. Transport and high density induced oxidative stress, defined as an overproduction of reactive oxygen species and a stimulation of the antioxidant system. These two constraints also harmed the leucocyte viability. In order not to have any impact on ecotoxicity biomarkers during in situ experiments, it is preferable to decrease fish density in cages, prevent transport before dissections, and feed fish when the caging lasts more than two weeks. PMID:26585997

  8. Contrasting ecotoxicity effects of zinc on growth and photosynthesis in a neutrophilic alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and an extremophilic alga (Cyanidium caldarium).

    PubMed

    Mikulic, Paulina; Beardall, John

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the contrasting ecotoxicity effects of zinc on growth and photosynthesis in a neutrophilic (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and an extremophilic (Cyanidium caldarium) alga. Experiments were carried out to see if cells acclimated to zinc would respond differently to cells that were unexposed to zinc. The study also aimed to see if extremophiles displayed different acclimation properties to neutrophiles. Results showed that the neutrophilic alga C. reinhardtii, was more susceptible to free zinc and had a lower IC50 value than the extremophile, however its stress response protected the photosynthetic apparatus. Upon acclimation, the photosynthetic abilities of C. reinhardtii were not significantly compromised when exposed to toxic levels of free zinc. On the other hand, C. caldarium had a stress response which allowed it to tolerate significantly higher amounts of free zinc in its environment compared to C. reinhardtii , however the stress response did not protect the photosynthetic apparatus, and upon acclimation C. caldarium was no better equipped to protect its photosynthetic integrity than unexposed cells. PMID:25048933

  9. Acute and subacute toxicity tests of onion coat, natural colorant extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.), in (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Kojima, T; Tanaka, T; Mori, H; Kato, Y; Nakamura, M

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity test of onion coat colorant (OC), a food colorant extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.), was undertaken using (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice of both sexes for the safety assessment of this product. The acute toxicity test was performed by administration of OC suspended in corn oil by gavage at doses of 2500, 5000, 7500, and 10,000 mg/kg body weight to groups of 5 or 6 males and 6 or 7 females, maintained for 14 d. Six of 12 females dosed at 10,000 mg/kg body weight and 3 of 11 females dosed at 7500 mg/kg body weight were dead before the end of the study, indicating that the tolerated dose of OC was between 7500 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. The subacute toxicity test of OC was examined using 123 mice of both sexes (62 males and 61 females) by feeding a diet mixed with OC at concentrations of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.6, and 0.3% for 90 d. All mice tolerated these doses of OC well. The body weight gains of male and female mice were not affected by the treatment. Histopathological examinations showed that hyperplastic changes in the esophagus, forestomach, pancreas, cervix, and endometrium of mice were found in treated and control mice. However, their incidences were not related to the dose of OC. Moreover, only a spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in an OC-treated mouse. These results suggest that OC has no acute and subacute toxic effects in mice. PMID:8421325

  10. Patterns of Immunotoxicity Associated with Chronic as Compared with Acute Exposure to Chemical or Physical Stressors and their Relevance with Regard to the Role of Stress and with Regard to Immunotoxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Pruett, Stephen B.; Fan, Ruping; Zheng, Qiang; Schwab, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the stress response induced by some drugs and chemicals contributes in a predictable way to alteration of particular immunological parameters in mice. It has not been determined if mice can become tolerant or habituated with regard to the stress response and consequent immunological effects. Addressing this issue was the purpose of the present study. Mice were dosed daily for 28 days with atrazine, ethanol, propanil, or subjected to restraint, which are known to induce neuroendocrine stress responses and thereby to alter several immunological parameters. On day 29, a blood sample was taken and the spleen was removed for analysis of cellular phenotypes, differential cell counts (for blood), and natural killer (NK) cell activity. Corticosterone concentration at various times after dosing (or restraint) was also measured. Comparison of these results with results from previous studies with a single acute exposure revealed that the corticosterone response was almost completely absent in mice treated with ethanol, reduced in mice treated with restraint and propanil, and for atrazine the response was the same as noted for acute exposure. In most cases, the changes in immunological parameters were consistent with expectations based on these corticosterone responses. However, in a few cases (e.g., NK cell activity), it was clear that there were effects not mediated by stress. These results indicate that the nature of the stressor determines whether mice become tolerant with regard to the stress response and consequent immunological effects. This finding has practical implications for safety testing in mice. PMID:19357072

  11. Study of Pre-disposing Factors of Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Antibiotic Prescribing Pattern with Reference to Antibiotic Sensitivity Test.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, R; Shrestha, B; Shakya Shrestha, S; Pant, A; Prajapati, B; Karmacharya, B M

