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Sample records for acute emotional stress

  1. Acute emotional stress and cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2007-07-18

    Episodes of acute emotional stress can have significant adverse effects on the heart. Acute emotional stress can produce left ventricular contractile dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, or disturbances of cardiac rhythm. Although these abnormalities are often only transient, their consequences can be gravely damaging and sometimes fatal. Despite the many descriptions of catastrophic cardiovascular events in the setting of acute emotional stress, the anatomical substrate and physiological pathways by which emotional stress triggers cardiovascular events are only now being characterized, aided by the advent of functional neuroimaging. Recent evidence indicates that asymmetric brain activity is particularly important in making the heart more susceptible to ventricular arrhythmias. Lateralization of cerebral activity during emotional stress may stimulate the heart asymmetrically and produce areas of inhomogeneous repolarization that create electrical instability and facilitate the development of cardiac arrhythmias. Patients with ischemic heart disease who survive an episode of sudden cardiac death in the setting of acute emotional stress should receive a beta-blocker. Nonpharmacological approaches to manage emotional stress in patients with and without coronary artery disease, including social support, relaxation therapy, yoga, meditation, controlled slow breathing, and biofeedback, are also appropriate to consider and merit additional investigation in randomized trials.

  2. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others.

    PubMed

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior. PMID:24910626

  3. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others.

    PubMed

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  4. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others

    PubMed Central

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior. PMID:24910626

  5. Acute Stress Dysregulates the LPP ERP Response to Emotional Pictures and Impairs Sustained Attention: Time-Sensitive Effects.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Rima A; Fernandez, Mercedes; Banks, Jonathan B; Acosta, Juliana; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-05-20

    Stress can increase emotional vigilance at the cost of a decrease in attention towards non-emotional stimuli. However, the time-dependent effects of acute stress on emotion processing are uncertain. We tested the effects of acute stress on subsequent emotion processing up to 40 min following an acute stressor. Our measure of emotion processing was the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual event-related potential (ERP), and our measure of non-emotional attention was the sustained attention to response task (SART). We also measured cortisol levels before and after the socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) induction. We found that the effects of stress on the LPP ERP emotion measure were time sensitive. Specifically, the LPP ERP was only altered in the late time-point (30-40 min post-stress) when cortisol was at its highest level. Here, the LPP no longer discriminated between the emotional and non-emotional picture categories, most likely because neutral pictures were perceived as emotional. Moreover, compared to the non-stress condition, the stress-condition showed impaired performance on the SART. Our results support the idea that a limit in attention resources after an emotional stressor is associated with the brain incorrectly processing non-emotional stimuli as emotional and interferes with sustained attention.

  6. Acute Stress Dysregulates the LPP ERP Response to Emotional Pictures and Impairs Sustained Attention: Time-Sensitive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alomari, Rima A.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Banks, Jonathan B.; Acosta, Juliana; Tartar, Jaime L.

    2015-01-01

    Stress can increase emotional vigilance at the cost of a decrease in attention towards non-emotional stimuli. However, the time-dependent effects of acute stress on emotion processing are uncertain. We tested the effects of acute stress on subsequent emotion processing up to 40 min following an acute stressor. Our measure of emotion processing was the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual event-related potential (ERP), and our measure of non-emotional attention was the sustained attention to response task (SART). We also measured cortisol levels before and after the socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) induction. We found that the effects of stress on the LPP ERP emotion measure were time sensitive. Specifically, the LPP ERP was only altered in the late time-point (30–40 min post-stress) when cortisol was at its highest level. Here, the LPP no longer discriminated between the emotional and non-emotional picture categories, most likely because neutral pictures were perceived as emotional. Moreover, compared to the non-stress condition, the stress-condition showed impaired performance on the SART. Our results support the idea that a limit in attention resources after an emotional stressor is associated with the brain incorrectly processing non-emotional stimuli as emotional and interferes with sustained attention. PMID:26010485

  7. Acute Stress Dysregulates the LPP ERP Response to Emotional Pictures and Impairs Sustained Attention: Time-Sensitive Effects.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Rima A; Fernandez, Mercedes; Banks, Jonathan B; Acosta, Juliana; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-01-01

    Stress can increase emotional vigilance at the cost of a decrease in attention towards non-emotional stimuli. However, the time-dependent effects of acute stress on emotion processing are uncertain. We tested the effects of acute stress on subsequent emotion processing up to 40 min following an acute stressor. Our measure of emotion processing was the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual event-related potential (ERP), and our measure of non-emotional attention was the sustained attention to response task (SART). We also measured cortisol levels before and after the socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) induction. We found that the effects of stress on the LPP ERP emotion measure were time sensitive. Specifically, the LPP ERP was only altered in the late time-point (30-40 min post-stress) when cortisol was at its highest level. Here, the LPP no longer discriminated between the emotional and non-emotional picture categories, most likely because neutral pictures were perceived as emotional. Moreover, compared to the non-stress condition, the stress-condition showed impaired performance on the SART. Our results support the idea that a limit in attention resources after an emotional stressor is associated with the brain incorrectly processing non-emotional stimuli as emotional and interferes with sustained attention. PMID:26010485

  8. Acute Stress Induces Hyperacusis in Women with High Levels of Emotional Exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Dan; Theorell, Töres; Bergquist, Jonas; Canlon, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Hearing problems is one of the top ten public health disorders in the general population and there is a well-established relationship between stress and hearing problems. The aim of the present study was to explore if an acute stress will increase auditory sensitivity (hyperacusis) in individuals with high levels of emotional exhaustion (EE). Methods Hyperacusis was assessed using uncomfortable loudness levels (ULL) in 348 individuals (140 men; 208 women; age 23–71 years). Multivariate analyses (ordered logistic regression), were used to calculate odds ratios, including interacting or confounding effects of age, gender, ear wax and hearing loss (PTA). Two-way ANCOVAs were used to assess possible differences in mean ULLs between EE groups pre- and post-acute stress task (a combination of cold pressor, emotional Stroop and Social stress/video recording). Results There were no baseline differences in mean ULLs between the three EE groups (one-way ANOVA). However, after the acute stress exposure there were significant differences in ULL means between the EE-groups in women. Post-hoc analyses showed that the differences in mean ULLs were between those with high vs. low EE (range 5.5–6.5 dB). Similar results were found for frequencies 0.5 and 1 kHz. The results demonstrate that women with high EE-levels display hyperacusis after an acute stress task. The odds of having hyperacusis were 2.5 (2 kHz, right ear; left ns) and 2.2 (4 kHz, right ear; left ns) times higher among those with high EE compared to those with low levels. All these results are adjusted for age, hearing loss and ear wax. Conclusion Women with high levels of emotional exhaustion become more sensitive to sound after an acute stress task. This novel finding highlights the importance of including emotional exhaustion in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing problems. PMID:23301005

  9. The Impact of Acute Psychosocial Stress on Magnetoencephalographic Correlates of Emotional Attention and Exogenous Visual Attention

    PubMed Central

    Elling, Ludger; Schupp, Harald; Bayer, Janine; Bröckelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Steinberg, Christian; Dobel, Christian; Junghofer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Stress-induced acute activation of the cerebral catecholaminergic systems has often been found in rodents. However, little is known regarding the consequences of this activation on higher cognitive functions in humans. Theoretical inferences would suggest increased distractibility in the sense of increased exogenous attention and emotional attention. The present study investigated the influence of acute stress responses on magnetoencephalographic (MEG) correlates of visual attention. Healthy male subjects were presented emotional and neutral pictures in three subsequent MEG recording sessions after being exposed to a TSST-like social stressor, intended to trigger a HPA-response. The subjects anticipation of another follow-up stressor was designed to sustain the short-lived central catecholaminergic stress reactions throughout the ongoing MEG recordings. The heart rate indicates a stable level of anticipatory stress during this time span, subsequent cortisol concentrations and self-report measures of stress were increased. With regard to the MEG correlates of attentional functions, we found that the N1m amplitude remained constantly elevated during stressor anticipation. The magnetic early posterior negativity (EPNm) was present but, surprisingly, was not at all modulated during stressor anticipation. This suggests that a general increase of the influence of exogenous attention but no specific effect regarding emotional attention in this time interval. Regarding the time course of the effects, an influence of the HPA on these MEG correlates of attention seems less likely. An influence of cerebral catecholaminergic systems is plausible, but not definite. PMID:22701552

  10. Regular exercise is associated with emotional resilience to acute stress in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Emma; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity has long been considered beneficial to health and regular exercise is purported to relieve stress. However empirical evidence demonstrating these effects is limited. In this study, we compared psychophysiological responses to an acute psychosocial stressor between individuals who did, or did not, report regular physical exercise. Healthy men and women (N = 111) participated in two experimental sessions, one with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and one with a non-stressful control task. We measured heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol, and self-reported mood before and at repeated times after the tasks. Individuals who reported physical exercise at least once per week exhibited lower heart rate at rest than non-exercisers, but the groups did not differ in their cardiovascular responses to the TSST. Level of habitual exercise did not influence self-reported mood before the tasks, but non-exercisers reported a greater decline in positive affect after the TSST in comparison to exercisers. These findings provide modest support for claims that regular exercise protects against the negative emotional consequences of stress, and suggest that exercise has beneficial effects in healthy individuals. These findings are limited by their correlational nature, and future prospective controlled studies on the effects of regular exercise on response to acute stress are needed. PMID:24822048

  11. Hyper-responsiveness to acute stress, emotional problems and poorer memory in former preterm children.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Andrea A; Tristão, Rosana M; Pratesi, Riccardo; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of preterm birth (PTB) is high worldwide, especially in developing countries like Brazil. PTB is marked by a stressful environment in intra- as well as extrauterine life, which can affect neurodevelopment and hormonal and physiological systems and lead to long-term negative outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about PTB and related outcomes later on in childhood. Thus, the goals of the current study were threefold: (1) comparing cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) profiles, including cortisol awakening response (CAR), between preterm and full-term children; (2) evaluating whether preterm children are more responsive to acute stress and (3) assessing their memory skills and emotional and behavioral profiles. Basal cortisol and sAA profiles, including CAR of 30 preterm children, aged 6 to 10 years, were evaluated. Further, we assessed memory functions using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and we screened behavior/emotion using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results of preterm children were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. One week later, participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor [Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)], in which cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline, 1, 10 and 25 min after stressor exposure. Preterm children had higher cortisol concentrations at awakening, a flattened CAR and an exaggerated response to TSST-C compared to full-term children. These alterations were more pronounced in girls. In addition, preterm children were characterized by more emotional problems and poorer memory performance. Our findings illustrate the long-lasting and in part sex-dependent effects of PTB on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, internalizing behavior and memory. The findings are in line with the idea that early adversity alters the set-point of the HPA axis, thereby creating a more vulnerable phenotype.

  12. Ambulatory and Challenge-Associated Heart Rate Variability Measures Predict Cardiac Responses to “Real-World” Acute Emotional Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dikecligil, GN; Mujica-Parodi, LR

    2010-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) measures homeostatic regulation of the autonomic nervous system in response to perturbation, and has been previously shown to quantify risk for cardiac events. In spite of known interactions between stress vulnerability, psychiatric illness, and cardiac health, however, to our knowledge this is the first study to directly compare the value of laboratory HRV in predicting autonomic modulation of “real-world” emotional stress. Methods We recorded ECG on 56 subjects: first, within the laboratory, and then during an acute emotional stressor: a first-time skydive. Laboratory sessions included two five-minute ECG recordings separated by one ambulatory 24-hour recording. To test the efficacy of introducing a mild emotional challenge, during each of the five-minute laboratory recordings subjects viewed either aversive or benign images. Following the laboratory session, subjects participated in the acute stressor wearing a holter ECG. Artifact-free ECGs (N=33) were analyzed for HRV, then statistically compared across laboratory and acute stress sessions. Results There were robust correlations (r=0.7-0.8) between the laboratory and acute stress HRV, indicating that the two most useful paradigms (long-term wake, followed by short-term challenge) also were most sensitive to distinct components of the acute stressor: the former correlated with the fine-tuned regulatory modulation occurring immediately prior and following the acute stressor, while the latter correlated with gross amplitude and recovery. Conclusions Our results confirmed the efficacy of laboratory-acquired HRV in predicting autonomic response to acute emotional stress, and suggest that ambulatory and challenge protocols enhance predictive value. PMID:20299007

  13. Effects of acute psychosocial stress on neural activity to emotional and neutral faces in a face recognition memory paradigm.

    PubMed

    Li, Shijia; Weerda, Riklef; Milde, Christopher; Wolf, Oliver T; Thiel, Christiane M

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute psychosocial stress impairs recognition of declarative memory and that emotional material is especially sensitive to this effect. Animal studies suggest a central role of the amygdala which modulates memory processes in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and other brain areas. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural correlates of stress-induced modulation of emotional recognition memory in humans. Twenty-seven healthy, right-handed, non-smoker male volunteers performed an emotional face recognition task. During encoding, participants were presented with 50 fearful and 50 neutral faces. One hour later, they underwent either a stress (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control procedure outside the scanner which was followed immediately by the recognition session inside the scanner, where participants had to discriminate between 100 old and 50 new faces. Stress increased salivary cortisol, blood pressure and pulse, and decreased the mood of participants but did not impact recognition memory. BOLD data during recognition revealed a stress condition by emotion interaction in the left inferior frontal gyrus and right hippocampus which was due to a stress-induced increase of neural activity to fearful and a decrease to neutral faces. Functional connectivity analyses revealed a stress-induced increase in coupling between the right amygdala and the right fusiform gyrus, when processing fearful as compared to neutral faces. Our results provide evidence that acute psychosocial stress affects medial temporal and frontal brain areas differentially for neutral and emotional items, with a stress-induced privileged processing of emotional stimuli.

  14. Angiotensin-(1-7) in the basolateral amygdala attenuates the cardiovascular response evoked by acute emotional stress.

    PubMed

    Oscar, Charles Gonzaga; Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia Camargos de Figueirêdo; de Castro, Lidiane Gonzaga; Martins Lima, Augusto; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Xavier, Carlos Henrique; Fontes, Marco Antônio Peliky

    2015-01-12

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a critical role in mediating physiological responses to emotional stress. Recent data suggest that angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] can act centrally attenuating the cardiovascular response to acute stress. We investigated whether Ang-(1-7) in the BLA plays a role in the cardiovascular response to emotional stress. Under anesthesia, guide cannulas were implanted into the BLA of Wistar rats. Five days later, the femoral artery was cannulated for mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) recordings. Microinjections of Ang-(1-7) (5 or 50 pmol), the Mas receptor antagonist A-779 (100 pmol), Ang-(1-7)+A-779 (50 + 100 pmol, respectively), or vehicle (NaCl 0.9%, control) were performed after 24h and rats were then submitted to stress trials. Injection of Ang-(1-7) into the BLA blocked the tachycardia (ΔHR: vehicle 135 ± 23 vs. Ang-(1-7) 9 ± 12 bpm; P<0.05) and the pressor response (ΔMAP: vehicle 28 ± 3 mmHg vs. Ang-(1-7) 6 ± 2 mmHg; P<0.05) produced by air jet stress. These effects were completely reversed by A-779 (ΔHR: 109 ± 11 bpm; ΔMAP: 18 ± 2 mmHg). Ang-(1-7) into the BLA also attenuated the pressor response evoked by cage-switch stress paradigm. These findings indicate that Ang-(1-7) can act in the BLA through the Mas receptors modulating the cardiovascular response evoked by emotional stress.

  15. Catecholamines and estrogen are involved in the pathogenesis of emotional stress-induced acute heart attack.

    PubMed

    Ueyama, Takashi; Kasamatsu, Ken; Hano, Takuzo; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Ishikura, Fuminobu

    2008-12-01

    Emotional stress triggers takotsubo cardiomyopathy in postmenopausal women. Clinical analysis of autonomic nervous function has revealed a transient increase of sympathetic nervous activity and decrease of vagal nervous activity. Immobilization (IMO) stress of rats can reproduce the electrocardiographic and left ventriculographic changes that occur in takotsubo cardiomyopathy, both of which are prevented by combined blockade of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors. Estrogen supplementation partially attenuated these cardiac changes. It also attenuated the IMO-induced increase of c-Fos immunoreactivity, or c-fos mRNA expression in the lateral septum, medial amygdaloid nucleus, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, and locus ceruleus; these regions contain central sympathetic neurons and neurons with immunoreactive estrogen receptors. It also downregulated c-fos mRNA expression in the adrenal gland and the heart, suggesting an increase of estrogen attenuated the stress-induced hypothalamo-sympathoadrenal outflow from the central nervous system to the target organs. Estrogen treatment also upregulated the levels of cardioprotective substances, such as atrial natriuretic peptide and heat shock protein 70, in the heart. These data suggest that reduction of estrogen levels following menopause might be involved in the primary cause of takotsubo cardiomyopathy both by indirect action on the nervous system and by direct action on the heart.

  16. Fear extinction and acute stress reactivity reveal a role of LPA(1) receptor in regulating emotional-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, C; Sánchez-López, J; Castilla-Ortega, E; Rosell-Valle, C; Zambrana-Infantes, E; García-Fernández, M; Rodriguez de Fonseca, F; Chun, J; Santín, L J; Estivill-Torrús, G

    2014-09-01

    LPA1 receptor is one of the six characterized G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6) through which lysophosphatidic acid acts as an intercellular signaling molecule. It has been proposed that this receptor has a role in controlling anxiety-like behaviors and in the detrimental consequences of stress. Here, we sought to establish the involvement of the LPA1 receptor in emotional regulation. To this end, we examined fear extinction in LPA1-null mice, wild-type and LPA1 antagonist-treated animals. In LPA1-null mice we also characterized the morphology and GABAergic properties of the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, the expression of c-Fos protein in the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex, and the corticosterone response following acute stress were examined in both genotypes. Our data indicated that the absence of the LPA1 receptor significantly inhibited fear extinction. Treatment of wild-type mice with the LPA1 antagonist Ki16425 mimicked the behavioral phenotype of LPA1-null mice, revealing that the LPA1 receptor was involved in extinction. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed a reduction in the number of neurons, GABA+ cells, calcium-binding proteins and the volume of the amygdala in LPA1-null mice. Following acute stress, LPA1-null mice showed increased corticosterone and c-Fos expression in the amygdala. In conclusion, LPA1 receptor is involved in emotional behaviors and in the anatomical integrity of the corticolimbic circuit, the deregulation of which may be a susceptibility factor for anxiety disorders and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases.

  17. Fear extinction and acute stress reactivity reveal a role of LPA(1) receptor in regulating emotional-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, C; Sánchez-López, J; Castilla-Ortega, E; Rosell-Valle, C; Zambrana-Infantes, E; García-Fernández, M; Rodriguez de Fonseca, F; Chun, J; Santín, L J; Estivill-Torrús, G

    2014-09-01

    LPA1 receptor is one of the six characterized G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6) through which lysophosphatidic acid acts as an intercellular signaling molecule. It has been proposed that this receptor has a role in controlling anxiety-like behaviors and in the detrimental consequences of stress. Here, we sought to establish the involvement of the LPA1 receptor in emotional regulation. To this end, we examined fear extinction in LPA1-null mice, wild-type and LPA1 antagonist-treated animals. In LPA1-null mice we also characterized the morphology and GABAergic properties of the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, the expression of c-Fos protein in the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex, and the corticosterone response following acute stress were examined in both genotypes. Our data indicated that the absence of the LPA1 receptor significantly inhibited fear extinction. Treatment of wild-type mice with the LPA1 antagonist Ki16425 mimicked the behavioral phenotype of LPA1-null mice, revealing that the LPA1 receptor was involved in extinction. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed a reduction in the number of neurons, GABA+ cells, calcium-binding proteins and the volume of the amygdala in LPA1-null mice. Following acute stress, LPA1-null mice showed increased corticosterone and c-Fos expression in the amygdala. In conclusion, LPA1 receptor is involved in emotional behaviors and in the anatomical integrity of the corticolimbic circuit, the deregulation of which may be a susceptibility factor for anxiety disorders and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases. PMID:23775489

  18. Enhanced emotional empathy after psychosocial stress in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Oliver T; Schulte, Judith M; Drimalla, Hanna; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Knoch, Daria; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a core prerequisite for human social behavior. Relatively, little is known about how empathy is influenced by social stress and its associated neuroendocrine alterations. The current study was designed to test the impact of acute stress on emotional and cognitive empathy. Healthy male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (trier social stress test, (TSST)) or a well-matched control condition (Placebo-TSST). Afterwards they participated in an empathy test measuring emotional and cognitive empathy (multifaceted empathy test, (MET)). Stress exposure caused an increase in negative affect, a rise in salivary alpha amylase and a rise in cortisol. Participants exposed to stress reported more emotional empathy in response to pictures displaying both positive and negative emotional social scenes. Cognitive empathy (emotion recognition) in contrast did not differ between the stress and the control group. The current findings provide initial evidence for enhanced emotional empathy after acute psychosocial stress.

  19. Cognitive emotion regulation fails the stress test.

    PubMed

    Raio, Candace M; Orederu, Temidayo A; Palazzolo, Laura; Shurick, Ashley A; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-09-10

    Cognitive emotion regulation has been widely shown in the laboratory to be an effective way to alter the nature of emotional responses. Despite its success in experimental contexts, however, we often fail to use these strategies in everyday life where stress is pervasive. The successful execution of cognitive regulation relies on intact executive functioning and engagement of the prefrontal cortex, both of which are rapidly impaired by the deleterious effects of stress. Because it is specifically under stressful conditions that we may benefit most from such deliberate forms of emotion regulation, we tested the efficacy of cognitive regulation after stress exposure. Participants first underwent fear-conditioning, where they learned that one stimulus (CS+) predicted an aversive outcome but another predicted a neutral outcome (CS-). Cognitive regulation training directly followed where participants were taught to regulate fear responses to the aversive stimulus. The next day, participants underwent an acute stress induction or a control task before repeating the fear-conditioning task using these newly acquired regulation skills. Skin conductance served as an index of fear arousal, and salivary α-amylase and cortisol concentrations were assayed as neuroendocrine markers of stress response. Although groups showed no differences in fear arousal during initial fear learning, nonstressed participants demonstrated robust fear reduction following regulation training, whereas stressed participants showed no such reduction. Our results suggest that stress markedly impairs the cognitive regulation of emotion and highlights critical limitations of this technique to control affective responses under stress.

  20. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress.

    PubMed

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-09-01

    An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.

  1. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    An individual’s susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure e.g., cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardised laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the TSST. Individuals with high Agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high Communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease. PMID:25036730

  2. Informational need of emotional stress.

    PubMed

    Simonov, P V; Frolov, M V

    1981-01-01

    According to the informational theory of emotions, emotions in humans depend on the power of some need (motivation) and the estimation by the subject of the probability (possibility) of the need satisfaction (the goal achievement). Low probability of need satisfaction leads to negative emotions, actively minimized by the subject. Increased probability of satisfaction, as compared to earlier forecast, generates positive emotions, which the subject tries to maximize, i.e. to enhance, to prolong, to repeat. The informational theory of emotions encompasses their reflective function, the laws of their appearance, the regulatory significance of emotions, and their role in organization of behavior. The level of emotional stress influences the operator's performance. A decrease in the emotional tonus leads to drowsiness, lack of vigilance, missing of significant signals and to slower reactions. An extremely high stress level disorganizes the activity, complicates it with a trend toward incorrect actions and reactions to insignificant signals (false alarms). The neurophysiological mechanisms of the influence of emotions on perceptual activity and operator performance as well as the significance of individuality are discussed.

