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  1. Endovascular Management of Acute Embolic Occlusion of the Superior Mesenteric Artery: A 12-Year Single-Centre Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Raupach, J. Lojik, M. Chovanec, V. Renc, O.; Strýček, M.; Dvořák, P. Hoffmann, P.; Guňka, I. Ferko, A.; Ryška, P.; Omran, N.; Krajina, A. Čabelková, P.; Čermáková, E.; Malý, R.

    2016-02-15

    PurposeRetrospective evaluation of 12-year experience with endovascular management of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) due to embolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA).Materials and methodsFrom 2003 to 2014, we analysed the in-hospital mortality of 37 patients with acute mesenteric embolism who underwent primary endovascular therapy with subsequent on-demand laparotomy. Transcatheter embolus aspiration was used in all 37 patients (19 women, 18 men, median age 76 years) with embolic occlusion of the SMA. Adjunctive local thrombolysis (n = 2) and stenting (n = 2) were also utilised.ResultsWe achieved complete recanalization of the SMA stem in 91.9 %. One patient was successfully treated by surgical embolectomy due to a failed endovascular approach. Subsequent exploratory laparotomy was performed in 73.0 % (n = 27), and necrotic bowel resection in 40.5 %. The total in-hospital mortality was 27.0 %.ConclusionPrimary endovascular therapy for acute embolic SMA occlusion with on-demand laparotomy is a recommended algorithm used in our centre to treat SMA occlusion. This combined approach for the treatment of AMI is associated with in-hospital mortality rate of 27.0 %.

  2. Effect of Clinical Suspicion by Referral Physician and Early Outcomes in Patients with Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Kee; Hwang, Deokbi; Park, Sujin; Huh, Seung; Lee, Jong-Min; Yun, Woo-Sung; Kim, Young-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the pattern of referral of patients with superior mesenteric artery embolism (SMAE) and its effect on outcomes, and to evaluate the risk factors for bowel infarction. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 66 consecutive patients diagnosed with acute SMAE between January 2001 and June 2016. Appropriate diagnosis by the referring physician was defined if the referral letter indicated that acute mesenteric ischemia was suspected or had been diagnosed at the referral center. Surgical delay was defined as the interval between symptom onset and surgery for definitive treatment. Results Among 54 patients transferred from other centers, 26 patients (48.1%) were diagnosed appropriately by the referring physician. The rate of appropriate diagnosis was differed significantly by the use of computed tomography (CT) scan at referral center (25/35 with CT and 1/19 without CT, P=0.00). The surgical delay was significantly longer in patients without appropriate diagnosis compared with the patients with appropriate diagnosis (53.5±52.3 hours vs. 28.8±23.6 hours, P=0.04). Initially, 56 patients received surgical treatment with 31 underwent bowel resection due to infarction, 6 received conservative treatment, and the remaining 4 patients refused any treatment. The surgical delay, abdominal distension, tenderness, rebound tenderness, and level of C-reactive protein were associated with bowel infarction at initial operation. Overall in-hospital mortality was 32%. Conclusion A high index of suspicion with appropriate diagnostic modality, such as CT scan is crucial in patients with SMAE for reducing surgical delay as a risk factor of bowel infarction. PMID:28955699

  3. Embolization for Acute Small-Bowel Bleeding from the Collateral Artery of the Superior Mesenteric Left Deep Circumflex Iliac Artery Associated with Narrowing of the Bilateral Common External Iliac Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shimohira, Masashi Ogino, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Shigeru; Nishikawa, Hiroko; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2009-03-15

    We present a case of acute small-bowel bleeding from the collateral artery of the superior mesenteric-left deep circumflex iliac artery that was successfully managed by transarterial coil embolization.

  4. Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy of superior mesenteric artery embolism

    PubMed Central

    Kuhelj, Dimitrij; Kavcic, Pavel; Popovic, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background The present series present three consecutive cases of successful percutaneous mechanical embolectomy in acute superior mesenteric artery ischemia. Superior mesenteric artery embolism is a rare abdominal emergency that commonly leads to bowel infarction and has a very high mortality rate. Prompt recognition and treatment are crucial for successful outcome. Endovascular therapeutic approach in patients with acute SMA embolism in median portion of its stem is proposed. Case reports. Three male patients had experienced a sudden abdominal pain and acute superior mesenteric artery embolism in median portion of its stem was revealed on computed tomography angiography. No signs of intestinal infarction were present. The decision for endovascular treatment was made in concordance with the surgeons. In one patient 6 French gauge Rotarex® device was used while in others 6 French gauge Aspirex® device were used. All patients experienced sudden relief of pain after the procedure with no signs of intestinal infarction. Minor procedural complication – rupture of a smaller branch of SMA during Aspirex® treatment was successfully managed by coiling while transient paralytic ileus presented in one patient resolved spontaneously. All three patients remained symptom-free with patent superior mesenteric artery during the follow-up period. Conclusions Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy seems to be a rapid and effective treatment of acute superior mesenteric artery embolism in median portion of its stem in absence of bowel necrosis. Follow-up of our patients showed excellent short- and long-term results. PMID:24133388

  5. Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism Treated with Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Peter Kuhelj, Dimitrij; Bunc, Matjaz

    2011-02-15

    A case of acute superior mesenteric artery embolism treated with percutaneous thrombus aspiration is described. A 63-year-old man with chronic atrial fibrillation was admitted to the hospital with progressive abdominal pain. Computed tomography angiography revealed an occlusion of the distal part of the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was effectively treated using transaxillary percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy using a 6F Aspirex thrombectomy catheter.

  6. Emergent Treatment of Acute Embolic Superior Mesenteric Ischemia with Combination of Thrombolysis and Angioplasty: Report of Two Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Wakabayashi, H. Shiode, Tsuyoki; Kurose, Michihiro; Moritani, Hiroki; Fujiki, Shigeatsu; Morimoto, Naoki; Kusachi, Shozo

    2004-08-15

    We successfully revascularized the acutely occluded superior mesenteric artery (SMA), caused by a thromboembolus, with a combination of thrombolysis and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in 2 patients. Considerable percent luminal reduction (>90%) was still observed after thrombolysis in both patients. Subsequent adjunctive balloon angioplasty produced sufficient luminal diameter of the SMA (<20% luminal reduction). No serious acute procedural complication occurred. The time from onset to partial reperfusion by thrombolysis was approximately 4.5 and 5.5 hours. Approximately 1 week after the combination therapy, colonoscopy and a small bowel radiocontrast series showed localized mucosal ischemia with mild erosions and ulcerations in the terminal ileum and ascending colon in 1 patient. Subsequent bowel resection was required but the resection was short (<20 cm). The other patient's bowel condition was good and did not require any surgical treatment. The present cases suggest that combination therapy is useful for achieving rapid and sufficient revascularization of acute proximal thromboembolic SMA occlusion, and prevents the considerably broad bowel necrosis that requires surgical bowel resection, resulting in short bowel syndrome.

  7. Fever in acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Stein, P D; Afzal, A; Henry, J W; Villareal, C G

    2000-01-01

    Although fever has been reported in several case series of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), the extent to which fever may be caused by PE, and not associated disease, has not been adequately sorted out. Clarification of the frequency and severity of fever in acute PE may assist in achieving an accurate clinical impression, and perhaps avoid an inadvertent exclusion of the diagnosis. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the extent to which fever is caused by acute PE. Patients participated in the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED). Temperature was evaluated among patients with angiographically proven PE. A determination of whether other causes of fever were present was based on a retrospective analysis of discharge summaries, PIOPED summaries, and a computerized list of all discharge diagnoses. Among patients with PE and no other source of fever, fever was present in 43 of 311 patients (14%). Fever in patients with pulmonary hemorrhage or infarction was not more frequent than among those with no pulmonary hemorrhage or infarction, 39 of 267 patients (15%) vs 4 of 44 patients (9%; not significant). Clinical evidence of deep venous thrombosis was often present in patients with PE and otherwise unexplained fever. Low-grade fever is not uncommon in PE, and high fever, although rare, may occur. Fever need not be accompanied by pulmonary hemorrhage or infarction.

  8. Postoperative Acute Pulmonary Embolism Following Pulmonary Resections.

    PubMed

    Shonyela, Felix Samuel; Yang, Shuangqiang; Liu, Bo; Jiao, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections is highly fatal complication. Many literatures have documented cancer to be the highest risk factor for acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections. Early diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism is highly recommended and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography is the gold standard in diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants and thrombolytic therapy have shown a great success in treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Surgical therapies (embolectomy and inferior vena cava filter replacement) proved to be lifesaving but many literatures favored medical therapy as the first choice. Prophylaxis pre and post operation is highly recommended, because there were statistical significant results in different studies which supported the use of prophylaxis in prevention of acute pulmonary embolism. Having reviewed satisfactory number of literatures, it is suggested that thoroughly preoperative assessment of patient conditions, determining their risk factors complicating to pulmonary embolism and the use of appropriate prophylaxis measures are the key options to the successful minimization or eradication of acute pulmonary embolism after lung resections.

  9. Multidetector computed tomography for acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Stein, Paul D; Fowler, Sarah E; Goodman, Lawrence R; Gottschalk, Alexander; Hales, Charles A; Hull, Russell D; Leeper, Kenneth V; Popovich, John; Quinn, Deborah A; Sos, Thomas A; Sostman, H Dirk; Tapson, Victor F; Wakefield, Thomas W; Weg, John G; Woodard, Pamela K

    2006-06-01

    The accuracy of multidetector computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism has not been determined conclusively. The Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis II trial was a prospective, multicenter investigation of the accuracy of multidetector CTA alone and combined with venous-phase imaging (CTA-CTV) for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. We used a composite reference test to confirm or rule out the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Among 824 patients with a reference diagnosis and a completed CT study, CTA was inconclusive in 51 because of poor image quality. Excluding such inconclusive studies, the sensitivity of CTA was 83 percent and the specificity was 96 percent. Positive predictive values were 96 percent with a concordantly high or low probability on clinical assessment, 92 percent with an intermediate probability on clinical assessment, and nondiagnostic if clinical probability was discordant. CTA-CTV was inconclusive in 87 of 824 patients because the image quality of either CTA or CTV was poor. The sensitivity of CTA-CTV for pulmonary embolism was 90 percent, and specificity was 95 percent. CTA-CTV was also nondiagnostic with a discordant clinical probability. In patients with suspected pulmonary embolism, multidetector CTA-CTV has a higher diagnostic sensitivity than does CTA alone, with similar specificity. The predictive value of either CTA or CTA-CTV is high with a concordant clinical assessment, but additional testing is necessary when the clinical probability is inconsistent with the imaging results. Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  10. Acute pulmonary embolism: a review.

    PubMed

    Saleh, J A; Shovlin, C; Alasia, D D

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common clinical disorder which is associated with high morbidity and mortality if untreated. Due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with undiagnosed and poorly treated PE, there is a need for protocols based on risk factor assessment to facilitate early diagnosis of PE and protocols to ensure early and adequate treatment. The aim of this review is to highlight the risk factors associated with PE and discuss the modalities for optimal management of PE. Literature was reviewed using available medical journals, Science direct, Medline and Embase databases. Key words employed were: pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), venous thromboembolism (VTE) and thrombophilia. Information was also sourced from the British Thoracic Society and The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute websites. Studies have shown that hypercoagulability state, stasis and local trauma to the vessel wall predisposes to PE. These studies further underscored that heparin is the cornerstone of therapy hence optimal diagnostic approach should be observed to avoid unnecessary anticoagulant therapy considering the fact that it carries a risk forb leeding. This review was able to highlight the risk factors and management of pulmonary embolism. Patients with one or more predisposing factors and having high index of suspicion based on clinical assessment should be managed according to an agreed hospital protocol.

  11. Microcoil Embolization for Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    D'Othee, Bertrand Janne Surapaneni, Padmaja; Rabkin, Dmitry; Nasser, Imad; Clouse, Melvin

    2006-02-15

    Purpose. To assess outcomes after microcoil embolization for active lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Methods. We retrospectively studied all consecutive patients in whom microcoil embolization was attempted to treat acute lower GI bleeding over 88 months. Baseline, procedural, and outcome parameters were recorded following current Society of Interventional Radiology guidelines. Outcomes included technical success, clinical success (rebleeding within 30 days), delayed rebleeding (>30 days), and major and minor complication rates. Follow-up consisted of clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic data. Results. Nineteen patients (13 men, 6 women; mean age {+-} 95% confidence interval = 70 {+-} 6 years) requiring blood transfusion (10 {+-} 3 units) had angiography-proven bleeding distal to the marginal artery. Main comorbidities were malignancy (42%), coagulopathy (28%), and renal failure (26%). Bleeding was located in the small bowel (n = 5), colon (n 13) or rectum (n = 1). Technical success was obtained in 17 patients (89%); 2 patients could not be embolized due to vessel tortuosity and stenoses. Clinical follow-up length was 145 {+-} 75 days. Clinical success was complete in 13 (68%), partial in 3 (16%), and failed in 2 patients (11%). Delayed rebleeding (3 patients, 27%) was always due to a different lesion in another bowel segment (0 late rebleeding in embolized area). Two patients experienced colonic ischemia (11%) and underwent uneventful colectomy. Two minor complications were noted. Conclusion. Microcoil embolization for active lower GI bleeding is safe and effective in most patients, with high technical and clinical success rates, no procedure-related mortality, and a low risk of bowel ischemia and late rebleeding.

  12. Aspergillus coronary embolization causing acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Laszewski, M; Trigg, M; de Alarcon, P; Giller, R

    1988-05-01

    An increased frequency of disseminated aspergillosis has been observed in the last decade, mostly occurring in immunocompromised patients including the bone marrow transplant population. Cardiac involvement by Aspergillus remains rare. We report the clinical and postmortem findings of an unusual case of Aspergillus pancarditis in a 7-year-old bone marrow transplant patient with Aspergillus embolization to the coronary arteries leading to a massive acute myocardial infarction. This case suggests that myocardial injury secondary to disseminated aspergillosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of chest pain in the immunocompromised pediatric patient.

  13. Acute venous thromboembolic disease and paradoxical embolism.

    PubMed

    Pérez R, Diego; Maldonado J, Daniela; Andresen H, Max

    2015-04-01

    We report two cases of paradoxical cerebral embolism associated with acute venous thromboembolic disease. The first case corresponds to a 49-year-old woman with sudden onset of dyspnea and syncope, followed by right upper extremity paresis, aphasia and dysarthria. The admission brain computed tomography (CT) was unremarkable, but lung CT showed multilobar and multisegmentary pulmonary embolism. Echocardiography showed dilated right ventricle with impaired systolic function, moderate tricuspid regurgitation, moderate pulmonary hypertension and positive bubble test, suggestive of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) which was successfully closed by endovascular Amplatzer device placement. The patient was discharged with anticoagulation therapy and permanent antiplatelet aggregation therapy. The second case is a 60-year-old woman found unconscious. Neurological examination revealed expressive aphasia, right hemianopsia, right central facial paralysis and right-sided paresis with a National institute of Health Stroke Scale of 19. Brain CT showed signs of acute left middle cerebral artery infarction. Later, she developed greater impairment of consciousness. A new brain CT showed significant edema with mass effect requiring a decompressive craniotomy. Echocardiography showed PFO and lower extremities' Doppler ultrasound showed a left infrapopliteal posterior tibial right deep venous thrombosis. An inferior vena cava filter was placed and two days after surgery, anticoagulation was started.

  14. Coexistence of pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection, and persistent left superior vena cava in the same patient.

    PubMed

    Elmali, Muzaffer; Gulel, Okan; Bahcivan, Muzaffer

    2008-11-01

    We report a patient with pulmonary embolism, dissection in the descending and abdominal aorta, and persistent left superior vena cava. To our knowledge, coexistence of these three clinical entities has never been described before in the same patient.

  15. Prognostic Scores for Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Morillo, Raquel; Moores, Lisa; Jiménez, David

    2017-02-06

    Rapid and accurate risk stratification is critical in determining the optimal treatment strategy for patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Early identification of patients with normal blood pressure and a favorable prognosis (low-risk PE) might select a subset of patients for outpatient treatment, which is associated with reduced cost and improved patient satisfaction, and has been shown to be effective and safe. Alternatively, identification of normotensive patients deemed as having a high risk for PE-related adverse clinical events (intermediate-high-risk PE) might select a subset of patients for close observation and consideration of escalation of therapy. Clinical prognostic scores have been gaining importance in the classification of patients into these categories. They should be derived and validated following strict methodological standards, and their use in clinical practice should be encouraged.

  16. Q Fever Endocarditis Presenting with Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism and Renal Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Apte, Nachiket; Pham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease with a reservoir in mammals, birds, and ticks. Acute cases in human beings can be asymptomatic, or they can present with a flu-like illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. Approximately 5% of cases progress to chronic Q fever. Endocarditis, the most typical manifestation of chronic Q fever, is usually associated with small vegetations that occur in patients who have had prior valvular damage or who are immunocompromised. We present what we think is the first reported case of superior mesenteric artery embolism from Q fever endocarditis of the aortic valve, in a 39-year-old woman who needed surgical embolectomy and subsequent aortic valve replacement. PMID:27047296

  17. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Paul D.; Beemath, Afzal; Matta, Fadi; Weg, John G.; Yusen, Roger D.; Hales, Charles A.; Hull, Russell D.; Leeper, Kenneth V.; Sostman, H Dirk; Tapson, Victor F.; Buckley, John D.; Gottschalk, Alexander; Goodman, Lawrence R.; Wakefied, Thomas W.; Woodard, Pamela K.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Selection of patients for diagnostic tests for acute pulmonary embolism requires recognition of the possibility of pulmonary embolism based on the clinical characteristics. Patients in the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis II (PIOPED II) had a broad spectrum of severity, which permits an evaluation of the subtle characteristics of mild pulmonary embolism as well as the characteristics of severe pulmonary embolism. METHODS Data are from the national collaborative study, PIOPED II. RESULTS There may be dyspnea only on exertion. The onset of dyspnea is usually, but not always, rapid. Orthopnea may occur. In patients with pulmonary embolism in main or lobar pulmonary arteries, dyspnea or tachypnea occurred in 92%, but in only 65% in whom the largest pulmonary embolism was in segmental pulmonary arteries. In general, signs and symptoms were similar in elderly and younger patients, but dyspnea or tachypnea were less frequent in elderly patients with no prior cardiopulmonary disease. Dyspnea may be absent even in patients with circulatory collapse. Patients with a low probability objective clinical assessment sometimes had pulmonary embolism, even in proximal vessels. CONCLUSION Symptoms may be mild and generally recognized symptoms may be absent, particularly in patients with pulmonary embolism only in segmental pulmonary branches, but they may be absent even with severe pulmonary embolism. A high or intermediate probability objective clinical assessment may suggest the need for diagnostic studies, but a low probability objective clinical assessment does not exclude the diagnosis. Maintenance of a high level of suspicion is critical. PMID:17904458

  18. Surgical embolectomy for acute massive pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Senol; Toktas, Faruk; Goncu, Tugrul; Eris, Cuneyt; Gucu, Arif; Ay, Derih; Erdolu, Burak; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Karaagac, Kemal; Vural, Hakan; Ozyazicioglu, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with significant mortality rate despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances. The aim of this study was to analyze our clinical outcomes of patients with acute massive PE who underwent emergency surgical pulmonary embolectomy. Methods: This retrospective study included 13 consecutive patients undergoing emergency surgical pulmonary embolectomy for acute massive PE at our institution from March 2000 to November 2013. The medical records of all patients were reviewed for demograhic and preoperative data and postoperative outcomes. All patients presented with cardiogenic shock with severe right ventricular dysfunction confirmed by echocardiography, where 4 (30.8%) of the patients experienced cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation before surgery. Results: The mean age of patients was 61.8 ± 14 years (range, 38 to 82 years) with 8 (61.5%) males. The most common risk factors for PE was the history of prior deep venous thrombosis (n = 9, 69.2%). There were 3 (23.1%) in-hospital deaths including operative mortality of 7.7% (n = 1). Ten (76.9%) patients survived and were discharged from the hospital. The mean follow-up was 25 months; follow-up was 100% complete in surviving patients. There was one case (7.7%) of late death 12 months after surgery due to renal carcinoma. Postoperative echocardiographic pressure measurements demonstrated a significant reduction (P < 0.001). At final follow-up, all patients were in New York Heart Association class I and no readmission for a recurrent of PE was observed. Conclusion: Surgical pulmonary embolectomy is a reasonable option and could be performed with acceptable results, if it is performed early in patients with acute massive PE who have not reached the profound cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest. PMID:25664045

  19. Pulmonary embolism: treatment of the acute episode.

    PubMed

    Casazza, Franco; Roncon, Loris; Greco, Francesco

    2005-10-01

    The prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is mainly related to the clinical presentation and circulatory state of the patient: the therapeutic strategy is consequently different, ranging from an aggressive treatment in patients in life-threatening clinical conditions to a "stabilization" treatment in those hemodynamically stable. Since the majority of PE patients are clinically stable, a well conducted anticoagulant therapy, either with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparins together with a vitamin K antagonist, is sufficient to stop thrombus extension, to minimize the risk of recurrent embolism and prevent mortality. In about 15-20% of cases presenting with clinical instability of variable severity, prompt intravenous thrombolysis with a short-acting compound often represents a life-saving treatment and should be the first-line approach. In normotensive patients with right ventricular dysfunction at echocardiography, who represent about 30% of PE patients, the debate regarding the optimal therapy is still open and further studies are required to document a clinically relevant improvement in the benefit-risk ratio of thrombolytic agents over heparin alone: young people, with a very low risk of bleeding and a concomitant reduction of cardiopulmonary reserve might be the best candidates to systemic thrombolysis. In any case such patients should be admitted to an intensive care unit to monitor the clinical status for at least 48-72 hours and detect signs of possible hemodynamic worsening. Mechanical thrombectomy, either percutaneous or surgical, are ancillary procedures and should be reserved to a minority of highly compromised patients who are unable to receive thrombolysis.

  20. Endovascular treatment for acute pulmonary embolism in neurological patient

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Gunchan; Paul, Birinder S; Gautam, Parshotam L; Mohan, Bishav; Sharma, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    Among the spectrum of venous thrombo-embolic disease, acute pulmonary embolism accounts for the most life threatening manifestations with mortality exceeding 50%. It can affect many patient populations across various disciplines, hence immediate attention and aggressive treatment is crucial. With the advancement of technologies, various catheter-based devices are available to treat massive or submassive PE. In this paper we report two patients of acute pulmonary embolism with neurological issues where the life threatening emergency was successfully managed by utilizing endovascular directed thrombolytic reperfusion therapy. PMID:26609298

  1. Radionuclide imaging of acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Worsley, Daniel F; Alavi, Abass

    2003-10-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially fatal condition for which treatment is highly effective. The diagnosis of PE can be challenging and often requires diagnostic imaging. For many years, chest radiographs and ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy have been the primary imaging modalities used in the evaluation of patients with suspected acute PE. The combination of clinical assessment, plus results of V/Q scintigraphy and a noninvasive venous study of the lower extremities can provide clinicians with the information needed to direct treatment in the majority of patients with suspected PE. More recently, advances in computerized tomography (CT) angiography have allowed for the direct visualization of PE, and this technique has emerged as an important diagnostic test in the evaluation of patients with suspected PE. Proponents suggest that CT angiography should be used as the first line imaging test in patients with suspected PE. Others suggest that V/Q scanning should remain as the first line diagnostic imaging test and that CT angiography should be used in patient's in whom the diagnosis remains uncertain. The combination of CT angiography and CT venography has the potential to provide a single comprehensive study of patients with suspected venous thromboembolism.

  2. Embolization of Onyx Causing Acute Limb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lind, Benjamin B; Briggs, Charles S; Golan, John; Gupta, NavYash

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with a refractory type II endoleak treated with translumbar Onyx with passage of the Onyx material into the endograft and subsequent embolization to the infrainguinal vasculature. This report represents a new complication of Onyx embolization that, to our knowledge, has not previously been described in the literature.

  3. Emergency Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Acute Renal Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong Liang; Xu, Chun Yang; Wang, Hong Hui; Xu, Wei

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to identify arteriographic manifestations of acute renal hemorrhage and to evaluate the efficacy of emergency embolization. Emergency renal artery angiography was performed on 83 patients with acute renal hemorrhage. As soon as bleeding arteries were identified, emergency embolization was performed using gelatin sponge, polyvinyl alcohol particles, and coils. The arteriographic presentation and the effect of the treatment for acute renal hemorrhage were analyzed retrospectively. Contrast extravasation was observed in 41 patients. Renal arteriovenous fistulas were found in 12 of the 41 patients. In all, 8 other patients had a renal pseudoaneurysm, 5 had pseudoaneurysm rupture complicated by a renal arteriovenous fistula, and 1 had pseudoaneurysm rupture complicated by a renal artery-calyceal fistula. Another 16 patients had tumor vasculature seen on arteriography. Before the procedure, 35 patients underwent renal artery computed tomography angiography (CTA). Following emergency embolization, complete hemostasis was achieved in 80 patients, although persistent hematuria was present in 3 renal trauma patients and 1 patient who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy (justifying surgical removal of the ipsilateral kidney in this patient). Two-year follow-up revealed an overall effective rate of 95.18 % (79/83) for emergency embolization. There were no serious complications. Emergency embolization is a safe, effective, minimally invasive treatment for renal hemorrhage. Because of the diversified arteriographic presentation of acute renal hemorrhage, proper selection of the embolic agent is a key to successful hemostasis. Preoperative renal CTA plays an important role in diagnosing and localizing the bleeding artery.

  4. Emergency Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Acute Renal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong Liang; Xu, Chun Yang; Wang, Hong Hui; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were to identify arteriographic manifestations of acute renal hemorrhage and to evaluate the efficacy of emergency embolization. Emergency renal artery angiography was performed on 83 patients with acute renal hemorrhage. As soon as bleeding arteries were identified, emergency embolization was performed using gelatin sponge, polyvinyl alcohol particles, and coils. The arteriographic presentation and the effect of the treatment for acute renal hemorrhage were analyzed retrospectively. Contrast extravasation was observed in 41 patients. Renal arteriovenous fistulas were found in 12 of the 41 patients. In all, 8 other patients had a renal pseudoaneurysm, 5 had pseudoaneurysm rupture complicated by a renal arteriovenous fistula, and 1 had pseudoaneurysm rupture complicated by a renal artery-calyceal fistula. Another 16 patients had tumor vasculature seen on arteriography. Before the procedure, 35 patients underwent renal artery computed tomography angiography (CTA). Following emergency embolization, complete hemostasis was achieved in 80 patients, although persistent hematuria was present in 3 renal trauma patients and 1 patient who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy (justifying surgical removal of the ipsilateral kidney in this patient). Two-year follow-up revealed an overall effective rate of 95.18 % (79/83) for emergency embolization. There were no serious complications. Emergency embolization is a safe, effective, minimally invasive treatment for renal hemorrhage. Because of the diversified arteriographic presentation of acute renal hemorrhage, proper selection of the embolic agent is a key to successful hemostasis. Preoperative renal CTA plays an important role in diagnosing and localizing the bleeding artery. PMID:26496273

  5. Transcatheter arterial embolization of acute gastrointestinal tumor hemorrhage with Onyx.

    PubMed

    Sun, C J; Wang, C E; Wang, Y H; Xie, L L; Liu, T H; Ren, W C

    2015-02-01

    Endovascular embolization has been used to control gastrointestinal tumor bleeding. Lots of embolic agents have been applied in embolization, but liquid embolic materials such as Onyx have been rarely used because of concerns about severe ischemic complications. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with Onyx for acute gastrointestinal tumor hemorrhage. Between September 2011 and July 2013, nine patients were diagnosed as acute gastrointestinal tumor hemorrhage by clinical feature and imaging examination. The angiographic findings were extravasation of contrast media in the five patients. The site of hemorrhage included upper gastrointestinal bleeding in seven cases and lower gastrointestinal bleeding in two cases. TAE was performed using Onyx in all the patients, and the blood pressure and heart rate were monitored, the angiographic and clinical success rate, recurrent bleeding rate, procedure related complications and clinical outcomes were evaluated after therapy. The clinical parameters and embolization data were studied retrospectively. All the patients (100%) who underwent TAE with Onyx achieved complete hemostasis without rebleeding and the patients were discharged after clinical improvement without a second surgery. No one of the patients expired during the hospital course. All the patients were discharged after clinical improvement without a second surgery. Postembolization bowel ischemia or necrosis was not observed in any of the patients who received TAE with Onyx. TAE with Onyx is a highly effective and safe treatment modality for acute gastrointestinal tumor hemorrhage, even with pre-existing coagulopathy.

  6. [Acute renal insufficiency and fat embolism].

    PubMed

    Ohresser, P; Sainty, J M; Belnet, M; Cano, N

    1975-10-01

    The authors report ten cases of renal insufficiency observed among a series of 43 cases of fat embolism. It is a matter of eraly oligoanuria (starting beween the 2nd and the 4th day). Its severity depends on the lesions involved : prolonged cardio-vascular collapse - cranio-encephalic lesion. The renal insufficiency does not seem typical of fat embolism. It must be essentially linked to a cardio-vascular collapse and/or to a disseminated intra-vascular coagulation.

  7. Acute embolic stroke after electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kiwon

    2006-03-01

    This is the case report of a 44-year-old woman presented with an acute stroke immediately after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The patient had no significant medical history other than chronic depression. She was taking sertraline, and she had had multiple previous ECT treatments without any complications. While being monitored in the recovery room within 10 minutes after the last ECT session, she was found to have sudden onset of left-sided flaccid hemiplegia and numbness along with slurred speech. On arrival to our hospital, she was found to have flaccid hemiplegia on the left side involving the face, arm, and leg (face and arm more than the leg involvement), severe dysarthria, and mild neglect syndrome (National Health Institute Stroke Scale of 14). Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) of the head showed no signs of early ischemia, and iodine contrast CT angiography revealed right middle cerebral artery (MCA) (distal M1 segment) clot. Patient received intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen (rt-PA) at 2.5 hours after the onset of symptoms, and then a total of 3.0 mg of intra-arterial (IA) rt-PA. Angiography at the end of the procedure showed successful recanalization of the M1 segment and normal vessel caliber with adequate distal flow. After the procedure, the patient made rapid improvements in all of her initial symptoms during the first 24 hours. An extensive stroke workup failed to reveal any cause of the stroke, including usual stroke and hypercoagulable risk factors. This was an acute embolic stroke immediately following an ECT, and without the aggressive thrombolytic therapy, the patient's outcome would have been poor because there was an M1 segment clot with a major MCA syndrome with relatively high National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. The neurological side effect profile of ECT is reported to be minimal with most common symptoms being headache, disorientation, and memory complaints. There is no clear cause-and-effect relationship in this case

  8. Diagnostic imaging of acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, F

    1997-01-01

    The common strategy of combining clinical information, lung scintigraphy and pulmonary angiography in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), has many limitations in clinical use. The major causes are that pulmonary angiography and lung scintigraphy are not universally available, and that pulmonary angiography is very expensive. The purpose of this thesis was to analyse different aspects of validity in regard to lung scintigraphy, pulmonary angiography, spiral CT, and ultrasound of the legs, with the subsequent intention of discussing new diagnostic strategies. Observer variations in lung scintigraphy interpretation when applying the PIOPED criteria were tested in 2 studies with 2 and 3 observers respectively and expressed as kappa values. The ability to improve agreement in lung scintigraphy interpretation was tested by training 2 observers from different hospitals. The impact of 3 observers' variations in lung scintigraphy interpretation when compared to pulmonary angiography, was tested by comparing the ROC areas of the observers. The value of combining subjectively derived numerical probabilities and the PIOPED categorical probabilities in lung scintigraphy reporting was compared to using the PIOPED categorization only, and this was tested by comparing ROC areas. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting an embolic source in the deep veins of the legs by ultrasound as a sign of PE when lung scintigraphy is inconclusive, was tested by comparison with pulmonary angiography. The sensitivity and specificity of spiral CT, compared to pulmonary angiography, was tested by comparison to pulmonary angiography. The inter- and intra-observer kappa values were in the range of moderate and fair. It was not possible to achieve better kappa values after training. Although observer variations were substantial, the accuracy did not differ significantly between the 3 observers. Incoorporating subjectively derived probabilities into lung scan reporting could not reduce

  9. Superselective embolization of superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysms following intramuscular injection: case report.

    PubMed

    Vauthey, J N; Maddern, G J; Balsiger, D; Blumgart, L H; Triller, J

    1991-08-01

    Two bleeding superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysms occurred in a patient with advanced malignant disease following an intramuscular injection. This was diagnosed by angiography and successfully managed by superselective embolization. This avoided further surgery and no additional complication from the pseudoaneurysm occurred up to the time of the patient's demise.

  10. Transcutaneous Puncture of the Superior Ophthalmic Vein for Embolization of Dural Carotid-Ophthalmic Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Hsien; Tsai, I-Chen; Huang, Hou-Chi; Lin, Chun-Han; Hung, Hao-Chun; Wu, Chen-Hao; Chi-Chang Chen, Clayton

    2008-01-01

    Summary Carotid-ophthalmic fistula is a rare disease, which can be treated by transvenous endovascular embolization. Here, we report a unique case with draining vein thrombosed, making a transvenous approach impossible. An old but valuable technique, direct transcutaneous puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein, was used to save the patient's right eye. The old technique, direct puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein, retains its irreplaceable usefulness in this special situation. Thus, interventional neuroradiologists should equip themselves with this essential technique. PMID:20557794

  11. Onyx removal after embolization of a superior sagittal sinus dural arteriovenous fistula involving scalp artery

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Jun; Maruya, Jun; Nishimaki, Keiichi; Ito, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) in superior sagittal sinus (SSS) requires multimodal treatment. Onyx embolization is useful for DAVF; however, scalp artery embolization has cast extrusion risk. Case Description: A 59-year-old male presented with involuntary movements of both legs and progressive dementia. Cerebral angiography demonstrated the DAVF in the SSS fed by bilateral superficial temporal, occipital, and middle meningeal arteries. The posterior SSS was thrombosed, and the main drainers were cortical veins. Combined treatment with transarterial embolization using Onyx and transvenous embolization using coils was performed. Although symptoms were improved, a small DAVF remained. Two months later, Onyx cast extrusion through the scalp was observed, requiring removal and debridement because of infection at the extrusion sites. Surgery for the residual DAVF would be difficult because of scalp condition; therefore, an additional endovascular treatment was conducted, completely occluding DAVF. Conclusion: Onyx embolization is useful for DAVF; however, scalp artery embolization has cast extrusion risk. Therefore, scalp infection should be considered because it may preclude additional surgical procedures. PMID:27313969

  12. Onyx removal after embolization of a superior sagittal sinus dural arteriovenous fistula involving scalp artery.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun; Maruya, Jun; Nishimaki, Keiichi; Ito, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Most dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) in superior sagittal sinus (SSS) requires multimodal treatment. Onyx embolization is useful for DAVF; however, scalp artery embolization has cast extrusion risk. A 59-year-old male presented with involuntary movements of both legs and progressive dementia. Cerebral angiography demonstrated the DAVF in the SSS fed by bilateral superficial temporal, occipital, and middle meningeal arteries. The posterior SSS was thrombosed, and the main drainers were cortical veins. Combined treatment with transarterial embolization using Onyx and transvenous embolization using coils was performed. Although symptoms were improved, a small DAVF remained. Two months later, Onyx cast extrusion through the scalp was observed, requiring removal and debridement because of infection at the extrusion sites. Surgery for the residual DAVF would be difficult because of scalp condition; therefore, an additional endovascular treatment was conducted, completely occluding DAVF. Onyx embolization is useful for DAVF; however, scalp artery embolization has cast extrusion risk. Therefore, scalp infection should be considered because it may preclude additional surgical procedures.

  13. [Catheter aspiration alone or combined with thrombolysis in the treatment of superior mesenteric artery embolism].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanquan; Jia, Zhongzhi; Wang, Qi; Chen, Wenhua; He, Zhongming; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Kai; Tian, Feng

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the efficacy of catheter aspiration or combined with thrombolysis in the treatment of superior mesenteric artery embolism(SMAE). Clinical and imaging data of 25 SMAE patients who underwent catheter aspiration or combined with urokinase thrombolysis in the First People's Hospital and the Second People's Hospital of Changzhou from January 2005 to July 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty patients were confirmed as SMA trunk embolism and 5 as SMA branch artery embolism. The embolic SMA trunks were completely recannulated by catheter aspiration in the above 20 cases, but small emboli embolized distal branch artery in 6 cases. These 6 patients plus above 5 patients with branch artery embolism received catheter aspiration combined with thrombolytic therapy. Among these 11 patients, complete open, partial open and non-open of branch arteries were found in 5, 3, 3 cases respectively, while collateral circulation increased significantly in non-open patients. During the follow-up period of (4.1±2.2) months, clinical symptom relief and digestive function recovery were observed in 24 cases. Only one case underwent bowel resection because of intestinal necrosis 24 hours after treatment and developed short bowel syndrome. Catheter aspiration or combined with thrombolysis is a safe and effective method in treating SMAE.

  14. Treatment of Right Heart Thrombi Associated with Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Deisy; Chavant, Jeremy; Jiménez, David; Bertoletti, Laurent; Rosa-Salazar, Vladimir; Muriel, Alfonso; Viallon, Alain; Fernández-Capitán, Carmen; Yusen, Roger D; Monreal, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Evidence-based recommendations do not adequately address the treatment of right heart thrombi in patients who present with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. This study included patients who had acute pulmonary embolism associated with right heart thrombi and participated in the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica registry. We assessed the effectiveness of anticoagulation versus reperfusion treatment for the outcomes of all-cause mortality, pulmonary embolism-related mortality, recurrent venous thromboembolism, and major bleeding rates through 30 days after initiation of pulmonary embolism treatment. We used propensity score matching to adjust for the likelihood of receiving reperfusion treatment. Of 325 patients with pulmonary embolism and right heart thrombi, 255 (78%; 95% confidence interval, 74-83) received anticoagulation and 70 (22%; 95% confidence interval, 17-26) also received reperfusion treatment. Propensity score-matched pairs analyses did not detect a statistically lower risk of all-cause death (6.2% vs 14%, P = .15) or pulmonary embolism-related mortality (4.7% vs 7.8%; P = .47) for reperfusion compared with anticoagulation. Of the patients who received reperfusion treatment, 6.2% had a recurrence during the study follow-up period, compared with 0% of those who received anticoagulation (P = .049). The incidence of major bleeding events was not statistically different between the 2 treatment groups (3.1% vs 3.1%; P = 1.00). In patients with pulmonary embolism and right heart thrombi, no significant difference was found between reperfusion therapy and anticoagulant therapy for mortality and bleeding. The risk of recurrences was significantly higher for reperfusion therapy compared with anticoagulation. Right heart thrombi may not warrant riskier interventions than standard anticoagulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enlarged Right Ventricle Without Shock in Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Paul D.; Beemath, Afzal; Matta, Fadi; Goodman, Lawrence R.; Weg, John G.; Hales, Charles A.; Hull, Russell D.; Leeper, Kenneth V.; Dirk Sostman, H; Woodard, Pamela K.

    2008-01-01

    Background An unsettled issue is use of thrombolytic agents in patients with acute pulmonary embolism who are hemodynamically stable, but have right ventricular enlargement. Purpose To assess in-hospital mortality of hemodynamically stable patients with pulmonary embolism and right ventricular enlargement. Methods Patients were enrolled in the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis II (PIOPED II). Exclusions included shock, critically ill, ventilatory support, myocardial infarction within 1 month, or ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation within 24 hours. We evaluated the ratio of the right ventricular minor axis to the left ventricular minor axis measured on transverse images during computed tomographic angiography. Results Among 76 patients with right ventricular enlargement treated with anticoagulants and/or inferior vena cava filters, in–hospital deaths from pulmonary embolism were 0 of 76 (0%) and all-cause mortality was 2 of 76 (2.6%). No septal motion abnormality was observed in 49 (64%), septal flattening in 25 (33%) and septal deviation in 2 (3%). None required ventilatory support, vasopressor therapy, rescue thrombolytic therapy, or catheter embolectomy. There were no in-hospital deaths due to pulmonary embolism. There was no difference in all-cause mortality comparing patients with and without right ventricular enlargement (relative risk = 1.04) Conclusion In-hospital prognosis is good in patients with pulmonary embolism and right ventricular enlargement if not in shock, acutely ill, on ventilatory support, recent myocardial infarction or life threatening arrhythmia. Right ventricular enlargement alone in patients with pulmonary embolism, therefore, does not appear to indicate a poor prognosis or an indication for thrombolytic therapy. PMID:18187071

  16. Endovascular Therapeutic Approaches for Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, S. Sonesson, B.; Resch, T.

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the outcome of attempted endovascular intervention in patients with acute embolic or thrombotic superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion. The records of 21 patients during a 3-year period between 2005 and 2008 were retrieved from the in-hospital registry. The first group included 10 patients (6 women and 4 men; median age 78 years) with acute embolic occlusion of the SMA. The median duration of symptoms from symptom onset to angiography was 30 hours (range 6 to 120). Synchronous emboli (n = 12) occurred in 6 patients. Embolus aspiration was performed in 9 patients, and 7 of these had satisfactory results. Complementary local thrombolysis was successful in 2 of 3 patients. Residual emboli were present at completion angiography in all 7 patients who underwent successful aspiration embolectomy, and bowel resection was necessary in only 1 of these patients. One serious complication occurred because of a long SMA dissection. The in-hospital survival rate was 90% (9 of 10 patients). The second group included 11 patients (10 women and 1 man; median age 68 years) with atherosclerotic acute SMA occlusions. The median time of symptom duration before intervention was 97 hours (range 17 to 384). The brachial, femoral, and SMA routes were used in 6, 7, and 5 patients, respectively. SMA stenting was performed through an antegrade (n = 7) or retrograde (n = 3) approach. Bowel resection was necessary in 4 patients. No major complications occurred. The in-hospital survival rate was 82% (9 of 11 patients). Endovascular therapy of acute SMA occlusion provides a good alternative to open surgery.

  17. Acute management of vascular air embolism.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Nissar; Ummunisa, Firdous

    2009-09-01

    Vascular air embolism (VAE) is known since early nineteenth century. It is the entrainment of air or gas from operative field or other communications into the venous or arterial vasculature. Exact incidence of VAE is difficult to estimate. High risk surgeries for VAE are sitting position and posterior fossa neurosurgeries, cesarean section, laparoscopic, orthopedic, surgeries invasive procedures, pulmonary overpressure syndrome, and decompression syndrome. Risk factors for VAE are operative site 5 cm above the heart, creation of pressure gradient which will facilitate entry of air into the circulation, orogenital sex during pregnancy, rapid ascent in scuba (self contained underwater breathing apparatus) divers and barotrauma or chest trauma. Large bolus of air can lead to right ventricular air lock and immediate fatality. In up to 35% patient, the foramen ovale is patent which can cause paradoxical arterial air embolism. VAE affects cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system. High index of clinical suspicion is must to diagnose VAE. The transesophgeal echocardiography is the most sensitive device which will detect smallest amount of air in the circulation. Treatment of VAE is to prevent further entrainment of air, reduce the volume of air entrained and haemodynamic support. Mortality of VAE ranges from 48 to 80%. VAE can be prevented significantly by proper positioning during surgery, optimal hydration, avoiding use of nitrous oxide, meticulous care during insertion, removal of central venous catheter, proper guidance, and training of scuba divers.

  18. Massive Pulmonary Embolism at the Onset of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sorà, Federica; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Laurenti, Luca; Autore, Francesco; Giammarco, Sabrina; Sica, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Life-threatening bleeding is a major and early complication of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but in the last years there is a growing evidence of thromboses in APL. We report the first case of a young woman with dyspnea as the first symptom of APL due to massive pulmonary embolism (PE) successfully treated with thrombolysis for PE and heparin. APL has been processed with a combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) obtaining complete remission.

  19. Massive Pulmonary Embolism at the Onset of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sorà, Federica; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Laurenti, Luca; Autore, Francesco; Giammarco, Sabrina; Sica, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Life-threatening bleeding is a major and early complication of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but in the last years there is a growing evidence of thromboses in APL. We report the first case of a young woman with dyspnea as the first symptom of APL due to massive pulmonary embolism (PE) successfully treated with thrombolysis for PE and heparin. APL has been processed with a combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) obtaining complete remission. PMID:27413520

  20. Imaging of acute superior mesenteric artery embolus using spectral CT in a canine model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongzhen; Xiao, Xigang; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Zhiwen; Zhang, Jin ling; Tang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of single-source dual-energy spectral CT (sDECT) imaging in an acute superior mesenteric artery embolus (SMAE) canine model. Methods: Pre-contrast and double-phase contrast-enhanced sDECT were performed before and after embolization in eight SMAE dog models. Monochromatic images of embolized intestine with the best contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were obtained and compared with the polychromatic images. CT parameters including attenuation value, iodine content, water content and thickness of the embolized intestinal segments were obtained, and normalized difference in iodine concentration (NDIC) was calculated. Results: The CNR in pre-contrast, arterial phase and portal venous phase at 4 h after embolization was 1.11 ± 1.23, 13.50 ± 1.54 and 10.63 ± 3.75, respectively, significantly higher than those of the polychromatic images (p < 0.05). The iodine-based images clearly revealed the embolized intestinal segments, which were highly consistent with the gross findings. The difference in attenuation values between the embolization area and non-embolization area in the monochromatic images was 105.06 ± 35.35 HU, higher than that in the polychromatic images (p < 0.001). The attenuation values and NDIC were significantly decreased at 2 h after embolization, relatively increased at 4 h and gradually decreased at 6 and 8 h. The changing pattern of thickness was similar to that of NDIC over time after embolization. Conclusion: sDECT can provide the optimal monochromatic images and allow increased detection rates of lesions. sDECT is a very promising tool for quantitative diagnosis of SMAE. Advances in knowledge: Our research provides more quantitative parameters for the assessment of SMAE by sDECT. PMID:26185922

  1. Imaging of acute superior mesenteric artery embolus using spectral CT in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhen; Xiao, Xigang; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Zhiwen; Zhang, Jin Ling; Tang, Liang; Yang, Xiuhua

    2015-09-01

    To explore the diagnostic value of single-source dual-energy spectral CT (sDECT) imaging in an acute superior mesenteric artery embolus (SMAE) canine model. Pre-contrast and double-phase contrast-enhanced sDECT were performed before and after embolization in eight SMAE dog models. Monochromatic images of embolized intestine with the best contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were obtained and compared with the polychromatic images. CT parameters including attenuation value, iodine content, water content and thickness of the embolized intestinal segments were obtained, and normalized difference in iodine concentration (NDIC) was calculated. The CNR in pre-contrast, arterial phase and portal venous phase at 4 h after embolization was 1.11 ± 1.23, 13.50 ± 1.54 and 10.63 ± 3.75, respectively, significantly higher than those of the polychromatic images (p < 0.05). The iodine-based images clearly revealed the embolized intestinal segments, which were highly consistent with the gross findings. The difference in attenuation values between the embolization area and non-embolization area in the monochromatic images was 105.06 ± 35.35 HU, higher than that in the polychromatic images (p < 0.001). The attenuation values and NDIC were significantly decreased at 2 h after embolization, relatively increased at 4 h and gradually decreased at 6 and 8 h. The changing pattern of thickness was similar to that of NDIC over time after embolization. sDECT can provide the optimal monochromatic images and allow increased detection rates of lesions. sDECT is a very promising tool for quantitative diagnosis of SMAE. Our research provides more quantitative parameters for the assessment of SMAE by sDECT.

  2. Acute pulmonary embolism: from morphology to function.

    PubMed

    Mayo, John; Thakur, Yogesh

    2014-02-01

    This article reviews the current diagnostic strategies for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) focusing on the current first choice imaging modality, computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Diagnostic strengths and weaknesses and associated cost-effectiveness of the diagnostic pathways will be discussed. The radiation dose risk of these pathways will be described and techniques to minimize dose will be reviewed. Finally the impact of new dual energy applications which have the potential to provide additional functional information will be briefly reviewed. Imaging plays a vital role in the diagnostic pathway for clinically suspected PE. CT has been established as the most robust morphologic imaging tool for the evaluation of patients with suspected PE. This conclusion is based on the high diagnostic utility of CT for the detection of PE and its unique capacity for accurate diagnosis of conditions that can mimic the clinical presentation of PE. Although current cost-effectiveness evaluations have established CT as integral in the PE diagnostic pathway, failure to acknowledge the impact of alternate diagnosis represents a current knowledge gap. The emerging dual energy capacity of current CT scanners offers the potential to evaluate both pulmonary vascular morphology and ventilation perfusion relationships within the lung parenchyma at high spatial resolution. This dual assessment of lung morphology and lung function at low (< 5 millisievert) radiation dose represents a substantial advance in PE imaging.

  3. Acute Paraplegia as a Presentation of Aortic Saddle Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Guishard, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute onset paraplegia has a myriad of causes most often of a nonvascular origin. Vascular etiologies are infrequent causes and most often associated with postsurgical complications. Objective. To describe the occurrence and possible mechanism for aortic saddle embolism as a rare cause of acute paraplegia. Case Report. Described is a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with the sudden onset of nontraumatic low back pain with rapidly progressive paraplegia which was subsequently determined to be of vascular origin. PMID:27822396

  4. Acute ECG ST-segment elevation mimicking myocardial infarction in a patient with pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common cardiovascular emergency, but it is still often misdiagnosed due to its unspecific clinical symptoms. Elevated troponin concentrations are associated with greater morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism. Right ventricular ischemia due to increased right ventricular afterload is believed to be underlying mechanism of elevated troponin values in acute pulmonary embolism, but a paradoxical coronary artery embolism through opened intra-artrial communication is another possible explanation as shown in our case report. PMID:21106090

  5. Acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery following covered stent occlusion in the superior mesenteric artery: endovascular therapy using mechanical rotational thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Jan P; Petritsch, Bernhard; Spor, Leo; Hahn, Dietbert; Kickuth, Ralph

    2012-09-01

    Acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery is a rare and often fatal condition in which surgery represents the golden standard in therapy. We present a case in which a patient was treated with covered stent implantation for acute bleeding from the superior mesenteric artery following pancreatic resection, radiation, and embolization of a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm. Some weeks later clinical signs were suggestive of acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery and digital subtraction angiography showed occlusion of the previously implanted covered stents. The patient was successfully treated transfemorally with percutaneous mechanical instent thrombectomy using a 6F Rotarex® catheter. We conclude that in selected cases percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy may represent a minimally-invasive alternative to open surgical thrombectomy for treatment of acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery.

  6. Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, considerable progress in technology and clinical research methods have led to advances in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of acute venous thromboembolism. Despite this, however, the diagnosis is still often missed and preventive methods are often ignored. Published guidelines are useful, but are limited by the existing evidence base so that controversies remain with regard to topics such as duration of anticoagulation, indications for placement and removal of inferior vena caval filters, and when and how to administer thrombolytic therapy. The morbidity and mortality of this disease remain high, particularly when undiagnosed. While preventive approaches remain crucial, the focus of this review is on the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to acute venous thromboembolism, with an emphasis on acute pulmonary embolism. PMID:22619694

  7. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after Onyx Embolization of Arteriovenous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Tawil, Isaac; Carlson, Andrew P.; Taylor, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. We report a case of a 60-year-old male who underwent sequential Onyx embolizations of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) which we implicate as the most likely etiology of subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods. Case report and literature review. Results. Shortly after the second Onyx embolization procedure, the patient declined from respiratory failure secondary to pulmonary edema. Clinical entities typically responsible for pulmonary edema including cardiac failure, renal failure, iatrogenic volume overload, negative-pressure pulmonary edema, and infectious etiologies were evaluated and excluded. The patient required mechanical ventilatory support for several days, delaying operative resection. The patient met clinical and radiographic criteria for ARDS. After excluding other etiologies of ARDS, we postulate that ARDS developed as a result of Onyx administration. The Onyx copolymer is dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a solvent excreted through the lungs and has been implicated in transient pulmonary side effects. Additionally, a direct toxic effect of the Onyx copolymer is postulated. Conclusion. Onyx embolization and DMSO toxicity are implicated as the etiology of ARDS given the lack of other inciting factors and the close temporal relationship. A strong physiologic rationale provides further support. Clinicians should consider this uncommon but important complication. PMID:21687580

  8. [Acute pulmonary embolism: beware of the wolf in sheep's clothing].

    PubMed

    Klok, Frederikus A; Vahl, Jelmer E; Huisman, Menno V; van Dijkman, Paul R M

    2012-01-01

    Two male patients aged 57 and 73 were referred to the cardiologist because of progressive dyspnoea. In one patient, the general practitioner had previously adopted an expectative policy because of a clean chest X-ray. At presentation after 4 weeks, the patient was diagnosed with and treated for acute coronary syndrome because of minor ECG abnormalities. Additional CT scanning showed a large saddle embolus. Despite adequate treatment, the patient suffered an electrical asystole and died. The other patient underwent ECG, bicycle ergometry, MRI adenosine, echocardiography and lung function tests over a period of 5 weeks before pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed. As the signs and symptoms of PE are largely non-specific, diagnostic delay is common, with risk of poor clinical outcome. PE should at least be considered whenever a patient presents with acute or worsening breathlessness, chest pain, circulatory collapse or coughing, particularly in the presence of known thrombotic risk factors or when there is no clear alternative.

  9. Reversed halo sign in acute pulmonary embolism and infarction.

    PubMed

    Casullo, Joseph; Semionov, Alexandre

    2013-06-01

    The reversed halo sign, originally described in cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, has been observed in a variety of pulmonary diseases, including pulmonary embolism (PE). To describe the computed tomographic (CT) findings in patients with the reversed halo sign and acute PE at initial presentation and in subsequent scans. Contrast-enhanced CT examinations of 12 patients with the reversed halo sign and acute PE were analyzed retrospectively. The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was made by CT angiography in 11 cases and by a routine contrast-enhanced scan of the chest in the other case. Follow-up scans of seven patients and follow-up radiographs of two patients were also examined retrospectively. The average age of the patients was 49 years (range, 21-80 years). Seven (58%) patients were women. Six patients had no significant medical history, and six patients had deep venous thrombosis initially. The reversed halo sign was observed as a single lesion in 10 patients; in two patients, two lesions were found. The lesions, all pleural-based, occurred more frequently in the lower lobes and were associated with acute thromboemboli in segmental and subsegmental pulmonary arteries of the corresponding segment. Ten (10/14, 71%) lesions displayed an ellipsoid configuration, two (2/14, 14%) had a pyramidal shape, and two involved an almost entire pulmonary segment. The average largest dimension was 3.9 cm (range, 2.1-6.7 cm). All lesions subtended one or more bronchovascular bundles; three (3/14, 21%) showed air-bronchograms, and a thromboembolus was identified in the subtended arteries in nine (9/14, 64%) lesions. In succeeding CT scans (eight lesions) and follow-up radiographs (three lesions), the lesions became smaller, and the majority evolved into pleural-based linear scars by 7 months. The reversed halo sign very likely corresponds to pulmonary infarction in patients with acute PE. Its recognition may have important clinical implications. © 2013 The Foundation Acta

  10. Syncope as a presentation of acute pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Altınsoy, Bülent; Erboy, Fatma; Tanrıverdi, Hakan; Uygur, Fırat; Örnek, Tacettin; Atalay, Figen; Tor, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Syncope is an atypical presentation for acute pulmonary embolism (APE). There are conflicting data concerning syncope and prognosis of APE. Patients and methods One hundred and seventy-nine consecutive patients aged 22–96 years (median, 68 years) with APE were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Results Prevalence of syncope was 13% (n=23) at the time of presentation. Compared to patients without syncope, those with syncope had a higher rate of central embolism (83% vs 43%, respectively, P=0.002), right ventricular dysfunction (91% vs 68%, P=0.021), and troponin positivity (80% vs 39%, P=0.001) but not 30-day mortality (13% vs 10%, P=0.716). Multivariate analysis showed that central localization (odds ratio: 9.08) and cardiac troponin positivity (odds ratio: 4.67) were the independent correlates of the presence of syncope in the patients with APE. Frequency of cardiopulmonary disease was lower, and duration from symptom onset to hospital admission was shorter in patients with syncope (P=0.138 and 0.118, respectively), although not significant. Conclusion Syncope most likely represents an intermediate condition between massive APE and hypotension. In APE patients with syncope, the prognosis seems to depend on the underlying pathology, the patient’s age, comorbidities and duration from symptom onset to hospital admission, and the use of thrombolytic therapy. PMID:27390523

  11. Clinical characteristics of patients with acute pulmonary embolism: data from PIOPED II.

    PubMed

    Stein, Paul D; Beemath, Afzal; Matta, Fadi; Weg, John G; Yusen, Roger D; Hales, Charles A; Hull, Russell D; Leeper, Kenneth V; Sostman, H Dirk; Tapson, Victor F; Buckley, John D; Gottschalk, Alexander; Goodman, Lawrence R; Wakefied, Thomas W; Woodard, Pamela K

    2007-10-01

    Selection of patients for diagnostic tests for acute pulmonary embolism requires recognition of the possibility of pulmonary embolism on the basis of the clinical characteristics. Patients in the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis II had a broad spectrum of severity, which permits an evaluation of the subtle characteristics of mild pulmonary embolism and the characteristics of severe pulmonary embolism. Data are from the national collaborative study, Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis II. There may be dyspnea only on exertion. The onset of dyspnea is usually, but not always, rapid. Orthopnea may occur. In patients with pulmonary embolism in the main or lobar pulmonary arteries, dyspnea or tachypnea occurred in 92%, but the largest pulmonary embolism was in the segmental pulmonary arteries in only 65%. In general, signs and symptoms were similar in elderly and younger patients, but dyspnea or tachypnea was less frequent in elderly patients with no previous cardiopulmonary disease. Dyspnea may be absent even in patients with circulatory collapse. Patients with a low-probability objective clinical assessment sometimes had pulmonary embolism, even in proximal vessels. Symptoms may be mild, and generally recognized symptoms may be absent, particularly in patients with pulmonary embolism only in the segmental pulmonary branches, but they may be absent even with severe pulmonary embolism. A high or intermediate-probability objective clinical assessment suggests the need for diagnostic studies, but a low-probability objective clinical assessment does not exclude the diagnosis. Maintenance of a high level of suspicion is critical.

  12. Endovascular Treatment of Spontaneous Isolated Dissecting Aneurysm of the Superior Mesenteric Artery Using Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, Toshiro Kimura, Motomasa; Yoshimura, Norihiko; Hori, Yoshiro; Takano, Toru; Kamura, Takesi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sasai, Keisuke

    2006-06-15

    Spontaneous isolated dissecting aneurysm of the main trunk of the superior mesenteric artery is a rare condition. We treated a patient with this condition successfully by stent-assisted coil embolization. Intravascular stent placement may widen the indications for endovascular coiling of the aneurysmal false lumen to avoid perforation.

  13. Clinical Presentation of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Survey of 800 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Miniati, Massimo; Cenci, Caterina; Monti, Simonetta; Poli, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and potentially fatal disease that is still underdiagnosed. The objective of our study was to reappraise the clinical presentation of PE with emphasis on the identification of the symptoms and signs that prompt the patients to seek medical attention. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 800 patients with PE from two different clinical settings: 440 were recruited in Pisa (Italy) as part of the Prospective Investigative Study of Acute Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PISAPED); 360 were diagnosed with and treated for PE in seven hospitals of central Tuscany, and evaluated at the Atherothrombotic Disorders Unit, Firenze (Italy), shortly after hospital discharge. We interviewed the patients directly using a standardized, self-administered questionnaire originally utilized in the PISAPED. The two samples differed significantly as regards age, proportion of outpatients, prevalence of unprovoked PE, and of active cancer. Sudden onset dyspnea was the most frequent symptom in both samples (81 and 78%), followed by chest pain (56 and 39%), fainting or syncope (26 and 22%), and hemoptysis (7 and 5%). At least one of the above symptoms was reported by 756 (94%) of 800 patients. Isolated symptoms and signs of deep vein thrombosis occurred in 3% of the cases. Only 7 (1%) of 800 patients had no symptoms before PE was diagnosed. Conclusions/Significance Most patients with PE feature at least one of four symptoms which, in decreasing order of frequency, are sudden onset dyspnea, chest pain, fainting (or syncope), and hemoptysis. The occurrence of such symptoms, if not explained otherwise, should alert the clinicians to consider PE in differential diagnosis, and order the appropriate objective test. PMID:22383978

  14. Advances in the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    den Exter, Paul L; van der Hulle, Tom; Klok, Frederikus A; Huisman, Menno V

    2014-05-01

    The diagnostic management of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is complicated by its heterogeneous clinical presentation. Current diagnostic algorithms, combining clinical probability estimation with D-dimer testing and imaging tests, are very safe to exclude PE, although at costs of high numbers of CT-examinations. In view of cost- and time-saving as well as safety issues, several attempts have recently been undertaken to reduce the number of required imaging tests. Especially the age-adjusted D-dimer threshold has greatly improved the potential for non-invasive exclusion of PE. Once the diagnosis of PE is established, immediate initiation of anticoagulant therapy is of vital importance. A new generation of direct oral anticoagulants, which overcomes the main disadvantages of conventional vitamin-K antagonists, has recently emerged. Risk stratification of hemodynamically stable PE patients with use of clinical decision rules, cardiac biomarkers or imaging tests, aids physicians in determining the most appropriate treatment approach for the individual patient. This is essential to differentiate patients at low risk of adverse outcome, who may be safely treated at home, from intermediate-risk patients, who require closer monitoring and for whom recent studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of systemic thrombolytic therapy. This article reviews recent advances and challenges that remain in the diagnostic work-up and initial management of acute, clinically stable PE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Superior Sagittal Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Treated by Stent Placement for an Occluded Sinus and Transarterial Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, N.; Toyota, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Wakayama, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) involving the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) successfully treated with stent placement for an occluded sinus and transarterial embolization. A 61-year-old man who had been treated with anticoagulation for a known SSS thrombosis presented with a sudden onset of headache. CT scan revealed an intraventricular hemorrhage and cerebral angiography revealed DAVFs involving the SSS which had severe venous congestion and sinus occlusion. We treated this case with a staged endovascular approach which consisted of stent placement for the occluded sinus and transarterial intravenous embolization resulting in complete eradication of DAVFs. Recanalization of an occluded sinus by stent placement can reduce venous congestion and transarterial intravenous embolization can obliterate dural arteriovenous shunts. This staged strategy is feasible and should be considered a first option of treatment, especially for DAVFs which presented with intracranial hemorrhage and aggressive venous hypertension. PMID:22958774

  16. Adjunctive Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement for Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, V. M.; Lee-Llacer, J.; Williams, J.; Ubaissi, H.; Gutierrez, G.

    2010-08-15

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are sometimes placed as an adjunct to full anticoagulation in patients with significant pulmonary embolism (PE). We aimed to determine the prevalence of adjunctive IVC filter placement in individuals diagnosed with PE, as well as the effect of adjunctive filter placement on mortality in patients with right heart strain associated with PE. This was a retrospective study of patients with acute PE treated with full anticoagulation admitted to a single academic medical center. Information abstracted from patient charts included presence or absence of right heart strain and of deep-vein thrombosis, and whether or not an IVC filter was placed. The endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Over 2.75 years, we found that 248 patients were diagnosed with acute PE, with an in-hospital mortality rate of 4.4%. The prevalence of adjunctive IVC filter placement was 13.3% (33 of 248), and the prevalence of documented right heart strain was 27.0% (67 of 248). In-hospital mortality was 10.2% in the non-filter-treated group (5 of 49), whereas there were no deaths in the filter-treated group (0 of 18); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.37). Both the presence of deep-vein thrombosis and of right heart strain increased the likelihood that an adjunctive IVC filter was placed (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively). At our institution, patients were treated with IVC filters in addition to anticoagulation in 13.3% of cases of acute PE. Prospective studies or large clinical registries should be conducted to clarify whether this practice improves outcomes.

  17. Inferior Vena Cava Filters in Elderly Patients with Stable Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Stein, Paul D; Matta, Fadi; Hughes, Mary J

    2017-03-01

    Patients aged >60 years with pulmonary embolism who were stable and did not require thrombolytic therapy were shown to have a somewhat lower in-hospital all-cause mortality with vena cava filters. In this investigation we further assess mortality with filters in stable elderly patients. In-hospital all-cause mortality according to use of inferior vena cava filters was assessed from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample, 2003-2012, in: 1) All patients with pulmonary embolism; 2) All with pulmonary embolism who had none of the comorbid conditions listed in the Charlson Comorbidity Index; 3) Patients with a primary (first-listed) diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, and 4) Patients with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and none of the comorbid conditions listed in the Charlson Comorbidity Index. From 2003-2012, 2,621,575 stable patients with pulmonary embolism were hospitalized in the US. Patients aged >80 years showed lower mortality with vena cava filters (all pulmonary embolism, 6.1% vs 10.5%; all pulmonary embolism with no comorbid conditions, 3.3% vs 6.3%; primary pulmonary embolism, 4.1% vs 5.7%; primary pulmonary embolism with no comorbid conditions, 2.1% vs 3.7%; all P <.0001). In the all-patient category, patients aged 71-80 years showed somewhat lower mortality with filters, 6.3% vs 7.4% (P <.0001), and those without comorbid conditions, 2.5% vs 2.8% (P = .04). Those aged 71-80 years with primary pulmonary embolism, irrespective of comorbid conditions, did not show lower mortality with filters. At present, in the absence of a randomized controlled trial, it seems prudent to consider a vena cava filter in very elderly (aged >80 years) stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transarterial Thrombin Injection Secured with an Embolic Protection Device as a Treatment for a Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Juszkat, Robert Krasinski, Zbigniew; Wykretowicz, Mateusz; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Majewski, Waclaw

    2011-02-15

    A pseudoaneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare and life-threatening condition of various etiology. Even unruptured it can cause severe health problems or death. We report a 71-year-old male with a SMA pseudoaneurysm who was successfully treated with a transarterial thrombin injection secured with an embolic protection device used in carotid angioplasty. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a SMA pseudoaneurysm treated by this method.

  19. Acute kidney injury in patients with pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Fu, Chung-Ming; Fan, Pei-Chun; Chen, Shao-Wei; Chang, Su-Wei; Mao, Chun-Tai; Tian, Ya-Chung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Chen, Tien-Hsing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is overlooked in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). Risk factors for and long-term outcomes of this complication remain unknown. This study evaluated the predictors and prognosis of AKI in patients with PE. This retrospective cohort study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We enrolled a total of 7588 patients who were admitted to a hospital for PE from January1997 to December 2011 and administered anticoagulation or thrombolytic agents. All demographic data, risk factors, and outcomes were analyzed. AKI was diagnosed in 372 (4.9%) patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed pre-existing chronic kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, massive PE, anemia, and sepsis as independent risk factors for AKI. In the long-term follow-up, the survival rate was similar in the AKI and non-AKI groups. Careful risk factor screening and intensive intervention in patients with AKI might yield outcomes similar to those in patients without AKI. PMID:28248851

  20. [Pulmonary embolism in an acute manic patient following physical restraint].

    PubMed

    Pirsoul, S; De Backer, L; Schrijvers, D

    2014-01-01

    Immobilisation is a risk factor for the development of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. We present a case-study in which a patient developed a pulmonary embolism after being immobilised after a short period while subjected to physical restraint. We discuss the risk factors involved and stress the need for research into the prevention of such incidents.

  1. Outpatient versus inpatient treatment for acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hugo H B; Queluz, Thais H A T; El Dib, Regina

    2014-11-20

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common life-threatening cardiovascular condition, with an incidence of 23 to 69 new cases per 100,000 people per year. Outpatient treatment instead of traditional inpatient treatment in selected non-high-risk patients with acute PE might provide several advantages, such as reduction of hospitalizations, substantial cost saving and an improvement in health-related quality of life. To compare the efficacy and safety of outpatient versus inpatient treatment for acute PE for the outcomes of all-cause and PE-related mortality; bleeding; and adverse events such as hemodynamic instability, recurrence of PE and patients' satisfaction. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator (TSC) searched the Specialised Register (last searched October 2014) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 9). The TSC also searched clinical trials databases. The review authors searched LILACS (last searched November 2014). Randomized controlled trials of outpatient versus inpatient treatment in people diagnosed with acute PE. Two review authors selected relevant trials, assessed methodological quality, and extracted and analyzed data. We included one study, involving 339 participants. We ranked the quality of the evidence as very low due to not blinding the outcome assessors, the small number of events with imprecision in the confidential interval (CI), the small sample size and it was not possible to verify publication bias. For all outcomes, the CIs were wide and included clinically significant treatment effects in both directions: short-term mortality (30 days) (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.98, P = 0.49), long-term mortality (90 days) (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.58, P = 0.99), major bleeding at 14 days (RR 4.91, 95% CI 0.24 to 101.57, P = 0.30) and 90 days (RR 6.88, 95% CI 0.36 to 134.14, P = 0.20), recurrent PE within 90 days (RR 2.95, 95% CI 0.12 to 71.85, P = 0.51) and participant satisfaction

  2. Acute and delayed bleeding requiring embolization after image-guided liver biopsy in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Sag, Alan A; Brody, Lynn A; Maybody, Majid; Erinjeri, Joseph P; Wang, Xiaodong; Wimmer, Thomas; Silk, Mikhail; Petre, Elena N; Solomon, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    To report incidence of acute versus delayed presentations of bleeding requiring embolization after focal liver biopsy, in correlation with angiographic findings and treatment success rates. The available literature will be reviewed as well. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant institutional review board approved retrospective review of 2180 consecutive patients undergoing 2335 targeted liver biopsies at a tertiary-care cancer center. Hepatic arterial embolization episodes within 30days from biopsy were identified via radiology PACS. Electronic medical record review was performed for indication of embolization and postembolization clinical course. The incidence of postbiopsy bleeding requiring embolization was 0.5% (12/2335 biopsies). In those with bleeding, 1/12 (8%) had no hepatic arterial findings at angiography. Angiographic hepatic arterial findings resolved after embolization in 11/11 patients (100% technical success). Bleeding ceased after embolization in 10/12 patients (83% clinical success). Complications were seen in 2/12 (17%) patients: cholecystitis and hepatic infarct, respectively. Delayed presentation of bleeding (defined as >24h postbiopsy) occurred in 5/12 (42%) patients; the longest latency was 12days. The overall incidence of bleeding requiring embolization in our population was 0.5%. This complication rate compares favorably to the 0-4.2% (median: 0.29%) rate quoted in the available, heterogeneous, literature on this topic. Delayed presentation occurred in almost half of patients. Arterial embolization carries excellent technical and clinical success rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Value of the ventilation/perfusion scan in acute pulmonary embolism. Results of the prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED).