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects about 329 million people worldwide, which is nearly 5% of the entire global population. In the context of Nepal, COPD accounts for 43% of the non-communicable disease burden and 2.56% of hospitalizations. Various pre-disposing factors like bacterial, viral, fungal, smoking, occupational exposures and genetic factors have been proposed to precipitate COPD and its exacerbation though, the definitive pre-disposing factors and factors related to acute exacerbation have not been determined in the context of Nepal. Objective To find out the pre-disposing factors and the related causative agents for COPD. Method A cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Patients of all age group who were diagnosed as COPD and admitted in the hospital were included in this study. Patients were interviewed using structured questionnaire. The sociodemographic data including personal and medical history were recorded from those participants. In addition, sputum from those patients was sent for culture to investigate the possible responsible pathogens as well as its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Result A total of 150 patients having Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (AECOPD) who have admitted from either emergency or out-patient department of the hospital were included in this study. Among the total number of patients, more than half of them were female (n=82). In addition, analysis of occupations shows that most of them were either farmer (36.0%) or housewife (30.7%). In total studied patients (n=150), most of them were using traditional firewood (83%) for cooking purpose and majority of patients (91%) were smokers. Most of the sputum samples show growth of gram-positive cocci (26.7%) and gram negative bacilli (27.5%). Considering the overall sensitivity pattern, the higher sensitivity was recorded for Co-trimoxazole and Ciprofloxacin while higher rate of resistance was noted

  12. Acute tubular nephropathy in a patient with acute HIV infection: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ananworanich, Jintanat; Datta, Anandita A; Fletcher, James Lk; Townamchai, Natavudh; Chomchey, Nitiya; Kroon, Eugene; Sereti, Irini; Valcour, Victor; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    We report a 57-year old man with diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented with acute HIV infection. Routine blood tests showed an elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Renal biopsy showed acute tubular nephropathy, which has not been reported to occur during acute HIV infection, in the absence of rhabdomyolysis or multiple organ system failure. Antiretroviral therapy was initiated. His renal failure gradually resolved without further intervention. At one year of follow-up his HIV RNA was undetectable, and his renal function was normal. The case illustrates a rare manifestation of acute HIV infection - acute renal failure - in an older man with diabetes and hypertension. In this setting acute kidney injury might mistakenly have been attributed to his chronic comorbidities, and this case supports early HIV-1 testing in the setting of a high index of suspicion. PMID:25745498

  13. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on an aquatic ecosystem: acute toxicity and community-level toxic impact tests of benzo[a]pyrene using lake zooplankton community.

    PubMed

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Sakamoto, Masaki; Nagata, Takamaru; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Miyabara, Yuichi; Hanazato, Takayuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kim, Jun-Woo; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon

    2013-02-01

    We estimated acute toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) using two cladoceran species, Ceriodaphnia reticulata and Daphnia magna, and also analyzed its impact on zooplankton community throughout an exposure experiment using small-scale mesocosms. LC(50) of B[a]P for C. reticulata and D. magna was 4.3 and 4.7 µg/l, respectively. However, individuals fed with Chlorella showed higher LC(50), 6.1 µg/l for C. reticulata and 8.0 µg/l for D. magna. In the exposure experiment, we examined the impact of B[a]P on zooplankton community using conceivable concentrations in the environment (5 and 10 µg/l) using typical zooplankton community in eutrophicated systems. Despite the residence time of B[a]P in the water column was short as < 4 days, application of B[a]P induced decrease of zooplankton abundance. However, the recovery pattern was different among cladocerans and rotifers. Consequently, B[a]P showed insecticide-like impacts, suppressing cladoceran populations and inducing the dominance of rotifers particularly under high concentration (10 µg/l). Results have suggested that, even such short duration of B[a]P in the water body can have impact on zooplankton abundance and community structure. Since B[a]P easily precipitate to the bottom and rapidly disappears from the water body, careful monitoring and further assessment of the potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are necessary. PMID:23358147

  14. Acute pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... rate Lab tests that show the release of pancreatic enzymes will be done. These include: Increased blood amylase level Increased serum blood lipase level Increased urine amylase ... include: Abdominal CT scan Abdominal MRI Abdominal ultrasound

  15. Hemodynamic assessment and acute pulmonary vasoreactivity testing in the evaluation of children with pulmonary vascular disease. Expert consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric pulmonary hypertension. The European Paediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network, endorsed by ISHLT and DGPK.