  3. STRIVE: Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments: a pre-deployment VR system for training emotional coping skills and assessing chronic and acute stress responses.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert; Buckwalter, J Galen; John, Bruce; Newman, Brad; Parsons, Thomas; Kenny, Patrick; Williams, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in returning OEF/OIF military personnel is creating a significant healthcare challenge. This has served to motivate research on how to better develop and disseminate evidence-based treatments for PTSD. One emerging form of treatment for combat-related PTSD that has shown promise involves the delivery of exposure therapy using immersive Virtual Reality (VR). Initial outcomes from open clinical trials have been positive and fully randomized controlled trials are currently in progress to further validate this approach. Based on our research group's initial positive outcomes using VR to emotionally engage and successfully treat persons undergoing exposure therapy for PTSD, we have begun development in a similar VR-based approach to deliver stress resilience training with military service members prior to their initial deployment. The Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments (STRIVE) project aims to create a set of combat simulations (derived from our existing Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan exposure therapy system) that are part of a multi-episode narrative experience. Users can be immersed within challenging combat contexts and interact with virtual characters within these episodes as part of an experiential learning approach for training a range of psychoeducational and cognitive-behavioral emotional coping strategies believed to enhance stress resilience. The STRIVE project aims to present this approach to service members prior to deployment as part of a program designed to better prepare military personnel for the types of emotional challenges that are inherent in the combat environment. During these virtual training experiences users are monitored physiologically as part of a larger investigation into the biomarkers of the stress response. One such construct, Allostatic Load, is being directly investigated via physiological and neuro-hormonal analysis from specimen collections taken immediately before and after

  4. STRIVE: Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments: a pre-deployment VR system for training emotional coping skills and assessing chronic and acute stress responses.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert; Buckwalter, J Galen; John, Bruce; Newman, Brad; Parsons, Thomas; Kenny, Patrick; Williams, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in returning OEF/OIF military personnel is creating a significant healthcare challenge. This has served to motivate research on how to better develop and disseminate evidence-based treatments for PTSD. One emerging form of treatment for combat-related PTSD that has shown promise involves the delivery of exposure therapy using immersive Virtual Reality (VR). Initial outcomes from open clinical trials have been positive and fully randomized controlled trials are currently in progress to further validate this approach. Based on our research group's initial positive outcomes using VR to emotionally engage and successfully treat persons undergoing exposure therapy for PTSD, we have begun development in a similar VR-based approach to deliver stress resilience training with military service members prior to their initial deployment. The Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments (STRIVE) project aims to create a set of combat simulations (derived from our existing Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan exposure therapy system) that are part of a multi-episode narrative experience. Users can be immersed within challenging combat contexts and interact with virtual characters within these episodes as part of an experiential learning approach for training a range of psychoeducational and cognitive-behavioral emotional coping strategies believed to enhance stress resilience. The STRIVE project aims to present this approach to service members prior to deployment as part of a program designed to better prepare military personnel for the types of emotional challenges that are inherent in the combat environment. During these virtual training experiences users are monitored physiologically as part of a larger investigation into the biomarkers of the stress response. One such construct, Allostatic Load, is being directly investigated via physiological and neuro-hormonal analysis from specimen collections taken immediately before and after

  5. The emotional stress and risk of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Kotlęga, Dariusz; Gołąb-Janowska, Monika; Masztalewicz, Marta; Ciećwież, Sylwester; Nowacki, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide, and the leading cause of acquired disability in adults in most regions. There have been distinguished modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors of stroke. Among them the emotional stress was presented as a risk factor. The aim of this review was to present available data regarding the influence of acute and chronic mental stress on the risk of ischemic stroke as well as discussing the potential pathomechanisms of such relationship. There is an evident association between both acute and chronic emotional stress and risk of stroke. Several potential mechanisms are discussed to be the cause. Stress can increase the cerebrovascular disease risk by modulating symphaticomimetic activity, affecting the blood pressure reactivity, cerebral endothelium, coagulation or heart rhythm. The emotional stress seems to be still underestimated risk factor in neurological practice and research. Further studies and analyses should be provided for better understanding of this complex, not fully known epidemiological problem.

  6. Social Emotional Learning Skills and Educational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The basic aim of this research is to examine the predicting role of social emotional learning skills in educational stress. The participants were 238 adolescents at high school. In this study, the Social Emotional Learning Skills Scale and the Educational Stress Scale were used. The relationships between social emotional learning skills and…

  7. Effect of Acute Emotional Stress on Proteomic Profile of Selected Brain Areas and Lysosomal Proteolysis in Rats with Different Behavioral Activity.

    PubMed

    Sharanova, N E; Kirbaeva, N V; Toropygin, I Yu; Khryapova, E V; Koplik, E V; Soto, C Kh; Pertsov, S S; Vasiliev, A V

    2016-07-01

    We compared proteome profiles of selected brain areas (cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and reticular formation) and measured cathepsins B and D activity in liver lysosomal fraction in rats with different behavioral activity under conditions of emotional stress. In passive rats, the expression of some proteins in various brain regions was changed and baseline cathepsin B activity was higher than in active animals. Taken together, the results attest to differences in the adaptive response formation in rats, depending on behavioral features. PMID:27502534

  8. Traumatic stress in acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodin, Gary; Yuen, Dora; Mischitelle, Ashley; Minden, Mark D; Brandwein, Joseph; Schimmer, Aaron; Marmar, Charles; Gagliese, Lucia; Lo, Christopher; Rydall, Anne; Zimmermann, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acute leukemia is a condition with an acute onset that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. However, the psychological impact of this life-threatening condition and its intensive treatment has not been systematically examined. In the present study, we investigate the prevalence and correlates of post-traumatic stress symptoms in this population. Methods Patients with acute myeloid, lymphocytic, and promyelocytic leukemia who were newly diagnosed, recently relapsed, or treatment failures were recruited at a comprehensive cancer center in Toronto, Canada. Participants completed the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, CARES Medical Interaction Subscale, and other psychosocial measures. A multivariate regression analysis was used to assess independent predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Results Of the 205 participants, 58% were male, mean age was 50.1 ± 15.4 years, 86% were recently diagnosed, and 94% were receiving active treatment. The mean Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire score was 30.2 ± 22.5, with 27 of 200 (14%) patients meeting criteria for acute stress disorder and 36 (18%) for subsyndromal acute stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were associated with more physical symptoms, physical symptom distress, attachment anxiety, and perceived difficulty communicating with health-care providers, and poorer spiritual well-being (all p <0.05). Conclusions The present study demonstrates that clinically significant symptoms of traumatic stress are common in acute leukemia and are linked to the degree of physical suffering, to satisfaction with relationships with health-care providers, and with individual psychological characteristics. Longitudinal study is needed to determine the natural history, but these findings suggest that intervention may be indicated to alleviate or prevent traumatic stress in this population. PMID:22081505

  9. Different effects of tianeptine pretreatment in rats exposed to acute stress and repeated severe stress.

    PubMed

    Kasar, M; Mengi, M; Yildirim, E A; Yurdakos, E

    2009-04-01

    In this study we aim to discuss the relationship between stress and learning and emotionality in an experimental model using two different stress conditions: acute stress (single restraint stress for 20 min) and repeated severe stress (6-h daily restraint for 21 days). We studied the effects of tianeptine, which has been suggested to have anxiolytic and cognition-enhancing effects under stressful conditions. After acute stress, the increase in the duration of immobility (F = 5.753 and 3.664) in the open field and holeboard tests and the decrease in rearing (F = 3.891) in the holeboard test were significant when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Results for repeated severe stress showed that in both the open field and holeboard tests the decrease in rearing (F = 4.494 and 4.530, respectively), increase in the duration of immobility (F = 6.069 and 4.742, respectively) and decrease in head dips (F = 4.938) in the holeboard test were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The group pretreated with tianeptine showed no significant difference from controls for either acute or repeated severe stress conditions. In the Morris water maze test, acute stress led to a prolongation of average escape latency, which indicated a spatial learning deficit. Treatment with tianeptine prior to acute stress prevented this spatial deficit. Repeated severe stress also led to spatial learning deficits in rats, but this deficit was not prevented by treatment with tianeptine. Our study demonstrates that pretreatment with tianeptine had different effects on stress-induced spatial learning deficits under acute and repeated stress conditions, while the effects on emotionality and anxiety-like behavior were similar. The mechanisms implicated in stress-induced emotional and memory deficits will be discussed.

  10. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  11. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions. PMID:26303312

  12. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  13. Emotional Stress and Cardiovascular Complications in Animal Models: A Review of the Influence of Stress Type.

    PubMed

    Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Emotional stress has been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The impact of stress on physiological and psychological processes is determined by characteristics of the stress stimulus. For example, distinct responses are induced by acute vs. chronic aversive stimuli. Additionally, the magnitude of stress responses has been reported to be inversely related to the degree of predictability of the aversive stimulus. Therefore, the purpose of the present review was to discuss experimental research in animal models describing the influence of stressor stimulus characteristics, such as chronicity and predictability, in cardiovascular dysfunctions induced by emotional stress. Regarding chronicity, the importance of cardiovascular and autonomic adjustments during acute stress sessions and cardiovascular consequences of frequent stress response activation during repeated exposure to aversive threats (i.e., chronic stress) is discussed. Evidence of the cardiovascular and autonomic changes induced by chronic stressors involving daily exposure to the same stressor (predictable) vs. different stressors (unpredictable) is reviewed and discussed in terms of the impact of predictability in cardiovascular dysfunctions induced by stress. PMID:27445843

  14. Emotional Stress and Cardiovascular Complications in Animal Models: A Review of the Influence of Stress Type

    PubMed Central

    Crestani, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Emotional stress has been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The impact of stress on physiological and psychological processes is determined by characteristics of the stress stimulus. For example, distinct responses are induced by acute vs. chronic aversive stimuli. Additionally, the magnitude of stress responses has been reported to be inversely related to the degree of predictability of the aversive stimulus. Therefore, the purpose of the present review was to discuss experimental research in animal models describing the influence of stressor stimulus characteristics, such as chronicity and predictability, in cardiovascular dysfunctions induced by emotional stress. Regarding chronicity, the importance of cardiovascular and autonomic adjustments during acute stress sessions and cardiovascular consequences of frequent stress response activation during repeated exposure to aversive threats (i.e., chronic stress) is discussed. Evidence of the cardiovascular and autonomic changes induced by chronic stressors involving daily exposure to the same stressor (predictable) vs. different stressors (unpredictable) is reviewed and discussed in terms of the impact of predictability in cardiovascular dysfunctions induced by stress. PMID:27445843

  15. Social Emotional Learning and Educational Stress: A Predictive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Serhat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between social emotional learning and educational stress. Participants were 321 elementary students. Social emotional learning and educational stress scale were used as measures. The relationships between social emotional learning and educational stress were examined using correlation…

  16. Stress and acute respiratory infection

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, N.M.; Douglas, R.M.; Ryan, P.

    1986-09-01

    To examine the relationship between stress and upper respiratory tract infection, 235 adults aged 14-57 years, from 94 families affiliated with three suburban family physicians in Adelaide, South Australia, participated in a six-month prospective study. High and low stress groups were identified by median splits of data collected from the Life Events Inventory, the Daily Hassles Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire, which were administered both before and during the six months of respiratory diary data collection. Using intra-study stress data, the high stress group experienced significantly more episodes (mean of 2.71 vs. 1.56, p less than 0.0005) and symptom days (mean of 29.43 vs. 15.42, p = 0.005) of respiratory illness. The two groups were almost identical with respect to age, sex, occupational status, smoking, passive smoking, exposure to air pollution, family size, and proneness to acute respiratory infection in childhood. In a multivariate model with total respiratory episodes as the dependent variable, 21% of the variance was explained, and two stress variables accounted for 9% of the explained variance. Significant, but less strong relationships were also identified between intra-study stress variables and clinically definite episodes and symptom days in both clinically definite and total respiratory episodes. Pre-study measures of stress emphasized chronic stresses and were less strongly related to measures of respiratory illness than those collected during the study. However, significantly more episodes (mean of 2.50 vs. 1.75, p less than 0.02) and symptom days (mean of 28.00 vs. 17.06, p less than 0.03) were experienced in the high stress group. In the multivariate analyses, pre-study stress remained significantly associated with total respiratory episodes nd symptom days in total and ''definite'' respiratory episodes.

  17. Emotions, stress, and maternal motivation in primates.

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2011-06-01

    Recent research conducted with nonhuman primates confirms that adaptive emotional processes, such as maternal attraction arousability and maternal anxiety arousability, enhance and sustain female motivation to interact with infants, invest in them, and protect them during the postpartum period. Changes in these emotional processes, and concomitant changes in maternal motivation, facilitate the reduction and eventual termination of maternal investment associated with infant weaning. Although laboratory studies of rodents and socially deprived rhesus monkeys have suggested that nulliparous females are neophobic and find infant stimuli aversive, recent primate research indicates that neophobia or aversion to infant stimuli do not occur in females with normal developmental experience. Furthermore, although some rodent and human studies have shown that lactation is accompanied by physiological hyporesponsiveness to stress, other studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans indicate that mothers are highly vulnerable to stress and that stress-induced dysregulation of emotions can interfere with maternal motivation and parenting behavior. It is possible that some aspects of the emotional and experiential regulation of maternal motivation and parental behavior are different in different mammalian species. However, variation in the environments in which subjects are tested and in their developmental experience may also be responsible for the some discrepancies between the results of different studies.

  18. ACUTE MENTAL STRESS AND HEMOSTASIS: WHEN PHYSIOLOGY BECOMES VASCULAR HARM

    PubMed Central

    von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced activation of the sympathoadrenal medullary system activates both the coagulation and fibrinolysis system resulting in net hypercoagulability. The evolutionary interpretation of this physiology is that stress-hypercoagulability protects a healthy organism from excess bleeding should injury occur in fight-or-flight situations. In turn, acute mental stress, negative emotions and psychological trauma also are triggering factors of atherothrombotic events and possibly of venous thromboembolism. Individuals with pre-existent atherosclerosis and impaired endothelial anticoagulant function are the most vulnerable to experience onset of acute coronary events within two hours of intense emotions. A range of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors (e.g., chronic stress and negative affect) might critically intensify and prolong stress-induced hypercoagulability. In contrast, several pharmacological compounds, dietary flavanoids, and positive affect mitigate the acute prothrombotic stress response. Studies are needed to investigate whether attenuation of stress-hypercoagulability through medications and biobehavioral interventions reduce the risk of thrombotic incidents in at-risk populations. PMID:25861135

  19. Cannabinoids & Stress: impact of HU-210 on behavioral tests of anxiety in acutely stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Kinden, Renee; Zhang, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Anxiety disorders are one of the most prevalent classes of mental disorders affecting the general population, but current treatment strategies are restricted by their limited efficacy and side effect profiles. Although the cannabinoid system is speculated to be a key player in the modulation of stress responses and emotionality, the vast majority of current research initiatives had not incorporated stress exposure into their experimental designs. This study was the first to investigate the impact of exogenous cannabinoid administration in an acutely stressed mouse model, where CD1 mice were pre-treated with HU-210, a potent CB1R agonist, prior to acute stress exposure and subsequent behavioral testing. Exogenous cannabinoid administration induced distinct behavioral phenotypes in stressed and unstressed mice. While low doses of HU-210 were anxiolytic in unstressed subjects, this effect was abolished when mice were exposed to an acute stressor. The administration of higher HU-210 doses in combination with acute stress exposure led to severe locomotor deficits that were not previously observed at the same dose in unstressed subjects. These findings suggest that exogenous cannabinoids and acute stress act synergistically in an anxiogenic manner. This study underlies the importance of including stress exposure into future anxiety-cannabinoid research due to the differential impact of cannabinoid administration on stressed and unstressed subjects.

  20. Better cognitive control of emotional information is associated with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity to emotional stress.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Kuchenbecker, Shari Young; Pressman, Sarah D; Sumida, Ken D; Slavich, George M

    2016-01-01

    Stress is strongly associated with several mental and physical health problems that involve inflammation, including asthma, cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and depression. It has been hypothesized that better cognitive control of emotional information may lead to reduced inflammatory reactivity to stress and thus better health, but to date no studies have examined whether differences in cognitive control predict pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to stress. To address this issue, we conducted a laboratory-based experimental study in which we randomly assigned healthy young-adult females to either an acute emotional stress (emotionally evocative video) or no-stress (control video) condition. Salivary levels of the key pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were measured before and after the experimental manipulation, and following the last cytokine sample, we assessed participants' cognitive control of emotional information using an emotional Stroop task. We also assessed participants' cortisol levels before and after the manipulation to verify that documented effects were specific to cytokines and not simply due to increased nonwater salivary output. As hypothesized, the emotional stressor triggered significant increases in IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. Moreover, even in fully adjusted models, better cognitive control following the emotional (but not control) video predicted less pronounced cytokine responses to that stressor. In contrast, no effects were observed for cortisol. These data thus indicate that better cognitive control specifically following an emotional stressor is uniquely associated with less pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity to such stress. These findings may therefore help explain why superior cognitive control portends better health over the lifespan.

  1. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Rutledge, Robb B; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-03-29

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function.

  2. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Rutledge, Robb B; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function. PMID:27020312

  3. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, Archy O.; Rutledge, Robb B.; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function. PMID:27020312

  4. Lower Electrodermal Activity to Acute Stress in Caregivers of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Adaptive Habituation to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between…

  5. Precompetitive achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping among athletes.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Calmeiro, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Grounded in Lazarus's (1991, 1999, 2000) cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions, we tested a model of achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. We predicted that precompetitive achievement goals would be associated with appraisals, appraisals with emotions, and emotions with coping in our model. The mediating effects of emotions among the overall sample of 827 athletes and two stratified random subsamples were also explored. The results of this study support our proposed model in the overall sample and the stratified subsamples. Further, emotion mediated the relationship between appraisal and coping. Mediation analyses revealed that there were indirect effects of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, which indicates the importance of examining multiple emotions to reveal a more accurate representation of the overall stress process. Our findings indicate that both appraisals and emotions are just as important in shaping coping.

  6. Emotionally based strategic communications and societal stress-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Cosić, Krešimir; Srbljinović, Armano; Popović, Siniša; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2012-11-01

    This article discusses the potential of emotionally based strategic communications (EBSCs) as an extension of traditional strategic communications in prevention of societal stress-related disorders. The concept of EBSCs takes into consideration dominant emotional maps of a specific sociocultural environment in which communications take place. EBSCs may have a significant potential to transform mainly negative-dominant emotional maps of targeted social groups into more positive ones, as a precondition of building a more resilient and stress-resistant social environment. A better understanding of dominant emotional maps and their conditioning may facilitate restoration of more positive emotional maps by touching the right emotions of significant parts of the targeted social groups in the right way. Dominant emotional maps of societies afflicted by economic downturns, natural disasters, conflicts etc., are typically characterized by negatively valenced emotions. Persistent negatively valenced group-based dominant emotions may be used as a quantitative statistical measure of potential stress-related disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders among respected group members. The toxic power of extreme negative emotions, attitudes, actions, and behavior might be reduced by EBSCs as a communication method for transforming negative-dominant emotional maps into more positive ones. EBSCs are conceptualized as the positively valenced stimulation of a negatively emotionally affected group by an appropriate communication strategy to minimize dominant-negative emotional maps and behavior of the targeted group.

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Lisa S; Maguen, Shira; Epel, Elissa S; Metzler, Thomas J; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and emotional eating in a sample of medically healthy and medication-free adults. Participants with PTSD (n = 44) and control participants free of lifetime psychiatric history (n = 49) completed a measure of emotional eating. Emotional eating is the tendency to eat or overeat in response to negative emotions. PTSD participants exhibited greater emotional eating than control participants (η(2)  = .20) and emotional eating increased with higher PTSD symptom severity (R(2)  = .11). Results supported the stress-eating-obesity model whereby emotional eating is a maladaptive response to stressors. Over time, this could lead to weight gain, particularly abdominal stores, and contribute to higher risk for comorbid medical disorders. Findings suggest the importance of future longitudinal research to understand whether emotional eating contributes to the high rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease in PTSD.

  8. Stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns in children.

    PubMed

    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabriele; Hebestreit, Antje; Huybrechts, Inge; Vanaelst, Barbara; Vyncke, Krishna; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-12-01

    Psychological stress has been suggested to change dietary pattern towards more unhealthy choices and as such to contribute to overweight. Emotional eating behaviour could be an underlying mediating mechanism. The interrelationship between stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns has only rarely been examined in young children. Nevertheless, research in children is pivotal as the foundations of dietary habits are established starting from childhood and may track into adulthood. In 437 children (5-12years) of the ChiBS study, stress was measured by questionnaires on stressful events, emotions (happy, angry, sad, anxious) and problems (emotional, peer, conduct and hyperactivity). Data were collected on children's emotional eating behaviour and also on dietary patterns: frequency of fatty foods, sweet foods, snacks (fat and sweet), fruit and vegetables. Stressful events, negative emotions and problems were positively associated with emotional eating. Positive associations were observed between problems and both sweet and fatty foods consumption. Negative associations were observed between events and fruit and vegetables consumption. Overall, stress was associated with emotional eating and a more unhealthy dietary pattern and could thus contribute to the development of overweight, also in children. Nevertheless, emotional eating behaviour was not observed to mediate the stress-diet relation. PMID:22918173

  9. Acute stress cardiomyopathy and deaths associated with electronic weapons.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Cihan; Otahbachi, Mohammad; Miller, Elizabeth; Bagdure, Satish; Nugent, Kenneth M

    2009-03-01

    Deaths associated with the use of electronic weapons almost always occur in young men involved in either civil disturbances or criminal activity. These situations are associated with high levels of circulating catecholamines and frequently associated with drug intoxication. The mechanism for these deaths is unclear. Clinical studies indicate that these high voltage electrical pulses do not cause cardiac arrhythmia. Acute stress cardiomyopathy provides an alternative explanation for deaths associated with electronic weapons and may provide a better explanation for the usual time course associated with taser deaths. Patients with acute stress cardiomyopathy usually have had an emotional or physical stress, have high circulating levels of catecholamines, present with an acute coronary syndrome but have normal coronary vessels without significant thrombus formation. They have unusual left ventricular dysfunction with so-called apical ballooning. This presentation has been attributed to the direct effects of catecholamines on myocardial cell function. Alternative explanations include vasospasm in the coronary microcirculation and/or acute thrombosis followed by rapid thrombolysis. Similar events could occur during the high stress situations associated with the use of electronic weapons. These events also likely explain restraint-related deaths which occur in independent of any use of electronic weapons. Forensic pathologists have the opportunity to provide important details about the pathogenesis of these deaths through histological studies and careful evaluation of coronary vessels.

  10. Stress, Emotional Intelligence, and Life Satisfaction in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holinka, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have examined stress, life satisfaction, and emotional intelligence in college students. Research on stress in college students has focused on the sources of stress, coping styles, and relevant outcomes. Research on life satisfaction has focused on specific relationships between life satisfaction and concepts like worry,…

  11. Acute lymphopenia, stress, and plasma cortisol.

    PubMed Central

    Ramaekers, L H; Theunissen, P M; Went, K

    1975-01-01

    Plasma cortisol levels were determined in 51 children on admission to hospital for a variety of acute illnesses which were associated with a lymphopenia, and again when the lymphocyte count had returned to normal. The ratio cortisol level/lymphocyte count was much higher in the acute phase of the illness than later when the lymphocyte count had returned to normal. It is concluded that the lymphocyte count is a useful means of detecting an acute stress condition, and the time of return of normal plasma cortisol levels. PMID:1167069

  12. Stress, sense of coherence and emotional symptoms in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A; Haugan, Gørill

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the association between the domains of stress, sense of coherence (SOC) and emotional symptoms (depression and anxiety) in adolescents, as well as the potential moderating role of SOC on the relationship between stress and emotional symptoms. The study is based on a cross-sectional sample of 1183 adolescents aged 13-18 who attend public elementary and secondary schools in Mid-Norway. The results showed that girls scored higher than boys on stress related to peer pressure, home life, school performance, school/leisure conflict and emotional symptoms. Conversely, boys reported higher SOC than girls. Results from multiple hierarchical regression analyses showed that for boys, stress related to school performance was positively associated with symptoms of both depression and anxiety, whereas stress from peer pressure was associated with depressive symptoms. For girls, stress from peer pressure, romantic relationships and school was associated with more depressive symptoms. SOC was strongly and inversely associated with emotional symptoms, especially anxiety in girls. SOC also moderated the association between stress related to peer pressure and depressive symptoms in both genders. The study provides evidence of the association of SOC with stress and emotional symptoms during adolescence.