    PubMed

    To determine the sensitivities and specificities of ventilation/perfusion lung scans for acute pulmonary embolism, a random sample of 933 of 1493 patients was studied prospectively. Nine hundred thirty-one underwent scintigraphy and 755 underwent pulmonary angiography; 251 (33%) of 755 demonstrated pulmonary embolism. Almost all patients with pulmonary embolism had abnormal scans of high, intermediate, or low probability, but so did most without pulmonary embolism (sensitivity, 98%; specificity, 10%). Of 116 patients with high-probability scans and definitive angiograms, 102 (88%) had pulmonary embolism, but only a minority with pulmonary embolism had high-probability scans (sensitivity, 41%; specificity, 97%). Of 322 with intermediate-probability scans and definitive angiograms, 105 (33%) had pulmonary embolism. Follow-up and angiography together suggest pulmonary embolism occurred among 12% of patients with low-probability scans. Clinical assessment combined with the ventilation/perfusion scan established the diagnosis or exclusion of pulmonary embolism only for a minority of patients--those with clear and concordant clinical and ventilation/perfusion scan findings.

  4. Endovascular Mechanical Thrombectomy of an Occluded Superior Division Branch of the Left MCA for Acute Cardioembolic Stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, H. C. Meyers, P. M.; Yavagal, D. R.; Harel, N. Y.; Elkind, M. S. V.; Mohr, J. P.; Pile-Spellman, J.

    2003-06-15

    Cardiac embolism accounts for a large proportion of ischemic stroke. Revascularization using systemic or intra-arterial thrombolysis is associated with increasing risks of cerebral hemorrhageas time passes from stroke onset. We report successful mechanicalthrombectomy from a distal branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)using a novel technique. A 72-year old man suffered an acute ischemic stroke from an echocardiographically proven ventricular thrombus due toa recent myocardial infarction. Intra-arterial administration of 4 mgrt-PA initiated at 5.7 hours post-ictus failed to recanalize an occluded superior division branch of the left MCA. At 6 hours,symptomatic embolic occlusion persisted. Mechanical extraction of the clot using an Attracter-18 device (Target Therapeutics, Freemont, CA) resulted in immediate recanalization of the MCA branch. Attracter-18 for acute occlusion of MCA branches may be considered in selected patients who fail conventional thrombolysis or are nearing closure of the therapeutic window for use of thrombolytic agents.

  5. Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy of an occluded superior division branch of the left MCA for acute cardioembolic stroke.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, H C; Meyers, P M; Yavagal, D R; Harel, N Y; Elkind, M S V; Mohr, J P; Pile-Spellman, J

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac embolism accounts for a large proportion of ischemic stroke. Revascularization using systemic or intra-arterial thrombolysis is associated with increasing risks of cerebral hemorrhage as time passes from stroke onset. We report successful mechanical thrombectomy from a distal branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) using a novel technique. A 72-year old man suffered an acute ischemic stroke from an echocardiographically proven ventricular thrombus due to a recent myocardial infarction. Intraarterial administration of 4 mg rt-PA initiated at 5.7 hours post-ictus failed to recanalize an occluded superior division branch of the left MCA. At 6 hours, symptomatic embolic occlusion persisted. Mechanical extraction of the clot using an Attracter-18 device (Target Therapeutics, Freemont, CA) resulted in immediate recanalization of the MCA branch. Attracter-18 for acute occlusion of MCA branches may be considered in selected patients who fail conventional thrombolysis or are nearing closure of the therapeutic window for use of thrombolytic agents.

  6. Assessment of heat shock proteins and endothelial dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    İn, Erdal; Deveci, Figen; Kaman, Dilara

    2016-06-01

    We determined the levels of some heat shock proteins (HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90), L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) levels in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. The present case-control study comprised a healthy control group (n = 57) and patients with acute pulmonary embolism (n = 84). HSPs, L-arginine, ADMA, and SDMA levels were measured in all of the cases. The mean age of the control group was 56.72 ± 8.44 years, and the mean age of the patients with acute pulmonary embolism was 60.20 ± 16.56 years (P = 0.104). Compared with controls, patients with acute pulmonary embolism had significantly higher mean serum HSP27, HSP90, and ADMA levels, whereas the mean serum L-arginine and SDMA levels were lower (P < 0.001, for all parameters). In patients with acute pulmonary embolism serum HSP27, HSP70, and ADMA levels were negatively correlated with partial pressures of arterial oxygen levels (r = -0.281, P = 0.01; r = -0.263, P = 0.016; and r = -0.275, P = 0.011, respectively) and arterial oxygen saturation (r = -0.225, P = 0.039; r = -0.400, P < 0.001; r = -0.299, P = 0.006, respectively). The findings of the present study demonstrated that oxidative stress and endothelial damage increase in acute pulmonary embolism.

  7. Acute ischemic colitis secondary to air embolism after diving

    PubMed Central

    Payor, Austin Daniel; Tucci, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    Ischemic colitis (IC) secondary to air embolism from decompression sickness or barotrauma during diving is an extremely rare condition. After extensive review of the available literature, we found that there has been only one reported case of IC secondary to air embolism from diving. Although air embolization from diving and the various medical complications that follow have been well documented, the clinical manifestation of IC from an air embolism during diving is very rare and thus far unstudied. Common symptoms of IC include abdominal pain, bloody or non-bloody diarrhea or nausea or vomiting or any combination. Emergency physicians and Critical Care specialists should consider IC as a potential diagnosis for a patient with the above-mentioned symptoms and a history of recent diving. We report a case of IC from air embolism after a routine dive to 75 feet below sea level in a 53-year-old White female who presented to a community Emergency Department complaining of a 2-day history of diffuse abdominal pain and nausea. She was diagnosed by colonoscopy with biopsies and treated conservatively with antibiotics, bowel rest, and a slow advancement in diet. PMID:22096777

  8. Acute arterial embolism of left lower extremity caused by paradoxical embolism in Ebstein's anomaly

    PubMed Central

    LI, Jun-Sheng; Ma, Jie; Yan, Zi-Xing; Cheng, Dong-Ming; Chang, Liang; Zhang, Hai-Chun; Liu, Jiang-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Ebstein's anomaly is a benign and stable congenital heart disease for asymptomatic patients. Despite a low incidence of Ebstein's anomaly (EA), patients’ quality of life can be badly affected by EA without positive surgical intervention. Especially EA is associated with other congenital heart disease, such as the atrial septal defect, patent foramen ovale, and arterial embolism exclude other reasons, it is often considered to be the consequence of paradoxical embolism, and surgical intervention must be conducted. Case report: An 11-year-old girl falling off the bed suffered pain from left lower extremity. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed an EA, severe tricuspid regurgitation, and secundum atrial septal defect. Both left leg amputation and cardiac surgery were conducted after recovery. Under the condition of anesthesia cardiopulmonary bypass extracorporeal circulation, atrial septal defect repair and Cone reconstruction of the tricuspid valve were performed. Patient recovered well and left hospital smoothly. Discussion: EA is a rare and complex congenital cardiac malformation. There are about 80% to 90% of EA patients with combined atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale. Sudden arterial occlusion is very rare especially in childhood. When thoracic roentgenoscopy, arterial blood gas analysis, coagulation test, and echocardiographic of lower extremity deep venous system are all normal, one should consider the possibility of a paradoxical embolism. If patients have the paradoxical embolism or worsening tricuspid regurgitation, the most suitable therapeutic regimen should be chosen according to patients’ condition. With surgical techniques and methods renewed continuously, cone reconstruction of the tricuspid valve has been confirmed in clinical trials, which can use its own tissues to form not only central bloodstream, but also the coaption between leaflet and leaflet. PMID:28151866

  9. Acute myocardial infarction with concomitant pulmonary embolism as a result of patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Bozbeyoğlu, Emrah; Akyüz, Şükrü; Yıldırımtürk, Özlem; Bozbay, Mehmet; Bakhshaliyev, Nijad; Renda, Emir; Gök, Gülay; Eren, Mehmet; Pehlivanoğlu, Seçkin

    2015-07-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) and pulmonary embolism canal one lead to life-threatening conditions such as sudden cardiac death and congestive heart failure. We discuss a case of a 74-year-old man presented to the emergency department with acute dyspnea and chest pain. Acute anterior MI and pulmonary embolism concomitantly were diagnosed. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention performed because of preliminary acute anterior MI diagnosis. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to determine further complications caused by acute MI because patient had a continuous tachycardia and dyspnea although hemodynamically stable. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a thrombus that was stuck into the patent foramen ovale with parts in right and left atria. Anticoagulation therapy was started; neither fibrinolytic therapy nor operation was performed because of low survey expectations of the patient's recently diagnosed primary disease stage IV lung cancer. Patient was discharged on his 20th day with oral anticoagulation and antiagregant therapy.

  10. [Echocardiography in acute pulmonary embolism. Not a routine method but useful in the diagnosis of simultaneous hemodynamic disorders].

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, A

    1998-08-19

    Echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism as illustrated by three case reports is discussed in the article. Acute pulmonary embolism was diagnosed by demonstration of right heart strain in one case, of long vermiform thrombi floating in the right atrium in another, and in the third case by demonstration of a long thrombus lodged in the foramen ovale, astride the atrial septum, and with its ends floating in either atrium. Thus, as echocardiography enables pulmonary embolism to be diagnosed by demonstration either of right heart strain or of intracardial thrombi, it is a useful diagnostic tool in cases of haemodynamic compromise, though it does not detect minor pulmonary embolism.

  11. Incidence of chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension following acute pulmonary thrombo-embolism: an Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Dutt, Tiyas Sen; Mohan, B V Murali; Tousheed, Syed Zulkharnain; Ramanjenaya, Ranganath; Shetty, Devi Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) remains a severe disabling disease causing a significant amount of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The incidence and severity of this condition is quite obscure. The initial inciting event, the reason of progression, the natural history of the disease and the predictors of adverse outcomes are not yet adequately clarified. From the Indian subcontinent, data regarding this disease is limited. But with the advent of the multi-detector computed tomography, the understanding of this disease is gradually improving. As most of the available data suggests, acute pulmonary embolism (PE) as the main initial trigger leading to CTEPH, we prospectively analysed all patients being admitted in our hospital with acute PE and followed them over a period of one-and-a-half years to determine the incidence of CTEPH in this group. This is just an attempt to increase the awareness about the disease pattern and determine the rate of progression, risk factors of poor outcome, so that early detection and prompt treatment can benefit the patient care.

  12. [Diagnostic imaging in acute pulmonary embolism. The use of spiral computed tomography, lung scintigraphy and echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Hess, Søren; Madsen, Poul Henning; Jørgensen, Henrik Boel; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2005-10-10

    Acute pulmonary embolism is an underdiagnosed and potentially lethal condition. Treatment may be lifesaving but is associated with severe side effects. Thus, reliable diagnostic imaging is essential. We conducted a literature review on the use of spiral computed tomography, lung scintigraphy and echocardiography in acute pulmonary embolism and identified 562 articles, of which 16 original papers met our inclusion criteria. From these, we concluded that none of the modalities is applicable in every situation. Spiral computed tomography can confirm the diagnosis but cannot rule out subsegmental embolism. With lung scintigraphy, perfusion imaging alone is probably sufficient and suited to both confirming and ruling out the diagnosis. Echocardiography should be reserved for patients with an emergent need for treatment and cannot rule out the diagnosis.

  13. [Clinical picture of acute pulmonary embolism. Relations to the degree of vascular obstruction].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T T; Lund, O; Hedegaard, M; Hansen, H H; Albrechtsen, O

    1992-07-13

    In 132 consecutive patients treated for pulmonary embolism, duration of symptoms, number of embolic episodes before the diagnosis, circulatory affection (stable circulation (n = 61), reversible shock (n = 60), circulatory collapse (n = 11), electrocardiographic findings and systolic pulmonary pressure (n = 60) were analysed in relation to 1) underlying diseases (orthopedic surgical patients (n = 43), gynecological-abdominal surgical patients (n = 22), preembolic healthy patients (n = 42), miscellaneous medical patients (n = 25)), and 2) the obstruction of the pulmonary vascular bed quantified by a scintigraphic or angiographic score. While embolic score did not differ between the groups of underlying diseases, preembolic healthy patients with deep vein trombosis (n = 30) had longer mean duration of symptoms (14 days), more embolic episodes, (1.7 episode) and higher pulmonary pressure (72 mmHg) than the material on an average with values of 7 days, 0.9 episodes and 57 mmHg, respectively (p less than 0.001). Among patients with reversible shock or circulatory collapse, half had at least one previous embolic episode, one fifth from two to four. Embolic score correlated well with the circulatory affection (p less than 0.001). A high pulmonary pressure correlated with long duration of symptoms and a high number of embolic episodes (p less than 0.002). Sinus tachycardia and electrocardiographic signs of acute right ventricular strain (complete and incomplete right bundle branch block, SIQIIITIII-pattern and inverted T-waves in V2-4) correlated positively to the circulatory affection and inversely to duration of symptoms and number of embolic episodes (p less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Endovascular Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism Using the Ultrasound-Enhanced EkoSonic System.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Mark J

    2015-12-01

    Acute, symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) in the massive and submassive categories continues to be a healthcare concern with significant risk for increased morbidity and mortality. Despite increased awareness and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, endovascular treatment is still an important option for many of these patients. There are a variety of techniques and devices used for treating PE, but none have been evaluated as extensively as the EkoSonic endovascular system that is also currently the only FDA-approved device for the treatment of pulmonary embolism. This article describes the use of the EkoSonic device for this patient population.

  15. Pulmonary mucormycosis with embolism: two autopsied cases of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Yasunori; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Shinozaki-Ushiku, Aya; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Yoshizato, Tetsuichi; Nannya, Yasuhito; Fukayama, Masashi; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2014-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality for patients with hematological malignancies. The diagnosis of mucormycosis usually requires mycological evidence through tissue biopsy or autopsy because the signs and symptoms are nonspecific and there are currently no biomarkers to identify the disease. We herein present two autopsied cases of acute myeloid leukemia with prolonged neutropenia who developed invasive mucormycosis accompanied by pulmonary artery embolism. Our cases were featured by unexplained fever and rapidly progressive dyspnea. Computed tomography scan detected nodular lesions or nonspecific consolidations in the lungs. Cultures, cytological study, and serum fungal markers consistently gave negative results. Autopsy revealed embolism of the pulmonary artery which consisted of fibrin clots by filamentous fungi. Genomic DNA was extracted from the paraffin-embedded clots and was applied to polymerase chain reaction amplification, leading to the diagnosis of infection by Rhizopus microsporus. We should carefully search for life-threatening pulmonary embolism when patients with hematological malignancies develop pulmonary mucormycosis.

  16. Hemodynamic benefits of matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibition by doxycycline during experimental acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Palei, Ana C T; Zaneti, Rafael A G; Fortuna, Geisa M; Gerlach, Raquel F; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined whether acute pulmonary embolism (APE) increases lung matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities and whether inhibition of MMPs with doxycycline attenuates the hemodynamic changes associated with APE. Anesthetized male Wistar rats were monitored for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Rats in the control group (n = 5) received only saline IV; rats in the embolism (Emb) group (n = 8) received saline IV followed 10 minutes later by an injection of Sephadex microspheres (9 mg/kg) IV; rats in the doxycycline (Doxy) group (n = 4) received only doxycycline (30 mg/kg) IV, followed 10 minutes later by an injection of saline IV; rats in the Doxy + Emb group (n = 8) received the same dose of doxycycline followed 10 minutes later by the same amount of microspheres described above. Lung samples were homogenized and assayed by SDS-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis gelatin zymography to evaluate lung MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. Saline or doxycycline produced no significant changes in MAP, HR, and in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. Conversely, lung embolization significantly reduced MAP by > 32 mm Hg and HR by > 90 bpm for more than 60 minutes, and increased MMP-9 activity by 43% (all p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in MMP-2 activity. However, lung embolization produced only transient hypotension in rats pretreated with doxycycline. In this group, MAP returned to baseline values 5 to 10 minutes after embolization. In addition, pretreatment with doxycycline blunted the increase in lung MMP-9 activity after lung embolization (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates for the first time that MMP-9 inhibition with doxycycline attenuates APE-induced hemodynamic changes in the animal model examined. These findings indicate that MMP-9 activation plays a role in the pathophysiology of APE and suggest that pharmacologic strategies targeting specific MMPs with selective inhibitors may prevent the detrimental acute hemodynamic

  17. Treatment of acute embolic occlusions of the subclavian and axillary arteries using a rotational thrombectomy device.

    PubMed

    Zeller, T; Frank, U; Bürgelin, K; Sinn, L; Horn, B; Schwarzwälder, U; Roskamm, H; Neumann, F J

    2003-05-01

    Acute embolic or local thrombotic ischaemia of the upper limbs can be treated by embolectomy or by endovascular techniques. We report here on the endovascular thrombectomy of acute embolic occlusions of subclavian and axillary arteries in two patients using a rotational thrombectomy device and give an overview about the actual literature. Two female patients, each with a history of multivessel coronary disease and intermittent atrial fibrillation, complained of sudden onset of pain at rest and paleness of the left and right arm, respectively. Duplex ultrasound showed a localized embolic occlusion of the left subclavian artery and the bifurcation of the brachial artery in the first patient and a localized embolic occlusion of the distal right subclavian and axillary artery in the second patient. In the first patient, the left subclavian artery was reopened using a 8F-Rotarex device via the femoral access, while the bifurcation of the brachial artery was reopened by local thrombolysis using 25 mg rt-PA because of the insufficient length of the thrombectomy device of 80 cm. In the second patient, the right subclavian and axillary arteries were reopened using a 6F-Rotarex device. Follow-up examinations before discharge and after 6 months showed normalized perfusion of the arms of both patients.

  18. Ticagrelor Versus Aspirin in Acute Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source.

    PubMed

    Amarenco, Pierre; Albers, Gregory W; Denison, Hans; Easton, J Donald; Evans, Scott R; Held, Peter; Hill, Michael D; Jonasson, Jenny; Kasner, Scott E; Ladenvall, Per; Minematsu, Kazuo; Molina, Carlos A; Wang, Yongjun; Wong, K S Lawrence; Johnston, S Claiborne

    2017-09-01

    Ticagrelor is an effective antiplatelet therapy among patients with atherosclerotic disease and, therefore, could be more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events among patients with embolic stroke of unknown source (ESUS), which includes patients with ipsilateral stenosis <50% and aortic arch atherosclerosis. We randomized 13 199 patients with a noncardioembolic, nonsevere ischemic stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack to ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 90 mg twice daily for days 2-90) or aspirin (300 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg daily for days 2-90) within 24 hours of symptom onset. In all patients, investigators informed on the presence of ipsilateral stenosis ≥50%, small deep infarct <15 mm, and on cardiac source of embolism detected after enrollment or rare causes, which allowed to construct an ESUS category in all other patients with documented brain infarction. The primary end point was the time to the occurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days. ESUS was identified in 4329 (32.8%) patients. There was no treatment-by-ESUS category interaction (P=0.83). Hazard ratio in ESUS patients was 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.10; P=0.24). However, hazard ratio was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.90; P=0.02) in ESUS patients with ipsilateral stenosis <50% or aortic arch atherosclerosis (n=961) and 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.27; P=0.89) in the remaining ESUS patients (n=3368; P for heterogeneity =0.04). In this post hoc, exploratory analysis, we found no treatment-by-ESUS category interaction. ESUS subgroups have heterogeneous response to treatment (Funded by AstraZeneca). URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01994720. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Emergency embolization for the treatment of acute hemorrhage from intercostal arteries.

    PubMed

    Stampfl, Ulrike; Sommer, Christof-Matthias; Bellemann, Nadine; Kortes, Nikolas; Gnutzmann, Daniel; Mokry, Theresa; Gockner, Theresa; Schmitz, Anne; Ott, Katja; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Radeleff, Boris

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate embolotherapy for the emergency management of acute bleeding from intercostal arteries. Between October 2003 and August 2012, 19 consecutive patients with hemorrhage from intercostal arteries were scheduled for emergency embolization. The primary study endpoints were technical and clinical success, which were defined as angiographic cessation of bleeding, and cessation of clinical signs of hemorrhage. The secondary study endpoints were periprocedural complications and 30-day mortality rate. In most patients (74 %), hemorrhage was caused by iatrogenic procedures with subsequent intercostal artery laceration. One of the patients was treated twice for recurrent hemothorax caused by a new intercostal artery pseudoaneurysm 7.5 years after the initial procedure. Thus, 20 procedures were performed in these 19 patients. Overall technical success was 85 %. In six patients, no embolization of the "backdoor" was feasible, and in two of these patients additional embolization of other intercostal arteries was necessary to prevent hemorrhage via collateral vessels. Clinical signs of hemorrhage ceased after embolotherapy in 16 of 20 procedures (clinical success 80 %). The mean follow-up was 358.7 ± 637.1 days. One minor procedure-related complication occurred. The 30-day mortality rate was 21 %, however, this was unrelated to intercostal artery hemorrhage. Embolotherapy is an effective emergency therapy for patients with acute hemorrhage from intercostal arteries. Especially if embolization of the backdoor is not feasible, collateral supply via other intercostal arteries should be either ruled out or embolized to prevent ongoing hemorrhage. Despite successful embolotherapy, a majority of patients underwent surgery during follow-up to remove the symptomatic hematoma.

  20. CT pulmonary angiography findings that predict 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Bach, Andreas Gunter; Nansalmaa, Baasai; Kranz, Johanna; Taute, Bettina-Maria; Wienke, Andreas; Schramm, Dominik; Surov, Alexey

    2015-02-01

    Standard computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) can be used to diagnose acute pulmonary embolism. In addition, multiple findings at CTPA have been proposed as potential tools for risk stratification. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the prognostic value of (I) thrombus distribution, (II) morphometric parameters of right ventricular dysfunction, and (III) contrast reflux in inferior vena cava on 30-day mortality. In a retrospective, single-center study from 06/2005 to 01/2010 365 consecutive patients were included. Inclusion criteria were: presence of acute pulmonary embolism, and availability of 30-day follow-up. A review of patient charts and images was performed. There were no significant differences between the group of 326 survivors and 39 non-survivors in (I) thrombus distribution, and (II) morphometric measurements of right ventricular dysfunction. However, (III) contrast reflux in inferior vena cava was significantly stronger in non-survivors (odds ratio 3.29; p<0.001). Results were independent from comorbidities like heart insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension. Measurement of contrast reflux is a new and robust method for predicting 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Obstruction scores and morphometric measurements of right ventricular dysfunction perform poor as risk stratification tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differences in negative T waves among acute coronary syndrome, acute pulmonary embolism, and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ebina, Toshiaki; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Tsukahara, Kengo; Iwahashi, Noriaki; Gohbara, Masaomi; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Okada, Kozo; Morita, Satoshi; Umemura, Satoshi; Kimura, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Negative T waves in precordial leads often occur in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but are also found in acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC). Because the clinical features of these two diseases mimic those of ACS, differential diagnosis is essential to select an appropriate treatment strategy improve outcomes. This study aimed to clarify the differences in negative T waves among ACS, APE and TC. Methods and results: We studied admission ECGs in 300 patients (198 patients with ACS caused by the left anterior descending coronary artery disease, 81 with APE and 21 with TC). All patients were admitted within 48 h from symptom onset and had negative T waves ≥1.0 mm without ST-segment elevation in leads V1 to V4. The number and maximal amplitude of negative T waves were greatest in patients with TC, followed by in those with ACS, and were lowest in patients with APE (p < 0.001, respectively). The prevalence of negative T waves significantly differed in all 12 leads among the three groups (p < 0.01, respectively). Negative T waves in both leads III and V1 identified APE with 90% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Negative T waves in lead –aVR (i.e., positive T waves in lead aVR) and no negative T waves in lead V1 identified TC with 95% sensitivity and 97% specificity. These values represented the highest diagnostic accuracies. Conclusion: The distributions of negative T waves differed among ACS, APE and TC, and these differences were useful for differentiating among these three diseases. PMID:24062927

  2. Superior Hypogastric Nerve Block to Reduce Pain After Uterine Artery Embolization: Advanced Technique and Comparison to Epidural Anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Binkert, Christoph A.; Hirzel, Florian C.; Gutzeit, Andreas; Zollikofer, Christoph L.; Hess, Thomas

    2015-10-15

    PurposeTo evaluate a modified superior hypogastric nerve block (SHNB) to reduce pain after uterine artery embolization (UAE) compared to epidural anesthesia.Materials and methodsIn this retrospective study, the amount of opiate drugs needed after UAE was compared between SHNB and epidural anesthesia. Eighty one consecutive women (mean age: 43.67 years) were in the SHNB group and 27 consecutive women (mean age: 43.48 years) treated earlier at the same institution in the epidural anesthesia group. UAE was performed from a unilateral femoral artery approach using a 4F catheter. 500–700 or 700–900 μm trisacryl gelatine microspheres were used as embolic agents. The SHNB was performed by advancing a 21G from the abdominal wall below the umbilicus to the anterior portion of the 5th vertebral body. For optimal guidance a cranio-caudal tilt of 5°–15° was used. On a lateral view the correct contrast distribution in front of the vertebral body is confirmed. Then 20 ml local anesthesia (ropivacain 0.75 %) is injected. In case of an asymmetric right–left distribution the needle was repositioned.ResultsAll SHNB were successful without severe complications. The mean time for the SHNB was 4 min 38 s (2 min 38 s–9 min 27 s). The needle was repositioned in average 0.87 times. The opiate dose for the SHNB group was 19.33 ± 22.17 mg which was significantly lower. The average time to receive an opiate drug after SHNB was 4 h 41 min.ConclusionThe SHNB is a safe and minimally time-consuming way to reduce pain after UAE especially within the first 4 h.

  3. Pulmonary Embolism in Patients With Acute Leukemia and Severe Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Needleman, Samuel W.; Stein, Matthew N.; Hoak, John C.

    1981-01-01

    While pulmonary thromboembolism has been reported in patients with acute leukemia complicated by severe thrombocytopenia, it has been studied infrequently and its pathogenesis remains imprecisely understood. Findings of 80 consecutive autopsies of patients with acute leukemia showed that three had pulmonary thromboembolism. All three patients had been severely thrombocytopenic and had received numerous platelet transfusions. Serial sections of thrombi were evaluated with electron microscopy. In no instance were platelet aggregates detected. However, Candida organisms were prominent in thrombotic specimens from each patient. These findings suggest that thromboembolism in such patients may involve occult fungal infection. Because pulmonary thromboembolism can complicate the course of acute leukemia and severe thrombocytopenia, it should be considered when clinical data suggest its occurrence. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:7257386

  4. Performance of magnetic resonance angiography in suspected acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Blum, Alain; Bellou, Abdelouahab; Guillemin, Francis; Douek, Philippe; Laprévote-Heully, Marie-Claude; Wahl, Denis

    2005-03-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and potentially fatal disorder. Non-specific findings make the clinical diagnosis of PE difficult. To assess the diagnostic value and inter-observer agreement of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in a cohort of patients with suspected PE, we conducted a prospective clinical study. MRA was compared for sensitivity and specificity to a diagnostic strategy including clinical probability, D-dimer testing, spiral CT, ultrasound leg compression and pulmonary angiography. A total of 89 patients with clinically suspected PE were included: the clinical probability of PE was intermediate or high in 78, and low in the remaining 11. All patients underwent monoor multi-slice spiral CT and MRA with gadolinium injection (both within 24 hours of entry to the study). Anticoagulation was withheld in patients concerned about the strategy. All subjects were followed up for 3 months. MRA was read independently by two experienced teams of radiologists: one local and one from another university centre. Spiral CT was positive in 62 of 63 cases of confirmed PE. No patient with negative CT findings was positive ultrasonographically. Only one patient with a negative CT (and negative ultrasound) had a recurrent thromboembolic event. The first team diagnosed PE with MRA in 47 cases, with a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 92%; the second team obtained the diagnosis in 23 cases, with a sensitivity of 31% and a specificity of 85%. Inter-observer agreement between MRA reading was low: Kappa = 0.16 (-0.01 to 0.33); p = 0.07. In conclusion, compared with a non-invasive strategy based on spiral CT, the diagnostic value of MRA is limited by poor inter-observer agreement.

  5. Acute pulmonary embolism in patients with HIV disease

    PubMed Central

    Howling, S. J.; Shaw, P. J.; Miller, R. F.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence, mode of presentation, and outcome of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with HIV infection. METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical case records, imaging department database, and necropsy reports of patients admitted to the specialist HIV/AIDS unit at UCL hospitals from April 1993 to August 1997 in order to identify those with a diagnosis of PE. RESULTS: During the study period there were 3792 admissions of whom 10 (0.26%) had PE. All patients with PE presented with fever, seven were dyspnoeic, and seven had cough: all were thought initially to have respiratory infection. Only five patients had pleural pain. All 10 patients had abnormal baseline chest radiographs. The diagnosis in six was made by computed tomograph (CT) pulmonary angiography, in two was made by ventilation perfusion (V/Q) scanning, in one by both techniques, and in one at necropsy. CT angiography in addition to identifying thrombus also showed concomitant lung parenchymal abnormalities in all but one patient. Nine patients with PE had one or more risk factors for venous thromboembolism as did 34/40 case matched controls (odds ratio = 1.67; 95% confidence interval = 0.18-15.5). All patients diagnosed in life were anticoagulated and five survived. CONCLUSIONS: PE was uncommon in this HIV infected population. The diagnosis should be considered in patients with respiratory infection which does not respond to antibiotics. Identifiable risk factors for venous thromboembolism appear to be unhelpful in increasing clinical index of suspicion for PE. As baseline chest radiographs are frequently abnormal, the diagnostic utility of V/Q scanning may be reduced and CT pulmonary angiography is the imaging modality of first choice. 


 PMID:10448338

  6. Clinician gestalt estimate of pretest probability for acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism in patients with chest pain and dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Stubblefield, William B

    2014-03-01

    Pretest probability helps guide diagnostic testing for patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism. Pretest probability derived from the clinician's unstructured gestalt estimate is easier and more readily available than methods that require computation. We compare the diagnostic accuracy of physician gestalt estimate for the pretest probability of acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism with a validated, computerized method. This was a secondary analysis of a prospectively collected, multicenter study. Patients (N=840) had chest pain, dyspnea, nondiagnostic ECGs, and no obvious diagnosis. Clinician gestalt pretest probability for both acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism was assessed by visual analog scale and from the method of attribute matching using a Web-based computer program. Patients were followed for outcomes at 90 days. Clinicians had significantly higher estimates than attribute matching for both acute coronary syndrome (17% versus 4%; P<.001, paired t test) and pulmonary embolism (12% versus 6%; P<.001). The 2 methods had poor correlation for both acute coronary syndrome (r(2)=0.15) and pulmonary embolism (r(2)=0.06). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were lower for clinician estimate compared with the computerized method for acute coronary syndrome: 0.64 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 0.77) for clinician gestalt versus 0.78 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.85) for attribute matching. For pulmonary embolism, these values were 0.81 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.92) for clinician gestalt and 0.84 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.93) for attribute matching. Compared with a validated machine-based method, clinicians consistently overestimated pretest probability but on receiver operating curve analysis were as accurate for pulmonary embolism but not acute coronary syndrome. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Free Floating Right Heart Thrombus Associated with Acute Pulmonary Embolism: An Unsettled Therapeutic Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Nkoke, Clovis; Faucher, Olivier; Camus, Lise; Flork, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Free floating right heart thrombus is a rare phenomenon in the context of acute pulmonary embolism and it is associated with a poor outcome. The increased use of echocardiography has led to an increased detection of right heart thrombi. However, optimal management of free floating right heart thrombus remains controversial with no clear consensus. We present the case of a 74-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with acute onset dyspnea on minimal exertion which had developed over a period of 1 day. A computed tomography of the chest demonstrated massive bilateral proximal pulmonary embolism. A bedside transthoracic echocardiography performed showed a moderately dilated, poorly functioning right ventricle with visible highly mobile serpiginous thrombus moving to and fro across the tricuspid valve. Thrombolytic therapy was immediately initiated with tenecteplase which resulted in excellent results. Although there is no clear consensus for the management of right heart thrombus associated with pulmonary embolism, thrombolysis is readily available and can be effective in carefully selected patients. PMID:26078887

  8. Clearance of Subarachnoid Clots after GDC Embolization for Acutely Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, S.; Satoh, A.; Koguchi, Y.; Wada, M.; Tokunaga, H.; Miyata, A.; Nakamura, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Yagishita, T.

    2001-01-01

    Summary It is apparent that subarachnoid clots play an important role in the development of delayed vasospasm that is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in patients with acutely ruptured cerebral aneurysm. The purpose of this study is to compare the clearance of subarachnoid clots in the acute stage after the treatment with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDC) and after treatment with direct surgery. Forty-nine patients were treated by GDC embolization within four days of the ictus. After GDC embolization, adjunctive therapies, such as ventricular and/or spinal drainage (67%), intrathecal administration of urokinase (41%), continuous cisternal irrigation (16%), and external decompression (16%), were performed. Seventy-four surgically treated patients were subsequently treated by continuous cisternal irrigation with mock-CSF containing ascorbic acid for ten days. The clearance of subarachnoid clots was assessed by the Hounsfield number serial changes on the CT scans taken on days 0, 4, 7,10 after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The incidence of symptomatic vasospasm was lower in the GDC group (6%) than in the surgery group (12%). The clearance of subarachnoid clots from both the basal cistern and the Sylvian fissure was more rapid in the GDC cases than in the surgery cases in the first four days. Intrathecal administration of urokinase accelerated the clearance significantly. GDC embolization followed by intrathecal administration of thrombolytic agents accelerates the reduction of subarachnoid clots and favorably acts to prevent delayed vasospasm. PMID:20663379

  9. Surgical management of peritonitis secondary to acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute arterial mesenteric ischemia in the early stages is now possible using modern computed tomography with intravenous contrast enhancement and imaging in the arterial and/or portal phase. Most patients have acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion, and a large proportion of these patients will develop peritonitis prior to mesenteric revascularization, and explorative laparotomy will therefore be necessary to evaluate the extent and severity of intestinal ischemia, and to perform bowel resections. The establishment of a hybrid operating room in vascular units in hospitals is most important to be able to perform successful intestinal revascularization. This review outlines current frontline surgical strategies to improve survival and minimize bowel morbidity in patients with peritonitis secondary to acute SMA occlusion. Explorative laparotomy needs to be performed first. Curative treatment is based upon intestinal revascularization followed by bowel resection. If no vascular imaging has been carried out, SMA angiography is performed. In case of embolic occlusion of the SMA, open embolectomy is performed followed by angiography. In case of thrombotic occlusion, the occlusive lesion can be recanalized retrograde from an exposed SMA, the guidewire snared from either the femoral or brachial artery, and stented with standard devices from these access sites. Bowel resections and sometimes gall bladder removal due to transmural infarctions are performed at initial laparotomy, leaving definitive bowel reconstructions to a planned second look laparotomy, according to the principles of damage control surgery. Patients with peritonitis secondary to acute SMA occlusion should be managed by both the general and vascular surgeon, and a hybrid revascularization approach is of utmost importance to improve outcomes. PMID:25110423

  10. Java interface to a computer-aided diagnosis system for acute pulmonary embolism using PIOPED findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, Erik D.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Gauger, Matthew; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

    1999-05-01

    An interface to a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism (PE) from PIOPED radiographic findings was developed. The interface is based on Internet technology which is user-friendly and available on a broad range of computing platforms. It was designed to be used as a research tool and as a data collection tool, allowing researchers to observe the behavior of a CAD system and to collect radiographic findings on ventilation-perfusion lung scans and chest radiographs. The interface collects findings from physicians in the PIOPED reporting format, processes those findings and presents them as inputs to an artificial neural network (ANN) previously trained on findings from 1,064 patients from the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) study. The likelihood of PE predicted by the ANN and by the physician using the system is then saved for later analysis.

  11. Use of the pCONus as an adjunct to coil embolization of acutely ruptured aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, M Aguilar; Bhogal, P; Moreno, R Martinez; Wendl, C; Bäzner, H; Ganslandt, O; Henkes, H

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Coil embolization of ruptured aneurysms has become the standard treatment in many situations. However, certain aneurysm morphologies pose technical difficulties and may require the use of adjunctive devices. Objective To present our experience with the pCONus, a new neck bridging device, as an adjunct to coil embolization for acutely ruptured aneurysms and discuss the technical success, angiographic and clinical outcomes. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of our database of prospectively collected data to identify all patients who presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage that required adjunctive treatment with the pCONus in the acute stage. We searched the database between April 2011 and April 2016. Results 21 patients were identified (13 male, 8 female) with an average age of 54.6 years (range 31–73). 8 aneurysms were located at the basilar artery tip, 7 at the anterior communicating artery, 4 at the middle cerebral artery bifurcation, 1 pericallosal, and 1 basilar fenestration. 61.8% patients achieved modified Raymond–Roy classification I or II at immediate angiography, with 75% of patients having completely occluded aneurysms or stable appearance at initial follow-up. There were no repeat aneurysmal ruptures and two device-related complications (no permanent morbidity). Four patients in our cohort died. Conclusions Use of the pCONus is safe and effective in patients with acutely ruptured aneurysms and carries a high rate of technical success. PMID:27411859

  12. Successful retreatment with osimertinib after osimertinib-induced acute pulmonary embolism in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Shiroyama, Takayuki; Hayama, Manabu; Satoh, Shingo; Nasu, Shingo; Tanaka, Ayako; Morita, Satomu; Morishita, Naoko; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Okamoto, Norio; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) can be life-threatening, and it is challenging to diagnose because of its nonspecific signs and symptoms. PE is also an important potential risk of osimertinib treatment, however, clinical courses regarding retreatment after osimertinib-induced acute pulmonary embolism remain unclear. We described a 77-year-old woman with postoperative recurrent lung adenocarcinoma who developed osimertinib-induced acute PE. She received apixaban and was later successfully retreated with osimertinib. This case suggests that retreatment with osimertinib after osimertinib-induced acute PE may be a treatment option when alternative therapeutic options are limited.

  13. Embolization followed by surgery for treatment of perimedullary arteriovenous fistula causing acute myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, I-Han; Lee, Han-Chung; Yen, Pao-Sheng; Cho, Der-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is rare. There are three subtypes, and the treatment strategies for each are different. Subtype B (multiple fistulas) can be treated by either embolization or surgery. On the basis of a case from our treatment experience, we propose a method for achieving optimal outcome while minimizing nerve injury. A 51-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with acute myelopathy caused by a perimedullary AVF. Initially, we treated her by embolization using the chemical agent Onyx. Her symptoms improved immediately but gradually returned beginning 1 week later. Two months later, the symptoms had returned to pretreatment status, so we removed the fistulas surgically. Severe adhesions between nerve and occult venous varices were noted during the operation. Afterward, the patient's symptoms improved significantly. Histopathological sections showed an inflammatory reaction around the varices. We initially considered several possible reasons for the return of symptoms: (a) Hypoperfusion of the spinal cord; (b) mass effect of the occult vein varices; (c) residual AVF or vascular remodeling resulting in recurrent cord hypertension; (d) Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation resulting in nerves adhering to each other and to occult venous varices. Clinical, surgical, and pathological findings ruled out the first three, leaving Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation as the probable reason. Given our treatment experience and the pros and cons of the two methods, we propose that initial embolization followed by surgery after 5 days to remove occult venous varices is the ideal strategy for treating perimedullary AVF of subtype B.

  14. Retrograde pulmonary perfusion as an adjunct to standard pulmonary embolectomy for acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Salvatore; Barbato, Luciano; Grasso, Maria Antonia; Tesler, Ugo Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Mortality rates for pulmonary embolectomy in patients with acute massive pulmonary embolism have decreased in recent years. However, it still ranges from 30 to 45% when surgery is performed on critically ill patients, and the mortality rates reach 60% in patients who have experienced a cardiac arrest before the procedure. The causes of death in these patients are generally attributed to right heart failure due to persistent pulmonary hypertension, intractable pulmonary oedema, and massive parenchymal and intrabronchial haemorrhage. Clinical and experimental findings indicate that venous air embolism causes severe or even lethal damage to the pulmonary microvasculature and the lung parenchyma consequent to the release of endothelium-derived cytokines. These findings are similar to those observed when severely compromised patients undergo pulmonary embolectomy for air entrapped in the pulmonary artery during embolectomy, which may lead to fatal outcomes. Retrograde pulmonary perfusion (RPP), besides enabling the removal of residual thrombotic material from the peripheral branches of the pulmonary artery, fills the pulmonary artery with blood and prevents pulmonary air embolism. We believe that the use of RPP as an adjunct to conventional pulmonary embolectomy decreases the morbidity and mortality rates associated with pulmonary embolectomy in critically ill patients.

  15. Modified PISAPED Criteria in Combination with Ventilation Scintigraphic Finding for Predicting Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Naoyuki; Fettich, Jure; Küçük, Nurie Özlem; Kraft, Otakar; Mut, Fernando; Choudhury, Partha; Sharma, Surendra K; Endo, Keigo; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    This prospective clinical study aimed at assessing three pulmonary scintigraphic algorithms to detect acute pulmonary embolism (PE): Lung ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy along with modified prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED) criteria; lung perfusion scintigraphy along with prospective investigative study of acute pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PISAPED) criteria; and lung perfusion scan in combination with ventilation scan, along with modified PISAPED criteria, which were newly developed. Patients with suspicion of PE were eligible for this study if they had no abnormal chest x-ray. Their diagnostic workup included a clinical assessment, a pulmonary V/Q scintigraphy, and CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA), as well as a clinical outcome assessment over a period of 24 weeks. Referred to the final clinical diagnosis of patients, the sensitivity and specificity of each algorithm were evaluated. The diagnostic performance of each algorithm by the area under the maximum likelihood fitted receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was determined. With respect to the PISAPED criteria, the sensitivity was 60.8% and specificity was 87.3%. No patient was classified into nondiagnostic category. The PIOPED criteria showed that the sensitivity was 95.0% and specificity was 88.2%, while 57.4% of the patients were in nondiagnostic category. The areas under the ROC curve constructed from the PISAPED criteria results and the modified PIOPED criteria results were 0.734 and 0.859 (P < 0.01), respectively. The modified PISAPED criteria demonstrated that the sensitivity was 83.8% and specificity was 89.1%. No patient was classified into nondiagnostic category. The area under the ROC curve constructed from modified PISAPED criteria was 0.864 (P < 0.01). Perfusion scans used with ventilation scans and modified PISAPED criteria may increase the diagnostic accuracy of pulmonary scintigraphy for acute PE, compared with the two major algorithms.

  16. Modified PISAPED Criteria in Combination with Ventilation Scintigraphic Finding for Predicting Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Naoyuki; Fettich, Jure; Küçük, Nurie Özlem; Kraft, Otakar; Mut, Fernando; Choudhury, Partha; Sharma, Surendra K.; Endo, Keigo; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    This prospective clinical study aimed at assessing three pulmonary scintigraphic algorithms to detect acute pulmonary embolism (PE): Lung ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy along with modified prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED) criteria; lung perfusion scintigraphy along with prospective investigative study of acute pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PISAPED) criteria; and lung perfusion scan in combination with ventilation scan, along with modified PISAPED criteria, which were newly developed. Patients with suspicion of PE were eligible for this study if they had no abnormal chest x-ray. Their diagnostic workup included a clinical assessment, a pulmonary V/Q scintigraphy, and CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA), as well as a clinical outcome assessment over a period of 24 weeks. Referred to the final clinical diagnosis of patients, the sensitivity and specificity of each algorithm were evaluated. The diagnostic performance of each algorithm by the area under the maximum likelihood fitted receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was determined. With respect to the PISAPED criteria, the sensitivity was 60.8% and specificity was 87.3%. No patient was classified into nondiagnostic category. The PIOPED criteria showed that the sensitivity was 95.0% and specificity was 88.2%, while 57.4% of the patients were in nondiagnostic category. The areas under the ROC curve constructed from the PISAPED criteria results and the modified PIOPED criteria results were 0.734 and 0.859 (P < 0.01), respectively. The modified PISAPED criteria demonstrated that the sensitivity was 83.8% and specificity was 89.1%. No patient was classified into nondiagnostic category. The area under the ROC curve constructed from modified PISAPED criteria was 0.864 (P < 0.01). Perfusion scans used with ventilation scans and modified PISAPED criteria may increase the diagnostic accuracy of pulmonary scintigraphy for acute PE, compared with the two major algorithms. PMID

  17. Changes in PESI scores predict mortality in intermediate-risk patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Moores, Lisa; Zamarro, Celia; Gómez, Vicente; Aujesky, Drahomir; García, Leticia; Nieto, Rosa; Yusen, Roger; Jiménez, David

    2013-02-01

    Although the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) accurately identifies 35% of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) as being low risk, some patients deemed high risk by the PESI on admission might be treated safely in the outpatient environment. This retrospective cohort study included a total of 304 consecutive patients with acute PE, classified at the time of hospital admission into PESI class III. The PESI was recalculated 48 h after admission (PESI(48)) and each patient reclassified into the corresponding risk category. The primary outcome of the study was all-cause mortality between day 2 and day 30 after PE diagnosis. 26 (8.5%) patients (95% CI 5.4-11.7%) died between day 2 and day 30 after PE diagnosis. Investigators reclassified 83 (27.3%) patients (95% CI 22.3-32.3%) as low risk (classes I and II) at 48 h. 30-day mortality in these patients was 1.2% (95% CI 0-3.5%) as opposed to 11.3% (95% CI 7.1-15.5%) in those who remained high risk. The net improvement in reclassification was estimated at 54% (p<0.001). In a cohort of intermediate-risk patients with acute PE, calculation of the PESI(48) allows identification of those patients at very low risk of dying during the first month of follow-up.

  18. Acute myocardial infarction due to coronary artery embolism in a patient with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Camaro, C; Aengevaeren, W R M

    2009-08-01

    A 66-year-old female was referred for primary coronary intervention because of acute inferior STelevation myocardial infarction. Electrocardiography also showed atrial fibrillation. Coronary angiography showed a distal occlusion of the right coronary artery. Two different wires did not pass the occlusion, but dislodged the apparent thrombus more distally. No abnormalities were seen in the course of the recanalised part of the vessel. The sequential angiographic images together with the presence of atrial fibrillation are highly suggestive of coronary embolism as the cause of the myocardial infarction. Anticoagulation and rate control strategy was initiated. The patient was discharged in good condition. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:297-9.).

  19. Acute myocardial infarction due to coronary artery embolism in a patient with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Camaro, C.; Aengevaeren, W.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    A 66-year-old female was referred for primary coronary intervention because of acute inferior STelevation myocardial infarction. Electrocardiography also showed atrial fibrillation. Coronary angiography showed a distal occlusion of the right coronary artery. Two different wires did not pass the occlusion, but dislodged the apparent thrombus more distally. No abnormalities were seen in the course of the recanalised part of the vessel. The sequential angiographic images together with the presence of atrial fibrillation are highly suggestive of coronary embolism as the cause of the myocardial infarction. Anticoagulation and rate control strategy was initiated. The patient was discharged in good condition. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:297-9.19789700) PMID:19789700

  20. Successful recovery from an acute kidney injury due to amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Katsuhito; Naito, Shotaro; Okado, Tomokazu; Rai, Tatemitu; Mori, Yutaro; Toda, Takayuki; Uchida, Shinichi; Sasaki, Sei; Matsui, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old Japanese woman at 40 weeks gestation visited the maternity hospital after imminent labor had begun. After the delivery, persistent bleeding developed resulting in hemorrhagic shock. Although the hemorrhage was eventually controlled, hepatic and renal dysfunction occurred, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). The patient's clinical presentation was suggestive of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE). We subsequently initiated continuous renal replacement therapy (RRT) for AKI. The patient's condition improved, she discontinued RRT, and her renal function recovered. We herein report a patient who successfully recovered from AKI caused by AFE.

  1. A new prognostic strategy for adult patients with acute pulmonary embolism eligible for outpatient therapy.

    PubMed

    Angriman, Federico; Vazquez, Fernando J; Roy, Pierre Marie; Le Gal, Gregoire; Carrier, Marc; Gandara, Esteban

    2017-04-01

    We sought to derive a parsimonious predictive model to identify a subgroup of patients that will experience a low number of adverse events within 14 days of the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Retrospective cohort study of adult patients with acute pulmonary embolism at the Ottawa Hospital between 2007 and 2012. Primary outcome was defined as the composite of all-cause mortality, recurrent venous thromboembolism and major bleeding within 14 days. Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to model the occurrence of the primary outcome so as to guide either outpatient therapy or early discharge after initial admission. Calibration and discrimination were assessed in both the derivation and internal validation cohorts. 1143 patients were included, of whom 42% were treated as outpatients. At pulmonary embolism diagnosis, final score to predict the primary outcome included age, malignancy, intravenous drug or oxygen requirement and systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.79 (95% CI 0.73-0.84) and 0.82 (95% CI 0.75-0.89) in the derivation and validation cohorts respectively. Conversely, final score to predict primary outcome after initial admission included age, malignancy, intravenous drug requirement and systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg (AUC: 0.70 (95% CI 0.64-0.76) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.66-0.79) in the derivation and validation cohorts). We have developed two simple clinical scores that may identify patients with pulmonary embolism at low risk of clinically meaningful outcomes during the first 14 days of follow up.

  2. The value of isovolumic acceleration for the assessment of right ventricular function in acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Selcuk, Murat; Sayar, Nurten; Demir, Serafettin; Rodi Tosua, Aydın; Aslan, Vedat

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of tricuspid annulus myocardial isovolumic acceleration (IVA) in the assessment of right ventricular function in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Fifteen patients (mean age 60.6±11.3 years) with acute PE were enrolled and a control group was formed of 15 patients with a similar mean age (60.3±11.5). Patients who were diagnosed with acute PE by thoracic computed tomography angiography underwent transthoracic echocardiography at the time of diagnosis and at one month after diagnosis. In the control group IVA was 2.8±0.2 m/s(2), while in the acute PE group, it was 2.0±0.1 m/s(2) at the time of diagnosis and 2.9±0.1 m/s(2) at the end of the first month. When IVA values of acute PE patients at the end of the first month were compared with their initial values and those of the control group, they had normalized (control and acute PE p<0.0001; control and PE at one-month follow-up p=0.983). In our study, IVA was shown to be a reliable marker of right ventricular systolic function in patients with acute PE. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of acute pulmonary embolism among patients in a general hospital and at autopsy.

    PubMed

    Stein, P D; Henry, J W

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to estimate the prevalence of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in a general hospital, its frequency among patients who died, and the ability of physicians to diagnose PE antemortem. The prevalence of acute PE among 51,645 patients hospitalized over a 21-month period was assessed in 1 of the 6 clinical centers (Henry Ford Hospital) that participated in the collaborative study, prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED). The diagnosis of PE was made by pulmonary angiography, or in those who did not undergo pulmonary angiography because they declined or were ineligible for randomization to angiography in PIOPED, the diagnosis was based on the ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) lung scan. Based on data in PIOPED, PE was considered to be present in 87% of patients with high probability V/Q scam interpretations, 30% with intermediate probability interpretations, 14% with low probability interpretations, and 4% with nearly normal V/Q scans. The estimated prevalence of acute PE in hospitalized patients was 526 of 51,645 (1.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 1.1%). Based on extrapolated data from autopsy, PE was estimated to have caused or contributed to death in 122 of 51,645 (0.2%; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.29%). Pulmonary embolism was observed at autopsy in 59 of 404 (14.6%; 95% CI, 11.3 to 18.4%). Among patients with PE at autopsy, the PE caused or contributed to death in 22 of 59 (37.3%; 95% CI, 25.0 to 50.9%) and PE was incidental in 37 of 59 (62.7%; 95% CI, 49.1 to 75.0%). Among patients at autopsy who died from PE, the diagnosis was unsuspected in 14 of 20 (70.0%; 95% CI, 45.7 to 88.1%). Most of these patients had advanced associated disease. In these patients, death from PE occurred within 2.5 h in 13 of 14 (92.9%; 95% CI, 66.1 to 99.8%). Pulmonary embolism is common in a general hospital. The prevalence of PE at autopsy has not changed over 3 decades. The frequency of unsuspected PE in patients at autopsy has not

  4. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (176). Acute embolic occlusion of the coeliac artery.

    PubMed

    Appuhamy, Chinthaka; Kwan, Justin; H'ng, Martin Weng Chin; Narayanan, Sriram; Punamiya, Sundeep

    2017-04-01

    A 52-year-old man, who had a background of chronic heart disease and atrial fibrillation, as well as non-compliance with warfarin therapy, presented with a two-week history of worsening upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography mesenteric angiography showed complete embolic occlusion of the coeliac artery with resultant segmental splenic infarction, and thrombus within the left ventricle. A decision was made to proceed with catheter-directed thrombolysis. Subsequent follow-up angiogram at 12 hours showed successful treatment with complete dissolution of the coeliac embolus. The patient's symptoms resolved during his hospitalisation and he was subsequently discharged well on long-term oral anticoagulation therapy. Isolated acute embolic occlusion of the coeliac axis is a rare occurrence that may result in end-organ infarction. Treatment options include systemic anti-coagulation, mechanical thrombectomy, catheter thrombolysis or open surgery. Catheter-directed thrombolysis therapy is a feasible and effective option for treating acute thromboembolic occlusion of the coeliac artery. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  5. [Surgical therapy of acute and embolizing deep venous thrombosis--indication, technical principle, results].

    PubMed

    Kniemeyer, H W; Merckle, R; Stühmeier, K; Sandmann, W

    1990-12-17

    Between 1977 and 1986, 185 patients with deep venous thrombosis (117 with acute occlusive and 68 with embolizing deep venous thrombosis) underwent venous thrombectomy with arterio-venous fistula. The early patency rate was 96%, and the perioperative mortality rate, 3.8%. Of the 157 patients in whom extremities were involved, 147 were examined 12-118 months postoperatively (mean 43 +/- 23 months) clinically, by Doppler ultrasound and by light reflexion rheography (LRR). In 49% of the patients, various kinds of swelling or oedema of the involved extremities were present. There were no hemodynamical disturbances in 53% (LRR-examination); competent venous valves were found in 44%. According to the severity of symptoms and hemodynamical findings, postthrombotic syndrome was absent in 47%, mild in 20%, moderate in 28%, and severe in 5% (7 patients, 4 with venous ulcers). Six of the 7 patients with severe postthrombotic syndrome belonged to the group operated for embolizing thrombosis, where no selection of cases was performed. The best long-term results were achieved in patients operated for acute occlusive thrombosis of the iliac and iliofemoral veins. Venous thrombectomy with av fistula can achieve sufficient early and long-term results in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis, provided strict selection of patients and a meticulous technique are practised.

  6. The relation between international normalized ratio and mortality in acute pulmonary embolism: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kırış, Tuncay; Yazıcı, Selcuk; Durmuş, Gündüz; Çanga, Yiğit; Karaca, Mustafa; Nazlı, Cem; Dogan, Abdullah

    2017-02-18

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious clinical disease characterized by a high mortality rate. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of international normalized ratio (INR) in acute PE patients not on anticoagulant therapy. The study included 244 hospitalized acute PE patients who were not receiving previous anticoagulant therapy. Based on their 30-day mortality, patients were categorized as survivors or non-survivors. INR was measured during the patients' admission, on the same day as the diagnosis of PE but before anticoagulation started. Thirty-day mortality occurred in 39 patients (16%). INR was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (1.3±0.4 vs 1.1±0.3, P=.003). In multivariate analysis, INR (HR: 3.303, 95% CI: 1.210-9.016, P=.020) was independently associated with 30-day mortality from PE. Inclusion of INR in a model with simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) score improved the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve from 0.736 (95% CI: 0.659-0.814) to 0.775 (95% CI: 0.701-0.849) (P=.028). Also, the addition of INR to sPESI score enhanced the net reclassification improvement (NRI=8.8%, P<.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI=0.043, P=.027). Elevated INR may have prognostic value for 30-day mortality in acute PE patients not on anticoagulation. Combining INR with sPESI score improved the predictive value for all-cause mortality. However, further large-scale studies are needed to confirm it's prognostic role. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Surviving a delayed trans-diaphragmatic hepatic rupture complicated by an acute superior vena cava and thoracic compartment syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Michael W; Rodas, Edgar B; Bartnik, Jakub P; Puente, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    We describe the first reported survivor of a delayed trans-diaphragmatic hepatic rupture complicated by acute superior vena cava (SVCS) and thoracic compartment syndromes (TCS). A thirty one year old male was involved in a boating accident. The patient was diagnosed with a grade IV liver laceration, which was initially managed with both angio-embolization and open surgical repair. Exactly one month from admission, the patient presented with an abrupt cardiac arrest, which was further complicated by a SVCS and TCS. The SVCS was managed with bilateral thoracostomies which revealed a delayed trans-diaphragmatic hepatic rupture into the right chest cavity. The TCS was managed with a decompressive thoraco-abdominal incision. The patient survived and is now leading a normal life. Our success was largely due to an integrated trauma system of physicians, nurses and technicians that prompted the early recognition of two potentially life threatening complications of a delayed trans-diaphragmatic hepatic rupture. PMID:21887041

  8. Surviving a delayed trans-diaphragmatic hepatic rupture complicated by an acute superior vena cava and thoracic compartment syndromes.

    PubMed

    Parra, Michael W; Rodas, Edgar B; Bartnik, Jakub P; Puente, Ivan

    2011-07-01

    We describe the first reported survivor of a delayed trans-diaphragmatic hepatic rupture complicated by acute superior vena cava (SVCS) and thoracic compartment syndromes (TCS). A thirty one year old male was involved in a boating accident. The patient was diagnosed with a grade IV liver laceration, which was initially managed with both angio-embolization and open surgical repair. Exactly one month from admission, the patient presented with an abrupt cardiac arrest, which was further complicated by a SVCS and TCS. The SVCS was managed with bilateral thoracostomies which revealed a delayed trans-diaphragmatic hepatic rupture into the right chest cavity. The TCS was managed with a decompressive thoraco-abdominal incision. The patient survived and is now leading a normal life. Our success was largely due to an integrated trauma system of physicians, nurses and technicians that prompted the early recognition of two potentially life threatening complications of a delayed trans-diaphragmatic hepatic rupture.

  9. Acute right ventricular failure caused by concomitant coronary and pulmonary embolism: successful treatment with endovascular coronary and pulmonary thrombectomy

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Sasha; Roijer, Anders; Holmqvist, Jasminka; Keussen, Inger; Cwikiel, Wojciech; Öhlin, Bertil; Erlinge, David

    2013-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is present in approximately 25% of the general population. PFO is characterized by intermittent shunting of blood from the right to the left atrium, especially in the context of increased right-sided filling pressures, with risk of paradoxical embolism. We describe a 69-year-old woman presenting with acute chest pain, severe dyspnoea, and acute inferolateral ST-segment elevation on the electrocardiogram. The patient was diagnosed with myocardial infarction and failure of the right cardiac ventricle, which was considered to be secondary to extensive pulmonary embolism leading to increased filling pressures and paradoxical coronary embolism. The patient underwent emergent percutaneous interventions with coronary thrombus extraction and pulmonary thrombus fragmentation and local thrombolysis. The patient was free of symptoms at follow up 6 months later and echocardiography showed substantially improved right ventricular function. We discuss issues related to the diagnosis, treatment, and secondary prevention for patients with concomitant pulmonary and coronary arterial thrombosis. PMID:24222822

  10. Acute right ventricular failure caused by concomitant coronary and pulmonary embolism: successful treatment with endovascular coronary and pulmonary thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Smith, J Gustav; Koul, Sasha; Roijer, Anders; Holmqvist, Jasminka; Keussen, Inger; Cwikiel, Wojciech; Ohlin, Bertil; Erlinge, David

    2013-06-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is present in approximately 25% of the general population. PFO is characterized by intermittent shunting of blood from the right to the left atrium, especially in the context of increased right-sided filling pressures, with risk of paradoxical embolism. We describe a 69-year-old woman presenting with acute chest pain, severe dyspnoea, and acute inferolateral ST-segment elevation on the electrocardiogram. The patient was diagnosed with myocardial infarction and failure of the right cardiac ventricle, which was considered to be secondary to extensive pulmonary embolism leading to increased filling pressures and paradoxical coronary embolism. The patient underwent emergent percutaneous interventions with coronary thrombus extraction and pulmonary thrombus fragmentation and local thrombolysis. The patient was free of symptoms at follow up 6 months later and echocardiography showed substantially improved right ventricular function. We discuss issues related to the diagnosis, treatment, and secondary prevention for patients with concomitant pulmonary and coronary arterial thrombosis.

  11. Selection of patients with acute pulmonary embolism for thrombolytic therapy. Thrombolysis in pulmonary embolism (TIPE) patient survey. The TIPE Investigators.

    PubMed

    Terrin, M; Goldhaber, S Z; Thompson, B

    1989-05-01

    During a recent one-year period, 44 clinical centers in the United States saw 2,539 patients with diagnoses of pulmonary embolism as supported by high probability lung scans and/or positive pulmonary angiograms. In developing proposals for a clinical trial of Thrombolysis in Pulmonary Embolism (TIPE), investigators in the 44 clinical centers reviewed the 2,539 patients' medical charts for contraindications to thrombolytic therapy. Overall, 1,345 (53.5%) patients surveyed in the TIPE clinical centers would have been acceptable for treatment with thrombolytic therapy, a proportion higher than generally anticipated. Risks of major blood loss were the most frequent contraindications to thrombolytic therapy and were found in 838 (33.3%) patients. Risks to the CNS were found to contraindicate thrombolytic therapy in 453 (17.9%) patients. Risks of bleeding into special compartments were found to contraindicate thrombolytic therapy in 76 (3.0%) patients. Pulmonary embolism is underdiagnosed in most clinical settings, and even more patients than found in the TIPE survey could benefit from appropriate diagnosis and treatment. The question remains as to whether pulmonary embolism patients will benefit from thrombolytic therapy. Only a randomized clinical trial will provide a satisfactory answer.

  12. [Risk factors associated with the severity of pulmonary embolism in patients with acute deep venous thrombosis of lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Fuxian; Zhang, Changming; Hu, Lu; Feng, Yaping; Liang, Gangzhu; Niu, Luyuan; Zhang, Huan; Cheng, Long; Qi, Haoshan

    2015-08-01

    To identify the risk factors associated with the severity of pulmonary embolism among patients with deep venous thrombosis of lower extremities. This prospective study enrolled 208 patients with acute deep venous thrombosis to screen for pulmonary embolism between July 2010 and July 2012 in Beijing Shijitan Hospital. There were 101 male and 107 female patients, with a mean age of (59 ± 16) years. Gender, age, extension, side of lower extremities of deep venous thrombosis was analyzed by χ² test. Ordinal Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors associated with severity of pulmonary embolism. There were 83 patients with iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis, 102 patients with femoropopliteal and 23 patients with calf deep venous thrombosis. Pulmonary embolism was detected in 70 patients with the incidence of 33.7%. Pulmonary embolism was significantly correlated with extension (χ² = 17.286, P = 0.004) and sides (χ² = 15.602, P = 0.008) of deep venous thrombosis, not with age (χ² = 7.099, P = 0.260), gender (χ² = 7.014, P = 0.067), thrombotic risk factors (χ² = 3.335, P = 0.345) in univariate analysis. Results of multivariate ordinal logistic regression showed that iliofemoral vein thrombosis (OR = 6.172, 95% CI: 1.590 to 23.975, P = 0.009) and bilateral venous thrombosis (OR = 7.140, 95% CI: 2.406 to 24.730, P = 0.001) are associated with more serious pulmonary embolism. Incidence of pulmonary embolism is still high in patients with deep venous thrombosis. Extensive iliofemoral and bilateral vein thrombosis may increase risk of severity of pulmonary embolism. Clinicians should pay more attention to these high-risk patients.

  13. The role of NT-proBNP and Apelin in the assessment of right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Celik, Yasemin; Yardan, Turker; Baydin, Ahmet; Demircan, Sabri

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the role of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and apelin in the assessment of right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism. The prospective case-control study was conducted at Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey, from January 2008 to June 2009, and comprised adult patients with acute pulmonary embolism. A smaller group of healthy adults served as the control. Blood N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and apelin levels were measured on admission to the Emergency Department. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis. There were 56 cases and 20 controls in the study. Blood N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels were higher in cases than the controls (p<0.05). Apelin levels were not different between the groups (p>0.05). Patients with right ventricular dysfunction had significantly higher peptide levels than those without the dysfunction (p<0.05). The cut-off value of peptide for the prediction of right ventricular dysfunction was 1000 pg/ml, with a sensitivity of 92.1% and specificity of 77.8%. There was no significant change in plasma apelin levels in acute pulmonary embolism. The blood N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide maybe a useful parameter in the assessment of right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism.

  14. Acute Bladder Necrosis after Pelvic Arterial Embolization for Pelvic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Two Cases of Immediate Postembolization Bladder Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, E. Charles; Elliott, Sean P.; Hittelman, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of acute bladder injury with bladder neck necrosis identified during the initial operative evaluation and within the early postprocedural period in patients with significant pelvic trauma requiring pelvic vascular embolization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bladder neck necrosis found during the initial intraoperative surgical evaluation or early postoperative setting. PMID:27656309

  15. Management of intra-operative acute pulmonary embolism during general anesthesia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuanyuan; Wen, Shuai; Chen, Gezi; Zhang, Wei; Ai, Yanqiu; Yuan, Jingjing

    2017-05-26

    Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) can be life-threatening. Early detection is even more difficult for patients under general anesthesia as common symptoms are not available and the pathophysiological course of intra-operative APE is influenced by procedures of surgery and anesthesia, which makes patients under general anesthesia a distinctive group. We report a case of APE during orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia. A 64-year-old female with atrial fibrillation and surgical history of varicosity underwent total right hip replacement surgery under general anesthesia. No arterial or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was found prior to the surgery, but APE still occurred intraoperatively. The sudden decrease in PETCO2 and increase in PaCO2 combined other clues raised the suspect of APE, which is further evidenced by transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE). Multidisciplinary consultation was started immediately. After discussion with the consultation team and communication with patient's family members, anticoagulation therapy was started and IVC filter was placed to prevent PE recurrence. The patient went through the operation and discharged uneventfully 30 days later. Pulmonary embolism is a rare and potentially high-risk perioperative situation, with a difficult diagnosis when occurs under anesthesia. The separation phenomenon of decrease in PETCO2 and increase in PaCO2 might be a useful and suggestive sign, enabling prompt management and therefore improving the prognosis.

  16. Shape-based analysis of right ventricular dysfunction associated with acute pulmonary embolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajbakhsh, Nima; Xue, Wenzhe; Wu, Hong; Liang, Jianming; McMahon, Eileen M.; Belohlavek, Marek

    2012-03-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is known as one of the major causes of sudden death. However, high level of mortality caused by APE can be reduced, if detected in early stages of development. Hence, biomarkers capable of early detection of APE are of utmost importance. This study investigates how APE affects the biomechanics of the cardiac right ventricle (RV), taking one step towards developing functional biomarkers for early diagnosis and determination of prognosis of APE. To that end, we conducted a pilot study in pigs, which revealed the following major changes due to the severe RV afterload caused by APE: (1) waving paradoxical motion of the RV inner boundary, (2) decrease in local curvature of the septum, (3) lower positive correlation between the movement of inner boundaries of the septal and free walls of the RV, (4) slower blood ejection by the RV, and (5) discontinuous movement observed particularly in the middle of the RV septal wall.

  17. Treatment of acute massive pulmonary embolism by streptokinase during labour and delivery.

    PubMed

    Hall, R J; Young, C; Sutton, G C; Cambell, S

    1972-12-16

    A 29-year-old woman sustained an acute massive pulmonary embolism in the 32nd week of pregnancy. Rapid clinical improvement followed the use of streptokinase. Treatment was continued for 41 hours, including labour and the first three hours after delivery. There was slow but severe postpartum haemorrhage. Partial uterine atony occurred, and may have been due, at least in part, to fibrin degradation products arising from thrombolysis. No adverse effects were noted in the baby.Our experience suggests that streptokinase may be given during labour but that an oxytocic agent may be needed; and that reversal of fibrinolysis before delivery is best achieved by the use of aprotinin (Trasylol) rather than aminocaproic acid.

  18. Embolization of a Cavernous Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistula with Onyx via Direct Puncture of the Cavernous Sinus through the Superior Orbital Fissure

    PubMed Central

    Amiridze, N.; Zoarski, G.; Darwish, R.; Obuchowski, A.; Soloveychic, N.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Treatment of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) may be challenging. We describe a patient who had presented with progressive ocular symptoms due to CSDAVF requiring urgent interventional therapy. Initial attempts to embolize the fistula utilizing a transvenous approach through the inferior petrosal sinus failed because of difficult anatomy. Successful occlusion of the fistula was subsequently achieved with injection of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, Onyx (EV3 Neurovascular, Irvine, CA, USA), via direct percutaneous puncture of the cavernous sinus through the superior orbital fissure. A brief period of asystole during the initial injection of Onyx may be the result of the trigeminocardiac reflex. PMID:20465896

  19. The role of computed tomography in the diagnosis of acute and chronic pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Halil; de Roos, Albert; Geleijins, Jacob; Huisman, Menno V.; Kroft, Lucia J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life threatening condition requiring adequate diagnosis and treatment. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is excellent for including and excluding PE, therefore CT is the first-choice diagnostic imaging technique in patients suspected of having acute PE. Due to its wide availability and low invasiveness, CTPA tends to be overused. Correct implementation of clinical decision rules in diagnostic workup for PE improves adequate use of CT. Also, CT adds prognostic value by evaluating right ventricular (RV) function. CT-assessed RV dysfunction and to lesser extent central emboli location predicts PE-related mortality in normotensive and hypotensive patients, while PE embolic obstruction index has limited prognostic value. Simple RV/left ventricular (LV) diameter ratio measures >1.0 already predict risk for adverse outcome, whereas ratios <1.0 can safely exclude adverse outcome. Consequently, assessing the RV/LV diameter ratio may help identify patients who are potential candidates for treatment at home instead of treatment in the hospital. A minority of patients develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) following acute PE, which is a life-threatening condition that can be diagnosed by CT. In proximal CTEPH, involving the more central pulmonary arteries, thrombectomy usually results in good outcome in terms of both functional status and long-term survival rate. CT is becoming the imaging method of choice for diagnosing CTEPH as it can identify patients who may benefit from thrombectomy. New CT developments such as distensibility measurements and dual-energy or subtraction techniques may further refine diagnosis and prognosis for improved patient care. PMID:26133321

  20. Identification of Low-Risk Patients with Acute Symptomatic Pulmonary Embolism for Outpatient Therapy.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Ana; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Riera-Mestre, Antoni; Jiménez, David; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Bascuñana, José; Vela, Jerónimo Ramón; Peris, Luísa; Malfante, Pablo César; Monreal, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) deemed to be at low risk for early complications might be candidates for partial or complete outpatient treatment. To develop and validate a clinical prediction rule that accurately identifies patients with PE and low risk of short-term complications and to compare its prognostic ability with two previously validated models (i.e., the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index [PESI] and the Simplified PESI [sPESI]) Multivariable logistic regression of a large international cohort of patients with PE prospectively enrolled in the RIETE (Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica) registry. All-cause mortality, recurrent PE, and major bleeding up to 10 days after PE diagnosis were determined. Of 18,707 eligible patients with acute symptomatic PE, 46 (0.25%) developed recurrent PE, 203 (1.09%) bled, and 471 (2.51%) died. Predictors included in the final model were chronic heart failure, recent immobilization, recent major bleeding, cancer, hypotension, tachycardia, hypoxemia, renal insufficiency, and abnormal platelet count. The area under receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.78) for the RIETE score, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.70-0.73) for PESI (P < 0.05), and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.69-0.73) for sPESI (P < 0.05). Our RIETE score outperformed the prognostic value of PESI in terms of net reclassification improvement (P < 0.001), integrated discrimination improvement (P < 0.001), and sPESI (net reclassification improvement, P < 0.001; integrated discrimination improvement, P < 0.001). We built a new score, based on widely available variables, that can be used to identify patients with PE at low risk of short-term complications, assisting in triage and potentially shortening duration of hospital stay.