    PubMed

    Apitz, Christian; Hansmann, Georg; Schranz, Dietmar

    2016-05-01

    Invasive assessment of haemodynamics (ventricular, pulmonary) and testing of acute vasoreactivity in the catheterisation laboratory remain the gold standard for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease. However, these measurements and the interpretation thereof are challenging due to the heterogeneous aetiology of PH in childhood and potentially confounding factors in the catheterisation laboratory. Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with congenital heart disease who have a cardiovascular shunt need to undergo a completely different catheterisation approach than those with idiopathic PAH lacking an anatomical cardiovascular defect. Diagnostic cardiac catheterisation of children with suspected PH usually includes right and left heart catheterisation, particularly for the initial assessment (ie, at the time of diagnosis), and should be performed in experienced centres only. Here, we present graded consensus recommendations for the invasive evaluation of children with PH including those with pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease and/or ventricular dysfunction. Based on the limited published studies and our own experience we suggest a structured catheterisation protocol and two separate definitions of positive acute vasoreactivity testing (AVT): (1) AVT to assess prognosis and indication for specific PH therapy, and (2) AVT to assess operability of PAH associated with congenital heart disease. The protocol and the latter definitions may help in the systematic assessment of these patients and the interpretation of the obtained data. Beyond an accurate diagnosis in the individual patient, such a structured approach may allow systematic decision making for the initiation of a specific treatment and may assist in estimating disease progression and individual prognosis. PMID:27053694

  16. Validation of AshTest as a Non-Invasive Alternative to Transjugular Liver Biopsy in Patients with Suspected Severe Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rudler, Marika; Mouri, Sarah; Charlotte, Frederic; Cluzel, Philippe; Ngo, Yen; Munteanu, Mona; Lebray, Pascal; Ratziu, Vlad; Thabut, Dominique; Poynard, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims According to guidelines, the histological diagnosis of severe alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) can require liver biopsy if a specific treatment is needed. The blood test AshTest (BioPredictive, Paris, France) has been initially validated for the non-invasive diagnosis of ASH in a large population of heavy drinkers. The aim was to validate the AshTest accuracy in the specific context of use of patients with suspected severe ASH, in order to reduce the need for transjugular biopsy before deciding treatment. Methods The reference was liver biopsy, performed using the transjugular route, classified according to its histological severity as none, minimal, moderate or severe. Biopsies were assessed by the same experienced pathologist, blinded to simultaneous AshTest results. Results A total of 123 patients with severe clinical ASH (recent jaundice and Maddrey function greater or equal to 32) were included, all had cirrhosis and 80% had EASL histological definition of ASH. 95% of patients received prednisolone; and the 2-year mortality was 63%. The high AshTest performance was confirmed both for the binary outcome [AUROC = 0.803 (95%CI 0.684–0.881)] significantly higher than the AST/ALT AUROC [0.603 (0.462–0.714); P<0.001], and for the severity of ASH-score system by the Obuchowski measures for [mean (SE) 0.902 (0.017) vs. AST/ALT 0.833 (0.023); P = 0.01], as well as for the diagnosis and severity of ballooning, PMN and Mallory bodies. According to attributability of discordances, AshTest had a 2–7% risk of 2 grades misclassification. Conclusion These results confirmed the diagnostic performance of AshTest in cirrhotic patients with severe clinical ASH, in the specific context of use of corticosteroid treatment. AshTest is an appropriate non-invasive alternative to transjugular liver biopsy. PMID:26252713

  17. Diagnosis of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection: A serologic test using Shed Acute Phase Antigen (SAPA) in mother-child binomial samples.

    PubMed

    Volta, Bibiana J; Russomando, Graciela; Bustos, Patricia L; Scollo, Karenina; De Rissio, Ana M; Sánchez, Zunilda; Cardoni, Rita L; Bua, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    Chagas congenital infection is an important health problem in endemic and non-endemic areas in which Trypanosoma cruzi-infected women can transmit the parasite to their offspring. In this study, we evaluated the antibody levels against the T. cruzi Shed Acute Phase Antigen (SAPA) in 91 binomial samples of seropositive pregnant women and their infected and non-infected children by ELISA. In 70 children without congenital T. cruzi transmission, the titers of anti-SAPA antibodies were lower than those of their seropositive mothers. In contrast, 90.5% of 21 congenitally infected children, at around 1 month of age, showed higher anti-SAPA antibody levels than their mothers. Subtracting the SAPA-ELISA mother OD value to the SAPA-ELISA child OD allowed efficient detection of most T. cruzi congenitally infected children immediately after birth, when total anti-parasite antibodies transferred during pregnancy are still present in all children born to seropositive women. A positive correlation was observed between parasitemia levels in mothers and infants evaluated by quantitative DNA amplification and anti-SAPA antibody titers by ELISA. As SAPA serology has proved to be very efficient to detect T. cruzi infection in mother-child binomial samples, it could be of extreme help for early diagnosis of newborns, in maternities and hospitals where DNA amplification is not available. This prompt diagnosis may prevent drop out of the long-term follow-up for future diagnosis and may ensure early trypanocidal treatment, which has proved to be efficient to cure infants with congenital Chagas disease. PMID:25847262