  13. Effective Stress Management: A Model of Emotional Intelligence, Self-Leadership, and Student Stress Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Jeffery D.; Wu, Jinpei; Godwin, Jeffrey L.; Neck, Christopher P.; Manz, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    This article develops and presents a model of the relationships among emotional intelligence, self-leadership, and stress coping among management students. In short, the authors' model suggests that effective emotion regulation and self-leadership, as mediated through positive affect and self-efficacy, has the potential to facilitate stress coping…

  14. Emotional Intelligence, Personality, and Task-Induced Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Gerald; Emo, Amanda K.; Funke, Gregory; Zeidner, Moshe; Roberts, Richard D.; Costa, Paul T.; Schulze, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) may predict stress responses and coping strategies in a variety of applied settings. This study compares EI and the personality factors of the Five Factor Model (FFM) as predictors of task-induced stress responses. Participants (N = 200) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 task conditions, 3 of which were designed to be…

  15. Attentional Bias towards Positive Emotion Predicts Stress Resilience.

    PubMed

    Thoern, Hanna A; Grueschow, Marcus; Ehlert, Ulrike; Ruff, Christian C; Kleim, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence for an association between an attentional bias towards emotionally negative stimuli and vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Less is known about whether selective attention towards emotionally positive stimuli relates to mental health and stress resilience. The current study used a modified Dot Probe task to investigate if individual differences in attentional biases towards either happy or angry emotional stimuli, or an interaction between these biases, are related to self-reported trait stress resilience. In a nonclinical sample (N = 43), we indexed attentional biases as individual differences in reaction time for stimuli preceded by either happy or angry (compared to neutral) face stimuli. Participants with greater attentional bias towards happy faces (but not angry faces) reported higher trait resilience. However, an attentional bias towards angry stimuli moderated this effect: The attentional bias towards happy faces was only predictive for resilience in those individuals who also endorsed an attentional bias towards angry stimuli. An attentional bias towards positive emotional stimuli may thus be a protective factor contributing to stress resilience, specifically in those individuals who also endorse an attentional bias towards negative emotional stimuli. Our findings therefore suggest a novel target for prevention and treatment interventions addressing stress-related psychopathology. PMID:27008475

  16. Attentional Bias towards Positive Emotion Predicts Stress Resilience.

    PubMed

    Thoern, Hanna A; Grueschow, Marcus; Ehlert, Ulrike; Ruff, Christian C; Kleim, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence for an association between an attentional bias towards emotionally negative stimuli and vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Less is known about whether selective attention towards emotionally positive stimuli relates to mental health and stress resilience. The current study used a modified Dot Probe task to investigate if individual differences in attentional biases towards either happy or angry emotional stimuli, or an interaction between these biases, are related to self-reported trait stress resilience. In a nonclinical sample (N = 43), we indexed attentional biases as individual differences in reaction time for stimuli preceded by either happy or angry (compared to neutral) face stimuli. Participants with greater attentional bias towards happy faces (but not angry faces) reported higher trait resilience. However, an attentional bias towards angry stimuli moderated this effect: The attentional bias towards happy faces was only predictive for resilience in those individuals who also endorsed an attentional bias towards angry stimuli. An attentional bias towards positive emotional stimuli may thus be a protective factor contributing to stress resilience, specifically in those individuals who also endorse an attentional bias towards negative emotional stimuli. Our findings therefore suggest a novel target for prevention and treatment interventions addressing stress-related psychopathology.

  17. Attentional Bias towards Positive Emotion Predicts Stress Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Ehlert, Ulrike; Ruff, Christian C.; Kleim, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence for an association between an attentional bias towards emotionally negative stimuli and vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Less is known about whether selective attention towards emotionally positive stimuli relates to mental health and stress resilience. The current study used a modified Dot Probe task to investigate if individual differences in attentional biases towards either happy or angry emotional stimuli, or an interaction between these biases, are related to self-reported trait stress resilience. In a nonclinical sample (N = 43), we indexed attentional biases as individual differences in reaction time for stimuli preceded by either happy or angry (compared to neutral) face stimuli. Participants with greater attentional bias towards happy faces (but not angry faces) reported higher trait resilience. However, an attentional bias towards angry stimuli moderated this effect: The attentional bias towards happy faces was only predictive for resilience in those individuals who also endorsed an attentional bias towards angry stimuli. An attentional bias towards positive emotional stimuli may thus be a protective factor contributing to stress resilience, specifically in those individuals who also endorse an attentional bias towards negative emotional stimuli. Our findings therefore suggest a novel target for prevention and treatment interventions addressing stress-related psychopathology. PMID:27008475

  18. Emotional stability, anxiety, and natural killer activity under examination stress.

    PubMed

    Borella, P; Bargellini, A; Rovesti, S; Pinelli, M; Vivoli, R; Solfrini, V; Vivoli, G

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the relation between a stable personality trait, a mood state and immune response to an examination stress. A self-reported measure of emotional stability (BFQ-ES scale) was obtained in a sample (n = 39) randomly selected from 277 cadets; this personality trait was also investigated by completing a neuroticism scale (Eysenck personality inventory) and a trait-anxiety scale (STAI). Natural killer (NK) cell activity was measured at baseline, long before the examination time and the examination day. The state-anxiety scale evaluated the response to the stressful stimulus. Taking subjects all together, the academic task did not result in significant modification over baseline in NK cell activity. Subjects were then divided into three groups based on emotional stability and state-anxiety scores: high emotional stability/low anxiety, medium, and low emotional stability/high anxiety. Examination stress induced significant increases in NK cell activity in the high emotional stability/low anxiety group, no effect in the medium group, and significant decreases in the low emotional stability/high anxiety group. The repeated-measure ANOVA revealed a significant interaction of group x period (baseline vs. examination) for both lytic units and percent cytolysis. The results did not change after introducing coffee and smoking habits as covariates. Our findings suggest that the state-anxiety acts in concert with a stable personality trait to modulate NK response in healthy subjects exposed to a psychological naturalistic stress. The relation between anxiety and poor immune control has been already described, whereas the ability of emotional stability to associate with an immunoenhancement has not yet reported. The peculiarity of our population, a very homogeneous and healthy group for life style and habits, can have highlighted the role of emotional stability, and may account for the difference with other studies.

  19. Review of VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline on management of acute stress and interventions to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Nash, William P; Watson, Patricia J

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the recommendations of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)/Department of Defense (DOD) VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Post-Traumatic Stress that pertain to acute stress and the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder, including screening and early interventions for acute stress states in various settings. Recommended interventions during the first 4 days after a potentially traumatic event include attending to safety and basic needs and providing access to physical, emotional, and social resources. Psychological first aid is recommended for management of acute stress, while psychological debriefing is discouraged. Further medical and psychiatric assessment and provision of brief, trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy are warranted if clinically significant distress or functional impairment persists or worsens after 2 days or if the criteria for a diagnosis of acute stress disorder are met. Follow-up monitoring and rescreening are endorsed for at least 6 months for everyone who experiences significant acute posttraumatic stress. Four interventions that illustrate early intervention principles contained in the VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline are described.

  20. Emotional Contrast or Compensation? How Support Reminders Influence the Pain of Acute Peer Disapproval in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomaes, Sander; Sedikides, Constantine; Reijntjes, Albert; Brummelman, Eddie; Bushman, Brad J.

    2015-01-01

    When children experience habitual peer difficulties, adults often remind them that many people care about them. How do such reminders of support impact children's emotional responses to acute experiences of peer disapproval? Intuitively, support reminders would exert compensatory effects attenuating the emotional impact of acute disapproval.…

  1. Opposing effects of acute versus chronic blockade of frontal cortex somatostatin-positive inhibitory neurons on behavioral emotionality in mice.

    PubMed

    Soumier, Amelie; Sibille, Etienne

    2014-08-01

    Reduced expression of somatostatin (SST) is reported across chronic brain conditions including major depression and normal aging. SST is a signaling neuropeptide and marker of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) neurons, which specifically inhibit pyramidal neuron dendrites. Studies in auditory cortex suggest that chronic reduction in dendritic inhibition induces compensatory homeostatic adaptations that oppose the effects of acute inhibition. Whether such mechanisms occur in frontal cortex (FC) and affect behavioral outcome is not known. Here, we used two complementary viral vector strategies to examine the effects of acute vs chronic inhibition of SST-positive neurons on behavioral emotionality in adult mice. SST-IRES-Cre mice were injected in FC (prelimbic/precingulate) with CRE-dependent adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector encoding the engineered Gi/o-coupled human muscarinic M4 designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD-hM4Di) or a control reporter (AAV-DIO-mCherry) for acute or chronic cellular inhibition. A separate cohort was injected with CRE-dependent AAV vectors expressing diphtheria toxin (DTA) to selectively ablate FC SST neurons. Mice were assessed for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors (defined as emotionality). Results indicate that acute inhibition of FC SST neurons increased behavioral emotionality, whereas chronic inhibition decreased behavioral emotionality. Furthermore, ablation of FC SST neurons also decreased behavioral emotionality under baseline condition and after chronic stress. Together, our results reveal opposite effects of acute and chronic inhibition of FC SST neurons on behavioral emotionality and suggest the recruitment of homeostatic plasticity mechanisms that have implications for understanding the neurobiology of chronic brain conditions affecting dendritic-targeting inhibitory neurons.

  2. Oxidative stress in severe acute illness.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, David; Bar-Or, Raphael; Rael, Leonard T; Brody, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    The overall redox potential of a cell is primarily determined by oxidizable/reducible chemical pairs, including glutathione-glutathione disulfide, reduced thioredoxin-oxidized thioredoxin, and NAD(+)-NADH (and NADP-NADPH). Current methods for evaluating oxidative stress rely on detecting levels of individual byproducts of oxidative damage or by determining the total levels or activity of individual antioxidant enzymes. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), on the other hand, is an integrated, comprehensive measure of the balance between total (known and unknown) pro-oxidant and antioxidant components in a biological system. Much emphasis has been placed on the role of oxidative stress in chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. The role of oxidative stress in acute diseases often seen in the emergency room and intensive care unit is considerable. New tools for the rapid, inexpensive measurement of both redox potential and total redox capacity should aid in introducing a new body of literature on the role of oxidative stress in acute illness and how to screen and monitor for potentially beneficial pharmacologic agents.

  3. Dynamics of locomotor activity and heat production in rats after acute stress.

    PubMed

    Pertsov, S S; Alekseeva, I V; Koplik, E V; Sharanova, N E; Kirbaeva, N V; Gapparov, M M G

    2014-05-01

    The dynamics of locomotor activity and heat production were studied in rats demonstrating passive and active behavior in the open field test at different time after exposure to acute emotional stress caused by 12-h immobilization during dark hours. The most pronounced changes in behavior and heat production followed by disturbances in circadian rhythms of these parameters were detected within the first 2 days after stress. In contrast to behaviorally active rats, the most significant decrease in locomotor activity and heat production of passive animals subjected to emotional stress was observed during dark hours. Circadian rhythms of behavior and heat production in rats tended to recover on day 3 after immobilization stress. These data illustrate the specificity of metabolic and behavioral changes reflecting the shift of endogenous biological rhythms in individuals with different prognostic resistance to stress at different terms after exposure to negative emotiogenic stimuli. PMID:24906959

  4. Acute stress, memory, attention and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Vedhara, K; Hyde, J; Gilchrist, I D; Tytherleigh, M; Plummer, S

    2000-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore the relationship between acute changes in cortisol and memory and attention in the context of an acute naturalistic stressor, namely, examination stress. Sixty students (36 male, 24 female) participated in an assessment of self-reported levels of stress, salivary cortisol, short term memory, selective and divided attention and auditory verbal working memory. Assessments were conducted during a non-exam and exam period. The results revealed that the exam period was associated with an increase in perceived levels of stress, but also a significant reduction in levels of salivary cortisol, compared with the non-exam period. This reduction in cortisol was associated with enhanced short-term memory (as measured by the total number of words recalled in a free recall task), impaired attention and an impairment in the primacy effect (a hippocampal-specific index of short term memory), but no significant effects on auditory verbal working memory. It was concluded that the results support the view that cortisol can modulate cognitive processes and that the effects of corticosteroids on cognitive function are selective.

  5. The Neuroendocrine System and Stress, Emotions, Thoughts and Feelings**

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.

    2011-01-01

    The philosophy of mind is intimately connected with the philosophy of action. Therefore, concepts like free will, motivation, emotions (especially positive emotions), and also the ethical issues related to these concepts are of abiding interest. However, the concepts of consciousness and free will are usually discussed solely in linguistic, ideational and cognitive (i.e. “left brain”) terms. Admittedly, consciousness requires language and the left-brain, but the aphasic right brain is equally conscious; however, what it “hears” are more likely to be music and emotions. Joy can be as conscious as the conscious motivation produced by the left-brain reading a sign that says, “Danger mines!!” However, look in the index of a Western textbook of psychology, psychiatry or philosophy for positive emotions located in the limbic system. Notice how discussion of positive spiritual/emotional issues in consciousness and motivation are scrupulously ignored. For example, the popular notions of “love” being either Eros (raw, amoral instinct) or agape (noble, non-specific valuing of all other people) miss the motivational forest for the trees. Neither Eros (hypothalamic) nor agape (cortical) has a fraction of the power to relieve stress as attachment (limbic love), yet until the 1950s attachment was neither appreciated nor discussed by academic minds. This paper will point out that the prosocial, “spiritual” positive emotions like hope, faith, forgiveness, joy, compassion and gratitude are extremely important in the relief of stress and in regulation of the neuroendocrine system, protecting us against stress. The experimental work reviewed by Antonio Damasio and Barbara Fredrickson, and the clinical example of Alcoholics Anonymous, will be used to illustrate these points. PMID:21694965

  6. Parent-Child Agreement Regarding Children's Acute Stress: The Role of Parent Acute Stress Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Miller, Victoria A.; Winston, Flaura

    2006-01-01

    Objective: We examined parent--child agreement regarding child acute stress disorder (ASD) and the relationship between parent ASD symptoms and parent ratings of child ASD. Method: Parent-child dyads (N = 219; child age 8-17 years) were assessed within 1 month of child injury. Parent--child agreement was examined regarding child ASD presence,…

  7. Maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms and infant emotional reactivity and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Kitts, Robert L; Blood, Emily; Bizarro, Andrea; Hofmeister, Michelle; Wright, Rosalind J

    2011-12-01

    The current study examined associations between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and infant emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during the first year of life in a primarily low-income, urban, ethnic/racial minority sample of 52 mother-infant dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own trauma exposure history and current PTSD and depressive symptoms and their infants' temperament when the infants were 6 months old. Dyads participated in the repeated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP-R) when the infants were 6 months old, and infant affective states were coded for each SFP-R episode. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing infant trauma exposure history and infant current emotional and behavioral symptoms when the infants were 13 months old. Maternal PTSD symptoms predicted infants' emotion regulation at 6 months as assessed by (a) infant ability to recover from distress during the SFP-R and (b) maternal report of infant rate of recovery from distress/arousal in daily life. Maternal PTSD symptoms also predicted maternal report of infant externalizing, internalizing, and dysregulation symptoms at 13 months. Maternal PTSD was not associated with measures of infant emotional reactivity. Neither maternal depressive symptoms nor infant direct exposure to trauma accounted for the associations between maternal PTSD symptoms and infant outcomes. These findings suggest that maternal PTSD is associated with offspring emotion regulation difficulties as early as infancy. Such difficulties may contribute to increased risk of mental health problems among children of mothers with PTSD. PMID:21862136

  8. Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Infant Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Kitts, Robert L.; Blood, Emily; Bizarro, Andrea; Hofmeister, Michelle; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined associations between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and infant emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during the first year of life in a primarily low-income, urban, ethnic/racial minority sample of 52 mother-infant dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own trauma exposure history and current PTSD and depressive symptoms and their infants’ temperament when the infants were 6 months old. Dyads participated in the repeated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP-R) when the infants were 6 months old, and infant affective states were coded for each SFP-R episode. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing infant trauma exposure history and infant current emotional and behavioral symptoms when the infants were 13 months old. Maternal PTSD symptoms predicted infants’ emotion regulation at 6 months as assessed by (a) infant ability to recover from distress during the SFP-R and (b) maternal report of infant rate of recovery from distress/arousal in daily life. Maternal PTSD symptoms also predicted maternal report of infant externalizing, internalizing, and dysregulation symptoms at 13 months. Maternal PTSD was not associated with measures of infant emotional reactivity. Neither maternal depressive symptoms nor infant direct exposure to trauma accounted for the associations between maternal PTSD symptoms and infant outcomes. These findings suggest that maternal PTSD is associated with offspring emotion regulation difficulties as early as infancy. Such difficulties may contribute to increased risk of mental health problems among children of mothers with PTSD. PMID:21862136

  9. Early postnatal stress and neural circuit underlying emotional regulation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Machiko; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro; Togashi, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have shown that traumatic events during the early postnatal period precipitate long-lasting alterations in the functional properties underlying emotional expression that are attributable to the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. In this chapter, we summarize our recent work elucidating whether early postnatal stress alters the neural circuits underlying emotional regulation. Rats exposed to footshock stress (FS) during the second (2W) or the third (3W) postnatal week were subjected to unconditioned and conditioned stresses at the postadolescent period (10-12 weeks). No differences in locomotor activity or hippocampal synaptic changes were observed between the FS-groups and non-FS controls during exposure to open field stress. Fear-related freezing behavior during exposure to contextual fear conditioning (CFC) was markedly attenuated in the 2W-FS group, presumably due to disturbance of the retention for fear memory, an effect that was attributable to synaptic changes in the hippocampal CA1 field. The 3W-FS group exhibited attenuation of the decreases in freezing behavior induced by CFC extinction trials. The deficits in extinction was abolished by repeated treatment with the partial N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor agonist d-cycloserine, suggesting that aversive stress exposure during the third postnatal week impaired extinction of context-dependent fear memory. Taken together, the altered behavior observed in adulthood is likely the result of neurodevelopmental perturbations elicited by early life stress. Thus, a "critical period" exists for neural circuits involved in emotional expression that may contribute to lifelong susceptibility to stress.

  10. Amygdala-Hippocampal Connectivity Changes During Acute Psychosocial Stress: Joint Effect of Early Life Stress and Oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yan; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Pruessner, Jens C; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2015-11-01

    Previous evidence shows that acute stress changes both amygdala activity and its connectivity with a distributed brain network. Early life stress (ELS), especially emotional abuse (EA), is associated with altered reactivity to psychosocial stress in adulthood and moderates or even reverses the stress-attenuating effect of oxytocin (OXT). The neural underpinnings of the interaction between ELS and OXT remain unclear, though. Therefore, we here investigate the joint effect of ELS and OXT on transient changes in amygdala-centered functional connectivity induced by acute psychosocial stress, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design. Psychophysiological interaction analysis in the placebo session revealed stress-induced increases in functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, putamen, caudate and thalamus. Regression analysis showed that EA was positively associated with stress-induced changes in connectivity between amygdala and hippocampus. Moreover, hierarchical linear regression showed that this positive association between EA and stress-induced amygdala-hippocampal connectivity was moderated after the administration of intranasal OXT. Amygdala-hippocampal connectivity in the OXT session correlated negatively with cortisol stress responses. Our findings suggest that altered amygdala-hippocampal functional connectivity during psychosocial stress may have a crucial role in the altered sensitivity to OXT effects in individuals who have experienced EA in their childhood.

  11. Amygdala-Hippocampal Connectivity Changes During Acute Psychosocial Stress: Joint Effect of Early Life Stress and Oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yan; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Pruessner, Jens C; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2015-11-01

    Previous evidence shows that acute stress changes both amygdala activity and its connectivity with a distributed brain network. Early life stress (ELS), especially emotional abuse (EA), is associated with altered reactivity to psychosocial stress in adulthood and moderates or even reverses the stress-attenuating effect of oxytocin (OXT). The neural underpinnings of the interaction between ELS and OXT remain unclear, though. Therefore, we here investigate the joint effect of ELS and OXT on transient changes in amygdala-centered functional connectivity induced by acute psychosocial stress, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design. Psychophysiological interaction analysis in the placebo session revealed stress-induced increases in functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, putamen, caudate and thalamus. Regression analysis showed that EA was positively associated with stress-induced changes in connectivity between amygdala and hippocampus. Moreover, hierarchical linear regression showed that this positive association between EA and stress-induced amygdala-hippocampal connectivity was moderated after the administration of intranasal OXT. Amygdala-hippocampal connectivity in the OXT session correlated negatively with cortisol stress responses. Our findings suggest that altered amygdala-hippocampal functional connectivity during psychosocial stress may have a crucial role in the altered sensitivity to OXT effects in individuals who have experienced EA in their childhood. PMID:25924202

  12. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fushun; Huang, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central "stress circuitry," whose major function is to induce "fight or flight" behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. "Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush" and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders.

  13. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fushun; Huang, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central "stress circuitry," whose major function is to induce "fight or flight" behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. "Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush" and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders. PMID:27051536

  14. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jason H.

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central “stress circuitry,” whose major function is to induce “fight or flight” behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. “Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush” and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders. PMID:27051536

  15. Cognitive impairments, emotion, stress, and language in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Seghers, James P; Docherty, Nancy M

    2009-12-30

    Language symptoms in schizophrenia are exacerbated by arousal of negative affect; the extent of this effect varies widely among patients. The present study assessed predictors of affective speech reactivity. Based on earlier research, it was expected that speech reactivity would be predicted by a combination of neurocognitive and emotional variables. We assessed patients (n=50) for baseline depression; neurocognitive functioning in the domains of sustained attention, immediate auditory memory, organizational sequencing, and conceptual sequencing ability; and clarity of speech communication in both stress and non-stress conditions. Twenty-three subject-nominated "significant others" (SOs) also participated in the study, and were assessed for levels of expressed emotion (EE) as an index of relationship stressors. Patients, in turn, rated the subjective stressfulness of being in the presence of their SOs, from which the propensity to perceive interpersonal experiences as stressful was calculated by regressing out EE ratings. As predicted, baseline depression and sensitivity to interpersonal stressors were related to affective reactivity of speech, with stress sensitivity mediating the relationship between depression and speech reactivity. Contrary to expectations, baseline neurocognitive functioning was not related to speech reactivity. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding both schizophrenic language disturbance and stress vulnerability.

  16. Acute psychosocial stress reduces pain modulation capabilities in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Anecdotes on the ability of individuals to continue to function under stressful conditions despite injuries causing excruciating pain suggest that acute stress may induce analgesia. However, studies exploring the effect of acute experimental stress on pain perception show inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological differences. Our aim was to systematically study the effect of acute stress on pain perception using static and dynamic, state-of-the-art pain measurements. Participants were 29 healthy men who underwent the measurement of heat-pain threshold, heat-pain intolerance, temporal summation of pain, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Testing was conducted before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), inducing acute psychosocial stress. Stress levels were evaluated using perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction. Although pain threshold and pain intolerance were unaffected by stress, an increase in temporal summation of pain and a decrease in CPM were observed. These changes were significantly more robust among individuals with stronger reaction to stress ("high responders"), with a significant correlation between the perception of stress and the performance in the pain measurements. We conclude that acute psychosocial stress seems not to affect the sensitivity to pain, however, it significantly reduces the ability to modulate pain in a dose-response manner. Considering the diverse effects of stress in this and other studies, it appears that the type of stress and the magnitude of its appraisal determine its interactions with the pain system.