  1. Serum microRNA-1233 is a specific biomarker for diagnosing acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Thorsten; Erdmann, Jeanette; Vilne, Baiba; Bruse, Petra; Kurowski, Volkhard; Diemert, Patrick; Schunkert, Heribert; Sager, Hendrik B

    2016-05-05

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) emerge as novel biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases. Diagnosing acute pulmonary embolism (PE) remains challenging due to a diverse clinical presentation and the lack of specific biomarkers. Here we evaluate serum miRNAs as potential biomarkers in acute PE. We enrolled 30 patients with acute, CT (computed tomography)-angiographically confirmed central PE and collected serum samples on the day of emergency room admission (1st day) and from 22 of these patients 9 months thereafter. For comparison, we examined serum samples from patients with acute non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI, n = 30) and healthy individuals (n = 12). We randomly selected 16 out of 30 PE patients and screened sera from the acute (1st day) and chronic stages (9 months) for 754 miRNAs using microarrays and found 37 miRNAs to be differentially regulated. Across all miRNAs, miRNA-1233 displayed the highest fold change (FC) from acute to chronic stage (log2FC 11.5, p < 0.004). We validated miRNA-1233 by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In acute PE (1st day) we found elevated levels of miRNA-1233 in comparison to NSTEMI (log2FC 5.7, p < 0.0001) and healthy controls (log2FC 7.7, p < 0.0001). miRNA-1233 differentiated acute PE from NSTEMI patients and healthy individuals with 90 and 90 % sensitivity, and 100 and 92 % specificity [area under the curve (AUC) 0.95, p < 0.001 and 0.91, p < 0.001], respectively. This is the first report that identifies a miRNA that allows distinguishing acute PE from acute NSTEMI and healthy individuals with high specificity and sensitivity.

  2. Right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism: NT-proBNP vs. troponin T.

    PubMed

    Cotugno, Marilena; Orgaz-Molina, Jacinto; Rosa-Salazar, Vladimir; Guirado-Torrecillas, Leticia; García-Pérez, Bartolomé

    2017-04-21

    Dysfunction of the right ventricle (RV) is a parameter of severity in acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Echocardiographic assessment is not always possible in accident and emergency, hence the need to predict the presence of RV dysfunction using easily measurable parameters. To analyse the value of NT-proBNP and troponin T as markers of RV dysfunction in patients with acute PE. Secondarily, to assess the relationship between RV failure and clinical parameters related to PE. Analytical, observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study comparing the values NT-proBNP, troponin T and presenting symptoms of PE among patients with and without RV dysfunction. One hundred seventy-two patients (52 with RV failure,120 without) were included. All symptoms occurred with similar frequency between the 2groups except dyspnea and syncope (more common in the group with RV failure). Both NT-proBNP and troponin T had significantly higher values in the group of patients with RV dysfunction. However, in the multivariate analysis, NT-proBNP had a higher explanatory value for RV failure than troponin T. NT-proBNP is a diagnostic parameter of RV dysfunction with higher sensitivity in the context of acute PE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Immuno-inflammatory activation in acute cardio-embolic strokes in comparison with other subtypes of ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Licata, Giuseppe; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Corrao, Salvatore; Di Sciacca, Riccardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between inflammatory biomarker blood levels, cardioembolic stroke subtype and neurological deficit. So the aim of our study is to evaluate plasma levels of immuno-inflammatory variables in patients with cardio-embolic acute ischaemic stroke compared to other diagnostic subtypes and to evaluate the relationship between immuno-inflammatory variables, acute neurological deficit and brain infarct volume. One hundred twenty patients with acute ischaemic stroke and 123 controls without a diagnosis of acute ischaemic stroke were evaluated. The type of acute ischaemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST classification. We evaluated plasma levels of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10, E-selectin, P-selectin, sICAM-1,sVCAM-1, vWF, TPA and PAI-1. Patients with ischaemic stroke classified as cardio-embolic (CEI) showed, compared to other subtypes, significantly higher median plasma levels of TNF-alpha , IL-6 and IL-1beta. Furthermore stroke patients classified as lacunar showed, compared to other subtypes, significantly lower median plasma levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1beta. Multiple linear regression showed a significant association between the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) score at admission and diagnostic subtype, infarct volume of cardio-embolic strokes and some inflammatory variables. Our findings confirm that cardio-embolic strokes have a worse clinical presentation and produce larger and more disabling strokes than other ischaemic stroke subtypes reporting a possible explanation of higher immuno-inflammatory activation of the acute phase.

  4. Arterial distribution characteristics of Embozene particles and comparison with other spherical embolic agents in the porcine acute embolization model.

    PubMed

    Stampfl, Sibylle; Bellemann, Nadine; Stampfl, Ulrike; Sommer, Christof M; Thierjung, Heidi; Lopez-Benitez, Ruben; Radeleff, Boris; Berger, Irina; Richter, Goetz M

    2009-12-01

    To determine the arterial distribution pattern of the embolic agent Embozene within the porcine kidney and compare it with those of other spherical embolic agents. Embozene, Embosphere, Bead Block, and Contour SE in size classes of 100-300 microm, 500-700 microm, and 700-900 microm and Embozene and Embosphere in the size class of 40-120 microm were used for total arterial occlusion in minipig kidneys. Organs were evaluated microscopically regarding vascular distribution of the different embolic agents and particle sizes. The following variations of arterial distribution were identified. In the 40-120-microm size class, Embosphere particles penetrated significantly deeper compared with Embozene (P = .04). In the 100-300-microm size class, Bead Block showed a significantly deeper distribution as microscopy identified particles in arteries much smaller than their nominal size. In the 500-700-microm size class, Embosphere and Contour SE showed a deeper distribution. The most uniform arterial distribution was observed in the 700-900 microm size class,. However, few Embosphere and Contour SE particles were found in arcuate arteries, also indicating a distal distribution. Throughout the four most-used size classes, from very small (40-120 microm) to large (700-900 microm), the distribution characteristics of the four tested materials vary substantially. Particularly, small Embosphere particles and small Bead Block particles showed a more distal distribution, as did medium-sized Embosphere and Contour SE particles. In the largest investigated size class, the distribution was more uniform. In general, the Embozene particles are very uniform in size, and they seem to reach vessels closely corresponding to their nominal size.

  5. Acute cervical myelopathy due to presumed fibrocartilaginous embolism: a case report and systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cuello, Juan P; Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Linares, Guillermo; Agarwal, Sachin; Cunningham, Alyson; Mohr, Jay P; Mayer, Stephan A; Marshall, Randolph S; Claassen, Jan; Badjatia, Neeraj; Elkind, Mitchel S V; Lee, Kiwon

    2014-12-01

    Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) is an uncommon cause of myelopathy that should be considered after more common causes have been ruled out. This article presents a case report of a 50-year-old man with acute myelopathy attributed to FCE and summarizes the clinical features of the disease by analyzing all of the published evidence. Two computerized literature searches (MEDLINE-Pubmed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library) were performed. The search term used was "Fibrocartilaginous embolism." No language restrictions were applied. All articles were evaluated and key data were extracted according to predefined criteria: patient's age, year of publication, localization of the embolism and type of vascular syndrome, clinical outcome, and time to death in the fatal cases. Fifty-two cases (39 biopsy proven and 13 clinically diagnosed) were found in the literature. Median age at presentation was 37 years (interquartile range, 19-53) and 56% were women. Median progression of symptoms was 6 hours (interquartile range, 5-60 h), predominantly affecting the cervical spine (48%) by an arterial embolic source (56%). FCE is an unusual cause of spinal cord and cerebral ischemia with unknown incidence. Implementation of diagnostic imaging techniques and initial management of acute spinal disorders care in intensive care units might increase the incidence of disease antemortem. FCE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ischemic spinal cord injury when no other causes can be identified and especially when the onset is progressive over several hours.

  6. Regional right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism: relationship with clot burden and biomarker profile.

    PubMed

    Tuzovic, Mirela; Adigopula, Sasikanth; Amsallem, Myriam; Kobayashi, Yukari; Kadoch, Michael; Boulate, David; Krishnan, Gomathi; Liang, David; Schnittger, Ingela; Fleischmann, Dominik; McConnell, Michael V; Haddad, François

    2016-03-01

    Regional right ventricular (RV) dysfunction (RRVD) is an echocardiographic feature in acute pulmonary embolism (PE), primarily reported in patients with moderate-to-severe RV dysfunction. This study investigated the clinical importance of RRVD by assessing its relationship with clot burden and biomarkers. We identified consecutive patients admitted to the emergency department between 1999 and 2014 who underwent computed tomographic angiography, echocardiography, and biomarker testing (troponin and NT-proBNP) for suspected acute PE. RRVD was defined as normal excursion of the apex contrasting with hypokinesis of the mid-free wall segment. RV assessment included measurements of ventricular dimensions, fractional area change, free-wall longitudinal strain and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion. Clot burden was assessed using the modified Miller score. Of 82 patients identified, 51 had acute PE (mean age 66 ± 17 years, 43% male). No patient had RV myocardial infarction. RRVD was present in 41% of PEs and absent in all patients without PE. Among patients with PE, 86% of patients with RRVD had central or multi-lobar PE. Patients with RRVD had higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe RV dilation (81 vs. 30%, p < 0.01) and dysfunction (86 vs. 23%, p < 0.01). There was a strong trend for higher troponin level in PE patients with RRVD (38 vs. 13% in PE patients without RRVD, p = 0.08), while there was no significant difference for NT-proBNP (67 vs. 73%, p = 0.88). RRVD showed good concordance between readers (87%). RRVD is associated with an increased clot burden in acute PE and is more prevalent among patients with moderate-to-severe RV enlargement and dysfunction.

  7. The predictive value of echocardiography for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after acute pulmonary embolism in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Sup; Ahn, Jinhee; Choi, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Won; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Lee, Han Cheol; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a life-threatening complication after acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of CTEPH after APE in Korea and to determine echocardiographic predictors of CTEPH. Methods Among 381 patients with APE confirmed by chest computed tomography (CT) between January 2007 and July 2013, 246 consecutive patients with available echocardiographic data were enrolled in this study. CTEPH was defined as a persistent right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) greater than 35 mmHg on echocardiography during follow-up and persistent pulmonary embolism on the follow-up CT. Results Fifteen patients (6.1%) had CTEPH. The rate of right ventricular (RV) dilatation (66.7% vs. 28.1%, p = 0.002) and the RVSP (75.5 mmHg vs. 39.0 mmHg, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the CTEPH group. D-dimers, RV dilatation, RV hypertrophy, RVSP, and intermediate-risk APE were associated with the risk of CTEPH after APE (odds ratio [OR] 0.59, 5.11, 7.82, 1.06, and 4.86, respectively) on univariate analysis. RVSP remained as a significant predictor of CTEPH on multivariate analysis (OR, 1.056; 95% confidence interval, 1.006 to 1.109; p = 0.029). Conclusions This study showed that the incidence of CTEPH after APE in Korea was 6.1% and that initial RVSP by echocardiography was a strong prognostic factor for CTEPH. PMID:27044855

  8. CASE REPORT Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Forearm Following Blood Gas Analysis Postthrombolysis for Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Bisarya, Kamal; George, Samuel; El Sallakh, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is an important condition with potentially serious consequences if not diagnosed and treated promptly. This report highlights a case of acute compartment syndrome of the forearm after radial artery blood gas analysis in a patient who had been thrombolyzed for a pulmonary embolus. Methods/Case Report: We present a case of a 54-year-old lady, admitted and treated for a pulmonary embolism with tenecteplase for thrombolysis. As per routine management, she had taken an arterial blood gas sample, which caused hematoma in the wrist and a few hours later developed pain and a tense right forearm being diagnosed with compartment syndrome. She underwent fasciotomies and subsequent split skin grafting. We discuss the different etiologies of compartment syndrome, clinical signs, and available investigations as well as immediate and definitive management options including fasciotomy techniques. We present the latest literature on the subject and extract valuable learning points from this case. With the common use of thrombolysis for the management of a myocardial infarction or pulmonary embolus, compartment syndrome is an uncommon but potentially associated problem. Furthermore, with blood gas sampling being part of daily clinical practice and a potential cause of this condition, the compartment syndrome becomes iatrogenic and potentiates serious litigation. As many junior doctors are performing blood gas analysis postthrombolysis, they need to assess patients adequately and realize the risk of possible sequelae such as compartment syndrome in this group and inform patients of such complications.

  9. Higher mortality rate in patients hospitalised for acute pulmonary embolism during weekends.

    PubMed

    Gallerani, Massimo; Imberti, Davide; Ageno, Walter; Dentali, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    The management of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is often challenging and requires specific medical expertise, diagnostic techniques and therapeutic options that may not be available in all hospitals throughout the entire week. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether or not an association exists between weekday or weekend admission and mortality for patients hospitalised with acute PE. Using routinely collected hospital administrative data, we examined patients discharged with a diagnosis of PE from the hospitals of the Emilia- Romagna Region in Italy (January 1999-December 2009). The risk of in-hospital death was calculated for admissions at the weekend and compared to weekday admissions. Of a total of 26,560 PEs, 6,788 (25.6%) had been admitted during weekends. PE admissions were most frequent on Mondays (15.8%) and less frequent on Saturdays and Sundays/holidays (12.8%) (p<0.001). Weekend admissions were associated with significantly higher rates of in-hospital mortality than weekday admissions (28% vs. 24.8%) (p<0.001). The risk of weekend admission and in-hospital mortality was higher after adjusting for sender, hospital characteristics, and the Charlson co-morbidity index. In conclusion, hospitalisation for PE on weekends seems to be associated with a significantly higher mortality rate than on weekdays. Further research is needed to investigate the reasons for this observed difference in mortality in order to try and implement future strategies that ensure an adequate level of care throughout the entire week.

  10. Recurrent embolization during intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator in acute cardioembolic stroke. A case report.

    PubMed

    Yasaka, M; Yamaguchi, T; Yonehara, T; Moriyasu, H

    1994-06-01

    Treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) has been applied in acute cardioembolic stroke to reopen the occluded vessel and improve the patient's neurologic deficit. However, the effect of this therapy on intracardiac thrombus has not been documented previously. A forty-five-year-old man with dilated cardiomyopathy developed acute cardioembolic stroke with disturbance of consciousness, right hemianopia, right hemiplegia, and global aphasia. Cerebral angiography demonstrated occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery trunk. Intravenous administration of 30 megaunits (MU) of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator was commenced two hours after the ictus and completed within sixty minutes. Cerebral angiography was repeated just after this treatment and demonstrated a new occlusion of the left intracranial internal carotid artery along with occlusion of a branch of the left external artery. The authors subsequently performed two-dimensional echocardiography and found a mobile thrombus in the left ventricle. In patients with intracardiac mobile thrombi, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator seems to accelerate breakup or detachment of the thrombi and subsequent recurrent embolization. Therefore, it seems better to pay attention to the presence of mobile intracardiac thrombus before commencing intravenous infusion of rt-PA.

  11. Referral Patterns and Diagnostic Yield of Lung Scintigraphy in the Diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Zannier, Erik; Zuckier, Lionel S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study is to assess referral patterns and the yield of ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy in patients referred for acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients who underwent V/Q studies between April 1, 2008, and March 31, 2010. Patients were subdivided into 4 groups based on their referral source: emergency department (ED), hospital inpatient ward, outpatient thrombosis clinic, and all other outpatient sources. Results. A total of 1008 patients underwent V/Q scintigraphy to exclude acute PE. The number of ED, inpatient, thrombosis clinic, and outpatient studies was 43 (4.3%), 288 (28.6%), 351 (34.8%), and 326 (32.3%). Proportion of patients with contrast contraindication varied significantly among the different groups. Of the 1,008 studies, 331 (32.8%) were interpreted as normal, 408 (40.5%) as low, 158 (15.7%) as intermediate, and 111 (11.0%) as high probability for PE. 68 (6.7%) patients underwent CTPA within 2 weeks following V/Q. Conclusion. The rate of nondiagnostic studies is lower than that reported in previously published data, with a relatively low rate of intermediate probability studies. Only a small fraction of patients undergoing a V/Q scan will require a CTPA. PMID:28491475

  12. Computed tomography and echocardiography in patients with acute pulmonary embolism: part 1: correlation of findings of right ventricular enlargement.

    PubMed

    Wake, Nicole; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Bedayat, Arash; Ghosh, Nina; Gonzalez Quesada, Carlos; Rybicki, Frank J; Gerhard-Herman, Marie

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between the computed tomography (CT)-derived right ventricle (RV) to left ventricle (LV) diameter ratio and the RV size determined by echocardiography in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Consecutive CT pulmonary angiography examinations (August 2003 to May 2010) from a single, large, urban teaching hospital were retrospectively reviewed. For a cohort of 777 subjects who underwent echocardiography within 48 hours of the CT acquisition, the qualitative RV size (divided into 5 categories) extracted from the echocardiography report was correlated with the CT-derived RV/LV diameter ratio. There was moderate correlation (Spearman rank correlation coefficient=0.54, P<0.001) between the CT-derived RV/LV ratio and the RV size as determined by echocardiography. The correlation coefficient and the concordance rate were inversely related to the time difference between the acquisitions of the 2 modalities. CT and echocardiography findings to assess the RV size after acute pulmonary embolism have moderate correlation.

  13. Use of Spider Filter Embolic Protection Device During Endovascular Revascularization of Acute Thromboembolic Occlusion of Superficial Femoral Artery.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhongzhi; Zhao, Jinwei; Tian, Feng; Wang, Kai; Li, Shaoqin; Jiang, Guomin; Wang, Weiping

    2015-12-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Spider filter embolic protection device (EPD) in protecting patients from distal migration of thromboemboli during revascularization of acute superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusion secondary to thromboemboli. Data from all patients at our institution who had EPD placement for embolic protection during endovascular revascularization for acute thromboembolic occlusion of the SFA were analyzed. From April 2007 to June 2014, a total of 14 patients had EPD placement during endovascular revascularization for acute SFA occlusion secondary to thromboemboli. All patients presented with acute onset of limb ischemia, and further work-up with imaging studies demonstrated thromboembolic occlusions. The duration from onset of symptoms to revascularization was 7.0 ± 2.7 h (range 2-14 h). An aspiration technique for thrombectomy was used in all 14 cases (aspiration alone, 6 cases; aspiration plus urokinase, 7 cases; additional angioplasty after urokinase, 1 case). Spider filter EPDs were successfully placed at the target in all 14 cases, and the thromboemboli were captured in 13/14 (92.9%) cases. Successful reestablishment of the SFA flow without distal branch embolism occurred in all 14 cases. There were no EPD-related complications. During a mean 32.2 ± 20.2 months of follow-up, 13 patients remained asymptomatic; one patient who underwent PTA during the procedure reported limb coolness and fatigue 6 months later because of recurrent atherosclerotic stenosis. The Spider filter EPD can be safe and effective in protecting patients from distal branch embolism when they undergo an endovascular thrombectomy procedure.

  14. Once daily versus twice daily enoxaparin for acute pulmonary embolism in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    King, Amber C; Ma, Maggie Q; Chisholm, Gary; Toale, Katy M

    2016-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a condition in which a thrombus occludes the vasculature. The incidence of VTE in cancer patients is three times higher than that of the general population. Enoxaparin 1 mg/kg subcutaneously (SC) twice daily and enoxaparin 1.5 mg/kg SC once daily are both FDA-approved dosing regimens for the treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE). The objectives of this study were to assess outcomes of cancer patients treated with once or twice daily enoxaparin for acute PE. Primary outcomes included recurrent or worsening PE and secondary outcomes included mortality or signs of clinically overt, major bleeding. This study was a retrospective chart review of adult cancer patients treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 2011 to 2013 who received either 1 mg/kg twice daily or 1.5 mg/kg once daily enoxaparin for acute PE upon discharge. Among 48 patients in each the twice daily and once daily group, six recurrent PEs occurred. The incidence of recurrent PE was higher in the once daily group (n = 4) versus twice daily group (n = 2). More major bleeding events occurred in the once daily group than the twice daily group (15% vs. 6%). Mortality at 6 months was higher in the twice daily group versus once daily group (13% vs. 6%). Cancer patients receiving once daily enoxaparin for the treatment of acute PE may be at increased risk of recurrent PE and clinically overt bleeding. Larger randomized trials are needed to confirm the results of this study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Electrocardiographic differentiation between acute pulmonary embolism and non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes at the bedside.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Krzysztof; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Ozdowska, Patrycja; Milanowska-Puncewicz, Blanka; Pacho, Szymon; Pedowska-Włoszek, Justyna; Kaczyńska, Anna; Labyk, Andrzej; Hrynkiewicz, Anna; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2010-04-01

    Clinical picture of acute pulmonary embolism (APE), with wide range of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities can mimic acute coronary syndromes. Assessment of standard 12-lead ECG usefulness in differentiation at the bedside between APE and non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Retrospective analysis of 143 patients: 98 consecutive patients (mean age 63.4 +/- 19.4 year, 45 M) with APE and 45 consecutive patients (mean age 72.8 +/- 10.8 year, 44 M) with NSTE-ACS. Standard ECGs recorded on admission were compared in separated groups. Right bundle branch block (RBBB) and S(1)S(2)S(3) or S(1)Q(3)T(3) pattern were found in similar frequency in both groups (10 [11%] APE patients vs 6 [14%] NSTE-ACS patients, 27 [28%] patients vs 7 [16%] patients, respectively, NS). Negative T waves in leads V(1-3) together with negative T waves in inferior wall leads II, III, aVF (OR 1.3 [1.14-1.68]) significantly indicated APE with a positive predictive value of 85% and specificity of 87%. However, counterclockwise axis rotation (OR 4.57 [2.74-7.61]), ventricular premature beats (OR 2.60 [1.60-4.19]), ST depression in leads V(1-3) (OR 2.25 [1.43-3.56]), and negative T waves in leads V(5-6) (OR 2.08 [1.31-3.29]) significantly predicted NSTE-ACS. RBBB, S(1)S(2)S(3), or S(1)Q(3)T(3) pattern described as characteristic for APE were not helpful in the differentiation between APE and NSTE-ACS in studied group. Coexistence of negative T waves in precordial leads V(1-3) and inferior wall leads may suggest APE diagnosis.

  16. Comparative proteome analysis of serum from acute pulmonary embolism rat model for biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-qing; Yun, Jun; Xue, Fu-bo; Bai, Chang-qing; Yang, Shu-guang; Que, Hai-ping; Zhao, Xin; Wu, Zhe; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shao-jun

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common, potentially fatal disease and its diagnosis is challenging because clinical signs and symptoms are nonspecific. In this study, to investigate protein alterations of a rat PE model, total serum proteins collected at different time points were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and identified using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Bioinformatics analysis of 24 differentially expressed proteins showed that 20 had corresponding protein candidates in the database. According to their properties and obvious alterations after PE, changes of serum concentrations of Hp, Fn, DBP, RBP, and TTR were selected to be reidentified by western blot analysis. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed DBP, RBP, and TTR to be down-regulated at mRNA levels in livers but not in lung tissues. The low serum concentrations of DBP, RBP, and TTR resulted in the up-regulation of 25(OH)D3, vitamin A, and FT4 (ligands of DBP, RBP, and TTR) after acute PE in rat models. The serum levels of Hp and Fn were detected in patients with DVT/PE and controls to explore their diagnostic prospects in acute PE because the mRNA levels of Hp and Fn were found to be up-regulated both in lung tissues and in livers after acute PE. Our data suggested that the concentration of serum Fn in controls was 79.42 +/- 31.57 microg/L, whereas that of PE/DVT patients was 554.43 +/- 136.18 microg/L (P < 0.001), and that the concentration of serum Hp in controls was 824.37 +/- 235.24 mg/L, whereas that of PE/DVT patients was 2063.48 +/- 425.38 mg/L (P < 0.001). The experimental PE rat model selected in this study was more similar to the clinical process than the other existing PE animal models, and the findings indicated instant changes of serum proteins within 48 h after acute PE. The exploration of these differentially expressed proteins or their combination with existent markers such as D-dimer may greatly improve the

  17. Prognostic value of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in patients with acute pulmonary embolism: a restrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kayrak, Mehmet; Erdoğan, Halil Ibrahim; Solak, Yalcin; Akilli, Hakan; Gül, Enes Elvin; Yildirim, Oğuzhan; Erer, Murat; Akilli, Nezire Belgin; Bekci, Taha Tahir; Aribaş, Alpay; Yazici, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious clinical condition characterised by a high mortality rate. Previous studies showed that leukocytosis was associated with recurrences of venous thromboemboli, major bleeding and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with acute PE during short term follow-up. A total of 640 patients were screened by I26 code of ICD-9 and 359 patients were included as cases of confirmed acute PE. Admission blood counts and clinical data were obtained from medical charts. The predictors of 30-day mortality were examined. Fifty-one out of 359 patients (14.2%) included in the study died during 30 days follow-up. In multivariate Cox regression analysis systolic blood pressure (HR:0.97 (0.94-0.99 CI95%), p=0.019), diabetes mellitus (HR:3.3 (1.30-8.39 CI95%), p=0.012), CK-MB(HR:1.03 (1.01-1.06 CI95%), p=0.024) and NLR (HR:1.03 (1.01-1.06 CI95%), p=0.008) were predictors of 30-day mortality. An optimal cut-off value of NLR was determined as 9.2 by using ROC curve. Hazards ratio of NLR>9.2 was found to be 3.60 (1.44-9.18 CI95%, p=0.006). NLR>9.2 had a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 68.6%, 80.5%, 93.9% and 36.5%, respectively. NLR on hospital admission may be a predictor of 30-day mortality in acute PE. Since complete blood count is a part of the routine laboratory investigation in the most hospitalised patients use and preliminary promising results of this study, NLR should be investigated in future prospective randomised trials regarding prognostic value in acute PE. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Successful provision of inter-hospital extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for acute post-partum pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    McDonald, C; Laurie, J; Janssens, S; Zazulak, C; Kotze, P; Shekar, K

    2017-01-09

    Mortality during pregnancy in a well-resourced setting is rare, but acute pulmonary embolism is one of the leading causes. We present the successful use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) in a 22-year old woman who experienced cardiopulmonary collapse following urgent caesarean section in the setting of a sub-massive pulmonary embolus. Resources and personnel to perform eCPR were not available at the maternity hospital and were recruited from an adjacent pediatric hospital. Initial care used low blood flow extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with pediatric ECMO circuitry, which was optimized when the team from a nearby adult cardiac hospital arrived. Following ECMO support, the patient experienced massive hemorrhage which was managed with uterotonic agents, targeted transfusion, bilateral uterine artery embolisation and abdominal re-exploration. The patient was transferred to an adult unit where she remained on ECMO for five days. She was discharged home with normal cognitive function. This case highlights the role ECMO plays in providing extracorporeal respiratory or mechanical circulatory support in a high risk obstetric patient.

  19. Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation in the Course of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Clinical Significance and Impact on Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Krajewska, Agnieszka; Kiluk, Izabela; Kosacka, Urszula; Krajewski, Jacek; Musial, Wlodzimierz Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    The relationship and clinical implications of atrial fibrillation (AF) in acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are poorly investigated. We aimed to analyze clinical characteristics and prognosis in PE patients with paroxysmal AF episode. Methods. From the 391 patients with PE 31 subjects with paroxysmal AF were selected. This group was compared with patients with PE and sinus rhythm (SR) and 32 patients with PE and permanent AF. Results. Paroxysmal AF patients were the oldest. Concomitant DVT varies between groups: paroxysmal AF 32.3%, SR 49.5%, and permanent AF 28.1% (p = 0.02). The stroke history frequency was 4.6% SR, 12.9% paroxysmal AF, and 21.9% permanent AF (p < 0.001). Paroxysmal AF comparing to permanent AF and SR individuals had higher estimated SPAP (56 versus 48 versus 47 mmHg, p = 0.01) and shorter ACT (58 versus 65 versus 70 ms, p = 0.04). Patients with AF were more often classified into high-risk group according to revised Geneva score and sPESI than SR patients. In-hospital mortality was lower in SR (5%) and paroxysmal AF (6.5%) compared to permanent AF group (25%) (p < 0.001). Conclusions. Patients with PE-associated paroxysmal AF constitute a separate population. More severe impairment of the parameters reflecting RV afterload may indicate relation between PE severity and paroxysmal AF episode. Paroxysmal AF has no impact on short-term mortality. PMID:28280732

  20. Weight-based contrast administration in the computerized tomography evaluation of acute pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Lisa; Zamfirova, Ina; Sulo, Suela; Baral, Pesach

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Compare individualized contrast protocol, or weight-based protocol, to standard methodology in evaluating acute pulmonary embolism. Retrospective chart review was performed on patients undergoing computed tomography angiography with standard contrast protocol (n = 50) or individualized protocol (n = 50). Computerized tomography images were assessed for vascular enhancement and image quality. Demographics were comparable, however, more patients in the individualized group were admitted to intensive care unit (48% vs 16%, P = 0.004). Vascular enhancement and image quality were also comparable, although individualized protocol had significantly fewer contrast and motion artifact limitations (28% vs 48%, P = 0.039). Fifteen percent decrease in intravenous contrast volume was identified in individualized group with no compromise in image quality. Individualized contrast protocol provided comparable vascular enhancement and image quality to the standard, yet with fewer limitations and lower intravenous contrast volume. Catheter-gauge flow rate restrictions resulting in inconsistent technologist exam execution were identified, supporting the need for further investigation of this regimen. PMID:28151887

  1. Chest radiographic findings in patients with acute pulmonary embolism: observations from the PIOPED Study.

    PubMed

    Worsley, D F; Alavi, A; Aronchick, J M; Chen, J T; Greenspan, R H; Ravin, C E

    1993-10-01

    To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of chest radiographic findings in patients suspected of having acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Chest radiographs of 1,063 patients with suspected PE were reviewed. PE was confirmed angiographically in 383 patients and excluded in 680 patients. The chest radiograph was interpreted as normal in only 12% of patients with PE. The most common chest radiographic finding in patients with PE was atelectasis and/or parenchymal areas of increased opacity; however, the prevalence was not significantly different from that in patients without PE. Oligemia (the Westermark sign), prominent central pulmonary artery (the Fleischner sign), pleural-based area of increased opacity (the Hampton hump), vascular redistribution, pleural effusion, elevated diaphragm, and enlarged hilum were also poor predictors of PE. Although chest radiographs are essential in the investigation of suspected PE, their main value is to exclude diagnoses that clinically mimic PE and to aid in the interpretation of the ventilation-perfusion scan.

  2. Right ventricular dysfunction in hemodynamically stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Keller, Karsten; Beule, Johannes; Schulz, Andreas; Coldewey, Meike; Dippold, Wolfgang; Balzer, Jörn Oliver

    2014-04-01

    Echocardiography for risk stratification in hemodynamically stable patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) is well-established. Right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) is associated with an elevated mortality and adverse outcome. The aim of our study was to compare RVD criteria and investigate the role of elevated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) in the diagnosis of RVD. We retrospectively analyzed the echocardiographic and laboratory data of all hemodynamically stable patients with confirmed PE (2006-2011). The data were compared with three different definitions of RVD: Definition 1: RV dilatation, abnormal motion of interventricular septum, RV hypokinesis or tricuspid regurgitation. Definition 2: as with definition 1 but including elevated sPAP (>30mmHg). Definition 3: elevated sPAP (>30mmHg) as single RVD criterion. A total number of 129 patients (59.7% women, age 70.0years (60.7/81.0)) were included in this study. Median Troponin I level was measured as 0.02ng/ml (0/0.14); mean sPAP 33.9±18.5mmHg. The troponin cut-off levels for predicting a RVD of the 3 RVD definitions were in definition 1-3: >0.01ng/ml, >0.01ng/ml and >0.00ng/ml. Analysis of the ROC curve showed an AUC for RVD definitions 1-3: 0.790, 0.796 and 0.635. The combination of commonly used RVD criteria with added elevated sPAP improves the diagnosis of RVD in acute PE. Troponin I values of >0.01ng/ml in acute PE point to an RVD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association Between Confidence Level of Acute Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis on CTPA images and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bedayat, Arash; Sewatkar, Rani; Cai, Tianrun; George, Elizabeth; Imanzadeh, Amir; Hussain, Zoha; Dunne, Ruth M; Hunsaker, Andetta R; Rybicki, Frank J; Kumamaru, Kanako K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose was to evaluate clinical characteristics associated with low confidence in diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) as expressed in computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) reports and to evaluate the effect of confidence level in PE diagnosis on patient clinical outcomes. This study included radiology reports from 1664 consecutive CTPA considered positive for acute PE (8/2003-5/2010). All reports were retrospectively assessed for the level of confidence in diagnosis. Baseline characteristics and outcomes (therapies related to PE and short-term mortality) were compared between high and low confidence groups. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses were used to analyze the relationship between the confidence level and outcomes. One-hundred sixty of 1664 (9.6%) reports had language that reflected a low confidence in PE diagnosis. The low confidence group had smaller (segmental and subsegmental) suspected emboli (prevalence, 72.5% vs. 50.7%; P < .001) and more comorbidities. The low confidence group had a lower likelihood of receiving PE-related therapies (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.18; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-031, P < .001), but there was no change in the all-cause and PE-related 30-day and/or 90-day mortality (OR of death for low confidence, 0.81-1.13, P values > .5). Roughly 10% of positive CTPA reports had uncertainty in PE findings, and patients with reports categorized as low confidence had smaller emboli and more comorbidities. Although the low confidence group was less likely to receive PE-related therapies, patients in this group were not associated with higher probability of short-term mortality. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Disturbed right ventricular ejection pattern as a new Doppler echocardiographic sign of acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Kurzyna, Marcin; Torbicki, Adam; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Burakowska, Barbara; Fijałkowska, Anna; Kober, Jaroslaw; Oniszh, Karina; Kuca, Paweł; Tomkowski, Witold; Burakowski, Janusz; Wawrzyńska, Liliana

    2002-09-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is frequently performed in patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism (APE) to search for right ventricular (RV) pressure overload. We prospectively assessed the diagnostic value of a new Doppler echocardiographic sign of APE based on the disturbed RV ejection pattern ("60/60 sign") and compared its diagnostic performances with that of the presence of RV pressure overload, as well as with "McConnell sign" based on RV regional wall motion abnormalities. We assessed 100 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of APE, including those with previous cardiorespiratory diseases. After TTE, all of the patients underwent reference diagnostic tests for APE. The 60/60 sign required RV acceleration time of acute respiratory distress syndrome following lung resection. McConnell sign was fully specific but was noted in only 13 of 67 patients. Sensitivity and specificity were 81% and 45% for "RV-pressure overload" signs, 25% and 94% for 60/60 sign, and 19% and 100% for McConnell sign. When combined, the 2 latter signs were 94% specific and 36% sensitive in diagnosing APE. Thus, RV overload at echocardiography is not specific for APE. The 60/60 and McConnell signs are insensitive, but are reliable and helpful in bedside diagnosis of APE when direct visualization of the pulmonary arteries is impossible. Combining these 2 signs may increase the sensitivity without compromising the specificity of echocardiographic diagnosis of APE.

  5. Association of anaemia and mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, David; Escobar, Carlos; Martí, David; Díaz, Gema; César, Jesús; García-Avello, Angel; Sueiro, Antonio; Yusen, Roger D

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between anaemia and pulmonary embolism (PE) prognosis. We analysed a cohort of 764 patients with acute PE referred to a single center for diagnosis and management. Patients were divided into groups by quartiles of haemoglobin (Hb): Hb < 11.7 g/dl; Hb 11.7 to 12.9 g/dl; Hb 13.0 to 14.1 g/dl; Hb > 14.1 g/dl. Patients had a mean Hb of 12.9 g/dl, and values ranged from to 4.3 to 19.5 g/dl. Lower Hb was associated with recent bleeding, an impaired haemodynamic profile and higher creatinine. Patients in the lower Hb quartiles more commonly had female gender (p < 0.001), a diagnosis of cancer (p < 0.001), and an indication for an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter (p < 0.002), compared to patients in the higher Hb quartiles. Patients in higher Hb quartiles had higher survival at three months (75%, 86%, 90% and 91% for lowest to highest quartiles, respectively). On multivariate analysis, adjusting for known PE prognostic factors, low Hb proved to be an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.28 for each decrease of 1 g/dl). Hb level remained an independent predictor of all-cause mortality when cancer patients were excluded from the analysis (adjusted HR 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.99; p = 0.04). Moreover, patients with anaemia showed a higher risk of fatal PE (unadjusted HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.37). In conclusion, in patients with acute symptomatic PE, anaemia severity is associated with worsened survival.

  6. Assessing the utility of the ventilation phase in ventilation-perfusion imaging for acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Lars J; Coleman, Ralph E

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to identify patient characteristics that allow the exclusion of the ventilation phase in ventilation-perfusion imaging for the evaluation of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). A total of 500 consecutive ventilation-perfusion reports with an indication for possible acute PE were retrospectively reviewed. Information on ventilation abnormalities, perfusion defects, PIOPED classification, age, sex, chest radiograph results, and presence of respiratory disease was recorded. Patients with moderate and large perfusion defects were analyzed to assess the utility of the ventilation phase on the final PIOPED classification. Moderate (n=39) or large (n=26) perfusion defects were seen in 65 (13%) studies. Of these, 46 studies (70.8%) had defects unmatched on ventilation and three (4.6%) had triple-match defects, resulting in 49 reports (75.4%) classified as intermediate (n=28) or high (n=21) probability for PE. There was a statistically significant association between unmatched defects and a clear chest radiograph (P=0.03) and an association approaching statistical significance with younger age (P=0.05). There was a strong association with respiratory disease (P=0.12) and no association with patient sex (P=0.82). The percentage of studies with unmatched defects increased from 70.8 to 76.7% (33/43, P=0.39) if patients with respiratory disease were excluded, to 82.4% (28/34, P=0.14) if abnormal chest radiographs were excluded, and to 95.7% (22/23, P=0.01) if both were excluded. There may be a subset of patients - younger patients with clear chest radiographs and no respiratory disease - for whom the ventilation phase can be excluded and the determination of a PE is based solely on perfusion abnormalities.

  7. An uncommon cause of visceral arterial embolism in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Ulenaers, M; Buchel, O C; Van Olmen, A; Moons, V; D'Haens, G; Christiaens, P

    2010-01-01

    We report on 2 cases of visceral arterial embolism presenting with acute abdominal pain. In neither patient a cause could be established on initial clinical, laboratory, echographic or radiological investigation. Both patients were subsequently found to have a mural thrombus in the thoracic aorta, with visceral arterial embolism. Each underwent a successful operative thrombectomy. Both patients had a normal underlying aortic intima at inspection. The first patient was a young male with no known diseases. He regularly used cannabis and tested positive on admission, an association not yet reported with aortic mural thrombus. He was found to have a slightly reduced protein C. The second patient was a middle aged man with non-insulin dependent diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, arterial hypertension and hyperthyroidism. He was found to have an underlying adenocarcinoma of the lung and received chemotherapy. He died due to his cancer, 4 months after first presentation.

  8. Embolization of Acute Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Resistant to Endoscopic Treatment: Results and Predictors of Recurrent Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Loffroy, Romaric Rao, Pramod; Ota, Shinichi; Lin Mingde; Kwak, Byung-Kook; Geschwind, Jean-Francois

    2010-12-15

    Acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) hemorrhage is a frequent complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most common cause of UGI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, but the differential diagnosis is diverse and includes tumors; ischemia; gastritis; arteriovenous malformations, such as Dieulafoy lesions; Mallory-Weiss tears; trauma; and iatrogenic causes. Aggressive treatment with early endoscopic hemostasis is essential for a favorable outcome. However, severe bleeding despite conservative medical treatment or endoscopic intervention occurs in 5-10% of patients, requiring surgery or transcatheter arterial embolization. Surgical intervention is usually an expeditious and gratifying endeavor, but it can be associated with high operative mortality rates. Endovascular management using superselective catheterization of the culprit vessel, < sandwich> occlusion, or blind embolization has emerged as an alternative to emergent operative intervention for high-risk patients and is now considered the first-line therapy for massive UGI bleeding refractory to endoscopic treatment. Indeed, many published studies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and its high technical and clinical success rates, which range from 69 to 100% and from 63 to 97%, respectively, even if the choice of the best embolic agent among coils, cyanaocrylate glue, gelatin sponge, or calibrated particles remains a matter of debate. However, factors influencing clinical outcome, especially predictors of early rebleeding, are poorly understood, and few studies have addressed this issue. This review of the literature will attempt to define the role of embolotherapy for acute nonvariceal UGI hemorrhage that fails to respond to endoscopic hemostasis and to summarize data on factors predicting angiographic and embolization failure.

  9. Protection of Distal Embolization in High-Risk Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (PREMIAR).

    PubMed

    Cura, Fernando A; Escudero, Alejandro Garcia; Berrocal, Daniel; Mendiz, Oscar; Trivi, Marcelo S; Fernandez, Juan; Palacios, Alejandro; Albertal, Mariano; Piraino, Ruben; Riccitelli, Miguel Angel; Gruberg, Luis; Ballarino, Miguel; Milei, Jose; Baeza, Ricardo; Thierer, Jorge; Grinfeld, Liliana; Krucoff, Mitchell; O'Neill, William; Belardi, Jorge

    2007-02-01

    Distal embolization may decrease myocardial reperfusion after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Nonetheless, results of previous trials assessing the role of distal protection during primary PCI have been controversial. The Protection of Distal Embolization in High-Risk Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Trial (PREMIAR) was a prospective, randomized, controlled study designed to evaluate the role of filter-based distal protection during PCI in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction at high risk of embolic events (including only baseline Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 0 to 2 flow). The primary end point was continuous monitoring of ST-segment resolution. Secondary end points included core laboratory analysis of angiographic myocardial blush, ejection fraction measured by cardiac ultrasound, and adverse cardiac events at 6 months. From a total of 194 enrolled patients, 140 subjects were randomized to PCI with or without embolic protection, and 54 were included in a registry arm due to the presence of angiographic exclusion criteria. Baseline characteristics were comparable between arms. The rate of complete ST-segment resolution (>or=70%) at 60 minutes was similar in patients treated with or without distal protection (61.2% vs 60.3%, respectively, p = 0.85). Angiographic myocardial blush (67% vs 70.7%, p = 0.73), in-hospital ejection fraction (47.4 +/- 9.9% vs 45.3 +/- 7.3%, p = 0.29), and combined end point of death, heart failure, or reinfarction at 6 months (14.3% vs 15.7%, p = 0.81) were consistently achieved in a similar proportion in the 2 groups. In conclusion, the use of filter-based distal protection is safe and effectively retrieves debris; however, such use does not translate into an improvement of myocardial reperfusion, left ventricular performance, or clinical outcomes.

  10. Value of D-dimer and HDL cholesterol concentrations in predicting the occurrence of acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Jan; Jędrzejczyk, Jacek Tadeusz; Barylski, Marcin; Ciećwierz, Julita; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually is a clinical manifestation of venous thromboembolism. The lack of simple and safe laboratory test to confirm or exclude PE is a problem that slows down the diagnosis. The aim of the study was the assessment the usefulness of D-dimer and HDL cholesterol concentration in predicting the occurrence of acute pulmonary embolism. The study group comprised 86 patients. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured by catalase HDL-C and LDLC assay. The D-dimer level was assessed using immunoenzymatic method with high sensitivity test (VIDAS D-Dimer Exclusion). Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed using contrast-enhanced multidetector computer tomography (16-row GE Light Speed Pro and 64-row Toshiba Aquilion Systems). In all patients with PE, higher D-dimer concentration was found. Odds ratio (OR) calculated for the D-dimer indicates that the concentration of D-dimer ≥859,5 ng/ml increases the risk of PE 612 times, compared with those with levels below 859,5 ng/ml. HDL cholesterol level in patients with PE was significantly lower compared with the control group (p < 0,05). Odds ratio (OR) calculated for the HDL cholesterol indicates that the risk of PE in subjects with the concentration of HDL-C ≤44 mg/dl is 26,89 times higher, compared with individuals with HDL-C >44 mg/dl. According the studies, increase D-dimer and decrease HDL levels are an independent risk factors for occurrence of acute pulmonary embolism. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  11. Pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

  12. Prognostic models in acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Antoine; Mallett, Susan; Daoud-Elias, Marie; Poggi, Jean-Noël; Clarke, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence for existing prognostic models in acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and determine how valid and useful they are for predicting patient outcomes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources OVID MEDLINE and EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library from inception to July 2014, and sources of grey literature. Eligibility criteria Studies aiming at constructing, validating, updating or studying the impact of prognostic models to predict all-cause death, PE-related death or venous thromboembolic events up to a 3-month follow-up in patients with an acute symptomatic PE. Data extraction Study characteristics and study quality using prognostic criteria. Studies were selected and data extracted by 2 reviewers. Data analysis Summary estimates (95% CI) for proportion of risk groups and event rates within risk groups, and accuracy. Results We included 71 studies (44 298 patients). Among them, 17 were model construction studies specific to PE prognosis. The most validated models were the PE Severity Index (PESI) and its simplified version (sPESI). The overall 30-day mortality rate was 2.3% (1.7% to 2.9%) in the low-risk group and 11.4% (9.9% to 13.1%) in the high-risk group for PESI (9 studies), and 1.5% (0.9% to 2.5%) in the low-risk group and 10.7% (8.8% to12.9%) in the high-risk group for sPESI (11 studies). PESI has proved clinically useful in an impact study. Shifting the cut-off or using novel and updated models specifically developed for normotensive PE improves the ability for identifying patients at lower risk for early death or adverse outcome (0.5–1%) and those at higher risk (up to 20–29% of event rate). Conclusions We provide evidence-based information about the validity and utility of the existing prognostic models in acute PE that may be helpful for identifying patients at low risk. Novel models seem attractive for the high-risk normotensive PE but need to be externally validated then be assessed in impact studies. PMID

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Thrombolytic Therapy in Acute Submassive Pulmonary Embolism: Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Sachan, Mohit; Goel, Amit; Singh, Karandeep; Mishra, Vikas; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Kumar, Ashutosh; Abdali, Nasar; Asif, Mohammad; Razi, Mahamdula; Pandey, Umeshwar; Thakur, Ramesh; Varma, Chandra Mohan; Krishna, Vinay

    2017-01-01

    Background Thrombolysis in acute submassive pulmonary embolism (PE) remains controversial. So we studied impact of thrombolytic therapy in acute submassive PE in terms of mortality, hemodynamic status, improvement in right ventricular function, and safety in terms of major and minor bleeding. Method A single-center, prospective, randomized study of 86 patients was conducted at LPS Institute of Cardiology, G.S.V.M. Medical College, Kanpur, India. Patients received thrombolysis (single bolus of tenecteplase) with unfractionated heparin (UFH, group I) or placebo with UFH (group II). Result Mean age of patients was 54.35 ± 12.8 years with male dominance (M:F = 70%:30%). Smoking was the most common risk factor seen in 29% of all patients, followed by recent history of immobilization (25%), history of surgery or major trauma within past 1 month (15%), dyslipidemia (10%) and diabetes mellitus (10%). Dyspnea was the most common symptom in 80% of all patients, followed by chest pain in 55% and syncope in 6%. Primary efficacy outcome occurred significantly better in group I vs. group II (4.5% vs. 20%; P = 0.04), and significant difference was also found in hemodynamic decompensation (4.5% vs. 20%; P = 0.04), the fall in mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) (28.8% vs. 22.5%; P = 0.03), improvement in right ventricular (RV) function (70% vs. 40%; P = 0.001) and mean hospital stay (8.1 ± 2.5 vs. 11.1 ± 2.14 days; P = 0.001). There was no difference in mortality and major bleeding as safety outcome but increased minor bleeding occurred in group I patients (16% vs. 12%; P = 0.04). Conclusion Patients with acute submassive PE do not derive overall mortality benefit, recurrent PE and rehospitalization with thrombolytic therapy but had improved clinical outcome in form of decrease in hemodynamic decompensation, mean hospital stay, PASP and improvement of RV function with similar risk of major bleed but at cost of increased minor bleeding. PMID:28090232

  14. Trends in the Management and Outcomes of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Analysis From the RIETE Registry.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, David; de Miguel-Díez, Javier; Guijarro, Ricardo; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Otero, Remedios; Barba, Raquel; Muriel, Alfonso; Meyer, Guy; Yusen, Roger D; Monreal, Manuel

    2016-01-19

    Despite advances in hospital management in recent years, it is not clear whether mortality after acute pulmonary embolism (PE) has decreased over time. This study describes the trends in the management and outcomes of acute symptomatic PE. We identified adults with acute PE enrolled in the registry between 2001 and 2013. We assessed temporal trends in length of hospital stay and use of pharmacological and interventional therapies. Using multivariable regression, we examined temporal trends in risk-adjusted rates of all-cause and PE-related death to 30 days after diagnosis. Among 23,858 patients with PE, mean length of stay decreased from 13.6 to 9.3 days over time (32% relative reduction, p < 0.001). For initial treatment, use of low-molecular-weight heparin increased from 77% to 84%, whereas the use of unfractionated heparin decreased from 22% to 8.4% (p < 0.001 for trend for all comparisons). Thrombolytic therapy use increased from 0.7% to 1.0% (p = 0.07 for trend) and surgical embolectomy use doubled from 0.3% to 0.6% (p < 0.01 for trend). Risk-adjusted rates of all-cause mortality decreased from 6.6% in the first period (2001 to 2005) to 4.9% in the last period (2010 to 2013) (p = 0.02 for trend). Rates of PE-related mortality decreased over time, with a risk-adjusted rate of 3.3% in 2001 to 2005 and 1.8% in 2010 to 2013 (p < 0.01 for trend). In a large international registry of patients with PE, improvements in length of stay and changes in the initial treatment were accompanied by a reduction in short-term all-cause and PE-specific mortality. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical Significance of ST Elevation in Lead aVR in Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Pourafkari, Leili; Ghaffari, Samad; Tajlil, Arezou; Akbarzadeh, Fariborz; Jamali, Farin; Nader, Nader D

    2017-03-01

    Prognostic stratification of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PTE) is crucial in identifying patients who would benefit from more aggressive treatment. We aimed to examine the value of ST elevation in lead aVR (STEaVR ) in predicting hospital mortality following PTE. Two hundred patients with a diagnosis of PTE were allocated into two groups based on the presence or absence of STEaVR . Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the role of "STEaVR " in relation to the other risk factors in predicting prognosis of PTE. Out of 200 patients, 24 (12.0%) had STEaVR . Patients with STEaVR were more likely to present with hypotension and tachycardia than those who did not have this electrocardiographic finding. A total of 33.3% of patients with STEaVR and 13.1% of those without STEaVR died during hospitalization. STEaVR had a low sensitivity of 25.8% but a high specificity of 90.5% for predicting hospital mortality. Odds ratio for hospital mortality was 3.32 for STEaVR with 95% confidence interval of 1.28-8.64 (P = 0.017) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis shock was the strongest predictor of hospital mortality. The presence of STEaVR is indicative of hemodynamic instability, thereby having the ability to predict poor outcome. However, its impact on hospital mortality disappears when the presence of shock on admission is factored in the prediction model. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Clinical and pathological features of fat embolism with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kao, Shang Jyh; Yeh, Diana Yu-Wung; Chen, Hsing I

    2007-09-01

    FES (fat embolism syndrome) is a clinical problem, and, although ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) has been considered as a serious complication of FES, the pathogenesis of ARDS associated with FES remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the clinical manifestations, and biochemical and pathophysiological changes, in subjects associated with FES and ARDS, to elucidate the possible mechanisms involved in this disorder. A total of eight patients with FES were studied, and arterial blood pH, PaO(2) (arterial partial pressure of O(2)), PaCO(2) (arterial partial pressure of CO(2)), biochemical and pathophysiological data were obtained. These subjects suffered from crash injuries and developed FES associated with ARDS, and each died within 2 h after admission. In the subjects, chest radiography revealed that the lungs were clear on admission, and pulmonary infiltration was observed within 2 h of admission. Arterial blood pH and PaO(2) declined, whereas PaCO(2) increased. Plasma PLA(2) (phospholipase A(2)), nitrate/nitrite, methylguanidine, TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha), IL-1beta (interleukin-1beta) and IL-10 (interleukin-10) were significantly elevated. Pathological examinations revealed alveolar oedema and haemorrhage with multiple fat droplet depositions and fibrin thrombi. Fat droplets were also found in the arterioles and/or capillaries in the lung, kidney and brain. Immunohistochemical staining identified iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) in alveolar macrophages. In conclusion, our clinical analysis suggests that PLA(2), NO, free radicals and pro-inflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of ARDS associated with FES. The major source of NO is the alveolar macrophages.

  17. Diagnostic pathways in acute pulmonary embolism: recommendations of the PIOPED II investigators.

    PubMed

    Stein, Paul D; Woodard, Pamela K; Weg, John G; Wakefield, Thomas W; Tapson, Victor F; Sostman, H Dirk; Sos, Thomas A; Quinn, Deborah A; Leeper, Kenneth V; Hull, Russell D; Hales, Charles A; Gottschalk, Alexander; Goodman, Lawrence R; Fowler, Sarah E; Buckley, John D

    2006-12-01

    To formulate comprehensive recommendations for the diagnostic approach to patients with suspected pulmonary embolism, based on randomized trials. Diagnostic management recommendations were formulated based on results of the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis II (PIOPED II) and outcome studies. The PIOPED II investigators recommend stratification of all patients with suspected pulmonary embolism according to an objective clinical probability assessment. D-dimer should be measured by the quantitative rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the combination of a negative D-dimer with a low or moderate clinical probability can safely exclude pulmonary embolism in many patients. If pulmonary embolism is not excluded, contrast-enhanced computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CT angiography) in combination with venous phase imaging (CT venography), is recommended by most PIOPED II investigators, although CT angiography plus clinical assessment is an option. In pregnant women, ventilation/perfusion scans are recommended by many as the first imaging test following D-dimer and perhaps venous ultrasound. In patients with discordant findings of clinical assessment and CT angiograms or CT angiogram/CT venogram, further evaluation may be necessary. The sequence for diagnostic test in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism depends on the clinical circumstances.

  18. Timing of discharge follow-up for acute pulmonary embolism: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vinson, David R; Ballard, Dustin W; Huang, Jie; Rauchwerger, Adina S; Reed, Mary E; Mark, Dustin G

    2015-01-01

    Historically, emergency department (ED) patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) have been admitted for several days of inpatient care. Growing evidence suggests that selected ED patients with PE can be safely discharged home after a short length of stay. However, the optimal timing of follow up is unknown. We hypothesized that higher-risk patients with short length of stay (<24 hours from ED registration) would more commonly receive expedited follow up (≤3 days). This retrospective cohort study included adults treated for acute PE in six community EDs. We ascertained the PE Severity Index risk class (for 30-day mortality), facility length of stay, the first follow-up clinician encounter, unscheduled return ED visits ≤3 days, 5-day PE-related readmissions, and 30-day all-cause mortality. Stratifying by risk class, we used multivariable analysis to examine age- and sex-adjusted associations between length of stay and expedited follow up. The mean age of our 175 patients was 63.2 (±16.8) years. Overall, 93.1% (n=163) of our cohort received follow up within one week of discharge. Fifty-six patients (32.0%) were sent home within 24 hours and 100 (57.1%) received expedited follow up, often by telephone (67/100). The short and longer length-of-stay groups were comparable in age and sex, but differed in rates of low-risk status (63% vs 37%; p<0.01) and expedited follow up (70% vs 51%; p=0.03). After adjustment, we found that short length of stay was independently associated with expedited follow up in higher-risk patients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.5; 95% CI [1.0-11.8]; p=0.04), but not in low-risk patients (aOR 2.2; 95% CI [0.8-5.7]; p=0.11). Adverse outcomes were uncommon (<2%) and were not significantly different between the two length-of-stay groups. Higher-risk patients with acute PE and short length of stay more commonly received expedited follow up in our community setting than other groups of patients. These practice patterns are associated with low rates of

  19. Thrombolytic therapy and outcome of patients with an acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Riera-Mestre, A; Jiménez, D; Muriel, A; Lobo, J L; Moores, L; Yusen, R D; Casado, I; Nauffal, D; Oribe, M; Monreal, M

    2012-05-01

    While the primary therapy for most patients with a pulmonary embolism (PE) consists of anticoagulation, the efficacy of thrombolysis relative to standard therapy remains unclear. In this retrospective cohort study of 15,944 patients with an objectively confirmed symptomatic acute PE, identified from the multicenter, international, prospective, Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE registry), we aimed to assess the association between thrombolytic therapy and all-cause mortality during the first 3 months after the diagnosis of a PE. After creating two subgroups, stratified by systolic blood pressure (SBP) (< 100 mm Hg vs. other), we used propensity score-matching for a comparison of patients who received thrombolysis to those who did not in each subgroup. Patients who received thrombolysis were younger, had fewer comorbid diseases and more signs of clinical severity compared with those who did not receive it. In the subgroup with systolic hypotension, analysis of propensity score-matched pairs (n = 94 pairs) showed a non-statistically significant but clinically relevant lower risk of death for thrombolysis compared with no thrombolysis (odds ratio [OR] 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-1.46; P = 0.37). In the normotensive subgroup, analysis of propensity score-matched pairs (n = 217 pairs) showed a statistically significant and clinically meaningful increased risk of death for thrombolysis compared with no thrombolysis (OR 2.32; 95% CI, 1.15-4.68; P = 0.018). When we imputed data for missing values for echocardiography and troponin tests in the group of normotensive patients, we no longer detected the increased risk of death associated with thrombolytic therapy. In normotensive patients with acute symptomatic PE, thrombolytic therapy is associated with a higher risk of death than no thrombolytic therapy. In hemodynamically unstable patients, thrombolytic therapy is possibly associated with a lower risk of death than no thrombolytic

  20. Predictive value of D-dimer test for recurrent venous thromboembolism at hospital discharge in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hong-Liang; Luo, Qin; Zhao, Zhi-Hui; Zhao, Qing

    2011-11-01

    D-dimer can be used to exclude acute pulmonary embolism (PE) for its high negative predictive value (NPV). Also, it is a predictor of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) after anticoagulation withdrawal. The aim of the present study was to assess the predictive value of D-dimer for recurrent VTE when tested at hospital discharge. Plasma D-dimer levels were repeatedly measured at hospital discharge in 204 consecutive patients with the first episode of acute pulmonary embolism. Patients were categorized to two groups by D-dimer levels at hospital discharge and followed up at 3, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter. The primary end point was symptomatic, recurrent fatal or nonfatal VTE. D-dimer levels were persistently abnormal in 66 patients (32%). After 31±19 months follow-up, patients with persistently abnormal D-dimer level levels showed a higher rate of of recurrent VTE (14 patients, 21%) compared to those with D-dimer regression (8 patients, 6%) (P = 0.001). At the multivariate analysis, after adjustment for other relevant factors, persistently abnormal D-dimer level levels were an independent predictor of recurrent VTE in all subjects investigated, (hazard ratio, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.61-10.39; P = 0.003), especially in those with unprovoked PE (hazard ratio, 4.61; 95% CI, 1.85-11.49; P = 0.001). The negative predictive value of D-dimer was 94.2 and 92.9% in all subjects or those with unprovoked PE, respectively. Persistently abnormal D-dimer level levels at hospital discharge have a high negative predictive value for recurrence in patients with acute pulmonary embolism, especially in subjects with an unprovoked previous event.

  1. Role of physician perception of patient smile on pretest probability assessment for acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Neumann, Dawn; Hall, Cassandra L; Capito, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    Many clinicians use a global visual interpretation of patient appearance to decide if a patient looks sick or not. For patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE), we tested the relationship between visual appearance of a happy patient facial affect and probability of PE+ on CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Eligible patients were selected by usual care to undergo CTPA, the criterion standard for PE+ or PE-. Prior to CTPA result, trained study personnel obtained physician pretest probability using the gestalt method (visual analogue scale, 0%-100%), the Wells score (0-12) and physicians' impression of whether the patient smiled during the initial examination (smile+). Patients' faces were also video recorded and analysed with an automated neural network-based algorithm (Noldus FaceReader) for happy affect. Of the 208 patients enrolled, 27 were PE+ and smile+ was more frequent in patients with PE+ than PE-, a finding confirmed by the Noldus. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of smile was low, and physicians overestimated presence of an alternative diagnosis more likely to PE with smile+ than smile- patients in patients with true PE. As a result, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was lower for the Wells score in smile+ patients. However, the physicians' mean gestalt estimate of PE did not differ with smile status, nor did smile status affect the AUROC for gestalt. In patients with suspected PE, physician recollection of patients' smile+ was more common in PE+ patients, and was associated with a less accurate Wells score, primarily because physicians overestimated probability of alternative diagnosis. However, the overall diagnostic accuracy of physicians' gestalt did not differ with perceived smile status. These data suggest that the patients' smile had less effect on the numeric gestalt pretest probability assessment than on the binary decision about an alternative diagnosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  2. Significance of ST-segment deviation in patients with acute pulmonary embolism and negative T waves.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Zhong-Qun; Wang, Chong-Quan; Wang, Zhi-Xiao; Nikus, Kjell C; Baranchuk, Adrian; Yuan, Rui-Xia; Anselm, Daniel D; Pérez-Riera, Andrés Ricardo; Yang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Common electrocardiogram (ECG) manifestations in acute pulmonary em-bolism (APE) include ST-segment deviation (STDV) along with negative T-waves (NTW). STDV could occur in 3 typical ischemic patterns: (i) the left ventricular (LV) subendocardial ischemic pattern; (ii) the right ventricular (RV) transmural ischemic pattern; and (iii) the LV subendocardial plus RV transmural ischemic pattern. The purpose of this study was to evalu-ate the relationship of STDV and adverse clinical outcomes and to identify the relationship of relatively normal ECG and favorable clinical outcomes. Retrospective analysis of electronic charts in APE patients was performed in a tertiary hospital. ECGs on admission were obtained and classified as with or without STDV. Adverse clinical outcomes were defined as need to intensify therapy and 30-day mortality. Relatively normal ECG was defined as without any STDV, abnormal QRS morphology in lead V1 and S1Q3T3. From a total of 210 patients with NTW, 131 had STDV ≥ 0.1 mV, while 79 did not. Patients with STDV had worse evolution: higher incidence of dyspnea, hypotension, cardiogen-ic shock, intensification of therapy, and death compared to patients without STDV (p = 0.001 for each variable). The majority (89%) of the patients with STDV presented with 1 of the 3 typical ischemic ECG patterns. LV subendocardial ischemic pattern (OR = 4.963, p = 0.004), RV transmural ischemic pattern (OR = 3.128, p = 0.021) and LV subendocardial plus RV transmural ischemic pattern (OR = 3.036, p = 0.017) independently predicted the need to intensify therapy. RV transmural ischemic pattern (OR = 4.227, p = 0.031) and LV subendocardial plus RV transmural ischemic pattern (OR = 4.022, p = 0.032) independently predicted 30-day mortality. Compared to the patients with abnormal ECG, the patients with relatively normal ECG had a significant lower incidence of death (0% vs. 16%; p = 0.001) and need to intensify therapy during hospitalization (6% vs. 30%; p = 0

  3. Bilateral Superior Cerebellar Artery Embolic Occlusion with a Fetal-Type Posterior Cerebral Artery Providing Collateral Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Taylor J.; Saporito, Rachael C.; Hope, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral infarction of the superior cerebellar arteries with sparing of the rest of the posterior circulation, particularly the posterior cerebral arteries, is an uncommon finding in neurological practice. Most commonly, the deficits of the superior cerebellar arteries and posterior cerebral arteries occur together due to the close proximity of their origins at the top of the basilar artery. A patient was transferred to the neurological intensive care unit with a history of recent-onset falls from standing, profound hypertension, dizziness, and headaches. The neurological exam revealed cerebellar signs, including dysmetria of the right upper extremity and a decreased level of consciousness. Computed tomography of the head and neck revealed decreased attenuation throughout most of the cerebellar hemispheres suggestive of ischemic injury with sparing of the rest of the brain. Further investigation with a computed tomography angiogram revealed a fetal-type posterior cerebral artery on the right side that was providing collateral circulation to the posterior brain. Due to this embryological anomaly, the patient was spared significant morbidity and mortality that would have likely occurred had the circulation been more typical of an adult male. PMID:28203181

  4. Bilateral Superior Cerebellar Artery Embolic Occlusion with a Fetal-Type Posterior Cerebral Artery Providing Collateral Circulation.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Taylor J; Saporito, Rachael C; Hope, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral infarction of the superior cerebellar arteries with sparing of the rest of the posterior circulation, particularly the posterior cerebral arteries, is an uncommon finding in neurological practice. Most commonly, the deficits of the superior cerebellar arteries and posterior cerebral arteries occur together due to the close proximity of their origins at the top of the basilar artery. A patient was transferred to the neurological intensive care unit with a history of recent-onset falls from standing, profound hypertension, dizziness, and headaches. The neurological exam revealed cerebellar signs, including dysmetria of the right upper extremity and a decreased level of consciousness. Computed tomography of the head and neck revealed decreased attenuation throughout most of the cerebellar hemispheres suggestive of ischemic injury with sparing of the rest of the brain. Further investigation with a computed tomography angiogram revealed a fetal-type posterior cerebral artery on the right side that was providing collateral circulation to the posterior brain. Due to this embryological anomaly, the patient was spared significant morbidity and mortality that would have likely occurred had the circulation been more typical of an adult male.

  5. Acute Coronary Artery Air Embolism Following CT-Guided Lung Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, Asem AbdelRaouf, Salah; Qandeel, Monther; Swaidan, Maisa

    2005-01-15

    CT-guided needle biopsy is a common procedure for obtaining a tissue diagnosis and consequently correctly managing patients. This procedure has many potential complications, ranging from simple pneumothorax or self-limiting hemoptysis to life-threatening pulmonary hemorrhage and air embolism. Though the latter is a rare complication of CT-guided needle biopsy, it has attracted a lot of interest. We report a case of right coronary air embolism resulting in myocardial infarction after a CT-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the lung.

  6. Where do we stand? Functional imaging in acute and chronic pulmonary embolism with state-of-the-art CT.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Mathias; Haubenreisser, Holger; Sudarski, Sonja; Doesch, Christina; Ong, Melissa M; Borggrefe, Martin; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for acute and chronic pulmonary embolism (PE) in order to assess vascular anatomy and parenchymal morphology. Over the past decade, several prognostic CTPA markers associated with an increased risk of adverse clinical events and in-hospital mortality have been evaluated, namely cardiac chamber dimensions, obstruction scores, and visualization of iodinated contrast material in the lung parenchyma by dual-energy (DE) CTPA. This article reviews the current status and potential prognostic advantages of CTPA or DE CTPA with its recent developments for accessing right ventricular dysfunction and the assessment of first pass lung perfusion with DE CTPA in the diagnosis of acute and chronic PE.

  7. Late outcomes after acute pulmonary embolism: rationale and design of FOCUS, a prospective observational multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Konstantinides, Stavros V; Barco, Stefano; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Lankeit, Mareike; Held, Matthias; Gerhardt, Felix; Bruch, Leonard; Ewert, Ralf; Faehling, Martin; Freise, Julia; Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir; Grünig, Ekkehard; Halank, Michael; Heydenreich, Nadine; Hoeper, Marius M; Leuchte, Hanno H; Mayer, Eckhard; Meyer, F Joachim; Neurohr, Claus; Opitz, Christian; Pinto, Antonio; Seyfarth, Hans-Jürgen; Wachter, Rolf; Zäpf, Bianca; Wilkens, Heinrike; Binder, Harald; Wild, Philipp S

    2016-11-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a frequent cause of death and serious disability. The risk of PE-associated mortality and morbidity extends far beyond the acute phase of the disease. In earlier follow-up studies, as many as 30 % of the patients died during a follow-up period of up to 3 years, and up to 50 % of patients continued to complain of dyspnea and/or poor physical performance 6 months to 3 years after the index event. The most feared 'late sequela' of PE is chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), the true incidence of which remains obscure due to the large margin of error in the rates reported by mostly small, single-center studies. Moreover, the functional and hemodynamic changes corresponding to early, possibly reversible stages of CTEPH, have not been systematically investigated. The ongoing Follow-Up after acute pulmonary embolism (FOCUS) study will prospectively enroll and systematically follow, over a 2-year period and with a standardized comprehensive program of clinical, echocardiographic, functional and laboratory testing, a large multicenter prospective cohort of 1000 unselected patients (all-comers) with acute symptomatic PE. FOCUS will possess adequate power to provide answers to relevant remaining questions regarding the patients' long-term morbidity and mortality, and the temporal pattern of post-PE abnormalities. It will hopefully provide evidence for future guideline recommendations regarding the selection of patients for long-term follow-up after PE, the modalities which this follow-up should include, and the findings that should be interpreted as indicating progressive functional and hemodynamic post-PE impairment, or the development of CTEPH.

  8. The Influence of Acute Hyperglycemia in an Animal Model of Lacunar Stroke That Is Induced by Artificial Particle Embolization.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Jun; Lin, Ming-Wei; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Kuo, Yu-Min; Tsai, Yi-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have revealed that hyperglycemia during ischemic stroke increases the stroke's severity and the infarct size in clinical and animal studies. However, no conclusive evidence demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia worsens post-stroke outcomes and increases infarct size in lacunar stroke. In this study, we developed a rat model of lacunar stroke that was induced via the injection of artificial embolic particles during full consciousness. We then used this model to compare the acute influence of hyperglycemia in lacunar stroke and diffuse infarction, by evaluating neurologic behavior and the rate, size, and location of the infarction. The time course of the neurologic deficits was clearly recorded from immediately after induction to 24 h post-stroke in both types of stroke. We found that acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic deficit in diffuse infarction at 24 h after stroke, and also aggravated the cerebral infarct. Furthermore, the infarct volumes of the basal ganglion, thalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum but not the cortex were positively correlated with serum glucose levels. In contrast, acute hyperglycemia reduced the infarct volume and neurologic symptoms in lacunar stroke within 4 min after stroke induction, and this effect persisted for up to 24 h post-stroke. In conclusion, acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic outcomes in diffuse infarction, although it significantly reduced the size of the cerebral infarct and improved the neurologic deficits in lacunar stroke.