  18. Single and joint ecotoxicity data estimation of organic UV filters and nanomaterials toward selected aquatic organisms. Urban groundwater risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2016-02-01

    The hazardous potential of organic UV filters (UV-Fs) is becoming an issue of great concern due to the widespread application of these compounds in most daily-use goods, such as hygiene and beauty products. Nanomaterials (NMs) have also been used in personal care products (PCPs) for many years. Nowadays, both classes of chemicals are considered environmental emerging contaminants. Despite some studies performed in vitro and in vivo reported adverse effects of many UV-Fs on the normal development of organisms, there is scarce data regarding acute and chronic toxicity. The aim of the present study was to determine the EC50 values of selected UV-Fs using standardised toxicity assays on three aquatic species i.e. Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata and Vibrio fischeri. EC50 values obtained were in the mgl(-1) range for all the species. The estimated toxicity data allowed us to assess the environmental risk posed by selected UV-Fs in urban groundwater from Barcelona (Spain). The calculated ecological risk indicated a negligible impact on the aquifer. Giving the increasing importance of studying mixtures of pollutants and due to the widespread presence of nanomaterials (NMs) in the aquatic environment, other objective of this work was to explore the response on D. magna after exposure to both binary combinations of UV-Fs among them and UV-F with NMs. In all cases but the nano-silver mixtures, joint toxicity was mitigated or even eradicated. PMID:26674115

  19. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC(50) values of other test models.

    PubMed

    Khangarot, B S; Das, Sangita

    2009-12-30

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48h of 50% of immobilization (EC(50)) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC(50) values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r(2)) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC(50)s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK(sp)), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC(50)s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC(50)s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems. PMID:19683870

  20. Ecotoxicity and environmental risk assessment of larvicides used in the control of Aedes aegypti to Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Abe, Flavia Renata; Coleone, Ana Carla; Machado, Angela Aparecida; Gonçalves Machado-Neto, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Dengue transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, species aegypti, is a major public health concern in Brazil. The chemical control of the mosquito larvae has been performed with the larvicide temephos since 1967. However, vector resistance was reported to temephos in several Brazilian states, and the Ministry of Health ordered the replacement of this larvicide by diflubenzuron (DFB), an inhibitor of chitin synthesis. Both insecticides are diluted in water with larvae and are able to reach aquatic environments in which they subsequently adversely damage nontarget organisms. The aims of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity (EC50) and environmental risk (RQ) of DFB and temephos to the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, and (2) evaluate the chronic toxicity (no-observed-effect concentration [NOEC] and lowest-observed-effect concentration [LOEC]) of these larvicides to D. magna. The experiments were performed according to a completely randomized design. The estimated 48-h EC50 of temephos was 0.15 μg/L (lower limit = 0.1 and upper limit = 0.2 μg/L) and the 48-h EC50 of DFB was 0.06 μg/L (lower limit = 0.03 and upper limit = 0.1 μg/L). RQ values were 4.166.7 to DFB and 6.666.6 to temephos. NOEC and LOEC values were respectively 2.5 and 5 ng/L for DFB, and respectively 6.2 and 12.5 ng/L for temephos. Thus, temephos and DFB are classified as highly toxic to Daphnia magna and pose a high environmental risk to this species. Mortality of D. magna was observed at concentrations lower than those used in the field to control A. aegypti larvae. PMID:24555645

  1. Effect of temperature on the release and remobilization of ecotoxic elements in AMD colloidal precipitates: the example of the Libiola copper mine, Liguria, (Italy).