  17. Hormone supply of the organism in prolonged emotional stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amiragova, M. G.; Stulnikov, B. V.; Svirskaya, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of prolonged emotional stress of varying genesis on the hormonal function of the pancreas, thyroid gland, and adrenal cortex was studied. The amount of the hormonal secretion was found to depend on the type of adaptation activity and its duration. High secretion of the hormones observed outside the adaptation activity was examined as an index of the phase transition of defense reactions to the phase of overstress.

  18. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress. PMID:27635201

  19. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress.

  20. Acute Stress Symptoms in Young Children with Burns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Frederick J.; Saxe, Glenn; Ronfeldt, Heidi; Drake, Jennifer E.; Burns, Jennifer; Edgren, Christy; Sheridan, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are a focus of much research with older children, but little research has been conducted with young children, who account for about 50% of all pediatric burn injuries. This is a 3-year study of 12- to 48-month-old acutely burned children to assess acute traumatic stress outcomes. The aims were to…

  1. Stress Reactivity and Corticolimbic Response to Emotional Faces in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Chaplin, Tara; Wang, Fei; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Adolescence is a critical period in the development of lifelong patterns of responding to stress. Understanding underpinnings of variations in stress-reactivity in adolescents is important, as adolescents with altered stress-reactivity are vulnerable to negative risk-taking behaviors including substance use, and have increased lifelong risk for psychopathology. While both endocrinological and corticolimbic neural system mechanisms are implicated in the development of stress-reactivity patterns, the roles of these systems and interactions between the systems in reactivity to social stimuli in adolescents are not clear. We investigated the relationship between cortisol response to a lab-based social stressor and regional brain responses to emotional face stimuli in adolescents. Method Changes in cortisol levels following the Trier Social Stress Test-Child version (TSST-C) were measured in twenty-three disadvantaged and chronically stressed adolescents who also participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging during processing of emotional faces and structural magnetic resonance imaging. The relationships between changes in cortisol following the TSST-C with regional brain activation during face processing, as well as with regional brain morphology, were assessed. Results Cortisol change on the TSST-C showed a significant inverse relationship with left hippocampus to fearful faces (p<0.05, corrected); significant associations to volume were not observed. Conclusions Increased cortisol response to the Trier social stressor was associated with diminished response of the left hippocampus to faces depicting fear. This suggests HPA-corticolimbic system mechanisms may underlie vulnerability to maladaptive responses to stress in adolescents that may contribute to development of stress-related disorders. PMID:22365466

  2. Bifactor Item Response Theory Model of Acute Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Yuan; Tang, Jingjing; Zhu, Xia; Miao, Danmin

    2013-01-01

    Background Better understanding of acute stress responses is important for revision of DSM-5. However, the latent structure and relationship between different aspects of acute stress responses haven’t been clarified comprehensively. Bifactor item response model may help resolve this problem. Objective The purpose of this study is to develop a statistical model of acute stress responses, based on data from earthquake rescuers using Acute Stress Response Scale (ASRS). Through this model, we could better understand acute stress responses comprehensively, and provide preliminary information for computerized adaptive testing of stress responses. Methods Acute stress responses of earthquake rescuers were evaluated using ASRS, and state/trait anxiety were assessed using State-trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). A hierarchical item response model (bifactor model) was used to analyze the data. Additionally, we tested this hierarchical model with model fit comparisons with one-dimensional and five-dimensional models. The correlations among acute stress responses and state/trait anxiety were compared, based on both the five-dimensional and bifactor models. Results Model fit comparisons showed bifactor model fit the data best. Item loadings on general and specific factors varied greatly between different aspects of stress responses. Many symptoms (40%) of physiological responses had positive loadings on general factor, and negative loadings on specific factor of physiological responses, while other stress responses had positive loadings on both general and specific factors. After extracting general factor of stress responses using bifactor analysis, significant positive correlations between physiological responses and state/trait anxiety (r = 0.185/0.112, p<0.01) changed into negative ones (r = −0.177/−0.38, p<0.01). Conclusion Our results demonstrated bifactor structure of acute stress responses, and positive and negative correlations between physiological responses

  3. Cognitive Appraisals and Emotions Predict Cortisol and Immune Responses: A Meta-Analysis of Acute Laboratory Social Stressors and Emotion Inductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Thomas F.; Spanovic, Marija; Miller, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Models of stress and health suggest that emotions mediate the effects of stress on health; yet meta-analytic reviews have not confirmed these relationships. Categorizations of emotions along broad dimensions such as valence (e.g., positive and negative affect) may obscure important information about the effects of specific emotions on physiology.…

  4. Emotional intelligence and perceived stress in dental undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Pau, Allan K H; Croucher, Ray

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and perceived stress (PS) in dental undergraduates. All dental undergraduates attending a UK dental school were invited to complete a questionnaire on age, gender, year of study, EI, and PS. Two hundred and thirteen students (48 percent male) participated, a response rate of 70 percent. The mean score for EI was 117.54 (S.D. 14.90) and PS was 17.73 (S.D. 6.49). Factor analysis confirmed four factors previously identified in the literature as comprising emotional intelligence: optimism/mood regulation, utilization of emotions, appraisal of emotions, and social skills. T-tests indicated that females had significantly higher EI scores than males. Mean PS scores were significantly higher for students aged over twenty-one years compared with those aged twenty-one years or less (p < 0.001), female compared to male students (p < 0.05), and those in higher years compared to those in lower years of study (p < 0.001). Correlational analysis showed an inverse relationship between EI and PS. Multiple regression analysis identified year of study, optimism/mood regulation, and gender as independent, significant predictors of PS. In conclusion, low EI scorers report more PS. Future research should investigate the relationships of EI and PS with impact on lifestyle behaviors, academic and clinical performance, and health outcomes.

  5. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. PMID:26149415

  6. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    PubMed

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  7. Explicit and implicit emotional expression in bulimia nervosa in the acute state and after recovery.

    PubMed

    Tárrega, Salomé; Fagundo, Ana B; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Forcano, Laura; Sánchez, Isabel; Santamaría, Juan José; Ben-Moussa, Maher; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia; Konstantas, Dimitri; Lucas, Mikkel; Nielsen, Jeppe; Bults, Richard G A; Lam, Tony; Kostoulas, Theodoros; Fakotakis, Nikos; Riesco, Nadine; Wolz, Ines; Comín-Colet, Josep; Cardi, Valentina; Treasure, Janet; Fernández-Formoso, José Antonio; Menchón, José Manuel; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Expression of emotional state is considered to be a core facet of an individual's emotional competence. Emotional processing in BN has not been often studied and has not been considered from a broad perspective. This study aimed at examining the implicit and explicit emotional expression in BN patients, in the acute state and after recovery. Sixty-three female participants were included: 22 BN, 22 recovered BN (R-BN), and 19 healthy controls (HC). The clinical cases were drawn from consecutive admissions and diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. Self reported (explicit) emotional expression was measured with State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Symptom Check List-90 items-Revised. Emotional facial expression (implicit) was recorded by means of an integrated camera (by detecting Facial Feature Tracking), during a 20 minutes therapeutic video game. In the acute illness explicit emotional expression [anxiety (p<0.001) and anger (p<0.05)] was increased. In the recovered group this was decreased to an intermediate level between the acute illness and healthy controls [anxiety (p<0.001) and anger (p<0.05)]. In the implicit measurement of emotional expression patients with acute BN expressed more joy (p<0.001) and less anger (p<0.001) than both healthy controls and those in the recovered group. These findings suggest that there are differences in the implicit and explicit emotional processing in BN, which is significantly reduced after recovery, suggesting an improvement in emotional regulation.

  8. Divergent responses of inflammatory mediators within the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex to acute psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Vecchiarelli, Haley A; Gandhi, Chaitanya P; Gray, J Megan; Morena, Maria; Hassan, Kowther I; Hill, Matthew N

    2016-01-01

    There is now a growing body of literature that indicates that stress can initiate inflammatory processes, both in the periphery and brain; however, the spatiotemporal nature of this response is not well characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an acute psychological stress on changes in mRNA and protein levels of a wide range of inflammatory mediators across a broad temporal range, in key corticolimbic brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response (amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, medial prefrontal cortex). mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators were analyzed immediately following 30min or 120min of acute restraint stress and protein levels were examined 0h through 24h post-termination of 120min of acute restraint stress using both multiplex and ELISA methods. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that exposure to acute psychological stress results in an increase in the protein level of several inflammatory mediators in the amygdala while concomitantly producing a decrease in the protein level of multiple inflammatory mediators within the medial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of changes seemed largely restricted to the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, with stress producing few changes in the mRNA or protein levels of inflammatory mediators within the hippocampus or hypothalamus. Consistent with previous research, stress resulted in a general elevation in multiple inflammatory mediators within the circulation. These data indicate that neuroinflammatory responses to stress do not appear to be generalized across brain structures and exhibit a high degree of spatiotemporal specificity. Given the impact of inflammatory signaling on neural excitability and emotional behavior, these data may provide a platform with which to explore the importance of inflammatory signaling within the prefrontocortical-amygdala circuit in the regulation of the neurobehavioral responses to stress.

  9. Pervasive alterations of emotional and neuroendocrine responses to an acute stressor after neonatal amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Raper, Jessica; Wilson, Mark; Sanchez, Mar; Machado, Christopher J.; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the long-term effects of neonatal amygdala lesions on emotional and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to an acute stressor in rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys received either bilateral MRI-guided ibotenic acid amygdala (Neo-Aibo; n = 6) or sham (Neo-C; n = 7) lesions between 7–14 days of age. Emotional reactivity was assessed using the Human Intruder paradigm at 2 months, 4.5 months, and 6–8 years of age, whereas stress neuroendocrine response was only assessed in adulthood (6–8 years). The modulation of defensive and emotional behaviors based on the gaze direction of the intruder emerged between 2–4 months of age in surrogate-peer reared sham-operated infant monkeys, as already shown for mother-reared infants. Although neonatal amygdala lesions did not impair the ability to exhibit defensive and emotional behaviors, it altered the modulation of these responses based on the intruder’s gaze direction. The changes in emotional reactivity after neonatal amygdala lesions emerged in infancy and persisted throughout adulthood when they were associated with a reduction of basal cortisol levels and a blunted cortisol response to the stressor. These changes are reminiscent of those found after adult-onset amygdala lesions, demonstrating little functional compensation following early amygdala damage. PMID:23148887

  10. LSD1 modulates stress-evoked transcription of immediate early genes and emotional behavior.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Francesco; Grillo, Barbara; Ponzoni, Luisa; Bassani, Silvia; Toffolo, Emanuela; Paganini, Leda; Mallei, Alessandra; Braida, Daniela; Passafaro, Maria; Popoli, Maurizio; Sala, Mariaelvina; Battaglioli, Elena

    2016-03-29

    Behavioral changes in response to stressful stimuli can be controlled via adaptive epigenetic changes in neuronal gene expression. Here we indicate a role for the transcriptional corepressor Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) and its dominant-negative splicing isoform neuroLSD1, in the modulation of emotional behavior. In mouse hippocampus, we show that LSD1 and neuroLSD1 can interact with transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) and set the chromatin state of SRF-targeted genes early growth response 1 (egr1) and c-fos Deletion or reduction of neuro LSD1 in mutant mice translates into decreased levels of activating histone marks at egr1 and c-fos promoters, dampening their psychosocial stress-induced transcription and resulting in low anxiety-like behavior. Administration of suberoylanilide hydroxamine to neuroLSD1(KO)mice reactivates egr1 and c-fos transcription and restores the behavioral phenotype. These findings indicate that LSD1 is a molecular transducer of stressful stimuli as well as a stress-response modifier. Indeed, LSD1 expression itself is increased acutely at both the transcriptional and splicing levels by psychosocial stress, suggesting that LSD1 is involved in the adaptive response to stress.

  11. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism modulates inflammatory cytokine responses during acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Ohira, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are important mediators of various stress-related modulations of immune function. A major genetic factor determining inter-individual differences in stress reactivity is polymorphisms of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) transporter (5HTT) gene. A short (S) variant, compared with a long (L) variant, of the promoter region of the 5HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) has been related to emotional and stress hyper-reactivity. The present study examined whether the 5HTTLPR can modulate responses of inflammatory cytokines under acute stress. Nine Japanese male participants carrying two copies of the S alleles and nine Japanese males carrying S and L alleles underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Inflammatory cytokines, endocrine parameters, heart rate and subjective stress were measured before, during and after the task. The participants carrying the SS alleles, but not those carrying the SL alleles, showed a significant increase of IL-1β immediately after TSST. This hyper-reactivity to acute stress in individuals with the SS alleles was also observed in their heart rate and cortisol levels. These results suggest that the S allele of the 5HTTLPR is consistently associated with stress reactivity in multi-level stress-related biological systems. PMID:26349674

  12. Emotional Reactivity to Network Stress in Middle and Late Adulthood: The Role of Childhood Parental Emotional Abuse and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Knight, Bob G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether recalled childhood parental emotional abuse and support were associated with emotional reactivity to network stress among middle-aged and older adults. Design and Methods: Hypotheses were tested by performing 2-level multilevel modeling analysis on 787 participants aged 33-83 who participated in the Daily…

  13. Stress Administered Prior to Encoding Impairs Neutral but Enhances Emotional Long-Term Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Jessica D.; Jackson, Eric D.; Hoscheidt, Siobhan; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W. Jake; Nadel, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Stressful events frequently comprise both neutral and emotionally arousing information, yet the impact of stress on emotional and neutral events is still not fully understood. The hippocampus and frontal cortex have dense concentrations of receptors for stress hormones, such as cortisol, which at high levels can impair performance on hippocampally…

  14. Metabolic Changes in Masseter Muscle of Rats Submitted to Acute Stress Associated with Exodontia

    PubMed Central

    Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Fernandes, Fernanda Silva; Iyomasa, Daniela Mizusaki; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Fernández, Rodrigo Alberto Restrepo; Calzzani, Ricardo Alexandre; Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that stress may be associated with alterations in masticatory muscle functions. Morphological changes in masticatory muscles induced by occlusal alterations and associated with emotional stress are still lacking in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute stress on metabolic activity and oxidative stress of masseter muscles of rats subjected to occlusal modification through morphological and histochemical analyses. In this study, adult Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: a group with extraction and acute stress (E+A); group with extraction and without stress (E+C); group without extraction and with acute stress (NO+A); and control group without both extraction and stress (NO+C). Masseter muscles were analyzed by Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Diaphorase (NADH) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) techniques. Statistical analyses and two-way ANOVA were applied, followed by Tukey-Kramer tests. In the SDH test, the E+C, E+A and NO+A groups showed a decrease in high desidrogenase activities fibers (P < 0.05), compared to the NO+C group. In the NADH test, there was no difference among the different groups. In the ROS test, in contrast, E+A, E+C and NO+A groups showed a decrease in ROS expression, compared to NO+C groups (P < 0.05). Modified dental occlusion and acute stress - which are important and prevalent problems that affect the general population - are important etiologic factors in metabolic plasticity and ROS levels of masseter muscles. PMID:26053038

  15. Metabolic Changes in Masseter Muscle of Rats Submitted to Acute Stress Associated with Exodontia.

    PubMed

    Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Fernandes, Fernanda Silva; Iyomasa, Daniela Mizusaki; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Fernández, Rodrigo Alberto Restrepo; Calzzani, Ricardo Alexandre; Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that stress may be associated with alterations in masticatory muscle functions. Morphological changes in masticatory muscles induced by occlusal alterations and associated with emotional stress are still lacking in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute stress on metabolic activity and oxidative stress of masseter muscles of rats subjected to occlusal modification through morphological and histochemical analyses. In this study, adult Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: a group with extraction and acute stress (E+A); group with extraction and without stress (E+C); group without extraction and with acute stress (NO+A); and control group without both extraction and stress (NO+C). Masseter muscles were analyzed by Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Diaphorase (NADH) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) techniques. Statistical analyses and two-way ANOVA were applied, followed by Tukey-Kramer tests. In the SDH test, the E+C, E+A and NO+A groups showed a decrease in high desidrogenase activities fibers (P < 0.05), compared to the NO+C group. In the NADH test, there was no difference among the different groups. In the ROS test, in contrast, E+A, E+C and NO+A groups showed a decrease in ROS expression, compared to NO+C groups (P < 0.05). Modified dental occlusion and acute stress--which are important and prevalent problems that affect the general population--are important etiologic factors in metabolic plasticity and ROS levels of masseter muscles. PMID:26053038

  16. Posterior Midline Activation during Symptom Provocation in Acute Stress Disorder: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Cwik, Jan C; Sartory, Gudrun; Schürholt, Benjamin; Knuppertz, Helge; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2014-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder showed wide-spread activation of midline cortical areas during symptom provocation, i.e., exposure to trauma-related cues. The present study aimed at investigating neural activation during exposure to trauma-related pictures in patients with acute stress disorder (ASD) shortly after the traumatic event. Nineteen ASD patients and 19 healthy control participants were presented with individualized pictures of the traumatic event and emotionally neutral control pictures during the acquisition of whole-brain data with a 3-T fMRI scanner. Compared to the control group and to control pictures, ASD patients showed significant activation in midline cortical areas in response to trauma-related pictures including precuneus, cuneus, postcentral gyrus, and pre-supplementary motor area. The results suggest that the trauma-related pictures evoke emotionally salient self-referential processing in ASD patients.

  17. Posterior Midline Activation during Symptom Provocation in Acute Stress Disorder: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Cwik, Jan C.; Sartory, Gudrun; Schürholt, Benjamin; Knuppertz, Helge; Seitz, Rüdiger J.

    2014-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder showed wide-spread activation of midline cortical areas during symptom provocation, i.e., exposure to trauma-related cues. The present study aimed at investigating neural activation during exposure to trauma-related pictures in patients with acute stress disorder (ASD) shortly after the traumatic event. Nineteen ASD patients and 19 healthy control participants were presented with individualized pictures of the traumatic event and emotionally neutral control pictures during the acquisition of whole-brain data with a 3-T fMRI scanner. Compared to the control group and to control pictures, ASD patients showed significant activation in midline cortical areas in response to trauma-related pictures including precuneus, cuneus, postcentral gyrus, and pre-supplementary motor area. The results suggest that the trauma-related pictures evoke emotionally salient self-referential processing in ASD patients. PMID:24847285

  18. Neurocircuitry Underlying Stress and Emotional Regulation in Animals Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol and Subjected to Chronic Mild Stress in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Raineki, Charlis; Hellemans, Kim G. C.; Bodnar, Tamara; Lavigne, Katie M.; Ellis, Linda; Woodward, Todd S.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Individuals exposed to alcohol during gestation show higher rates of psychopathologies. The hyperresponsivity to stress induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may be related to this increased rate of psychopathologies, especially because this population is more likely to be exposed to stressful environments throughout life. However, alcohol-induced changes in the overlapping neurocircuitries that underlie stress and the expression of psychopathologies are not fully understood. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the neural activity within central areas known to play key roles in both emotional and stress regulation. Adult male and female offspring from PAE, pair-fed, and ad libitum-fed control conditions were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS). Following CMS, the neural activity (c-fos mRNA) of the amygdala, ventral hippocampal formation, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) was assessed in response to an acute stress (elevated plus maze). Our results demonstrate that, overall, PAE decreased neural activity within the amygdala and hippocampal formation in males and increased neural activity within the amygdala and mPFC in females. CMS reduced neural activity within the mPFC and PVN in PAE males, but reduced activity in all areas analyzed in control males. By contrast, CMS reduced neural activity in the mPFC in PAE females and had no effects in control females. Furthermore, the constrained principal component analysis revealed that these patterns of neural activity resulted in differential activation of the functional neural networks in males compared to females, indicating sexually dimorphic effects of PAE and CMS. Importantly, the altered networks of brain activation in PAE animals may underlie the hyperresponsivity to stress and increased psychopathologies observed among individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol. PMID:24592255

  19. Chronic Juvenile Stress Produces Corticolimbic Dendritic Architectural Remodeling and Modulates Emotional Behavior in Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Eiland, Lisa; Ramroop, Johnny; Hill, Matthew N.; Manley, Jasmine; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 12% of US children are exposed to intense adverse experiences. Research has demonstrated that these experiences can negatively impact adult health, often resulting in psychopathology. Less attention, however, is given to the impact of childhood adverse experiences on childhood health and wellbeing. Using a rodent model of chronic juvenile stress (restraint 6h daily from postnatal day 20–41), we report that chronic stress has significant immediate morbidities in both males and females during this developmental window. Specifically, we demonstrate that chronic juvenile stress produces depressive-like behavior and significant neuronal remodeling of brain regions likely involved in these behavioral alterations: the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Chronically stressed males and females exhibit anhedonia, increased locomotion when exposed to novelty, and altered coping strategies when exposed to acute stress. Coincident with these behavioral changes, we report simplification of dendrites in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and concurrent hypertrophy of dendrites in the amygdala. Taken together, these results demonstrate that chronically stressed juveniles exhibit aberrant behavioral responses to acute challenges that occur in conjunction with stress-induced remodeling of brain regions intimately involved in regulating emotionality and stress reactivity. Further, the absence of sex differences in our reported stress responses, likely speaks to the decreased sensitivity of immature HPA regulating brain regions to sex hormones. PMID:21658845

  20. Chronic juvenile stress produces corticolimbic dendritic architectural remodeling and modulates emotional behavior in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Eiland, Lisa; Ramroop, Johnny; Hill, Matthew N; Manley, Jasmine; McEwen, Bruce S

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 12% of US children are exposed to intense adverse experiences. Research has demonstrated that these experiences can negatively impact adult health, often resulting in psychopathology. Less attention, however, is given to the impact of childhood adverse experiences on childhood health and wellbeing. Using a rodent model of chronic juvenile stress (restraint 6 h daily from postnatal day 20 to 41), we report that chronic stress has significant immediate morbidities in both males and females during this developmental window. Specifically, we demonstrate that chronic juvenile stress produces depressive-like behavior and significant neuronal remodeling of brain regions likely involved in these behavioral alterations: the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Chronically stressed males and females exhibit anhedonia, increased locomotion when exposed to novelty, and altered coping strategies when exposed to acute stress. Coincident with these behavioral changes, we report simplification of dendrites in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and concurrent hypertrophy of dendrites in the amygdala. Taken together, these results demonstrate that chronically stressed juveniles exhibit aberrant behavioral responses to acute challenges that occur in conjunction with stress-induced remodeling of brain regions intimately involved in regulating emotionality and stress reactivity. Further, the absence of sex differences in our reported stress responses, likely speaks to the decreased sensitivity of immature HPA regulating brain regions to sex hormones.

  1. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  2. The effects of acute and chronic stress on diabetes control.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2012-10-23

    Stress is an important contributor to pathological conditions in humans. Hormonal changes that occur during acute and chronic stress situations can affect glucose homeostasis in both healthy people and in those with diabetes. Several studies have reported a negative effect of acute stress on maintenance of blood glucose concentrations in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The effect of stress on glycemic control in people with diabetes may be related to a direct effect of stress hormones on blood glucose levels and an indirect effect of stress on patient behaviors related to diabetes treatment and monitoring and meal and exercise plans. In contrast, there is no clear evidence that stressful life events promote the development of diabetes in children or in adults. Stress hyperglycemia, the development of hyperglycemia during acute illness, represents another interesting connection between the stress system and glucose homeostasis. A large body of evidence supports an association between stress hyperglycemia and increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Interestingly, there is some evidence supporting a beneficial effect of insulin in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to intensive care units. Finally, stress can influence the development of type 2 diabetes indirectly by promoting obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23092890

  3. The Contribution of Deficits in Emotional Clarity to Stress Responses and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the contribution of deficits in emotional clarity to children's socioemotional adjustment. Specifically, this study examined the proposal that deficits in emotional clarity are associated with maladaptive interpersonal stress responses, and that maladaptive interpersonal stress responses act as a mechanism linking…

  4. [Protein metabolism in the cerebral hemispheres during the emotional-algesic stress].