  9. A Case of Acute Ischemic Duodenal Ulcer Associated with Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection After Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Eun Sun; Jeong, Sook-Hyang Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Sang Hyub; Yoon, Chang Jin; Kang, Sung Gwon

    2009-03-15

    We report a case of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)-related acute ischemic duodenal ulcer that developed in association with dissection of the superior mesenteric artery. We conclude that the acute duodenal ulcer was developed by ischemia related to superior mesenteric artery dissection during TACE. TACE should be conducted carefully with continuous observation of abdominal arteries.

  10. Interventional treatment for symptomatic acute-subacute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng-Yong; Wang, Mao-Qiang; Fan, Qing-Sheng; Duan, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Song, Peng

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To summarize our methods and experience with interventional treatment for symptomatic acute-subacute portal vein and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (PV-SMV) thrombosis. METHODS: Forty-six patients (30 males, 16 females, aged 17-68 years) with symptomatic acute-subacute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis were accurately diagnosed with Doppler ultrasound scans, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. They were treated with interventional therapy, including direct thrombolysis (26 cases through a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt; 6 through percutaneous transhepatic portal vein cannulation) and indirect thrombolysis (10 through the femoral artery to superior mesenteric artery catheterization; 4 through the radial artery to superior mesenteric artery catheterization). RESULTS: The blood reperfusion of PV-SMV was achieved completely or partially in 34 patients 3-13 d after thrombolysis. In 11 patients there was no PV-SMV blood reperfusion but the number of collateral vessels increased significantly. Symptoms in these 45 patients were improved dramatically without severe operational complications. In 1 patient, the thrombi did not respond to the interventional treatment and resulted in intestinal necrosis, which required surgical treatment. In 3 patients with interventional treatment, thrombi re-formed 1, 3 and 4 mo after treatment. In these 3 patients, indirect PV-SMV thrombolysis was performed again and was successful. CONCLUSION: Interventional treatment, including direct or indirect PV-SMV thrombolysis, is a safe and effective method for patients with symptomatic acute-subacute PV-SMV thrombosis. PMID:19859995

  11. "False negatives" and "false positives" in acute pulmonary embolism: a clinical-postmortem comparison.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, V; Schmid, C; Zogno, C; Morpurgo, M

    1997-02-01

    Although recent advances have been made in understanding its epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, pulmonary embolism (PE) is still largely undetected and untreated, and the mortality rate has not appreciably changed in the last decades. The aim of this study was to: compare the postmortem frequency of massive and sub-massive PE during two different time periods in the same general hospital; ascertain whether the percentage of correct clinical diagnosis of PE has changed; identify factors which might contribute to the inaccuracy of the clinical diagnosis of PE. Altogether, 288 patients with autopsy-proven PE and adequate clinical data were collected in the first period; 182 subjects with the same characteristics were found in the second period. Cases observed from 1989 through 1994 were evaluated in terms of frequency of false negatives and false positives, predictive value of the clinical diagnosis of PE, and correlations between clinical and post-mortem diagnosis of PE on one side and several independent variables such as age, gender, associated diseases, recent surgery on the other. In our hospital the frequency of massive and submassive PE at autopsy was 8.6% from 1966 through 1974, 12.6% from 1989 through 1994 (p < 0.01). The percentage of correct clinical diagnosis of PE was 19.6% in the former period, 21.6% in the latter (NS) with 78.57% of false negatives and only 1.73% of false positives. Altogether the true positives were 21.42%, most of them being patients with massive PE. Clinical findings showed the coexistence of heart disease in 51.6% of the cases, congestive heart failure in 20.15%, metabolic disease in 7%, stroke in 12.5%, recent surgery in 12.5%. Autopsy revealed the presence of pulmonary infarction in 22% of cases, malignancy in 24.0%, pneumonia in 17.05%, acute myocardial infarction in 14.8%. Seventy percent of the cases in whom the point of origin of thromboemboli could be demonstrated had one or more thrombus in the district of inferior vena

  12. Life-threatening Cerebral Edema Caused by Acute Occlusion of a Superior Vena Cava Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Sofue, Keitaro Takeuchi, Yoshito Arai, Yasuaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-02-15

    A71-year-old man with advanced lung cancer developed a life-threatening cerebral edema caused by the acute occlusion of a superior vena cava (SVC) stent and was successfully treated by an additional stent placement. Although stent occlusion is a common early complication, no life-threatening situations have been reported until now. Our experience highlights the fact that acute stent occlusion can potentially lead to the complete venous shutdown of the SVC, resulting in life-threatening cerebral edema, after SVC stent placement. Immediate diagnosis and countermeasures are required.

  13. Superiority of proximal embolization of the gastroduodenal artery with the Amplatzer vascular plug 4 before yttrium-90 radioembolization: a retrospective comparison with coils in 134 patients.

    PubMed

    Bulla, Karsten; Hubich, Sebastian; Pech, Maciej; Löwenthal, David; Ricke, Jens; Dudeck, Oliver

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of proximal embolization of the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug 4 (AVP 4) compared with pushable coils to avoid hepaticoenteric collaterals of the GDA stump, which may serve as pathways for nontarget embolization. One hundred thirty-four patients scheduled for 90-yttrium radioembolization (Y-90 RE) using either plugs (n = 67) or standard coils (n = 67) for GDA occlusion were retrospectively analyzed. Parameters recorded were length of the perfused GDA stump, distance device to the GDA origin, perfused proximal side branches after embolization, and durability of vessel occlusion at Y-90 RE. Length of the residually perfused GDA stump was 3.89 ± 2.86 mm for the AVP 4, which was significantly shorter compared with 5.78 ± 3.85 mm for coils (p = 0.005). Distance of the plug to the GDA origin was 1.41 ± 2.60 mm, which was also significantly shorter than 4.73 ± 3.44 mm for coils (p < 0.001). This resulted in significantly fewer patients with residually perfused side branches in the AVP 4 group (n = 2; 3.0%) compared with the coil group (n = 18; 26.9%; p < 0.001). At Y-90 RE, no GDA reperfusion was found after plug embolization compared with 2 cases after coil embolization (3.0%; p = 0.156). Only one patient had a radiation-induced duodenal ulcer after coil embolization, whereas no Y-90-related toxicity was identified after plug embolization. Use of the AVP 4 for embolization of the GDA allowed an optimal proximal and more effective target vessel occlusion compared with coil embolization, which can avoid complications caused by extrahepatic gastrointestinal deposition of Y-90 microspheres by way of residually perfused proximal side branches.

  14. Computed Tomography Angiography in Patients Evaluated for Acute Pulmonary Embolism with Low Serum D-dimer Levels: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gimber, Lana Hirai; Travis, R Ing; Takahashi, Jayme M; Goodman, Torrey L; Yoon, Hyo-Chun

    2009-01-01

    Context: Pulmonary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and the Wells criteria both have interobserver variability in the assessment of pulmonary embolism (PE). Quantitative D-dimer assay findings have been shown to have a high negative predictive value in patients with low pretest probability of PE. Objective: Evaluate roles for clinical probability and CTA in Emergency Department (ED) patients suspected of acute PE but having a low serum D-dimer level. Design: Prospective observational study of ED patients with possible PE who underwent pulmonary CTA and had D-dimer levels ≤1.0 μg/mL. Main Outcome: Clinical probability of PE determined by ED physicians using standard published criteria; pulmonary CTAs read by initial and study radiologists kept unaware of D-dimer results. Results: In 16 months, 744 patients underwent pulmonary CTA, with 347 study participants who had a D-dimer level ≤ 1.0 μg/mL. In one participant, CTA showed a PE that was agreed on by both the initial and study radiologists. In six participants, the initial findings were reported as positive for PE but were not interpreted as positive by the study radiologist. In none of these participants was PE diagnosed on the basis of clinical probability, of findings on ancillary studies and three-month follow-up examination, or by another radiologist, unaware of findings, acting as a tiebreaker. Conclusion: Pulmonary CTA findings positive for acute embolism should be viewed with caution, especially if the suspected PE is in a distal segmental or subsegmental artery in a patient with a serum D-dimer level of ≤1.0 μg/mL. Furthermore, the Wells criteria may be of limited additional value in this group of patients with low D-dimer levels because most will have low or intermediate clinical probability of PE. PMID:20740096

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Point-of-Care Ultrasound Performed by Pulmonary Critical Care Physicians for Right Ventricle Assessment in Patients With Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Filopei, Jason; Acquah, Samuel O; Bondarsky, Eric E; Steiger, David J; Ramesh, Navitha; Ehrlich, Madeline; Patrawalla, Paru

    2017-09-26

    Risk stratification for acute pulmonary embolism using imaging presence of right ventricular dysfunction is essential for triage; however, comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography has limited availability. We assessed the accuracy and timeliness of Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine Fellow's performance of goal-directed echocardiograms and intensivists' interpretations for evaluating right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism. Prospective observational study and retrospective chart review. Four hundred fifty bed urban teaching hospital. Adult in/outpatients diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism. Pulmonary critical care fellows performed and documented their goal-directed echocardiogram as normal or abnormal for right ventricular size and function in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Gold standard transthoracic echocardiography was performed on schedule unless the goal-directed echocardiogram showed critical findings. Attending intensivists blinded to the clinical scenario reviewed these exams at a later date. Two hundred eighty-seven consecutive patients were evaluated for acute PE. Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine Fellows performed 154 goal-directed echocardiograms, 110 with complete cardiology-reviewed transthoracic echocardiography within 48 hours for comparison. Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine Fellow's area under the curve for size and function was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.75-0.90) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.75-0.90), respectively. Intensivists' 1/2 area under the curve for size and function was (1) 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82-0.94), (1) 0.87 (95% CI, 0.80-0.93) and (2) 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95), (2) 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95). Median time difference between goal-directed echocardiogram and transthoracic echocardiography was 21 hours 18 minutes. This is the first study to evaluate pulmonary critical care fellows' and intensivists' use of goal-directed echocardiography in diagnosing right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism. Pulmonary Critical Care

  16. Prevalence of Echocardiography Use in Patients Hospitalized with Confirmed Acute Pulmonary Embolism: A Real-World Observational Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Rong; Chow, Vincent; Lau, Jerrett K.; Thomas, Liza; Kritharides, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) carries an increased risk of death. Using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to assist diagnosis and risk stratification is recommended in current guidelines. However, its utilization in real-world clinical practice is unknown. We conducted a retrospective observational study to delineate the prevalence of inpatient TTE use following confirmed acute PE, identify predictors for its use and its impact on patient’s outcome. Methods Clinical details of consecutive patients (2000 to 2012) from two tertiary-referral hospitals were retrieved from dedicated PE databases. All-cause and cause-specific mortality was tracked from a state-wide death registry. Results In total, 2306 patients were admitted with confirmed PE, of whom 687 (29.8%) had inpatient TTE (39.3% vs 14.4% between sites, P<0.001). Site to which patient presented, older age, cardiac failure, atrial fibrillation and diabetes were independent predictors for inpatient TTE use, while malignancy was a negative predictor. Overall mortality was 41.4% (mean follow-up 66.5±49.5months). Though inpatient TTE use was not an independent predictor for all-cause or cardiovascular mortality in multivariable analysis, in the inpatient TTE subgroup, right ventricle-right atrial pressure gradient (hazard ratio [HR] 1.02 per-1mmHg increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.03) and moderate/severe aortic stenosis (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.20–4.27) independently predicted all-cause mortality. Conclusions Inpatient TTE is used infrequently in real-world clinical settings following acute PE despite its usefulness in risk stratification, prognostication and assessing comorbid cardiac pathologies. Identifying patients that will benefit most from a TTE assessment following an acute PE episode and reducing barriers in accessing TTE should be explored. PMID:27977781

  17. Upper extremity acute compartment syndrome during tissue plasminogen activator therapy for pulmonary embolism in a morbidly obese patient.

    PubMed

    Tuna, Serkan; Duymus, Tahir Mutlu; Mutlu, Serhat; Ketenci, Ismail Emre; Ulusoy, Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are more frequently observed in morbidly obese patients. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a thrombolytic agent which dissolves the thrombus more rapidly than conventional heparin therapy and reduces the mortality and morbidity rates associated with PE. Compartment syndrome is a well-known and documented complication of thrombolytic treatment. In awake, oriented and cooperative patients, the diagnosis of compartment syndrome is made based on clinical findings including swelling, tautness, irrational and continuous pain, altered sensation, and severe pain due to passive stretching. These clinical findings may not be able to be adequately assessed in unconscious patients. In this case report, we present compartment syndrome observed, for which fasciotomy was performed on the upper right extremity of a 46-year old morbidly obese, conscious female patient who was receiving tPA due to a massive pulmonary embolism. Compartment syndrome had occurred due to the damage caused by the repeated unsuccessful catheterisation attempts to the brachial artery and the accompanying tPA treatment. Thus, the bleeding that occurred in the volar compartment of the forearm and the anterior compartment of the arm led to acute compartment syndrome (ACS). After relaxation was brought about in the volar compartment of the forearm and the anterior compartment of the arm, the circulation in the limb was restored. As soon as the diagnosis of compartment syndrome is made, an emergency fasciotomy should be performed. Close follow-up is required to avoid wound healing problems after the fasciotomy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Upper extremity acute compartment syndrome during tissue plasminogen activator therapy for pulmonary embolism in a morbidly obese patient

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Serkan; Duymus, Tahir Mutlu; Mutlu, Serhat; Ketenci, Ismail Emre; Ulusoy, Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are more frequently observed in morbidly obese patients. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a thrombolytic agent which dissolves the thrombus more rapidly than conventional heparin therapy and reduces the mortality and morbidity rates associated with PE. Compartment syndrome is a well-known and documented complication of thrombolytic treatment. In awake, oriented and cooperative patients, the diagnosis of compartment syndrome is made based on clinical findings including swelling, tautness, irrational and continuous pain, altered sensation, and severe pain due to passive stretching. These clinical findings may not be able to be adequately assessed in unconscious patients. Presentation of case In this case report, we present compartment syndrome observed, for which fasciotomy was performed on the upper right extremity of a 46-year old morbidly obese, conscious female patient who was receiving tPA due to a massive pulmonary embolism. Discussion Compartment syndrome had occurred due to the damage caused by the repeated unsuccessful catheterisation attempts to the brachial artery and the accompanying tPA treatment. Thus, the bleeding that occurred in the volar compartment of the forearm and the anterior compartment of the arm led to acute compartment syndrome (ACS). After relaxation was brought about in the volar compartment of the forearm and the anterior compartment of the arm, the circulation in the limb was restored. Conclusion As soon as the diagnosis of compartment syndrome is made, an emergency fasciotomy should be performed. Close follow-up is required to avoid wound healing problems after the fasciotomy. PMID:25618841

  19. Reduced Z-axis coverage multidetector CT angiography for suspected acute pulmonary embolism could decrease dose and maintain diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Kallen, Joshua A; Coughlin, Bret F; O'Loughlin, Michael T; Stein, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Multidetector computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA) is the method of choice for evaluation of suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in most patients because it is accurate and widely available. The use of computed tomography, including MDCTA for PE, has risen dramatically over the last several years with an attendant rise in radiation exposure. Many methods currently employed to reduce radiation dose may affect image quality and potentially affect diagnostic accuracy. Reducing Z-axis coverage would decrease radiation dose without any effect on image quality. This study was performed to assess the effect on the accuracy of MDCTA for suspected acute PE if the Z-axis coverage was reduced to the anatomic range from the top of the aortic arch through the heart. Two hundred ninety-five examinations were performed on a 64-detector-row MDCT and interpreted as positive for PE from July 2005 to February 2008. When the anatomic range of these data sets were retrospectively reduced and reinterpreted for PE, no case was interpreted as negative for PE. The Z-axis coverage was reduced by 37%. In the interest of keeping radiation doses as low as reasonably achievable, further research in this area is warranted.

  20. Enoxaparin followed by once-weekly idrabiotaparinux versus enoxaparin plus warfarin for patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism: a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Büller, Harry R; Gallus, Alex S; Pillion, Gerard; Prins, Martin H; Raskob, Gary E

    2012-01-14

    Treatment of pulmonary embolism with low-molecular-weight heparin and vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, is not ideal. We aimed to assess non-inferiority of idrabiotaparinux, a reversible longlasting indirect inhibitor of activated factor X, to warfarin in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. In our randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, non-inferiority trial, we enrolled adults with objectively documented acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism attending 291 centres in 37 countries. We excluded patients who were pregnant, had active bleeding, kidney failure, or malignant hypertension, or were at high risk of death, bleeding, or adverse reactions to study drugs. We randomly allocated patients to receive 5-10 days' enoxaparin 1·0 mg/kg twice daily followed by subcutaneous idrabiotaparinux (starting dose 3·0 mg) or adjusted-dose warfarin (target international normalised ratio 2·0-3·0); regimens lasted 3 months or 6 months dependent on clinical presentation. Block randomisation was done with a central interactive computerised system, stratified by study centre and intended treatment duration. The primary efficacy outcome was recurrent venous thromboembolism at 99 days after randomisation. We estimated the odds ratio and 95% CI with a Mantel-Haenzsel χ(2) analysis (non-inferiority margin 2·0) in the intention-to-treat population. The main safety outcome was clinically relevant bleeding (major or non-major) in all patients at day 99. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00345618. Between Aug 1, 2006, and Jan 31, 2010, we enrolled 3202 patients aged 18-96 years. 34 (2%) of 1599 patients randomly allocated to receive enoxaparin-idrabiotaparinux and 43 (3%) of 1603 patients randomly allocated to receive enoxaparin-warfarin had recurrent venous thromboembolism (odds ratio 0·79, 95% CI 0·50-1·25; p(non-inferiority)=0·0001). 72 (5%) of 1599 patients in the enoxaparin-idrabiotaparinux group and 106 (7%) of 1603 patients in

  1. Transcranial near infrared laser therapy (NILT) to treat acute ischemic stroke: a review of efficacy, safety and possible mechanism of action derived from rabbit embolic stroke studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapchak, Paul A.; Streeter, Jackson; De Taboada, Luis

    2010-02-01

    Studies using the rabbit small clot or rabbit large clot embolic stroke models (RSCEM and RLCEM respectively) allowed us to alter a single NILT variable while keeping all other variables constant to investigate the variable's effect on the rabbit's behavioral performance following embolization. In this paper we review results from multiple studies. Using the RSCEM, we found that Continuous Wave (CW) NILT significantly improves behavioral function when NILT is administered up to 6 hour post-embolization at 808nm; a durable effect that can last up to 21 days following a single treatment. Using the RLCEM we found that NILT did not significantly alter intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) incidence following embolization, and since intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is currently the primary treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), we used the RLCEM to determine the safety profile of NILT in combination with tPA. IV tPA increased ICH incidence by 160%. NILT did not affect the tPA-induced increase in ICH. Lastly, since the cellular mechanism(s) involved in NILT-mediated neuroprotection have not been elucidated, we measured the effect of CW and Pulse Wave (PW) NILT on cortical adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content as an indicator of improved cellular energetics using the RSCEM. Embolization decreased cortical ATP content by 45% compared to naive rabbits, a decrease that was attenuated by CW NILT (p>0.05). Following PW NILT, delivering 5-35 times higher peak cortical irradiances than CW NILT, we measured larger increases in cortical ATP content. This is the first demonstration that NILT significantly increased cortical ATP content in embolized animals.

  2. Patent foramen ovale increases the risk of acute ischemic stroke in patients with acute pulmonary embolism leading to right ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Goliszek, Sylwia; Wiśniewska, Małgorzata; Kurnicka, Katarzyna; Lichodziejewska, Barbara; Ciurzyński, Michał; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Gołębiowski, Marek; Babiuch, Marek; Paczynska, Marzanna; Koć, Marcin; Palczewski, Piotr; Wyzgał, Anna; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an established risk factor for ischemic stroke. Since acute right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) observed in patients with PE can lead to right-to-left inter-atrial shunt via PFO, we hypothesized that PFO is a risk factor for ischemic stroke in PE with significant right ventricular dysfunction. 55 patients (31 F, 24M), median age 49 years (range 19-83 years) with confirmed PE underwent echocardiography for RVD and PFO assessment. High risk acute PE was diagnosed in 3 (5.5%) patients, while 16 (29%) hemodynamically stable with RVD patients formed a group with intermediate-risk PE. PFO was diagnosed in 19 patients (34.5%). Diffusion-weighted MRI of the brain for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) was performed in all patients 4.91 ± 4.1 days after admission. AIS was detected by MRI in 4 patients (7.3%). Only one stroke was clinically overt and resulted in hemiplegia. All 4 AIS occurred in the PFO positive group (4 of 19 patients), and none in subjects without PFO (21.0% vs 0%, p=0.02). Moreover, all AIS occurred in patients with RVD and PFO, and none in patients with PFO without RVD (50% vs 0%, p=0.038). Our data suggest that acute pulmonary embolism resulting in right ventricular dysfunction may lead to acute ischemic stroke in patients with patent foramen ovale. However, the clinical significance of such lesions remains to be determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute pulmonary embolism: sensitivity and specificity of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy in PIOPED II study.

    PubMed

    Sostman, H Dirk; Stein, Paul D; Gottschalk, Alexander; Matta, Fadi; Hull, Russell; Goodman, Larry

    2008-03-01

    To use Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) II data to retrospectively determine sensitivity and specificity of ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphic studies categorized as pulmonary embolism (PE) present or PE absent and the proportion of patients for whom these categories applied. The PIOPED II study had institutional review board approval at all participating centers. Patient informed consent was obtained; the study was HIPAA compliant. Approval and consent included those for future retrospective research. Patients in the PIOPED II database of clinical and imaging results were included if they had diagnosis at computed tomographic (CT) angiography, Wells score, and diagnosis at V/Q scanning. V/Q scan central readings were recategorized as PE present (PIOPED II reading = high probability of PE), PE absent (PIOPED II reading = very low probability of PE or normal), or nondiagnostic (PIOPED II reading = low or intermediate probability of PE). A composite reference standard was used: the PIOPED II digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) result, or if there was no definitive DSA result, CT angiographic results that were concordant with the Wells score (ie, positive CT angiographic result and Wells score > 2 or negative CT angiographic result and Wells score < 6). Sensitivity and specificity of recategorized central readings were computed. With the exclusion of patients with intermediate or low probability, the sensitivity of a high probability (PE present) scan finding was 77.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69.7%, 85.0%), while the specificity of very low probability or normal (PE absent) scan finding was 97.7% (95% CI: 96.4%, 98.9%). The percentage of patients with a PE present or PE absent scan finding was 73.5% (95% CI: 70.7%, 76.4%). In a population similar to that in PIOPED II, results of V/Q scintigraphy can be diagnostically definitive in a majority of patients; thus, it can be considered an appropriate pulmonary imaging

  4. [From acute pulmonary embolism to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: Pathobiology and pathophysiology].

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Gámez, Miguel E; Sandoval-Zárate, Julio; Pulido, Tomás

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) represents a unique subtype of pulmonary hypertension characterized by the presence of mechanical obstruction of the major pulmonary vessels caused by venous thromboembolism. CTEPH is a progressive and devastating disease if not treated, and is the only subset of PH potentially curable by a surgical procedure known as pulmonary endarterectomy. The clot burden and pulmonary embolism recurrence may contribute to the development of CTEPH however only few thrombophilic factors have been found to be associated. A current hypothesis is that CTEPH results from the incomplete resolution and organization of thrombus modified by inflammatory, immunologic and genetic mechanisms, leading to the development of fibrotic stenosis and adaptive vascular remodeling of resistance vessels. The causes of thrombus non-resolution have yet to be fully clarified. CTEPH patients often display severe PH that cannot be fully explained by the degree of pulmonary vascular obstruction apparent on imaging studies. In such cases, the small vessel disease and distal obstructive thrombotic lesions beyond the sub-segmental level may contribute for out of proportion elevated PVR. The processes implicated in the development of arteriopathy and micro-vascular changes might explain the progressive nature of PH and gradual clinical deterioration with poor prognosis, as well as lack of correlation between measurable hemodynamic parameters and vascular obstruction even in the absence of recurrent venous thromboembolism. This review summarizes the most relevant up-to-date aspects on pathobiology and pathophysiology of CTEPH.

  5. [Has high-definition spiral computed tomography changed the management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism?].

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Raffaele; de Conti, Giorgio; Minotto, Isabella; Prandoni, Paolo

    2008-12-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common condition carrying a significant degree of mortality if not diagnosed early. The diagnosis of PE is challenging, because of the non-specific nature of its clinical features. For many years the diagnostic strategies for PE have mainly involved ventilation/perfusion lung scan as the chief diagnostic procedure, often associated with a few clinical models of pre-test probability and the D-dimer test. These modalities of diagnosing PE, though quite satisfactory in various clinical settings, show several limitations, the most important one being the high rate of non-diagnostic procedures. The introduction of computed tomography (CT) has changed the diagnostic strategies and has become the main diagnostic procedure for diagnosing PE. CT is undergoing a rapid technological upgrade, which will open in the near future new frontiers in the diagnosis of PE. Nonetheless, CT carries a number of limitations, which should be carefully identified. This article reviews the evidences on both the traditional and newer diagnostic strategies for PE, outlines their strengths and weaknesses and describes future applications of CT for diagnosing PE.

  6. Catheter-Directed Therapy in Acute Pulmonary Embolism with Right Ventricular Dysfunction: A Promising Modality to Provide Early Hemodynamic Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Dilektasli, Asli Gorek; Cetinoglu, Ezgi Demirdogen; Acet, Nilufer Aylin; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Ursavas, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Guven; Coskun, Funda; Karadag, Mehmet; Ege, Ercument

    2016-01-01

    Background Catheter-directed therapy (CDT) for pulmonary embolism (PE) is considered as an alternative to systemic thrombolysis (ST) in patients with hemodynamically unstable acute PE who are considered at high bleeding risk for ST. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CDT in the management of acute PE with right ventricular dysfunction (RVD). The primary outcomes were mortality, clinical success, and complications. Secondary outcomes were change in hemodynamic parameters in the first 24 hours following the procedure. Material/Methods Medical records of consecutive patients diagnosed as having acute massive or submassive PE with accompanying RVD treated by immediate CDT at our institution from January 2007 to January 2014 were reviewed. Patient characteristics, mortality, achievement of clinical success, and minor and major bleeding complications were analyzed in the overall study group, as well as massive vs. submassive PE subgroups. Change in hemodynamic parameters in the second, eighth, and 24th hours after the CDT procedure were also analyzed. Results The study included 15 consecutive patients (M/F=10/5) with a mean age of 54.2±16.6 years who underwent immediate CDT. Nine of the patients had submassive PE, and 6 had massive PE. In-hospital mortality rate was 13.3% (95% CI, 0.04–0.38). One major, but not life-threatening, bleeding episode was evident in the whole group. Hemodynamic parameters were stabilized and clinical success was achieved in 14/15 (93.3%; 95% CI, 70.2–98.8) of the patients in the first 24 hours. Notably, the hemodynamic recovery was significantly evident in the first 8 hours after the procedure. Conclusions CDT is a promising treatment option for patients with acute PE with RVD with no fatal bleeding complication. In experienced centers, CDT should be considered as a first-line treatment for patients with acute PE and RVD and contraindications for ST, with the advantage of providing early hemodynamic recovery. PMID:27081754

  7. The Evaluation of Serum Copeptin Levels and Some Commonly Seen Thrombophilic Mutation Prevalence in Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Nurinnisa; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Bayramoglu, Atif; Polat, Harun; Gul, Mehmet Ali; Bakan, Ebubekir; Aslan, Sahin; Gunes, Ozge Nur

    2016-06-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common, emergent condition and may affect a large number of patients. Copeptin has been indicated to be a sensitive biomarker of arginine vasopressin release, and has diagnostic and prognostic value in various clinical conditions. Genetic mutations are considerable components of thrombophilic diseases, and factor II gene G20210A, (FII20210A), factor V Leiden (FVL, G1691A) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T (MTHFR677T) single nucleotide polymorphisms are the most common mutations of thrombophilic diseases. In this study, serum copeptin levels were determined in patients with PE and healthy controls, and the results were discussed. The prevalence of some commonly seen thrombophilic mutations was also evaluated in patients with PE. The study included 32 patients (18 male, 14 female) with PE and 24 (13 male, 11 female) age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A significant difference in serum copeptin levels was determined between the patient and control groups (8.58 ± 4.42 and 4.07 ± 1.02 pmol/L, respectively). Heterozygous mutant genotype for FII20210A and heterozygous mutant genotype for FVL were observed in 3.1 and 9.4% of patients, respectively. Mutant genotype of 49% was determined for MTHFR677T mutations. It was concluded that copeptin may have diagnostic value for PE.

  8. Contribution of fibrinolysis to the physical component summary of the SF-36 after acute submassive pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Lauren K.; Peitz, Geoffrey W.; Nordenholz, Kristen E.; Courtney, D. Mark; Kabrhel, Christopher; Jones, Alan E.; Rondina, Matthew T.; Diercks, Deborah B.; Klinger, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) can diminish patient quality of life (QoL). The objective was to test whether treatment with tenecteplase has an independent effect on a measurement that reflects QoL in patients with submassive PE. This was a secondary analysis of an 8-center, prospective randomized controlled trial, utilizing multivariate regression to control for predefined predictors of worsened QoL including: age, active malignancy, history of PE or deep venous thrombosis (DVT), recurrent PE or DVT, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure. QoL was measured with the physical component summary (PCS) of the SF-36. Analysis included 76 patients (37 randomized to tenecteplase, 39 to placebo). Multivariate regression yielded an equation f(8, 67), P<0.001, with R2 = 0.303. Obesity had the largest effect on PCS (β = −8.6, P<0.001), with tenecteplase second (β = 4.73, P = 0.056). After controlling for all interactions, tenecteplase increased the PCS by +5.37 points (P = 0.027). In patients without any of the defined comorbidities, the coefficient on the tenecteplase variable was not significant (−0.835, P = 0.777). In patients with submassive PE, obesity had the greatest influence on QoL, followed by use of fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis had a marginal independent effect on patient QoL after controlling for comorbidities, but was not significant in patients without comorbid conditions. PMID:25433511

  9. Tissue plasminogen activator for the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. A collaborative study by the PIOPED Investigators.

    PubMed

    1990-03-01

    Thirteen patients with acute pulmonary embolism were treated in a randomized double-blind fashion either with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) 40 to 80 mg, usually in combination with heparin, or with placebo plus heparin. The drug was administered intravenously over 40 to 90 minutes. Nine patients received rt-PA, and four received placebo. A lytic effect was observed 1.5 and three hours after the onset of therapy with rt-PA based upon elevated levels of fragment-D dimers. Among the patients who received rt-PA, there was a modest improvement of the total pulmonary resistance 1.5 hours after the start of therapy, but the angiograms showed no significant changes in two hours. After 24 hours, the lung scans showed a trend toward greater improvement with rt-PA, but the rate of improvement in comparison to control subjects was not statistically significant. Massive bleeding occurred in one patient. The observations in this study suggest that rt-PA has little effect in two hours on angiographic clot burden, but may produce some improvement in hemodynamics. The treatment, however, is not without risk.

  10. Lack of functional information explains the poor performance of 'clot load scores' at predicting outcome in acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Clark, A R; Milne, D; Wilsher, M; Burrowes, K S; Bajaj, M; Tawhai, M H

    2014-01-01

    Clot load scores have previously been developed with the goal of improving prognosis in acute pulmonary embolism (PE). These scores provide a simple estimate of pulmonary vascular bed obstruction, however they have not been adopted clinically as they have poor correlation with mortality and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. This study performed a quantitative analysis of blood flow and gas exchange in 12 patient-specific models of PE, to understand the limitations of current clot load scores and how their prognostic value could be improved. Prediction of hypoxemia in the models when using estimated baseline (non-occluded) minute ventilation and cardiac output correlated closely with clinical metrics for RV dysfunction, whereas the clot load score had only a weak correlation. The model predicts that large central clots have a greater impact on function than smaller distributed clots with the same total clot load, and that the partial occlusion of a vessel only has a significant impact on pulmonary function when the vessel is close to completely occluded. The effect of clot distribution on the redistribution of blood from its normal pattern - and hence the magnitude of the potential effect on gas exchange - is represented in the model but is not included in current clot load scores. Improved scoring systems need to account for the expected normal distribution of blood in the lung, and the impact of clot on redistributing the blood flow.

  11. Systematic review and meta-analysis for thrombolysis treatment in patients with acute submassive pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yaoqian; Zhao, Haiyan; Gao, Wanpeng; Wang, Yan; Cao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic treatment in patients with submassive pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods An electronic search was carried out based on the databases from MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index (SCI), and the Cochrane Library. We included prospective, randomized, and clinical trials in thrombolysis with heparin alone in adults who had evidence of right ventricular dysfunction and normotension. The main endpoints consist of mortality, recurrent PE, and bleeding risk. The relative risk (RR) and the relevant 95% confidence intervals were determined by the dichotomous variable. Results Only seven studies involving 594 patients met the inclusion criteria for further review. The cumulative effect of thrombolysis, compared with intravenous heparin, demonstrated no statistically significant difference in mortality (2.7% versus 4.3%; RR=0.64 [0.29–1.40]; P=0.27) or recurrent PE (2% versus 5%; RR=0.44 [0.19–1.05]; P=0.06). Thrombolytic therapy did not increase major hemorrhage compared with intravenous heparin (4.5% versus 3.3%; RR=1.16 [0.51–2.60]; P=0.73), but it was associated with an increased minor hemorrhage (41% versus 9%; RR=3.91 [1.46–10.48]; P=0.007). Conclusion Compared with heparin alone, neither mortality nor recurrent PE is reduced by thrombolysis in patients with submassive PE, and it does not reveal an increasing risk of major bleeding. In addition, thrombolysis also produces the increased risk of minor bleeding; however, no sufficient evidence verifies the thrombolytic benefit in this review, because the number of patients enrolled in the trials is limited. Therefore, a large, double-blind clinical trial is required to prove the outcomes of this meta-analysis. PMID:24611003

  12. Alveolar dead space and capnographic variables before and after thrombolysis in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Marcos Mello; Terzi, Renato G G; Carvalho, Carlos Heitor N; de Oliveira Neto, Antonio Francisco; Pereira, Mônica Corso; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common condition. The central aim of this study was to describe the use of volumetric capnography (VCap) before and after fibrinolytic treatment of major PE. Lung scintigraphy was used as a base of comparison for the results of this treatment. We describe the cases of two conscious and spontaneously breathing patients (20- and by 24-year-old women) with major PE undergoing thrombolysis. Curves of CO2 were obtained VCap and associated with arterial blood gas analysis and D-dimer. The pattern of VCap was compared with the VCap of health volunteers. Parameters also calculated were: P(a-et)CO2 gradient, alveolar dead space fraction (AVDSf ), late dead space fraction (fDlate), and slope phase III (Slp III). The VCap results before and after thrombolysis for patients 1 and 2 were, respectively, P(a-et)CO2: 12.6 to 5.8 and 7.9 to 1.6 (mmHg); AVDSf: 0.46 to 0.18 and 0.25 to 0.05; fDlate: 0.46 to 0.21 and 0.24 to 0.04; Slp III: 1.75 to 5.10 and 1.21 to 5.61 (mmHg/L). Lung scintigraphy was used to compare VCap results from the two subjects with VCap results from healthy volunteers and pigs before and after treatment associated with arterial blood gas, D-dimer, and showed satisfactory agreement. PMID:19436653

  13. Factors determining altered perfusion after acute pulmonary embolism assessed by quantified single-photon emission computed tomography-perfusion scan

    PubMed Central

    Meysman, Marc; Everaert, Hendrik; Vincken, Walter

    2017-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to analyze the evolution of perfusion (Q)-defects in patients treated for acute pulmonary embolism (PE), correlation with baseline parameters and evaluation of recurrence risk. METHODS: This is a single-center prospective observational cohort study in symptomatic normotensive PE. Comparison of the ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q-SPECT) acquired at baseline with a quantified SPECT (Q-SPECT) repeated at 1 week and 6 months. The Q-defect extent (percentage of total lung volume affected) was measured semiquantitatively. Data collected at baseline were age, gender, body mass index (BMI), history of previous venous thromboembolism (HVTE), Charlson's Comorbidity Score (CcS), plasma troponin-T and D-dimer levels, PE Severity Index, and tricuspid regurgitation jet (TRJ) velocity. RESULTS: Forty-six patients (22 men/24 women, mean age 61.7 years (± standard deviation 16.3)) completed the study. At 1 week, 13/46 (28.3 %) and at 6 months 22/46 (47.8%) patients had completely normalized Q-SPECT. Persistence of Q-defects was more frequent in female patients in univariate and multivariate analysis. We found no correlation between the persistence of Q-defects on Q-SPECT and HVTE, BMI, plasma troponin-T, and CcS. However, lower TRJ and younger age were statistically significantly linked to normalization of Q-scans after 6 months of treatment only in univariate analysis. There is no difference in the frequency of recurrent PE in relation to the persistence of Q-defects. CONCLUSION: Acute PE patients of female, older age, and higher TRJ in univariate analysis and patients of female in multivariate analysis seem to have a higher risk of persistent Q-defects after 6 months treatment. The presence of residual Q-abnormalities at 6 months was not associated with an increased risk for recurrent PE. PMID:28197219

  14. Split-Bolus Single-Pass Multidetector-Row CT Protocol for Diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Scialpi, Michele; Rebonato, Alberto; Cagini, Lucio; Brunese, Luca; Piscioli, Irene; Pierotti, Luisa; Bellantonio, Lucio; D’Andrea, Alfredo; Rotondo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Currently computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has become a widely accepted clinical tool in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Objectives: To report split-bolus single-pass 64-multidetector-row CT (MDCT) protocol for diagnosis of PE. Patients and Methods: MDCT split-bolus results in 40 patients suspicious of PE were analyzed in terms of image quality of target pulmonary vessels (TPVs) and occurrence and severity of flow-related artifact, flow-related artifact, false filling defect of the pulmonary veins and beam hardening streak artifacts. Dose radiation to patients was calculated. Results: MDCT split-bolus protocol allowed diagnostic images of high quality in all cases. Diagnosis of PE was obtained in 22 of 40 patients. Mean attenuation for target vessels was higher than 250 HU all cases: 361 ± 98 HU in pulmonary artery trunk (PAT); 339 ± 93 HU in right pulmonary artery (RPA); 334 ± 100 HU in left pulmonary artery (LPA). Adequate enhancement was obtained in the right atrium (RA):292 ± 83 HU; right pulmonary vein (RPV): 302 ± 91 HU, and left pulmonary vein (LPV): 291 ± 83 HU. The flow related artifacts and the beam hardening streak artifacts have been detected respectively in 4 and 25 patients. No false filling defect of the pulmonary veins was revealed. Conclusion: MDCT split-bolus technique by simultaneous opacification of pulmonary arteries and veins represents an accurate technique for diagnosis of acute PE, removes the false filling defects of the pulmonary veins, and reduces flow related artifacts. PMID:27110334

  15. Coagulopathy in patients with acute pulmonary embolism: a pilot study of whole blood coagulation and markers of endothelial damage.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Per; Johansson, Pär I; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Møller, Christian H; Bang, Lia E; Olsen, Peter Skov; Carlsen, Jørn

    2017-02-01

    Whole blood coagulation and markers of endothelial damage were studied in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE), and evaluated in relation to PE severity. Twenty-five patients were enrolled prospectively each having viscoelastical analysis of whole blood done using thrombelastography (TEG) and Multiplate aggregometry. Fourteen of these patients were investigated for endothelial damage by ELISA measurements of Syndecan-1 (endothelial glycocalyx degradation), soluble endothelial Selectin (endothelial cell activation), soluble Thrombomodulin (endothelial cell injury) and Histone Complexed DNA fragments (endothelial cytotoxic histones). The mean values of TEG and Multiplate parameters were all within the reference levels, but a significant difference between patients with high and intermediate risk PE was observed for Ly30 (lytic activity) 1.5% [0-10] vs. 0.2% [0-2.2] p = .04, and ADP (platelet reactivity) 92 U [20-145] vs. 59 U [20-111] p = .03. A similar difference was indicated for functional fibrinogen 21 mm [17-29] vs. 18 mm [3-23] p = .05. Analysis of endothelial markers identified a significant difference in circulating levels between high and intermediate risk PE patients for Syndecan-1 118.6 ng/mL [76-133] vs. 36.3 ng/mL [11.8-102.9] p = .008. In conclusion, patients with acute PE had normal whole blood coagulation, but high risk PE patients had signs of increased activity of the haemostatic system and significantly increased level of endothelial glycocalyx degradation.

  16. Strategy that includes serial noninvasive leg tests for diagnosis of thromboembolic disease in patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism based on data from PIOPED. Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Stein, P D; Hull, R D; Pineo, G

    1995-10-23

    To estimate the percentage of patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism in whom a noninvasive diagnosis or exclusion of thromboembolic disease might be safely made on the basis of ventilation-perfusion (VQ) lung scans, single noninvasive tests of the lower extremities, and, in patients with adequate cardiorespiratory reserve, serial noninvasive tests of the lower extremities. Calculations were made among 662 patients who participated in the collaborative study Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) and who had blood gas values measured while breathing room air and who underwent pulmonary angiography. The diagnostic strategy recommends treatment in all patients with a high-probability VQ scan and no treatment in patients with nearly normal VQ scans. In patients with nondiagnostic VQ scans (intermediate- or low-probability scans), a single noninvasive leg test is recommended. It was assumed that 50% of patients with pulmonary embolism would show deep venous thrombosis with a single noninvasive leg test. If results are abnormal, treatment is indicated. If normal, serial noninvasive leg tests are recommended. Treatment can be withheld if results of serial tests are normal. In patients with poor cardiorespiratory reserve, pulmonary angiography is indicated. A single noninvasive leg test in patients with nondiagnostic VQ scans would show deep venous thrombosis and, therefore, eliminate the need for pulmonary angiography in 53 (11%) of 468 patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 9% to 15%) who otherwise would require angiography. Serial noninvasive leg tests in patients with adequate cardiorespiratory reserve who had a normal result of a single leg test would either show deep venous thrombosis or exclude it in 222 (47%) of 468 patients (95% CI, 43% to 52%). The need for pulmonary angiography, therefore, would be reduced from 468 (71%) of 662 (95% CI, 67% to 74%) if no noninvasive leg tests were performed to 415 (63%) of 662 (95% CI, 59

  17. Open Abdomen Improves Survival in Patients With Peritonitis Secondary to Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ding, Weiwei; Wang, Kai; Liu, Baochen; Fan, Xinxin; Wang, Shikai; Cao, Jianmin; Wu, Xingjiang; Li, Jieshou

    2017-10-01

    Damage control surgery and open abdomen (OA) have been extensively used in the severe traumatic patients. However, there was little information when extended to a nontrauma setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the liberal use of OA as a damage control surgery adjunct improved the clinical outcome in acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion patients. A single-center, retrospective cohort review was performed in a national tertiary surgical referral center. Forty-four patients received OA (OA group) and 65 patients had a primary fascial closure (non-OA group) after diagnosed as peritonitis secondary to acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion from January, 2005 to June, 2016. Revascularization was achieved through endovascular aspiration embolectomy, open embolectomy, or percutaneous stent. No difference of bowel resection length was found between groups in the first emergency surgery. However, more non-OA patients (35.4%) required a second-look enterectomy to remove the residual bowel ischemia than OA patients (13.6%, P<0.05). OA was closed within a median of 7 days (4 to 15 d). There was a mean of 134 cm residual alive bowel in OA, whereas 96 cm in non-OA. More non-OA patients suffered from intra-abdominal sepsis (23.1% vs. 6.8%, P<0.01), intra-abdominal hypertension (31% vs. 0, P<0.01), and acute renal failure (53.8% vs. 31.8%, P<0.05) than OA group after surgery. Short-bowel syndrome occurred infrequently in OA than non-OA patients (9.1% vs. 36.9%, P<0.01). OA significantly decreased the 30-day (27.3% vs. 52.3%, P<0.01) and 1-year mortality rate (31.8 % vs. 61.5%, P<0.01) compared with non-OA group. Liberal use of OA, as a damage control adjunct avoided the development of intra-abdominal hypertension, reduced sepsis-related complication, and improved the clinical outcomes in peritonitis secondary to acute SMA occlusion.

  18. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Robin R.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonary, cerebral and cutaneous dysfunction and confirmed by the demonstration of arterial hypoxemia in the absence of other disorders. Treatment of fat embolism syndrome consists of general supportive measures, including splinting, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and the administration of oxygen. Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilatory assistance can be indicated. The role of corticosteroids remains controversial. Early stabilization of long bone fractures has been shown to decrease the incidence of pulmonary complications. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the exact method of fracture fixation plays a minor role in the development of pulmonary dysfunction. As more is learned about the specifics of the various triggers for the development of fat embolism syndrome, it is hoped that the prospect of more specific therapy for the prevention and treatment of this disorder will become a reality. PMID:9336522

  19. Investigating for pulmonary embolism in pregnancy: Five year retrospective review of referrals to the acute medical unit of a large teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Elizabeth Janette; Green, Alistair Quentin; Cook, Jennifer Ann; Nash, Henry

    2016-01-01

    This was a retrospective review of five years' data relating to patients referred to the Acute Medical Unit (AMU) of a large teaching hospital with suspected Pulmonary Embolism (PE) during pregnancy or 6 weeks postpartum. During this period, 210 patients in this group underwent half-dose perfusion scanning as investigation for possible PE and were managed via our ambulatory pathway. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 5.2% of patients compared to 18% of non-pregnant patients identified in a previous audit. Half-dose Q scanning enabled exclusion of PE in almost 90% of patients without the need for further imaging. A new local pathway for the investigation and management of PE during pregnancy has now been developed.

  20. Estimation of right ventricular dysfunction by computed tomography pulmonary angiography: a valuable adjunct for evaluating the severity of acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dong; Zhou, Xiao-Ming; Hou, Gang

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in differentiating acute pulmonary embolism (PE) patients with or without right ventricular dysfunction and to evaluate the severity of right ventricular dysfunction in acute PE patients with CPTA. We retrospectively collected and measured the following parameters: right ventricular diameter by short axis in the axial plane (RVDaxial), left ventricular diameter by short axis in the axial plane (LVDaxial), right ventricular diameter by level on the reconstructed four-chamber views (RVD4-CH), left ventricular diameter by level on the reconstructed four-chamber views (LVD4-CH), main pulmonary artery diameter (MPAD), ascending aorta diameter (AOD), coronary sinus diameter (CSD), superior vena cava diameter (SVCD), inferior vena cava (IVC) reflux and interventricular septum deviation by CTPA, and we calculated the RVDaxial/LVDaxial, RVD4-CH/LVD4-CH and MPAD/AOD ratios in acute PE patients. We assessed right ventricular function and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) by echocardiography (ECHO) and then divided the patients into two groups: group A had right ventricular dysfunction, and group B did not have right ventricular dysfunction. We utilized a logistic regression model to analyse the relationship between right ventricular dysfunction and the measurement parameters obtained from CTPA, and we constructed the ROC curve to confirm the optimal cut-off value of the statistically significant parameter in the logistic regression model. After an initial screening, 113 acute PE patients were enrolled in our study. Among them, 42 patients showed right ventricular dysfunction (37.2 %), and 71 patients showed no right ventricular dysfunction (62.8 %). The difference between the patients with right ventricular dysfunction and patients without right ventricular dysfunction was statistical significant in RVD4-CH/LVD4-CH ratio. Logistic regression model analysis revealed

  1. Is the acute care of frail elderly patients in a comprehensive geriatric assessment unit superior to conventional acute medical care?

    PubMed Central

    Ekerstad, Niklas; Karlson, Björn W; Dahlin Ivanoff, Synneve; Landahl, Sten; Andersson, David; Heintz, Emelie; Husberg, Magnus; Alwin, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute care of frail elderly patients in a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) unit is superior to the care in a conventional acute medical care unit. Design This is a clinical, prospective, randomized, controlled, one-center intervention study. Setting This study was conducted in a large county hospital in western Sweden. Participants The study included 408 frail elderly patients, aged ≥75 years, in need of acute in-hospital treatment. The patients were allocated to the intervention group (n=206) or control group (n=202). Mean age of the patients was 85.7 years, and 56% were female. Intervention This organizational form of care is characterized by a structured, systematic interdisciplinary CGA-based care at an acute elderly care unit. Measurements The primary outcome was the change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 3 months after discharge from hospital, measured by the Health Utilities Index-3 (HUI-3). Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, rehospitalizations, and hospital care costs. Results After adjustment by regression analysis, patients in the intervention group were less likely to present with decline in HRQoL after 3 months for the following dimensions: vision (odds ratio [OR] =0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.14–0.79), ambulation (OR =0.19, 95% CI =0.1–0.37), dexterity (OR =0.38, 95% CI =0.19–0.75), emotion (OR =0.43, 95% CI =0.22–0.84), cognition (OR = 0.076, 95% CI =0.033–0.18) and pain (OR =0.28, 95% CI =0.15–0.50). Treatment in a CGA unit was independently associated with lower 3-month mortality adjusted by Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio [HR] =0.55, 95% CI =0.32–0.96), and the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of hospital care costs (P>0.05). Conclusion Patients in an acute CGA unit were less likely to present with decline in HRQoL after 3 months, and the care in a CGA unit was also independently associated with lower mortality

  2. Acute pulmonary embolism detection with ventilation/perfusion SPECT combined with full dose CT: What is the best option?

    PubMed

    Milà, M; Bechini, J; Vázquez, A; Vallejos, V; Tenesa, M; Espinal, A; Fraile, M; Monreal, M

    To compare diagnostic accuracy of Ventilation/Perfusion (V/P) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) combined with simultaneous full-dose CT with a hybrid SPECT/CT scanner versus planar ventilation/perfusion (V/P) SPECT and CT angiography (CTA) in patients suspected with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Between 2009 and 2011, consecutive patients suspected of acute PE were referred for V/P SPECT/CT (reviewed board approved study). A contrast agent was administered to patients who had no contraindications. Non-contrast V/P SPECT/CT was performed on the remaining patients. All patients were followed-up for at least 3 months. A total of 314 patients were available during the study period, with the diagnosis of PE confirmed in 70 (22.29%) of them. The overall population sensitivity and specificity was 90.91% and 92.44%, respectively for V/P SPECT, 80% and 99.15%, respectively, for CTA, and 95.52% and 97.08% for V/P SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT performed better than V/P SPECT (AUC differences=0.0419, P=0.0043, 95% CI; 0.0131-0.0706) and CTA (AUC differences=0.0681, P=0.0208, 95% CI; 0.0103-0.1259)). Comparing imaging modalities when contrast agent could be administered, sensitivity and specificity increased and V/P SPECT/CT was significantly better than CTA (AUC differences=0.0681, P=0.0208, 95% CI; 0.0103-0.1259) and V/P SPECT (AUC differences=0.0659, P=0.0052, 95% CI; 0.0197-0.1121). In case of non-contrast enhancement, there was non-significant increase of specificity. Secondary findings on CT impacted patient management in 14.65% of cases. Our study shows that combined V/P SPECT/CT scanning has a higher diagnostic accuracy for detecting acute PE than V/P SPECT and CTA alone. When feasible, V/P SPECT/CT with contrast enhancement is the best option. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. Derivation and Validation of a Novel Prediction Model to Identify Low-Risk Patients With Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Muthiah; Gopalan, Sowmya; Ramadurai, Srinivasan; Arthur, Preetam; Prabhu, Mukund A; Thachathodiyl, Rajesh; Natarajan, Kumaraswamy

    2017-08-15

    Accurate identification of low-risk patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) who may be eligible for outpatient treatment or early discharge can have substantial cost-saving benefit. The purpose of this study was to derive and validate a prediction model to effectively identify patients with PE at low risk of short-term mortality, right ventricular dysfunction, and other nonfatal outcomes. This study analyzed data from 400 consecutive patients with acute PE. We derived and internally validated our prediction rule based on clinically significant variables that are routinely available at initial examination and that were categorized and weighted using coefficients in the multivariate logistic regression. The model was externally validated in an independent cohort of 82 patients. The final model (HOPPE score) consisted of 5 categorized patient variables (1, 2, or 3 points, respectively): systolic blood pressure (>120, 100 to 119, <99 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (>80, 65 to 79, <64 mm Hg), heart rate (<80, 81 to 100, >101 beats/min), arterial partial pressure of oxygen (>80, 60 to 79, <59 mm Hg), and modified electrocardiographic score (<2, 2 to 4, >4). The 30-day mortality rates were 0% in low risk (0 to 6 points), 7.5% to 8.5% in intermediate risk (7 to 10), and 18.2% to 18.8% in high-risk patients (≥11) across the derivation and validation cohorts. In comparison with the previously validated PESI score, the HOPPE score had a higher discriminatory power (area under the curve 0.74 vs 0.85, p = 0.033) and significantly improved both the discrimination (integrated discrimination improvement, p = 0.002) and reclassification (net reclassification improvement, p = 0.003) of the model for short-term mortality. In conclusion, the HOPPE score accurately identifies acute patients with PE at low risk of short-term mortality, right ventricular dysfunction, and other nonfatal outcomes. Prospective validation of the prediction model is necessary before implementation

  4. Superiority of West Nile Virus RNA Detection in Whole Blood for Diagnosis of Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Yaniv; Mannasse, Batya; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal; Dovrat, Sara; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-09-01

    The current diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is primarily based on serology, since molecular identification of WNV RNA is unreliable due to the short viremia and absence of detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have shown that WNV RNA can be detected in urine for a longer period and at higher concentrations than in plasma. In this study, we examined the presence of WNV RNA in serum, plasma, whole-blood, CSF, and urine samples obtained from patients diagnosed with acute WNV infection during an outbreak which occurred in Israel in 2015. Our results demonstrate that 33 of 38 WNV patients had detectable WNV RNA in whole blood at the time of diagnosis, a higher rate than in any of the other sample types tested. Overall, whole blood was superior to all other samples, with 86.8% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 83.9% negative predictive value. Interestingly, WNV viral load in urine was higher than in whole blood, CSF, serum, and plasma despite the lower sensitivity than that of whole blood. This study establishes the utility of whole blood in the routine diagnosis of acute WNV infection and suggests that it may provide the highest sensitivity for WNV RNA detection in suspected cases.

  5. Superiority of West Nile Virus RNA Detection in Whole Blood for Diagnosis of Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mannasse, Batya; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal; Dovrat, Sara; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-01-01

    The current diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is primarily based on serology, since molecular identification of WNV RNA is unreliable due to the short viremia and absence of detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have shown that WNV RNA can be detected in urine for a longer period and at higher concentrations than in plasma. In this study, we examined the presence of WNV RNA in serum, plasma, whole-blood, CSF, and urine samples obtained from patients diagnosed with acute WNV infection during an outbreak which occurred in Israel in 2015. Our results demonstrate that 33 of 38 WNV patients had detectable WNV RNA in whole blood at the time of diagnosis, a higher rate than in any of the other sample types tested. Overall, whole blood was superior to all other samples, with 86.8% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 83.9% negative predictive value. Interestingly, WNV viral load in urine was higher than in whole blood, CSF, serum, and plasma despite the lower sensitivity than that of whole blood. This study establishes the utility of whole blood in the routine diagnosis of acute WNV infection and suggests that it may provide the highest sensitivity for WNV RNA detection in suspected cases. PMID:27335150

  6. Acute and chronic effects of clozapine on cholinergic transmission in cultured mouse superior cervical ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Saur, Taixiang; Cohen, Bruce M; Ma, Qi; Babb, Suzann M; Buttner, Edgar A; Yao, Wei-Dong

    Cholinergic dysfunction contributes to cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine improves cognition in patients with schizophrenia, possibly through modulation of the cholinergic system. However, little is known about specific underlying mechanisms. We investigated the acute and chronic effects of clozapine on cholinergic synaptic transmission in cultured superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons. Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) were detected and were reversibly inhibited by the nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine, confirming that the synaptic responses were primarily mediated by nicotinic receptors. Bath application of clozapine at therapeutic concentrations rapidly and reversely inhibited both the amplitude and frequency of sEPSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, without changing either rise or decay time, suggesting that clozapine effects have both presynaptic and postsynaptic origins. The acute effects of clozapine on sEPSCs were recapitulated by chronic treatment of SCG cultures with similar concentrations of clozapine, as clozapine treatment for 4 d reduced the frequency and amplitude of sEPSCs without affecting their kinetics. Cell survival analysis indicated that SCG neuron cell counts after chronic clozapine treatment were comparable to the control group. These results demonstrate that therapeutic concentrations of clozapine suppress nicotinic synaptic transmission in SCG cholinergic synapses, a simple in vitro preparation of cholinergic transmission.

  7. Algorithm for the diagnosis and follow-up of acute pulmonary embolisms.

    PubMed

    Calvillo Batllés, P

    The urgent diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism benefits from the use of evidence-based clinical guidelines that improve patients' prognoses and reduce the unnecessary use of imaging tests. This article explains the diagnostic algorithms for pulmonary thromboembolism most recently published by the relevant scientific societies both for the general population and for special situations, trying to clear up common doubts and analyzing persistent controversies. It also discusses the need to follow up the thromboembolism after anticoagulation treatment, which is not currently recommended in the guidelines.

  8. D-dimer for risk stratification in haemodynamically stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Keller, Karsten; Beule, Johannes; Schulz, Andreas; Coldewey, Meike; Dippold, Wolfgang; Balzer, Jörn Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Patients with submassive pulmonary embolism (PE) have a higher short-term mortality than those with low-risk PE. Rapid identification of submassive PE is important for adequate treatment of non-massive PE. We aimed to investigate the utility of D-dimer for the prediction of submassive PE stadium in normotensive PE patients. Normotensive PE patients were classified into submassive or low-risk PE groups. In addition to the comparison of the groups, area under the curve (AUC) and D-dimer cut-off for the prediction of submassive PE stadium, multi-variate logistic regression for association between D-dimer values above this cut-off and submassive PE stadium were also calculated. The data of 129 normotensive PE patients (59.7% women, mean age 70.0 years (60.7/81.0)) were analysed retrospectively. Patients with submassive PE were older (75.0 years (61.7/81.0) vs. 66.5 years (55.7/74.2), P=0.026) and more frequently female (63.6% vs. 53.8%, P=0.35). Heart rate (100.0beats/min (85.0/108.0) vs. 80.0beats/min (70.0/96.2), P<0.0001), systolic pulmonary-artery pressure (41.55±16.79mmHg vs. 22.62±14.81mmHg, P<0.0001), and D-dimer (2.00mg/l (1.09/3.98) vs. 1.21mg/l (0.75/1.99), P=0.011) were higher in patients with submassive PE. D-dimer values >1.32mg/l were indicative of submassive PE and shock-index ≥0.7. The effectiveness (AUC) of the test was 0.63 for submassive PE and 0.64 for shock-index ≥0.7. D-dimer values >1.32mg/l were associated with submassive PE stadium (OR 3.81 (95% CI: 1.74-8.35), P=0.00083) as well as with systolic blood pressure (OR 0.98 (95% CI: 0.97-0.99), P=0.033), heart rate (OR 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00-1.04), P=0.023) and shock-index value (OR 15.89 (95% CI: 1.94-130.08), P=0.0099). D-dimer values >1.32mg/l are indicative of submassive PE stadium and shock-index ≥0.7. Efficacy of D-dimer for predicting submassive PE stadium was only weak to moderate. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All

  9. Effects of acute hypobaric hypoxia on resting and postprandial superior mesenteric artery blood flow.

    PubMed

    Loshbaugh, Jenny E; Loeppky, Jack A; Greene, E Richard

    2006-01-01

    Reduced blood flow to the gut may contribute to weight loss and gastrointestinal symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) at altitude. A study in humans tested the hypothesis that acute hypobaric hypoxia (ALT) would attenuate the normal postprandial hyperemia in the superior mesenteric artery (SM). Blood pressure, cardiac output (CO), and (SM) were measured with previously validated noninvasive Doppler ultrasonic flowmetry in 9 (3 women) healthy young adults (mean age: 23; range: 18-33 yr) residing at 1700 m. Baseline measurements were made after 2 h at ALT in a chamber at 430 mmHg (asymptotically equal to 4800 m = 15,750 ft) after 10-12-h fasting, and the next day the control (CON) measurements were made at 615 mmHg (1850 m). Postprandial measurements were made 45 to 60 min after ingesting a 1000-cal liquid meal under both conditions. At ALT, 5 of the 9 subjects had AMS by the Lake Louise score criteria of headache > or =1 and total score > or =3. ALT significantly reduced fasting, baseline SM relative to CON by 15%, and increased CO by 16%. The postprandial CO increase was not different between ALT and CON, but (SM) increased 115% at CON, but only 75% at ALT, the attenuation being significant (p < 0.006). Neither the diminution of fasting (SM) at ALT nor the attenuation of the postprandial increase in (SM) correlated significantly with AMS symptom scores. These results suggest that baseline and postprandial gut blood flow are altered during acute altitude exposure because of increased intestinal sympathetic tone, inferred from increased local resistance, and may be related to reduced energy intake if sustained during prolonged exposure.

  10. [A statement the Polish Cardiac Society Working Group on Pulmonary Circulation on screening for CTEPH patients after acute pulmonary embolism].

    PubMed

    Ciurzyński, Michał; Kurzyna, Marcin; Kopeć, Grzegorz; Błaszczak, Piotr; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Kamiński, Karol; Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna; Mularek-Kubzdela, Tatiana; Mroczek, Ewa; Biederman, Andrzej; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Torbicki, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Both pharmacological and invasive treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is now available in Poland and the awareness of the disease among physicians is growing. Thus, the Polish Cardiac Society's Working Group on Pulmonary Circulation in cooperation with independent experts in this field, have launched the statement on algorithm to guide a CTEPH diagnosis in patients with previous acute pulmonary embolism (APE). In Poland, every year this disease affects about 250 patients. CTEPH should be suspected in individuals after APE with dyspnea, despite at least 3 months period of effective anticoagulation, particularly when specified risk factors are present. Echocardiography is a main screening tool. The authors suggest that a diagnostic process of patients with significant clinical suspicion of CTEPH and right ventricle overload in echocardiography should be performed in reference centres. The document contains a list of Polish centres diagnosing patients with suspected CTEPH. Pulmonary scintigraphy is a safe and highly sensitive screening test for CTEPH. Multi-detector computed tomography with precise detection of thromboembolic residues in pulmonary circulation is important for planning of pulmonary endarterectomy. Right heart catheterisation definitely confirms the presence of pulmonary hypertension and direct pulmonary angiography allows for identification of lesions suitable for thromboendarterectomy or pulmonary balloon angioplasty. In this document a diagnostic algorithm in patients with suspected CTEPH is also proposed. With individualised sequential diagnostic strategy each patient can be finally qualified for a particular mode of therapy by dedicated CTEPH Heart Team. Moreover the document contains short information for the primary care physician about the management of patients after APE.

  11. Embolization as treatment of choice for bleeding peptic ulcers in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Raoul; Bosscha, Koop; van Munster, Ivo P; de Jager, Cornelis P C; Rutten, Matthieu J C M

    2009-01-01

    Peptic ulcers are the most common cause of acute upper gastrointestinal bleedings in the digestive tract. Most patients are poor surgical candidates. The aim was to describe the efficacy of embolization as the treatment of choice for bleeding peptic ulcers in high-risk patients when endoscopic treatment failed. All patients who underwent a selective embolization of branches of the superior mesenteric artery and/or branches of the gastroduodenal artery for a bleeding peptic ulcer in the period January 2004 until December 2007 were included in this retrospective descriptive study. We examined the known risk factors for surgery and mortality in upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to peptic ulcers and describe the clinical course and outcome. Primary endpoints were the primary technical success and the clinical success rates. The secondary endpoint was the 30-day mortality. 16 patients were included. All patients had at least two risk factors for surgery and mortality. The clinical success rate was 81% (13/16). The first embolization failed in 3 patients, 1 was successful re-embolized and 2 were operated upon without re-embolization. The primary technical success rate, i.e. bleedings controlled by radiologic intervention, was 88% (14/16). 6 patients died due to non-embolization-related problems; 5 of them developed upper gastrointestinal bleeding during a stay in the hospital. Embolization was a successful, minimal invasive alternative for surgical intervention in high-risk patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding after failure of endoscopic treatment. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Transradial Approach for Transcatheter Selective Superior Mesenteric Artery Urokinase Infusion Therapy in Patients with Acute Extensive Portal and Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Maoqiang Guo Liping; Lin Hanying; Liu Fengyong; Duan Feng; Wang Zhijun

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of transradial approach for transcatheter superior mesenteric artery (SMA) urokinase infusion therapy in patients with acute extensive portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis. During a period of 7 years, 16 patients with acute extensive thrombosis of the portal (PV) and superior mesenteric veins (SMV) were treated by transcatheter selective SMA urokinase infusion therapy by way of the radial artery. The mean age of the patients was 39.5 years. Through the radial sheath, a 5F Cobra catheter was inserted into the SMA, and continuous infusion of urokinase was performed for 5-11 days (7.1 {+-} 2.5 days). Adequate anticoagulation was given during treatment, throughout hospitalization, and after discharge. Technical success was achieved in all 16 patients. Substantial clinical improvement was seen in these 16 patients after the procedure. Minor complications at the radial puncture site were observed in 5 patients, but trans-SMA infusion therapy was not interrupted. Follow-up computed tomography scan before discharge demonstrated nearly complete disappearance of PV-SMV thrombosis in 9 patients and partial recanalization of PV-SMV thrombosis in 7 patients. The 16 patients were discharged 9-19 days (12 {+-} 6.0 days) after admission. Mean duration of follow-up after hospital discharge was 44 {+-} 18.5 months, and no recurrent episodes of PV-SMV thrombosis developed during that time period. Transradial approach for transcatheter selective SMA urokinase infusion therapy in addition to anticoagulation is a safe and effective therapy for the management of patients with acute extensive PV-SMV thrombosis.

  13. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Public » Health Topics » Pulmonary Embolism Explore Pulmonary Embolism What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Arrhythmia Deep Vein Thrombosis Lung VQ Scan Overweight and Obesity Send a ...

  14. Coronary artery ectasia presenting with thrombus embolization and acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongle; Wu, Chengcheng; Liu, Wennan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is characterized by an abnormal dilatation of the coronary arteries. CAE is often associated with the presence of slow coronary flow and may lead to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), even without total occlusion. Patient concerns and diagnosis: We report a case of a 24-year-old male patient with CAE suffering from AMI. Interventions: Percutaneous coronary intervention with aspiration thrombectomy failed to restore adequate blood flow. Heparin and antiplatelet treatment were provided for pharmacological management, but follow-up angiography 15 days later still revealed a poor result. This patient was ultimately treated with antiplatelet therapy in combination with warfarin treatment. Outcomes: Follow-up coronary angiography 15 months later showed a restored normal Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade (TIMI) 3 flow. Lessons: CAE-related infarct is often associated with high-burden thrombus formation. Long-term warfarin in combination with antiplatelet therapy may be a good alternative intervention to decrease thrombus burden and enhance blood flow. PMID:28121950

  15. Acute pulmonary embolism: impact of selection bias in prospective diagnostic studies. ANTELOPE Study Group. Advances in New Technologies Evaluating the Localization of Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, I J; Prins, M H; Büller, H R; Banga, J D

    2001-04-01

    We evaluated selection bias in a prospective study of 1,162 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Of these, 983 were eligible, and 627 could actually be included. During two months extensive data were collected on all non-included patients. Finally, our patient characteristics were compared with those of the PIOPED study (1990) and the study of Hull et al. (1994). Compared with included patients, the non-included patients had more often non-diagnostic V/Q scans (50% vs. 36%, p <0.01) and were more often already hospitalized (31% vs. 22%, P = 0.04). The subgroup of patients not included due to refusal or inability to give informed consent (IC) was older (mean age 61 vs. 53 years, P <0.01), more often suffered from malignancies (26% vs. 11%, P <0.01) and frequently had non-diagnostic V/Q scans (57%) as compared to included patients. In our study, 54% of all patients screened was eventually included versus 27% in the PIOPED study. In the PIOPED study patients who had contra-indications for pulmonary angiography were excluded, while in the study of Hull et al. those with inadequate cardiorespiratory reserve were excluded. In studies on new diagnostic technologies, patient selection bias does occur. The potential for such a selection bias should be taken into account when diagnostic strategies are devised to improve their generalizability and acceptability.

  16. Thrombolytic treatment (alteplase; rt-Pa) in acute massive pulmonary embolism and cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Dirican, Adem; Ozkaya, Sevket; Atas, Ali Ekber; Ulu, Esra Kayahan; Kitapci, Ilknur; Ece, Ferah

    2014-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) often decompensate suddenly, and once hemodynamic compromise has developed, mortality is extremely high. Currently, thrombolytic therapy for PE is still controversial. We retrospectively evaluated 34 patients with PE between January 2010 and December 2013 in the Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Medical Park Samsun Hospital, Samsun, Turkey. The demographic and disease characteristics of patients who received thrombolytic treatment were retrospectively analyzed. The female to male ratio was 19/15 and the mean age was 63.1±13.2 years. PE diagnosis was made using echocardiography (64.7%) or contrast-enhanced thorax computed tomography with echocardiography (32.4%). Twenty-two (64.7%) patients went into the cardiopulmonary arrest due to massive PE and 17 (50%) patients recovered without sequelae. Eleven (32.4%) patients were diagnosed with massive PE during cardiopulmonary arrest with clinical and echocardiographic findings. Alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator [rt-PA]) was administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and four (36.3%) patients responded and survived without sequelae. The complications of rt-PA treatment were hemorrhage in five (14.7%) patients and allergic reactions in two (5.9%) patients. There was no mortality due to rt-PA treatment complications. In conclusion, mortality due to massive PE is much more than estimated and alteplase can be used safely in patients with massive PE. This thrombolytic treatment was not associated with any fatal hemorrhage complication. If there is any sign of acute PE, echocardiography should be used during cardiopulmonary arrest/instability. Alteplase should be given to patients with suspected massive PE.