    PubMed

    Consani, S; Carbone, C; Salviulo, G; Zorzi, F; Dinelli, E; Botter, R; Nodari, L; Badocco, D; Lucchetti, G

    2016-07-01

    Due to their characteristics, colloidal particles are able to control the dispersion of many organic and inorganic pollutants in soils and streams. Colloidal precipitates generated by acid mine drainage (AMD) process are usually amorphous or nanocrystalline materials, and their stability plays a crucial role in controlling the fate of metals released by sulphide oxydation. This paper describes a study of elements release (Fe, Al, Mn, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, S, Zn) due to desorption or destabilization of three different colloidal precipitates, two ochreous and a greenish-blue precipitate, sampled at the Libiola mine site (northwest Italy). The samples were heated at high temperature in order to verify this treatment as inertization process. At room temperature, the most easily extracted element was S (with released percentages from 8.39 to 29.17 %), but considerable amounts of Cu, Zn and Mn (up to 16.6, 610.6 and 595.6 mg/kg, respectively) were also observed in the leachates for greenish-blue precipitates. The highest release of elements (S > Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd > Co, Ni > Al, Fe, Cr), with minor differences depending on the mineralogical composition of the samples, was observed for heat-treated samples obtained through moderate heating and mainly formed by anhydrous phases. Samples treated at high temperature had the lowest release, with only Cu showing a significant concentration in the leachate of greenish-blue precipitates. The results showed that dissolution/desorption is limited from ochreous natural colloidal precipitates occurring at the Libiola mine site but also that high amounts of some metals can be remobilized from greenish-blue precipitates. The destabilization of all percipitates through dehydratation-dehydroxylation can further remobilize important amounts of ecotoxic elements. Heat treatment at high temperature could be a definitive, although expensive, way to fix heavy metals in the solid fraction, preventing their dispersion in the surrounding

  2. Development of Alternatives to Chronic Ecotoxicity Tests: Predicting Early-life Stage and Endocrine-mediated Toxicity in Aquatic Vertebrate Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    In June 2010, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) with support from sanofi-aventis, NC3Rs, the Humane Society, L’Oreal, and ECVAM, held a workshop aimed at examining critical science needs related to the development of alternatives to chronic fish toxicity...

  3. USER GUIDE: ACUTE TO CHRONIC ESTIMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute and chronic toxicity testing plays a major role in ecological risk assessment requirements involved in several environmental laws. Chronic toxicity tests commonly include the measurement of long-term effects of a contaminant on the survival, growth, and reproduction of test...

  4. Acute Methylenedioxypyrovalerone Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Froberg, Blake A; Levine, Michael; Beuhler, Michael C; Judge, Bryan S; Moore, Philip W; Engebretsen, Kristin M; Mckeown, Nathanael J; Rosenbaum, Christopher D; Young, Amy C; Rusyniak, Daniel E

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the acute clinical effects, laboratory findings, complications, and disposition of patients presenting to the hospital after abusing synthetic cathinone. We conducted a retrospective multicenter case series of patients with synthetic cathinone abuse by searching for the terms bath salts, MDPV, methylenedioxypyrovalerone, mephedrone, methcathinone, methylone, methedrone, and cathinone within the "agent" field of a national clinical toxicology database (ToxIC). The medical records of these patients were obtained and abstracted by investigators at each study site. Patients with confirmatory testing that identified a synthetic cathinone in either blood or urine were included in the series. Patients who had either an undetectable synthetic cathinone test or no confirmatory testing were excluded. A data abstraction sheet was used to obtain information on each patient. We entered data into an Excel spreadsheet and calculated descriptive statistics. We identified 23 patients with confirmed synthetic cathinone exposure--all were positive for methylenedioxyprovalerone (MDPV). Eighty-three percent were male and 74 % had recreational intent. The most common reported clinical effects were tachycardia (74 %), agitation (65 %), and sympathomimetic syndrome (65 %). Acidosis was the most common laboratory abnormality (43 %). Seventy-eight percent of patients were treated with benzodiazepines and 30 % were intubated. Ninety-six percent of patients were hospitalized and 87 % were admitted to the ICU. The majority (61 %) of patients was discharged home but 30 % required inpatient psychiatric care. There was one death in our series. The majority of patients presenting to the hospital after abusing MDPV have severe sympathomimetic findings requiring hospitalization. A number of these patients require inpatient psychiatric care after their acute presentation. PMID:25468313

  5. Does insecticide drift adversely affect grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Saltatoria) in field margins? A case study combining laboratory acute toxicity testing with field monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Rebecca; Schmitz, Juliane; Bundschuh, Mirco; Brühl, Carsten Albrecht