    PubMed

    Yakushev, V S; Davydov, V V; Bushueva, V V; Skurygin, V P; Krisanova, N V

    1985-01-01

    Emotional-algesic stress causes essential changes in the protein metabolism of cerebral hemispheres. These changes may be of great importance for the functioning of the brain and cause the disturbances of the higher nervous activity when the organism is influenced by the emotional stress factors. PMID:4039861

  5. The expression of thioredoxin-1 in acute epinephrine stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jin-Jing; Zeng, Xian-Si; Li, Kun; Ma, Li-Fang; Chen, Lei; Song, Xin-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Stress, a state of perceived threat to homeostasis, regulates a panel of important physiological functions. The human mind and body respond to stress by activating the sympathetic nervous system and secreting the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in the "fight-or-flight" response. However, the protective mechanism of acute stress is still unknown. In the present study, an acute stress mouse model was constructed by intraperitoneal injection of epinephrine (0.2 mg kg(-1)) for 4 h. Epinephrine treatment induced heat shock 70(Hsp70) expression in the stress responsive tissues, such as the cortex, hippocampus, thymus, and kidney. Further, the expression of thioredoxin-1(Trx-1), a cytoprotective protein, was also upregulated in these stress responsive tissues. In addition, the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor of Trx-1, was increased after treatment with epinephrine. The block of CREB activation by H89 inhibited the acute epinephrine stress-induced Trx-1 and Hsp70 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that acute stimuli of epinephrine induced Trx-1 expression through activating CREB and may represent a protective role against stress. PMID:27511023

  6. Differential effects of acute and repeated stress on hippocampus and amygdala inputs to the nucleus accumbens shell

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Kathryn M.; Grace, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and ventral subiculum (vSub) of the hippocampus convey emotion and context information, respectively, to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Using in vivo extracellular recordings from NAc neurons, we examined how acute and repeated restraint stress alters the plasticity of the vSub and BLA afferent pathways. High frequency (HFS) and low frequency (LFS) stimulation was applied to the vSub to assess the impact on NAc responses to vSub and BLA inputs. In addition, iontophoretic application of the D2-antagonist sulpiride was used to explore the role of dopamine in the NAc in mediating the effects of stress on plasticity. Acute and repeated restraint caused disparate effects on BLA- and vSub-evoked responses in the NAc. Following repeated restraint, but not after acute restraint, HFS of the vSub failed to potentiate the vSub-NAc pathway while instead promoting a long lasting reduction of the BLA-NAc pathway, and these effects were independent of D2-receptor activity. In contrast, LFS to the vSub pathway after acute restraint resulted in potentiation in the vSub-NAc pathway while BLA-evoked responses were unchanged. When sulpiride was applied prior to LFS of the vSub after acute stress, there was a pronounced decrease in vSub-evoked responses similar to control animals. This work provides new insight into the impact of acute and repeated stress on the integration of context and emotion inputs in the nucleus accumbens. These data support a model of stress whereby the hippocampus is inappropriately activated and dominates the information processing within this circuit via a dopaminergic mechanism after acute bouts of stress. PMID:23745764

  7. Biogenic amines and acute thermal stress in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.; Moberg, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study is summarized which demonstrates that depletion of the biogenic amines 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or norepinephrine (NE) alters the normal thermoregulatory responses to acute temperature stress. Specifically, NE depletion caused a significant depression in equilibrium rectal temperature at 22 C and a greater depression in rectal temperature than controls in response to cold (6 C) stress; NE depletion also resulted in a significantly higher rectal temperature response to acute heat (38 C) stress. Depletion of 5-HT had less severe effects. It remains unclear whether the primary site of action of these agents is central or peripheral.

  8. Gender-specific effects of prenatal stress on emotional reactivity and stress physiology of goat kids.

    PubMed

    Roussel, S; Boissy, A; Montigny, D; Hemsworth, P H; Duvaux-Ponter, C

    2005-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of maternal stress during pregnancy on the emotional reactivity, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, and the sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system of goat offspring according to their gender, and to investigate the role of maternal cortisol in prenatal stress effects. Goats were exposed to ten transports in isolation or ten ACTH injections (0.125 IU/kg body weight) during the last third of pregnancy. Control goats remained undisturbed. No effect of repeated transport during the last third of pregnancy was found on basal cortisol concentrations of the offspring. However, an increase in phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase activity in the adrenals was observed in prenatally stressed kids compared to control kids (P = 0.031). In the presence of novelty, prenatally stressed female kids were more active (P = 0.049) than control females; they also showed more signs of arousal (P = 0.039) and tended to explore more of their environment (P = 0.053) in reaction to a startling stimulus. On the contrary, prenatally stressed male kids tended to be less active (P = 0.051) than control male kids but showed more signs of distress (P = 0.047) in the presence of novelty. Intermediate effects were found on the emotional reactivity to novelty of kids born from dams given injections of ACTH. In conclusion, transport stress in pregnant goats affects the sympatho-adrenomedullary system and the emotional reactivity of their offspring in a gender-specific manner. Moreover, the effects of prenatal transport and ACTH injections showed some similarities but differed in some critical details.

  9. Gender-specific effects of prenatal stress on emotional reactivity and stress physiology of goat kids.

    PubMed

    Roussel, S; Boissy, A; Montigny, D; Hemsworth, P H; Duvaux-Ponter, C

    2005-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of maternal stress during pregnancy on the emotional reactivity, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, and the sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system of goat offspring according to their gender, and to investigate the role of maternal cortisol in prenatal stress effects. Goats were exposed to ten transports in isolation or ten ACTH injections (0.125 IU/kg body weight) during the last third of pregnancy. Control goats remained undisturbed. No effect of repeated transport during the last third of pregnancy was found on basal cortisol concentrations of the offspring. However, an increase in phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase activity in the adrenals was observed in prenatally stressed kids compared to control kids (P = 0.031). In the presence of novelty, prenatally stressed female kids were more active (P = 0.049) than control females; they also showed more signs of arousal (P = 0.039) and tended to explore more of their environment (P = 0.053) in reaction to a startling stimulus. On the contrary, prenatally stressed male kids tended to be less active (P = 0.051) than control male kids but showed more signs of distress (P = 0.047) in the presence of novelty. Intermediate effects were found on the emotional reactivity to novelty of kids born from dams given injections of ACTH. In conclusion, transport stress in pregnant goats affects the sympatho-adrenomedullary system and the emotional reactivity of their offspring in a gender-specific manner. Moreover, the effects of prenatal transport and ACTH injections showed some similarities but differed in some critical details. PMID:15708753

  10. Emotional competence relating to perceived stress and burnout in Spanish teachers: a mediator model.

    PubMed

    Rey, Lourdes; Extremera, Natalio; Pena, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This study examined direct associations between emotional competence, perceived stress and burnout in 489 Spanish teachers. In addition, a model in which perceived stress mediated pathways linking emotional competence to teacher burnout symptoms was also examined. Results showed that emotional competence and stress were significantly correlated with teacher burnout symptoms in the expected direction. Moreover, mediational analysis indicated that perceived stress partly mediated the relationship between emotional competence and the three dimensions of burnout even when controlling for salient background characteristics. These findings suggest an underlying process by which high emotional competence may increase the capacity to cope with symptoms of burnout, by reducing the experience of stress. Implications of these findings for future research and for working with teachers to prevent burnout are discussed. PMID:27280077

  11. Emotional competence relating to perceived stress and burnout in Spanish teachers: a mediator model.

    PubMed

    Rey, Lourdes; Extremera, Natalio; Pena, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This study examined direct associations between emotional competence, perceived stress and burnout in 489 Spanish teachers. In addition, a model in which perceived stress mediated pathways linking emotional competence to teacher burnout symptoms was also examined. Results showed that emotional competence and stress were significantly correlated with teacher burnout symptoms in the expected direction. Moreover, mediational analysis indicated that perceived stress partly mediated the relationship between emotional competence and the three dimensions of burnout even when controlling for salient background characteristics. These findings suggest an underlying process by which high emotional competence may increase the capacity to cope with symptoms of burnout, by reducing the experience of stress. Implications of these findings for future research and for working with teachers to prevent burnout are discussed.

  12. Emotional competence relating to perceived stress and burnout in Spanish teachers: a mediator model

    PubMed Central

    Extremera, Natalio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined direct associations between emotional competence, perceived stress and burnout in 489 Spanish teachers. In addition, a model in which perceived stress mediated pathways linking emotional competence to teacher burnout symptoms was also examined. Results showed that emotional competence and stress were significantly correlated with teacher burnout symptoms in the expected direction. Moreover, mediational analysis indicated that perceived stress partly mediated the relationship between emotional competence and the three dimensions of burnout even when controlling for salient background characteristics. These findings suggest an underlying process by which high emotional competence may increase the capacity to cope with symptoms of burnout, by reducing the experience of stress. Implications of these findings for future research and for working with teachers to prevent burnout are discussed. PMID:27280077

  13. Redrawing Papez' circuit: a theory about how acute stress becomes chronic and causes disease.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Arnold E

    2007-01-01

    The diseases of chronic stress include migraine, essential hypertension, depression, and the metabolic syndrome. A theory is presented to explain how acute stress becomes chronic and causes these inter-related conditions. The theory is based on a new "circuit of emotion", which is derived from Papez' famous theory of emotion. The hypothesis is as follows: There is a basic circuit of emotion which runs from the hippocampus (defined as the dentate gyrus plus the CA regions), where emotion arises, to the amygdala and from there to serotonergic pacemaker cells in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). The DRN projects back to the dentate gyrus in two ways: a direct route without a stop and an indirect route via pacemaker cells in the entorhinal cortex. The purpose of the direct route is to promote neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the dentate; the indirect route has two purposes: to imprint ongoing moments of consciousness onto new dentate cells for retention as memory and to provide a negative feedback loop for regulation of the whole process. The hippocampus, the amygdala, and the DRN all project to the hypothalamus, which are branches off the basic loop that subserve the autonomic expression of emotion. Pathologic overdrive of the DRN causes overdrive of the entorhinal cortex, which leads to excitotoxic cell death of neurons in the hippocampus involved in the negative feedback loop. The disinhibited amygdala and DRN are then free to orchestrate the syndromes of chronic stress. Recovery from chronic stress requires repopulation of the dentate gyrus and restoration of the feedback loop. Excitotoxic cell death in the hippocampus results from either extraordinary acute stress or increased susceptibility to DRN overdrive, as might be caused, for example, by genetic factors, age, high cortisol levels, or incomplete recovery from previous damage. Three goals for therapeutic intervention are identified: inhibition of pacemaker cells in the DRN (which can be targeted by

  14. Effects of prenatal stress and emotional reactivity of the mother on emotional and cognitive abilities in lambs.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Marjorie; Nowak, Raymond; Andanson, Stephane; Petit, Bérengère; Lévy, Frédéric; Boissy, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Consequences of prenatal stress on emotional reactivity and cognitive abilities in offspring are under-documented in precocial mammals. Here, we investigated to what extent emotional reactivity, judgment bias and spatial learning abilities of lambs are affected by chronic stress during late pregnancy and by their dams' emotional reactivity. The 20 highest-responsive (HR) and 20 lowest-responsive (LR) ewes from a population of 120 Romane ewes were selected according to their pre-mating reactivity to social isolation in a new environment. Over the final third of pregnancy, 10 HR ewes and 10 LR ewes were exposed daily to various unpredictable aversive events such as restraint, mixing groups and transport while the other 20 selected ewes were not. In a human and an object test, prenatally-stressed lambs were more fearful than control lambs, but the prenatal stress effect was moderated by the reactivity of the mothers: prenatally-stressed lambs from ewes with high emotional reactivity were more affected. Prenatally-stressed lambs did not perform as well as control lambs in a maze test and showed pessimistic-like judgment in a cognitive bias test. Prenatally-stressed lambs were thus characterized by a negative affective state with increased fear reactions and impaired cognitive evaluation. The development of negative moods could have long-lasting consequences on the coping strategies of the lambs in response to their rearing conditions.

  15. Acute effects of alcohol on memory: impact of emotional context and serial position.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennie; Brignell, Catherine M; Dhiman, Sharinjeet K; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2010-03-01

    Although the amnestic effects of alcohol in humans are well known, its effects on emotional memory are unclear. In this study, using a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design, we examine narrative emotional episodic memory in healthy human female volunteers (n=32) who received either a single dose of alcohol (0.6g/kg), or a placebo and then viewed neutral story elements presented in either a neutral or emotional context. Memory was tested for gist and detail of the neutral elements 3days later in a surprise recognition test. Since alcohol modulates GABAergic neurotransmission and may exert its effects on emotion through the limbic system, we predicted that acute alcohol treatment would reduce the expected emotional memory-advantage for gist, leaving detail memory relatively unaffected. Furthermore, given previous findings showing that 'primacy' memory is enhanced by physiological arousal, we predicted that reduced arousal produced by alcohol would have the opposite effect and impair primacy memory relative to the middle or 'recency' sections of the narrative. Emotional arousal was expected to oppose this effect, so impaired primacy memory following alcohol was only expected in the neutral version of the narrative. Although there was a main effect of story phase (though not of story version), contrary to expectations, alcohol impaired primacy memory for emotionally encoded neutral material. The results suggest that under certain circumstances emotional context or physiological arousal make memories labile and susceptible to disruption through pharmacological manipulation during encoding.

  16. Psychophysiological stress, elevated intraocular pressure, and acute closed-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Shily, B G

    1987-11-01

    The literature suggests that stress may play a part in the precipitation of acute closed-angle glaucoma because intraocular pressure (IOP) can be affected by the emotional state of the patient. This study considers this evidence in light of what is known concerning the possible relations between psychophysiological stress and elevated IOP. Two common threads run through these observations. The first is the suggestion that stress is a significant factor in the etiology of acute closed-angle glaucoma. The second is a growing suspicion concerning the role of stress in open-angle glaucoma. There is some evidence that glaucoma induction is associated with psychophysiological stress. The role of psychosomatic factors in precipitating angle closure in eyes with an anatomically narrow angle and in raising the IOP in eyes with open angles has been noted in the literature. The implication is that stress reduction might prevent angle closure and reduce the IOP. Suggested methods for achieving these results include biofeedback, meditation, and relaxation exercises.

  17. Facial Emotion Processing in Acutely Ill and Euthymic Patients with Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; Pavuluri, Mani N.; Herbener, Ellen S.; Harral, Erin M.; Sweeney, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Past investigations indicate facial emotion-processing abnormalities in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) subjects. However, the extent to which these deficits represent state- and trait-related factors is unclear. We investigated facial affect processing in acutely ill and clinically stabilized children with PBD and matched healthy…

  18. Acute Sleep Restriction Effects on Emotion Responses in 30- to 36-Month-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Rebecca H.; Miller, Alison L.; Seifer, Ronald; Cares, Stephanie R.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Early childhood is a period of dramatic change in sleep and emotion processing, as well as a time when disturbance in both domains are first detected. Although sleep is recognized as central in emotion processing and psychopathology, the great majority of experimental data have been collected in adults. We examined the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers’ emotion expression. Ten healthy children (7 females; 30–36 months) followed a strict sleep schedule (≥12.5 hrs time in bed/24 hrs) for 5 days before each of two randomly-assigned afternoon emotion assessments following Nap and No-Nap conditions (resulting in an 11-day protocol). Children viewed emotion-eliciting pictures (5 positive, 3 neutral, 3 negative) and completed puzzles (1 solvable, 1 unsolvable). Children’s faces were video-recorded, and emotion displays were coded. When sleep restricted, children displayed less confusion in response to neutral pictures, more negativity to neutral and negative pictures, and less positivity to positive pictures. Sleep restriction also resulted in a 34% reduction in positive emotion responses (solvable puzzle), as well as a 31% increase in negative emotion responses and a 39% decrease in confused responses (unsolvable puzzle). These findings suggest sleep is a key factor in how young children respond to their world. When sleep restricted, toddlers are neither able to take full advantage of positive experiences nor are they as adaptive in challenging contexts. If insufficient sleep consistently “taxes” young children’s emotion responses, they may not manage emotion regulation challenges effectively, potentially placing them at risk for future emotional/behavioral problems. PMID:21988087

  19. Acute sleep restriction effects on emotion responses in 30- to 36-month-old children.

    PubMed

    Berger, Rebecca H; Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Cares, Stephanie R; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2012-06-01

    Early childhood is a period of dramatic change in sleep and emotion processing, as well as a time when disturbance in both domains are first detected. Although sleep is recognized as central in emotion processing and psychopathology, the great majority of experimental data have been collected in adults. We examined the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers' emotion expression. Ten healthy children (seven females; 30-36 months old) followed a strict sleep schedule (≥12.5 h time in bed per 24-h) for 5 days, before each of two randomly assigned afternoon emotion assessments following Nap and No-Nap conditions (resulting in an 11-day protocol). Children viewed emotion-eliciting pictures (five positive, three neutral, three negative) and completed puzzles (one solvable, one unsolvable). Children's faces were video-recorded, and emotion displays were coded. When sleep restricted, children displayed less confusion in response to neutral pictures, more negativity to neutral and negative pictures, and less positivity to positive pictures. Sleep restriction also resulted in a 34% reduction in positive emotion responses (solvable puzzle), as well as a 31% increase in negative emotion responses and a 39% decrease in confused responses (unsolvable puzzle). These findings suggest sleep is a key factor in how young children respond to their world. When sleep restricted, toddlers are neither able to take full advantage of positive experiences nor are they as adaptive in challenging contexts. If insufficient sleep consistently 'taxes' young children's emotion responses, they may not manage emotion regulation challenges effectively, potentially placing them at risk for future emotional/behavioral problems.

  20. Acute sleep restriction effects on emotion responses in 30- to 36-month-old children.

    PubMed

    Berger, Rebecca H; Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Cares, Stephanie R; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2012-06-01

    Early childhood is a period of dramatic change in sleep and emotion processing, as well as a time when disturbance in both domains are first detected. Although sleep is recognized as central in emotion processing and psychopathology, the great majority of experimental data have been collected in adults. We examined the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers' emotion expression. Ten healthy children (seven females; 30-36 months old) followed a strict sleep schedule (≥12.5 h time in bed per 24-h) for 5 days, before each of two randomly assigned afternoon emotion assessments following Nap and No-Nap conditions (resulting in an 11-day protocol). Children viewed emotion-eliciting pictures (five positive, three neutral, three negative) and completed puzzles (one solvable, one unsolvable). Children's faces were video-recorded, and emotion displays were coded. When sleep restricted, children displayed less confusion in response to neutral pictures, more negativity to neutral and negative pictures, and less positivity to positive pictures. Sleep restriction also resulted in a 34% reduction in positive emotion responses (solvable puzzle), as well as a 31% increase in negative emotion responses and a 39% decrease in confused responses (unsolvable puzzle). These findings suggest sleep is a key factor in how young children respond to their world. When sleep restricted, toddlers are neither able to take full advantage of positive experiences nor are they as adaptive in challenging contexts. If insufficient sleep consistently 'taxes' young children's emotion responses, they may not manage emotion regulation challenges effectively, potentially placing them at risk for future emotional/behavioral problems. PMID:21988087

  1. Acute stress impairs set-shifting but not reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Butts, K A; Floresco, S B; Phillips, A G

    2013-09-01

    The ability to update and modify previously learned behavioral responses in a changing environment is essential for successful utilization of promising opportunities and for coping with adverse events. Valid models of cognitive flexibility that contribute to behavioral flexibility include set-shifting and reversal learning. One immediate effect of acute stress is the selective impairment of performance on higher-order cognitive control tasks mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not the hippocampus. Previous studies show that the mPFC is required for set-shifting but not for reversal learning, therefore the aim of the present experiment is to assess whether exposure to acute stress (15 min of mild tail-pinch stress) given immediately before testing on either a set-shifting or reversal learning tasks would impair performance selectively on the set-shifting task. An automated operant chamber-based task, confirmed that exposure to acute stress significantly disrupts set-shifting but has no effect on reversal learning. Rats exposed to an acute stressor require significantly more trials to reach criterion and make significantly more perseverative errors. Thus, these data reveal that an immediate effect of acute stress is to impair mPFC-dependent cognition selectively by disrupting the ability to inhibit the use of a previously relevant cognitive strategy.

  2. Unique genetic loci identified for emotional behavior in control and chronic stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Carhuatanta, Kimberly A. K.; Shea, Chloe J. A.; Herman, James P.; Jankord, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    An individual's genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual's genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behavioral genetics mouse model to identify chromosomal regions that predict fear learning and emotional behavior following exposure to a control or chronic stress environment. 62 BXD recombinant inbred strains and C57BL/6 and DBA/2 parental strains underwent behavioral testing including a classical fear conditioning paradigm and the elevated plus maze. Distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified for emotional learning, anxiety and locomotion in control and chronic stress populations. Candidate genes, including those with already known functions in learning and stress were found to reside within the identified QTLs. Our data suggest that chronic stress history reveals novel genetic predictors of emotional behavior. PMID:25374516

  3. The impact of cardiac perception on emotion experience and cognitive performance under mental stress.

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Nicole K; Werner, Natalie S

    2014-12-01

    Mental stress evokes several physiological responses such as the acceleration of heart rate, increase of electrodermal activity and the release of adrenaline. Moreover, physiological stress responses interact with emotional and behavioral stress responses. In the present study we provide evidence that viscero-sensory feedback from the heart (cardiac perception) is an important factor modulating emotional and cognitive stress responses. In our study, we compared participants with high versus low cardiac perception using a computerized mental stress task, in which they had to respond to rapidly presented visual and acoustic stimuli. Additionally, we assessed physiological responses (heart rate, skin conductance). Participants high in cardiac perception reported more negative emotions and showed worse task performance under the stressor than participants low in cardiac perception. These results were not moderated by physiological responses. We conclude that cardiac perception modulates stress responses by intensifying negative emotions and by impairing cognitive performance. PMID:24719221

  4. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-07-20

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress.

  5. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress. PMID:27436299

  6. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, Archy O.; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B.; Cross, Gemma F.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress. PMID:27436299

  7. The effect of acute tryptophan depletion on the neural correlates of emotional processing in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Roiser, Jonathan P; Levy, Jamey; Fromm, Stephen J; Wang, Hongye; Hasler, Gregor; Sahakian, Barbara J; Drevets, Wayne C

    2008-07-01

    The processing of affective material is known to be modulated by serotonin (5-HT), but few studies have used neurophysiological measures to characterize the effect of changes in 5-HT on neural responses to emotional stimuli. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effect of acute tryptophan depletion, which reduces central 5-HT synthesis, on neural responses to emotionally valenced verbal stimuli. Though no participants experienced significant mood change, emotional information processing was substantially modified following 5-HT depletion. A behavioral bias toward positive stimuli was attenuated following depletion, which was accompanied by increased hemodynamic responses during the processing of emotional words in several subcortical structures. Inter-individual differences in tryptophan depletion-elicited anxiety correlated positively with the caudate bias toward negative stimuli. These data suggest that 5-HT may play an important role in mediating automatic negative attentional biases in major depression, as well as resilience against negative distracting stimuli in never-depressed individuals. PMID:17882232

  8. Interface of physical and emotional stress regulation through the endogenous opioid system and mu-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Saulo C; Kennedy, Susan E; Smith, Yolanda R; Stohler, Christian S; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2005-12-01

    Unraveling the pathways and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the regulation of physical and emotional stress responses in humans is of critical importance to understand vulnerability and resiliency factors to the development of a number of complex physical and psychopathological states. Dysregulation of central stress response circuits have been implicated in the establishment of conditions as diverse as persistent pain, mood and personality disorders and substance abuse and dependence. The present review examines the contribution of the endogenous opioid system and mu-opioid receptors to the modulation and adaptation of the organism to challenges, such as sustained pain and negative emotional states, which threaten its internal homeostasis. Data accumulated in animal models, and more recently in humans, point to this neurotransmitter system as a critical modulator of the transition from acute (warning signals) to sustained (stressor) environmental adversity. The existence of pathways and regulatory mechanisms common to the regulation of both physical and emotional states transcend classical categorical disease classifications, and point to the need to utilize dimensional, "symptom"-related approximations to their study. Possible future areas of study at the interface of "mind" (cognitive-emotional) and "body" (physical) functions are delineated in this context.