  17. Revascularization for acute regional infarct: superior protection with warm blood cardioplegia.

    PubMed

    Horsley, W S; Whitlark, J D; Hall, J D; Gott, J P; Pan-Chih; Huang, A H; Park, Y; Jones, D P; Guyton, R A

    1993-12-01

    Continuous retrograde warm blood cardioplegia was compared with two widely used hypothermic myocardial protection techniques in a canine model of acute regional myocardial ischemia with subsequent revascularization. Animals (n = 30) underwent 45 minutes of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion then cardioplegic arrest (60 minutes), followed by separation from cardiopulmonary bypass and data collection. The cold oxygenated crystalloid cardioplegia group (CC; n = 8) and the cold blood cardioplegia group (CC; n = 10) had cardiopulmonary bypass at 28 degrees C, antegrade arrest, and intermittent retrograde delivery. The warm blood cardioplegia group (WB; n = 12) had normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, antegrade arrest, and continuous retrograde delivery. Overall ventricular function (preload recruitable stroke work relationship; ergs x 10(3)/mL) was significantly (p < 0.001) better for WB (WB, 80 +/- 11; CB, 67 +/- 13; CC, 57 +/- 12). Systolic function (maximum elastance relationship; mm Hg/mL) was also significantly (p < 0.001) better for WB (WB, 11.6 +/- 3.6; CB, 8.6 +/- 2.7; CC, 6.2 +/- 1.3). Diastolic function (stress-strain relationship; dynes x 10(3)/cm2) revealed significantly (p < 0.001) decreased compliance for CC (WB, 20 +/- 6; CB, 19 +/- 7; CC, 27 +/- 11). Left anterior descending coronary artery regional adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate ratios were significantly (p = 0.02) worse for CC (WB, 10.2 +/- 2.3; CB, 9.4 +/- 2.6; CC, 5.6 +/- 1.5). Myocardial edema significantly (p = 0.03) increased over time only in the CC animals (WB, 0.4% +/- 2.3%; CB, -0.3% +/- 3.6%; CC, 5.5% +/- 2.3%). In this model of acute regional myocardial ischemia and revascularization, continuous retrograde warm aerobic blood cardioplegia provided superior myocardial protection compared with cold oxygenated crystalloid cardioplegia with intermediate results for cold blood cardioplegia.

  18. Tapered self expandable bare stent to treat acute superior mesenteric artery ischemia.

    PubMed

    Martinez Miguez, Marta; Carballo-Fernandez, Coral; Mosquera-Arochena, Nilo

    2012-01-01

    This case demonstrates the use of carotid stents in off-label emergency condition where standard self-expandable stents doesn't fit to native artery and balloon-expandable stents could not be also recommended. 56 years old patient, EVAR therapy performed 2 months before, suffering acute severe abdominal pain; emergency angioCT showed oclusion of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and no complications related to previous EVAR. A percutaneuos supraselective trombolysis was performed. After 24 hours control DSA showed partial recanalization and tight stenoses in distal SMA with poor run-off to terminal branches. A 6-8 x 40 mm Carotid Stent (Acculink®, Abbot Vascular) was implanted with good inmediate technical result. After 6 months follow up both SMA and branches remain patent and no further treatment was required. tapered self expandable uncovered stents are a good treatment option to achieve better conformability to SMA,and bare metal stents do not compromise side-branches of this artery.

  19. [Spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery: an uncommon cause of acute abdomen. A case report].

    PubMed

    Daghfous, A; Bouzaidi, K; Rezgui Marhoul, L

    2015-02-01

    Isolated spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery is the most common digestive artery dissection. It is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Only a few hundred cases have been reported in the literature. We report a 40-year-old man with a past medical history of high blood pressure who presented abdominal pain that was related to a spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery. Computed tomography revealed an isolated dissection of superior mesenteric artery. There were no evidence of bowel ischemia. We decided a conservative treatment and the outcome was favorable, without recurrent symptoms or disease progression. Based on this case report, we discuss the etiology of this vascular lesion and the contribution of computed tomography in the diagnosis, the therapeutic strategy and the follow-up of spontaneous dissection of superior mesenteric artery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  20. Acute Myocardial Infarction Due to Coronary Artery Embolism in a 22-Year-Old Woman with Mitral Stenosis with Atrial Fibrillation Under Warfarinization: Successful Management with Anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Razi, Mahmadula; Chaturvedi, Vikash; Erappa, Yatish Besthenahalli; Singh, Shravan; Mishra, Vikas; Khanra, Dibbendhu; Singh, Karandeep

    2017-04-07

    BACKGROUND Coronary artery embolization is an exceedingly rare cause of myocardial infarction, but a few cases in association with prosthetic mechanical valves have been reported. We report a case of embolic myocardial infarction caused by a thrombus in the left atrium with deranged coagulation profile in a patient with critical mitral stenosis under warfarinization. CASE REPORT A 22-year-old woman was taken to the catheterization lab for early coronary intervention in lieu of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Electrocardiography showed T↓ in V1 to V4, and atrial fibrillation with controlled ventricular rate. Coronary angiography showed total occlusion of the mid-left anterior descending artery with thrombus. After upstream treatment with tirofiban, the apparent thrombus was dislodged distally while passing a BMW wire. No abnormalities were seen by intravascular ultrasound study. Echocardiography revealed critical mitral stenosis, and left atrial clot with mild left ventricular dysfunction. Coagulation profile revealed sub-therapeutic international normalized ratio levels. The sequential angiographic images, normal intravascular ultrasound study, and presence of atrial fibrillation are confirmatory of coronary embolism as the cause of myocardial infarction. Anticoagulation and treatment of acute coronary syndrome were initiated and she was referred for closed mitral valvulotomy. CONCLUSIONS Coronary artery thromboembolism as a nonatherosclerotic cause of acute coronary syndrome is rare. The treatment consists of aggressive anticoagulation, antiplatelet therapy, and interventional options, including simple wiring when possible. In this context, primary prevention in the form of patient education on optimal anticoagulation with oral vitamin K antagonist and medical advice about imminent thromboembolic risks are of extreme importance.

  1. [The effect of low molecular heparin and urokinase on MCP-1 of acute experimental pulmonary embolism in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongzhi; Wu, Qi; Wu, Junping; Sun, Xin; Du, Zhongzhen; Li, Li; Wu, Qian

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate effect the of thrombolytic (urokinase, UK) and anticoagulant agent (low-molecular-weight heparin, LMWH) on the pulmonary injury of rabbits with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) by assaying monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Rabbit models with PE were established by transfusing autologous blood clots on 60 healthy male Japanese white rabbits. Experimental PE rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups:normal saline (NS) group (n = 18) , LMWH group (n = 18) and UK group (n = 18), and other 18 rabbits underwent sham operations as SHAM group (n = 18). Each group was divided into 3 subgroups based on 2 days (day 2), 4 days (day 4), and 14 days (day 14) after therapies. Arterial blood gas analysis was measured. MCP-1 levels in lung tissue and blood were assayed with ELISA at various times (day 2, day 4 and day 14 ). Fixed sections were stained with trichrome for intimal hyperplasia determination. The overall rate of success for making PE rabbit models was 90% (54/60), which was not affected by treatment. Compared with NS group, P(A-a)O2 significantly decreased in UK group. Compared with NS group, MCP-1 levels in lung tissue significantly decreased in LMWH group on day 4 [(33 ± 9) ng/L vs (48 ± 5) ng/L, P < 0.05] and day 14 [(30 ± 11) ng/L vs (41 ± 4) ng/L, P < 0.05]; MCP-1 levels in serum on day 14 also significantly decreased in LMWH group [(36 ± 10) ng/L vs (51 ± 5) ng/L, P < 0.05]. Compared with NS group, MCP-1 levels in lung tissue significantly decreased in UK group on day 2 and 4 [Day 2: (34 ± 8) ng/L vs (50 ± 4) ng/L, P < 0.05; Day 4: (29 ± 7) ng/L vs (48 ± 5) ng/L, P < 0.05]; MCP-1 levels in serum on day 2 and day 4 also significantly decreased in UK group [Day 2: (44 ± 3) ng/L vs (48 ± 3) ng/L, P < 0.05; Day 4: (44 ± 4) ng/L vs (53 ± 1)ng/L, P < 0.05]. UK treatment may rapidly improve V/Q ratio and decrease MCP-1 levels in lung tissue or serum, but it can not inhibit persistent inflammation. LMWH can decrease MCP-1 levels in lung

  2. The prognostic value of ST-segment elevation in the lead aVR in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Kukla, Piotr; Długopolski, Robert; Krupa, Ewa; Furtak, Romana; Mirek-Bryniarska, Ewa; Jastrzębski, Marek; Wańczura, Piotr; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2011-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) presents many abnormalities. There are no data concerning prognostic significance of ST-elevation (STE) in lead aVR in patients with APE. To assess the prevalence of STE in aVR in patients with APE and its correlation with clinical course as well as other ECG parameters recorded at admission. The retrospective analysis of 293 patients with APE diagnosed according to the ESC guidelines (182 females, 111 males, mean age 65.4 ± 15.5 years). The STE in lead aVR was observed in 133 (45.3%) patients. In comparison with patients without STE, patients with STE in lead aVR (STaVR[+]) had significantly more often systolic blood pressure 〈 90 mm Hg on admission (27% vs 10%, p 〈 0.001) and positive troponin level (64.8% vs 27.9%, p 〈 0.001). Thrombolytic therapy (14.3% vs 5.6%, p = 0.009) and catecholamines (29.3% vs 7.5%, p 〈 0.001) were more frequently used in patients with STaVR(+). The overall mortality (16.5% vs 6.9%, p = 0.009) and complication rates during hospitalisation (38.3% vs 12.5%, p 〈 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with STaVR(+). The STaVR(+) was significantly more frequent in patients with negative T-waves in inferior leads (59.4% vs 39.4%, p 〈 0.001), STE in lead III (24% vs 5.6%, p 〈 0.001), STE in lead V1 (46.6% vs 7.5%, p 〈 0.001), ST depression in lead V(4)-V(6) (48.9% vs 7.5%, p 〈 0.001), right bundle branch block (15.8% vs 8.1%, p = 0.04), QR sign in lead V1 (18% vs 6.2%, p 〈 0.001) and SI-QIII-TIII (46.6% vs 21.2%, p 〈 0.001). The presence of STE in lead aVR in patients with APE is associated with poor prognosis. The presence of STE in lead aVR could be an easily obtainable and noninvasive ECG parameter, helpful in risk stratification of patients with APE.

  3. [Acute arterial ischemia due to tumor embolism after pulmonary resection: report of two cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    el Hammami, S; Smati, B; Djilani-Horchani, H; Kilani, T

    2000-01-01

    From january 1984 to december 1999 we operate in our institution, 465 patients affected by lung cancer. In the early post-operative period we observe two arterial peripheral embolic events. Treatment consist in surgical embolectomy by Fogarty probe under femoral way. We don't observe post-operative complications or any functional sequelae. For the two patients tumoral character of the embolism was confirmed this work confirm the need of pre-operative precautions to avoid this complication that way be severe when in diagnosed or treated lately.

  4. Femur chondrosarcoma misdiagnosed as acute knee arthritis and osteomyelitis--further developing a hitherto unreported complication of tumor embolic ischemic ileal perforation after arthroscopic lavage.

    PubMed

    Chow, Louis Tsun Cheung

    2014-12-01

    The differentiation between osteomyelitis and bone tumor may be difficult due to their overlapping clinical and radiological features. A 25-year-old lady presented with left knee pain and joint effusion associated with redness and hotness. A sub-optimally taken plain radiograph showed mixed osteolytic and osteoblastic lesion in the left lower femur with surrounding soft tissue swelling. Since the clinical diagnosis was acute osteomyelitis and arthritis, arthroscopic lavage was performed as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. The removed loose bodies and fibrinous tissue showed pathological features suspicious of chondrosarcoma. Subsequent MRI revealed an infiltrative tumor eroding through the cortex and joint cartilage. En bloc excision of the left lower femur, upper tibia including the knee joint and patella was performed, and the final diagnosis was grade 2 chondrosarcoma. The patient developed bilateral pulmonary metastasis 33 months after operation. Five months later, she suffered from a hitherto undescribed complication of ischemic perforation of the terminal ileum secondary to tumor embolic arterial obstruction with no macroscopic intestinal or peritoneal tumor deposit. The patient developed multiple brain metastases and died 43 months after initial presentation. Our case illustrates that malignant bone tumor as a differential diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis and arthritis merits recognition and exclusion before arthroscopic lavage, which may enhance tumor dissemination and in our patient results in embolic ischemic ileal perforation.

  5. Retrievable Günther Tulip Vena Cava Filter in the prevention of pulmonary embolism in patients with acute deep venous thrombosis in perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Köcher, Martin; Krcova, Vera; Cerna, Marie; Prochazka, Martin

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the retrievable Günther Tulip Vena Cava Filter in the prevention of pulmonary embolism in patients with acute deep vein thrombosis in the perinatal period and to discuss the technical demands associated with the filter's implantation and retrieval. Between 1996 until 2007, eight women (mean age 27.4 years, range 20-42 years) with acute deep iliofemoral venous thrombosis in the perinatal period of pregnancy and increased risk of pulmonary embolism during delivery were indicated for retrievable Günther Tulip Vena Cava Filter implantation. All filters were inserted and removed under local anesthesia from the jugular approach. The Günther Tulip Vena Cava Filter was implanted suprarenally in all patients on the day of caesarean delivery. In follow-up cavograms performed just before planned filter removal, no embolus was seen in the filter in any patient. In all patients the filter was retrieved without complications on the 12th day after implantation. Retrievable Günther Tulip Vena Cava Filters can be inserted and removed in patients during the perinatal period without major complications.

  6. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients with acute spinal cord injury: a comparison with nonparalyzed patients immobilized due to spinal fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Myllynen, P.; Kammonen, M.; Rokkanen, P.; Boestman, O.L.; Lalla, M.; Laasonen, E.

    1985-06-01

    The occurrence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was studied in the series of 23 consecutive patients with acute spinal cord injury and 14 immobilized patients with spinal fractures without paralysis. The incidence of DVT in paralyzed patients was 100% as detected by the /sup 125/I-labeled fibrinogen test and confirmed by contrast venography, and 64% as detected by repeated clinical examinations and confirmed by contrast venography. The respective incidence of DVT in nonparalyzed patients with spinal fractures was 0%. The diagnosis of DVT was reached earlier with the radiofibrinogen test than with the clinical followup (5 days vs. 25 days). Two of the 23 paralyzed patients (9%) developed nonfatal clinical pulmonary embolism (PE). There were no differences in the values of routine coagulation tests. The result justifies prophylactic anticoagulant therapy in all cases of spinal cord injury during the acute post-traumatic phase.

  7. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot in the leg called a deep vein thrombosis that breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a ...

  8. Endovascular embolization

    MedlinePlus

    ... plastic particles, glue, metal coils, foam, or a balloon through it to seal off the faulty blood vessel. (If coils are used, it is called coil embolization.) This procedure can take several hours.

  9. Catheter Embolization

    MedlinePlus

    ... the scrotum that may be a cause of infertility. Catheter embolization may be used alone or combined ... in patients with diabetes or other pre-existing kidney disease. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  10. Successful management of multiple permanent pacemaker complications – infection, 13 year old silent lead perforation and exteriorisation following failed percutaneous extraction, superior vena cava obstruction, tricuspid valve endocarditis, pulmonary embolism and prosthetic tricuspid valve thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Pankaj; Adluri, Krishna; Javangula, Kalyana; Baig, Wasir

    2009-01-01

    A 59 year old man underwent mechanical tricuspid valve replacement and removal of pacemaker generator along with 4 pacemaker leads for pacemaker endocarditis and superior vena cava obstruction after an earlier percutaneous extraction had to be abandoned, 13 years ago, due to cardiac arrest, accompanied by silent, unsuspected right atrial perforation and exteriorisation of lead. Postoperative course was complicated by tricuspid valve thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism requiring TPA thrombolysis which was instantly successful. A review of literature of pacemaker endocarditis and tricuspid thrombosis along with the relevant management strategies is presented. We believe this case report is unusual on account of non operative management of right atrial lead perforation following an unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous removal of right sided infected pacemaker leads and the incidental discovery of the perforated lead 13 years later at sternotomy, presentation of pacemaker endocarditis with a massive load of vegetations along the entire pacemaker lead tract in superior vena cava, right atrial endocardium, tricuspid valve and right ventricular endocardium, leading to a functional and structural SVC obstruction, requirement of an unusually large dose of warfarin postoperatively occasioned, in all probability, by antibiotic drug interactions, presentation of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis uniquely as vasovagal syncope and isolated hypoxia and near instantaneous resolution of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis with Alteplase thrombolysis. PMID:19239701

  11. Acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Vacca, Vincent M; Jehle, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    Over the next 5 days, Mr. R continues to respond well to treatment. He’ll continue on the prescribed warfarin regimen, with scheduled follow-up to evaluate his condition and adjust the dosage if necessary. He’s instructed to continue wearing his GCS as an outpatient. Mr. R and his wife are given individualized instructions to prepare Mr. R for discharge. Mr. and Mrs. R participate in a thorough review of safe anticoagulation management, including the importance of taking warfarin exactly as prescribed. They’re taught strategies to avoid missing a dose, and Mr. R is instructed not to take more than the prescribed dose. They’re taught to recognize signs and symptoms of lower extremity DVT such as pain, redness, swelling, and warmth. Signs and symptoms of PE are also reviewed, including sudden onset of difficulty breathing, rapid respiratory rate, and pleuritic chest pain. If any of these symptoms occur, Mr. and Mrs. R are instructed to call emergency medical services immediately. The importance of postdischarge follow-up appointments with Mr. R’s PCP is emphasized. Mr. R is advised to avoid eating foods or using supplements high in vitamin K. Mr. R is also encouraged to stay active, but to use caution to prevent injuries and avoid falls by engaging in activities such as walking and, when approved, swimming.

  12. Acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Jean; Patel, Smita

    2010-02-01

    CT pulmonary angiography has become a first-line imaging test for evaluation of PE because of its high accuracy, ease of use, and ready availability. PIOPED II supports the use of multidetector CT as a first-line test especially in outpatients. Technological advances continue to evolve, and with refinements in technology, we will continue to optimize imaging for PE detection. lonizing radiation remains a concern particularly in the young and in pregnant patients, and methods to decrease these are being advocated. SPECT V/Q may play a bigger role in PE diagnosis in the future and the role of MR is yet to be determined in the PIOPED ll study, with the potential of solving some of the issues regarding radiation in a select group of patients.

  13. Massive Thrombosis of the Right Atrium Extended to the Superior Vena Cava at the Diagnosis of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Orou-Guiwa, Gnon Gourou; Habbal, Rachida; Qachouh, Meryem; Quessar, Asmaa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Venous thromboembolic disease is a common complication found in 8% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. The location at the right atrium is exceptional. These last fifty years, only 6 cases of thrombosis of the atrium in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia were published on PubMed search engine. Case Presentation. 35-year-old farmer, who had been admitted by emergency department for superior vena cava syndrome and had a hyperleukocytic AML with complex karyotype associated with a significant thrombosis of the right atrium, extended all along the superior vena cava. He has been treated by the 2011 AML protocol using low molecular weight heparin and died from respiratory distress. Conclusions. If thrombosis is common in AML, the location in right atrium is rare. Its management requires surgery that is sometimes difficult to achieve. PMID:27847650

  14. Massive Thrombosis of the Right Atrium Extended to the Superior Vena Cava at the Diagnosis of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Houssou, Bienvenu; Orou-Guiwa, Gnon Gourou; Habbal, Rachida; Qachouh, Meryem; Quessar, Asmaa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Venous thromboembolic disease is a common complication found in 8% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. The location at the right atrium is exceptional. These last fifty years, only 6 cases of thrombosis of the atrium in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia were published on PubMed search engine. Case Presentation. 35-year-old farmer, who had been admitted by emergency department for superior vena cava syndrome and had a hyperleukocytic AML with complex karyotype associated with a significant thrombosis of the right atrium, extended all along the superior vena cava. He has been treated by the 2011 AML protocol using low molecular weight heparin and died from respiratory distress. Conclusions. If thrombosis is common in AML, the location in right atrium is rare. Its management requires surgery that is sometimes difficult to achieve.

  15. Effects of different inspired oxygen fractions on sildenafil-induced pulmonary anti-hypertensive effects in a sheep model of acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Diana Rocío Becerra; Teixeira-Neto, Francisco José; Paola Lagos-Carvajal, Angie; Steim-Diniz, Miriely; Rodríguez, Nathalia Celeita; Dias-Junior, Carlos Alan

    2015-04-15

    Sildenafil is a pulmonary anti-hypertensive agent whose action could be modified by different fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO2). We compared the effects of pure oxygen (FiO2 > 90%) or room air (21% FiO2) on the cardiopulmonary actions of sildenafil in sheep with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Thirty-two anesthetized, mechanically ventilated sheep (34.9 ± 5.4 kg), were randomly distributed into four groups (n = 8 per group): FiO2 > 90% without intervention; APE induced by microspheres with FiO2 > 90%, followed 30 min later by placebo (Emb90); or APE followed 30 min later by intravenous sildenafil (0.7 mg/kg over 30 min) with FiO2 > 90% (Emb + Sild90) or 21% FiO2 (Emb + Sild21) [Corrected]. Variables were recorded until 30 min after the end of treatment administration. Microsphere injection increased (P < 0.05) mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) in all embolized groups (111-140% higher than that of baseline). Compared with values recorded 30 min after induction of APE (E30), sildenafil induced greater decreases in MPAP in the Emb + Sil90 group than in the Emb + Sil21 group (23% and 14% lower than E30, respectively). Hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 60 mm Hg) was precipitated by sildenafil due to systemic vasodilation in the Emb + Sil21 group. Embolization lowered the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and increased venous admixture, but sildenafil did not alter the oxygenation impairment induced by APE. Sildenafil induces a more consistent pulmonary anti-hypertensive effect and causes less interference with the systemic circulation with the concomitant use of pure oxygen than that with room air in the APE setting.

  16. N-terminal Pro-B type natriuretic peptide as long-term predictor of death after an acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Martínez, José Luis; Annicchérico-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Urbieta-Echezarreta, Miren Aránzazu; Pérez-Ricarte, Sara

    2015-03-15

    After an acute pulmonary embolism few long-term prognostic factors have shown to be of practical use. We hypothesized that, as in heart failure, natriuretic peptides could serve as biomarkers of a late deleterious prognosis. Consecutive patients admitted to an Internal Medicine ward diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism were traced through the computerized system of clinical episodes of Navarra Health System and by telephone calls. On hospitalization, standard evaluation was made, previous history of cancer and cardiac disease was recorded, and N-terminal ProB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP), D-dimer and Troponin I were measured. In the analysis all-causes death was considered. Two hundred and thirty-four patients were traced, median age 75 [interquartile range (IQR) 16] years old, women 51%. At a median time of 9.5 (IQR 29) months 52 (22%) patients had died, 38 (73%) dead patients had NT-ProBNP higher than 850 ng/L. NT-ProBNP in dead patients was 2.741 (IQR 7.420)ng/L and 662 (IQR 2.517)ng/L in survivors (p<0.001). Age (OR 4.37 CI 95% 1.04-1.16) and NT-ProBNP (OR 1.49 CI 95% 1-1.002) showed to be independent factors of mortality. Between the 3rd and 20th month after the diagnosis, a level of NT-ProBNP higher than 850 ng/L (sensitivity 0.86, specificity 0.45 and negative predictive value 0.92) was associated with a lower survival (p=0.019), hazard ratio 1.89, OR 7.67 (CI 95% 1.52-39.44) for this period. Besides the unchangeable age, plasma level of NT-ProBNP measured on acute pulmonary embolism could predict longer-term all-cause death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Patients With Suspected Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Best Practice Advice From the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians.

    PubMed

    Raja, Ali S; Greenberg, Jeffrey O; Qaseem, Amir; Denberg, Thomas D; Fitterman, Nick; Schuur, Jeremiah D

    2015-11-03

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) can be a severe disease and is difficult to diagnose, given its nonspecific signs and symptoms. Because of this, testing patients with suspected acute PE has increased dramatically. However, the overuse of some tests, particularly computed tomography (CT) and plasma d-dimer measurement, may not improve care while potentially leading to patient harm and unnecessary expense. The literature search encompassed studies indexed by MEDLINE (1966-2014; English-language only) and included all clinical trials and meta-analyses on diagnostic strategies, decision rules, laboratory tests, and imaging studies for the diagnosis of PE. This document is not based on a formal systematic review, but instead seeks to provide practical advice based on the best available evidence and recent guidelines. The target audience for this paper is all clinicians; the target patient population is all adults, both inpatient and outpatient, suspected of having acute PE. Clinicians should use validated clinical prediction rules to estimate pretest probability in patients in whom acute PE is being considered. Clinicians should not obtain d-dimer measurements or imaging studies in patients with a low pretest probability of PE and who meet all Pulmonary Embolism Rule-Out Criteria. Clinicians should obtain a high-sensitivity d-dimer measurement as the initial diagnostic test in patients who have an intermediate pretest probability of PE or in patients with low pretest probability of PE who do not meet all Pulmonary Embolism Rule-Out Criteria. Clinicians should not use imaging studies as the initial test in patients who have a low or intermediate pretest probability of PE. Clinicians should use age-adjusted d-dimer thresholds (age × 10 ng/mL rather than a generic 500 ng/mL) in patients older than 50 years to determine whether imaging is warranted. Clinicians should not obtain any imaging studies in patients with a d-dimer level below the age-adjusted cutoff. Clinicians should

  18. Usefulness of multidetector spiral computed tomography according to age and gender for diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Stein, Paul D; Beemath, Afzal; Quinn, Deborah A; Olson, Ronald E; Goodman, Lawrence R; Gottschalk, Alexander; Hales, Charles A; Hull, Russell D; Leeper, Kenneth V; Sostman, H Dirk; Weg, John G; Woodard, Pamela K

    2007-05-01

    Data from the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis II (PIOPED II) were evaluated to test the hypothesis that the performance of multidetector computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiography and CT venography is independent of a patient's age and gender. In 773 patients with adequate CT pulmonary angiography and 737 patients with adequate CT pulmonary angiography and CT venography, the sensitivity and specificity for pulmonary embolism for groups of patients aged 18 to 59, 60 to 79, and 80 to 99 years did not differ to a statistically significant extent, nor were there significant differences according to gender. Overall, however, the specificity of CT pulmonary angiography was somewhat greater in women, but in men and women, it was > or =93%. In conclusion, the results indicate that multidetector CT pulmonary angiography and CT pulmonary angiography and CT venography may be used with various diagnostic strategies in adults of all ages and both genders.

  19. Hyperbaric programs in the United States: Locations and capabilities of treating decompression sickness, arterial gas embolisms, and acute carbon monoxide poisoning: survey results.

    PubMed

    Chin, Walter; Jacoby, Laura; Simon, Olivia; Talati, Nisha; Wegrzyn, Gracelene; Jacoby, Rachelle; Proano, Jacob; Sprau, Susan E; Markovitz, Gerald; Hsu, Rita; Joo, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the primary treatment for arterial gas embolism, decompression sickness and acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Though there has been a proliferation of hyperbaric centers throughout the United States, a scarcity of centers equipped to treat emergency indications makes transport of patients necessary. To locate and characterize hyperbaric chambers capable of treating emergency cases, a survey of centers throughout the entire United States was conducted. Using Google, Yahoo, HyperbaricLink and the UHMS directory, a database for United States chambers was created. Four researchers called clinicians from the database to administer the survey. All centers were contacted for response until four calls went unreturned or a center declined to be included. The survey assessed chamber readiness to respond to high-acuity patients, including staff availability, use of medical equipment such as ventilators and intravenous infusion devices, and responding yes to treating hyperbaric emergencies within a 12-month period. Only 43 (11.9%, N = 361) centers had equipment, intravenous infusion pumps and ventilators, and staff necessary to treat high-acuity patients. Considering that a primary purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the treatment of arterial gas embolism and decompression sickness, more hyperbaric centers nationwide should be able to accommodate these emergency cases quickly and safely.

  20. Acute Superior Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis: Transcatheter Thrombolysis and Aspiration Thrombectomy Therapy by Combined Route of Superior Mesenteric Vein and Artery in Eight Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuofei Liu, Baochen Ding, Weiwei He, Changsheng Wu, Xingjiang Li, Jieshou

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo assess the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of catheter-directed thrombolysis and aspiration thrombectomy therapy by combined route of superior mesenteric vein and artery (SMV+SMA) for acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (ASMVT).MethodsThis retrospective study reviewed eight ASMVT patients with transcatheter direct thrombolysis and aspiration thrombectomy therapy via SMV and indirect thrombolysis via SMA during a period of 14 months. The demographics, etiology, risk factors, therapeutic effect, complications, mortality, and follow-up of the study population were assessed. Anatomic and imaging classification of location and extent of thrombus at diagnosis and degree of thrombus lysis were described.ResultsTechnical success was achieved with substantial improvement in symptoms and thrombus resolution after thrombolytic therapy in all patients. The local urokinase infusion by SMA and SMV was performed for 5–7 (6.13 ± 0.83) and 7–15 (12 ± 2.51) days. Anticoagulation was performed catheter-directed and then orally throughout hospitalization and after discharge. Four patients required delayed localized bowel resection after thrombolytic therapy with no death. Thrombolytic therapy was not interrupted despite minor bleeding at the puncture site in two patients and sepsis in another two postoperatively. Nearly complete removal of thrombus was demonstrated by contrast-enhanced CT scan and portography before discharge. Patients were discharged in 10–27 (19.25 ± 4.89) days after admission. No recurrence developed during the follow-up of 10–13 (12.13 ± 0.99) months.ConclusionsCatheter-directed thrombolytic and aspiration therapy via SMV+SMA is beneficial for ASMVT in avoiding patient death, efficient resolving thrombus, rapid improving symptoms, reversing extensive intestinal ischemia, averting bowel resection, or localizing infarcted bowel segment and preventing short bowel syndrome.

  1. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  2. Pulmonary artery relative area change is inversely related to ex vivo measured arterial elastic modulus in the canine model of acute pulmonary embolization.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lian; Kellihan, Heidi B; Henningsen, Joseph; Bellofiore, Alessandro; Forouzan, Omid; Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro; Consigny, Daniel W; Gunderson, McLean; Dailey, Seth H; Francois, Christopher J; Chesler, Naomi C

    2014-09-22

    A low relative area change (RAC) of the proximal pulmonary artery (PA) over the cardiac cycle is a good predictor of mortality from right ventricular failure in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). The relationship between RAC and local mechanical properties of arteries, which are known to stiffen in acute and chronic PH, is not clear, however. In this study, we estimated elastic moduli of three PAs (MPA, LPA and RPA: main, left and right PAs) at the physiological state using mechanical testing data and correlated these estimated elastic moduli to RAC measured in vivo with both phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) and M-mode echocardiography (on RPA only). We did so using data from a canine model of acute PH due to embolization to assess the sensitivity of RAC to changes in elastic modulus in the absence of chronic PH-induced arterial remodeling. We found that elastic modulus increased with embolization-induced PH, presumably a consequence of increased collagen engagement, which corresponds well to decreased RAC. Furthermore, RAC was inversely related to elastic modulus. Finally, we found MRI and echocardiography yielded comparable estimates of RAC. We conclude that RAC of proximal PAs can be obtained from either MRI or echocardiography and a change in RAC indicates a change in elastic modulus of proximal PAs detectable even in the absence of chronic PH-induced arterial remodeling. The correlation between RAC and elastic modulus of proximal PAs may be useful for prognoses and to monitor the effects of therapeutic interventions in patients with PH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of acute pulmonary embolism in central and subsegmental pulmonary arteries and relation to probability interpretation of ventilation/perfusion lung scans.

    PubMed

    Stein, P D; Henry, J W

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the prevalence of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) limited to subsegmental pulmonary arteries. Contrast-enhanced helical (spiral) and electron-beam CT, in the hands of experienced radiologists who are skillful with this modality, are sensitive for the detection of acute PE in central pulmonary arteries, but have a low sensitivity for the detection of PE limited to subsegmental pulmonary arteries. The potential for CT to diagnose PE, therefore, is partially dependent on the prevalence of PE limited to subsegmental pulmonary arteries. Data are from the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED). The largest pulmonary arteries that showed PE, as interpreted by the PIOPED angiographic readers, were identified in 375 patients in PIOPED with angiographically diagnosed PE. Among all patients with PE, 6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4 to 9%) had PE limited to subsegmental branches of the pulmonary artery. Patients with high-probability ventilation/ perfusion (V/Q) scans had PE limited to subsegmental branches in only 1% (95% CI, 0 to 4%). Among patients with low-probability V/Q lung scans, 17% (95% CI, 8 to 29%) had PE limited to the subsegmental branches. Patients with low-probability V/Q scans and no prior cardiopulmonary disease had PE limited to the subsegmental pulmonary arteries in 30% (95% CI, 13 to 53%), whereas patients with low-probability V/Q scans who had prior cardiopulmonary disease had PE limited to subsegmental pulmonary arteries in 8% (95% CI, 2 to 22%) (p < 0.05). Based on data from all patients with PE in PIOPED, the prevalence of PE limited to subsegmental pulmonary arteries is low, 6%. PE limited to subsegmental pulmonary arteries was most prevalent among patients with low-probability V/Q scans, particularly if they had no prior cardiopulmonary disease.

  4. Amniotic fluid embolism

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  5. [Transvenous Embolization by Direct Puncture of the Superior Sagittal Sinus Using Indocyanine Green(ICG)Videoangiography for Treatment of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula of the Transverse-Sigmoid Sinus:A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Jo; Kono, Kenichi; Umesaki, Arisa; Kashimura, Yojiro; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Terada, Tomoaki

    2017-07-01

    We report a case of dural arteriovenous fistula at the left transverse sinus and sigmoid sinus(TS-dAVF), which was treated with transvenous embolization(TVE)by direct puncture of the superior sagittal sinus(SSS)under indocyanine green(ICG)fluoroscopic guidance. A 71-year-old woman presented with pulsatile tinnitus and progressive dementia. A left TS-dAVF with retrograde SSS and cortical venous reflux(Cognard type IIb)was demonstrated on cerebral angiography. The left internal jugular vein and distal portion of the right transverse sinus were occluded. We considered that TVE via the femoral vein would be difficult for complete cure. We performed trepanation of the frontal portion of the SSS. The SSS was directly punctured with an 18-G needle under ICG fluoroscopic guidance. We inserted a 4-Fr sheath into the SSS. A microcatheter was navigated into the affected sinus. Coils were placed through the microcatheter. The dAVF was completely diminished. No complications occurred. The patient's pulsatile tinnitus disappeared and dementia improved. Transvenous approach with direct puncture of the SSS under ICG fluoroscopic guidance was a useful approach for the treatment of dAVF when other approaches were difficult.

  6. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... for embolization (especially to the brain) is mitral stenosis . Endocarditis (infection of the inside of the heart) can also cause arterial emboli. A common source for an embolus is from areas of hardening (atherosclerosis) in the aorta and other large blood vessels. These clots can ...

  7. Effectiveness of MR Angiography for the Primary Diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Clinical Outcomes at 3 Months and 1 Year

    PubMed Central

    Schiebler, Mark L.; Nagle, Scott K.; François, Christopher J.; Repplinger, Michael D.; Hamedani, Azita G.; Vigen, Karl K.; Yarlagadda, Rajkumar; Grist, Thomas M.; Reeder, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effectiveness of MR angiography for pulmonary embolism (MRA-PE) in symptomatic patients. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed all patients whom were evaluated for possible pulmonary embolism (PE) using MRA-PE. A 3-month and 1-year from MRA-PE electronic medical record (EMR) review was performed. Evidence for venous thromboembolism (VTE) (or death from PE) within the year of follow-up was the outcome surrogate for this study. Results There were 190 MRA-PE exams performed with 97.4% (185/190) of diagnostic quality. There were 148 patients (120 F: 28 M) that had both a diagnostic MRA-PE exam and 1 complete year of EMR follow-up. There were 167 patients (137 F: 30 M) with 3 months or greater follow-up. We found 83% (139/167) and 81% (120/148) MRA-PE exams negative for PE at 3 months and 1 year, respectively. Positive exams for PE were seen in 14% (23/167). During the 1-year follow-up period, five patients (false negative) were diagnosed with DVT (5/148 = 3.4 %), and one of these patients also experienced a non–life-threatening PE. The negative predictive value (NPV) for MRA-PE was 97% (92–99; 95% CI) at 3 months and 96% (90–98; 95% CI) with 1 year of follow-up. Conclusion The NPV of MRA-PE, when used for the primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in symptomatic patients, were found to be similar to the published values for CTA-PE. In addition, the technical success rate and safety of MRA-PE were excellent. PMID:23553735

  8. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt, Mechanical Aspiration Thrombectomy, and Direct Thrombolysis in the Treatment of Acute Portal and Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G. Bovio, Giulio; Dahamane, M'Hamed; Centanaro, Monica

    2007-09-15

    A patient was admitted because of severe abdominal pain, anorexia, and intestinal bleeding. Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography demonstrated acute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (PSMVT). The patient was treated percutaneously with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), mechanical aspiration thrombectomy, and direct thrombolysis, and 1 week after the procedure, complete patency of the portal and superior mesenteric veins was demonstrated. TIPS, mechanical aspiration thrombectomy, and direct thrombolysis together are promising endovascular techniques for the treatment of symptomatic acute PSMVT.

  9. Role of cardiac output and the autonomic nervous system in the antinatriuretic response to acute constriction of the thoracic superior vena cava.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrier, R. W.; Humphreys, M. H.; Ufferman, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Study of the differential characteristics of hepatic congestion and decreased cardiac output in terms of potential afferent stimuli in the antinatriuretic effect of acute thoracic inferior vena cava (TIVC) constriction. An attempt is made to see if the autonomic nervous system is involved in the antinatriuretic effect of acute TIVC or thoracic superior vena cava constriction.

  10. Role of cardiac output and the autonomic nervous system in the antinatriuretic response to acute constriction of the thoracic superior vena cava.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrier, R. W.; Humphreys, M. H.; Ufferman, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Study of the differential characteristics of hepatic congestion and decreased cardiac output in terms of potential afferent stimuli in the antinatriuretic effect of acute thoracic inferior vena cava (TIVC) constriction. An attempt is made to see if the autonomic nervous system is involved in the antinatriuretic effect of acute TIVC or thoracic superior vena cava constriction.

  11. Peculiarities of Blood Flow Changes in Venae Cavae during Experimental Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Evlakhov, V I; Poyassov, I Z; Shaidakov, E V

    2016-10-01

    The model of acute pulmonary embolism in rabbits demonstrated reduced pulmonary blood flow, cardiac output, left atrial pressure, and blood flow in venae cavae against the background of elevated left pulmonary artery pressure and increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Simultaneously, the blood flow in the superior vena cava decreased to a lesser extent than that in the inferior vena cava, which was a characteristic feature of the model of pulmonary pathology. In contrast, when histamine was infused into the left jugular vein to equally elevate pressure in pulmonary artery as in the above model, the blood flow in the superior vena cava decreased to a greater extent than that in inferior vena cava. During stenosis of inferior vena cava that decreased the cardiac output to the level observed during modeled pulmonary embolism, the blood flows in both venae cavae dropped equally.

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of perfusion scintigraphy combined with chest radiography for acute pulmonary embolism in PIOPED II.

    PubMed

    Sostman, H Dirk; Miniati, Massimo; Gottschalk, Alexander; Matta, Fadi; Stein, Paul D; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2008-11-01

    We used the archived Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis II (PIOPED II) data and images to test the hypothesis that reading perfusion scans with chest radiographs but without ventilation scans, and categorizing the perfusion scan as "pulmonary embolism (PE) present" or "PE absent," can result in clinically useful sensitivity and specificity in most patients. Patients recruited into PIOPED II were eligible for the present study if they had a CT angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) diagnosis, an interpretable perfusion scan and chest radiographs, and a Wells' score. Four readers reinterpreted the perfusion scans and chest radiographs of eligible patients. Two readers used the modified PIOPED II criteria and 2 used the Prospective Investigative Study of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PISAPED) criteria. The chest radiographs were read as "normal/near normal," "abnormal," or "nondiagnostic," and the perfusion scans were read as "PE present," "PE absent," or "nondiagnostic." The primary analysis used a composite reference standard: the PIOPED II DSA result or, if there was no definitive DSA result, CTA results that were concordant with the Wells' score as defined in PIOPED II (CTA positive and Wells' score > 2, or CTA negative and Wells' score < 6). The prevalence of PE in the sample was 169 of 889 (19%). Using the modified PIOPED II criteria, the sensitivity of a "PE present" perfusion scan was 84.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80.1%-88.8%), and the specificity of "PE absent" was 92.7% (95% CI, 91.1%-94.1%), excluding "nondiagnostic" results, which occurred in 20.6% (95% CI, 18.8%-22.5%). Using PISAPED criteria, the sensitivity of a "PE present" perfusion scan was 80.4% (95% CI, 75.9%-84.3%) and the specificity of "PE absent" was 96.6% (95% CI, 95.5%-97.4%), whereas the proportion of patients with "nondiagnostic" scans was 0% (95% CI, 0.0%-0.2%). Perfusion scintigraphy combined with chest radiography can provide diagnostic

  13. A strategy combining imaging and laboratory biomarkers in comparison with a simplified clinical score for risk stratification of patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Lankeit, Mareike; Gómez, Vicente; Wagner, Carolin; Aujesky, Drahomir; Recio, Mónica; Briongos, Sem; Moores, Col Lisa K; Yusen, Roger D; Konstantinides, Stavros; Jiménez, David

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the performance of two prognostic models-the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) model and the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (sPESI)-in predicting short-term mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We compared the test characteristics of the ESC model and the sPESI for predicting 30-day outcomes in a cohort of 526 patients with objectively confirmed PE. The primary end point of the study was all-cause mortality. The secondary end point included all-cause mortality, nonfatal symptomatic recurrent VTE, or nonfatal major bleeding. Overall, 40 of 526 patients died (7.6%; 95% CI, 5.3%-9.9%) during the first month of follow-up. The sPESI classified fewer patients as low risk (31% [165 of 526], 95% CI, 27%-35%) compared with the ESC model (39% [207 of 526], 95% CI, 35% to 44%; P < .01). Importantly however, low-risk patients based on the sPESI had no 30-day mortality compared with 3.4% (95% CI, 0.9-5.8) in low-risk patients by the ESC model. The secondary end point occurred in 1.8% of patients in the sPESI low-risk and 5.8% in the ESC low-risk group (difference, 4.0 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.2-7.8). The prognostic ability of the ESC model remained significant in the subgroup of patients at high-risk according to the sPESI model (OR 1.95, 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.71, P < .001). Both the sPESI and the ESC model successfully predict 30-day mortality after acute symptomatic PE, but exclusion of an adverse early outcome does not appear to require routine imaging procedures or laboratory biomarker testing.

  14. Outcome in stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism who had right ventricular enlargement and/or elevated levels of troponin I.

    PubMed

    Stein, Paul D; Matta, Fadi; Janjua, Muhammad; Yaekoub, Abdo Y; Jaweesh, Fadel; Alrifai, Ahmed

    2010-08-15

    Normotensive patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) who have increased troponin levels and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are thought to be at high risk of death, but the level of risk is unclear. We retrospectively evaluated outcome in 1,273 stable patients with PE who had echocardiographic evaluations of RV size and/or measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI). In-hospital all-cause mortality was higher in those with RV enlargement (8.0%, 19 of 237, vs 3.3%, 22 of 663, p = 0.003). With an increased cTnI, irrespective of RV enlargement, all-cause mortality was 8.0% (28 of 330) versus 1.9% (15 of 835) in patients with a normal cTnI (p <0.0001). In patients with an increased cTnI combined with an enlarged right ventricle, all-cause mortality was 10.2% (12 of 118) compared to 1.9% (8 of 421) in patients who had neither (p <0.0001). These data show that increased levels of cTnI and RV enlargement are associated with an adverse outcome in stable patients with acute PE. In conclusion, increased levels of cTnI in combination with RV enlargement might indicate a group who would benefit from intense monitoring and aggressive treatment if subsequently indicated. The outcomes, however, were not extreme enough to warrant routine thrombolytic therapy.

  15. Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... embolization. This occurs when fibroids located inside the uterine cavity detach after embolization. Women with this problem may require a procedure called D & C (dilatation and curettage) to ... who undergo uterine fibroid embolization, normal menstrual cycles resume after the ...

  16. [Percutaneous rheolytic thrombectomy in the treatment of high-risk acute pulmonary embolism: Initial experience of a single center].

    PubMed

    Faria, Rita; Oliveira, Márcia; Ponte, Marta; Pires-Morais, Gustavo; Sousa, Marta; Fernandes, Paula; Rodrigues, Alberto; Braga, Pedro; Gonçalves, Manuel; Gama, Vasco

    2014-06-01

    For years, the treatment of high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) was based on two well-defined strategies: thrombolysis, whose benefits have been documented in randomized trials, and surgical embolectomy. However, mechanical reperfusion by percutaneous techniques is used in an increasing number of patients, and is a valid therapeutic option when there is a formal contraindication to thrombolysis, as rescue therapy when thrombolysis fails to improve hemodynamics, and/or when emergency surgical thrombectomy is unavailable or contraindicated. This article discusses the indications for the use of percutaneous techniques in PE, reports the initial experience of our center with the AngioJet® thrombectomy device (Possis Medical Inc, Minneapolis, MN, USA) and reviews the available evidence, the most recent recommendations and the main complications associated with this procedure. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of catheter fragmentation followed by local intrapulmonary thrombolysis in acute high risk pulmonary embolism as primary therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Bishav; Aslam, Naved; Kumar Mehra, Anil; Takkar Chhabra, Shibba; Wander, Praneet; Tandon, Rohit; Singh Wander, Gurpreet

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary embolism (PE) with more than 50% compromise of pulmonary circulation results significant right ventricular (RV) afterload leading to progressive RV failure, systemic hypotension and shock. Prompt restoration of thrombolysis, surgical embolectomy, or percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) prevents progressive hemodynamic decline. We report our single center experience in high risk PE patients treated with standard pigtail catheter mechanical fragmentation followed by intrapulmonary thrombolysis as a primary therapy. Methods 50 consecutive patients with diagnosis of high risk PE defined as having shock index >1 with angiographic evidence of >50% pulmonary arterial occlusion are included in the present study. All patients underwent emergent cardiac catheterization. After ensuring flow across pulmonary artery with mechanical breakdown of embolus by rotating 5F pigtail catheter; bolus dose of urokinase (4400 IU/kg) followed by infusion for 24 h was given in the thrombus. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded and follow up pulmonary angiogram was done. Clinical and echo follow up was done for one year. Results Pigtail rotational mechanical thrombectomy restored antegrade flow in all patients. The mean pulmonary artery pressure, Miller score, Shock index decreased significantly from 41 ± 8 mmHg, 20 ± 5, 1.32 ± 0.3 to 24.52 ± 6.89, 5.35 ± 2.16, 0.79 ± 0.21 respectively (p < 0.0001). In-hospital major complications were seen in 4 patients. There was a statistically significant reduction of PA pressures from 62 ± 11 mmHg to 23±6 mmHg on follow up. Conclusions Rapid reperfusion of pulmonary arteries with mechanical fragmentation by pigtail catheter followed by intrapulmonary thrombolysis results in excellent immediate and intermediate term outcomes in patients presenting with high risk pulmonary embolism. PMID:24973834

  18. Cholesterol crystal embolism (atheroembolism)

    PubMed Central

    VENTURELLI, CHIARA; JEANNIN, GUIDO; SOTTINI, LAURA; DALLERA, NADIA; SCOLARI, FRANCESCO

    2006-01-01

    Cholesterol crystal embolism, known as atheroembolic disease, is caused by showers of cholesterol crystals from an atherosclerotic plaque that occludes small arteries. Embolization can occur spontaneously or as an iatrogenic complication from an invasive vascular procedure (angiography or vascular surgery) and after anticoagulant therapy. The atheroembolism can give rise to different degrees of renal impairment. Some patients show a moderate loss of renal function, others severe renal failure requiring dialysis. Renal outcome can be variable: some patients deteriorate or remain on dialysis, some improve and some remain with chronic renal impairment. Clinically, three types of atheroembolic renal disease have been described: acute, subacute or chronic. More frequently a progressive loss of renal function occurs over weeks. Atheroembolization can involve the skin, gastrointestinal system and central nervous system. The diagnosis is difficult and controversial for the protean extrarenal manifestations. In the past, the diagnosis was often made post-mortem. In the last 10 yrs, awareness of atheroembolic renal disease has improved. The correct diagnosis requires the clinician to be alert. The typical patient is a white male aged >60 yrs with a history of hypertension, smoking and arterial disease. The presence of a classic triad (precipitating event, renal failure and peripheral cholesterol crystal embolization) suggests the diagnosis. This can be confirmed by a biopsy of the target organs. A specific treatment is lacking; however, it is an important diagnosis to make because an aggressive therapeutic approach can be associated with a more favorable clinical outcome. PMID:21977265

  19. Cholesterol crystal embolism (atheroembolism).

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Chiara; Jeannin, Guido; Sottini, Laura; Dallera, Nadia; Scolari, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    Cholesterol crystal embolism, known as atheroembolic disease, is caused by showers of cholesterol crystals from an atherosclerotic plaque that occludes small arteries. Embolization can occur spontaneously or as an iatrogenic complication from an invasive vascular procedure (angiography or vascular surgery) and after anticoagulant therapy. The atheroembolism can give rise to different degrees of renal impairment. Some patients show a moderate loss of renal function, others severe renal failure requiring dialysis. Renal outcome can be variable: some patients deteriorate or remain on dialysis, some improve and some remain with chronic renal impairment. Clinically, three types of atheroembolic renal disease have been described: acute, subacute or chronic. More frequently a progressive loss of renal function occurs over weeks. Atheroembolization can involve the skin, gastrointestinal system and central nervous system. The diagnosis is difficult and controversial for the protean extrarenal manifestations. In the past, the diagnosis was often made post-mortem. In the last 10 yrs, awareness of atheroembolic renal disease has improved. The correct diagnosis requires the clinician to be alert. The typical patient is a white male aged >60 yrs with a history of hypertension, smoking and arterial disease. The presence of a classic triad (precipitating event, renal failure and peripheral cholesterol crystal embolization) suggests the diagnosis. This can be confirmed by a biopsy of the target organs. A specific treatment is lacking; however, it is an important diagnosis to make because an aggressive therapeutic approach can be associated with a more favorable clinical outcome.

  20. Thrombolytic therapy for pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Katchan, Brian M.

    2000-01-01

    Consensus regarding the use of thrombolysis to treat acute pulmonary embolism has not yet been reached. There is good evidence that thrombolytic agents dissolve clot more rapidly than heparin. However, proving that this benefit reduces the death rate from pulmonary embolism has been difficult. Each of the 3 thrombolytic agents (tissue type-plasminogen activator, streptokinase and urokinase) is equally efficacious at dissolving clot, but all are associated with an increased risk of major hemorrhage when compared with heparin. One evolving position is that, in addition to patients presenting in circulatory collapse, for whom thrombolysis has been demonstrated to be life-saving, a subgroup of patients may be identified by echocardiography, through its ability to assess right ventricular dysfunction, who should also be considered for thrombolytic therapy. It remains to be seen whether this approach can reduce the death rate associated with pulmonary embolism. PMID:11129828

  1. Transcatheter Embolization of Pseudoaneurysms Complicating Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Golzarian, Jafar; Nicaise, Nicole; Deviere, Jacques; Ghysels, Marc; Wery, Didier; Dussaussois, Luc; Gansbeke, Daniel van; Struyven, Julien

    1997-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic role of angiography in patients with pseudoaneurysms complicating pancreatitis. Methods: Thirteen symptomatic pseudoaneurysms were treated in nine patients with pancreatitis. Eight patients had chronic pancreatitis and pseudocyst and one had acute pancreatitis. Clinical presentation included gastrointestinal bleeding in seven patients and epigastric pain without bleeding in two. All patients underwent transcatheter embolization. Results: Transcatheter embolization resulted in symptomatic resolution in all patients. Rebleeding occurred in two patients, 18 and 28 days after embolization respectively, and was successfully treated by repeated emnbolization. One patient with severe pancreatitis died from sepsis 28 days after embolization. Follow-up was then available for eight patients with no relapse of bleeding after a mean follow-up of 32 months (range 9-48 months). Conclusion: Transcatheter embolization is safe and effective in the management of pseudoaneurysms complicating pancreatitis.

  2. Early Administration of Therapeutic Anticoagulation Following Intravenous Thrombolysis for Acute Cardiogenic Embolic Stroke Caused by Left Ventricular Thrombus: Case Report and Topic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Rick; Donahey, Elisabeth; Ruland, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Cardiogenic cerebral embolism represents 20% of all acute ischemic strokes (AISs) with one-third of these being caused by left ventricular thrombus (LVT). LVT is not a contraindication for treatment with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rtPA) for AIS. However, the subsequent treatment of a potentially unstable LVT is contraindicated for 24 h following the use of IV rtPA according to current guidelines. We present a 66-year-old man with AIS treated with IV rtPA. Echocardiogram shortly after treatment demonstrated both a large apical and septal thrombus in the left ventricle and at 12 h post IV rtPA infusion, therapeutic anticoagulation with heparin was started without complication. In practice, the action of IV rtPA outlasts its apparent half-life because of thrombin-binding and the prolonged effects and longer half-life of its product, plasmin; however, the pharmacokinetics do not warrant prolonged avoidance of therapeutic anticoagulation when clinically indicated. Our case demonstrates that anticoagulation for potentially unstable LVT can be safely initiated at 12 h following IV rtPA treatment for AIS. PMID:25699011

  3. Is percutaneous suturing superior to open fibrin gluing in acute Achilles tendon rupture?

    PubMed

    Knobe, Matthias; Gradl, Gertraud; Klos, Kajetan; Corsten, Johannes; Dienstknecht, Thomas; Rath, Bjoern; Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Hoeckle, Christian; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Open fibrin gluing is reported to enable anatomical reconstruction with less soft tissue compromise than suture repair. Our main objective was to compare the complication rate, function, pain and disability of the two operative approaches of percutaneous suture using the Paessler technique and open fibrin gluing. Sixty-four patients (two centres, retrospective cohort study, 2000-2009) who had undergone acute Achilles tendon repair with either percutaneous suture (n = 27; 44 years) or open fibrin glue (n = 37; 45 years) took part in a follow-up examination after a median of 63 months (range, six to 180). Ankle range of motion, calf and ankle circumferences and return to work and sports activities were evaluated. Isokinetic und sonographic evaluation results were retrieved. Complications were noted in 22 patients (34 %). Delayed wound healing without evidence of surgical site infection was found in three patients in the fibrin group and two patients in the suture group. Postoperative scar tenderness described as pain at the rim of the shoe was significantly more frequent in the suture group (p = 0.03). Re-rupture requiring re-operation occurred in one patient. Transient paresthesia of the heel occurred in 12 patients. No sural nerve lesions were reported. There was no significant difference between groups regarding lower leg circumference, disability, or function. Ultrasound and isokinetic measurements did not reveal a significant difference between the two methods. The present study suggests that open fibrin gluing is a reasonable alternative to percutaneous repair of acute ruptures of the Achilles tendon and both techniques can yield reliably good results.

  4. Incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after acute pulmonary embolism: a contemporary view of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Ende-Verhaar, Yvonne M; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton; Delcroix, Marion; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Mairuhu, Albert T A; Huisman, Menno V; Klok, Frederikus A

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) after pulmonary embolism (PE) is relevant for management decisions but is currently unknown.We performed a meta-analysis of studies including consecutive PE patients followed for CTEPH. Study cohorts were predefined as "all comers", "survivors" or "survivors without major comorbidities". CTEPH incidences were calculated using random effects models.We selected 16 studies totalling 4047 PE patients who were mostly followed up for >2-years. In 1186 all comers (two studies), the pooled CTEPH incidence was 0.56% (95% CI 0.1-1.0). In 999 survivors (four studies) CTEPH incidence was 3.2% (95% CI 2.0-4.4). In 1775 survivors without major comorbidities (nine studies), CTEPH incidence was 2.8% (95% CI 1.5-4.1). Both recurrent venous thromboembolism and unprovoked PE were significantly associated with a higher risk of CTEPH, with odds ratios of 3.2 (95% CI 1.7-5.9) and 4.1 (95% CI 2.1-8.2) respectively. The pooled CTEPH incidence in 12 studies that did not use right heart catheterisation as the diagnostic standard was 6.3% (95% CI 4.1-8.4).The 0.56% incidence in the all-comer group probably provides the best reflection of the incidence of CTEPH after PE on the population level. The ∼3% incidences in the survivor categories may be more relevant for daily clinical practice. Studies that assessed CTEPH diagnosis by tests other than right heart catheterisation provide overestimated CTEPH incidences.

  5. Should the cut-off value of D-dimer be elevated to exclude pulmonary embolism in acute exacerbation of COPD?

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Evrim Eylem; Hoşgün, Derya; Doğanay, Beyza; Ataç, Gökçe Kaan; Gülhan, Meral

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the D-dimer levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation with and without pulmonary embolism (PE) and to attempt to define a new cut-off value for D-dimer to exclude the diagnosis of PE in patients with COPD exacerbation. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed between the June 2012 and January 2013. The COPD patients who were admitted to the emergency department with acute exacerbation were consecutively included. D-dimer levels were measured upon admission. All patients underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) and Doppler ultrasonography (US) of the lower extremities. Results A total of 148 patients were enrolled. Fifty-three patients (36%) who did not have PE had higher than normal (>0.5 pg/mL) D-dimer levels. The D-dimer levels of the COPD patients with PE were significantly higher than those of the patients without PE (2.38±2.80 vs. 1.06±1.51 pg/mL) (P<0.001). The cut-off value for D-dimer in diagnosing PE in the COPD patients was 0.95 pg/mL. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.752±0.040 (95% CI: 0.672-0.831) (P<0.001). Conclusions This study showed that the D-dimer concentrations of COPD patients who are in the exacerbation period may be higher than normal, even without PE. The cut-off level for D-dimer was 0.95 pg/mL (sensitivity 70%, spesificity 71%) for the exclusion of PE in the patients with COPD exacerbation. The D-dimer cut-off value that is used to exclude PE in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD should be reevaluated to prevent the excessive use of further diagnostic procedures. PMID:23991298

  6. Does Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Embolic Stroke Have Long-term Side Effects on Intracranial Vessels? An Angiographic Follow-up Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kurre, Wiebke Perez, Marta Aguilar; Horvath, Diana; Schmid, Elisabeth; Baezner, Hansjoerg; Henkes, Hans

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. Mechanical thrombectomy (mTE) proved to be effective treating acute vessel occlusions with an acceptable rate of procedural complications. Potential long-term side effects of the vessel wall trauma caused by mechanical irritation of the endothelium are unknown up to now. Methods. From a retrospectively established database of 640 acute stroke treatments, we selected 261 patients with 265 embolic vessel occlusions treated successfully by mTE without permanent implantation of a stent. Analysis comprised the type of devices used and the number of passes performed. Digital subtraction angiography immediately after treatment was evaluated for vasospasm, dissection, and extravasation. Control angiographic images were evaluated for any morphological change compared to the immediate posttreatment angiographic run. Results. Recanalization was achieved with a median of one (range 1-10) mTE maneuvers. Vasospasm occurred in 69 territories (26.0 %) and was treated with glyceroltrinitrate in three. Dissection was observed in one vessel (0.4 %). Intraprocedural hemorrhage in two patients (0.8 %) was either wire or device induced. Follow-up digital subtraction angiography was available for 117 territories after a median of 107 days, revealing target vessel occlusion in one segment (0.9 %) and a de novo stenosis of four segments (3.4 %). All findings were clinically asymptomatic. Posttreatment vasospasm was more frequent in patients with de novo stenosis and occlusion (p = 0.038). Conclusion. De novo stenoses and occlusions occur in a small proportion of patients after mTE. Because all lesions were clinically asymptomatic, this finding does not affect the overall benefit of the treatment. Vasospasm may predict late vessel wall changes.

  7. The Effect of Acute Superior Oblique Palsy on Torsional Optokinetic Nystagmus in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xiaoyan; Tian, Jing; Ying, Howard S.; Walker, Mark F.; Guyton, David; Quaia, Christian; Optican, Lance M.; Tamargo, Rafael J.; Zee, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of acquired superior oblique palsy (SOP) and corrective strabismus surgery on torsional optokinetic nystagmus (tOKN) in monkeys. Methods The trochlear nerve was severed intracranially in two rhesus monkeys (M1 and M2). For each monkey, more than 4 months after the SOP, the ipsilateral inferior oblique muscle was denervated and extirpated. For M2, 4 months later, the contralateral inferior rectus muscle was recessed by 2 mm. tOKN was elicited during monocular viewing of a rotating stimulus that was rear projected onto a screen 43.5 cm in front of the animal. Angular rotation of the stimulus about the center was 40 deg/s clockwise or counterclockwise. Results The main findings after trochlear nerve sectioning were (1) the amplitude and peak velocity of torsional quick and slow phases of the paretic eye was less than that in the normal eye for both intorsion and extorsion, and (2) the vertical motion of the paretic eye increased during both torsional slow and quick phases. After corrective inferior oblique surgery, both of these effects were even greater. Conclusions Acquired SOP and corrective inferior oblique–weakening surgery create characteristic patterns of change in tOKN that reflect alterations in the dynamic properties of the extraocular muscles involved in eye torsion. tOKN also provides information complementary to that provided by the traditional Bielschowsky head-tilt test and potentially can help distinguish among different causes of vertical ocular misalignment. PMID:18385059

  8. Anterior-Inferior Plating Results in Fewer Secondary Interventions Compared to Superior Plating for Acute Displaced Midshaft Clavicle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Rafael; Borade, Amrut; Mir, Hassan; Shah, Anjan; Watson, David; Infante, Anthony; Frankle, Mark A; Mighell, Mark A; Sagi, H Claude; Horwitz, Daniel S; Sanders, Roy W

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether a difference in plate position for fixation of acute, displaced, midshaft clavicle fractures would affect the rate of secondary intervention. Retrospective Comparative Study. Two academic Level 1 Regional Trauma Centers. Five hundred ten patients treated surgically for an acutely displaced midshaft clavicle fracture between 2000 and 2013 were identified and reviewed retrospectively at a minimum of 24 months follow-up (F/U). Fractures were divided into 2 cohorts, according to plate position: Anterior-Inferior (AI) or Superior (S). Exclusion criteria included age <16 years, incomplete data records, and loss to F/U. Group analysis included demographics (age, sex, body mass index), fracture characteristics (mechanism of injury, open or closed), hand dominance, ipsilateral injuries, time between injury to surgery, time to radiographic union, length of F/U, and frequency of secondary procedures. Patients were treated either with AI or S clavicle plating at the treating surgeon's discretion. Rate and reason for secondary intervention. Fisher exact test, t test. and odds ratio were used for statistical analysis. Final analysis included 252 fractures/251 patients. One hundred eighteen (47%) were in group AI; 134 (53%) were in group S. No differences in demographics, fracture characteristics, time to surgery, time to union, or length of F/U existed between groups. Seven patients/7 fractures (5.9%) in Group AI underwent a secondary surgery whereas 30 patients/30 fractures (22.3%) in group S required a secondary surgery. An additional intervention secondary to superior plate placement was highly statistically significant (P < 0.001). Furthermore, because 80% of these subsequent interventions were a result of plate irritation with patient discomfort, the odds ratio for a second procedure was 5 times greater in those fractures treated with a superior plate. This comparative analysis indicates that AI plating of midshaft clavicle fractures seems to lessen

  9. Case Report of Percutaneous Retrograde Transcollateral Recanalization of the Superior Mesenteric Artery via the Celiac Artery for Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Prateek K.; Smith, Brigitte K.; Yamanouchi, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Revascularization for acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) can be achieved through a bypass from the aorta or iliac arteries, embolectomy, open exposure of SMA and retrograde recanalization and stent, or percutaneous antegrade stenting. Flush occlusion of the SMA can make antegrade recanalization very challenging and is usually unsuccessful. We present a novel approach for recanalization of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) via the celiac artery for acute mesenteric ischemia. A 69-year-old lady with previous endarterectomy of SMA and extensive small bowel resection presented with severe abdominal pain, emesis, leukocytosis, and imaging finding of new SMA flush occlusion. She refused to consent for a laparotomy. Percutaneous retrograde transcollateral recanalization of SMA was performed via the celiac artery through the pancreaticoduodenal arcade, and the SMA then stented. This resulted in subsequent resolution of patient's symptoms and discharge. SMA revascularization with retrograde transcollateral wiring technique is an important tool in the armamentarium of the vascular care specialist when antegrade percutaneous approach and open exposure via laparotomy are not an option. PMID:26683911

  10. Coronary air embolism treated with aspiration catheter

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, M S; Kiemeneij, F

    2005-01-01

    Coronary air embolism remains a recognised complication of coronary catheterisation despite a strong emphasis on prevention. Current treatment consists of supportive measures with 100% oxygen and analgesia. Recent case reports describe the use of mechanical treatments aimed at dispersing or removing the air embolus with variable success. A case of coronary air embolism causing an acute coronary syndrome is described that was definitively treated with an aspiration system. The effectiveness of the aspiration system in the distal section of an obtuse marginal artery indicates that such dedicated aspiration systems may prove useful in the standard treatment of air embolism. PMID:15831621

  11. Coronary air embolism treated with aspiration catheter.

    PubMed

    Patterson, M S; Kiemeneij, F

    2005-05-01

    Coronary air embolism remains a recognised complication of coronary catheterisation despite a strong emphasis on prevention. Current treatment consists of supportive measures with 100% oxygen and analgesia. Recent case reports describe the use of mechanical treatments aimed at dispersing or removing the air embolus with variable success. A case of coronary air embolism causing an acute coronary syndrome is described that was definitively treated with an aspiration system. The effectiveness of the aspiration system in the distal section of an obtuse marginal artery indicates that such dedicated aspiration systems may prove useful in the standard treatment of air embolism.

  12. Pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Tarbox, Abigail K.; Swaroop, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is responsible for approximately 100,000 to 200,000 deaths in the United States each year. With a diverse range of clinical presentations from asymptomatic to death, diagnosing PE can be challenging. Various resources are available, such as clinical scoring systems, laboratory data, and imaging studies which help guide clinicians in their work-up of PE. Prompt recognition and treatment are essential for minimizing the mortality and morbidity associated with PE. Advances in recognition and treatment have also enabled treatment of some patients in the home setting and limited the amount of time spent in the hospital. This article will review the risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, evaluation, and treatment of PE. PMID:23724389

  13. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-03-03

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes.

  14. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-02-29

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of biventricular ejection fraction with ECG-gated 16-slice CT: preliminary findings in acute pulmonary embolism in comparison with radionuclide ventriculography.

    PubMed

    Coche, Emmanuel; Vlassenbroek, Alain; Roelants, Véronique; D'Hoore, William; Verschuren, Franck; Goncette, Louis; Maldague, Baudouin

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the feasibility of cardiac global function evaluation during a whole-chest multi-slice CT (MSCT) acquisition in patients referred for suspicion of pulmonary embolism (PE), and to compare the results with planar equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (ERNA). Ten consecutive haemodynamically stable patients (six female, four male; mean age 69.7 years; heart rate 65-99 bpm) with suspicion of PE underwent an MSCT and ERNA within a 6 h period. CT acquisition was performed after contrast medium injection by using 16x1.5 mm collimation and retrospective ECG gating. Left ventricular (LVEF) and right ventricular (RVEF) ejection fractions were calculated using dedicated three-dimensional software. Relationships between measurements obtained with MSCT and ERNA were assessed using linear regression analysis and reliability of MSCT was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to calculate limits of agreement between MSCT and ERNA. MSCT was performed successfully in ten patients with a mean acquisition time of 16.5+/-2.8 s. Functional cardiac evaluation was possible on CT for all patients except for one due to poor opacification of right ventricle. Linear regression analysis showed a good correlation between MSCT and ERNA for the LVEF (R=0.91) and the RVEF (R=0.89) measurements. Intra-class correlation was superior for LVEF (0.92) than for the RVEF (0.68). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that MSCT substantially overestimated the ERNA RVEF. Morphological CT data demonstrated PE in four of ten of patients and alternative diagnoses in five of ten patients. Our study reveals that MSCT with retrospective ECG gating may provide in one modality a morphological and a functional cardiopulmonary evaluation. Comparison with ERNA demonstrated a good correlation for both ventricular ejection fractions.

  16. Incidence of cardioembolic stroke including paradoxical brain embolism in patients with acute ischemic stroke before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Itabashi, Ryo; Furui, Eisuke; Sato, Shoichiro; Yazawa, Yukako; Kawata, Kenta; Mori, Etsuro

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of heart disease or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) reportedly increased after the Great East Japan Earthquake. We hypothesized that the incidence of cardioembolic stroke (CES) including paradoxical brain embolism (PBE) among patients with acute stroke would increase after the earthquake due to cessation of antithrombotic therapy or the increase in heart disease and DVT associated with the evacuation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in the prevalence of DVT and the incidence of CES including PBE in acute ischemic stroke before and after the earthquake. We retrospectively studied 1,044 consecutive ischemic stroke patients (73.1 ± 12.5 years old, male 61.5%) who were admitted to a comprehensive stroke center (from January 2010 through March 2012) located in the earthquake disaster area within 7 days after stroke onset. The prevalence of DVT and the incidence of CES including PBE were compared before and after the earthquake of 11 March 2011. The median of the initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores was 4 (interquartile range: 1-8). Two hundred and eighty-two patients (27.0% of those surveyed) were diagnosed with CES. After adjustment for sex, age, NIHSS score, and patient's residential address, the proportion of CES patients was significantly increased after the earthquake (odds ratio, OR 1.61, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.20-2.17). Eighty-nine patients (8.5% of those surveyed) had DVT. Compared with 2010 findings, the prevalence of DVT was significantly increased in the fourth quarter of 2011 and the first quarter of 2012 (OR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.05-3.24). Nineteen (1.8% of those surveyed) were diagnosed with PBE. The proportion of PBE patients was also significantly increased in the second half of 2011 (OR 3.69, 95% CI: 1.28-12.1). The incidence of CES was significantly increased after the earthquake, compared with the period before the earthquake. We encountered more PBE in the period from 3 to 9 months after

  17. Helical computerized tomography and NT-proBNP for screening of right ventricular overload on admission and at long term follow-up of acute pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in acute pulmonary embolism (APE) can be assessed with helical computerized tomography (CT) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Signs of RVD and elevated natriuretic peptides like NT-proBNP and cardiac troponin (TnT) are associated with increased risk of mortality. However, the prognostic role of both initial diagnostic strategy and the use of NT-proBNP and TnT for screening for long-term probability of RVD remains unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the role of helical CT and NT-proBNP in detection of RVD in the acute phase. In addition, the value of NT-proBNP for ruling out RVD at long-term follow-up was assessed. Methods Sixty-three non-high risk APE patients were studied. RVD was assessed at admission in the emergency department by CT and TTE, and both NT-proBNP and TnT samples were taken. These, excepting CT, were repeated seven months later. Results At admission RVD was detected by CT in 37 (59 %) patients. RVD in CT correlated strongly with RVD in TTE (p < 0.0001). NT-proBNP was elevated (≥ 350 ng/l) in 32 (86 %) patients with RVD but in only seven (27 %) patients without RVD (p < 0.0001). All the patients survived until the 7-month follow-up. TTE showed persistent RVD in 6 of 63 (10 %) patients who all had RVD in CT at admission. All of them had elevated NT-proBNP levels in the follow-up compared with 5 (9 %) of patients without RVD (p < 0.0001). Conclusions TTE does not confer further benefit when helical CT is used for screening for RVD in non-high risk APE. All the patients who were found to have RVD in TTE at seven months follow-up had had RVD in the acute phase CT as well. Thus, patients without RVD in diagnostic CT do not seem to require further routine follow-up to screen for RVD later. On the other hand, persistent RVD and thus need for TTE control can be ruled out by assessment of NT-proBNP at follow-up. A follow-up protocol based on these findings is suggested. PMID:22559861

  18. Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis Following Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Matthew J.; Garafalo, Thomas; Ko, Tak-ming; Place, Ronald J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the second case of a superior mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis following an uneventful laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. The patient presented on postoperative day 10 with acute onset of abdominal pain and inability to tolerate oral food. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed superior mesenteric and portal venous thrombosis with questionable viability of the proximal small bowel. He was heparinized and taken for emergent exploratory laparotomy. At surgery and at a planned re-exploration the following day, the bowel was viable and no resection was needed. Despite continuation on anticoagulation therapy, he developed a pulmonary embolism. A hypercoagulable workup was normal. After continued anticoagulation therapy and supportive care, a duplex ultrasound 2 months after the event showed normal flow in both the superior mesenteric and portal veins. Possible mechanisms are discussed along with a review of the pertinent literature. PMID:12856849

  19. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; George, Reeba; Dixit, R.; Gupta, R. C.; Gupta, N.