    2012-08-01

    The current terrestrial risk assessment of insecticides regarding nontarget arthropods considers exclusively beneficial organisms, whereas herbivorous insects, such as grasshoppers, are ignored. However, grasshoppers living in field margins or meadows adjacent to crops may potentially be exposed to insecticides due to contact with or ingestion of contaminated food. Therefore, the present study assessed effects of five active ingredients of insecticides (dimethoate, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin) on the survival of Chorthippus sp. grasshopper nymphs by considering two routes of exposure (contact and oral). The experiments were accompanied by monitoring field margins that neighbored cereals, vineyards, and orchards. Grasslands were used as reference sites. The laboratory toxicity tests revealed a sensitivity of grasshoppers with regard to the insecticides tested in the present study similar to that of the standard test species used in arthropod risk assessments. In the field monitoring program, increasing grasshopper densities were detected with increasing field margin width next to cereals and vineyards, but densities remained low over the whole range of field margins from 0.5 to 20 m next to orchards. Grasshopper densities equivalent to those of grassland sites were only observed in field margins exceeding 9 m in width, except for field margins next to orchards. These results may indicate that current insecticide risk assessments are insufficiently protective for grasshoppers in field margins. PMID:22619160

  6. Acute pyelonephritis in children.

    PubMed

    Morello, William; La Scola, Claudio; Alberici, Irene; Montini, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    Acute pyelonephritis is one of the most serious bacterial illnesses during childhood. Escherichia coli is responsible in most cases, however other organisms including Klebsiella, Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Proteus, and Pseudomonas species are being more frequently isolated. In infants, who are at major risk of complications such as sepsis and meningitis, symptoms are ambiguous and fever is not always useful in identifying those at high risk. A diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis is initially made on the basis of urinalysis; dipstick tests for nitrites and/or leukocyte esterase are the most accurate indicators of infection. Collecting a viable urine sample for urine culture using clean voided methods is feasible, even in young children. No gold standard antibiotic treatment exists. In children appearing well, oral therapy and outpatient care is possible. New guidelines suggest less aggressive imaging strategies after a first infection, reducing radiation exposure and costs. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing recurrence is still a matter of debate and the risk of antibiotic resistance is a warning against its widespread use. Well-performed randomized controlled trials are required in order to better define both the imaging strategies and medical options aimed at preserving long-term renal function. PMID:26238274

  7. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  8. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  9. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  10. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  11. [Toxicity tests and their application in safety assessment of water quality].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Ying; Zhao, Chun-Tao; Wei, Dong-Bin

    2014-10-01

    The safety of water quality has important impacts not only on the health of ecological system, but also on the survival and development of human beings. The conventional assessment methods for water quality based on the concentration limits are not reliable. The toxicity tests can vividly reflect the whole adverse biological effects of multiple chemicals in water body, which has been regarded as a necessary supplement for conventional water quality assessment methods based on physicochemical parameters. Considering the chemical pollutants usually have various adverse biological effects, the ecotoxicity testing methods, including lethality, genotoxicity, endocrine disrupting effects, were classified according to the different toxicity types. Then, the potential applications of toxicity testing methods and corresponding evaluation indices in evaluating the toxicity characteristics of ambient water samples were discussed. Particularly, the safety assessment methods for water quality based on the toxicity tests, including potential toxicology, toxicity unit classification system, potential ecotoxic effect probe, and safety assessment of water quality based on toxicity test battery, were summarized. This paper not only systematically reviewed the progress of toxicity tests and their application in safety assessment of water quality, but also provided the scientific basis for the further development in the future. PMID:25693412

  12. Fibrinogen α-chain-derived peptide is upregulated in hippocampus of rats exposed to acute morphine injection and spontaneous alternation testing

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Agatha E; Morris, Kenneth A; Catherman, Kasia; Chen, Xian; Hatcher, Nathan G; Gold, Paul E; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2014-01-01

    Fibrinogen is a secreted glycoprotein that is synthesized in the liver, although recent in situ hybridization data support its expression in the brain. It is involved in blood clotting and is released in the brain upon injury. Here, we report changes in the extracellular levels of fibrinogen α-chain-derived peptides in the brain after injections of saline and morphine. More specifically, in order to assess hippocampus-related working memory, an approach pairing in vivo microdialysis with mass spectrometry was used to characterize extracellular peptide release from the hippocampus of rats in response to saline or morphine injection coupled with a spontaneous alternation task. Two fibrinopeptide A-related peptides derived from the fibrinogen α-chain – fibrinopeptide A (ADTGTTSEFIEAGGDIR) and a fibrinopeptide A-derived peptide (DTGTTSEFIEAGGDIR) – were shown to be consistently elevated in the hippocampal microdialysate. Fibrinopeptide A was significantly upregulated in rats exposed to morphine and spontaneous alternation testing compared with rats exposed to saline and spontaneous alternation testing (P < 0.001), morphine alone (P < 0.01), or saline alone (P < 0.01), respectively. The increase in fibrinopeptide A in rats subjected to morphine and a memory task suggests that a complex interaction between fibrinogen and morphine takes place in the hippocampus. PMID:24855564