  9. The impact of an emotional self-management skills course on psychosocial functioning and autonomic recovery to stress in middle school children.

    PubMed

    McCraty, R; Atkinson, M; Tomasino, D; Goelitz, J; Mayrovitz, H N

    1999-01-01

    Unmanaged emotional reactions to stress not only lead to behavior problems in young people but also create physiological conditions that inhibit learning and potentially increase the risk of disease later in life. For these reasons, the integration of emotional self-management skills training programs has become an increased priority in some schools. In this study, middle school students enrolled in a course in emotional competence skills learned techniques designed to intercept stressful responses during emotionally challenging situations. Behavioral outcomes were assessed using the Achievement Inventory Measure and autonomic function was measured by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during and after a stressful interview. Following the program, students exhibited significant improvements in areas including stress and anger management, risky behavior, work management and focus, and relationships with family, peers and teachers. These improvements were sustained over the following six months. Students using the skills taught in the course to recover from acute emotional stress were also able to positively modulate their physiological stress responses. As compared to a control group, trained students demonstrated significantly increased HRV and more rhythmic, sine wave-like heart rhythm patterns during recovery. This response pattern reflects increased parasympathetic activity, heart rhythm coherence, and entrainment of other biological oscillatory systems to the primary heart rhythm frequency. Increased physiological coherence is associated with improved cognitive performance, emotional balance, mental clarity and health outcomes. These physiological shifts could promote the sustained psychological and behavioral improvements associated with the use of emotional management skills. It is suggested that learning emotional competence skills in childhood establishes healthier physiological response patterns which can benefit learning and long-term health. Results

  10. Acute Stress Reduces Reward Responsiveness: Implications for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Ryan; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Stress, one of the strongest risk factors for depression, has been linked to “anhedonic” behavior and dysfunctional reward-related neural circuitry in preclinical models. Methods To test if acute stress reduces reward responsiveness (i.e., the ability to modulate behavior as a function of past reward), a signal-detection task coupled with a differential reinforcement schedule was utilized. Eighty female participants completed the task under both a stress condition, either threat-of-shock (n = 38) or negative performance feedback (n = 42), and a no-stress condition. Results Stress increased negative affect and anxiety. As hypothesized based on preclinical findings, stress, particularly the threat-of-shock condition, impaired reward responsiveness. Regression analyses indicate that self-report measures of anhedonia predicted stress-induced hedonic deficits even after controlling for anxiety symptoms. Conclusions These findings indicate that acute stress reduces reward responsiveness, particularly in individuals with anhedonic symptoms. Stress-induced hedonic deficit is a promising candidate mechanism linking stressful experiences to depression. PMID:16806107

  11. Predictors of Emotional Eating during Adolescents' Transition to College: Does Body Mass Index Moderate the Association between Stress and Emotional Eating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Shana M.; Darling, Katherine E.; Fahrenkamp, Amy J.; D'Auria, Alexandra L.; Sato, Amy F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to (1) examine perceived stress and resources to cope with stress as predictors of emotional eating during the transition to college and (2) determine whether body mass index (BMI) moderated the emotional eating-stress relationship. Participants: Participants were 97 college freshmen (73% female; BMI: M = 25.3…

  12. Speaking under pressure: Low linguistic complexity is linked to high physiological and emotional stress reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Saslow, Laura R.; McCoy, Shannon; van der Löwe, Ilmo; Cosley, Brandon; Vartan, Arbi; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher; Moskowitz, Judith T.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2014-01-01

    What can a speech reveal about someone's state? We tested the idea that greater stress reactivity would relate to lower linguistic cognitive complexity while speaking. In Study 1, we tested whether heart rate and emotional stress reactivity to a stressful discussion would relate to lower linguistic complexity. In Studies 2 and 3 we tested whether a greater cortisol response to a standardized stressful task including a speech (Trier Social Stress Test) would be linked to speaking with less linguistic complexity during the task. We found evidence that measures of stress responsivity (emotional and physiological) and chronic stress are tied to variability in the cognitive complexity of speech. Taken together, these results provide evidence that our individual experiences of stress or ‘stress signatures’—how our body and mind react to stress both in the moment and over the longer term—are linked to how complexly we speak under stress. PMID:24354732

  13. Acute pharmacologically induced shifts in serotonin availability abolish emotion-selective responses to negative face emotions in distinct brain networks.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl L; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hornboll, Bettina; Macoveanu, Julian; Paulson, Olaf B; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2013-05-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonin availability can alter the processing of facial expressions of emotion. Using a within-subject design, we measured the effect of serotonin on the brain's response to aversive face emotions with functional MRI while 20 participants judged the gender of neutral, fearful and angry faces. In three separate and counterbalanced sessions, participants received citalopram (CIT) to raise serotonin levels, underwent acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower serotonin, or were studied without pharmacological challenge (Control). An analysis designed to identify distributed brain responses identified two brain networks with modulations of activity related to face emotion and serotonin level. The first network included the left amygdala, bilateral striatum, and fusiform gyri. During the Control session this network responded only to fearful faces; increasing serotonin decreased this response to fear, whereas reducing serotonin enhanced the response of this network to angry faces. The second network involved bilateral amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and these regions also showed increased activity to fear during the Control session. Both drug challenges enhanced the neural response of this set of regions to angry faces, relative to Control, and CIT also enhanced activity for neutral faces. The net effect of these changes in both networks was to abolish the selective response to fearful expressions. These results suggest that a normal level of serotonin is critical for maintaining a differentiated brain response to threatening face emotions. Lower serotonin leads to a broadening of a normally fear-specific response to anger, and higher levels reduce the differentiated brain response to aversive face emotions.

  14. 'People-Work': Emotion Management, Stress and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Sandi

    2004-01-01

    Workers involved in 'people-work' are expected to engage in a great deal of emotion management as they attempt to convey the appropriate emotions (which they may not genuinely feel) to their clients or customers whilst perhaps suppressing inappropriate ones. Should this emotion management be unsuccessful within some industries, a customer may be…

  15. Acute stress impairs cognitive flexibility in men, not women.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Trainor, Brian C; Lam, Jovian C W; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial stress influences cognitive abilities, such as long-term memory retrieval. However, less is known about the effects of stress on cognitive flexibility, which is mediated by different neurobiological circuits and could thus be regulated by different neuroendocrine pathways. In this study, we randomly assigned healthy adults to an acute stress induction or control condition and subsequently assessed participants' cognitive flexibility using an open-source version of the Wisconsin Card Sort task. Drawing on work in rodents, we hypothesized that stress would have stronger impairing effects on cognitive flexibility in men than women. As predicted, we found that stress impaired cognitive flexibility in men but did not significantly affect women. Our results thus indicate that stress exerts sex-specific effects on cognitive flexibility in humans and add to the growing body of research highlighting the need to consider sex differences in effects of stress.

  16. Acute stress and working memory in older people.

    PubMed

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that acute stress affects working memory (WM) in young adults, but the effect in older people is understudied. As observed in other types of memory, older people may be less sensitive to acute effects of stress on WM. We performed two independent studies with healthy older men and women (from 55 to 77 years old) to investigate the effects of acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and cortisol on WM. In study 1 (n = 63), after the TSST women (but not men) improved their performance on Digit Span Forward (a measure of the memory span component of WM) but not on Digit Span Backward (a measure of both memory span and the executive component of WM). Furthermore, in women, cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing showed a positive association with the memory span component of WM before and after the TSST, and with the executive component of WM only before the stress task. In study 2 (n = 76), although participants showed a cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) response to the TSST, stress did not affect performance on Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS; a task that places a high demand on the executive component of WM). Cortisol and sAA were not associated with WM. The results indicate that circulating cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing, and not the stress response, affect memory span in older women, and that stress and the increase in cortisol levels after stress do not affect the executive component of WM in older men and women. This study provides further evidence that older people may be less sensitive to stress and stress-induced cortisol response effects on memory processes.

  17. EATING BEHAVIOR IN RESPONSE TO ACUTE STRESS.

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Veronica; Bontea, Amalia; Anton-Păduraru, Dana-teodora

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a medical and social problem with a dramatically increasing prevalence. It is important to take action since childhood to prevent and treat obesity and metabolic syndrome. Infantile obesity affects all body systems starting in childhood and continuing to adulthood. Understanding the impact of stressors on weight status may be especially important for preventing obesity. The relationship between stress, eating behavior and obesity is not fully understood. However, there is evidence that stress causes disorders in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, system that regulates both stress and feeding responses. Also, the response is different depending on the type of stressors. Chronic stress, especially when people live in a palatable food environment, induces HPA stimulation, excess glucocorticoids, insulin resistance, which lead to inhibition of lipid mobilization, accumulation of triglyceride and retention of abdominal fat. PMID:27483696

  18. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jingkai; Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon A.; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Murrah, Nancy; Shallenberger, Lucy; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. Methods We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38–60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task), and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS), obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores. Results There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30), p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56), p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress. Conclusion Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological) stress. PMID:25061993

  19. Acute psychosocial stress and children's memory.

    PubMed

    de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether children's performance on working memory (WM) and delayed retrieval (DR) tasks decreased after stress exposure, and how physiological stress responses related to performance under stress. About 158 children (83 girls; Mage = 10.61 years, SD = 0.52) performed two WM tasks (WM forward and WM backward) and a DR memory task first during a control condition, and 1 week later during a stress challenge. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol were assessed during the challenge. Only WM backward performance declined over conditions. Correlations between physiological stress responses and performance within the stress challenge were present only for WM forward and DR. For WM forward, higher cortisol responses were related to better performance. For DR, there was an inverted U-shape relation between cortisol responses and performance, as well as a cortisol × sAA interaction, with concurrent high or low responses related to optimal performance. This emphasizes the importance of including curvilinear and interaction effects when relating physiology to memory.

  20. Emotion Regulation Difficulties as a Prospective Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following a Mass Shooting

    PubMed Central

    Bardeen, Joseph R.; Kumpula, Mandy J.; Orcutt, Holly K.

    2013-01-01

    A strong positive association between emotion regulation difficulties (ERD) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) has been consistently evidenced in cross-sectional research. However, a lack of prospective research has limited hypotheses regarding the temporal relationship between trauma exposure, ERD, and PTSS. The present prospective study investigated the role of pre-trauma difficulties with emotion regulation in the development of PTSS following exposure to a potentially traumatic event. Between Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2), a mass shooting occurred at the participants'(n = 691) university campus. ERD and PTSS were assessed prior to the shooting (T1), in the acute aftermath of the shooting (T2), and approximately eight months later (T3). Using a cross-lagged panel design, ERD was found to prospectively predict PTSS from T1 to T2 and T2 to T3. Additionally, PTSS prospectively predicted ERD from T1 to T2. However, T2 PTSS failed to predict T3 PTSS. Results indicate that ERD and PTSS are reciprocally influential from pre- to post-shooting. Further, results suggest that emotion dysregulation in the aftermath of a potentially traumatic event influences one's ability to recover from PTSS over time, even after accounting for the effects of existing symptomatology. To examine the specificity of temporal relations between ERD and PTSS a second cross-lagged panel design, in which a general distress construct was substituted for PTSS, was conducted. Results of this analysis, as well as conceptual and clinical implications, will be discussed. PMID:23454838

  1. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Stress Exposure to Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to violence and increase risk of aggressive behavior. In the current study, we use longitudinal data to examine emotion dysregulation as a potential mechanism linking a broader range of stressful experiences to aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of early adolescents (N=1065). Specifically, we examined the longitudinal associations of peer victimization and stressful life events with emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to create latent constructs of emotion dysregulation and aggression. Both stressful life events and peer victimization predicted subsequent increases in emotion dysregulation over a 4-month period. These increases in emotion dysregulation, in turn, were associated with increases in aggression over the subsequent 3 months. Longitudinal mediation models showed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship of both peer victimization (z=2.35, p=0.019) and stressful life events (z=2.32, p=0.020) with aggressive behavior. Increasing the use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies is an important target for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of adolescent aggressive behavior. PMID:22466516

  2. BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RATS ON VARIOUS HIERARCHICAL LEVEL CAUSED BY ACUTE INFORMATIONAL STRESS.

    PubMed

    Matitaishvili, T; Domianidze, T; Emukhvari, N; Khananashvili, M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our research was to study behavioral indices of rats standing on various hierarchical level in the conditions of acute informational stress as well as their resistance to stress taking into account their social status. The Animal's behavior has been studied in conflict and agonist conditions against the background of high food and thirst motivation. After determination of hierarchical relations the stressing procedure of two active avoidance reactions was performed simultaneously during one trial (14 days). During the experiment, behavioral indices of rats induced by stressing procedure were registered. We used "open field" test in order to assess animals' emotional state. The studies performed by us demonstrated behavioral characteristics of animals standing on various hierarchical level. The obtained results showed that after stressing all the animals of the group under stressogenic influence of equal strength, behavior of rats did nor reliably differ in conflict situations. Dominants standing on high hierarchical level remained active in both conflict situations. The impact of stress on their behavior was less detected. Dominant animal maintained its hierarchical status. Submissive rats were more greatly influenced by stress. The obtained results confirmed that dominant animals were characterized with more comprehensively developed self-regulating mechanisms of brain. PMID:27119838

  3. Behavioral problems and emotional stress in children with bruxism.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Bacci, Adriana do Vale; Cardoso, Carmen Lúcia Cardoso; Díaz-Serrano, Kranya Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Bruxism has a multifactorial etiology, and psychosocial factors have been considered to increase the risk of occurrence of this parafunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior profile of a group of children diagnosed with bruxism. Eighty 7-11-year-old children of both genders (mean age 8.8 years) first recruited as eligible participants. Twenty-nine children (18 males and 11 females) whose parents/guardians reported to present frequent episodes of tooth grinding/clenching while awake or during sleep (at least 3 nights a week) in the previous 3 months were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of bruxism was established based on the parents/guardians' report about the children's behavior, habits and possible discomforts in the components of the stomatognathic system allied to the presence of signs and symptoms such as pain on the masticatory muscles, masseter muscle hypertrophy, wear facets, fractures of restorations, dental impressions on the cheek mucosa and tongue. As part of the psychological evaluation, the Rutter's Child Behavior Scale-A2 was applied to the parents/caregivers (one for each child) and the Child Stress Scale was applied to the children. Data were analyzed descriptively based on the frequency of each studied variable. Twenty-four (82.76%) children needed psychological or psychiatric intervention; 17 of them presented neurotic disorders and 7 children presented antisocial disorders. Six (20.70%) children presented significant physical and psychological manifestations of stress. The findings of the present study suggest that behavioral problems and potential emotional problems can be risk factors to bruxism in children.

  4. Acute stress alters transcript expression pattern and reduces processing of proBDNF to mature BDNF in Dicentrarchus labrax

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Stress involves alterations of brain functioning that may precipitate to mood disorders. The neurotrophin Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) has recently been involved in stress-induced adaptation. BDNF is a key regulator of neuronal plasticity and adaptive processes. Regulation of BDNF is complex and may reflect not only stress-specific mechanisms but also hormonal and emotional responses. For this reason we used, as an animal model of stress, a fish whose brain organization is very similar to that of higher vertebrates, but is generally considered free of emotional reactions. Results We provide a comprehensive characterization of BDNF gene in the Dicentrarchus labrax and its transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation following acute stress. While total BDNF mRNA levels are unchanged, BDNF transcripts 1c and 1d resulted down regulated after acute stress. Acute stress induces also a significant increase in proBDNF levels and reduction in mature BDNF suggesting altered regulation of proBDNF proteolytic processing. Notably, we provide here the first evidence that fishes possess a simplified proteolytic regulation of BDNF since the pro28Kda form, generated by the SKI-1 protease in mammals, is absent in fishes because the cleavage site has first emerged in reptilians. Finally, we show that the proBDNF/totBDNF ratio is a highly predictive novel quantitative biomarker to detect stress in fishes with sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 87%, and Negative Predictive Value = 100%. Conclusion The high predictivity of proBDNF/totBDNF ratio for stress in lower vertebrates indicates that processing of BDNF is a central mechanism in adaptation to stress and predicts that a similar regulation of pro/mature BDNF has likely been conserved throughout evolution of vertebrates from fish to man. PMID:20074340

  5. The Interplay between Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children's Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's…

  6. Melanocortin-4 receptor in the medial amygdala regulates emotional stress-induced anxiety-like behaviour, anorexia and corticosterone secretion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Garza, Jacob C.; Li, Wei; Lu, Xin-Yun

    2013-01-01

    The central melanocortin system has been implicated in emotional stress-induced anxiety, anorexia and activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, the underlying neural substrates have not been identified. The medial amygdala (MeA) is highly sensitive to emotional stress and expresses high levels of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). This study investigated the effects of activation and blockade of MC4R in the MeA on anxiety-like behaviour, food intake and corticosterone secretion. We demonstrate that MC4R-expressing neurons in the MeA were activated by acute restraint stress, as indicated by induction of c-fos mRNA expression. Infusion of a selective MC4R agonist into the MeA elicited anxiogenic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze test and decreased food intake. In contrast, local MeA infusion of SHU 9119, a MC4R antagonist, blocked restraint stress-induced anxiogenic and anorectic effects. Moreover, plasma corticosterone levels were increased by intra-MeA infusion of the MC4R agonist under non-stressed conditions and restraint stress-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone levels was attenuated by pretreatment with SHU 9119 in the MeA. Thus, stimulating MC4R in the MeA induces stress-like anxiogenic and anorectic effects as well as activation of the HPA axis, whereas antagonizing MC4R in this region blocks such effects induced by restraint stress. Together, our results implicate MC4R signalling in the MeA in behavioural and endocrine responses to stress. PMID:22176700

  7. Teaching the Interrelationship between Stress, Emotions, and Cardiovascular Risk Using a Classic Paper by Walter Cannon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwirtz, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Classroom discussion of the classic article by Walter B. Cannon in 1914, entitled "The emergency function of the adrenal medulla in pain and the major emotions," is an excellent tool to teach graduate students the interaction between stress, emotions, and cardiovascular function. Using this article, we are able to review important early research…

  8. Recognition of Facial Emotions among Maltreated Children with High Rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Carrie L.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Hodgdon, Hilary B.; McClure, Erin B.; Charney, Dennis S.; Ernst, Monique; Kaufman, Joan; Pine, Daniel S.; Monk, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine processing of facial emotions in a sample of maltreated children showing high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Maltreatment during childhood has been associated independently with both atypical processing of emotion and the development of PTSD. However, research has provided little…

  9. A Prospective Examination of Emotional Clarity, Stress Responses, and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the proposal that difficulty understanding one's emotional experiences (i.e., deficits in emotional clarity) would interfere with the formulation of adaptive responses to interpersonal stress, which would then predict depressive symptoms. This process was examined across 3 years (fourth to sixth grade) during early…

  10. The Conspiracy of Autophagy, Stress and Inflammation in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jason C.; Crawford, Howard C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with alcohol abuse, gallstones and bacterial infection. Its basic etiology is tissue destruction accompanied by an innate inflammatory response, which induces epithelial stress pathways. Recent studies have focused on some of the integral cellular pathways shared between multiple pancreatitis models that also suggest new approaches to detection and treatment. Recent findings Several models of pancreatitis have been associated with stress responses, such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress together with the induction of a defective autophagic pathway. Recent evidence reinforces the critical role of these cellular processes in pancreatitis. A member of the the Toll-Like Receptor family, TLR4, which is known to contribute to disease pathology in many models of experimental pancreatitis, has been found to be a promising target for treatment of pancreatitis. Interestingly, a direct activator of TLR4,, the bacterial cell wall component in Gram negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS), contributes to the onset and severity of disease when combined with additional stressors, such as chronic alcohol feeding, however recent studies have shown that acute infection of mice with live bacteria is alone sufficient to induce acute pancreatitis. Summary In the last several months, the convergent roles of acinar cell stress, autophagy and proinflammatory signaling initiated by the toll-like receptors have been emphatically reinforced in the onset of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25003605

  11. The moderator role of emotion regulation ability in the link between stress and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the moderating role of a central core dimension of emotional intelligence—emotion-regulation ability—in the relationship between perceived stress and indicators of well-being (depression and subjective happiness) in a sample from a community adult population. The relationships for males and females on these dimensions were also compared. Results revealed that emotion-regulation abilities moderated both the association between perceived stress and depression/happiness for the total sample. However, a gender-specific analysis showed that the moderation effect was only significant for males. In short, when males reported a high level of perceived stress, those with high scores in regulating emotions reported higher scores in subjective happiness and lower depression symptoms than those with low regulating emotions. However, no interaction effect of regulating emotions and stress for predicting subjective happiness and depression was found for females. In developing stress management programmes for reducing depression and increasing well-being, these findings suggest that training in emotional regulation may be more beneficial for males than females. Our findings are discussed in terms of the need for future research to understand the different gender associations and to consider these differences in further intervention programmes. PMID:26579017

  12. The moderator role of emotion regulation ability in the link between stress and well-being.

    PubMed

    Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the moderating role of a central core dimension of emotional intelligence-emotion-regulation ability-in the relationship between perceived stress and indicators of well-being (depression and subjective happiness) in a sample from a community adult population. The relationships for males and females on these dimensions were also compared. Results revealed that emotion-regulation abilities moderated both the association between perceived stress and depression/happiness for the total sample. However, a gender-specific analysis showed that the moderation effect was only significant for males. In short, when males reported a high level of perceived stress, those with high scores in regulating emotions reported higher scores in subjective happiness and lower depression symptoms than those with low regulating emotions. However, no interaction effect of regulating emotions and stress for predicting subjective happiness and depression was found for females. In developing stress management programmes for reducing depression and increasing well-being, these findings suggest that training in emotional regulation may be more beneficial for males than females. Our findings are discussed in terms of the need for future research to understand the different gender associations and to consider these differences in further intervention programmes. PMID:26579017

  13. Does Acute Stress Disorder Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies following nonsexual assault. The present study…

  14. Acute Stress Disorder as a Predictor of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Physical Assault Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Brink, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The authors' objective was to examine the ability of acute stress disorder (ASD) and other trauma-related factors in a group of physical assault victims in predicting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months later. Subjects included 214 victims of violence who completed a questionnaire 1 to 2 weeks after the assault, with 128 participating…

  15. The Relationship between Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following cancer diagnosis. Patients who were recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy (N = 82) were assessed for ASD within the initial month following their diagnosis and reassessed (n =…

  16. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Graves, James L.; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P.; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J.; McKeegan, Dorothy E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  17. Dynamics of telomerase activity in response to acute psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Puterman, E; Karan, Lori; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase activity plays an essential role in cel0l survival, by lengthening telomeres and promoting cell growth and longevity. It is now possible to quantify the low levels of telomerase activity in human leukocytes. Low basal telomerase activity has been related to chronic stress in people and to chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vitro. Here we test whether leukocyte telomerase activity changes under acute psychological stress. We exposed 44 elderly women, including 22 high stress dementia caregivers and 22 matched low stress controls, to a brief laboratory psychological stressor, while examining changes in telomerase activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). At baseline, caregivers had lower telomerase activity levels than controls, but during stress telomerase activity increased similarly in both groups. Across the entire sample, subsequent telomerase activity increased by 18% one hour after the end of the stressor (p<0.01). The increase in telomerase activity was independent of changes in numbers or percentages of monocytes, lymphocytes, and specific T cell types, although we cannot fully rule out some potential contribution from immune cell redistribution in the change in telomerase activity. Telomerase activity increases were associated with greater cortisol increases in response to the stressor. Lastly, psychological response to the tasks (greater threat perception) was also related to greater telomerase activity increases in controls. These findings uncover novel relationships of dynamic telomerase activity with exposure to an acute stressor, and with two classic aspects of the stress response -- perceived psychological stress and neuroendocrine (cortisol) responses to the stressor. PMID:20018236

  18. Effects of emotional symptoms and life stress on eating behaviors among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fangli; Xu, Shaojun; Zhao, Yuqiu; Lu, Qingyun; Zhang, Shichen; Zu, Ping; Sun, Ying; Su, Puyu; Tao, Fangbiao

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore possible effects of emotional symptoms (depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms) and life stress on eating behaviors (restrained, emotional and external eating behaviors) among junior and high school students in China. A total of 5473 students in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province were sampled to participate in this survey based on a clustering sampling approach. The survey collected sociodemographic data, emotional symptoms, life stress and eating behaviors of adolescents. Spearman correlation coefficients were measured and tested to examine the relationship between eating behaviors and emotional symptoms as well as life stress. In addition, we analyzed the data using Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models. The results showed positive correlation between emotional symptoms, life stress, and eating behaviors. Furthermore, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and life stress were significantly associated with unhealthy eating behaviors, after adjusting for gender, age, BMI, parental education level and self-assessed family economic status. This study suggests that a comprehensive intervention focusing on emotion and stress management would be helpful for the prevention of unhealthy eating behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

  19. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    PubMed

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress.