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is an often overlooked cause of breathlessness in trauma wards. Presenting in a wide range of clinical signs of varying severity, fat embolism is usually diagnosed by a physician who keeps a high degree of suspicion. The clinical background, chronology of symptoms and corroborative laboratory findings are instrumental in a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. There are a few diagnostic criteria which are helpful in making a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. Management is mainly prevention of fat embolism syndrome, and organ supportive care. Except in fulminant fat embolism syndrome, the prognosis is usually good. PMID:23661916

  20. Management of platinum-based chemotherapy-induced acute nausea and vomiting: is there a superior serotonin receptor antagonist?

    PubMed

    Hamadani, Mehdi; Chaudhary, Lubna; Awan, Farrukh T; Khan, Jawad K; Kojouri, Kiarash; Ozer, Howard; Tfayli, Arafat

    2007-06-01

    The last decade has witnessed the great impact of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor (5-HT(3))antagonists in revolutionizing the management of platinum-based chemotherapy-induced acute nausea and vomiting (CINV). However, despite the availability of a variety of 5-HT(3) antagonists, little data is published to support superiority of one drug over another, leaving the choice of serotonin receptor antagonist largely empirical. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network and American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines for management of chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting cleary endorse the use of serotonin receptor antagonist; however, no single agent is preferred over the rest. Data for patients (n=159) receiving platinum-based chemotherapy regimens were retrospectively collected . Patients getting 5-HT(3) antagonists without steriods or those with known history of brain metastasis, gastroparesis, and intestinal obstruction were not eligible for the study. Patient characteristics including age, gender, primary diagnosis, history of heavy alcohol intake, chemotherapy regimen administered , number of cycles, and Eastern Cooperative Group performance status at the start of therapy were noted. Primary outcome was the complete control of platinum-induced acute nausea and vomiting. Secondary outcome measures included control of > or = grade 1 nausea or vomiting, comparison of two doses of dexamethasone, and antiemetic eficacy among various platinum drugs. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 2.0 was used to assess toxicity. A total of 126 patients received 369 cycles of platinum-based therapy. Dolasetron ( n=157), granisetron ( n=81), and ondansetron ( n=131) achieved complete control of vomiting in 89.8, 95.5, and 92.3% (p=0.67) of cycles, respectively. Respectively, complete nausea control was observed in 68.1, 75.3 and, 69.4% (p=0.50). Dexamethasone 20 mg was not superior to 10 mg in complete control of nausea and vomiting ( p= 0.15 and p=0

  1. Outcome comparison in dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of thoracolumbar fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy and acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion.

    PubMed

    Mari, Lorenzo; Behr, Sebastien; Shea, Anita; Dominguez, Elisabet; Johnson, Philippa J; Ekiri, Abel; De Risio, Luisa

    2017-09-16

    Dogs with fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy (FCEM) or acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion (ANNPE) are reported to have a fair prognosis; however, persistent motor/autonomic deficits are possible. Specific MRI patterns have been suggested to differentiate these diseases although never been validated with histopathology in large studies. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate if these MRI patterns are associated with different clinical outcomes in dogs with peracute non-progressive T3-L3 myelopathy. Two hundred and one dogs were included. Outcome data were obtained via medical records and telephone questionnaires. MRIs were blindly reviewed by three board-certified observers, obtaining substantial to almost perfect interobserver agreement on diagnoses (κ=0.635-0.828). Presumptive ANNPE and FCEM were diagnosed in 157 and 44 dogs , respectively. Ambulatory function was regained in 99 per cent of cases, with persistent motor deficits in 83.6 per cent and 92.5 per cent of dogs with presumptive ANNPE and FCEM, respectively. The presumptive diagnosis was not associated with motor function recovery, recovery times or urinary continence. Faecal incontinence was five times more likely in dogs with presumptive ANNPE (23 per cent) compared with presumptive FCEM (7.5 per cent).Distinguishing between MRI patterns of presumptive ANNPE or FCEM in dogs with peracute non-progressive T3-L3 myelopathy may help predict the risk of developing faecal incontinence. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Comparison of Hemostatic Durability between N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Gelatin Sponge Particles in Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Acute Arterial Hemorrhage in a Coagulopathic Condition in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yonemitsu, Takafumi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio Sonomura, Tetsuo; Takasaka, Isao; Nakai, Motoki; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Sahara, Shinya; Iwasaki, Yasuhiro; Naka, Toshio; Shinozaki, Masahiro

    2010-12-15

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) or gelatin sponge particles (GSP) for acute arterial bleeding in a coagulopathic condition using a swine model. Four healthy swine were divided into two coagulopathic conditions: mild and severe. Five hemorrhages were created in each swine (10 hemorrhages per coagulopathy). Mild coagulopathy was achieved by bloodletting 10% of the total circulatory whole blood and preserving activated clotting time (ACT) less than 200 s (ACT < 200 s state); severe coagulopathy was achieved by bloodletting 30% and preserving ACT > 400 s (ACT > 400-second state). For each state, of ACT < 200 s or ACT > 400 s, TAE was conducted with GSP or NBCA to control five hemorrhages arising from artificially created renal and splenic injuries. Angiography immediately after TAE with GSP or NBCA showed complete occlusion in both coagulopathic conditions. In the ACT < 200-second state, follow-up angiography at 5-30 min after TAE with GSP or NBCA showed no evidence of recurrent hemorrhage. In the ACT > 400-second state, follow-up angiography showed recurrent hemorrhage in four (80%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with GSP and in one (20%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with NBCA. Microscopically, red thrombi were observed densely surrounding GSP in mild coagulopathy but were scarce in severe coagulopathy. In a condition with severe coagulopathy, TAE with NBCA was more effective in durability to cease active arterial bleeding than with GSP.

  3. Living with Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually is treated in a hospital. After leaving ... you're taking medicine. Medicines used to treat PE can thin your blood too much. This can ...

  4. Uterine artery embolization

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007384.htm Uterine artery embolization To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a procedure to treat fibroids ...

  5. What Causes Pulmonary Embolism?

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Embolism? Major Causes Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually begins as a blood ... from surgery or injured in other ways. Other Causes Rarely, an air bubble, part of a tumor, ...

  6. Vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging in acute ischemic stroke: effects of embolism and mechanical thrombectomy on the arterial wall.

    PubMed

    Power, Sarah; Matouk, Charles; Casaubon, Leanne K; Silver, Frank L; Krings, Timo; Mikulis, David J; Mandell, Daniel M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of thromboembolism and mechanical thrombectomy on the vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (VW-MRI) appearance of the intracranial arterial wall. This was a cross-sectional study of consecutive patients with acute intracranial arterial occlusion who underwent high-resolution contrast-enhanced VW-MRI within days of stroke presentation. For each patient, we categorized arterial wall thickening and enhancement as definite, possible, or none using contralateral arteries as a reference standard. We performed χ(2) tests to compare the effects of medical therapy and mechanical thrombectomy. Sixteen patients satisfied inclusion criteria. Median time from symptom onset to VW-MRI was 3 days (interquartile range, 2 days). Among 6 patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy using a stent retriever, VW-MRI demonstrated definite arterial wall thickening in 5 (83%) and possible thickening in 1 (17%); there was definite wall enhancement in 4 (67%) and possible enhancement in 2 (33%). Among 10 patients treated with medical therapy alone, VW-MRI demonstrated definite arterial wall thickening in 3 (30%) and possible thickening in 2 (20%); there was definite wall enhancement in 2 (20%) and possible enhancement in 2 (20%). Arterial wall thickening and enhancement were more common in patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy than with medical therapy alone (P=0.037 and P=0.016, respectively). Mechanical thrombectomy results in intracranial arterial wall thickening and enhancement, potentially mimicking the VW-MRI appearance of primary arteritis. This arterial wall abnormality is less common in patients with arterial occlusion who have been treated with medical therapy alone. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Mechanical circulatory assist for pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Y; Fuse, K; Yamaguchi, T; Saito, T; Konishi, H

    2000-11-01

    Optimal management of acute pulmonary embolism remains controversial, despite advances in thrombolytic therapy. Haemodynamic instability and, in particular, right ventricular dysfunction is associated with poor outcomes. Urgent surgical embolectomy has been the treatment of choice in this category of patients. We present two cases in which percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) was used as an adjunct to thrombolytic therapy for progressive circulatory collapse secondary to massive acute pulmonary embolism. This experience suggests that PCPS may offer an attractive option for a condition which continues to carry significant morbidity and mortality.

  8. Embolization of Arteriovenous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, H.; Hongo, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Takamae, T.; Okudera, H.; Koyama, J.I.; Oya, F.; Matsumoto, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Summary Treatment options for cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) are still controversial due to the recent result of stereotactic radiosurgery and the improved result of microsurgical resection. We investigated previously treated AVM cases and discussed the efficacy and safety of preoperative embolization especially for microsurgical resection of high-grade AVM in the Spetzler-Martin grading. Efficacy of preoperative embolization was evaluated based on 126 previously treated AVM cases at Shinshu University Hospital during the last 25 years. The safety of embolization was evaluated based on our previously-embolized 58 AVM cases (91 procedures) in the last 11 years after introduction of preoperative embolization for AVM. In all 126 cases, 82 were treated before introduction of embolization and 44 were treated after introduction of embolization. In 82 cases of the pre-embolization era, 63 lesions were removed totally in 63 AVMs (77%), partially resected in 11 (13%) and untreated in eight (10%). In 74 surgically removed cases, 11 (15%) cases showed severe intra/postoperative bleeding. In 44 cases of the embolization era, lesions were removed totally in 29 AVMs (66%), disappeared only with embolization in one (2%), disappeared with radiosurgery in seven (16%) and were untreated in five (11%). In 32 surgically removed cases, only one (2%) case showed severe intra/postoperative bleeding. In all 58 embolized cases, 44 were surgically removed, six were treated with radiosurgery, one was eliminated with embolization alone and six were partially obliterated and followed up for their location. In 91 procedures for 58 cases, two haemorrhagic and three ischemic complications occurred, three were transient and two remained having neurological deficits. The introduction of preoperative embolization improved the total removal rate and reduced the intra/postoperative bleeding rate in surgical removal of AVM. The total risk of embolization is low and well-designed preoperative

  9. Massive Pulmonary Calculi Embolism: A Novel Complication of Pneumatic Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pneumatic lithotripsy is a minimally invasive technique mainly for the treatment of urinary staghorn stones. Previous literatures have reported some therapeutic complications during or after this procedure, but calculi embolism has not been mentioned before. We report here a fatal case of calculi-induced pulmonary embolism in an adult woman who underwent pneumatic lithotripsy. An autopsy did not reveal any evidence of pulmonary embolism. However, light microscopy revealed noticeable presence of calculi in pulmonary arterioles and capillaries, as evidenced by environmental scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The primary determinants of calculi embolism include intrarenal pressure, and volume and viscosity of the calculi fragments formation. Vascular intravasation of smashed calculi might increase pulmonary vascular resistance and hypoxemia and decrease cardiac output. This case report intends to provide information for clinicians to consider the probability of intraoperative calculi embolism during lithotripsies when patients develop typical symptoms of acute pulmonary embolism. PMID:26222867

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography at 3-T for acute pulmonary embolism detection: comparison with multidetector CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Luo, Song; Yeh, Benjamin M; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhao, Yan'e; Li, Lin; Zheng, Ling; Huang, Wei; Lu, Guang Ming

    2013-10-12

    Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR pulmonary angiography (MRPA) is a suitable option for pulmonary embolism (PE) detection. However, there have been few reports on the diagnostic accuracy of MRPA for PE detection in a 3-T MR system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of MRPA in a 3-T MR system to detect acute PE with multidetector CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) as reference standard. Twenty-seven patients (18 males and 9 females, mean age 38.9±14.4 years) underwent both MRPA and CTPA within 3 days (range, 0-3 days) for evaluating PE. Pulmonary emboli in MRPA were independently analyzed on a per-patient and per-lobe basis by two radiologists. CTPA was regarded as reference standard, which was evaluated by another two radiologists in consensus. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy for PE detection were calculated. Weighted κ values were calculated to evaluate agreement between readers. Twenty-four patients had PE in 55 lung lobes in CTPA, while 3 patients had no PE detected. Readers 1 and 2 correctly detected 47 and 46 lung lobes having clots in 24 and 23 patients, corresponding to sensitivities, specificities, PPV, NPV, and accuracies of 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%; 100%, 66.7%, 96.0%, 100%, 96.4% on a per-patient basis and 85.5%, 100%, 100%, 90.9%, 94.1%; 83.6%, 93.7%, 90.2%, 89.2%, 89.6% on a per-lobe basis; respectively. Excellent inter-reader agreement (κ values=1.00 and 0.934; both P<0.001) were found for detecting PE on a per-patient and per-lobe analysis. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MRPA with a 3-T MR system is a suitable alternative modality to CTPA to detect PE on a per-patient basis based on this small cohort study. © 2013.

  11. The role of ST-segment elevation in lead aVR in the risk assessment of patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Janata, Karin; Höchtl, Thomas; Wenzel, Catharina; Jarai, Rudolf; Fellner, Barbara; Geppert, Alexander; Smetana, Peter; Havranek, Vera; Huber, Kurt

    2012-05-01

    BACKGROUD AND AIM: Patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) present with highly variable symptoms and ECG abnormalities. As ST-elevation in lead aVR has recently been described to predict right ventricular dysfunction (RVD), we aimed to correlate this sign to the severity of APE. Three-hundred ninety-six consecutive patients (in centers a and b) with proven APE were retrospectively analysed with respect to 12-lead-ECG, symptoms, thrombus location, echocardiograpy, troponin T, initial therapy and outcome. Data were then compared between patients with and without aVR-ST-elevation. On admission aVR-ST-elevation was present in 34.3% (n = 136). Presence of aVR-ST-elevation was assossiated with more severe clinical presentation (dyspnoea at rest 44.9 vs. 29.2%; p = 0.002, hypotension 17.0 vs. 6.5%; p = 0.001, syncope 16.2 vs. 6.5%; p = 0.002), higher median troponin T levels (0.035 [0.01-0.2] versus 0.01 [0.01-0.02]; p < 0.001), more frequent RVD (74.5 vs. 46.6%; p < 0.001) and central located thrombi (50.8 vs. 29.2; p < 0.001). Thrombolysis was used more frequently (29.1 vs. 7.5%; p < 0.001) and in-hospital-mortality was increased (10.3 vs. 5.4%; p = 0.07) when compared to patients without that sign. Mortality in intermediate-risk APE patients with aVR-ST-elevation was 8.9% compared to 0% in those without (p = 0.04). In contrast, the presence of other classical ECG pattern of APE did not further increase mortality in intermediate-risk patients. ST-elevation in lead aVR is associated with a more severe course of APE, especially in patients with intermediate-risk. Therefore, aVR-ST-elevation might be useful in risk stratification of APE.

  12. Successful Recanalization of Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Thromboembolic Occlusion by a Combination of Intraarterial Thrombolysis and Mechanical Thrombectomy with a Carotid Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenak, Kamil; Sinak, Igor; Janik, Jan; Mikolajcik, Anton; Mistuna, Dusan

    2013-06-15

    Acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion is a life-threatening disease, and acute intestinal ischemia develops from the sudden decrease in perfusion to the intestines. The key to saving the patient's life is early diagnosis, and prompt revascularization of the SMA can prevent intestinal infarction and decrease the risk of bowel segment necrosis. Computed tomographic angiography may be useful for rapid diagnosis. We report recanalization of an SMA occlusion in an 80-year-old man with a combination of intraarterial thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy with a carotid filter.

  13. Tenecteplase to treat pulmonary embolism in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Hernandez-Nino, Jackeline; Jones, Alan E

    2007-04-01

    Tenecteplase, a mutant form of alteplase, possesses pharmacological properties that might favor its use for emergent fibrinolysis of acute pulmonary embolism. Contemporaneous search of the World's literature reveals 14 humans with acute pulmonary embolism treated with tenecteplase. Here, we summarize those cases and report the presentation features, dosing details and outcomes of eight additional patients with acute pulmonary embolism treated with tenecteplase in an academic emergency department. None of our eight patients had a significant hemorrhagic event after tenecteplase, and the outcomes of all eight appear to be acceptable. Taken together, we submit that the present case report and prior case reports are sufficient to comprise a phase I study of the safety and efficacy of tenecteplase to treat acute pulmonary embolism.

  14. Modeling the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliskin, Nava; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The problem of acute pulmonary embolism is employed to illustrate that medical decision analysis is possible despite some of the difficulties encountered in previous application. The usefulness of computerized decision models is discussed. (LBH)

  15. Amniotic fluid embolism: review.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, Greco; Luigi, Nappi; Federica, Trezza; Paola, Storelli; Margherita, Neri; Tahir, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare but dreadful syndrome in Obstetrics, which happens, in most of the cases, in the peripartum period. The actual "embolisation" of the pulmonary vessels does not explain the whole picture of the syndrome. An immune mechanism, similar to an anaphylactic reaction, is more convincingly the background of the event, but the pathogenesis is still ill-defined. Similarly the initial symptoms are difficult to interpret and distinguish from other acute and life-threatening emergencies (i.e. pulmonary embolism, placental abruption, septic shock, stroke, myocardial ischemia, etc.), therefore the diagnosis is one of exclusion, very often on postmortem report. Thus the prevalence of the disease is difficult to establish, most of the reports being postmortem cases or National Registries data. These data, based either on autopsy series or on registries, are non representative of the true prevalence of the event and obviously confusing for the correct understanding of the disease process. Risk factors are all those conditions or manouvres, which contemplate a breech in the maternal-fetal barrier. Again, given the rarity of the syndrome, no single event is clearly identifiable as a case-effect risk factor. Prognosis, which is obviously biased by the reporting system, is particularly grim both in terms of survival and morbidity. The symptoms being often elusive at the beginning, but rapidly and progressively catastrophic, a multidisciplinary team approach is warranted in order to provide the best chance of survival both for mother and baby. Immediate and aggressive resuscitation is, therefore, advised whenever a mother in labour or in the early postpartum period experiences a sudden collapse.

  16. Acute thrombosis of the superior mesenteric artery in a 39-year-old woman with protein-S deficiency: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery is a condition with an unfavorable prognosis. Treatment of this condition is focused on early diagnosis, surgical or intravascular restoration of blood flow to the ischemic intestine, surgical resection of the necrotic bowel and supportive intensive care. In this report, we describe a case of a 39-year-old woman who developed a small bowel infarct because of an acute thrombotic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery, also involving the splenic artery. Case presentation A 39-year-old Caucasian woman presented with acute abdominal pain and signs of intestinal occlusion. The patient was given an abdominal computed tomography scan and ultrasonography in association with Doppler ultrasonography, highlighting a thrombosis of the celiac trunk, of the superior mesenteric artery, and of the splenic artery. She immediately underwent an explorative laparotomy, and revascularization was performed by thromboendarterectomy with a Fogarty catheter. In the following postoperative days, she was given a scheduled second and third look, evidencing necrotic jejunal and ileal handles. During all the surgical procedures, we performed intraoperative Doppler ultrasound of the superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk to control the arterial flow without evidence of a new thrombosis. Conclusion Acute mesenteric ischemia is a rare abdominal emergency that is characterized by a high mortality rate. Generally, acute mesenteric ischemia is due to an impaired blood supply to the intestine caused by thromboembolic phenomena. These phenomena may be associated with a variety of congenital prothrombotic disorders. A prompt diagnosis is a prerequisite for successful treatment. The treatment of choice remains laparotomy and thromboendarterectomy, although some prefer an endovascular approach. A second-look laparotomy could be required to evaluate viable intestinal handles. Some authors support a laparoscopic second

  17. Cerebral air embolism from angioinvasive cavitary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Barrio, George A; Hurwitz, Lynne M; Kranz, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nontraumatic cerebral air embolism cases are rare. We report a case of an air embolism resulting in cerebral infarction related to angioinvasive cavitary aspergillosis. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports associating these two conditions together. Case Presentation. A 32-year-old female was admitted for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Her hospital course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis. On hospital day 55, she acutely developed severe global aphasia with right hemiplegia. A CT and CT-angiogram of her head and neck were obtained demonstrating intravascular air emboli within the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) branches. She was emergently taken for hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). Evaluation for origin of the air embolus revealed an air focus along the left lower pulmonary vein. Over the course of 48 hours, her symptoms significantly improved. Conclusion. This unique case details an immunocompromised patient with pulmonary aspergillosis cavitary lesions that invaded into a pulmonary vein and caused a cerebral air embolism. With cerebral air embolisms, the acute treatment option differs from the typical ischemic stroke pathway and the provider should consider emergent HBOT. This case highlights the importance of considering atypical causes of acute ischemic stroke.

  18. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Locksmith, G J

    1999-09-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism occurs rarely but is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in the United States. The risk of death associated with this syndrome is 60% to 80% with half of survivors suffering long-term neurologic disability. The pathophysiology of amniotic fluid embolism is poorly understood. A review of the largest case series to date concluded that the physiologic and hematologic manifestations bear a greater resemblance to septic and anaphylactic shock than to any embolic phenomenon. Care of the patient who suffers amniotic fluid embolism is supportive. To date, no therapeutic interventions have been found to improve survival.

  19. [Paradoxical air embolism resulted in acute myocardial infarction and massive ischemic brain injury in a patient operated on in a sitting position].

    PubMed

    Anan'ev, E P; Polupan, A A; Savin, I A; Goryachev, A S; Troitskiy, A P; Kolokol'nikov, A E; Kulikovskiy, V P; Matskovskiy, I V; Abramov, T A; Podlepich, V V; Krylov, K Yu; Sychev, A A; Tabasaranskiy, T F; Pashin, A A; Lubnin, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical air embolism (PAE) is a rare life-threatening complication when air emboli enter arteries of the systemic circulation and cause their occlusion. Here, we describe a clinical case of PAE developed during neurosurgery in a patient in the sitting position. PAE led to injuries to the cerebral blood vessels, coronary arteries, and lungs, which caused death of the patient. An effective measure for preventing PAE is abandoning surgery in the sitting position in favor of surgery in the prone position.

  20. An Autopsy Case of Acute Massive Hematochezia Caused by Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis: A First Report in Forensic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mayumi; Unuma, Kana; Makino, Yohsuke; Noritake, Kanako; Yamada, Atsushi; Iwase, Hirotaro; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT) is an uncommon cause of intestinal ischemia and massive gastrointestinal bleeding. This report describes a man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, who died of massive hematochezia due to SMVT. A medicolegal autopsy disclosed a thrombus at the superior mesenteric vein and hemorrhagic infarction of the bowel wall, an area also within the territory of the superior mesenteric vein. Liver cirrhosis, an enlarged spleen, and esophageal varices without rupture were also observed, but ulcers and variceal bleeding were not. Other organs showed no significant findings. His blood alcohol level was 0.14% w/v. Thus, this man died from severe hematochezia associated with SMVT due to liver cirrhosis and alcohol dehydration, which can lead to coagulopathy and rapid progress of thrombus formation. This is the first report on an alternate cause for massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage with a cirrhotic patient in a forensic autopsy. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Design and Rationale of the RELAXED (Recurrent Embolism Lessened by rivaroxaban, an Anti-Xa agent, of Early Dosing for acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack with atrial fibrillation) Study.

    PubMed

    Yasaka, Masahiro; Minematsu, Kazuo; Toyoda, Kazunori; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Nagao, Takehiko; Mori, Etsuro; Hirano, Teruyuki; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2016-06-01

    In the acute phase of cardioembolic stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), the recurrence rate is high. Nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants may be appropriate for prevention of early recurrence because they have a much lower risk of hemorrhagic stroke than warfarin. RELAXED (Recurrent Embolism Lessened by rivaroxaban, an Anti-Xa agent, of Early Dosing for acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack with atrial fibrillation) study is an observational study designed to investigate the optimal timing to start administration of rivaroxaban for prevention of recurrence in NVAF patients in the acute phase of cardioembolic stroke (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02129920 and UMIN-clinical trials registry: UMIN000013932). It will evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban with regard to infarct size, timing of initiation of rivaroxaban medication, and other patient characteristics. A total of 2000 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke in the territory of the middle cerebral artery and NVAF will be enrolled in 100 institutes throughout Japan, and they will receive rivaroxaban within 30 days of the index stroke for secondary prevention of stroke. The infarct size within 48 hours after stroke onset will be measured by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The primary efficacy endpoint is recurrent ischemic stroke, and the primary safety endpoint is major bleeding during the observational period of 3 months after stroke onset. The optimal timing to start treatment with rivaroxaban during the acute stage of ischemic stroke will be determined by analysis of the correlation between primary endpoints and the size of cerebral infarct. The RELAXED observational registry study will elucidate the optimal timing of the initiation of rivaroxaban in acute cardioembolic stroke associated with NVAF. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of earthquakes on risk for pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kodama, Makoto; Tanabe, Naohito; Nakamura, Yuichi; Nagai, Tsuneo; Sato, Masahito; Okabe, Masaaki; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2008-09-16

    Physical and psychological stress induced by catastrophic events such as earthquakes can lead to sudden death, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the impact of the earthquake that occurred in Niigata, Japan, on pulmonary embolism. Pulmonary embolism increased to 9 cases in the 4 weeks after the earthquake, compared to 1 case in the 4 weeks before the earthquake, 2 cases in the corresponding 8 weeks in 2003, and 1 case in 2002. The first case occurred two days after the initial earthquake and new cases were reported for 27 days thereafter. Six of 9 patients (67%) took refuge in their automobiles before the onset of pulmonary embolism. Sudden death also increased after the earthquake and 7 of 22 cases (32%) spend night(s) in automobile. In conclusion, pulmonary embolism should be attended after disasters and prolonged immobilization in automobiles may increase risk of pulmonary embolism and sudden death.

  3. Crural Artery Traumatic Injuries: Treatment with Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E. Suri, Rajeev; Cura, Marco; Kroma, Ghazwan; El-Merhi, Fadi

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to report our experience with the endovascular treatment of crural arterial injuries using transcatheter and direct embolization techniques. A total of eight consecutive patients have been treated during a 7-year period. Six males and two females, mean age 32 years (range, 15-56 years), presented with penetrating trauma to the lower extremities. Mechanisms of injuries were stab wounds in six patients, gun shot wound in one patient, and iatrogenic injury in one patient. Five patients presented with acute trauma, while three patients presented with delayed injuries. Crural arterial injuries encountered included pseudoaneurysms with arteriovenous fistulas (n = 6), pseudoaneurysms with vessel transections (n = 2), and pseudoaneurysm (n = 1). Proximal and distal embolization with coils was used in three cases, proximal embolization with coils in three cases, percutaneous thrombin injection in one case, and liquid n-butyl cyanoacrylate in one case. Complete exclusion of the lesions was accomplished by sacrifice of one crural vessel in seven cases and of two crural vessels in one case. Two cases of delayed injuries required combined coil and liquid embolization techniques for lesion exclusion. A minor complication (groin hematoma) occurred in one patient, no distal ischemia was seen, and no amputations were required. Mean follow-up was 61 days (range, 1-180 days). One pseudoaneurysm treated with thrombin injection recurred and required surgical excision. We conclude that transcatheter embolization alone or in combination with different endovascular techniques is useful in the treatment of traumatic crural vessel injuries.

  4. Mortality after portal vein embolization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eung Chang; Park, Sang-Jae; Han, Sung-Sik; Park, Hyeong Min; Lee, Seung Duk; Kim, Seong Hoon; Lee, In Joon; Kim, Hyun Beom

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Portal vein embolization (PVE) is increasingly performed worldwide to reduce the possibility of liver failure after extended hepatectomy, by inducing future liver remnant (FLR) hypertrophy and atrophy of the liver planned for resection. The procedure is known to be very safe and to have few procedure-related complications. In this study, we described 2 elderly patients with Bismuth–Corlette type IV Klatskin tumor who underwent right trisectional PVE involving the embolization of the right portal vein, the left medial sectional portal branch, and caudate portal vein. Within 1 week after PVE, patients went into sepsis combined with bile leak and died within 1 month. Sepsis can cause acute liver failure in patients with chronic liver disease. In this study, the common patient characteristics other than sepsis, that is, trisectional PVE; chronic alcoholism; aged >65 years; heart-related comorbidity; and elevated serum total bilirubin (TB) level (7.0 mg/dL) at the time of the PVE procedure in 1 patient, and concurrent biliary procedure, that is, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in the other patient might have affected the outcomes of PVE. These cases highlight that PVE is not a safe procedure. Care should be taken to minimize the occurrence of infectious events because sepsis following PVE can cause acute liver failure. Additionally, prior to performing PVE, the extent of PVE, chronic alcohol consumption, age, comorbidity, long-lasting jaundice, concurrent biliary procedure, etc. should be considered for patient safety. PMID:28178122

  5. Coil Embolization for Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    about $7,500 higher than surgical clipping. Assuming that the total number of intracranial aneurysm repairs in Ontario increases to 750 in the fiscal year of 2007, and assuming that up to 60% (450 cases) of these will be repaired by coil embolization, the difference in device costs for the 450 cases (including a 15% recurrence rate) would be approximately $3.8 million. This figure does not include capital costs (e.g. $3 million for an angiosuite), additional human resources required, or costs of follow-up. The increase in expenditures associated with coil embolization may be offset partially, by shorter operating room times and hospitalization stays for endovascular repair of unruptured aneurysms; however, the impact of these cost savings is probably not likely to be greater than 25% of the total outlay since the majority of cases involve ruptured aneurysms. Furthermore, the recent growth in aneurysm repair has predominantly been in the area of coil embolization presumably for patients for whom surgical clipping would not be advised; therefore, no offset of surgical clipping costs could be applied in such cases. For ruptured aneurysms, downstream cost savings from endovascular repair are likely to be minimal even though the savings for individual cases may be substantial due to lower perioperative complications for endovascular aneurysm repair. Guidelines The two Guidance documents issued by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (UK) in 2005 support the use of coil embolization for both unruptured and ruptured (SAH) intracranial aneurysms, provided that procedures are in place for informed consent, audit, and clinical governance, and that the procedure is performed in specialist units with expertise in the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Conclusion For people in good clinical condition following subarachnoid hemorrhage from an acute ruptured intracranial aneurysm suitable for either surgical clipping or endovascular repair, coil embolization

  6. Noncontrast perfusion single-photon emission CT/CT scanning: a new test for the expedited, high-accuracy diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Lorenzoni, Alice; Fox, Josef J; Rademaker, Jürgen; Vander Els, Nicholas; Grewal, Ravinder K; Strauss, H William; Schöder, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    Standard ventilation and perfusion (V˙/Q˙) scintigraphy uses planar images for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). To evaluate whether tomographic imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy of the procedure, we compared noncontrast perfusion single-photon emission CT (Q˙-SPECT)/CT scans with planar V˙/Q˙scans in patients at high risk for PE. Between 2006 and 2010, most patients referred for diagnosis of PE underwent both Q˙-SPECT/CT scan and planar V˙/Q˙scintigraphy. All scans were reviewed retrospectively by four observers; planar scans were read with modified Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) II and Prospective Investigative Study of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PISA-PED) criteria. On Q˙-SPECT/CT scan, any wedge-shaped peripheral perfusion defect occupying > 50% of a segment without corresponding pulmonary parenchymal or pleural disease was considered to show PE. The final diagnosis was established with a composite reference standard that included ECG, ultrasound of lower-extremity veins, D-dimer levels, CT pulmonary angiography (when available), and clinical follow-up for at least 3 months. One hundred six patients with cancer and mean Wells score of 4.4 had sufficient follow-up; 22 patients were given a final diagnosis of PE, and 84 patients were given a final diagnosis of no PE. According to PIOPED II, 13 studies were graded as intermediate probability. Sensitivity and specificity for PE were 50% and 98%, respectively, based on PIOPED II criteria; 86% and 93%, respectively, based on PISA-PED criteria; and 91% and 94%, respectively, based on Q˙-SPECT/CT scan. Seventy-six patients had additional relevant findings on the CT image of the Q˙-SPECT/CT scan. Noncontrast Q˙-SPECT/CT imaging has a higher accuracy than planar V˙/Q˙imaging based on PIOPED II criteria in patients with cancer and a high risk for PE.

  7. Acute hypotension associated with intraoperative cell salvage using a leukocyte depletion filter during management of obstetric hemorrhage due to amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Rogers, William Kirke; Wernimont, Sarah A; Kumar, Girish C; Bennett, Eliza; Chestnut, David H

    2013-08-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare but catastrophic obstetric complication that can lead to profound coagulopathy and hemorrhage. The role of cell salvage and recombinant human Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) administration in such cases remains unclear. We present a case of AFE and describe our experience with the use of cell salvage and rFVIIa administration during the resuscitation. Cell salvage and transfusion through a leukocyte depletion filter was attempted after the diagnosis of AFE was made, but the attempted transfusion was immediately followed by hypotension and a worsening of hemodynamics. rFVIIa, on the contrary, was used with clinical improvement in coagulopathy and without apparent adverse thrombotic effect.

  8. Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma extending retrograde into the superior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Portillo-Sanchez, José; Hessein-Abdou, Yasser; Puga-Alcalde, Eugenio; Perez-Martinez, Maria Angeles; Del Carmen Jimenez-Meneses, Maria; Camacho-Pedrero, Agustín; Valdepeñas-Herrero, Luís Ruíz

    2011-01-01

    Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is a rare tumor that is highly fatal. It can be misdiagnosed as acute or chronic pulmonary thromboembolic disease. Herein, we report the case of a 22-year-old woman with a preoperative diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and superior vena caval thrombosis. Intraoperatively, an extensive sarcoma was seen to extend retrograde from the pulmonary artery, past the right ventricle and right atrium, and into the superior vena cava. Surgical resection of the tumor and reconstruction of the central pulmonary arteries, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, relieved the clinical symptoms. The patient remained free of cancer at 14 months postoperatively. We believe that this is the 1st report of a primary pulmonary artery sarcoma that extended retrograde into the superior vena cava.

  9. A Prospective, Single-Arm, Multicenter Trial of Ultrasound-Facilitated, Catheter-Directed, Low-Dose Fibrinolysis for Acute Massive and Submassive Pulmonary Embolism: The SEATTLE II Study.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Gregory; Hohlfelder, Benjamin; Jaff, Michael R; Ouriel, Kenneth; Engelhardt, Tod C; Sterling, Keith M; Jones, Noah J; Gurley, John C; Bhatheja, Rohit; Kennedy, Robert J; Goswami, Nilesh; Natarajan, Kannan; Rundback, John; Sadiq, Immad R; Liu, Stephen K; Bhalla, Narinder; Raja, M Laiq; Weinstock, Barry S; Cynamon, Jacob; Elmasri, Fakhir F; Garcia, Mark J; Kumar, Mark; Ayerdi, Juan; Soukas, Peter; Kuo, William; Liu, Ping-Yu; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2015-08-24

    This study conducted a prospective, single-arm, multicenter trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-facilitated, catheter-directed, low-dose fibrinolysis, using the EkoSonic Endovascular System (EKOS, Bothell, Washington). Systemic fibrinolysis for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) reduces cardiovascular collapse but causes hemorrhagic stroke at a rate exceeding 2%. Eligible patients had a proximal PE and a right ventricular (RV)-to-left ventricular (LV) diameter ratio ≥0.9 on chest computed tomography (CT). We included 150 patients with acute massive (n = 31) or submassive (n = 119) PE. We used 24 mg of tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) administered either as 1 mg/h for 24 h with a unilateral catheter or 1 mg/h/catheter for 12 h with bilateral catheters. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding within 72 h of procedure initiation. The primary efficacy outcome was the change in the chest CT-measured RV/LV diameter ratio within 48 h of procedure initiation. Mean RV/LV diameter ratio decreased from baseline to 48 h post-procedure (1.55 vs. 1.13; mean difference, -0.42; p < 0.0001). Mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure (51.4 mm Hg vs. 36.9 mm Hg; p < 0.0001) and modified Miller Index score (22.5 vs. 15.8; p < 0.0001) also decreased post-procedure. One GUSTO (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries)-defined severe bleed (groin hematoma with transient hypotension) and 16 GUSTO-defined moderate bleeding events occurred in 15 patients (10%). No patient experienced intracranial hemorrhage. Ultrasound-facilitated, catheter-directed, low-dose fibrinolysis decreased RV dilation, reduced pulmonary hypertension, decreased anatomic thrombus burden, and minimized intracranial hemorrhage in patients with acute massive and submassive PE. (A Prospective, Single-arm, Multi-center Trial of EkoSonic® Endovascular System and Activase for Treatment of Acute Pulmonary Embolism (PE) [SEATTLE II]; NCT

  10. Embolization of Bleeding Stomal Varices by Direct Percutaneous Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Arulraj, Ramakrishnan; Mangat, Kamarjit S.; Tripathi, Dhiraj

    2011-02-15

    Stomal varices can occur in patients with stoma in the presence of portal hypertension. Suture ligation, sclerotherapy, angiographic embolization, stoma revision, beta blockade, portosystemic shunt, and liver transplantation have been described as therapeutic options for bleeding stomal varices. We report the case of a 21-year-old patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis and colectomy with ileostomy for ulcerative colitis, where stomal variceal bleeding was successfully treated by direct percutaneous embolization. We consider percutaneous embolization to be an effective way of treating acute stomal bleeding in decompensated patients while awaiting decisions regarding shunt procedures or liver transplantation.

  11. Cryptogenic Cerebral Embolism in Women Taking Oral Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Enzell, Karin; Lindemalm, Gunnar

    1973-01-01

    Fourteen women taking oral contraceptives were admitted during a five-year period because of acute cerebrovascular lesions. A diagnosis of major cerebral embolism was established in four of them. No source of embolism was found, and thorough investigation failed to reveal any predisposing illness. Cerebral embolism was a probable diagnosis in several of the remaining 10 patients. A comparison was made with the strokes occurring in women not taking contraceptive pills in corresponding age groups. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:4758486

  12. Cerebral iodized lipid embolization via a pulmonary arteriovenous shunt: rare complication of transcatheter arterial embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report the first European case of cerebral iodized lipid embolism post transcatheter arterial embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma. Lipiodol emboli and corresponding multifocal brain ischemia were documented with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) in the acutely symptomatic patient. Transcranial Doppler sonography with contrast indicated a right-to-left shunt, while on a follow-up CT scan lipiodol embolization was detected in both lungs. Dilated pulmonary vessels and thick vascular channels were seen in the vicinity of the right diaphragm suggestive of pulmonary arteriovenous shunt. The patient symptoms regressed with supportive care alone, but he died 5 months later due to hepatic failure unrelated to the procedure. PMID:23721061

  13. Ischemic stroke classification and risk of embolism in patients with Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Montanaro, Vinícius Viana Abreu; da Silva, Creuza Maria; de Viana Santos, Carla Verônica; Lima, Maria Inacia Ruas; Negrão, Edson Marcio; de Freitas, Gabriel R

    2016-12-01

    Ischemic stroke (IS) and Chagas disease are strongly related. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to this association and its natural history. The current guidelines concerning the management and secondary prevention of IS are largely based on the incomplete information or extrapolation of knowledge from other stroke etiologies. We performed a retrospective study which compared stroke etiologies among a cohort of hospitalized patients with IS and Chagas disease. The Instituto de Pesquisa Evandro Chagas/Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IPEC/FIOCRUZ) embolic score was also used to identify and evaluate the risk of embolism in this population. A total of 86 patients were included in the analysis. The mean age of the study population was 58 years, and 60 % were men. According to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) Classification, 45 % of the strokes were of undetermined etiology and 45 % of cardioembolic origin, while the Stop Stroke Study/Causative Classification System (SSS/CCS) TOAST indicated that 34 % were undetermined and 50 % cardioembolic (p < 0.01); 44 % of these patients were classified as having a high embolic risk according to the IPEC/FIOCRUZ score. Among the undetermined causes, 83.3 % fulfilled the criteria for embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). The SSS/CCS TOAST etiological classification system was superior to the classical TOAST criteria in identifying a cardioembolic etiology in patients with ischemic stroke and Chagas disease. The IPEC/FIOCRUZ score did not correlate with the number of patients who were determined to have cardioembolic stroke etiologies. The current guidelines for stroke prevention should be reviewed in this population.

  14. Controversies in diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Stein, Paul D; Sostman, H Dirk; Dalen, James E; Bailey, Dale L; Bajc, Marika; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Goodman, Lawrence R; Gottschalk, Alexander; Hull, Russell D; Matta, Fadi; Pistolesi, Massimo; Tapson, Victor F; Weg, John G; Wells, Philip S; Woodard, Pamela K

    2011-04-01

    The approach to the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is under constant revision with advances in technology, noninvasive approaches, and increasing awareness of the risks of ionizing radiation. Optimal approaches in some categories of patients are controversial. Data are insufficient for evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, this survey of investigators in the field was undertaken. Even among experts there were marked differences of opinion regarding the approach to the diagnosis of acute PE. Although CT pulmonary angiography was usually the imaging test of choice, the respondents were keenly aware of the dangers of ionizing radiation. In view of advances in scintigraphic diagnosis since the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) trial, ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) lung scans or perfusion scans alone and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) V/Q lung scans are often recommended. The choice depends on the patient's age, gender, and complexity of the findings on the plain chest radiograph.

  15. Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations/Fistulas Embolization of brain ... Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas? What is Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas? Embolization of brain aneurysms and ...

  16. An autopsy case of acute cor pulmonale and paradoxical systemic embolism due to tumour cell microemboli in a patient with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Uga, Sayuri; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Matsukage, Sho-ichi; Hamada, Mareomi

    2012-09-30

    A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe respiratory distress. Diagnostic imaging studies suggested the existence of inexplicable cor pulmonale. Although we immediately sought the aetiology of her severe condition, she died suddenly on the fourth day after admission. Postmortem autopsy revealed tumour cell microemboli in the small pulmonary arteries. In addition, tumour cell embolisation identical to that in primary breast cancer cells was also observed in microvessels in systemic multiple organs, such as the liver, brain, kidneys, spleen, uterus, bone marrow and adrenal glands-with simultaneous findings of peripheral infarction. Systemic tumour cell embolism mediated through the patent foramen ovale superimposed on pulmonary tumour cell emboli (PTCE) is considered to be the mechanism underlying inexplicable cor pulmonale. The rapid aggravation of her condition terminated in death.

  17. Features of brain magnetic resonance imaging diffusion-weighted images of aortogenic embolic stroke.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Jun-Ichiro; Yasaka, Masahiro; Wakugawa, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Makihara, Noriko; Ito, Shoichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Okada, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

     The features of acute aortogenic embolic stroke on magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) have not been fully elucidated, so we compared patients with acute aortogenic embolic stroke and those with acute cardioembolic stroke.  This study included 40 consecutive patients with acute aortogenic embolic stroke, and 40 age- and sex-matched patients with acute cardioembolic stroke. The diagnosis of aortogenic embolic stroke was made when patients met 5 criteria: (1)acute neurologic event lasting >24h; (2) positive signals on DWI; (3) atherosclerotic lesions ≥3.5-mm thick at the aortic arch on transesophageal echocardiography; (4) neuroradiologic features suggesting embolic stroke, such as lesions involving the brain cortex or the re-opening phenomenon of previously occluded vessels on Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA); and (5) absence of other embolic sources, including heart disease and carotid stenosis. The number, site, and maximal diameter of the infarct lesions on DWI were compared between the aortogenic and cardiogenic groups. The aortogenic patients more frequently had ≥3 lesions (25.0% vs. 2.5%, P<0.01), lesions with a maximal diameter <30mm (77.5% vs. 20.0%, P< 0.001), and vertebrobasilar system lesions (55.0% vs. 10.0%, P< 0.001) than the cardiogenic patients.  Acute aortogenic embolic stroke is characterized by multiple (≥3) and small lesions, and involvement of the vertebrobasilar system. 

  18. Pulmonary embolism and concomitant paradoxical embolism. A case report.

    PubMed

    Abad-Arranz, María; Jara-Palomares, Luis; Martos-Maine, José Luis; Carrasco-Hernandez, Laura; Ortega-Ruiz, Francisco; Otero-Candelera, Remedios

    2014-03-01

    Although patent foramen ovale is a relatively common disease, the presence of paradoxical embolism is a rare clinical condition, representing less than 2% of arterial ischemias. We report the case of a 55-year-old male diagnosed with massive pulmonary embolism and paradoxical embolism in the right arm, secondary to patent foramen ovale. We also highlight some uncertainties in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with paradoxical embolism.

  19. Percutaneous embolization of a high-flow pancreatic transplant arteriovenous fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, J. Fritz; Matsumoto, Alan H.; McGraw, J. Kevin; Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Spinosa, David J.; McCullough, Christopher S.

    1999-03-15

    Percutaneous endovascular techniques were used to treat an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) associated with pancreatic transplantation. A pancreatic transplant superior mesenteric artery-to-superior mesenteric-vein AVF was successfully embolized while flow to the pancreas transplant was preserved. The embolization was aided by the use of Guglielmi detachable coils and a detachable balloon. No complications were encountered. At 23 months follow-up, the patient is doing well with no recurrence.

  20. Percutaneous Embolization of a High-Flow Pancreatic Transplant Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, J. Fritz; Matsumoto, Alan H.; McGraw, J. Kevin; Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Spinosa, David J.; McCullough, Christopher S.

    1998-03-15

    Percutaneous endovascular techniques were used to treat an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) associated with pancreatic transplantation. A pancreatic transplant superior mesenteric artery-to-superior mesenteric-vein AVF was successfully embolized while flow to the pancreas transplant was preserved. The embolization was aided by the use of Guglielmi detachable coils and a detachable balloon. No complications were encountered. At 23 months follow-up, the patient is doing well with no recurrence.

  1. How Is Pulmonary Embolism Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Embolism Treated? Pulmonary embolism (PE) is treated with medicines, procedures, and other therapies. The main goals of treating PE are to stop the blood clot from getting ...

  2. How Is Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosed? Pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed based on your medical history, a ... emergency room often are the ones to diagnose PE with the help of a radiologist. A radiologist ...

  3. Diagnosing pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, M

    2004-01-01

    Objective testing for pulmonary embolism is necessary, because clinical assessment alone is unreliable and the consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. No single test has ideal properties (100% sensitivity and specificity, no risk, low cost). Pulmonary angiography is regarded as the final arbiter but is ill suited for diagnosing a disease present in only a third of patients in whom it is suspected. Some tests are good for confirmation and some for exclusion of embolism; others are able to do both but are often non-diagnostic. For optimal efficiency, choice of the initial test should be guided by clinical assessment of the likelihood of embolism and by patient characteristics that may influence test accuracy. Standardised clinical estimates can be used to give a pre-test probability to assess, after appropriate objective testing, the post-test probability of embolism. Multidetector computed tomography can replace both scintigraphy and angiography for the exclusion and diagnosis of this disease and should now be considered the central imaging investigation in suspected pulmonary embolism. PMID:15192162

  4. Paradoxical cerebral air embolism causing large vessel occlusion treated with endovascular aspiration.

    PubMed

    Belton, Patrick J; Nanda, Ashish; Alqadri, Syeda L; Khakh, Gurpreet S; Chandrasekaran, Premkumar Nattanmai; Newey, Christopher; Humphries, William E

    2017-04-01

    Cerebral air embolism is a dreaded complication of invasive medical procedures. The mainstay of therapy for patients with cerebral air embolism has been hyperbaric oxygen therapy, high flow oxygen therapy, and anticonvulsants. We present a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of cerebral air embolism causing large vessel occlusion, using endovascular aspiration. Our patient developed a cerebral air embolism following sclerotherapy for varicose veins. This caused near total occlusion of the superior division of the M2 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. Symptoms included unilateral paralysis, unintelligible speech, and hemianopia; National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on presentation was 16. The air embolism was treated using a distal aspiration technique. Angiography following aspiration showed Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2B reperfusion. Following aspiration, the patient was re-examined; NIHSS at that time was 4. At 1 month follow-up, the modified Rankin Scale score was 1 and NIHSS was 1. Treatment of cerebral air embolism is discussed.

  5. Definitive Embolization of Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, B.T.; Lin, E.; Pile-Spellman, J.

    2005-01-01

    Summary This review examines the possible role for definitive embolization as a primary therapy for intracranial meningiomas. Surgery or radiosurgery are currently considered the standard of care for most benign meningiomas. However, each of these carries substantial risks. The perioperative mortality for surgical resection, as reported in large series, is between 3.7-9.4%; these studies report a similarly high rate of new neurological deficits following surgery. The rate of complications from radiosurgery is reported between 2-16% and it may take months to years before improvement in symptoms occurs following this therapy. There are a few reports of treating meningiomas by embolization without subsequent surgery. While these studies include small numbers of patients and have limited follow-up, the initial results are very promising. Given the risks and limitations of surgery and radiosurgery, prospective trials are now needed to determine the safety and efficacy of definitive embolization. PMID:20584499

  6. [Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolisms].

    PubMed

    Bach, A G; Schramm, D; Surov, A

    2017-03-01

    The term nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism (NTPE) is defined as embolization of pulmonary arteries caused by foreign bodies (e. g. detached catheter fragments), biological substances (e. g. septic thrombus) or exogenous substances (e. g. gas). The frequency of NTPE is underestimated. Symptoms can cover the spectrum from undetectable to sudden death. In addition to mechanical obstruction of the pulmonary arteries, some NTPEs trigger an inflammatory cascade that causes deterioration of vascular, pulmonary and cardiac function. Radiological imaging in combination with the medical history of patients is sufficient to identify most NTPEs with certainty. The aim of this article is to make readers aware of the symptoms, frequency, relevance, classification, pathophysiology, laboratory findings and radiological findings of the most frequent forms of NTPE. The spectrum of forms presented here includes pulmonary embolisms due to foreign bodies (intravascular, intracorporeal and extracorporeal), amniotic fluid, endogenous tissue, fat, tumors, septic thrombi, hydatids, cement, metallic mercury, gas, silicone and particles.

  7. Renal Artery Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Sauk, Steven; Zuckerman, Darryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is an effective minimally invasive alternative procedure for the treatment of a variety of conditions. Since the 1970s when RAE was first developed, technical advances and growing experience have expanded the indications to not only include treatment of conditions such as symptomatic hematuria and palliation for metastatic renal cancer, but also preoperative infarction of renal tumors, treatment of angiomyolipomas, vascular malformations, medical renal disease, and complications following renal transplantation. With the drastically improved morbidity associated with this technique in part due to the introduction of more precise embolic agents and smaller delivery catheters, RAE continues to gain popularity for various urologic conditions. The indications and techniques for renal artery embolization are reviewed in the following sections. PMID:23204638

  8. Posterior Circulation Stroke After Bronchial Artery Embolization. A Rare but Serious Complication

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, Alicia; Tejero, Carlos; Fredes, Arturo; Cebrian, Luis; Guelbenzu, Santiago; Gregorio, Miguel Angel de

    2013-06-15

    Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is the treatment of choice for massive hemoptysis with rare complications that generally are mild and transient. There are few references in the medical literature with acute cerebral embolization as a complication of BAE. We report a case of intracranial posterior territory infarctions as a complication BAE in a patient with hemoptysis due to bronchiectasis.

  9. Intractable intraoperative hypoxemia secondary to pulmonary embolism in the presence of undiagnosed patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Govind R

    2007-08-01

    The management of a patient with hip fracture during general anesthesia, who developed severe intractable hypoxemia caused by intraoperative pulmonary embolism in the presence of undiagnosed patent foramen ovale, is described. The role of urgent intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in situations where acute perioperative pulmonary embolism/patent foramen ovale is suspected is emphasized.

  10. Pulmonary artery compression by haemorrhage from the aorta simulating pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, D. H.; Jacques, J.

    1974-01-01

    Franklin, D. H., and Jacques, J. (1974).Thorax, 29, 142-144. Pulmonary artery compression by haemorrhage from the aorta simulating pulmonary embolism. A case is presented in which pulmonary embolism was simulated by compression of the pulmonary artery by haematoma during an episode of acute bacterial endocarditis occurring 18 months after aortic valve replacement. Images PMID:4825547

  11. Embolization of Collateral Vessels Using Mechanically Detachable Coils in Young Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Y.; Ogino, H.; Hara, M.; Satake, M.; Oshima, H.; Banno, T.; Mizuno, K.; Mishima, A.; Shibamoto, Y.

    2003-11-15

    Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of embolizing collateral vessels using mechanically detachable coils (MDCs) in children aged 3 years or younger with congenital heart disease. The subjects were 8 children with congenital heart disease featuring collateral vessels (age 18 days-3 years): 3 with a single ventricle, 2 with the tetralogy of Fallot, 2 with pulmonary atresia, and 1 with a ventricular septal defect. The embolized vessels were the major aortopulmonary collateral artery (MAPCA) in 5 patients, the persistent left superior vena cava in 2, and the coronary arteriovenous fistula in 1. A 4 or a 5 F catheter was used as the guiding device, and embolization was performed using MDCs and other conventional coils introduced through the microcatheter. One patient had growth of new MAPCAs after embolization, and these MAPCAs were also embolized with MDCs. Thus, a total of 9 embolization procedures were performed in 8 patients. Complete occlusion of the collateral vessels was achieved in 8 of 9 procedures (89%). Seven of 8 patients (88%) had uneventful courses after embolization, and MDC procedures appeared to play important roles in avoiding coil migration and achievement of safe coil embolization. One patient who underwent MAPCA embolization showed no improvement in heart function and died 2 months and 19 days later. Embolization of collateral vessels using MDCs in young children with congenital heart disease can be an effective procedure and a valuable adjunct to surgical management.

  12. Delayed extrusion of embolic coils into the airway after embolization of an external carotid artery pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wilseck, Zachary; Savastano, Luis; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Pandey, Aditya S; Griauzde, Julius; Sankaran, Sumanna; Wilkinson, D Andrew; Gemmete, Joseph J

    2017-08-29

    Carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) is a known devastating complication of head and neck surgery. The risk of developing CBS increases in the setting of radiation therapy, wound breakdown, or tumor recurrence. Traditionally, the treatment of choice for CBS is surgical ligation of the bleeding artery; however, recently, endovascular occlusion has become a more common option. If a pseudoaneurysm is present, treatment consists of trapping with endovascular coils or occlusion with a liquid embolic agent. Delayed migration of embolization coils into the airway causing acute respiratory distress is a rare occurrence. This report presents a case of a 57-year-old woman who presented to her otolaryngologist after experiencing an episode of acute respiratory distress which resolved when she expectorated embolization coil material from her tracheostomy tube. Three months prior to the episode she underwent coil embolization of an external carotid artery pseudoaneurysm for life-threatening hemorrhage. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. 17β-Estradiol mediates superior adaptation of right ventricular function to acute strenuous exercise in female rats with severe pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Frump, Andrea L.; Albrecht, Marjorie E.; Fisher, Amanda J.; Cook, Todd G.; Jones, Thomas J.; Yakubov, Bakhtiyor; Whitson, Jordan; Fuchs, Robyn K.; Liu, Aiping; Chesler, Naomi C.; Brown, M. Beth

    2016-01-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) exerts protective effects on right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Since acute exercise-induced increases in afterload may lead to RV dysfunction in PAH, we sought to determine whether E2 allows for superior RV adaptation after an acute exercise challenge. We studied echocardiographic, hemodynamic, structural, and biochemical markers of RV function in male and female rats with sugen/hypoxia (SuHx)-induced pulmonary hypertension, as well as in ovariectomized (OVX) SuHx females, with or without concomitant E2 repletion (75 μg·kg−1·day−1) immediately after 45 min of treadmill running at 75% of individually determined maximal aerobic capacity (75% aerobic capacity reserve). Compared with males, intact female rats exhibited higher stroke volume and cardiac indexes, a strong trend for better RV compliance, and less pronounced increases in indexed total pulmonary resistance. OVX abrogated favorable RV adaptations, whereas E2 repletion after OVX markedly improved RV function. E2's effects on pulmonary vascular remodeling were complex and less robust than its RV effects. Postexercise hemodynamics in females with endogenous or exogenous E2 were similar to hemodynamics in nonexercised controls, whereas OVX rats exhibited more severely altered postexercise hemodynamics. E2 mediated inhibitory effects on RV fibrosis and attenuated increases in RV collagen I/III ratio. Proapoptotic signaling, endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation, and autophagic flux markers were affected by E2 depletion and/or repletion. Markers of impaired autophagic flux correlated with endpoints of RV structure and function. Endogenous and exogenous E2 exerts protective effects on RV function measured immediately after an acute exercise challenge. Harnessing E2's mechanisms may lead to novel RV-directed therapies. PMID:27288487

  14. 17β-Estradiol mediates superior adaptation of right ventricular function to acute strenuous exercise in female rats with severe pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lahm, Tim; Frump, Andrea L; Albrecht, Marjorie E; Fisher, Amanda J; Cook, Todd G; Jones, Thomas J; Yakubov, Bakhtiyor; Whitson, Jordan; Fuchs, Robyn K; Liu, Aiping; Chesler, Naomi C; Brown, M Beth

    2016-08-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) exerts protective effects on right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Since acute exercise-induced increases in afterload may lead to RV dysfunction in PAH, we sought to determine whether E2 allows for superior RV adaptation after an acute exercise challenge. We studied echocardiographic, hemodynamic, structural, and biochemical markers of RV function in male and female rats with sugen/hypoxia (SuHx)-induced pulmonary hypertension, as well as in ovariectomized (OVX) SuHx females, with or without concomitant E2 repletion (75 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) immediately after 45 min of treadmill running at 75% of individually determined maximal aerobic capacity (75% aerobic capacity reserve). Compared with males, intact female rats exhibited higher stroke volume and cardiac indexes, a strong trend for better RV compliance, and less pronounced increases in indexed total pulmonary resistance. OVX abrogated favorable RV adaptations, whereas E2 repletion after OVX markedly improved RV function. E2's effects on pulmonary vascular remodeling were complex and less robust than its RV effects. Postexercise hemodynamics in females with endogenous or exogenous E2 were similar to hemodynamics in nonexercised controls, whereas OVX rats exhibited more severely altered postexercise hemodynamics. E2 mediated inhibitory effects on RV fibrosis and attenuated increases in RV collagen I/III ratio. Proapoptotic signaling, endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation, and autophagic flux markers were affected by E2 depletion and/or repletion. Markers of impaired autophagic flux correlated with endpoints of RV structure and function. Endogenous and exogenous E2 exerts protective effects on RV function measured immediately after an acute exercise challenge. Harnessing E2's mechanisms may lead to novel RV-directed therapies.

  15. Clinical Analysis of 50 Cases of BAVM Embolization with Onyx, a Novel Liquid Embolic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Song, Donglei; Leng, Bing; Gu, Yuxiang; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Bin; Chen, Xiecheng; Zhou, Liangfu

    2005-01-01

    Summary To report the embolization technique of using Onyx, a new liquid embolic agent, to treat cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) as well as its efficacy. 38 cases of cerebral AVMs located in eloquent area (motor, speech, visual nerve center), 9 in deep cerebral area, and another 3 cases in cerebellar hemisphere. The diameter of AVMs was smaller than 3cm in 10 cases, 3-6cm in 30 cases, and larger than 6cm in 10 cases. A 6F sheath was placed into the femoral artery after Selding's puncture. After a 6F guiding catheter was introduced into the internal carotid artery or vertebral artery, Ultraflow or Marathon microcatheter could be navigated into the nidus of AVMs. A long-slow injection of Onyx under fluoroscopic control was performed to embolize cerebral AVMs by adopting the "plug and push" technique. 10 AVM cases (20.0%) were considered to be totally occluded with Onyx in this group, 3 cases of which were found no regrowth by a 6-month follow-up. 25 cases (50%) were subtotally occluded while another 15 cases (30%) were partially embolized. Complications include: (1) severe cerebral hemorrhage occurred in three cases, two of them left hemiplegia after hematoma resection. (2) mild hemiplegia occurred in one lager frontal AVM patient. (3) mild visual deficit was left in one larger occipital AVM case. There was no severe complication in other 45 patients. Onyx has unique and distinctive superiority in treating cerebral AVMs. Nonetheless, the correct embolization technique should be learned to achieve good clinical results and to avoid complications. The long-term efficacy of Onyx embolization needs to be followed up. PMID:20584473

  16. A simplified flow cytometric assay identifies children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who have a superior clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Coustan-Smith, Elaine; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Stow, Patricia; Zhou, Yinmei; Pui, Ching-Hon; Rivera, Gaston K.; Pedrosa, Francisco; Campana, Dario

    2006-01-01

    Bone marrow normal lymphoid progenitors (CD19+, CD10+, and/or CD34+) are exquisitely sensitive to corticosteroids and other antileukemic drugs. We hypothesized that, in patients with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), cells with this phenotype detected early in treatment should be leukemic rather than normal. We therefore developed a simple and inexpensive flow cytometric assay for such cells and prospectively applied it to bone marrow samples collected on day 19 from 380 children with B-lineage ALL. In 211 patients (55.5%), these cells represented 0.01% or more of the mononuclear cells; results correlated remarkably well with those of more complex flow cytometric and molecular minimal residual disease (MRD) evaluations. Among 84 uniformly treated children, the 10-year incidence of relapse or remission failure was 28.8% ± 7.1% (SE) for the 42 patients with 0.01% or more leukemic cells on day 19 detected by the simplified assay versus 4.8% ± 3.3% for the 42 patients with lower levels (P = .003). These assay results were the strongest predictor of outcome, even after adjustment for competing clinicobiologic variables. Thus, this new assay would enable most treatment centers to identify a high proportion of children with ALL who have an excellent early treatment response and a high likelihood of cure. (Blood. 2006;108:97-102) PMID:16537802

  17. Off-label uses of the Pipeline embolization device: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Purvee D; Chalouhi, Nohra; Atallah, Elias; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Hasan, David; Zarzour, Hekmat; Rosenwasser, Robert; Jabbour, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    The Pipeline embolization device (PED) is the most widely used flow diverter in endovascular neurosurgery. In 2011, the device received FDA approval for the treatment of large and giant aneurysms in the internal carotid artery extending from the petrous to the superior hypophyseal segments. However, as popularity of the device grew and neurosurgeons gained more experience, its use has extended to several other indications. Some of these off-label uses include previously treated aneurysms, acutely ruptured aneurysms, small aneurysms, distal circulation aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, fusiform aneurysms, dissecting aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, and even carotid-cavernous fistulas. The authors present a literature review of the safety and efficacy of the PED in these off-label uses.

  18. Massive Pulmonary Calculi Embolism: A Novel Complication of Pneumatic Lithotripsy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-07-01

    Pneumatic lithotripsy is a minimally invasive technique mainly for the treatment of urinary staghorn stones. Previous literatures have reported some therapeutic complications during or after this procedure, but calculi embolism has not been mentioned before.We report here a fatal case of calculi-induced pulmonary embolism in an adult woman who underwent pneumatic lithotripsy. An autopsy did not reveal any evidence of pulmonary embolism. However, light microscopy revealed noticeable presence of calculi in pulmonary arterioles and capillaries, as evidenced by environmental scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The primary determinants of calculi embolism include intrarenal pressure, and volume and viscosity of the calculi fragments formation. Vascular intravasation of smashed calculi might increase pulmonary vascular resistance and hypoxemia and decrease cardiac output.This case report intends to provide information for clinicians to consider the probability of intraoperative calculi embolism during lithotripsies when patients develop typical symptoms of acute pulmonary embolism.

  19. Cytogenetic risk grouping by the monosomal karyotype classification is superior in predicting the outcome of acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation in complete remission.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Philipp G; Schulze-Luckow, Anthea; Terwey, Theis H; le Coutre, Philipp; Vuong, Lam G; Dörken, Bernd; Arnold, Renate

    2014-02-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the impact of cytogenetic abnormalities grouped according to the monosomal karyotype (MK) classification or the Southwest Oncology/Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (SWOG/ECOG) definition in 263 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) in complete remission (CR) at our center. Risk grouping using the MK criteria shows a highly significant difference in 5-yr overall survival (OS) ranging between 67%, for the most favorable, and 32%, for the poorest risk group (P = 0.001). Although similarly precise in predicting OS, the MK scheme better separates patients with respect to relapse incidence as compared to the SWOG/ECOG grouping (P = 0.0001 vs. P = 0.01). Notably, patients displaying non-MK abnormalities (MK-) had a 5-yr relapse incidence identical to those cytogenetically normal (CN), that is 24%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the MK classification is an independent prognosticator and superior in predicting OS (hazard ratios, HR 3.74, P = 0.01) and relapse incidence (HR 3.74, P = 0.005) as compared to the SWOG/ECOG criteria. Finally, subgroup analysis revealed that the prognostic capacity of the MK classification is highly significant in patients treated with standard myeloablative conditioning prior to alloSCT (P = 0.0011 for OS, P = 0.0007 for relapse). In contrast, the MK grouping failed to predict OS or relapse incidence in patients treated with reduced intensity conditioning. Taken together, these results indicate that the MK classification is superior in predicting the overall outcome of patients with AML undergoing alloSCT in CR. Furthermore, our data suggest that the genetic risk profile of MK- and CN patients is mostly overlapping in this setting.

  20. Evaluation of embolic protection devices for fat emboli prevention.

    PubMed

    Lanzinger, William; Caldwell, Joseph; Schoenfeld, Andrew; Horne, Walter; Sloan, Patricia; Stakleff, Kimberly Sloan; Zink, Jill; Netzley, Robert; Wright, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Patients with acutely treated femoral shaft fractures with reamed intramedullary nailing are at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome due to liberation of bone marrow fat particles that travel to the lung and cause damage to the parenchyma. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate: (1) the ability of clinically applicable embolic protection devices to capture such particles; (2) how such a device affects cardiopulmonary function after reamed intramedullary nailing; and (3) evaluation of lung pathology to determine whether filtration affects pulmonary embolic load. A total of 12 canines were anesthetized, and hemodynamic monitoring was established. Carotid embolic protection devices were introduced into the iliac vein, and ipsilateral intramedullary reaming and nailing was performed. Cardiopulmonary parameters were recorded at timed intervals up to 60 minutes after the procedure. The control group (n = 4) was compared with groups treated with Accunet (n = 4) and Spider (n = 4) filters. A blinded histopathological review was performed on lung specimens to determine the average number of emboli per section and to measure the area (mm(2)) of embolic load by digital image analysis. Gross inspection of the embolic protection devices showed the presence of bone marrow debris. A significant change was observed in pH levels (control = -0.052, filters = +0.005; P < .05) within the 60 minutes after intramedullary nailing. Serum bicarbonate (meq/dL) values were noted to have similar changes of -2.7 and -1.8 at 10 and 60 minutes, whereas the experimental group was +0.6 and +0.8 at the same time intervals (P =.01 and .0004, respectively). Pulmonary measurements for pO2 and oxygen saturation were analogous to the serum parameters with decreases in the control group in comparison with the filter groups. The mean numbers of emboli and area measurements of embolic load were significantly reduced in the filter group (all P < .01). Embolic protection devices

  1. Statin pre-treatment is associated with lower platelet activity and favorable outcome in patients with acute non-cardio-embolic ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Statins reportedly have anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects aside from cholesterol-lowering. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-existing statin use on platelet activation markers and clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients. Methods This prospective study evaluated 172 patients with acute ischemic stroke divided in two groups: patients with pre-existing statin (n = 43) and without pre-existing statin (66 cases with statins initiated post-stroke and 63 without statin treatment). Platelet activation markers (CD62P and CD63) were measured by flow cytometry at different time points after stroke and analyzed with clinical outcome. Results The CD62P and CD63 expressions on platelets were significantly lower in the patients with pre-existing statin use compared to the patients without pre-existing statin use on Day 1 post-stroke (p < 0.05). The CD62P expression was significantly lower in the patients with pre-existing statin use on 90 days after the acute stroke (p < 0.05). Patients with pre-existing statin use had lower incidences of early neurologic deterioration (END) than those without treatment (p < 0.05). Among several baseline clinical variables, admission NIHSS score, history of coronary artery disease, and pre-existing statin use were independent predictions of good clinical outcome at three months. Conclusions Pre-existing statin use is associated with decreased platelet activity as well as improved clinical outcome and reduced END in patients with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:21740551

  2. PORTAL VEIN EMBOLIZATION USING AN ADAPTED HYSTEROSALPINGOGRAPHY CATHETER

    PubMed Central

    STEINBRÜCK, Klaus; ALVES, Jefferson; FERNANDES, Reinaldo; ENNE, Marcelo; PACHECO-MOREIRA, Lúcio Filgueiras

    2014-01-01

    Background Portal vein embolization is an accepted procedure that provides hypertrophy of the future remnant liver in order to reduce post-hepatectomy complications. Aim To present a series submitted to portal vein embolization using an adapted hysterosalpingography catheter via transileocolic route. Methods Were performed right portal branch embolization in 19 patients using hysterosalpingography catheter. For embolizing the vessel, was used Gelfoam® powder with absolute alcohol solution. Indications for hepatectomy were colorectal liver metastases in all cases. Results An adequate growth of the future remnant liver was achieved in 15 patients (78.9%) and second time hepatectomy could be done in 14 (73.7%). In one patient (5.2%), tumor progression prevented surgery. One patient presented acute renal failure after portal embolization. Conclusions The hysterosalpingography catheter is easy to handle and can be introduced into the portal vein with a wire guide. There were no major post-embolization complication. Its use is safe, cheap and effective. PMID:25184773

  3. A Case of Turner Syndrome with Multiple Embolic Infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Cindy W.; Lee, Eungseok; Yoon, Byung-Nam; Park, Hee-Kwon; Rha, Joung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Only a few cases of Turner syndrome (TS) with ischemic stroke have been reported. Various arteriopathies of the cerebral arteries, including fibromuscular dysplasia, congenital hypoplasia, moyamoya syndrome, and premature atherosclerosis have been assumed to be the cause of ischemic stroke in TS. There has been no case report of a TS patient presenting with an embolic stroke pattern without any cerebral arteriopathy. A 28-year-old woman with TS was referred to our hospital because of abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. She underwent brain MRI at the referring hospital because she experienced sudden-onset diffuse headache. Diffusion-weighted imaging revealed multiple acute embolic infarcts in different vascular territories. Intracranial and extracranial arterial disease was not detected on cerebral magnetic resonance angiography and carotid sonography. Embolic source workups, including transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, Holter monitoring, and transcranial Doppler shunt study, were all negative. Hypercoagulability and vasculitis panels were also negative. Our patient was diagnosed with cryptogenic embolic stroke. This is the first report of a TS patient with an embolic stroke pattern. Our case shows that ischemic stroke in TS could be due to embolism as well as the various cerebral arteriopathies documented in previous reports. PMID:27790125

  4. A Case of Turner Syndrome with Multiple Embolic Infarcts.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Cindy W; Lee, Eungseok; Yoon, Byung-Nam; Park, Hee-Kwon; Rha, Joung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Only a few cases of Turner syndrome (TS) with ischemic stroke have been reported. Various arteriopathies of the cerebral arteries, including fibromuscular dysplasia, congenital hypoplasia, moyamoya syndrome, and premature atherosclerosis have been assumed to be the cause of ischemic stroke in TS. There has been no case report of a TS patient presenting with an embolic stroke pattern without any cerebral arteriopathy. A 28-year-old woman with TS was referred to our hospital because of abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. She underwent brain MRI at the referring hospital because she experienced sudden-onset diffuse headache. Diffusion-weighted imaging revealed multiple acute embolic infarcts in different vascular territories. Intracranial and extracranial arterial disease was not detected on cerebral magnetic resonance angiography and carotid sonography. Embolic source workups, including transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, Holter monitoring, and transcranial Doppler shunt study, were all negative. Hypercoagulability and vasculitis panels were also negative. Our patient was diagnosed with cryptogenic embolic stroke. This is the first report of a TS patient with an embolic stroke pattern. Our case shows that ischemic stroke in TS could be due to embolism as well as the various cerebral arteriopathies documented in previous reports.