  13. Evaluation of a Rapid Point of Care Test for Detecting Acute and Established HIV Infection, and Examining the Role of Study Quality on Diagnostic Accuracy: A Bayesian Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Smallwood, Megan; Vijh, Rohit; Nauche, Bénédicte; Lebouché, Bertrand; Joseph, Lawrence; Pant Pai, Nitika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fourth generation (Ag/Ab combination) point of care HIV tests like the FDA-approved Determine HIV1/2 Ag/Ab Combo test offer the promise of timely detection of acute HIV infection, relevant in the context of HIV control. However, a synthesis of their performance has not yet been done. In this meta-analysis we not only assessed device performance but also evaluated the role of study quality on diagnostic accuracy. Methods Two independent reviewers searched seven databases, including conferences and bibliographies, and independently extracted data from 17 studies. Study quality was assessed with QUADAS-2. Data on sensitivity and specificity (overall, antigen, and antibody) were pooled using a Bayesian hierarchical random effects meta-analysis model. Subgroups were analyzed by blood samples (serum/plasma vs. whole blood) and study designs (case-control vs. cross-sectional). Results The overall specificity of the Determine Combo test was 99.1%, 95% credible interval (CrI) [97.3–99.8]. The overall pooled sensitivity for the device was at 88.5%, 95% [80.1–93.4]. When the components of the test were analyzed separately, the pooled specificities were 99.7%, 95% CrI [96.8–100] and 99.6%, 95% CrI [99.0–99.8], for the antigen and antibody components, respectively. Pooled sensitivity of the antibody component was 97.3%, 95% CrI [60.7–99.9], and pooled sensitivity for the antigen component was found to be 12.3%, 95% (CrI) [1.1–44.2]. No significant differences were found between subgroups by blood sample or study design. However, it was noted that many studies restricted their study sample to p24 antigen or RNA positive specimens, which may have led to underestimation of overall test performance. Detection bias, selection (spectrum) bias, incorporation bias, and verification bias impaired study quality. Conclusions Although the specificity of all test components was high, antigenic sensitivity will merit from an improvement. Besides the accuracy of the

  14. Hepatitis E virus: do locally acquired infections in Australia necessitate laboratory testing in acute hepatitis patients with no overseas travel history?

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Ashish C.; Faddy, Helen M.; Flower, Robert L. P.; Seed, Clive R.; Keller, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is emerging as a global public health threat. Water-borne HEV outbreaks are common in developing countries and are associated with genotypes 1 and 2. In industrialised countries, sporadic cases of zoonotic transmission associated with genotypes 3 and 4 are increasingly being reported. Transfusion- and transplantation-transmitted HEV have been documented, although ingestion of contaminated food is thought to be the major transmission route. Severe disease is possible and chronic hepatitis infection occurs in solid-organ-transplant recipients and in patients with immunosuppressive disorders. In Australia, HEV cases are mainly travellers returning from disease endemic countries. Indeed, there are few reported cases of locally acquired HEV. Pigs in Australia have been shown to be infected with HEV, which indicates the possibility of zoonotic transmission. The extent of locally acquired infection is not known, however it may be greater than expected and may necessitate laboratory testing in patients reporting no overseas travel. PMID:25560836

  15. Investigation of olive mill wastewater (OMW) ozonation efficiency with the use of a battery of selected ecotoxicity and human toxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Siorou, Sofia; Vgenis, Theodoros T; Dareioti, Margarita A; Vidali, Maria-Sophia; Efthimiou, Ioanna; Kornaros, Michael; Vlastos, Dimitris; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    The effects of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on a battery of biological assays, before and during the ozonation process, were investigated in order to assess ozone's efficiency in removing phenolic compounds from OMW and decreasing the concomitant OMW toxicity. Specifically, ozonated-OMW held for 0, 60, 120, 300, 420, 540min in a glass bubble reactor, showed a drastic reduction of OMW total phenols (almost 50%) after 300min of ozonation with a concomitant decrease of OMW toxicity. In particular, the acute toxicity test primarily performed in the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus (Thamnotoxkit F™ screening toxicity test) showed a significant attenuation of OMW-induced toxic effects, after ozonation for a period of 120 and in a lesser extent 300min, while further treatment resulted in a significant enhancement of ozonated-OMW toxic effects. Furthermore, ozonated-OMW-treated mussel hemocytes showed a significant attenuation of the ability of OMW to cause cytotoxic (obtained by the use of NRRT assay) effects already after an ozonation period of 120 and to a lesser extent 300min. In accordance with the latter, OMW-mediated oxidative (enhanced levels of superoxide anions and lipid peroxidation by-products) and genotoxic (induction of DNA damage) effects were diminished after OMW ozonation for the aforementioned periods of time. The latter was also revealed by the use of cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in human lymphocytes exposed to different concentrations of both raw- and ozonated-OMW for 60, 120 and 300min. Those findings revealed for a first time the existence of a critical time point during the OMW ozonation process that could be fundamentally used for evaluating OMW ozonation as a pretreatment method of OMW. PMID:25957716