  20. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    PubMed

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress. PMID:19123763

  1. Cortisol modulates men's affiliative responses to acute social stress.

    PubMed

    Berger, Justus; Heinrichs, Markus; von Dawans, Bernadette; Way, Baldwin M; Chen, Frances S

    2016-01-01

    The dominant characterization of the physiological and behavioral human stress reaction is the fight-or-flight response. On the other hand, it has been suggested that social affiliation during stressful times ("tend-and-befriend") also represents a common adaptive response to stress, particularly for women. In the current study, we investigate the extent to which men may also show affiliative responses following acute stress. In addition, we examine a potential neuroendocrine modulator of the hypothesized affiliative response. Eighty male students (forty dyads) were recruited to undergo either the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) or a non-stressful control situation. Subsequently, participants completed a dyadic interaction task and were then asked to report their feelings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner. Although participants assigned to the stress condition did not differ overall on psychological closeness from participants assigned to the control condition, participants with high cortisol responses to the stressor showed significantly higher ratings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner than participants with low cortisol responses. Our findings suggest that men may form closer temporary bonds following stressful situations that are accompanied by a significant cortisol response. We suggest that the traditional characterization of the male stress response in terms of "fight-or-flight" may be incomplete, and that social affiliation may in fact represent a common, adaptive response to stress in men.

  2. Negative Inferential Style, Emotional Clarity, and Life Stress: Integrating Vulnerabilities to Depression in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Negative inferential style and deficits in emotional clarity have been identified as vulnerability factors for depression in adolescence, particularly when individuals experience high levels of life stress. However, previous research has not integrated these characteristics when evaluating vulnerability to depression. Method In the present study, a racially-diverse community sample of 256 early adolescents (ages 12 and 13) completed a baseline visit and a follow-up visit nine months later. Inferential style, emotional clarity, and depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, and intervening life events and depressive symptoms were assessed at follow-up. Results Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that there was a significant three-way interaction between adolescents’ weakest-link negative inferential style, emotional clarity, and intervening life stress predicting depressive symptoms at follow-up, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Adolescents with low emotional clarity and high negative inferential styles experienced the greatest increases in depressive symptoms following life stress. Emotional clarity buffered against the impact of life stress on depressive symptoms among adolescents with negative inferential styles. Similarly, negative inferential styles exacerbated the impact of life stress on depressive symptoms among adolescents with low emotional clarity. Conclusions These results provide evidence of the utility of integrating inferential style and emotional clarity as constructs of vulnerability in combination with life stress in the identification of adolescents at risk for depression. They also suggest the enhancement of emotional clarity as a potential intervention technique to protect against the effects of negative inferential styles and life stress on depression in early adolescence. PMID:23215673

  3. BMI as a moderator of perceived stress and emotional eating in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena T; Chou, Chih-Ping; Unger, Jennifer B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2008-04-01

    Emotional eating has often been linked to overweight and/or obesity. Multiple group SEM analyses were conducted using cross-sectional data from 517 minority students in Los Angeles County. Results showed no differences in emotional eating between normal weight and overweight students. Perceived stress was indeed a significant correlate of emotional eating, independent of BMI status, as indicated by the lack of a modifying effect of BMI status. Findings highlight the fact that emotional eating is not an issue only for overweight and obese persons. This study shows that some children in this population at increased risk for obesity and related chronic disease have already incorporated emotional eating as a learned response to stress by the time that they enter adolescence.

  4. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2010-02-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an established program shown to reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. MBSR is believed to alter emotional responding by modifying cognitive-affective processes. Given that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by emotional and attentional biases as well as distorted negative self-beliefs, we examined MBSR-related changes in the brain-behavior indices of emotional reactivity and regulation of negative self-beliefs in patients with SAD. Sixteen patients underwent functional MRI while reacting to negative self-beliefs and while regulating negative emotions using 2 types of attention deployment emotion regulation-breath-focused attention and distraction-focused attention. Post-MBSR, 14 patients completed neuroimaging assessments. Compared with baseline, MBSR completers showed improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem. During the breath-focused attention task (but not the distraction-focused attention task), they also showed (a) decreased negative emotion experience, (b) reduced amygdala activity, and (c) increased activity in brain regions implicated in attentional deployment. MBSR training in patients with SAD may reduce emotional reactivity while enhancing emotion regulation. These changes might facilitate reduction in SAD-related avoidance behaviors, clinical symptoms, and automatic emotional reactivity to negative self-beliefs in adults with SAD.

  5. The association of perceived stress, contextualized stress, and emotional eating with body mass index in college-aged Black women.

    PubMed

    Diggins, Allyson; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl; Waters, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of literature supports the association between adverse stress experiences and health inequities, including obesity, among African American/Black women. Adverse stress experiences can contribute to poor appetite regulation, increased food intake, emotional eating, binge eating, and sedentary behavior, all of which can contribute to weight gain and obesity. Most research studies concerning the effect of psychological stress on eating behaviors have not examined the unique stress experience, body composition, and eating behaviors of African American/Black women. Even fewer studies have examined these constructs among Black female college students, who have an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity compared to their counterparts. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to examine the associations among emotional eating, perceived stress, contextualized stress, and BMI in African American female college students. All participants identified as African American or Black (N=99). The mean age of the sample was 19.4 years (SD=1.80). A statistically significant eating behavior patterns×perceived stress interaction was evident for body mass index (BMI) (β=0.036, S.E.=.0118, p<.01). In addition, a statistically significant eating behavior patterns×contextualized stress interaction was observed for BMI (β=0.007, S.E.=.0027, p=.015). Findings from this study demonstrate that the stress experience interacts with emotional eating to influence BMI. Based on these findings, culturally relevant interventions that target the unique stress experience and eating behavior patterns of young African American women are warranted. PMID:26496005

  6. The association of perceived stress, contextualized stress, and emotional eating with body mass index in college-aged Black women.

    PubMed

    Diggins, Allyson; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl; Waters, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of literature supports the association between adverse stress experiences and health inequities, including obesity, among African American/Black women. Adverse stress experiences can contribute to poor appetite regulation, increased food intake, emotional eating, binge eating, and sedentary behavior, all of which can contribute to weight gain and obesity. Most research studies concerning the effect of psychological stress on eating behaviors have not examined the unique stress experience, body composition, and eating behaviors of African American/Black women. Even fewer studies have examined these constructs among Black female college students, who have an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity compared to their counterparts. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to examine the associations among emotional eating, perceived stress, contextualized stress, and BMI in African American female college students. All participants identified as African American or Black (N=99). The mean age of the sample was 19.4 years (SD=1.80). A statistically significant eating behavior patterns×perceived stress interaction was evident for body mass index (BMI) (β=0.036, S.E.=.0118, p<.01). In addition, a statistically significant eating behavior patterns×contextualized stress interaction was observed for BMI (β=0.007, S.E.=.0027, p=.015). Findings from this study demonstrate that the stress experience interacts with emotional eating to influence BMI. Based on these findings, culturally relevant interventions that target the unique stress experience and eating behavior patterns of young African American women are warranted.

  7. Emotional Disclosure Through Journal Writing: Telehealth Intervention for Maternal Stress and Mother-Child Relationships.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Rondalyn V; Smith, Gigi

    2015-11-01

    This study examines emotional disclosure through the activity of journaling as a means of coping with maternal stress associated with parenting a child with disruptive behaviors. Through a randomized control and pre-test post-test study design of an online journal writing intervention, change to maternal stress and quality of mother-child relationship for children with ASD, ADHD and SPD was addressed. Behavioral symptoms were found to be the primary source of parenting stress for mothers and a significant relationship between child characteristics and maternal stress was identified. Emotional disclosure through the online journal writing program (especially in the presence of high disclosure of negative emotions) was shown to reduce maternal stress and improve the quality of mother-child relationship. These findings suggest cost-effective telehealth interventions may support maternal health. Important clinical implications are discussed.

  8. LSD Acutely Impairs Fear Recognition and Enhances Emotional Empathy and Sociality.

    PubMed

    Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin; Müller, Felix; Borgwardt, Stefan; Liechti, Matthias E

    2016-10-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and has been evaluated as an adjunct to psychotherapy to treat anxiety in patients with life-threatening illness. LSD is well-known to induce perceptual alterations, but unknown is whether LSD alters emotional processing in ways that can support psychotherapy. We investigated the acute effects of LSD on emotional processing using the Face Emotion Recognition Task (FERT) and Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET). The effects of LSD on social behavior were tested using the Social Value Orientation (SVO) test. Two similar placebo-controlled, double-blind, random-order, crossover studies were conducted using 100 μg LSD in 24 subjects and 200 μg LSD in 16 subjects. All of the subjects were healthy and mostly hallucinogen-naive 25- to 65-year-old volunteers (20 men, 20 women). LSD produced feelings of happiness, trust, closeness to others, enhanced explicit and implicit emotional empathy on the MET, and impaired the recognition of sad and fearful faces on the FERT. LSD enhanced the participants' desire to be with other people and increased their prosocial behavior on the SVO test. These effects of LSD on emotion processing and sociality may be useful for LSD-assisted psychotherapy. PMID:27249781

  9. LSD Acutely Impairs Fear Recognition and Enhances Emotional Empathy and Sociality.

    PubMed

    Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin; Müller, Felix; Borgwardt, Stefan; Liechti, Matthias E

    2016-10-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and has been evaluated as an adjunct to psychotherapy to treat anxiety in patients with life-threatening illness. LSD is well-known to induce perceptual alterations, but unknown is whether LSD alters emotional processing in ways that can support psychotherapy. We investigated the acute effects of LSD on emotional processing using the Face Emotion Recognition Task (FERT) and Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET). The effects of LSD on social behavior were tested using the Social Value Orientation (SVO) test. Two similar placebo-controlled, double-blind, random-order, crossover studies were conducted using 100 μg LSD in 24 subjects and 200 μg LSD in 16 subjects. All of the subjects were healthy and mostly hallucinogen-naive 25- to 65-year-old volunteers (20 men, 20 women). LSD produced feelings of happiness, trust, closeness to others, enhanced explicit and implicit emotional empathy on the MET, and impaired the recognition of sad and fearful faces on the FERT. LSD enhanced the participants' desire to be with other people and increased their prosocial behavior on the SVO test. These effects of LSD on emotion processing and sociality may be useful for LSD-assisted psychotherapy.

  10. LSD Acutely Impairs Fear Recognition and Enhances Emotional Empathy and Sociality

    PubMed Central

    Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin; Müller, Felix; Borgwardt, Stefan; Liechti, Matthias E

    2016-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and has been evaluated as an adjunct to psychotherapy to treat anxiety in patients with life-threatening illness. LSD is well-known to induce perceptual alterations, but unknown is whether LSD alters emotional processing in ways that can support psychotherapy. We investigated the acute effects of LSD on emotional processing using the Face Emotion Recognition Task (FERT) and Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET). The effects of LSD on social behavior were tested using the Social Value Orientation (SVO) test. Two similar placebo-controlled, double-blind, random-order, crossover studies were conducted using 100 μg LSD in 24 subjects and 200 μg LSD in 16 subjects. All of the subjects were healthy and mostly hallucinogen-naive 25- to 65-year-old volunteers (20 men, 20 women). LSD produced feelings of happiness, trust, closeness to others, enhanced explicit and implicit emotional empathy on the MET, and impaired the recognition of sad and fearful faces on the FERT. LSD enhanced the participants' desire to be with other people and increased their prosocial behavior on the SVO test. These effects of LSD on emotion processing and sociality may be useful for LSD-assisted psychotherapy. PMID:27249781

  11. Acute Effects of the Novel Psychoactive Drug 2C-B on Emotions

    PubMed Central

    González, Débora; Torrens, Marta; Farré, Magí

    2015-01-01

    Background. 2C-B (Nexus) is one of the most widespread novel psychoactive substances. There is limited information about its pharmacological properties, and few studies in humans concern its acute and chronic effects. 2C-B has been classified as a stimulant, hallucinogen, entactogen, and/or empathogen. Objectives. To evaluate the emotional, subjective, and cardiovascular effects of 2C-B. Methods. Twenty healthy recreational 2C-B users (12 women) self-administered a 20 mg dose of 2C-B. Evaluations included emotional (IAPS, FERT, and speech), subjective (visual analog scales, ARCI, VESSPA, HRS, and POMS questionnaires), and cardiovascular effects (blood pressure and heart rate). Results. Positive subjective effects predominated with a reduction of anger under the influence of 2C-B. It did, however, increase reactivity to negative emotional stimuli and decrease the ability to recognize expressions of happiness. Augmented emotionality in speech could be appreciated by others. 2C-B induced euphoria and well-being, changes in perceptions, and slight hallucinogenic states. Mild sympathetic actions were observed. Conclusions. The specific profile that 2C-B exerts on emotions suggests its classification as an entactogen with psychedelic properties. PMID:26543863

  12. Age differences in emotional responses to daily stress: The role of timing, severity, and global perceived stress

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Stacey B.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Blanchard Fields, Fredda

    2013-01-01

    Research on age differences in emotional responses to daily stress has produced inconsistent findings. Guided by recent theoretical advances in aging theory (Charles, 2010) that emphasize the importance of context for predicting when and how age is related to affective well-being, the current study examined age differences in emotional responses to everyday stressors. The present study examines how three contextual features (e.g., timing of exposure, stressor severity, global perceived stress [GPS]) moderate age differences in emotional experience in an ecological momentary assessment study of adults aged 18–81 (N=190). Results indicated older adults’ negative affect (NA) was less affected by exposure to recent stressors than younger adults, but that there were no age differences in the effects of stressor exposure three to six hours afterward. Higher levels of GPS predicted amplified NA responses to daily stress, and controlling for GPS eliminated age differences in NA responses to stressors. No age differences in NA responses as a function of stressor severity were observed. In contrast, older age was associated with less of a decrease in PA when exposed to recent stressors or with more severe recent stressors. There were no age differences in the effect of previous stressor exposure or severity on PA, nor any interactions between momentary or previous stress and GPS on PA. Together, these results support the notion that chronic stress plays a central role in emotional experience in daily life. Implications of these results for emotion theories of aging are discussed. PMID:24364410

  13. Emotional stress evoked by classical fear conditioning induces yawning behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Natsuko; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Yanagita, Shinya; Nishijima, Takeshi; Kita, Ichiro

    2014-04-30

    Yawning is often observed not only in a state of boredom or drowsiness but also in stressful emotional situations, suggesting that yawning is an emotional behavior. However, the neural mechanisms for yawning during stressful emotional situations have not been fully determined, though previous studies have suggested that both parvocellular oxytocin (OT) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are responsible for induction of yawning. Thus, using ethological observations and c-Fos immunohistochemistry, we examined whether emotional stress evoked by classical fear conditioning is involved in induction of yawning behavior in freely moving rats. Emotional stress induced yawning behavior that was accompanied by anxiety-related behavior, and caused neuronal activation of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), as well as increases in activity of both OT and CRF neurons in the PVN. These results suggest that emotional stress may induce yawning behavior, in which the neuronal activation of the CeA may have a key role.

  14. Salivary Markers of Inflammation in Response to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Slavish, Danica C.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Engeland, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the ability to detect inflammatory markers in response to stress within naturally occurring social contexts and/or across multiple time points per day within individuals. Salivary collection is a less invasive process than current methods of blood collection and enables intensive naturalistic methodologies, such as those involving extensive repeated measures per day over time. Yet the reliability and validity of saliva-based to blood-based inflammatory biomarkers in response to stress remains unclear. We review and synthesize the published studies that have examined salivary markers of inflammation following exposure to an acute laboratory stressor. Results from each study are reviewed by analyte (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, CRP) and stress type (social-cognitive and exercise-physical), after which methodological issues and limitations are addressed. Although the literature is limited, several inflammatory markers (including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) have been reliably determined from saliva and have increased significantly in response to stress across multiple studies, with effect sizes ranging from very small to very large. Although CRP from saliva has been associated with CRP in circulating blood more consistently than other biomarkers have been associated with their counterparts in blood, evidence demonstrating it reliably responds to acute stress is absent. Although the current literature is presently too limited to allow broad assertion that inflammatory biomarkers determined from saliva are valuable for examining acute stress responses, this review suggests that specific targets may be valid and highlights specific areas of need for future research. PMID:25205395

  15. Expelling Stress for Primary School Teachers: Self-Affirmation Increases Positive Emotions in Teaching and Emotion Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, James; Atkin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of a brief work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII) on the well-being of primary school teachers. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to create a WS-AII or one in which they were asked to create a control implementation intention (C-II). State anxiety was measured pre- and post-manipulation, self-efficacy at post-manipulation only, and emotions in teaching and emotion regulation at baseline and at a two-week follow-up. There were statistically significant differences between the WS-AII condition and the control. Teachers who created work-related self-affirming implementation intentions reported an immediate reduction in state anxiety. Positive effects extended over the two-week period, with teachers in the WS-AII condition also reporting more positive emotions in teaching and the use of reappraisal emotion regulation strategies rather than emotion suppression. Results suggest that the integration of the WS-AII into existing organisational practice may be of benefit to the well-being of teachers and other highly stressed workers. PMID:27187437

  16. Expelling Stress for Primary School Teachers: Self-Affirmation Increases Positive Emotions in Teaching and Emotion Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Morgan, James; Atkin, Lisa

    2016-05-13

    The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of a brief work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII) on the well-being of primary school teachers. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to create a WS-AII or one in which they were asked to create a control implementation intention (C-II). State anxiety was measured pre- and post-manipulation, self-efficacy at post-manipulation only, and emotions in teaching and emotion regulation at baseline and at a two-week follow-up. There were statistically significant differences between the WS-AII condition and the control. Teachers who created work-related self-affirming implementation intentions reported an immediate reduction in state anxiety. Positive effects extended over the two-week period, with teachers in the WS-AII condition also reporting more positive emotions in teaching and the use of reappraisal emotion regulation strategies rather than emotion suppression. Results suggest that the integration of the WS-AII into existing organisational practice may be of benefit to the well-being of teachers and other highly stressed workers.

  17. Fluoxetine and diazepam acutely modulate stress induced-behavior.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Ana Cristina V V; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Luidia V; Siebel, Anna M; Zimerman, Fernanda F; Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Bonan, Carla D; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-01-01

    Drug residue contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been studied extensively, but the behavioral effects exerted by the presence of these drugs are not well known. Here, we investigated the effects of acute stress on anxiety, memory, social interaction, and aggressiveness in zebrafish exposed to fluoxetine and diazepam at concentrations that disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Stress increased the locomotor activity and time spent in the bottom area of the tank (novel tank). Fluoxetine and diazepam prevented these behaviors. We also observed that stress and fluoxetine and diazepam exposures decreased social interaction. Stress also increased aggressive behavior, which was not reversed by fluoxetine or diazepam. These data suggest that the presence of these drugs in aquatic ecosystems causes significant behavioral alterations in fish. PMID:26403161

  18. Fluoxetine and diazepam acutely modulate stress induced-behavior.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Ana Cristina V V; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Luidia V; Siebel, Anna M; Zimerman, Fernanda F; Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Bonan, Carla D; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-01-01

    Drug residue contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been studied extensively, but the behavioral effects exerted by the presence of these drugs are not well known. Here, we investigated the effects of acute stress on anxiety, memory, social interaction, and aggressiveness in zebrafish exposed to fluoxetine and diazepam at concentrations that disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Stress increased the locomotor activity and time spent in the bottom area of the tank (novel tank). Fluoxetine and diazepam prevented these behaviors. We also observed that stress and fluoxetine and diazepam exposures decreased social interaction. Stress also increased aggressive behavior, which was not reversed by fluoxetine or diazepam. These data suggest that the presence of these drugs in aquatic ecosystems causes significant behavioral alterations in fish.

  19. Acute stress is detrimental to heart regeneration in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sallin, Pauline; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with human cardiovascular disease. Here, we demonstrate that acute perceived stress impairs the natural capacity of heart regeneration in zebrafish. Beside physical and chemical disturbances, intermittent crowding triggered an increase in cortisol secretion and blocked the replacement of fibrotic tissue with new myocardium. Pharmacological simulation of stress by pulse treatment with dexamethasone/adrenaline reproduced the regeneration failure, while inhibition of the stress response with anxiolytic drugs partially rescued the regenerative process. Impaired heart regeneration in stressed animals was associated with a reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation and with the downregulation of several genes, including igfbp1b, a modulator of IGF signalling. Notably, daily stress induced a decrease in Igf1r phosphorylation. As cardiomyocyte proliferation was decreased in response to IGF-1 receptor inhibition, we propose that the stress-induced cardiac regenerative failure is partially caused by the attenuation of IGF signalling. These findings indicate that the natural regenerative ability of the zebrafish heart is vulnerable to the systemic paracrine stress response. PMID:27030176

  20. Emotional and Cardiovascular Sensitization to Daily Stress Following Childhood Parental Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecken, Linda J.; Kraft, Amy; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Enders, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Adverse childhood events can influence the development of emotional and physiological self-regulatory abilities, with significant consequences for vulnerability to psychological and physical illness. This study evaluated stress sensitization and inoculation models of the impact of early parental death on stress exposure and reactivity in late…

  1. Emotional Disclosure through Journal Writing: Telehealth Intervention for Maternal Stress and Mother-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Rondalyn V.; Smith, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines emotional disclosure through the activity of journaling as a means of coping with maternal stress associated with parenting a child with disruptive behaviors. Through a randomized control and pre-test post-test study design of an online journal writing intervention, change to maternal stress and quality of mother-child…

  2. Examining the Effects of Jyoti Meditation on Stress and the Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Conley, Abigail H.; Young, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined whether Jyoti meditation (JM), a spiritually based meditation (Singh, 2012), influenced student counselors' (N = 60) level of stress and emotional intelligence (EI). Results from a randomized controlled trial and growth curve analysis provided a multilevel model in which JM reduced stress and EI moderated the effect.

  3. Teaching the interrelationship between stress, emotions, and cardiovascular risk using a classic paper by Walter Cannon.

    PubMed

    Gwirtz, Patricia A

    2008-03-01

    Classroom discussion of the classic article by Walter B. Cannon in 1914, entitled "The emergency function of the adrenal medulla in pain and the major emotions," is an excellent tool to teach graduate students the interaction between stress, emotions, and cardiovascular function. Using this article, we are able to review important early research by Dr. Cannon, including discussion of his scientific methods and results and how they hold true today. This article outlines how this classic paper is used to allow students to explore basics principles of cardiovascular control during stress. The teaching points that are presented illustrate how students can be directed to understand the interrelationship between chronic stress and cardiovascular disease.