  5. [Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis after intrathecal chemotherapy and intravenous high-dose cytarabine in an acute myeloid leukemia case with t(8;21)(q22;q22)].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Keiki; Ito, Ryugo; Kageyama, Yuki; Nagaharu, Keiki; Yamaguchi, Takanori; Ito, Nobuo

    2016-04-01

    Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST) is a very rare but life-threatening complication in leukemia patients. SSST is very rare in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In leukemia patients, several risk factors for SSST have been reported such as administration of L-asparaginase, disseminated intravascular coagulation, congenital thrombophilia, meningeal leukemia, and intrathecal chemotherapy (IT). Lumbar puncture itself and corticosteroid administration have also been acknowledged as risk factors. We describe herein our clinical experience with SSST in a 29-year-old Japanese man suffering from AML with t(8;21)(q22;q22), who presented with abrupt onset of loss of consciousness, left hemiplegia, and seizure soon after IT and high-dose cytarabine (HD-AraC) with dexamethasone for post remission consolidation. Despite the presence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) due to SSST rupture, we conducted anticoagulant therapy with heparin. Although ICH worsened temporarily, his clinical condition gradually improved with resolution of the SSST, and he eventually became fully ambulatory. There were no deficiencies of natural anticoagulants. Three additional cycles of HD-AraC without IT therapy were conducted, but no neurological complications recurred with the concomitant use of warfarin. He was discharged free of neurological deficits. In our case, there is a possibility that IT and the administration of corticosteroids along with HD-AraC triggered SSST.

  6. Platelet function monitoring to adjust antiplatelet therapy in elderly patients stented for an acute coronary syndrome (ANTARCTIC): an open-label, blinded-endpoint, randomised controlled superiority trial.

    PubMed

    Cayla, Guillaume; Cuisset, Thomas; Silvain, Johanne; Leclercq, Florence; Manzo-Silberman, Stephane; Saint-Etienne, Christophe; Delarche, Nicolas; Bellemain-Appaix, Anne; Range, Grégoire; El Mahmoud, Rami; Carrié, Didier; Belle, Loic; Souteyrand, Geraud; Aubry, Pierre; Sabouret, Pierre; du Fretay, Xavier Halna; Beygui, Farzin; Bonnet, Jean-Louis; Lattuca, Benoit; Pouillot, Christophe; Varenne, Olivier; Boueri, Ziad; Van Belle, Eric; Henry, Patrick; Motreff, Pascal; Elhadad, Simon; Salem, Joe-Elie; Abtan, Jérémie; Rousseau, Hélène; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Vicaut, Eric; Montalescot, Gilles

    2016-10-22

    Elderly patients are at high risk of ischaemic and bleeding events. Platelet function monitoring offers the possibility to individualise antiplatelet therapy to improve the therapeutic risk-benefit ratio. We aimed to assess the effect of platelet function monitoring with treatment adjustment in elderly patients stented for an acute coronary syndrome. We did this multicentre, open-label, blinded-endpoint, randomised controlled superiority study at 35 centres in France. Patients aged 75 years or older who had undergone coronary stenting for acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned (1:1), via a central interactive voice-response system based on a computer-generated permuted-block randomisation schedule with randomly selected block sizes, to receive oral prasugrel 5 mg daily with dose or drug adjustment in case of inadequate response (monitoring group) or oral prasugrel 5 mg daily with no monitoring or treatment adjustment (conventional group). Randomisation was stratified by centre. Platelet function testing was done 14 days after randomisation and repeated 14 days after treatment adjustment in patients in the monitoring group. Study investigators and patients were not masked to treatment allocation, but allocation was concealed from an independent clinical events committee responsible for endpoint adjudication. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, stent thrombosis, urgent revascularisation, and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium-defined bleeding complications (types 2, 3, or 5) at 12 months' follow-up. We did analysis by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01538446. Between March 27, 2012, and May 19, 2015, we randomly assigned 877 patients to the monitoring group (n=442) or the conventional group (n=435). The primary endpoint occurred in 120 (28%) patients in the monitoring group compared with 123 (28%) patients in the conventional group (hazard ratio [HR], 1

  7. Thrombotic and nonthrombotic pulmonary arterial embolism: spectrum of imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Han, Daehee; Lee, Kyung Soo; Franquet, Tomas; Müller, Nestor L; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung; Byun, Hong Sik

    2003-01-01

    Along with clinical examination and laboratory tests, imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Multi-detector row helical computed tomography (CT) is particularly helpful in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) owing to its capacity to directly show emboli as intravascular filling defects. Although parenchymal abnormalities at CT are nonspecific for acute PTE, they may contribute to a correct diagnosis of chronic PTE, the characteristic helical CT features of which are similar to its angiographic features and include webs or bands, intimal irregularities, abrupt narrowing or complete obstruction of the pulmonary arteries, and "pouching defect." Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon condition but is sometimes associated with specific imaging findings, including discrete nodules with cavitation (septic embolism), widespread homogeneous and heterogeneous areas of increased opacity or attenuation that typically appear 12-24 hours after trauma (fat embolism), and fine miliary nodules that subsequently coalesce into large areas of increased opacity or attenuation (talcosis). Knowledge of appropriate imaging methods and familiarity with the specific imaging features of pulmonary embolism should facilitate prompt, effective diagnosis.

  8. Preoperative onyx embolization of vascular head and neck tumors by direct puncture.

    PubMed

    Elhammady, Mohamed Samy; Peterson, Eric C; Johnson, Jeremiah N; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Preoperative embolization of hypervascular head and neck tumors is frequently performed to reduce operative times and blood loss. While traditional transarterial embolization is commonly used, direct tumoral puncture has also been advocated as an alternative. We report our series of head and neck tumors embolized with onyx via direct tumoral puncture to ascertain the safety and efficacy of embolization using this technique. We prospectively collected data on all head and neck tumors embolized with onyx at our institution during a 24-month period. A total of 18 patients underwent preoperative embolization via direct tumoral puncture. Tumors included nine carotid body tumors, three glomus vagale tumors, five juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (JNAs), and one intracranial frontal parasagittal meningioma. All embolizations were completed in a single session. Mean fluoroscopy time was 40 minutes. The overall mean percent tumor devascularization was 87%. Inadvertent transtumoral migration of onyx into the superior sagittal sinus occurred during intraoperative embolization of the meningioma using single-plane fluoroscopy and resulted in a large postoperative hemorrhagic venous infarct. There were no other endovascular-related complications in the remaining patients embolized using biplanar fluoroscopy. Embolization of hypervascular head and neck tumors with onyx via direct tumoral puncture can be performed safely and efficiently. Tumor embolization by direct puncture may theoretically lower the risk of inadvertent migration of onyx through nontarget arterial vessels, but may increase the risk of inadvertent transtumoral embolization of venous structures. Caution should be exercised when using this technique for intracranial pathologies, and the importance of biplanar fluoroscopy to allow better visualization of the onyx migration cannot be overemphasized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Arteriovenous Fistula Embolization in Suspected Parauterine Choriocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Almarzooqi, Mohamed-Karji; Oliva, Vincent; Gilbert, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This is a case of choriocarcinoma that did not regress after chemotherapy treatment. A 30-year-old female patient (gravida 2, para 2), presented to our ER with stroke and persistent mild pelvic pain 2 months after a Caesarean section. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an ischemic left hemicerebellar region and a hypervascular mass in the pelvic region. This mass was not present on routine fetal ultrasound during pregnancy. The lesion was treated by chemotherapy after closure of a foramen ovale and insertion of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. After that, 2 courses of EMACO (Etoposide, Methotrexate, Actinomycin D, Cyclophosphamide, and Vincristine) chemotherapy regimen were given. Posttreatment CT showed the hypervascular mass without any changes. Arteriography showed the arteriovenous fistulae that were embolized successfully with plugs, coils, and glue. Embolization was considered due to the risk of acute hemorrhagic life-threatening complications. Eight chemotherapy courses were added after embolization. Treatment by endovascular approach and reduction of the hypervascular mass can be a valuable adjunct to chemotherapy treatment of choriocarcinoma. PMID:27403360

  10. Interventional radiology treatment for pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    De Gregorio, Miguel A; Guirola, Jose A; Lahuerta, Celia; Serrano, Carolina; Figueredo, Ana L; Kuo, William T

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an illness that has a potentially life-threatening condition that affects a large percentage of the global population. VTE with pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third leading cause of death after myocardial infarction and stroke. In the first three months after an acute PE, there is an estimated 15% mortality among submassive PE, and 68% mortality in massive PE. Current guidelines suggest fibrinolytic therapy regarding the clinical severity, however some studies suggest a more aggressive treatment approach. This review will summarize the available endovascular treatments and the different techniques with its indications and outcomes. PMID:28794825

  11. Interventional radiology treatment for pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    De Gregorio, Miguel A; Guirola, Jose A; Lahuerta, Celia; Serrano, Carolina; Figueredo, Ana L; Kuo, William T

    2017-07-28

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an illness that has a potentially life-threatening condition that affects a large percentage of the global population. VTE with pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third leading cause of death after myocardial infarction and stroke. In the first three months after an acute PE, there is an estimated 15% mortality among submassive PE, and 68% mortality in massive PE. Current guidelines suggest fibrinolytic therapy regarding the clinical severity, however some studies suggest a more aggressive treatment approach. This review will summarize the available endovascular treatments and the different techniques with its indications and outcomes.

  12. Physiologic Studies of the Pulmonary Capillary Bed after Barium Sulfate Embolization*

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Walter J.; Waldhausen, John A.

    1967-01-01

    22 anesthetized dogs were given a barium sulfate suspension intravenously in a dose sufficient to double mean pulmonary artery pressure. 10 sec breath-holding carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO10) was measured before and after this standard embolization in each dog. No post-embolic decrease in DLCO10 was observed. In the study of this apparent paradox, it was found that the potential for further increase in DLCO10 during exercise remained after embolization. During rest prolongation of breath holding to 60 sec decreased CO absorption significantly more in the embolized than in the nonembolized dogs. While DLCO10 was not affected by standard barium embolization, oxygen diffusing capacity was clearly decreased. The bronchial collateral circulation did not participate in preventing a DLCO10 decrease after embolization since surgical interruption of the bronchial circulation did not alter the response to barium. Microscopic examination of lung sections taken after standard embolization showed plugging of precapillary vessels in the 40-50 μ range. These studies suggest that acute precapillary embolic obstruction of vessels of this size interferes remarkably little with CO absorption over short periods of time, probably because of continued CO absorption in portions of the capillary net distal to the sites of impaction. The remarkable anastomotic nature of this capillary network with multiple sources of access possibly provides the anatomic basis for this observation. This study demonstrates a clear dissociation between acute changes in pulmonary vascular resistance and DLCO10—both during rest and exercise. Images PMID:6061739

  13. Splenic Arterial Embolization in the Treatment of Severe Portal Hypertension Due to Pancreatic Diseases: The Primary Experience in 14 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qi Xiong, Bin Zheng, ChuanSheng Liang, Ming Han, Ping

    2016-03-15

    ObjectiveThis retrospective study reports our experience using splenic arterial particle embolization and coil embolization for the treatment of sinistral portal hypertension (SPH) in patients with and without gastric bleeding.MethodsFrom August 2009 to May 2012, 14 patients with SPH due to pancreatic disease were diagnosed and treated with splenic arterial embolization. Two different embolization strategies were applied; either combined distal splenic bed particle embolization and proximal splenic artery coil embolization in the same procedure for acute hemorrhage (1-step) or interval staged distal embolization and proximal embolization in the stable patient (2-step). The patients were clinically followed.ResultsIn 14 patients, splenic arterial embolization was successful. The one-step method was performed in three patients suffering from massive gastric bleeding, and the bleeding was relieved after embolization. The two-step method was used in 11 patients, who had chronic gastric variceal bleeding or gastric varices only. The gastric varices disappeared in the enhanced CT scan and the patients had no gastric bleeding during follow-up.ConclusionsSplenic arterial embolization, particularly the two-step method, proved feasible and effective for the treatment of SPH patients with gastric varices or gastric variceal bleeding.

  14. [Predictive values for mortality in pulmonary embolism, of embolic load and right/left ventricular diameter ratio, measured by computed tomography].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Juan Carlos; Ladrón de Guevara, David; Pereira, Gonzalo; Herrmann, Rodrigo; Silva, Claudio; Astorga, Erika; Llancaqueo, Marcelo

    2007-11-01

    In pulmonary embolism, the computed tomography (CT) images can be used as a prognostic index measuring the embolic load, according to the location and size of thrombus and the right/left ventricular diameter ratio. To assess the predictive value of embolic load and right/left ventricular diameter ratio for early and late mortality in acute pulmonary embolism (PTE). The pulmonary CT of 418 patients with suspected PTE was reviewed. Embolic load was assessed by three independent evaluators and the right/left ventricular diameter ratio was measured in those exams that were positive for PTE. A logistic regression analysis was done between these parameters and mortality. Reproducibility was calculated using Bland and Altman analysis. There was a high concordance between raters to calculate embolic load (r =0,95, p <0,001). Only the right/left ventricular diameter ratio and the presence were predictive of global mortality. The predictive value for embolic load was below the significance level, No parameter was predictive of early mortality. The concordance between raters for the assessment of embolic load was high in this study. However no imaging parameter had a predictive value for early mortality. The right/left ventricular diameter ratio had a predictive value for global mortality at three months.

  15. Cerebral Lipiodol Embolism after Lymphatic Embolization for Plastic Bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Kirschen, Matthew P.; Dori, Yoav; Itkin, Maxim; Licht, Daniel J.; Ichord, Rebecca; Vossough, Arastoo

    2016-01-01

    An adolescent with plastic bronchitis due to congenital heart disease had altered mental status after an interventional lymphatic procedure in which lipiodol contrast was used. Neuroimaging revealed cerebral lipiodol embolization due to direct shunting between lymphatic channels and pulmonary veins. Cerebral lipiodol embolization is a potential neurologic morbidity associated with interventional lymphatic procedures. PMID:27297208

  16. Cerebral Lipiodol Embolism after Lymphatic Embolization for Plastic Bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Dori, Yoav; Itkin, Maxim; Licht, Daniel J; Ichord, Rebecca; Vossough, Arastoo

    2016-09-01

    An adolescent with plastic bronchitis due to congenital heart disease had altered mental status after an interventional lymphatic procedure in which lipiodol contrast was used. Neuroimaging revealed cerebral lipiodol embolization due to direct shunting between lymphatic channels and pulmonary veins. Cerebral lipiodol embolization is a potential neurologic morbidity associated with interventional lymphatic procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevention of distal embolization and no-reflow in patients with acute myocardial infarction and total occlusion in the infarct-related vessel: a subgroup analysis of the cohort of acute revascularization in myocardial infarction with excimer laser-CARMEL multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Johannes B; Ebersole, Douglas; Das, Tony; Madyhoon, Hooman; Vora, Kishor; Baker, John; Hilton, David; Topaz, On

    2005-01-01

    To overcome the adverse complications of percutaneous coronary interventions in thrombus laden lesions (i.e., distal embolization, platelet activation, no-reflow phenomenon), mechanical removal of the thrombus or distal embolization protection devices are frequently required. Pulsed-wave ultraviolet excimer laser light at 308 nm can vaporize thrombus, suppress platelet aggregation, and, unlike other thrombectomy devices, ablate the underlying plaque. The following multicenter registry was instituted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of laser ablation in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by persistent thrombotic occlusions. Patients with AMI and complete thrombotic occlusion of the infarct-related vessel were included in eight participating centers. Patients with further compromising conditions (i.e., cardiogenic shock, thrombolysis failures) were also included. Primary endpoint was procedural respective laser success; secondary combined endpoints were TIMI flow and % stenosis by quantitative coronary analysis and visual assessment at 1-month follow-up. Eighty-four percent of all patients enrolled (n = 56) had a very large thrombus burden (TIMI thrombus scale > or = 3), and 49% were compromised by complex clinical presentation, i.e., cardiogenic shock (21%), degenerated saphenous vein grafts (26%), or thrombolysis failures (5%). Laser success was achieved in 89%, angiographic success in 93%, and the overall procedural success rate was 86%. The angiographic prelaser total occlusion was reduced angiographically to 58% +/- 25% after laser treatment and to 4% +/- 13% final residual stenosis after adjunctive balloon angioplasty and/or stent placement. TIMI flow increased significantly from grade 0 to 2.7 +/- 0.5 following laser ablation (P < 0.001) and 3.0 +/- 0.2 upon completion of the angioplasty procedure (P > 0.001 vs. baseline). Distal embolizations occurred in 4%, no-reflow was observed in 2%, and perforations in 0.6% of cases

  18. Interventional Therapy for Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, Alan B.; Suarez, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) present with highly variable clinical symptoms and often have accompanying comorbidities. Timely diagnosis and treatment are critical to help prevent recurrence and increased morbidity/mortality. While open surgical thrombectomy was once reserved only for those with massive PE and hemodynamic compromise, it has been reevaluated with a focus on careful patient selection and early intervention. Lately, there has been increased interest in catheter-based interventions and in combining these with an open surgical component to decrease the magnitude of the intervention—for example, direct placement of large-bore thrombectomy devices directly into the right ventricle via sternotomy or subxiphoid approaches. In addition, improved diagnostic capabilities have allowed for expedited diagnosis and treatment of patients with life-threatening PE. At our institution, a hybrid room allows patients suspected of having a massive or submassive PE to undergo on-table contrast-enhanced cone-beam computed tomography scan, thus creating a high-resolution 3-dimensional image of the arterial system that can provide immediate guidance for therapeutic intervention. This review highlights the array of therapeutic options currently used in our armamentarium at the Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center and describes our development of a pulmonary angioplasty procedure that we believe will greatly facilitate selective thrombus removal in the acute PE setting. PMID:28289497

  19. Cerebral Venous Air Embolism due to a Hidden Skull Fracture Secondary to Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Hosaka, Ai; Yamaguchi, Tetsuto; Yamamoto, Fumiko; Shibagaki, Yasuro

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous air embolism is sometimes caused by head trauma. One of the paths of air entry is considered a skull fracture. We report a case of cerebral venous air embolism following head trauma. The patient was a 55-year-old man who fell and hit his head. A head computed tomography (CT) scan showed the air in the superior sagittal sinus; however, no skull fractures were detected. Follow-up CT revealed a fracture line in the right temporal bone. Cerebral venous air embolism following head trauma might have occult skull fractures even if CT could not show the skull fractures. PMID:26693366

  20. Coronary artery calcification is often not reported in pulmonary CT angiography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism: an opportunity to improve diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Connor; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Novelline, Robert A; Choy, Garry

    2014-04-01

    In patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), coronary artery calcification (CAC) can be an incidental finding on pulmonary CT angiography. We evaluated the frequency of CAC not being reported and its association with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data of 469 consecutive patients who were referred to the emergency radiology department for pulmonary CT angiography of suspected PTE were reviewed. Radiology reports were rechecked and positive CAC findings were recorded. All pulmonary CT angiograms were reevaluated by one radiologist and CAC findings were recorded. The rates of ACS and PTE as final diagnoses for that hospital admission were calculated. The association between CAC and ACS diagnosis was assessed in different subgroups of patients. Approximately 11.1% of patients had PTE and 43.8% had CAC. The incidence of CAC was significantly higher in patients with an ACS diagnosis than in those without ACS (56.2% vs 40.4%, respectively; odds ratio [OR] = 1.9). There was a strong positive association (OR = 3.5) between CAC and ACS in younger patients (men ≤ 45 years and women ≤ 55 years), patients without PTE (OR = 2.2), and those without cardiometabolic risk factors (OR = 3.8). CAC was not reported in 45% of patients (n = 98) with positive CAC findings on imaging. ACS was the final diagnosis in 31.6% of patients with unreported CAC. There was a significant association between CAC and ACS in patients with unreported CAC (OR = 2.2). This association was more prominent in the subgroups described. CAC is often not reported in pulmonary CT angiography studies. CAC is a significant predictor of ACS particularly in younger patients, patients without PTE, and those without cardiometabolic risk factors. Especially in these subgroups, radiologists should assess CAC findings.

  1. Voxelwise distribution of acute ischemic stroke lesions in patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation: Trigger of arrhythmia or only target of embolism?

    PubMed

    Rizos, Timolaos; Bartsch, Andreas J; Johnson, Timothy D; Dittgen, Felix; Nichols, Thomas E; Malzahn, Uwe; Veltkamp, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is frequently detected after ischemic stroke for the first time, and brain regions involved in autonomic control have been suspected to trigger AF. We examined whether specific brain regions are associated with newly detected AF after ischemic stroke. Patients with acute cerebral infarctions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were included in this lesion mapping study. Lesions were mapped and modeled voxelwise using Bayesian Spatial Generalised Linear Mixed Modeling to determine differences in infarct locations between stroke patients with new AF, without AF and with AF already known before the stroke. 582 patients were included (median age 68 years; 63.2% male). AF was present in 109/582 patients [(18.7%); new AF: 39/109 (35.8%), known AF: 70/109 (64.2%)]. AF patients had larger infarct volumes than patients without AF (mean: 29.7 ± 45.8 ml vs. 15.2 ± 35.1 ml; p<0.001). Lesions in AF patients accumulated in the right central middle cerebral artery territory. Increasing stroke size predicted progressive cortical but not pontine and thalamic involvement. Patients with new AF had more frequently lesions in the right insula compared to patients without AF when stroke size was not accounted for, but no specific brain region was more frequently involved after adjustment for infarct volume. Controlled for stroke size, left parietal involvement was less likely for patients with new AF than for those without AF or with known AF. In the search for brain areas potentially triggering cardiac arrhythmias infarct size should be accounted for. After controlling for infarct size, there is currently no evidence that ischemic stroke lesions of specific brain areas are associated with new AF compared to patients without AF. This challenges the neurogenic hypothesis of AF according to which a relevant proportion of new AF is triggered by ischemic brain lesions of particular locations.

  2. Voxelwise distribution of acute ischemic stroke lesions in patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation: Trigger of arrhythmia or only target of embolism?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Timothy D.; Dittgen, Felix; Nichols, Thomas E.; Malzahn, Uwe; Veltkamp, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Objective Atrial fibrillation (AF) is frequently detected after ischemic stroke for the first time, and brain regions involved in autonomic control have been suspected to trigger AF. We examined whether specific brain regions are associated with newly detected AF after ischemic stroke. Methods Patients with acute cerebral infarctions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were included in this lesion mapping study. Lesions were mapped and modeled voxelwise using Bayesian Spatial Generalised Linear Mixed Modeling to determine differences in infarct locations between stroke patients with new AF, without AF and with AF already known before the stroke. Results 582 patients were included (median age 68 years; 63.2% male). AF was present in 109/582 patients [(18.7%); new AF: 39/109 (35.8%), known AF: 70/109 (64.2%)]. AF patients had larger infarct volumes than patients without AF (mean: 29.7 ± 45.8 ml vs. 15.2 ± 35.1 ml; p<0.001). Lesions in AF patients accumulated in the right central middle cerebral artery territory. Increasing stroke size predicted progressive cortical but not pontine and thalamic involvement. Patients with new AF had more frequently lesions in the right insula compared to patients without AF when stroke size was not accounted for, but no specific brain region was more frequently involved after adjustment for infarct volume. Controlled for stroke size, left parietal involvement was less likely for patients with new AF than for those without AF or with known AF. Conclusions In the search for brain areas potentially triggering cardiac arrhythmias infarct size should be accounted for. After controlling for infarct size, there is currently no evidence that ischemic stroke lesions of specific brain areas are associated with new AF compared to patients without AF. This challenges the neurogenic hypothesis of AF according to which a relevant proportion of new AF is triggered by ischemic brain lesions of particular locations. PMID:28542605

  3. Efficacy and Limitations of Transarterial Acrylic Glue Embolization for Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    MIYAMOTO, Naoko; NAITO, Isao; SHIMIZU, Tatsuya; YOSHIMOTO, Yuhei

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy and limitations of transarterial acrylic glue embolization for the treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) were investigated. Thirty-four DAVFs treated by transarterial embolization using n-butyl cyanoacrylate were retrospectively reviewed. The locations of DAVFs were the transverse-sigmoid sinus in 11, tentorium in 10, cranial vault in 9, and superior sagittal sinus, jugular bulb, foramen magnum, and middle cranial fossa in 1 each. Borden classification was type I in 7, type II in 3, and type III in 24. Eight patients had undergone prior transvenous coil embolization. Complete obliteration rate was 56% immediately after embolization, 71% at follow-up angiography, and 85% after additional treatments (1 transvenous embolization and 4 direct surgery). Complications occurred in three patients, consisting of asymptomatic vessel perforations during cannulation in two patients and leakage of contrast medium resulting in medullary infarction in one patient. Transarterial glue embolization is highly effective for Borden type III DAVF with direct cortical venous drainage, but has limitations for Borden type I and II DAVFs in which the affected sinus is part of the normal venous circulation. Onyx is a new liquid embolic material and is becoming the treatment of choice for DAVF. The benefits of glue embolization compared to Onyx embolization are high thrombogenicity, and relatively low risks of cranial nerve palsies and of excessive migration into the draining veins of high flow fistula. Transarterial glue embolization continues to be useful for selected patients, and complete cure can be expected in most patients with fewer complications if combined with transvenous embolization or direct surgery. PMID:25746311

  4. Embolization for the treatment of intractable epistaxis: 12 month outcomes in a two centre case series.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Anthony E; McAuliffe, William; Phillips, Timothy J; Phatouros, Constantine C; Singh, Tejinder P

    2017-10-03

    Embolization is a treatment option for intractable epistaxis, however concerns regarding tissue necrosis, stroke and blindness persist in the literature. A retrospective review of patients from September 2010 - January 2016 treated with embolization for epistaxis was performed. No patient was excluded. Followup was 12 months and no patient was lost. 62 embolizations on 59 patients occurred. 21 cases were taking anticoagulants, P2Y12 inhibiting agents or had a systemic coagulopathy. Embolized territories typically involved bilateral distal internal maxillary arteries with unilateral or bilateral facial arteries with polyvinyl alcohol particles. 60 cases had procedural general anesthesia. There were no major complications. 6 died of unrelated causes. Of the surviving 53 patients, excluding the 3 patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, 5 had recurrent epistaxis post embolization. Four were taking P2Y12 inhibiting and/or anticoagulants, none of which required surgery, prolonged packing or repeat embolization. This group had a propensity to recur compared to cases taking aspirin only or no antiplatelet/anticoagulant (77.8% vs 97.1%, p=0.04). The fifth underwent repeat embolization after previously only having ipsilateral distal internal maxillary and facial arteries treated. Embolization for epistaxis is safe and effective. Of those who had recurrent epistaxis post embolization, most were taking P2Y12 inhibition and/or anticoagulation. We prefer bilateral distal internal maxillary artery and unilateral facial artery embolization under general anesthesia for optimal safety and efficacy. Advances in knowledge: Embolization with this technique seems to facilitate superior outcomes without complications despite the large proportion of patients taking anticoagulating or P2Y12 inhibiting agents.

  5. Reperfusion Hemorrhage Following Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Michael; McSweeney, Sean; Fulton, Gregory; Buckley, John; Maher, Michael Guiney, Michael

    2008-07-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  6. Relevance of surgery after embolization of gastrointestinal and abdominal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Gernot; Koch, Oliver Owen; Antoniou, Stavros A; Mayer, Franz; Lechner, Michael; Pallwein-Prettner, Leo; Emmanuel, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    Gastrointestinal and abdominal bleeding can lead to life-threatening situations. Embolization is considered a feasible and safe treatment option. The relevance of surgery has thus diminished in the past. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of surgery in the management of patients after embolization. We performed a retrospective single-center analysis of outcomes after transarterial embolization of acute abdominal and gastrointestinal hemorrhage between January 2009 and December 2012 at the Sisters of Charity Hospital, Linz. Patients were divided into three groups, as follows: upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB), and abdominal hemorrhage. Fifty-four patients with 55 bleeding events were included. The bleeding source could be localized angiographically in 80 %, and the primary clinical success rate of embolization was 81.8 % (45/55 cases). Early recurrent bleeding (<30 days) occurred in 18.2 % (10/55) of the patients, and delayed recurrent hemorrhage (>30 days) developed in 3.6 % (2/55). The mean follow-up was 8.4 months, and data were available for 85.2 % (46/54) of the patients. Surgery after embolization was required in 20.4 % of these patients (11/54). Failure to localize the bleeding site was identified as predictive of recurrent bleeding (p = 0.009). More than one embolization effort increased the risk of complications (p = 0.02) and rebleeding (p = 0.07). Surgery still has an important role after embolization in patients with gastrointestinal and abdominal hemorrhage. One of five patients required surgery in cases of early and delayed rebleeding or because of ischemic complications (2/55 both had ischemic damage of the gallbladder) and bleeding consequences.

  7. Superior early diagnostic performance of a sensitive cardiac troponin assay as compared to a standard troponin test in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Pracoń, Radosław; Kruk, Mariusz; Jakubczak, Barbara; Demkow, Marcin; Bilińska, Zofia T

    2012-01-01

    New generation cardiac troponin assays have sufficient precision to detect and quantify plasma troponin concentrations below the lower threshold of detection of the currently employed troponin tests. However, diagnostic performance of the newer generation assays in daily clinical practice is not well established. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of a sensitive assay as compared to a standard assay in a single reading at admission in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients presenting to the Emergency Department with chest pain. The study comprised 187 consecutive patients admitted to the Institute of Cardiology in Warsaw in June and July 2010 with chest pain in whom the attending physician ordered troponin assay to rule AMI in or out. In all of these patients, in addition to the standard Dimension Flex Troponin I (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc.) the sensitive Architect Stat Troponin I (Abbott Diagnostics) test was assayed. The triage of patients as well as all diagnostic and treatment decisions were left to the discretion of the attending physician who was blinded to the sensitive troponin test readings. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by a team of two cardiologists on the basis of all the available medical records except for sensitive troponin test results. Mean age of the study cohort (n = 187) was 64.3 ± 13.9 years and 119 (63.6%) were males. The final diagnosis of AMI was adjudicated in 84 (44.9%) patients (mean age 67.5 ± 12.9 years; 119 [63.6%] males). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed greater area under the curve (AUC) for the sensitive cardiac troponin assay compared to the standard assay (AUC = 0.916, 95% CI = 0.866-0.951 vs AUC = 0.863, 95% CI = 0.806-0.909, respectively; p = 0.02) in a single reading at admission. Sensitive assay was characterised by higher sensitivity (87%), specificity (88%), positive (86%) and negative (89%) predictive values in the detection of AMI compared to the standard

  8. Monitoring for suspected pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Capan, L M; Miller, S M

    2001-12-01

    It is fortunate that serious embolic phenomena are uncommon because, with the exception of neurosurgery in the sitting position and cardiac surgery, thoracic echocardiography and the precordial Doppler device, the most sensitive indicators of embolism, are seldom used. Vigilance is required of the anesthesiologist to recognize the rapid fall in end-tidal PCO2, the usual first indicator of a clinically significant PE. Any sudden deterioration in the patient's vital signs should include embolism in the differential diagnosis, particularly during procedures that carry a high risk of the complication.

  9. Partial splenic embolization to permit continuation of systemic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Luz, Jose Hugo M; Luz, Paula M; Marchiori, Edson; Rodrigues, Leonardo A; Gouveia, Hugo R; Martin, Henrique S; Faria, Igor M; Souza, Roberto R; Gil, Roberto de Almeida; Palladino, Alexandre de M; Pimenta, Karina B; de Souza, Henrique S

    2016-10-01

    Systemic chemotherapy treatments, commonly those that comprise oxaliplatin, have been linked to the appearance of distinctive liver lesions that evolves to portal hypertension, spleen enlargement, platelets sequestration, and thrombocytopenia. This outcome can interrupt treatment or force dosage reduction, decreasing efficiency of cancer therapy. We conducted a prospective phase II study for the evaluation of partial splenic embolization in patients with thrombocytopenia that impeded systemic chemotherapy continuation. From August 2014 through July 2015, 33 patients underwent partial splenic embolization to increase platelets count and allow their return to treatment. Primary endpoint was the accomplishment of a thrombocyte level superior to 130 × 10(9) /L and the secondary endpoints were the return to chemotherapy and toxicity. Partial splenic embolization was done 36 times in 33 patients. All patients presented gastrointestinal cancer and colorectal malignancy was the commonest primary site. An average of 6.4 cycles of chemotherapy was done before splenic embolization and the most common regimen was Folfox. Mean platelet count prior to embolization was 69 × 10(9) /L. A total of 94% of patients achieved primary endpoint. All patients in need reinitiated treatment and median time to chemotherapy return was 14 days. No grade 3 or above adverse events were identified. Aiming for a 50% to 70% infarction area may be sufficient to achieve success without the complications associated with more extensive infarction. Combined with the better safety profile, partial splenic embolization is an excellent option in the management of thrombocytopenia, enabling the resumption of systemic chemotherapy with minimal procedure-related morbidity. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Embolism of the humeral artery originating in a thrombosed axillo-femoral bypass].

    PubMed

    Barba, A; Escribano, J V; García-Alfageme, A

    1992-01-01

    A case of a patient, with acute arterial ischemia at the upper limb is reported. On this case, ischemia was caused by humeral arterial embolism. The embolic origin was focused on the proximal end of a thrombosed axillofemoral bypass. After a rude manipulation during surgical procedure, part of the thrombus, following the sanguineous current, occluded the humeral artery. Patient underwent an emergent surgery. Posterior course was good. Histology showed a re-epithelialized, ancient thrombus. Cardiologic studies and angiography showed no others embolic focuses.

  11. Repair of Traumatic Abdominal Aortic Pseudoaneurysm Using N-Butyl-2-Cyano-Acrylate Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio Tanihata, Hirohiko; Sahara, Shinya; Takasaka, Isao; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Nakai, Motoki

    2010-04-15

    Embolization using N-butyl-2-cyano-acrylate (NBCA) has been highly regarded for treating pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, and hemorrhage of the visceral arteries. We report the case of a patient who fell from a cliff and sustained hemorrhagic shock with blunt abdominal aortic rupture and who underwent embolization using NBCA. This treatment achieved immediate hemostasis and stabilization of vital signs. Although the long-term durability of NBCA is unknown, it appears that certain types of acute aortic hemorrhage with narrow-necked pseudoaneurysm can be controlled by embolization using NBCA.

  12. New onset right ventricular enlargement in recent dyspnea: Is echocardiography enough for a diagnosis of pulmonary thrombo-embolism?

    PubMed

    De Gennaro, Luisa; Giannoccaro, Viviana; Lopriore, Vincenzo; Caldarola, Pasquale; Lentini, Salvatore; Di Biase, Matteo; Brunetti, Natale Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism may be often promptly diagnosed just by bedside echocardiography, in the case of new onset severe right ventricular enlargement, increased pulmonary pressure and dyspnea. However, CT confirmation could be required in the presence of contrasting findings during diagnostic work up. We report the case of a 79-year old woman who presented with acute dyspnea, right ventricular enlargement and leftward septal shift. Despite first diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, an irregular mass was detected at CT scan in mid left lung, apparently infiltrating left pulmonary artery branches, without signs of evident pulmonary thrombo-embolism. Visceral pleural and lymphonodular infiltration suspected for malignancy was also present. We hypothesize that acutely increased pulmonary pressures and enlarged right ventricle were caused by the infiltrating pulmonary mass, presumably a lung tumor, partly involving left pulmonary artery branches and by tumor pulmonary embolism. A diagnosis of pulmonary thrombo-embolism exclusively based on echocardiography may be occasionally misleading without a careful diagnostic work-up.

  13. Onyx Embolization of Intracranial Pial Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae-Min; Kim, Ki-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare cerebrovascular lesions consisting of one or more arterial connections to a single venous channel without an intervening nidus. Because of the location and high flow dynamics of these lesions, neurosurgeons may have a difficulty deciding between endovascular treatment and open surgical treatment. We report on a patient who underwent endovascular treatment with liquid embolic agent. A 50-year-old man with a decreased mental state and a tonic seizure event was brought to our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain showed a subcortical hematoma in the right temporoparietal lobe. On three-dimensional cerebral artery CT, there was no evidence of definite cerebrovascular abnormality. Cerebral angiography showed a pial AVF supplied by the right middle cerebral artery with early drainage into the right superior cerebral vein. The patient was treated with Onyx embolization for definitive closure of the fistula. The patient was transferred to the department of rehabilitation medicine two weeks later with grade 4 left hemiparesis. The application of advanced equipment, such as the latest angiography and endovascular tools, will facilitate the correct diagnosis and delicate treatment of pial AVF. PMID:27847777

  14. Renal infarction caused by paradoxical embolism through a patent foramen ovale

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyemin; Woo Lee, Hyun; Young Joung, Ji; Young Cho, Yoon; Je, Dongmo; Huh, Kyungmin; Ryoun Jang, Hye; Huh, Wooseong

    2012-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with acute right flank pain. A computed tomography scan revealed right renal infarction. Because he had no thrombosis in the renal vessels and no clear embolic source, a further examination was performed to find the cause of the renal infarction. On transesophageal echocardiography, a right-to-left shunt during the Valsalva maneuver established a diagnosis of patent foramen ovale. This is a case of paradoxical embolism through a PFO leading to renal infarction. PMID:26889422

  15. Multiple Intrahepatic Artery Aneurysms in a Patient with Behcet's Disease: Use of Transcatheter Embolization for Rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Irfan; Fotiadis, Nikolas I. Dilks, Phil; Kocher, Hemant M.; Fotheringham, Tim; Matson, Matthew

    2010-04-15

    Intrahepatic artery aneuryms are a rare and potentially life-threatening condition. We present the first case in the English literature of multiple intrahepatic artery aneuryms in a patient with Behcet's disease who presented acutely with rupture. The ruptured aneurysm was treated successfully with transcatheter arterial coil embolization-CT and clinical follow-up confirming a good result. We discuss the management dilemma with regard to prophylactic embolization of the numerous other small asymptomatic intrahepatic aneurysms in this same patient.

  16. Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nakia N; Toledo, Alexander; Endom, Erin E

    2010-12-01

    This article discusses pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pulmonary embolism in pediatric practice. Although children appear to have better outcomes than adults, the risk factors are substantial. Topics covered include the pathophysiology incidence, presentation, diagnosis, and management of these diseases.

  17. Digital infarction in a hemodialysis patient due to embolism from a thrombosed brachial arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Yj, Anupama

    2015-10-01

    Acute onset of digital ischemia and infarction is an unusual complication in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This is a report of a patient on regular hemodialysis who presented with acute distal extremity ischemia, progressing to digital infarction and on evaluation was found to have thrombosis of brachial arteriovenous fistula with embolization to the distal arteries causing digital artery occlusion.

  18. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization.

  19. Diagnostic value of gas exchange tests in patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Prediletto, Renato; Miniati, Massimo; Tonelli, Lucia; Formichi, Bruno; Di Ricco, Giorgio; Marini, Carlo; Bauleo, Carolina; Allescia, Germana; Cocci, Franca; Monti, Simonetta; Pistolesi, Massimo; Giuntini, Carlo

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of parameters derived from arterial blood gas tests in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Method: We measured alveolar-arterial partial pressure of oxygen [P(A–a)O2] gradient, PaO2 and arterial partial pressure of carbon diaxide (PaCO2) in 773 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism who were enrolled in the Prospective Investigative Study of Acute Pulmonary Embolism. Diagnosis: The study design required pulmonary angiography in all patients with abnormal perfusion scans. Results: Of 773 scans, 270 were classified as normal/near-normal and 503 as abnormal. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed by pulmonary angiography in 312 of 503 patients with abnormal scans. Of 312 patients with pulmonary embolism, 12, 14 and 35% had normal P(A–a)O2, PaO2 and PaCO2, respectively. Of 191 patients with abnormal scans and negative angiograms, 11, 13 and 55% had normal P(A–a)O2, PaO2 and PaCO2, respectively. The proportions of patients with normal/near-normal scans who had normal P(A–a)O2, PaO2 and PaCO2 were 20, 25 and 37%, respectively. No differences were observed in the mean values of arterial blood gas data between patients with pulmonary embolism and those who had abnormal scans and negative angiograms. Among the 773 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism, 364 (47%) had prior cardiopulmonary disease. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 151 (41%) of 364 patients with prior cardiopulmonary disease, and in 161 (39%) of 409 patients without prior cardiopulmonary disease. Among patients with pulmonary embolism, there was no difference in arterial blood gas data between patients with and those without prior CPD. Conclusion: These data indicate that arterial blood gas tests are of limited value in the diagnostic work-up of pulmonary embolism if they are not interpreted in conjunction with clinical and other laboratory tests. PMID:11056733

  20. The diagnosis and management of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Abunasser, Jafar; Tejada, John Patrick; Foley, Raymond J

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE), most commonly originating from thrombosis in the deep venous system of the lower extremities, remains a controversial area of medicine that frequently generates lively debate. Its clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic, incidentally detected pulmonary emboli to massive embolism resulting in sudden death. Despite the advances made in recent years, a number of fundamental questions remain unanswered regarding the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of this disease. The diagnosis of PE is confounded by a presentation that may be subtle, atypical, or obscured by a concomitant condition. Safe, minimally invasive techniques have been developed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the clinical evaluation, and obviate the need to obtain pulmonary arteriography in all but a minority of patients. However, no single diagnostic test is sufficiently sensitive or specific for diagnosis in all patients. This dilemma has resulted in the development of numerous clinical scoring systems to stratify risk, pretest probability and help guide an appropriate diagnostic approach. Anticoagulation therapy with unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and Factor Xa inhibitors are the mainstay of therapy for acute PE. The choice of agent is influenced by disease severity, presence or absence of provokingfactors, patient comorbidities, and bleeding risk. These factors also determine whether measures such as thrombectomy, thrombolysis and vena cava filter placement may be employed as adjuncts to anticoagulation. Warfarin is the agent of choice for secondary prevention; newer agents such as direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors are emerging as safe and effective alternatives.

  1. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed Ahmed, Magdy M; Aftab, Muhammad; Al-Najjar, Raed M; de la Cruz, Kim I; Benjamin, Robert S; Hallman, Charles H

    2014-10-01

    Primary sarcomas that arise from major blood vessels are exceedingly rare, and some of the published cases have been autopsy reports. Most patients are adults. We report a case of pulmonary artery sarcoma in a 77-year-old man who presented with acute onset of dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed a large mass within the pulmonary trunk and its main branches. Because massive pulmonary embolism was suspected, both anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapies were initiated. The patient responded poorly to these therapies, which then necessitated resection of both the mass and the pulmonary valve. A bioprosthetic porcine valve replaced the native valve, and we reconstructed the right ventricular outflow tract with a Dacron patch. Histopathologic examination revealed a high-grade sarcoma with focal myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 7. He was subsequently treated with chemotherapy and radiation and continued to show no evidence of disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma should be suspected in patients who present with manifestations of pulmonary embolism, especially when there is no evidence of deep venous thrombosis and poor response to anticoagulant therapy. Multimodal therapy can provide prolonged survival.

  2. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Mimicking Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Aftab, Muhammad; Al-Najjar, Raed M.; de la Cruz, Kim I.; Benjamin, Robert S.; Hallman, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Primary sarcomas that arise from major blood vessels are exceedingly rare, and some of the published cases have been autopsy reports. Most patients are adults. We report a case of pulmonary artery sarcoma in a 77-year-old man who presented with acute onset of dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed a large mass within the pulmonary trunk and its main branches. Because massive pulmonary embolism was suspected, both anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapies were initiated. The patient responded poorly to these therapies, which then necessitated resection of both the mass and the pulmonary valve. A bioprosthetic porcine valve replaced the native valve, and we reconstructed the right ventricular outflow tract with a Dacron patch. Histopathologic examination revealed a high-grade sarcoma with focal myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 7. He was subsequently treated with chemotherapy and radiation and continued to show no evidence of disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma should be suspected in patients who present with manifestations of pulmonary embolism, especially when there is no evidence of deep venous thrombosis and poor response to anticoagulant therapy. Multimodal therapy can provide prolonged survival. PMID:25425986

  3. Emborrhoid: A New Concept for the Treatment of Hemorrhoids with Arterial Embolization: The First 14 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, V.; Sapoval, M.; Sielezneff, Y.; Parades, V. De; Tradi, F. Louis, G. Bartoli, J. M.; Pellerin, O.

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThe ‘emborrhoid’ technique consists of the embolization of the hemorrhoidal arteries. The endovascular arterial occlusion is performed using coils placed in the terminal branches of the superior rectal arteries. The emborrhoid technique has been modeled after elective transanal Doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation which has been shown to be effective in hemorrhoidal disease. We report the first 14 cases of our experience with emborrhoid technique.Materials and MethodsFourteen patients with disabling chronic rectal bleeding were treated using the emborrhoid technique (3 women, 11 men). The stage of the hemorrhoidal disease was II (10 patients), III (3), and IV (1). This treatment was decided by a multidisciplinary team (proctologist, visceral surgeon, and radiologist). Seven patients underwent previous proctological surgery. Ten patients had coagulation disorders (anticoagulants or cirrhosis). Superior rectal arteries were embolized with pushable microcoils (0.018).ResultsTechnical success of the embolization procedure was 100 %. Clinical success at 1 month was 72 % (10/14). Of the 4 patients who experienced rebleeding, two underwent additional embolization of the posterior rectal arteries with success. No pain or ischemic complications were observed in 13 patients. One patient experienced a temporary painful and edematous, perianal reaction.ConclusionOur case studies suggest that coil embolization of the superior rectal arteries is technically feasible, safe and well tolerated. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this new ‘emborrhoid’ technique in the management of hemorrhoidal disease.

  4. Massive Lower Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage from the Surgical Anastomosis in Patients with Multiorgan Trauma: Treatment by Subselective Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Bulakbasi, Nail; Kurtaran, Kemal; Ustuensoez, Bahri; Somuncu, Ibrahim

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of subselective arterial embolization with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles with or without microcoil augmentation to control postoperative lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Methods: Ten patients with clinical, scintigraphic, and angiographic evidence of postoperative lower GI bleeding were considered for subselective embolization. Subselective embolizations were performed through coaxial microcatheters with 355-500 {mu}m PVA particles with or without additional coil embolization. Results: Embolization was technically successful in 9 of 10 (90%) patients. In one patient, subselective embolization was not possible; consequently no embolization was performed. Clinical success was achieved after a single embolization in 6 of 10 (60%) patients and after a second embolization in an additional 3 of the 10 (30%) patients. While there was no rebleeding in patients with normal coagulation parameters, all three patients (100%) with coagulopathy rebled, two of them from another source. Although no acute ischemic effects developed, no long-term sequela such as ischemic stricture were specifically looked for. Seven patients developed abdominal discomfort and/or fever within 24-48 hr. Four of 10 patients died of complications other than hemorrhage or ischemia. Conclusion: Subselective PVA embolization with or without a microcoil embolization is an effective and safe means of managing postoperative lower GI hemorrhage in patients with multiorgan trauma.

  5. Amniotic fluid embolism

    PubMed Central

    Rudra, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Sengupta, S.; Nandi, B.; Mitra, J.

    2009-01-01

    The disastrous entry of amniotic fluid into the maternal circulation leads to dramatic sequelae of clinical events, characteristically referred to as Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE). The underlying mechanism for AFE is still poorly understood. Unfortunately, this situation has very grave maternal and fetal consequences. AFE can occur during labor, caesarean section, dilatation and evacuation or in the immediate postpartum period. The pathophysiology is believed to be immune mediated which affects the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological and hematological systems. Undetected and untreated it culminates into fulminant pulmonary edema, intractable convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), malignant arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Definite diagnosis can be confirmed by identification of lanugo, fetal hair and fetal squamous cells (squames) in blood aspirated from the right ventricle. Usually the diagnosis is made clinically and by exclusion of other causes. The cornerstone of management is a multidisciplinary approach with supportive treatment of failing organs systems. Despite improved modalities for diagnosing AFE, and better intensive care support facilities, the mortality is still high. PMID:20040809

  6. Cardiac septic pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xin yu; Li, Shan; Cao, Jian; Xu, Kai; Huang, Hui; Xu, Zuo jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on the source of the embolus, septic pulmonary embolism (SPE) can be classified as cardiac, peripheral endogenous, or exogenous. Cardiac SPEs are the most common. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 20 patients with cardiac SPE hospitalized between 1991 and 2013 at a Chinese tertiary referral hospital. The study included 14 males and 6 females with a median age of 38.1 years. Fever (100%), cough (95%), hemoptysis (80%), pleuritic chest pain (80%), heart murmur (80%), and moist rales (75%) were common clinical manifestations. Most patients had a predisposing condition: congenital heart disease (8 patients) and an immunocompromised state (5 patients) were the most common. Staphylococcal (8 patients) and Streptococcal species (4 patients) were the most common causative pathogens. Parenchymal opacities, nodules, cavitations, and pleural effusions were the most common manifestations observed via computed tomography (CT). All patients exhibited significant abnormalities by echocardiography, including 15 patients with right-sided vegetations and 4 with double-sided vegetations. All patients received parenteral antimicrobial therapy as an initial treatment. Fourteen patients received cardiac surgery, and all survived. Among the 6 patients who did not undergo surgery, only 1 survived. Most patients in our cardiac SPE cohort had predisposing conditions. Although most exhibited typical clinical manifestations and radiography, they were nonspecific. For suspected cases of SPE, blood culture, echocardiography, and CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) are important measures to confirm an early diagnosis. Vigorous early therapy, including appropriate antibiotic treatment and timely cardiac surgery to eradicate the infective source, is critical. PMID:27336870

  7. [Pulmonary Embolism in Portugal: Epidemiology and In-Hospital Mortality].

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Miguel; Pinheiro, Luís; Costa, João; Borges, Margarida

    2016-08-01

    In Portugal, the epidemiology of acute pulmonary embolism is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to characterize the pulmonary embolism from the hospital data and evaluate its in-hospital mortality and respective prognostic factors. The study used diagnostic related groups data from National Health System hospitals from 2003 to 2013 and National Statistics Institute population data to establish the evolution of admissions with the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, their inhospital mortality rates and the population incidence rates. Diagnosis-related group microdata were used in a logit regression modeling in-hospital mortality as a function of individual characteristics and context variables. Between 2003 and 2013 there were 35,200 episodes of hospitalization in patients with 18 or more years in which one of the diagnoses was pulmonary embolism (primary diagnosis in 67% of cases). The estimated incidence rate in 2013 was 35/100,000 population (≥ 18 years). Between 2003 and 2013, the annual number of episodes kept increasing, but the in-hospital mortality rate decreased (from 31.8% to 17% for all cases and from 25% to 11.2% when pulmonary embolism was the main diagnosis). The probability of death decreases when there is a computerized tomography scan registry or when patients are females and increases with age and the presence of co-morbidities. In the last decade there was an increased incidence of pulmonary embolism likely related to an increased number of dependents and bedridden. However, there was a in-hospital mortality reduction of such size that the actual mortality in the general population was reduced. One possible explanation is that there has been an increase in episodes of pulmonary embolism with incrementally lower levels of severity, due to the greater capacity of diagnosis of less severe cases. Another possible explanation is greater effectiveness of hospital care. According to the logistic regression analysis, improvements in hospital care

  8. A case of panic to pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Mansum; Pandya, Nikila; Conry, Brendon; Gale, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a rare paediatric diagnosis, but its presence is likely to be underestimated due to the subtle and non-specific nature of its symptoms. Common clinical features of PE include shortness of breath, pleuritic chest pain and acute cardiovascular collapse. Less common symptoms can include persistent unexplained tachycardia, fever or deep vein thrombosis. Rarely do patients present with abdominal pain and self-resolving shortness of breath; symptoms our patient experienced. However, in contrast to popular belief, having normal vital signs does not necessarily lower the probability of PE. D-dimer, a specific fibrin degradation product, has a good negative predictive value for venous thromboembolism diagnosis but its use in children is less clear, with up to 40% of children with PE having a normal D-dimer level. CT pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard in diagnosis. PMID:26071441

  9. A case of panic to pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Ng, Mansum; Pandya, Nikila; Conry, Brendon; Gale, Richard

    2015-06-12

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a rare paediatric diagnosis, but its presence is likely to be underestimated due to the subtle and non-specific nature of its symptoms. Common clinical features of PE include shortness of breath, pleuritic chest pain and acute cardiovascular collapse. Less common symptoms can include persistent unexplained tachycardia, fever or deep vein thrombosis. Rarely do patients present with abdominal pain and self-resolving shortness of breath; symptoms our patient experienced. However, in contrast to popular belief, having normal vital signs does not necessarily lower the probability of PE. D-dimer, a specific fibrin degradation product, has a good negative predictive value for venous thromboembolism diagnosis but its use in children is less clear, with up to 40% of children with PE having a normal D-dimer level. CT pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard in diagnosis.

  10. New developments and future challenges of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging for pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Robin, Philippe; Salaun, Pierre-Yves

    2017-06-27

    Although widely validated, current tests for pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosis, i.e. computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and V/Q planar scintigraphy, have some limitations. Drawbacks of CTPA include the radiation dose, some contra indications and a rising concern about a possible overdiagnosis/overtreatment of PE. On the other hand, V/Q planar scintigraphy has a high rate of non-diagnostic tests responsible for complex diagnostic algorithms. Since the PIOPED study, imaging equipment and radiopharmaceuticals have greatly evolved allowing the introduction of techniques that improve imaging of lung ventilation and perfusion. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SPECT/CT techniques are already largely used in daily practice and have been described to have greater diagnostic performance and much fewer non-diagnostic tests as compared with planar scintigraphy. However, they have not yet been firmly validated in large scale prospective outcome studies. More recently, it has also been proposed to image pulmonary perfusion and ventilation using positron emission tomography (PET), which has an inherent technical superiority as compared to conventional scintigraphy and may provide new insight for pulmonary embolism. Regardless of modality, these new thoracic imaging modalities have to be integrated into diagnostic strategies. The other major challenge for venous thromboembolism diagnosis may be the potential additional value of molecular imaging allowing specific targeting of thrombi in order, for example, to differentiate venous thromboembolism from tumor or septic thrombus, or acute from residual disease. In this article, the new imaging procedures of lung ventilation perfusion imaging with SPECT, SPECT/CT and PET/CT are discussed. We also review the current status and future challenge of molecular imaging for the in vivo characterization of venous thromboembolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Embolization of Life-Threatening Arterial Rupture in Patients with Vascular Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takuya; Frank, Michael; Pellerin, Olivier Primio, Massimiliano Di Angelopoulos, Georgios; Boughenou, Marie-Fazia; Pagny, Jean-Yves; Messas, Emmanuel; Sapoval, Marc

    2013-05-09

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety and efficacy of transarterial embolization of life-threatening arterial rupture in patients with vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) in a single tertiary referral center.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed transarterial embolization for vEDS performed at our institution from 2000 to 2012. The indication of embolization was spontaneous arterial rupture or pseudoaneurysm with acute bleeding. All interventions used a percutaneous approach through a 5F or less introducer sheath. Embolic agents were microcoils and glue in 3 procedures, glue alone in 2, and microcoils alone in 2.ResultsFive consecutive vEDS patients were treated by 7 embolization procedures (4 women, mean age 29.8 years). All procedures were successfully performed. Two patients required a second procedure for newly arterial lesions at a different site from the first procedure. Four of the five patients were still alive after a mean follow-up of 19.4 (range 1–74.7) months. One patient died of multiple organ failure 2 days after procedure. Minor procedural complications were observed in 3 procedures (43 %), all directly managed during the same session. Remote arterial lesions occurred after 3 procedures (43 %); one underwent a second embolization, and the other 2 were observed conservatively. Puncture site complication was observed in only one procedure (14 %).ConclusionEmbolization for vEDS is a safe and effective method to manage life-threatening arterial rupture.

  12. [Experimental studies of segmental hepatic artery embolization with a super absorbent embolic agent].

    PubMed

    Inoue, E; Hori, S; Narumi, Y; Fujita, M; Ishiguro, S; Kuroda, C

    1990-11-25

    Super absorbent (Sumikagel) is a unique polymer mainly composed of polysodium acrylate (PSA). When PSA contacts water, it absorbs water and swells in a few seconds. This new embolic material suspended in Lipiodol (Lp-PSA), was used for hepatic artery embolization in five dogs. The purpose of this study is to examine the necrotizing effect of the new embolic material on segmental hepatic artery embolization. Gross liver examination demonstrated congestion and segmental infarction within the embolized area, and microscopically focal necrosis of liver parenchyma was observed. Segmental hepatic artery embolization with Lp-PSA should be an effective method of hepatic tumor embolization.

  13. Cerebral embolic stroke after disappearing takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Matsuzono, Kosuke; Ikeda, Yoshio; Deguchi, Shoko; Yamashita, Toru; Kurata, Tomoko; Deguchi, Kentaro; Abe, Koji

    2013-11-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy can induce cerebral embolic stroke because of intracardiac thrombosis, but the timing of cardiogenic embolism relating to takotsubo cardiomyopathy has not been well described. We evaluated a 71-year-old woman with takotsubo cardiomyopathy, who developed cardiogenic cerebral embolism after recovery of cardiac wall motion. Nevertheless, we treated her with anticoagulation therapy. The present clinical observation suggests that attention should be paid to the timing when takotsubo cardiomyopathy resolves against risk of cardiogenic cerebral embolism.

  14. Paradoxical emboli from left superior vena cava causing recurrent brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, J K; Soon, J L; Lim, C H

    2012-01-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava is a rare but well-recognised condition. We describe a case of persistent left superior vena cava draining directly into the left atrium, with a fixed anatomical right-to-left shunt and paradoxical embolic events causing recurrent brain abscess. Surgical ligation was curative.

  15. Microballoon Occlusion Test to Predict Colonic Ischemia After Transcatheter Embolization of a Ruptured Aneurysm of the Middle Colic Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Inokuchi, Hiroyuki; Irie, Hiroyuki; Nishie, Akihiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ishigami, Kousei; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Daisuke; Honda, Hiroshi; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Morita, Masaru; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2008-07-15

    A 76-year-old woman presented with sudden massive melena, and superior mesenteric arteriography showed an aneurysm in the middle colic artery (MCA). Because she had a history of right hemicolectomy and ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) during open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, embolization of the MCA aneurysm was considered to pose a risk comparable to that of colonic ischemia. A microballoon occlusion test during occlusion of the MCA confirmed retrograde visualization of the IMA branches through the collateral arteries by way of the left internal iliac artery, and embolization was successfully performed using microcoils. No colonic ischemia or aneurysm rupture occurred after embolization.

  16. Unusual forms of peripheral arterial embolization.

    PubMed

    Lazar, D; Slobodan, L; Maja, E; Marija, H; Stana, R; Vesna, C; Miljko, R

    1994-06-01

    Two cases of unusual forms of peripheral arterial embolization are presented. One had a septic embolization with necrosis of the popliteal artery due to subacute bacterial endocarditis and the other had a malignant embolization of the abdominal aorta bifurcation due to lung tumor. Both underwent successful surgical treatment.

  17. Reflex Anuria After Renal Tumor Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Kervancioglu, Selim Sirikci, Akif; Erbagci, Ahmet

    2007-04-15

    We report a case of reflex anuria after transarterial embolization of a renal tumor. Anuria developed immediately after embolization and resolved 74 hr following the procedure. We postulate that reflux anuria in our case was related to mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, or both, as these are stimulated by the occluded blood vessels, ischemia, and edema of the normal renal tissue of an embolized kidney.

  18. Embolization of Iatrogenic Vascular Injuries of Renal Transplants: Immediate and Follow-Up Results

    SciTech Connect

    Dorffner, Roland; Thurnher, Siegfried; Prokesch, Rupert; Bankier, Alexander; Turetschek, Karl; Schmidt, Alice; Lammer, Johannes

    1998-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome in seven patients in whom iatrogenic vascular complications were treated with catheter embolization. Methods: Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula in six of the seven patients, a pseudoaneurysm in three patients, and an arteriocaliceal fistula in three patients. Embolization was performed with GAW coils or microcoils in all cases. In three patients enbucrilate, polyvinyl alcohol, or absorbable gelatin powder was administered as an adjunct to the coils. Results: Angiographic success with total occlusion of the vascular injury was achieved in five of the seven patients and clinical success was achieved in four of seven cases. In two cases, nephrectomy after embolization was necessary because of renal artery occlusion or acute hemorrhage at the renal artery anastomosis, respectively. Infarction of 30%-50% of the renal parenchyma was seen in two cases. Conclusion: Angiographically successful embolization is not necessarily associated with clinical success. The complication rate is high.

  19. Trauma-associated bleeding from the bilateral internal iliac arteries resolved using angiographic embolization.

    PubMed

    Aygün, Ali; Karaca, Yunus; Ayan, Emin; Suha, Türkmen; Dinç, Hasan

    2013-11-01

    Pelvic fracture is associated with high mortality. The management of major pelvic injuries remains one of the most important issues in modern trauma care. A 39-year-old male patient presented at the emergency department after being hit with a 500 kg load. His general condition was average with unstable vital signs. Pelvic tomography revealed fractured bone structure, thickening secondary to hematoma in both iliopsoas muscles, and hemorrhage-related active extravasation in the left internal iliac trace. The patient's hemodynamics worsened despite fluid and blood replacement, and angiographic embolization was scheduled. Bilateral embolization of the iliac artery was performed. Control angiography confirmed that full embolization was established. The patient was monitored in intensive care, but expired after three days due to acute kidney failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and multi-organ failure. Angiographic embolization is a technique improves hemorrhage control in pelvic trauma but can also increase risk of complications such as ischemia and necrosis.

  20. Resuscitation of prolonged cardiac arrest from massive pulmonary embolism by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Seok; Choi, Wookjin; Hwang, Jaecheol

    2017-01-10

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be used as a rescue strategy in cases of prolonged cardiac arrest caused by massive pulmonary embolism. We present a case of a male patient who was in prolonged cardiac arrest following massive pulmonary embolism. Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated approximately 93 min after prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. After resuscitation, bedside echocardiography and a chest computed tomography angiogram revealed a massive pulmonary embolism during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. The patient received transcatheter mechanical thrombectomy without haemodynamic instability in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. He was also treated with therapeutic hypothermia to improve neurological outcome. Renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury was continued for 36 days. The patient was discharged at 60 days after admission with no serious complications. This case demonstrates that veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and therapeutic hypothermia are an effective treatment strategy for prolonged cardiac arrest caused by massive pulmonary embolism.

  1. Successful Embolization of a Spontaneous Mesocaval Shunt Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II

    SciTech Connect

    Boixadera, Helena; Tomasello, Alejandro; Quiroga, Sergi; Cordoba, Joan; Perez, Mercedes; Segarra, Antoni

    2010-10-15

    A 48-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy was found to have a large, spontaneous mesocaval shunt. The shunt was successfully occluded with the use of an Amplatzer Vascular Plug. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of this device to embolize a mesocaval shunt involving the superior mesenteric vein.

  2. Pulmonary Embolism Following Outpatient Vasectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Frank E.; Farooqi, Bilal; Moore, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic events have several known major risk factors such as prolonged immobilization or major surgery. Pulmonary embolism has rarely been reported after an outpatient vasectomy was completed. We present the rare case of a healthy 32-year-old Caucasian male with no known risk factors who presented with pleuritic chest pain 26 days after his outpatient vasectomy was performed. Subsequently, he was found to have a pulmonary embolism as per radiological imaging. We explore the association between outpatient vasectomies and venous thromboembolic events. A review of the literature is also included. PMID:26989373

  3. Utility and prevalence of imaging for underlying cancer in unprovoked pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Homewood, R; Medford, A R

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines state that patients over 40 years of age with a first unprovoked pulmonary embolism should be offered limited screening for possible cancer and considered for intensive screening (abdomino-pelvic computed tomography and mammography), despite no evidence for the latter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility and cost of intensive screening in routine clinical practice. Methods All patients diagnosed with a first unprovoked pulmonary embolism between January 2014 and June 2014 in a single large UK teaching hospital were included. The information management department searched for patients with an International Classification of Diseases 10 discharge diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and limited to 'acute pulmonary embolism with/without cor pulmonale'. Only patients with unprovoked pulmonary embolism were included. Patients with chronic medical conditions predisposing to pulmonary embolism were excluded. NHS costs were obtained from the Trust Finance Department. These costs were used to generate the costs of limited versus intensive screening, and then scaled up using adult population census information and assuming the same incidence of idiopathic pulmonary embolism to estimate the annual NHS cost of intensive screening. Results Ninety-two patients were diagnosed with pulmonary embolism, and 25 met the inclusion criteria. Clinical examination was often incomplete (84%). Limited screening was often missed (urinalysis 100%, serum calcium 64%). Intensive screening was performed in the majority of cases (68%, all abdomino-pelvic computed tomography with no cancer detected) with an £88 excess cost per patient. Conclusion Intensive screening in first unprovoked pulmonary embolism has a low yield, is costly and should not replace thorough clinical examination and basic screening.

  4. Intravenous diltiazem is superior to intravenous amiodarone or digoxin for achieving ventricular rate control in patients with acute uncomplicated atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Siu, Chung-Wah; Lau, Chu-Pak; Lee, Wai-Luen; Lam, Kwok-Fai; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2009-07-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy of intravenous diltiazem, digoxin, and amiodarone for acute ventricular rate (VR) control in patients with acute symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) necessitating hospitalization. Randomized control trial. Acute emergency medical admission unit in a regional teaching hospital in Hong Kong. One hundred fifty adult patients with acute AF and rapid VR (>120 bpm). Patients were randomly assigned in 1:1:1 ratio to receive intravenous diltiazem, digoxin, or amiodarone for VR control. The primary end point was sustained VR control (<90 bpm) within 24 hours; the secondary end points included AF symptom improvement and length of hospitalization. At 24 hours, VR control was achieved in 119 of 150 patients (79%). The time to VR control was significantly shorter among patients in the diltiazem group (log-rank test, p < 0.0001) with the percentage of patients who achieved VR control being higher in the diltiazem group (90%) than the digoxin group (74%) and the amiodarone group (74%). The median time to VR control was significantly shorter in the diltiazem group (3 hours, 1-21 hours) compared with the digoxin (6 hours, 3-15 hours, p < 0.001) and amiodarone groups (7 hours, 1-18 hours, p = 0.003). Furthermore, patients in the diltiazem group persistently had the lowest mean VR after the first hour of drug administration compared with the other two groups (p < 0.05). The diltiazem group had the largest reduction in AF symptom frequency score and severity score (p < 0.0001). In addition, length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the diltiazem group (3.9 +/- 1.6 days) compared with digoxin (4.7 +/- 2.1 days, p = 0.023) and amiodarone groups (4.7 +/- 2.2 days, p = 0.038). As compared with digoxin and amiodarone, intravenous diltiazem was safe and effective in achieving VR control to improve symptoms and to reduce hospital stay in patients with acute AF.

  5. Dextran reduces embolic signals after carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Levi, C R; Stork, J L; Chambers, B R; Abbott, A L; Cameron, H M; Peeters, A; Royle, J P; Roberts, A K; Fell, G; Hoare, M C; Chan, A T; Donnan, G A

    2001-10-01

    One hundred fifty patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were randomly assigned to receive intravenous 10% dextran 40 or placebo. Transcranial Doppler monitoring of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery 0 to 1 hour postoperatively detected embolic signals in 57% of placebo and 42% of dextran patients, with overall embolic signal counts 46% less for dextran (p = 0.052). Two to 3 hours postoperatively, embolic signals were present in 45% of placebo and 27% of dextran patients, with embolic signal counts 64% less for dextran (p = 0.040). We conclude that dextran reduces embolic signals within 3 hours of CEA.

  6. Endovascular Management of Visceral Artery Pseudoaneurysms: Transcatheter Coil Embolization Using the Isolation Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osamu Nakasone, Yutaka; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2010-12-15

    PurposeTo describe our experiences with treatment of visceral artery pseudoaneurysms (VAPA) by transcatheter coil embolization using an isolation technique and to propose indications for treating VAPA with this method.Materials and MethodsWe treated 37 patients with VAPA endovascularly: There were 15 pancreaticoduodenal arcade, 10 hepatic, 5 renal, 3 splenic, and 1 each left gastric, gastroepiploic, adrenal, and superior mesenteric artery pseudoaneurysms. Preprocedure computed tomography (CT) and/or angiographic studies confirmed the presence of VAPA in all 37 patients. Using the isolation technique, we embolized vessels at sites distal and proximal to the pseudoaneurysm.ResultsTranscatheter coil embolization with the isolation technique was technically successful in 33 (89%) of 37 patients, and angiogram confirmed the complete disappearance of the VAPA in 32 patients. No major complications occurred during the procedures. In a patient with a pancreaticoduodenal arcade artery pseudoaneurysm, we were unable to control hemorrhage. In 30 of 32 patients who recovered after transcatheter coil embolization using the isolation technique, follow-up CT scan showed no flow in VAPA; they survived without rebleeding. Two of the 32 patients (6%) with confirmed complete disappearance of VAPA on angiogram and CT scan obtained the day after the procedure manifested rebleeding during follow-up.ConclusionTranscatheter coil embolization using the isolation technique is an effective alternative treatment in patients with VAPA. In combination with coil embolization, the isolation technique is particularly useful in patients whose pseudoaneurysms present surgical difficulties.