  16. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist. PMID:26526433

  17. Comparative ecotoxicity of interstitial waters in littoral ecosystems using Microtox{reg_sign} and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Valls, T.A. Del; Forja, J.M.; Lubian, L.M.; Gomez-Parra, A.

    1997-11-01

    The toxic effects of sediment interstitial waters collected from seven littoral sites in the Gulf of Cadiz were tested with the Microtox assay and a 7-d Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera) decline test. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrients (ammonia, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, and silicate), the heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Cd), and the linear alkylbenzensulfonate (LAS) concentrations in the interstitial water were measured. The results of assays were compared in a dose-response relationship between sites. This comparison has demonstrated a general agreement between toxicity values determined by Brachionus plicatilis and Photobacterium phosphoreum, except in the case of interstitial water toxicity from mixtures of heavy metals. Data derived from interstitial water chemistry and bioassays were assembled by multivariate statistical techniques (principal components analysis). Positive prevalence of these components in cases studied was used to establish those ranges in chemical concentrations associated with adverse effects. The interstitial water guidelines, in terms of concentrations at or below which biological effects have been shown to be minimal (mg/L), are: DOC, 12.8; phosphate, 0.28; LAS, 80.4; ammonia, 12.1: chromium, 0.0045.

  18. Acute loss of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness. PMID:25702218

  19. The Effect of Rapid Antigen Detection Test on Antibiotic Prescription Decision of Clinicians and Reducing Antibiotic Costs in Children with Acute Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Kose, Engin; Sirin Kose, Seda; Akca, Deniz; Yildiz, Kerem; Elmas, Cengizhan; Baris, Mustafa; Anil, Murat

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of rapid antigen detection test (RADT) in the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis, its impact on antibiotic prescription decision of pediatricians and influence on reduction of antibiotic treatment costs in children with pharyngitis. The study group consisted of 223 patients who were diagnosed with pharyngitis by pediatricians. The sensitivity and specificity of RADT were 92.1% (95% Cl: 78.6-98.3%) and 97.3% (95% Cl: 93.8-99.1%), respectively. In the first assessment, before performing RADT, pediatricians decided to prescribe antibiotics for 178 (79.8%) patients with pharyngitis. After learning RADT results, pediatricians finally decided to prescribe antibiotics for 83 (37.2%) patients with pharyngitis, and antibiotic prescription decreased by 42.6%. Antibiotic costs in non-Group A streptococcus pharyngitis, Group A streptococcus pharyngitis and all subjects groups decreased by 80.8%, 48%, and 76.4%, respectively. Performing RADT in children with pharyngitis has an important impact on treatment decision of clinicians, reduction of unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions and antibiotic costs. PMID:26999012

  20. U.S. EPA`s use of QSAR for new and existing chemical evaluations: Regulatory aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Zeeman, M.; Clements, R.G.; Nabholz, J.V.; Auer, C.M.

    1994-12-31

    As up front testing is not required, ecotoxicity or fate data are available for only about 5% of the 2,200 new chemicals/year submitted to EPA. The EPA`s Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory of existing chemicals currently lists about 72,000 chemicals. Most of existing chemicals also appear to have little or no ecotoxicity or fate data available. The EPA`s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) has developed and relies upon QSARs to estimate the ecotoxicity and fate of most of the new chemicals evaluated for ecological hazard and risk assessment. QSAR methods routinely result in ecotoxicity estimations of acute and sub/chronic toxicity to fish, aquatic invertebrates, and algae, and fate estimations of physical/chemical properties, degradation, and bioconcentration. GSAR methods were also used to screen the TSCA Inventory for the ecotoxicity of specific chemical classes of over 8,000 discrete chemicals. In the latter effort, seven major chemical classes made up almost 95% of these chemicals. From this QSAR analysis, about 10--20% or 15--18% of these chemicals, respectively, are expected to have high acute or high chronic toxicity to aquatic species. Estimates of ecotoxicity for > 8,000 discrete organics enhances prioritization of chemicals on the TSCA Inventory and helps focus EPA/OPPT regulatory efforts upon the potentially most toxic substances.