  7. Clinical application value of preoperative selective partial splenic embolization before splenectomy plus portal-azygous disconnection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shengxing; Chang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the clinical application value of preoperative selective partial splenic embolization before splenectomy plus portal-azygous disconnection. 158 cases of liver cirrhosis combined with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage patients were selected, which were randomly divided into splenic embolization group (S, n=77) and the non-splenic embolization group (U, n=81). Group S patients were firstly performed partial splenic embolization (PSE), and then underwent splenectomy plus portal-azygous disconnection, and the group U patients were directly performed splenectomy plus portal-azygous disconnection. Statistical analysis was used SAS8.0 statistical analysis software. One week after partial splenic embolization, the platelet of group S returned to normal, and the rise of white blood cells and hemoglobin, and shorten of prothrombin time in group S were much better than that in group U (P<0.01, P<0.05); the indexes, such as the intraoperative blood loss, the blood transfusion amount, the amount of platelet infusion, and the incidence of complications in group S were more superior than that in group U (P<0.05). Preoperative selective splenic artery embolization before splenectomy plus portal-azygous disconnection can restore the spleen function, and reduce the risk of surgery and incidence of complications. PMID:26464721

  8. Rebleeding rates following TIPS for variceal hemorrhage in the Viatorr era: TIPS alone versus TIPS with variceal embolization

    PubMed Central

    Bui, James T.; Cotler, Scott J.; Kallwitz, Eric R.; Mengin, Olga T.; Martinez, Brandon K.; Berkes, Jaime L.; Carrillo, Tami C.; Knuttinen, M. Grace; Owens, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare rebleeding rates following treatment of variceal hemorrhage with TIPS alone versus TIPS with variceal embolization in the covered stent-graft era. Methods In this retrospective study, 52 patients (M:F 29:23, median age 52 years) with hepatic cirrhosis and variceal hemorrhage underwent TIPS insertion between 2003 and 2008. Median Child–Pugh and MELD scores were 8.5 and 13.5. Generally, 10-mm diameter TIPS were created using covered stent-grafts (Viatorr; W.L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ). A total of 37 patients underwent TIPS alone, while 15 patients underwent TIPS with variceal embolization. The rates of rebleeding and survival were compared. Results All TIPS were technically successful. Median portosystemic pressure gradient reductions were 13 versus 11 mmHg in the embolization and non-embolization groups. There were no statistically significant differences in Child–Pugh and MELD score, or portosystemic pressure gradients between each group. A trend toward increased rebleeding was present in the non-embolization group, where 8/37 (21.6%) patients rebled while 1/15 (6.7%) patients in the TIPS with embolization group rebled (P = 0.159) during median follow-up periods of 199 and 252 days (P = 0.374). Rebleeding approached statistical significance among patients with acute hemorrhage, where 8/32 (25%) versus 0/14 (0%) rebled in the non-embolization and embolization groups (P = 0.055). A trend toward increased bleeding-related mortality was seen in the non-embolization group (P = 0.120). Conclusions TIPS alone showed a high incidence of rebleeding in this series, whereas TIPS with variceal embolization resulted in reduced recurrent hemorrhage. The efficacy of embolization during TIPS performed for variceal hemorrhage versus TIPS alone should be further compared with larger prospective randomized trials. PMID:21286346

  9. Rebleeding rates following TIPS for variceal hemorrhage in the Viatorr era: TIPS alone versus TIPS with variceal embolization.

    PubMed

    Gaba, Ron C; Bui, James T; Cotler, Scott J; Kallwitz, Eric R; Mengin, Olga T; Martinez, Brandon K; Berkes, Jaime L; Carrillo, Tami C; Knuttinen, M Grace; Owens, Charles A

    2010-08-06

    To compare rebleeding rates following treatment of variceal hemorrhage with TIPS alone versus TIPS with variceal embolization in the covered stent-graft era. In this retrospective study, 52 patients (M:F 29:23, median age 52 years) with hepatic cirrhosis and variceal hemorrhage underwent TIPS insertion between 2003 and 2008. Median Child-Pugh and MELD scores were 8.5 and 13.5. Generally, 10-mm diameter TIPS were created using covered stent-grafts (Viatorr; W.L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ). A total of 37 patients underwent TIPS alone, while 15 patients underwent TIPS with variceal embolization. The rates of rebleeding and survival were compared. All TIPS were technically successful. Median portosystemic pressure gradient reductions were 13 versus 11 mmHg in the embolization and non-embolization groups. There were no statistically significant differences in Child-Pugh and MELD score, or portosystemic pressure gradients between each group. A trend toward increased rebleeding was present in the non-embolization group, where 8/37 (21.6%) patients rebled while 1/15 (6.7%) patients in the TIPS with embolization group rebled (P = 0.159) during median follow-up periods of 199 and 252 days (P = 0.374). Rebleeding approached statistical significance among patients with acute hemorrhage, where 8/32 (25%) versus 0/14 (0%) rebled in the non-embolization and embolization groups (P = 0.055). A trend toward increased bleeding-related mortality was seen in the non-embolization group (P = 0.120). TIPS alone showed a high incidence of rebleeding in this series, whereas TIPS with variceal embolization resulted in reduced recurrent hemorrhage. The efficacy of embolization during TIPS performed for variceal hemorrhage versus TIPS alone should be further compared with larger prospective randomized trials.

  10. Transcatheter Embolization for Delayed Hemorrhage Caused by Blunt Splenic Trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Krohmer, Steven J. Hoffer, Eric K.; Burchard, Kenneth W.

    2010-08-15

    Although the exact benefit of adjunctive splenic artery embolization (SAE) in the nonoperative management (NOM) of patients with blunt splenic trauma has been debated, the role of transcatheter embolization in delayed splenic hemorrhage is rarely addressed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SAE in the management of patients who presented at least 3 days after initial splenic trauma with delayed hemorrhage. During a 24-month period 4 patients (all male; ages 19-49 years) presented with acute onset of pain 5-70 days after blunt trauma to the left upper quadrant. Two had known splenic injuries that had been managed nonoperatively. All had computed axial tomography evidence of active splenic hemorrhage or false aneurysm on representation. All underwent successful SAE. Follow-up ranged from 28 to 370 days. These cases and a review of the literature indicate that SAE is safe and effective for NOM failure caused by delayed manifestations of splenic arterial injury.

  11. Prognostic value of a previous medical or surgical admission in outpatients with symptomatic pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Artacho, P; Rodríguez-López, I; Pérez Peña, C; González Del Castillo, J; Calvo, E; Martín-Sánchez, F J

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether an earlier medical (MA) or surgical (SA) admission in the previous three months is a factor associated with mortality at 30 days in outpatients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Observational, retrospective cohort study on adult patients diagnosed with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism in a tertiary hospital over a period of 6 years. The study included 870 patients with a mean age of 72.7 years: 10.6% (92) had a prior MA, 4.9% (43) had a SA and 12.9% (112) died within the first 30 days. The MA group showed a higher frequency of simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) of high risk (≥1) (MA 90.2% vs SA 65.1% vs no prior admission 67.0%; p<0.001) and mortality at 30 days (MA 20.7% vs SA 7.0% vs no prior admission 12.9%; p=0.038). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a simplified PESI≥1 was the only independent risk factor for mortality at 30 days. The severity of the acute episode, as assessed by the simplified PESI scale, is independently associated with mortality at 30 days in outpatients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. An earlier MA in the previous 3 months usually involves greater severity in the acute episode. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  12. Two variants of fat embolism syndrome evolving in a young patient with multiple fractures

    PubMed Central

    Bajuri, Mohd Yazid; Johan, Rudy Reza; Shukur, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a continuum of fat emboli. Variants of FES: acute fulminant form and classic FES are postulated to represent two different pathomechanisms. Acute fulminant FES occurs during the first 24 h. It is attributed to massive mechanical blockage pulmonary vasculature by the fat emboli. The classic FES typically has a latency period of 24–36 h manifestation of respiratory failure and other signs of fat embolism. Progression of asymptomatic fat embolism with FES frequently represents inadequate treatment of hypovolaemic shock. We present a rare case of two variants of FES evolving in a patient with multiple fractures to emphasis the importance of adequate and appropriate treatment of shock in preventing the development of FES. Since supportive therapy which is a ventilatory support remains as the treatment of FES, it is appropriate to treat FES in the intensive care unit setting. PMID:23576653

  13. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepanjali; Narani, Krishan Kumar; Sood, Jayashree

    2010-01-01

    Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier.

  14. Fatal cerebral air embolism following endoscopic evaluation of rectal stump

    PubMed Central

    Baban, Chwanrow Karim; Murphy, Michael; Hennessy, Tony; O'Hanlon, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    A 63-year-old man underwent endoscopic evaluation of the rectal stump for rectal bleeding and suffered a massive cerebral air embolism with severe neurological impairment and subsequent death. The patient underwent a Hartmann's procedure 9 month previously for ischaemic bowel and was noted to have portal hypertension at laparotomy. We hypothesise that air entered the venous plexus around rectum and entered the azygos vein via a porto-systemic shunt and travelled retrogradely via the superior vena cava to the venous sinuses of the brain. PMID:23704447

  15. Is a videotape to change beliefs and behaviors superior to a standard videotape in acute low back pain? A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Karen L; Vickers Douglas, Kristin S; Shelerud, Randy A; Long, Kirsten Hall; Crawford, Brianna

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy has been used successfully in acute low back pain (LBP) treatment, but the use of a cognitive behavioral videotape as an adjunct to treatment has not been studied. To determine outcomes for patients with acute LBP receiving a videotape designed to change beliefs and behaviors compared with a standard instructional videotape. Randomized controlled trial; multidisciplinary clinic in an academic setting. Consecutive subjects with less than 3 months of LBP. Of 224 eligible subjects, 138 participated and completed the initial questionnaires. Oswestry Disability Index, Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale, Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire; medical costs related to LBP and total medical costs incurred by participants during 1 year of follow-up. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a behavioral videotape or a control videotape. Other than the videotape, usual care was provided to each patient. No significant differences in any outcome measures or medical costs between the two groups at 12 months. However, baseline Vermont Disability Prediction Questionnaire was significantly lower in those who completed the entire study compared with those who did not complete the study. Compared with a standard instructional videotape, a behavioral videotape did not change beliefs, outcomes, or costs over 1 year. Cost-effective behavioral interventions with high patient retention rates are needed, especially for those at greatest risk of high utilization of resources.

  16. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Large Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm with Mechanically Detachable Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Toshiya Fujimoto, Yukinori; Jin, Myeong Jun; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2004-03-15

    Large aneurysms (5.5 and 3.6 cm in diameter) arising from the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery located just near the main superior mesenteric artery were incidentally diagnosed in two patients. Transcatheter arterial embolization, packing mechanically detachable coils and microcoils into the aneurysms, was performed while the inflated balloon catheter was placed near the neck of the aneurysms. The procedures were successfully performed and no aneurysmal rupture or bowel ischemia was noted during follow-up. Balloon-assisted transcatheter arterial embolization with mechanically detachable coils seems to be an effective and safe treatment for large inferior pancreaticoduodenal aneurysms.

  17. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Upper Gastrointestinal Nonvariceal Hemorrhage: Is Empiric Embolization Warranted?

    SciTech Connect

    Arrayeh, Elnasif; Fidelman, Nicholas Gordon, Roy L.; LaBerge, Jeanne M.; Kerlan, Robert K.; Klimov, Alexander; Bloom, Allan I.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To determine whether transcatheter arterial embolization performed in the setting of active gastric or duodenal nonvariceal hemorrhage is efficacious when the bleeding source cannot be identified angiographically. Methods: Records of 115 adult patients who underwent visceral angiography for endoscopically documented gastric (50 patients) or duodenal (65 patients) nonvariceal hemorrhage were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to whether angiographic evidence of arterial hemorrhage was present and whether embolization was performed (group 1 = no abnormality, no embolization; group 2 = no abnormality, embolization performed [empiric embolization]; and group 3 = abnormality present, embolization performed). Thirty-day rates and duration of primary hemostasis and survival were compared.ResultsFor patients with gastric sources of hemorrhage, the rate of primary hemostasis at 30 days after embolization was greater when embolization was performed in the setting of a documented angiographic abnormality than when empiric embolization was performed (67% vs. 42%). The rate of primary hemostasis at 30 days after angiography was greater for patients with duodenal bleeding who either underwent empiric embolization (60%) or embolization in the setting of angiographically documented arterial hemorrhage (58%) compared with patients who only underwent diagnostic angiogram (33%). Patients with duodenal hemorrhage who underwent embolization were less likely to require additional invasive procedures to control rebleeding (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Empiric arterial embolization may be advantageous in patients with a duodenal source of hemorrhage but not in patients with gastric hemorrhage.

  18. Cardiac computed tomographic angiography for detection of cardiac sources of embolism in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Ha, Jong-Won; Heo, Ji Hoe; Choi, Eui-Young; Shim, Chi-Young; Kim, Tae Hoon; Nam, Ji Eun; Choe, Kyu Ok; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2009-06-01

    We assessed the diagnostic performance of 2-phase 64-slice cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) for the detection of a cardiac source of embolism in stroke patients using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) as the reference standard. We selected 137 patients who had experienced a recent episode of stroke and had undergone both 2-phase 64-slice CCTA and TEE within a period of 5 days. A potential cardiac source of embolism detected at both CCTA and TEE was recorded, and echocardiographic findings were categorized into high- and medium-risk sources based on the TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification. Of 137 patients, 100 abnormal findings in 91 patients were found on TEE, and 46 patients had no abnormal finding on TEE. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the 64-slice CCTA for detecting cardiac sources of embolism were 89% (95% CI, 82%, 95%), 100% (95% CI, 90%, 100%), 100% (95% CI, 95%, 100%), and 81% (95% CI, 70%, 92%), respectively. TEE detected a total of 47 high-risk sources of embolism, whereas CT detected 44 lesions. For medium-risk sources of cardiac embolic stroke, TEE detected a total of 53 abnormal findings, whereas CT detected 44 abnormal findings. Of 53 lesions, there were 8 false-negative results on CT (5 patent foramen ovale and 3 atrial septal aneurysm). Two-phase 64-slice CCTA is a noninvasive and useful modality for detecting high-risk cardiac sources of embolism in stroke patients.

  19. Pulmonary Embolization of Fat and Bone Marrow in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Derek L.; Murnane, Robert D.; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E.; Green, Damian J.; Hukkanen, Renee R.

    2011-01-01

    Fat embolization (FE), the introduction of bone marrow elements into circulation, is a known complication of bone fractures. Although FE has been described in other animal models, this study represents the first reported cases of FE and bone marrow embolism in nonhuman primates. Histopathologic findings from cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) indicated that in all 5 cases, fat and bone marrow embolization occurred subsequent to multiple bone marrow biopsies. In the most severe case, extensive embolization was associated pulmonary damage consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is an infrequent clinical outcome of FE and is triggered by systemic biochemical and mechanical responses to fat in circulation. Although clinical criteria diagnostic of FES were not investigated at the time of death, this severe case may represent the fulminant form of FES, which occurs within 12 h after trauma. Bone marrow biopsy as an etiology of FES has been reported only once in humans. In addition, the association of embolization with bone marrow biopsies suggests that nonhuman primates may be a useful animal model of FE. FE and FES represent important research confounders and FES should be considered as a differential diagnosis for clinical complications subsequent to skeletal trauma. PMID:21819686

  20. Embolization Coils Migrating and Being Passed per Rectum After Embolization of a Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm, 'The Migrating Coil': A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Numan A.; Akingboye, Akinfemi; Haldipur, Nandon; Mackinlay, James Y.; Jacob, George

    2007-11-15

    Acute or chronic blood loss from pseudoaneurysms of the splanchnic artery in chronic pancreatitis poses diagnostic and management challenges. Arteriographic examination offers both diagnostic and therapeutic options, with success rates of 76%-100% for both modalities. In cases of failure of embolization, repeat embolization is also an option. Surgical intervention is advocated for rebleeding and failure of embolization. Evidence-based guidelines regarding the optimal treatment modality for this condition are lacking. There has been a reported case of dislodgement of coil into the stomach through a gastropseudocystic fistula. We report the case of a migrating steel-wire coil through the gastrointestinal tract and splenic artery pseudoaneurysm. We highlight the potential complications of pseudoaneurysm and other available therapeutic management options.

  1. Effects on steroid hormones secretion resulting from the acute stimulation of sectioning the superior ovarian nerve to pre-pubertal rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the adult rat, neural signals arriving to the ovary via the superior ovarian nerve (SON) modulate progesterone (P4), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) secretion. The aims of the present study were to analyze if the SON in the pre-pubertal rat also modulates ovarian hormone secretion and the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing (LH) hormone. P4, T, E2, FSH and LH serum levels were measured 30 or 60 minutes after sectioning the SON of pre-pubertal female rats. Our results indicate that the effects on hormone levels resulting from unilaterally or bilaterally sectioning the SON depends on the analyzed hormone, and the time lapse between surgery and autopsy, and that the treatment yielded asymmetric results. The results also suggest that in the pre-pubertal rat the neural signals arriving to the ovaries via the SON regulate the enzymes participating in P4, T and E2 synthesis in a non-parallel way, indicating that the mechanisms regulating the synthesis of each hormone are not regulated by the same signals. Also, that the changes in the steroids hormones are not explained exclusively by the modifications in gonadotropins secretion. The observed differences in hormone levels between rats sacrificed 30 and 60 min after surgery reflect the onset of the compensatory systems regulating hormones secretion. PMID:23110668

  2. Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Sylvia C.; Strecker, Ernst-Peter; Ackermann, Ludwig W.; Harms, Juergen

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery.

  3. Embolization of uterine arteriovenous malformation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Wang, Guoyun; Xie, Fubo; Wang, Bo; Tao, Guowei; Kong, Beihua

    2013-01-01

    Background: Uterine arteriovenous malformation is a rare but potential life-threatening source of bleeding. A high index of suspicion and accurate diagnosis of the condition in a timely manor are essential because instrumentation that is often used for other sources of uterine bleeding can be lead to massive hemorrhage. Case: We describe here a case of uterine arteriovenous malformation. A 32-year-old woman presented abnormal vaginal bleeding following the induced abortion. A diagnosis of uterine arteriovenous malformation made on the basis of Doppler ultrasonraphy was confirmed through pelvic angiography. The embolization of bilateral uterine arteries was performed successfully. Conclusion: Uterine arteriovenous malformation should be suspected in patient with abnormal vaginal bleeding, especially who had the past medical history incluing cesarean section, induced abortion, or Dillation and Curethage and so on. Although angiography remains the gold standard, Doppler ultrasonography is also a good noninvasive technique. The transcatheter uterine artery embolization offers a safe and effective treatment PMID:24639742

  4. Lung embolism with liquid silicone.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M A; Martínez, M C; Lopez-Artíguez, M; Soria, M L; Bernier, F; Repetto, M

    1989-03-01

    A lung embolism was reported in a case involving death following repeated injections of liquid silicone for aesthetic reasons. The liquid extracted from the sites of injection was identified as methylsilicone using infrared spectrophotometry, and the presence of silicone in vacuoles in the lung was verified by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). A study has been carried out with rats after intravenous and subcutaneous injections of methylsilicone.

  5. [Pulmonary embolism following percutaneous vertebroplasty].

    PubMed

    Bedini, Marianela Patricia; Albertini, Ricarso Arturo; Orozco, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures. Within its complications is pulmonary embolism, which can be asymptomatic or with respiratory distress and may be notes by radiography or computed tomography. At present there is no guide to indicate the routine performance of imaging techniques after treatment, and all agreed on the need to start anticoagulant therapy for 3 months or so with coumarin in symptomatic or asymptomatic central emboli.

  6. Pulmonary embolism: assessment and imaging.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    It is estimated that there are approximately 17,000 new cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Australia per year. Pulmonary embolism (PE) accounts for about 40% of these events, and is an important preventable cause of morbidity and potentially death. Clinical symptoms of PE are non-specific and can be mild (Table 1). Primary care doctors need a robust system to exclude PE as they will most often be the first port of call for patients with PE symptoms.

  7. Acute cor pulmonale.

    PubMed

    Jardin, François; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine

    2009-02-01

    Acute cor pulmonale is a form of acute right heart failure produced by a sudden increase in resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary circulation, which is now rapidly recognized by bedside echocardiography. In the clinical setting, acute cor pulmonale is mainly observed as a complication of massive pulmonary embolism or acute respiratory distress syndrome. In acute respiratory distress syndrome, the worsening effect of mechanical ventilation has been recently emphasized. As a general rule, the treatment consists in rapidly reducing resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary circulation, obtained by a specific strategy according to etiology.

  8. Synthetic surfactant containing SP-B and SP-C mimics is superior to single-peptide formulations in rabbits with chemical acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Walther, Frans J; Hernández-Juviel, José M; Gordon, Larry M; Waring, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chemical spills are on the rise and inhalation of toxic chemicals may induce chemical acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although the pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS is well understood, the absence of specific antidotes has limited the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Objectives. Surfactant inactivation and formation of free radicals are important pathways in (chemical) ALI. We tested the potential of lipid mixtures with advanced surfactant protein B and C (SP-B and C) mimics to improve oxygenation and lung compliance in rabbits with lavage- and chemical-induced ALI/ARDS. Methods. Ventilated young adult rabbits underwent repeated saline lung lavages or underwent intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid to induce ALI/ARDS. After establishment of respiratory failure rabbits were treated with a single intratracheal dose of 100 mg/kg of synthetic surfactant composed of 3% Super Mini-B (S-MB), a SP-B mimic, and/or SP-C33 UCLA, a SP-C mimic, in a lipid mixture (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight), the clinical surfactant Infasurf(®), a bovine lung lavage extract with SP-B and C, or synthetic lipids alone. End-points consisted of arterial oxygenation, dynamic lung compliance, and protein and lipid content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Potential mechanism of surfactant action for S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA were investigated with captive bubble surfactometry (CBS) assays. Results. All three surfactant peptide/lipid mixtures and Infasurf equally lowered the minimum surface tension on CBS, and also improved oxygenation and lung compliance. In both animal models, the two-peptide synthetic surfactant with S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA led to better arterial oxygenation and lung compliance than single peptide synthetic surfactants and Infasurf. Synthetic surfactants and Infasurf improved lung function further in lavage- than in chemical-induced respiratory failure, with the difference probably due to greater capillary-alveolar protein

  9. Synthetic surfactant containing SP-B and SP-C mimics is superior to single-peptide formulations in rabbits with chemical acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Juviel, José M.; Gordon, Larry M.; Waring, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chemical spills are on the rise and inhalation of toxic chemicals may induce chemical acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although the pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS is well understood, the absence of specific antidotes has limited the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Objectives. Surfactant inactivation and formation of free radicals are important pathways in (chemical) ALI. We tested the potential of lipid mixtures with advanced surfactant protein B and C (SP-B and C) mimics to improve oxygenation and lung compliance in rabbits with lavage- and chemical-induced ALI/ARDS. Methods. Ventilated young adult rabbits underwent repeated saline lung lavages or underwent intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid to induce ALI/ARDS. After establishment of respiratory failure rabbits were treated with a single intratracheal dose of 100 mg/kg of synthetic surfactant composed of 3% Super Mini-B (S-MB), a SP-B mimic, and/or SP-C33 UCLA, a SP-C mimic, in a lipid mixture (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight), the clinical surfactant Infasurf®, a bovine lung lavage extract with SP-B and C, or synthetic lipids alone. End-points consisted of arterial oxygenation, dynamic lung compliance, and protein and lipid content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Potential mechanism of surfactant action for S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA were investigated with captive bubble surfactometry (CBS) assays. Results. All three surfactant peptide/lipid mixtures and Infasurf equally lowered the minimum surface tension on CBS, and also improved oxygenation and lung compliance. In both animal models, the two-peptide synthetic surfactant with S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA led to better arterial oxygenation and lung compliance than single peptide synthetic surfactants and Infasurf. Synthetic surfactants and Infasurf improved lung function further in lavage- than in chemical-induced respiratory failure, with the difference probably due to greater capillary-alveolar protein

  10. Sub-classification based specific movement control exercises are superior to general exercise in sub-acute low back pain when both are combined with manual therapy: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lehtola, Vesa; Luomajoki, Hannu; Leinonen, Ville; Gibbons, Sean; Airaksinen, Olavi

    2016-03-22

    Clinical guidelines recommend research on sub-groups of patients with low back pain (LBP) but, to date, only few studies have been published. One sub-group of LBP is movement control impairment (MCI) and clinical tests to identify this sub-group have been developed. Also, exercises appear to be beneficial for the management of chronic LBP (CLBP), but very little is known about the management of sub-acute LBP. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to compare the effects of general exercise versus specific movement control exercise (SMCE) on disability and function in patients with MCI within the recurrent sub-acute LBP group. Participants having a MCI attended five treatment sessions of either specific or general exercises. In both groups a short application of manual therapy was applied. The primary outcome was disability, assessed by the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). The measurements were taken at baseline, immediately after the three months intervention and at twelve-month follow-up. Seventy patients met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for the trial. Measurements of 61 patients (SMCE n = 30 and general exercise n = 31) were completed at twelve months. (Drop-out rate 12.9 %). Patients in both groups reported significantly less disability (RMDQ) at twelve months follow-up. However, the mean change on the RMDQ between baseline and the twelve-month measurement showed statistically significantly superior improvement for the SMCE group -1.9 points (-3.9 to -0.5) 95 % (CI). The result did not reach the clinically significant three point difference. There was no statistical difference between the groups measured with Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). For subjects with non-specific recurrent sub-acute LBP and MCI an intervention consisting of SMCE and manual therapy combined may be superior to general exercise combined with manual therapy. The study protocol registration number is ISRCTN48684087 . It was registered

  11. Therapy-resistant nephrolithiasis following renal artery coil embolization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcatheter renal artery embolization is an effective and minimally invasive treatment option for acute renal bleeding. Early post-interventional complications include groin hematoma, incomplete embolization, coil misplacement and coil migration. Late complications are rare and mostly related to coil migration. Case presentation A 22-year-old woman with a history of recurrent stone disease and a lumbal meningomyelocele underwent bilateral open pyelolithotomy for bilateral staghorn calculi. Post-operatively, acute hemorrhage of the left kidney occurred and selective arterial coil embolization of a lower pole interlobular renal artery was performed twice. Four years after this intervention the patient presented with a new 15.4 mm stone in the lower calyx of the left kidney. After two extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatments disintegration of the stone was not detectable. Therefore, flexible ureterorenoscopy was performed and revealed that the stone was adherent to a partially intraluminal metal coil in the lower renal calyx. The intracalyceal part of the coil and the adherent stone were successfully removed using the holmium laser. Conclusion Therapy-resistant nephrolithiasis was caused by a migrated metal coil, which was placed four years earlier for the treatment of acute post-operative renal bleeding. Renal coils in close vicinity to the renal pelvis can migrate into the collecting system and trigger renal stone formation. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy seems to be inefficient for these composite stones. Identification of these rare stones is possible during retrograde intrarenal surgery. It also enables immediate stone disintegration and removal of the stone fragments and the intraluminal coil material. PMID:23758632

  12. Delayed presentation and treatment of popliteal artery embolism.

    PubMed Central

    Cambria, R P; Ridge, B A; Brewster, D C; Moncure, A C; Darling, R C; Abbott, W M

    1991-01-01

    In the course of reviewing a 10-year experience with popliteal artery embolism (PAE), two distinct patterns of clinical presentation were identified. In addition to those patients presenting with typical acute (symptom duration less than 7 days) arterial ischemia, a second group was identified who presented with more chronic symptoms. The present study was conducted to contrast the clinical factors and treatment of these two temporal patterns of presentation with PAE. Sixty PAEs in 58 patients were documented by the combination of angiography and/or exploration of the popliteal artery. Acute presentation (AP) was seen in 41 (68%) of these and delayed presentation (DP) was noted in 19 (32%) patients. Delayed presentation patients typically presented with a history of sudden onset of claudication or rest pain and a median symptom duration of 30 days. Eighty per cent of AP patients presented with immediately threatened limbs. Angiography was generally diagnostic of chronic popliteal embolism. In the acute group, 90% were treated with embolectomy alone, while 20% of the DP group required bypass grafting. However in two thirds of the DP group, embolectomy alone performed through a direct popliteal approach was possible. Current results with overall limb salvage (92%) and mortality (7%) represents a substantial improvement compared to the authors' previous experience with PAE. The current study suggests that as many as one third of patients with popliteal artery embolism may present in delayed fashion with chronic symptoms. Furthermore most of these patients can be treated with direct popliteal embolectomy alone with favorable results. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:2064471

  13. Transvenous embolization of high flow carotid cavernous fistula: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, M; Fujiwara, N; Hino, I; Satoh, K; Takashima, H; Tanabe, M; Honjo, Y; Irie, K; Nagao, S; Kojima, K; Osaka, K

    1996-01-01

    We treated a patient with a high flow traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) by embolization using detachable balloons and metallic coils, by transarterial and transvenous approaches. The patient was a 20-year-old woman who had fractures in the skull base from a traffic accident. She was admitted to our hospital one month after the accident due to exophthalmos, chemosis, and periorbital bruit. Cerebral angiograms demonstrated left traumatic CCF and steal phenomenon of blood flow. Balloon embolization by transarterial approach performed three times was unsuccessful, probably because of balloon puncture due to bone fragments. Embolization using metalic coils via the superior ophthalmic vein route was then attempted. As a result of this approach, complete obliteration of CCF was obtained, and clinical symptoms subsided within a few days. Treatment of CCF by transvenous approach is one alternative when transarterial occlusion is difficult.

  14. Endovascular Treatment of a Huge Hepatic Artery Aneurysm by Coil Embolization Method: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Hossein; Karimian, Mehdi; Moradi, Habibollah; Farid Marandi, Kambiz; Haghdoost, Afrooz

    2015-07-01

    Hepatic artery aneurysms are rare but potentially life threatening. We describe a novel case of a successful endovascular coil embolization of a huge hepatic artery aneurysm. A 67-year-old woman presented with recent abdominal pain that had begun from 2 weeks before referring to our hospital. Sonographic and computerized tomographic (CT) findings revealed a huge hepatic artery aneurysm with 95 mm × 83 mm diameter. The patient underwent an endovascular technique. In aortic angiography, the celiac artery orifice and superior mesenteric artery were so narrow, so sonography was used in order to determine the exact position of the catheter in the celiac artery orifice. The aneurysm was thrombosed using coil embolization. Pulsation of the aneurysm immediately disappeared. Huge hepatic artery aneurysm can be safely treated using coil embolization.

  15. Early lymphocyte recovery predicts superior overall survival after unmanipulated haploidentical blood and marrow transplant for myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia evolving from myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying-Jun; Zhao, Xiang-Yu; Xu, Lan-Ping; Liu, Dai-Hong; Liu, Kai-Yan; Chen, Yu-Hong; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Zhao, Xiao-Su; Han, Wei; Chen, Huan; Wang, Feng-Rong; Lv, Meng; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2013-12-01

    We investigated whether early lymphocyte recovery, after unmanipulated, haploidentical, blood and marrow transplant (HBMT), affected clinical outcomes in 78 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia evolving from MDS. Lymphocyte recovery was based on the absolute lymphocyte count on day 30 (ALC-30). Patients with high ALC-30 (≥ 300 cells/μL) had lower relapse rates (13.8% vs. 35.5%, p = 0.049) and lower incidence of bacterial infections (3.4% vs. 25.8%, p = 0.015) than those with low ALC-30 values. Multivariate analysis showed that a high ALC-30 was associated with improved overall survival (OS, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.099, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.029-0.337; p < 0.0001), improved leukemia-free survival (HR: 0.245, 95% CI: 0.112-0.539; p < 0.0001), lower relapse rate (HR: 0.096, 95% CI: 0.011-0.827; p = 0.033) and lower transplant-related mortality (TRM, HR: 0.073, 95% CI: 0.016-0.324; p = 0.001). Combinations of three mismatches in the human leukocyte antigen loci were associated with a higher TRM (HR: 5.026, 95% CI: 1.392-18.173; p = 0.014). Our results suggest that the ALC-30 can predict a favorable OS after unmanipulated HBMT.

  16. R2* Map by IDEAL IQ for Acute Cerebral Infarction: Compared with Susceptibility Vessel Sign on T2*-Weighted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Yuki; Kato, Ayumi; Yamashita, Eijiro; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the detectability of arterial acute thrombus on R2* map by iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) IQ compared with T2*-weighted imaging (T2*WI). Methods Twenty-six patients with acute cerebral infarction who underwent R2* map and T2*WI were reviewed. We performed visual assessment of each sequence regarding the visibility of susceptibility effect reflecting acute thrombus and quantitative evaluation of the thrombus on R2* map. Results Both R2* map and T2*WI showed susceptibility effect reflecting acute thrombi at the occluded site of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in 9 patients. R2* map revealed positive while T2*WI showed equivocal findings in 3 patients due to the surrounding vessel signal intensity. Acute thrombus at distal internal carotid artery (ICA) on R2* map was more clearly detected than that on T2*WI without any apparent susceptibility artifact from the skull base in 4 patients. Most of cardiogenic embolic infarction (CEI) and artery-to-artery embolic infarction (A-to-A) demonstrated positive and most of atherothrombotic infarction (ATI) revealed negative findings on R2* map, although quantitative R2* values of thrombi did not show significant differences between CEI (136.6 /msec) and A-to-A (189.9 /msec) (P = 0.332). Conclusion The detectability of acute thrombus on R2* map is comparable to that on T2*WI. Regarding thrombus at distal ICA, its detectability on R2* map is superior to that on T2*WI. R2* map provide additional information to distinguish between embolic and atherothrombotic infarctions. PMID:27708535

  17. [Big myxoma of the left atrium suggesting pulmonary embolism].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Teresa; Stachurski, Andrzej; Rachwalik, Maciej; Kustrzycki, Wojciech; Szełemej, Roman

    2010-06-01

    Cardiac myxomas are rare. They usually appear as a sporadic isolated mass in the left atrium of women with no other pathology. Our patient had symptoms which may suggest pulmonary embolism (PE)-TTE, D-dimers, ECG, laboratory findings seemed to confirm acute PE. Physical examination was unremarkable. Signs of pulmonary hypertension and shortened acceleration time also suggested PE. However, angio-CT excluded it. The patient was transfered to surgical department. During the operation the big myxoma filling the whole space of the left atrium and blocking the entrance to the left ventricle was found and easily removed. Kardiol Pol 2010; 68, 6: 695-696.

  18. Daily Palonosetron Is Superior to Ondansetron in the Prevention of Delayed Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients With Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Mattiuzzi, Gloria N.; Cortes, Jorge E.; Blamble, Deborah A.; Bekele, B. Nebiyou; Xiao, Lianchun; Cabanillas, Maria; Borthakur, Gautam; O’Brien, Susan; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nausea and vomiting in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) can be from various causes, including the use of high-dose cytarabine. METHODS The authors compared 2 schedules of palonosetron versus ondansetron in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients with AML receiving high-dose cytarabine. Patients were randomized to: 1) ondansetron, 8 mg intravenously (IV), followed by 24 mg continuous infusion 30 minutes before high-dose cytarabine and until 12 hours after the high-dose cytarabine infusion ended; 2) palonosetron, 0.25 mg IV 30 minutes before chemotherapy, daily from Day 1 of high-dose cytarabine up to Day 5; or 3) palonosetron, 0.25 mg IV 30 minutes before high-dose cytarabine on Days 1, 3, and 5. RESULTS Forty-seven patients on ondansetron and 48 patients on each of the palonosetron arms were evaluable for efficacy. Patients in the palonosetron arms achieved higher complete response rates (no emetic episodes plus no rescue medication), but the difference was not statistically significant (ondansetron, 21%; palonosetron on Days 1–5, 31%; palonosetron on Days 1, 3, and 5, 35%; P = .32). Greater than 77% of patients in each arm were free of nausea on Day 1; however, on Days 2 through 5, the proportion of patients without nausea declined similarly in all 3 groups. On Days 6 and 7, significantly more patients receiving palonosetron on Days 1 to 5 were free of nausea (P = .001 and P = .0247, respectively). CONCLUSIONS The daily assessments of emesis did not show significant differences between the study arms. Patients receiving palonosetron on Days 1 to 5 had significantly less severe nausea and experienced significantly less impact of CINV on daily activities on Days 6 and 7. PMID:21218459

  19. Transarterial Onyx embolization of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chao-Bao; Chang, Feng-Chi; Mu-Huo Teng, Michael; Lin, Chung-Jung; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2014-04-01

    Transarterial embolization of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) is usually associated with inadequate embolization. The purpose of this study was to report our experience of transarterial Onyx embolization of intracranial DAVFs with an emphasis on treatment outcome with this new embolic agent in different types of DAVFs. In the past 3 years, a total of 14 intracranial DAVFs have been treated by transarterial Onyx embolization. Among these, there were nine males and five females, aged from 30 years to 82 years (mean = 62 years). We retrospectively analyzed the injection volume and time of Onyx embolization as well as outcomes in different types of DAVFs. The locations of the DAVFs were sigmoid sinus (n = 6), tentorium (n = 3), sinus confluence (n = 2), transverse-sigmoid sinus (n = 1), sigmoid sinus-jugular bulb (n = 1) and the superior petrous sinus (n = 1). The mean volume and time of Onyx injection were 3.4 mL and 28 minutes, respectively (Cognard type I: 4.9 mL, 40 minutes; type II: 4.5 mL, 34 minutes; type III: 2.2 mL, 21 minutes; type IV: 2 mL, 22 minutes). Total fistula occlusion was achieved in six out of seven patients of type III and type IV DAVFs, and in four out of seven patients of type I and type II DAVFs. Nine patients had total resolution of their symptoms, whereas partial regression occurred in five patients. No significant periprocedural complication was found. Mean clinical follow-up period was 16 months. Transarterial Onyx embolization of intracranial DAVFs is safe and effective. This technique is particularly useful in type III and type IV DAVFs with a high cure rate, and lower volume of Onyx as well as a short injection time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Portal and splanchnic hemodynamics after partial splenic embolization in cirrhotic patients with hypersplenism.

    PubMed

    Helaly, Ahmed Z; Al-Warraky, Mohamed S; El-Azab, Gasser I; Kohla, Mohamed A S; Abdelaal, Elsayed E

    2015-12-01

    To assess the acute effects of partial splenic embolization (PSE) on portal and splanchnic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis. Ninety-five patients with hypersplenism were included in the study. Duplex examinations were performed before and 3 and 7 days after PSE. Portal and splanchnic hemodynamics including vessel cross-sectional area (CSA), mean flow velocities (cm/s), blood flows (mL/min), Doppler indices as portal congestion index (CI), liver vascular index, hepatic artery and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) pulsatility and resistive indices (PI and RI), were performed before and after PSE. In our study, 69 of 95 patients were males (72.6%) and 26 females (27.3%). Chronic hepatitis C virus infection was the main cause of cirrhosis (81.1%). PSE failed technically in six patients (6.3%). After PSE, both CSA and CI significantly decreased (p < 0.05 and <0.01). The portal vein velocity significantly increased (p < 0.01). The portal flow volume (892.4 ± 151 mL/min) did not show significant changes. The hepatic artery RI and PI showed a steady increase that became significant 7 days post-PSE (p < 0.05). The RI and PI of SMA increased significantly after 7 days of PSE (p < 0.05). PSE has an immediate portal decompression effect in patients with portal hypertension without reduction in portal flow. This effect on portal pressure should be investigated in future studies as a potential tool for management of acute variceal bleeding when other medical procedures fail.

  1. Pulmonary artery tumor embolism in a patient with previous fibroblastic osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Buderi, Silviu; Theologou, Thomas; Gosney, John; Shackcloth, Michael

    2013-06-01

    A 48-year-old man was referred for left pulmonary metastasis and a left pulmonary artery embolus. The patient had T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and fibroblastic osteosarcoma. A left pneumonectomy was performed successfully and the histologic report concluded that an embolic deposit of osteosarcoma was present. Pulmonary artery tumor embolism is a rare presentation in patients with previous fibroblastic osteosarcoma. It is important to suspect this diagnosis in a patient with cancer who presents with a pulmonary artery embolus. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The clinical course of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism and a negative pulmonary arteriogram.

    PubMed

    Novelline, R A; Baltarowich, O H; Athanasoulis, C A; Waltman, A C; Greenfield, A J; McKusick, K A

    1978-03-01

    Selective pulmonary arteriography, with superselective magnification views of the lung bases or other areas where abnormalities are shown on perfusion lung scans, performed within 24-48 hours after the onset of symptoms, can effectively rule out clinically significant pulmonary thromboembolism. One hundred and eighty consecutive patients (minimum follow up, six months) with suspected pulmonary embolism and negative pulmonary arteriograms were studied. Not one of the 167 untreated patients died as a result of thromboembolic disease during the acute illness (20 died from unrelated causes), and none of the 147 patients who survived suffered "recurrent embolism" during follow up.

  3. Endovascular repair of a spontaneous ilio-iliac fistula presenting as pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Melas, N; Saratzis, A; Abbas, A; Sarris, K; Saratzis, N; Lazaridis, I; Kiskinis, D

    2011-05-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a common iliac artery aneurysm into the common iliac vein is a rare phenomenon. We report the case of a 68 year old man admitted with acute cardiac failure and massive pulmonary embolism as a complication of a spontaneous ilio-iliac fistula, secondary to aneurysmal rupture. The aneurysm was successfully excluded using an aorto-uni-iliac stent graft. No complications were noted at 9 months follow-up. Arteriovenous fistulae should be considered in patients with aortic or iliac aneurysms who develop a pulmonary embolism or symptoms of venous congestion. Endovascular repair of these pathologies is a feasible therapeutic option; however long term results remain unknown.

  4. Morphological changes occurring during thrombogenesis and embolization on biomaterials in a canine ex-vivo series shunt.

    PubMed

    Lelah, M D; Jordan, C A; Pariso, M E; Lambrecht, L K; Cooper, S L; Albrecht, R M

    1983-01-01

    An acute canine ex-vivo femoral A-V shunt technique was used to study thrombus formation and embolization on a number of porous and non-porous polymer surfaces over a one-hour blood contact period. The technique allows for simultaneous exposure of all the surfaces under similar physiological and hematological conditions. This makes comparisons between surfaces more reliable. SEM was used to study changes in the morphology of platelets and thrombi present on the polymer surfaces. Quantitative information was obtained using radiolabeled platelets. In general, platelet deposition, activation, and aggregation was followed by thrombus formation which peaked at about 15-30 minutes of blood contact. Thrombi were composed mainly of platelets with few leukocytes present. Embolization was observed on Silastic (SIL), polyvinylchoride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), and oxidized polyethylene (OX-PE) surfaces between 20 and 60 minutes of blood contact. The mechanism for embolization involved clot retraction under the influence of a shear field. Leukocytes did not appear to be necessary for the initiation of embolization but were present during the embolization phase on OX-PE, possibly due to chemotactic factors. Although extensive thrombus formation was observed on the porous PTFE materials (GORE-TEX and IMPRA), the thrombi formed were flat and did not significantly block the lumen. By 60 minutes of blood contact, only minimal embolization had occurred on the PTFE surfaces. SEM examination of the sequence of thrombus formation and embolization was found to correlate well with trends in platelet deposition measured using radiolabeling techniques.

  5. Biocompatibility and Effectiveness Evaluation of a New Hemostatic Embolization Agent: Thrombin Loaded Alginate Calcium Microsphere

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Fengqi; Rong, Jingjing; Liang, Ming; Zhang, Xuwen; Sun, Jingyang; Zhao, Lijun; Li, Yang; Liu, Dan; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiaozeng

    2017-01-01

    Background. Until now, there has been no ideal embolization agent for hemorrhage in interventional treatment. In this study, the thrombin was encapsulated in alginate calcium microsphere using electrostatic droplet technique to produce new embolization agent: thrombin loaded alginate calcium microspheres (TACMs). Objectives. The present work was to evaluate the biocompatibility and hemostatic efficiency of TACMs. Methods. Cell cytotoxicity, hemolysis, and superselective embolization of dog liver arteries were performed to investigate the biocompatibility of TACMs. To clarify the embolic effect of TACMs mixed thrombus in vivo, hepatic artery injury animal model of 6 beagles was established and transcatheter artery embolization for bleeding was performed. Results. Coculture with VECs revealed the noncytotoxicity of TACMs, and the hemolysis experiment was negligible. Moreover, the histological study of TACMs in liver blood vessel showed signs of a slight inflammatory reaction. The results of transcatheter application of TACMs mixed thrombus for bleeding showed that the blood flow was shut down completely after the TACMs mixed thrombus was delivered and the postprocedural survival rate of animal models at 12 weeks was 100%. Conclusions. With their good biocompatibility and superior hemostatic efficiency, TACMs might be a promising new hemostatic agent with a wide range of potential applications. PMID:28303245

  6. Superior performance of co-cultured mesenchymal stem cells and hepatocytes in poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) scaffolds for the treatment of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingying; Yang, Jiacai; Hu, Wenjun; Zhang, Shichang; Wang, Yingjie

    2016-02-02

    Recently, cell-based therapies have attracted attention as promising treatments for acute liver failure (ALF). Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential candidates for co-culture with hepatocytes in poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds to support hepatocellular function. However, the mechanism of culturing protocol using PLGA scaffolds for MSC differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells as well as the therapeutic effect of cell seeded PLGA scaffolds on ALF remain unsatisfactory in clinical application. Here, MSCs and hepatocytes were co-cultured at ratios of 1:2.5 (MSCs: Hep), 1:5 and 1:10, respectively. The proliferation abilities of these co-cultured cells were detected by CCK8, MTT, EdU and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the ability of MSCs to differentiate into hepatocytes was detected by PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Therapeutic trials of cell seeded PLGA scaffolds were conducted through mouse abdominal cavity transplantation. Results showed that the 1:5 group showed significantly higher cellular proliferation than the 1:2.5 and 1:10 groups, supernatant albumin and urea nitrogen levels were also significantly higher in the 1:5 group than in other two groups. Similarly, the 1:5 group demonstrated better DNA transcription and liver-specific protein (albumin, CK18 and P450) production. Meanwhile, the GalN-stimulated levels of ALT, AST and TBil in mouse serum were down-regulated significantly more by (MSC  +  Hep)-PLGA scaffold treatment than MSC-PLGA or Hep-PLGA scaffold treatments. Furthermore, the (MSC  +  Hep)-PLGA scaffold-treated ALF mice showed a lower immunogenic response level than the other two groups. These data suggested that the ratio of 1:5 (MSC:Hep) co-cultures was the optimal ratio for MSCs to support hepatocellular metabolism and function in PLGA scaffolds in vitro, the (MSC  +  Hep)-PLGA scaffold treatment could perform better restoration for damaged liver

  7. Incidence of pulmonary embolism during COPD exacerbation*, **

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Evrim Eylem; Hoşgün, Derya; Akpýnar, Serdar; Ataç, Gökçe Kaan; Doğanay, Beyza; Gülhan, Meral

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Because pulmonary embolism (PE) and COPD exacerbation have similar presentations and symptoms, PE can be overlooked in COPD patients. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of PE during COPD exacerbation and to describe the clinical aspects in COPD patients diagnosed with PE. METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at a university hospital in the city of Ankara, Turkey. We included all COPD patients who were hospitalized due to acute exacerbation of COPD between May of 2011 and May of 2013. All patients underwent clinical risk assessment, arterial blood gas analysis, chest CT angiography, and Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremities. In addition, we measured D-dimer levels and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) levels. RESULTS: We included 172 patients with COPD. The prevalence of PE was 29.1%. The patients with pleuritic chest pain, lower limb asymmetry, and high NT-pro-BNP levels were more likely to develop PE, as were those who were obese or immobile. Obesity and lower limb asymmetry were independent predictors of PE during COPD exacerbation (OR = 4.97; 95% CI, 1.775-13.931 and OR = 2.329; 95% CI, 1.127-7.105, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PE in patients with COPD exacerbation was higher than expected. The association between PE and COPD exacerbation should be considered, especially in patients who are immobile or obese. PMID:24626268

  8. Management of Pulmonary Embolism: An Update.

    PubMed

    Konstantinides, Stavros V; Barco, Stefano; Lankeit, Mareike; Meyer, Guy

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) remains a major contributor to global disease burden. Risk-adapted treatment and follow-up contributes to a favorable outcome. Age-adjusted cutoff levels increase D-dimer specificity and may decrease overuse of imaging procedures and overdiagnosis of PE. Primary systemic fibrinolysis has an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio in intermediate-risk PE; catheter-directed techniques are an option for patients with hemodynamic decompensation and high bleeding risk. New oral anticoagulant agents are effective and safe alternatives to standard anticoagulation regimens. Recent trial data do not support insertion of cava filters in patients who can receive anticoagulant treatments. Remaining areas of uncertainty include the therapeutic implications of subsegmental PE, the optimal diagnostic approach to the pregnant patient with suspected PE, and the efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulant agents in patients with cancer. Campaigns to increase awareness combined with strategies to implement guideline recommendations will be crucial steps towards further optimizing management of acute PE.

  9. Unsuspected pulmonary embolism in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Soler, Silvia; Delgado, Cristina; Ballaz, Aitor; Cisneros, Elena; Malý, Radován; Babalis, Dimitrios; Monréal, Manuel

    2012-04-01

    The natural history of unsuspected pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with cancer has not been thoroughly studied. We used the RIETE Registry data to compare the clinical characteristics, treatment strategies and outcome in cancer patients with unsuspected PE and in those presenting with symptomatic, acute PE. Up to December 2011, 78 cancer patients with unsuspected PE and 1,994 with symptomatic PE had been enrolled. Patients with unsuspected PE more likely had colorectal cancer than those with symptomatic PE (28% vs. 13%), and less likely had prostate (3.8% vs. 10%) or hematologic (1.3% vs. 6.4%) cancer, or prior venous thromboembolism (3.8% vs. 12%). While the patients were receiving anticoagulant therapy, the incidence of PE recurrences (0% vs. 1.9%) or major bleeding (2.6% vs. 4.8%) were similar. After completion of anticoagulation, recurrent PE developed in 2.6% vs. 1.4% of patients, and major bleeding in 0% vs. 0.4%, respectively. Our findings suggest that the clinical characteristics and outcome in cancer patients with unsuspected PE are quite similar to those in patients with symptomatic PE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Colonic ischemic necrosis following therapeutic embolization.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, S S; Satchidanand, S; Wesp, E H

    1981-01-01

    Transcatheter embolization of the middle colic artery for diverticular bleeding was followed by ischemic necrosis in the transverse colon at the site of previous anastomosis and stricture formation. This is a potential complication of intra-arterial embolization for colonic bleeding.

  11. Neural Network Classification of Cerebral Embolic Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    application of new signal processing techniques to the analysis and classification of embolic signals. We applied a Wavelet Neural Network algorithm...to approximate the embolic signals, with the parameters of the wavelet nodes being used to train a Neural Network to classify these signals as resulting from normal flow, or from gaseous or solid emboli.

  12. The role of embolization for hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Rossi, Giuseppe; Calabrò, Teresa; Altimari, Guglielmo; Rimondi, Eugenio; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2012-08-01

    We retrospectively studied 31 patients with painful bone (15 patients) and soft-tissue (16 patients) hemangiomas treated with 39 embolizations using N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate from 2003 to 2010. The mean tumor size before embolization was 6 cm for bone and 7 cm for soft-tissue hemangiomas. The technique of embolization was the same for bone and soft-tissue lesions. Preoperative embolization was done in six patients, while the remaining patients had embolization as only treatment. The mean follow-up was 47 months (11-89 months). The clinical and imaging effect of treatment was evaluated at follow-up with a pain score scale, tumor size, and ossification. In four patients, embolization was not feasible because of the inability to catheterize and low blood flow of the feeding vessels. Nine patients with bone and 10 with soft-tissue hemangiomas experienced complete pain relief. Four patients with bone and four with soft-tissue hemangiomas experienced recurrence of pain and were treated with repeat embolization. Re-recurrences were not observed in any of the patients with soft-tissue hemangiomas until the period of this study. Ossification and tumor size reduction were higher for bone hemangiomas. Embolization-related complications were more common for soft-tissue hemangiomas.

  13. Transcatheter Coil Embolization of Splenic Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Satoshi Hirota, Shozo; Maeda, Hiroaki; Achiwa, Sachiko Arai, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Nakao, Norio

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical results and technical problems of transcatheter coil embolization for splenic artery aneurysm. Subjects were 16 patients (8 men, 8 women; age range, 40-80 years) who underwent transcatheter embolization for splenic artery aneurysm (14 true aneurysms, 2 false aneurysms) at one of our hospitals during the period January 1997 through July 2005. Two aneurysms (12.5%) were diagnosed at the time of rupture. Multiple splenic aneurysms were found in seven patients. Aneurysms were classified by site as proximal (or strictly ostial) (n = 3), middle (n = 3), or hilar (n = 10). The indication for transcatheter arterial embolization was a false or true aneurysm 20 mm in diameter. Embolic materials were fibered coils and interlocking detachable coils. Embolization was performed by the isolation technique, the packing technique, or both. Technically, all aneurysms were devascularized without severe complications. Embolized aneurysms were 6-40 mm in diameter (mean, 25 mm). Overall, the primary technical success rate was 88% (14 of 16 patients). In the remaining 2 patients (12.5%), partial recanalization occurred, and re-embolization was performed. The secondary technical success rate was 100%. Seven (44%) of the 16 study patients suffered partial splenic infarction. Intrasplenic branching originating from the aneurysm was observed in five patients. We conclude that transcatheter coil embolization should be the initial treatment of choice for splenic artery aneurysm.

  14. Spinal cord infarction due to fibrocartilaginous embolization: the role of diffusion weighted imaging and short-tau inversion recovery sequences.

    PubMed

    Manara, Renzo; Calderone, Milena; Severino, Maria Savina; Citton, Valentina; Toldo, Irene; Laverda, Anna Maria; Sartori, Stefano

    2010-08-01

    Fibrocartilaginous embolization is a rare cause of ischemic myelopathy caused by embolization of intersomatic disk nucleus pulposus into spinal vasculature during Valsalva-like maneuvers. Diagnostic criteria are based on patient's clinical history, magnetic resonance evidence of T2-hyperintense spinal cord lesion, and exclusion of other causes of ischemic myelopathy. These criteria do not take into account the development of magnetic resonance techniques able to enhance signal abnormalities within the neighboring intersomatic disc or vertebral body and to early characterize central nervous system lesions according to the presence of cytotoxic edema. We present 2 pediatric cases of progressive paraplegia attributed to fibrocartilaginous embolization in which short-tau inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences played a pivotal role showing the ischemic nature of spinal cord lesions. Due to its specificity, diffusion-weighted imaging should be included in the magnetic resonance criteria of fibrocartilaginous embolization and in standard magnetic resonance analysis when dealing with acute transverse myelopathy.

  15. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  16. Retrieval of embolized left atrial appendage devices.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Peter; Eng, Lim; Saw, Jacqueline

    2016-09-28

    Percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is gaining interest as an alternative option for prevention of strokes in patients with Atrial Fibrillation (AF), especially for those with contraindications to anticoagulation. Complications from these procedures are well described in the medical literature. LAA closures may lead to pericardial effusion, device-associated thrombus, and device embolization. Understanding the reasons for embolization, strategies to avoid embolization, and the techniques for retrieval of LAA devices (ACP/AMULET and WATCHMAN) should be appreciated by endovascular implanters. We describe two cases of LAA device embolization that were both successfully retrieved percutaneously and other percutaneous techniques to safely retrieve embolized LAA devices. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed Central

    Fennerty, T.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, clinicians have to make decisions about how to manage pulmonary embolism on the basis of imperfect tests and assessment of odds. Management protocols that inevitably result in large numbers of patients being referred for angiography are unhelpful. Management decisions based on assessment of odds and investigation of leg veins will inevitably result in some patients who have survived a pulmonary embolus being left untreated. Current evidence suggests that for most patients this is probably not important, the clear exception being those patients with underlying cardiorespiratory disease. PMID:9040390

  18. Methods of Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis III (PIOPED III)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Paul D.; Gottschalk, Alexander; Sostman, H. Dirk; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Fowler, Sarah E.; Goodman, Lawrence R.; Hales, Charles A.; Hull, Russell D.; Kanal, Emanuel; Leeper, Kenneth V.; Nadich, David P.; Sak, Daniel J; Tapson, Victor F.; Wakefield, Thomas W.; Weg, John G.; Woodard, Pamela K.

    2008-01-01

    The methods of the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis III (PIOPED III) are described in detail. PIOPED III is a multicenter collaborative investigation sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. The purpose is to determine the accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (Gd-MRA) in combination with venous phase magnetic resonance venography (Gd-MRV) for the diagnosis for acute pulmonary embolism (PE). A composite reference standard based on usual diagnostic methods for pulmonary embolism is used. All images will be read by two blinded and study-certified central readers. Patients with no PE according to the composite reference test will be randomized to undergo Gd-MRA/MRV. This will reduce the proportion of patients with negative tests at no loss in evaluation of sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19331840

  19. Successful surgical correction of an embolized prosthetic valve poppet: case report.

    PubMed

    Ansbro, J; Clark, R; Gerbode, F

    1976-07-01

    Embolization of a prosthetic valve poppet, a rare complication following valve replacement, has been, until recently, generally fatal. Immediate recognition followed by replacement of the poppet or valve and extraction of the embolized poppet is the only feasible approach. Recently, a patient was seen was seen shortly after the onset of acute pulmonary edema with wide-open mitral regurgitation. A diagnosis of extrusion of the poppet from a previously placed prosthetic valve was confirmed and a successful mitral valve replacement accomplished. The nonradiopaque poppet, subsequently localized by an ultrasound B-sac, was removed from the lower abdominal aorta at a later operation. We believe this to be the second reported case of survival following successful reoperation for embolization of a prosthetic poppet.

  20. The emergency medicine approach to the evaluation and treatment of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Church, Amy; Tichauer, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    Each year in the United States, up to 900,000 individuals will suffer from acute pulmonary embolism, resulting in an estimated 200,000 to 300,000 hospital admissions. Despite decades of research on the topic, the diagnosis remains elusive in many situations and the fatality rate remains significant. This issue presents a review of the current evidence guiding the emergency medicine approach to the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism. Key to this approach is the concept of risk stratification: using factors from the history and physical examination, plus ancillary tests, to guide clinical decision making. The pathophysiology of pulmonary embolism and decision-support tools are reviewed, and emergency department management strategies are described.

  1. [A case of spectacular shrinking deficit caused by paradoxical cerebral embolism secondary to pulmonary arteriovenous fistula].

    PubMed

    Ito, Ai; Ii, Yuichiro; Higashigawa, Takatoshi; Murashima, Shuichi; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of spectacular shrinking deficit caused by paradoxical cerebral embolism through pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (AVF). A 79-year-old female suddenly developed right hemiplegia, paresthesia, and speech disturbance symptoms that were improved within 20 min, indicating a diagnosis of spectacular shrinking deficit. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute cerebral infarcts in the left parietal cortex of the left middle cerebral arterial territory. A contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography scan revealed a pulmonary AVF in the middle lobe of the right lung. The patient had deep venous thrombosis in her left lower leg. She had no clinical signs of telangiectasia, did not exhibit recurrent epistaxis, and had no family history of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Therefore, she was diagnosed with paradoxical cerebral embolism secondary to the pulmonary AVF without HHT. Pulmonary AVF should be considered in patients with cerebral embolism, even when presenting with spectacular shrinking deficit.

  2. Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Ruptured Occipital Arterial Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kato, Hiroki; Kondo, Hiroshi; Goshima, Satoshi; Tsuge, Yusuke; Kojima, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Haruo

    2011-02-15

    Two cases of ruptured aneurysms in the posterior cervical regions associated with type-1 neurofibromatosis treated by transcatheter embolization are reported. Patients presented with acute onset of swelling and pain in the affected areas. Emergently performed contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated aneurysms and large hematomas widespread in the posterior cervical regions. Angiography revealed aneurysms and extravasations of the occipital artery. Patients were successfully treated by percutaneous transcatheter arterial microcoil embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization therapy was found to be an effective method for treating aneurysmal rupture in the posterior cervical regions occurring in association with type-1 neurofibromatosis. A literature review revealed that rupture of an occipital arterial aneurysm, in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1, has not been reported previously.

  3. Extracorporeal Lung Support as a Bridge to Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tumor Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Halloran, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Bridging to diagnosis is an emerging technique used in end-stage cardiorespiratory failure that prolongs a patient's life using various modalities of extracorporeal lung support (ECLS) to achieve antemortem diagnosis. Pulmonary tumor embolism occurs when cell clusters travel from primary malignancies through venous circulation to the lungs, causing respiratory failure through inflammatory and venoocclusive pathways. Due to its nonspecific symptomatology, pulmonary tumor embolism remains an elusive diagnosis antemortem. Herein, we bridge a patient who presented in acute respiratory failure to the diagnosis of pulmonary tumor embolism from a gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma using ECLS modalities including venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and centrally cannulated Novalung pumpless extracorporeal lung assist. We demonstrate the utility of this approach in diagnostically uncertain cases in unstable patients who are potentially acceptable ECLS and transplant candidates. PMID:28070437

  4. Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic embolism.

    PubMed

    Meier, Bernhard; Kalesan, Bindu; Mattle, Heinrich P; Khattab, Ahmed A; Hildick-Smith, David; Dudek, Dariusz; Andersen, Grethe; Ibrahim, Reda; Schuler, Gerhard; Walton, Antony S; Wahl, Andreas; Windecker, Stephan; Jüni, Peter

    2013-03-21

    The options for secondary prevention of cryptogenic embolism in patients with patent foramen ovale are administration of antithrombotic medications or percutaneous closure of the patent foramen ovale. We investigated whether closure is superior to medical therapy. We performed a multicenter, superiority trial in 29 centers in Europe, Canada, Brazil, and Australia in which the assessors of end points were unaware of the study-group assignments. Patients with a patent foramen ovale and ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or a peripheral thromboembolic event were randomly assigned to undergo closure of the patent foramen ovale with the Amplatzer PFO Occluder or to receive medical therapy. The primary end point was a composite of death, nonfatal stroke, TIA, or peripheral embolism. Analysis was performed on data for the intention-to-treat population. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.1 years in the closure group and 4.0 years in the medical-therapy group. The primary end point occurred in 7 of the 204 patients (3.4%) in the closure group and in 11 of the 210 patients (5.2%) in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio for closure vs. medical therapy, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24 to 1.62; P=0.34). Nonfatal stroke occurred in 1 patient (0.5%) in the closure group and 5 patients (2.4%) in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.02 to 1.72; P=0.14), and TIA occurred in 5 patients (2.5%) and 7 patients (3.3%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.23 to 2.24; P=0.56). Closure of a patent foramen ovale for secondary prevention of cryptogenic embolism did not result in a significant reduction in the risk of recurrent embolic events or death as compared with medical therapy. (Funded by St. Jude Medical; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00166257.).

  5. Embolization Therapy for Traumatic Splenic Lacerations

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Niloy; Matsumoto, Alan H. Arslan, Bulent; Turba, Ulku C.; Sabri, Saher; Angle, John F.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical success, complications, and transfusion requirements based on the location of and agents used for splenic artery embolization in patients with splenic trauma. Methods: A retrospective study was performed of patients with splenic trauma who underwent angiography and embolization from September 2000 to January 2010 at a level I trauma center. Electronic medical records were reviewed for demographics, imaging data, technical aspects of the procedure, and clinical outcomes. Results: Fifty patients were identified (34 men and 16 women), with an average age of 48 (range, 16-80) years. Extravasation was seen on initial angiography in 27 (54%) and was absent in 23 (46%). All 27 patients with extravasation were embolized, and 18 of 23 (78.2%) without extravasation were embolized empirically. Primary clinical success was similar (>75%) across all embolization locations, embolic agents, and grades of laceration treated. Of 45 patients treated, 9 patients (20%) were embolized in the main splenic artery, 34 (75.6%) in the splenic hilum, and 2 (4.4%) were embolized in both locations. Partial splenic infarctions developed in 47.3% treated in the splenic hilum compared with 12.5% treated in the main splenic artery. There were four (8.9%) mortalities: two occurred in patients with multiple critical injuries and two from nonbleeding etiologies. Conclusions: Embolization of traumatic splenic artery injuries is safe and effective, regardless of the location of treatment. Embolization in splenic hilar branches may have a higher incidence of infarction. The grade of laceration and agents used for embolotherapy did not impact the outcomes.

  6. Arterial Embolization in the Management of Mesenteric Bleeding Secondary to Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Ghelfi, Julien; Frandon, Julien; Barbois, Sandrine; Vendrell, Anne; Rodiere, Mathieu; Sengel, Christian; Bricault, Ivan; Arvieux, Catherine; Ferretti, Gilbert; Thony, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Mesenteric bleeding is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of blunt abdominal trauma. It can induce active hemorrhage and a compressive hematoma leading to bowel ischemia. Emergency laparotomy remains the gold standard treatment. We aimed to study the effectiveness and complications of embolization in patients with post-traumatic mesenteric bleeding. The medical records of 7 consecutive patients with active mesenteric bleeding treated by embolization in a level-one trauma center from 2007 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients presented with active mesenteric bleeding on CT scans without major signs of intestinal ischemia. We focused on technical success, clinical success, and the complications of embolization. Six endovascular procedures were successful in controlling hemorrhage but 1 patient had surgery to stop associated arterial and venous bleeding. One patient suffered from bowel ischemia, a major complication of embolization, which was confirmed by surgery. No acute renal failure was noted after angiography. For 1 patient we performed combined management as the endovascular approach allowed an easier surgical exploration. In mesenteric trauma with active bleeding, embolization is a valuable alternative to surgery and should be considered, taking into account the risk of bowel ischemia.

  7. Efficacy of an Embolic Protection Stent as a Function of Delay to Reperfusion in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (from the MASTER Trial).

    PubMed

    Dudek, Dariusz; Brener, Sorin J; Rakowski, Tomasz; Dziewierz, Artur; Abizaid, Alexandre; Silber, Sigmund; Yaacoby, Elad; Dizon, José M; Costa, Ricardo A; Maehara, Akiko; Dressler, Ovidiu; Stone, Gregg W

    2014-11-15

    The ability of stent implantation to improve indexes of reperfusion may depend on the time to reperfusion in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and may also vary with stent type. The purpose of this prespecified analysis from the randomized MGUARD for Acute ST Elevation Reperfusion trial was to evaluate the impact of delay to reperfusion on outcomes in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention with the MGuard embolic protection stent or standard metallic stents. A total of 431 patients were divided according to symptom-onset-to-balloon time (SBT) into 2 groups: SBT ≤3 hours (167 patients; 39%) and SBT >3 hours (264 patients; 61%). Complete ST-segment resolution (STR) after percutaneous coronary intervention was more often achieved in patients with shorter SBT (58.6% vs 47%, p = 0.02). At 1 year, the all-cause mortality rate was lower in patients with shorter SBT (0% vs 3.5%, p = 0.02). STR was achieved in 58% of MGuard patients and in 45% of the control stent patients (p = 0.008). STR was 57% in the MGuard group versus 38% in the control group (p = 0.002 for SBT >3 hours) and 60% versus 57% (p = 0.72), respectively, for SBT ≤3 hours (p for interaction = 0.11). In conclusion, longer delay to mechanical reperfusion remains an important factor negatively influencing outcomes in patients with STEMI. Use of the MGuard embolic protection stent compared with conventional metallic stents resulted in superior rates of complete STR, even in patients with longer delays to reperfusion.

  8. Amniotic fluid embolism mortality rate.

    PubMed

    Benson, Michael D

    2017-08-17

    The objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) using population-based studies and case series. A literature search was conducted using the two key words: 'amniotic fluid embolism (AFE)' AND 'mortality rate'. Thirteen population-based studies were evaluated, as well as 36 case series including at least two patients. The mortality rate from population-based studies varied from 11% to 44%. When nine population-based studies with over 17 000 000 live births were aggregated, the maternal mortality rate was 20.4%. In contrast, the mortality rate of AFE in case series varies from 0% to 100% with numerous rates in between. The AFE mortality rate in population-based studies varied from 11% to 44% with the best available evidence supporting an overall mortality rate of 20.4%. Data from case series should no longer be used as a basis for describing the lethality of AFE. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Cement pulmonary embolism after vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; Lamúa Riazuelo, José Ramón; Gallego Rivera, José Ignacio; Vázquez Díaz, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of vertebral cementing techniques for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty has spread for the treatment of pain associated with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. This is also associated with the increased incidence of complications related with these procedures, the most frequent being originated by leakage of cementation material. Cement can escape into the vertebral venous system and reach the pulmonary circulation through the azygous system and cava vein, producing a cement embolism. This is a frequent complication, occurring in up to 26% of patients undergoing vertebroplasty but, since most patients have no clinical or hemodynamical repercussion, this event usually goes unnoticed. However, some serious, and even fatal cases, have been reported. We report the case of a 74-year-old male patient who underwent vertebroplasty for persistent pain associated with osteoporotic L3 vertebral fracture and who developed a cement leak into the cava vein and right pulmonary artery during the procedure. Although he developed a pulmonary cement embolism, the patient remained asymptomatic and did not present complications during follow-up.

  10. Right heart thrombi in pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Deisy; Rosa-Salazar, Vladimir; Jiménez, David; Morillo, Raquel; Muriel, Alfonso; Del Toro, Jorge; López-Jiménez, Luciano; Farge-Bancel, Dominique; Yusen, Roger; Monreal, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    There is a lack of comprehensive data on the prevalence, predictors and prognostic significance of right heart thrombi (RHT) in pulmonary embolism.In this study of patients with pulmonary embolism from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) registry, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of RHT, and the association between the presence of RHT and the outcomes of all-cause mortality, pulmonary embolism-related mortality, recurrences, and major bleeding through 30 days after initiation of pulmonary embolism treatment.Of 12 441 patients with pulmonary embolism and baseline echocardiographic data, 2.6% had RHT. The following increased the risk of RHT: younger age, previous bleeding, congestive heart failure, cancer, syncope, systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg, and arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation <90%. Patients with RHT were significantly more likely to die from any cause (adjusted OR 2.50 (95% CI 1.62-3.84); p<0.001) and from pulmonary embolism (adjusted OR 4.29 (95% CI 2.45-7.48); p<0.001) during follow-up. RHT was associated with an increased risk of recurrence during follow-up (1.8% versus 0.7%; p=0.04). Major bleeding was similar in patients with and without RHT.In patients presenting with pulmonary embolism, RHT is relatively infrequent. Patients with RHT had a worse outcome when compared with those without RHT.

  11. Microcatheter Embolization of Intractable Idiopathic Epistaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Leppaenen, Martti; Seppaenen, Seppo; Laranne, Jussi; Kuoppala, Katriina

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of microcatheter embolization in the treatment of intractable idiopathic epistaxis. Methods: Thirty-seven patients underwent microcatheter embolization in 1991-1998. We evaluated retrospectively the technical and clinical outcome, the number of complications, the duration of embolization in each case, and the number of blood transfusions needed. All embolizations were done with biplane digital subtraction angiography (DSA) equipment. The procedure was carried out under local anesthesia