  4. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Trepanowski, John F.; Farney, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods: We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 different occasions, 16 men and women consumed a high-fat milk shake followed by either 16 ounces of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or bottled water. Blood samples were collected before and at 2 and 4 hours following intake of the milk shake and analyzed for triglycerides (TAG), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Results: Values for TAG and MDA (P < 0.001), as well as for H2O2 (P < 0.001), increased significantly following milk shake consumption, with values higher at 4 hours compared with 2 hours post consumption for TAG and H2O2 (P < 0.05). TEAC was unaffected by the milk shake consumption. Coffee had no impact on TAG, MDA, H2O2, or TEAC, with no condition or interaction effects noted for any variable (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Acute coffee consumption following a high-fat milk shake has no impact on postprandial oxidative stress. PMID:23935371

  5. A stress-coping model of mental illness stigma: II. Emotional stress responses, coping behavior and outcome.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina; Rajah, Anita; Olschewski, Manfred; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen

    2009-05-01

    Stigma can be a major stressor for people with schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, leading to emotional stress reactions and cognitive coping responses. Stigma is appraised as a stressor if perceived stigma-related harm exceeds an individual's perceived coping resources. It is unclear, however, how people with mental illness react to stigma stress and how that affects outcomes such as self-esteem, hopelessness and social performance. The cognitive appraisal of stigma stress as well as emotional stress reactions (social anxiety, shame) and cognitive coping responses were assessed by self-report among 85 people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective or affective disorders. In addition to self-directed outcomes (self-esteem, hopelessness), social interaction with majority outgroup members was assessed by a standardized role-play test and a seating distance measure. High stigma stress was associated with increased social anxiety and shame, but not with cognitive coping responses. Social anxiety and shame predicted lower self-esteem and more hopelessness, but not social performance or seating distance. Hopelessness was associated with the coping mechanisms of devaluing work/education and of blaming discrimination for failures. The coping mechanism of ingroup comparisons predicted poorer social performance and increased seating distance. The cognitive appraisal of stigma-related stress, emotional stress reactions and coping responses may add to our understanding of how stigma affects people with mental illness. Trade-offs between different stress reactions can explain why stress reactions predicted largely negative outcomes. Emotional stress reactions and dysfunctional coping could be useful targets for interventions aiming to reduce the negative impact of stigma on people with mental illness.

  6. Resilience as a correlate of acute stress disorder symptoms in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Rebecca E; Weber, Tania; Princip, Mary; Schnyder, Ulrich; Barth, Jürgen; Znoj, Hansjörg; Schmid, Jean-Paul; von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Myocardial infarction (MI) may be experienced as a traumatic event causing acute stress disorder (ASD). This mental disorder has an impact on the daily life of patients and is associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Trait resilience has been shown to be a protective factor for post-traumatic stress disorder, but its association with ASD in patients with MI is elusive and was examined in this study. Methods We investigated 71 consecutive patients with acute MI within 48 h of having stable haemodynamic conditions established and for 3 months thereafter. All patients completed the Acute Stress Disorder Scale and the Resilience Scale to self-rate the severity of ASD symptoms and trait resilience, respectively. Results Hierarchical regression analysis showed that greater resilience was associated with lower symptoms of ASD independent of covariates (b=−0.22, p<0.05). Post hoc analysis revealed resilience level to be inversely associated with the ASD symptom clusters of re-experiencing (b=−0.05, p<0.05) and arousal (b=−0.09, p<0.05), but not with dissociation and avoidance. Conclusions The findings suggest that patients with acute MI with higher trait resilience experience relatively fewer symptoms of ASD during MI. Resilience was particularly associated with re-experiencing and arousal symptoms. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of resilience as a potentially important correlate of ASD in the context of traumatic situations such as acute MI. These results emphasise the importance of identifying patients with low resilience in medical settings and to offer them adequate support. PMID:26568834

  7. Recognition of facial emotions among maltreated children with high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Carrie L.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Hodgdon, Hilary B.; McClure, Erin B.; Charney, Dennis S.; Ernst, Monique; Kaufman, Joan; Pine, Daniel S.; Monk, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to examine processing of facial emotions in a sample of maltreated children showing high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Maltreatment during childhood has been associated independently with both atypical processing of emotion and the development of PTSD. However, research has provided little evidence indicating how high rates of PTSD might relate to maltreated children’s processing of emotions. Method Participants’ reaction time and labeling of emotions were measured using a morphed facial emotion identification task. Participants included a diverse sample of maltreated children with and without PTSD and controls ranging in age from 8 to 15 years. Maltreated children had been removed from their homes and placed in state custody following experiences of maltreatment. Diagnoses of PTSD and other disorders were determined through combination of parent, child, and teacher reports. Results Maltreated children displayed faster reaction times than controls when labeling emotional facial expressions, and this result was most pronounced for fearful faces. Relative to children who were not maltreated, maltreated children both with and without PTSD showed enhanced response times when identifying fearful faces. There was no group difference in labeling of emotions when identifying different facial emotions. Conclusions Maltreated children show heightened ability to identify fearful faces, evidenced by faster reaction times relative to controls. This association between maltreatment and atypical processing of emotion is independent of PTSD diagnosis. PMID:18155144

  8. Low-Income Women’s Conceptualizations of Emotional- and Stress-Eating

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, Lenwood W.; Lee, Hannah J.; Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    Emotional- and stress-eating have been proposed as risk factors for obesity. However, the way that individuals conceptualize these behaviors is not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. We sought to understand how women conceptualize emotional- and stress-eating. Sixty-one low-income women from South-central Michigan with young children (ages 2–5 years) participated in either a focus group or individual semi-structured interview during which they were asked about their conceptualizations of eating behaviors among adults and children. Responses were transcribed and the constant comparative method was used to identify themes. Identified themes included that emotional- and stress-eating are viewed as uncommon, severe, pitiable behaviors that reflect a lack of self-control and are highly stigmatized; that when these behaviors occurred among children, the behaviors resulted from neglect or even abuse; and that bored-eating is viewed as distinct from emotional- or stress-eating and is a common and humorous behavior with which participants readily self-identified. Future research and interventions should seek to develop more detailed conceptualizations of these behaviors to improve measurement, destigmatize emotional- and stress-eating and potentially capitalize on the strong identification with bored-eating by targeting this behavior for interventions. PMID:25218718

  9. Acute restraint stress induces endothelial dysfunction: role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Carda, Ana P P; Marchi, Katia C; Rizzi, Elen; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Padovan, Claudia M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that acute stress would induce endothelial dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were restrained for 2 h within wire mesh. Functional and biochemical analyses were conducted 24 h after the 2-h period of restraint. Stressed rats showed decreased exploration on the open arms of an elevated-plus maze (EPM) and increased plasma corticosterone concentration. Acute restraint stress did not alter systolic blood pressure, whereas it increased the in vitro contractile response to phenylephrine and serotonin in endothelium-intact rat aortas. NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; nitric oxide synthase, NOS, inhibitor) did not alter the contraction induced by phenylephrine in aortic rings from stressed rats. Tiron, indomethacin and SQ29548 reversed the increase in the contractile response to phenylephrine induced by restraint stress. Increased systemic and vascular oxidative stress was evident in stressed rats. Restraint stress decreased plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration and increased aortic expression of inducible (i) NOS, but not endothelial (e) NOS. Reduced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, but not COX-2, was observed in aortas from stressed rats. Restraint stress increased thromboxane (TX)B(2) (stable TXA(2) metabolite) concentration but did not affect prostaglandin (PG)F2α concentration in the aorta. Restraint reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, whereas concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not affected. The major new finding of our study is that restraint stress increases vascular contraction by an endothelium-dependent mechanism that involves increased oxidative stress and the generation of COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids. Such stress-induced endothelial dysfunction could predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Bloomer, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The topic of exercise-induced oxidative stress has received considerable attention in recent years, with close to 300 original investigations published since the early work of Dillard and colleagues in 1978. Single bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress. This is indicated by an increased presence of oxidized molecules in a variety of tissues. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as the subject population tested, all can impact the extent of oxidation. Moreover, the use of antioxidant supplements can impact the findings. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis, such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. This review presents a comprehensive summary of original investigations focused on exercise-induced oxidative stress. This should provide the reader with a well-documented account of the research done within this area of science over the past 30 years. PMID:19144121

  11. Age differences in emotional responses to daily stress: the role of timing, severity, and global perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Scott, Stacey B; Sliwinski, Martin J; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2013-12-01

    Research on age differences in emotional responses to daily stress has produced inconsistent findings. Guided by recent theoretical advances in aging theory (S. T. Charles, 2010, Strength and vulnerability integration: A model of emotional well-being across adulthood, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 136, pp. 1068-1091) that emphasize the importance of context for predicting when and how age is related to affective well-being, the current study examined age differences in emotional responses to everyday stressors. The present study examined how three contextual features (e.g., timing of exposure, stressor severity, global perceived stress [GPS]) moderate age differences in emotional experience in an ecological momentary assessment study of adults (N = 190) aged 18-81 years. Results indicated that older adults' negative affect (NA) was less affected by exposure to recent stressors than younger adults, but that there were no age differences in the effects of stressor exposure 3-6 hr afterward. Higher levels of GPS predicted amplified NA responses to daily stress, and controlling for GPS eliminated age differences in NA responses to stressors. No age differences in NA responses as a function of stressor severity were observed. In contrast, older age was associated with less of a decrease in PA when exposed to recent stressors or with more severe recent stressors. There were no age differences in the effect of previous stressor exposure or severity on PA, or any interactions between momentary or previous stress and GPS on PA. Together, these results support the notion that chronic stress plays a central role in emotional experience in daily life. We discuss the implications of these results for emotion theories of aging.

  12. Acute stress induces increases in salivary IL-10 levels.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Yvette Z; Newton, Tamara L; Miller, James J; Lyle, Keith B; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress-reactivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in saliva and to determine how salivary IL-10 levels change in relation to those of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, following stress. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to retrieve a negative emotional memory (n = 46) or complete a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 45). Saliva samples were taken 10 min before (baseline) and 50 min after (post-stressor) onset of a 10-min stressor, and were assayed using a high sensitivity multiplex assay for cytokines. Measurable IL-10 levels (above the minimum detectable concentration) were found in 96% of the baseline samples, and 98% of the post-stressor samples. Flow rate-adjusted salivary IL-10 levels as well as IL-1β/IL-10 ratios showed moderate but statistically significant increases in response to stress. Measurement of salivary IL-10 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios may be useful, noninvasive tools, in stress research.

  13. Preliminary Study of Acute Changes in Emotion Processing in Trauma Survivors with PTSD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Xie, Hong; Cotton, Andrew S.; Duval, Elizabeth R.; Tamburrino, Marijo B.; Brickman, Kristopher R.; Elhai, Jon D.; Ho, S. Shaun; McLean, Samuel A.; Ferguson, Eric J.; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests traumatic experience can rapidly alter brain activation associated with emotion processing. However, little is known about acute changes in emotion neurocircuits that underlie PTSD symptom development. To examine acute alterations in emotion circuit activation and structure that may be linked to PTSD symptoms, thirty-eight subjects performed a task of appraisal of emotional faces as their brains were functionally and structurally studied with MRI at both two weeks and three months after motor vehicle collision (MVC). As determined by symptoms reported in the PTSD Checklist at three months, sixteen survivors developed probable PTSD, whereas the remaining 22 did not meet criteria for PTSD diagnosis (non-PTSD). The probable PTSD group had greater activation than the non-PTSD group in dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC and vmPFC) while appraising fearful faces within two weeks after MVC and in left insular cortex (IC) three months after MVC. dmPFC activation at two weeks significantly positively correlated with PTSD symptom severity at two weeks (R = 0.462, P = 0.006) and three months (R = 0.418, p = 0.012). Changes over time in dmPFC activation and in PTSD symptom severity were also significantly positively correlated in the probable PTSD group (R = 0.641, P = 0.018). A significant time by group interaction was found for volume changes in left superior frontal gyrus (SFG, F = 6.048, p = 0.019) that partially overlapped dmPFC active region. Between two weeks and three months, left SFG volume decreased in probable PTSD survivors. These findings identify alterations in frontal cortical activity and structure during the early post-trauma period that appear to be associated with development of PTSD symptoms. PMID:27415431

  14. The Integration of Emotions in Memories: Cognitive-Emotional Distinctiveness and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Boals, Adriel; Rubin, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined cognitive-emotional distinctiveness (CED), the extent to which emotions are linked with event information, in memories associated with PTSD. Participants either with PTSD (n=68) or without PTSD (n=40) completed a modified multidimensional scaling technique to measure CED for their most negative and most positive events. The results revealed that participants in the PTSD group evidenced significantly lower levels of CED. This group difference remained significant when we limited the analysis to traumatic events that led to a PTSD diagnosis (n=33) in comparison to control participants who nominated a traumatic event that did not result in PTSD (n=32). Replicating previous findings, CED levels were higher in memories of negative events, in comparison to positive events. These results provide empirical evidence that memories associated with PTSD do contain special organizational features with respect to the links between emotions and memory. Implications for understanding and treating PTSD are discussed. PMID:23436960

  15. Stress Reactivity and Corticolimbic Response to Emotional Faces in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jie; Chaplin, Tara M.; Wang, Fei; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Adolescence is a critical period in the development of lifelong patterns of responding to stress. Understanding underpinnings of variations in stress reactivity in adolescents is important, as adolescents with altered stress reactivity are vulnerable to negative risk-taking behaviors including substance use, and have increased lifelong…

  16. The role of emotional eating and stress in the influence of short sleep on food consumption.

    PubMed

    Dweck, Julia S; Jenkins, Steve M; Nolan, Laurence J

    2014-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and increased energy consumption. The present studies were conducted to determine what role emotional eating and stress might play in these relationships. The first was an exploratory questionnaire study in which sleep quality and duration were measured in conjunction with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire in 184 women. Emotional and external eating scores were significantly higher in those who reported poor sleep quality (but were not related to sleep duration). In a second study of 64 women who were provided with snacks in the laboratory under stressed and control conditions, elevated food consumption was observed in those who scored high on emotional eating and who reported short sleep (a significant stress × emotional eating × sleep duration interaction) but not in those who reported poor sleep quality. No effects were found in liking or wanting of food and few effects were found on appetite. BMI was not related to sleep duration or sleep quality in either study. The results suggest that the relationship between short sleep and elevated food consumption exists in those who are prone to emotional eating. An external stressor elevated consumption in normal sleepers to the level observed in short sleepers, however, it did not significantly elevate consumption in short sleepers. Future examinations of the effects of sleep duration and quality on food consumption should examine emotional eating status.

  17. Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans.

    PubMed

    Raio, Candace M; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Goldman, Rachel; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    Extinction training is a form of inhibitory learning that allows an organism to associate a previously aversive cue with a new, safe outcome. Extinction does not erase a fear association, but instead creates a competing association that may or may not be retrieved when a cue is subsequently encountered. Characterizing the conditions under which extinction learning is expressed is important to enhancing the treatment of anxiety disorders that rely on extinction-based exposure therapy as a primary treatment technique. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays a critical role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure. Further, recent work in rodents has demonstrated that exposure to stress leads to deficits in extinction retrieval, although this has yet to be tested in humans. To explore how stress might influence extinction retrieval in humans, participants underwent a differential aversive learning paradigm, in which one image was probabilistically paired with an aversive shock while the other image denoted safety. Extinction training directly followed, at which point reinforcement was omitted. A day later, participants returned to the lab and either completed an acute stress manipulation (i.e., cold pressor), or a control task, before undergoing an extinction retrieval test. Skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout each session as indices of fear arousal and neuroendocrine stress response, respectively. The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only. We examined extinction retrieval by comparing conditioned responses during the last trial of extinction (day 1) with that of the first trial of re-extinction (day 2). Groups did not differ on initial fear acquisition or extinction, however, a day later participants in the stress group (n=27) demonstrated significantly

  18. Caregivers' Playfulness and Infants' Emotional Stress during Transitional Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jeesun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the playfulness of the teachers of infants and its relations to infants' emotional distress during the transitional time at a child care centre. The study used a qualitative case study. Two infant caregivers in a university-based child care centre participated in this study. For the three-month research…

  19. Adolescent Mental Health: Neighborhood Stress and Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snedker, Karen A.; Herting, Jerald R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the role of neighborhood characteristics, specifically economic disadvantage/advantage, residential instability, and racial/ethnic heterogeneity on emotional distress (depressed affect, anxiety, hopelessness) among youth. Using a regional sample of adolescents and matching their data to census tracts, we…

  20. Dealing with feeling: Specific emotion regulation skills predict responses to stress in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Tania M; Hartmann, Maike; Köther, Ulf; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-08-15

    Elevated negative affect is an established link between minor stressors and psychotic symptoms. Less clear is why people with psychosis fail to regulate distressing emotions effectively. This study tests whether subjective, psychophysiological and symptomatic responses to stress can be predicted by specific emotion regulation (ER) difficulties. Participants with psychotic disorders (n=35) and healthy controls (n=28) were assessed for ER-skills at baseline. They were then exposed to a noise versus no stressor on different days, during which self-reported stress responses, state paranoia and skin conductance levels (SCL) were assessed. Participants with psychosis showed a stronger increase in self-reported stress and SCL in response to the stressor than healthy controls. Stronger increases in self-reported stress were predicted by a reduced ability to be aware of and tolerate distressing emotions, whereas increases in SCL were predicted by a reduced ability to be aware of, tolerate, accept and modify them. Although paranoid symptoms were not significantly affected by the stressors, individual variation in paranoid responses was also predicted by a reduced ability to be aware of and tolerate emotions. Differences in stress responses in the samples were no longer significant after controlling for ER skills. Thus, interventions that improve ER-skills could reduce stress-sensitivity in psychosis.

  1. Depression, stress, emotional support, and self-esteem among baccalaureate nursing students in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ratchneewan; Zeller, Richard; Srisaeng, Pakvilai; Yimmee, Suchawadee; Somchid, Sujidra; Sawatphanit, Wilaiphan

    2005-01-01

    Nursing students are valuable human resources. Detection of potential depression among nursing students is crucial since depression can lead to low productivity, minimized quality of life, and suicidal ideas. Identifying factors affecting depression among students can help nursing educators to find ways to decrease depression. The purpose of this study was to examine rates of depression and the associations between depression and stress, emotional support, and self-esteem among baccalaureate nursing students in Thailand. This correlational, cross-sectional study recruited 331 baccalaureate Thai nursing students. Students completed three instruments that had been translated into Thai: The Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Another instrument created in Thai was used to measure emotional support. Results revealed that, when using the standard definition, 50.1% of the students were depressed. Stress was positively related to depression, whereas emotional support and self-esteem were negatively related to depression.

  2. Stressful life events moderate the relationship between genes and biased attention to emotional faces in youth

    PubMed Central

    Jenness, Jessica L.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Young, Jami F.; Smolen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Attention bias to emotion may be an intermediate trait for stress-reactive psychopathology associated with biologically plausible candidate genes, yet the precise direction of effects within the youth literature remains unclear. The present study investigated whether stressful life events (SLEs) moderate the link between genetic risk (5-HTTLPR and COMT) and attention bias to emotion among youth (n= 467). Analyses revealed a differential effect of gene. Among youth who had experienced more recent SLEs, those homozygous for the low expressing allele of 5-HTTLPR (S/S) demonstrated preferential attention toward negative emotional expressions, whereas youth homozygous for the high expressing COMT genotype (Val/Val) showed attentional avoidance of positive facial expressions. No interaction between 5-HTTLPR and COMT was found. These findings highlight the importance of investigating stress as a moderator within the intermediate trait literature and suggest that biologically plausible candidate genes may have a differential effect in the pathway to psychological disorders. PMID:27375963

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Fear of Emotions: The Role of Attentional Control

    PubMed Central

    Sippel, Lauren M.; Marshall, Amy D.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience elevated concerns about their capacity to control, and the consequences of, strong emotions that occur in response to trauma reminders. Anxiety is theorized to compromise attentional control (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007). In turn, diminished attentional control may increase vulnerability to threat cues and emotional reactivity (Ehlers & Clark, 2001). Consequently, attentional control may play a role in the fear of emotions frequently experienced by individuals with PTSD. Study participants included 64 men and 64 women with a mean age of 37 years, 86% of whom were White, non-Hispanic. Participants experienced an average of 7.68 types of traumatic events, most commonly including motor vehicle accidents and intimate partner violence. PTSD symptoms positively correlated with fear of emotions (r = .53) and negatively correlated with attentional control (r = −.38). Attentional control was negatively correlated with fear emotions (r = −.77) and partially mediated the link between PTSD and fear of emotions (R2 = .22). Given the findings regarding top-down attentional control, these results have implications for cognitive and emotional processing theories of PTSD and emphasize the importance of clinical consideration of fear of emotions and attentional control in the treatment of PTSD. PMID:23606358

  4. Stress and emotional valence effects on children's versus adolescents' true and false memory.

    PubMed

    Quas, Jodi A; Rush, Elizabeth B; Yim, Ilona S; Edelstein, Robin S; Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in understanding how stress influences memory accuracy and errors, particularly in children, methodological limitations have made it difficult to examine the effects of stress independent of the effects of the emotional valence of to-be-remembered information in developmental populations. In this study, we manipulated stress levels in 7-8- and 12-14-year-olds and then exposed them to negative, neutral, and positive word lists. Shortly afterward, we tested their recognition memory for the words and false memory for non-presented but related words. Adolescents in the high-stress condition were more accurate than those in the low-stress condition, while children's accuracy did not differ across stress conditions. Also, among adolescents, accuracy and errors were higher for the negative than positive words, while in children, word valence was unrelated to accuracy. Finally, increases in children's and adolescents' cortisol responses, especially in the high-stress condition, were related to greater accuracy but not false memories and only for positive emotional words. Findings suggest that stress at encoding, as well as the emotional content of to-be-remembered information, may influence memory in different ways across development, highlighting the need for greater complexity in existing models of true and false memory formation.

  5. The impact of unintentional pediatric trauma: a review of pain, acute stress, and posttraumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Gold, Jeffrey I; Kant, Alexis J; Kim, Seok Hyeon

    2008-04-01

    This article reviews current research on acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from pediatric simple (i.e., single, unpredictable, and unintentional) physical injury and how pain may act as both a trigger and a coexisting symptom. Although several studies have explored predictors of ASD and PTSD, as well as the relationship between these conditions in adults, there is less research on ASD and PTSD in children and adolescents. This review highlights the importance of early detection of pain and acute stress symptoms resulting from pediatric unintentional physical injury in the hopes of preventing long-term negative outcomes, such as the potential development of PTSD and associated academic, social, and psychological problems.

  6. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific.

  7. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. PMID:26476140

  8. Emotions and emotion regulation in survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the importance of “disgust” in traumatic stress and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Eimear; Karatzias, Thanos; Summers, Andy; Power, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise socio-emotional development of the survivor resulting in increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions. In turn, emotion regulation is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation strategies will inform current treatment. Objective This paper examines the relationships between type of emotions experienced, emotion regulation strategies, and psychological trauma symptoms in a sample of survivors of CSA. Method A consecutive case series of CSA survivors (n=109) completed the Basic Emotions Scale (BES)—Weekly, General, and Coping versions; the Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire; the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist—Civilian Version (PCL-C); and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure. Results Significantly higher levels of disgust than other levels of emotions were reported on the weekly version of the BES. In addition, significantly higher levels of disgust and lower levels of happiness were reported on the BES—General subscale. Regression analyses revealed that sadness, fear, disgust, and external dysfunctional coping strategies predicted global post-traumatic stress disorder and re-experiencing symptomatology measured by the PCL-C. Global distress, as measured by CORE, was predicted by the emotions of sadness, disgust, and low happiness, as well as dysfunctional regulatory strategies. In addition, preliminary exploratory factor analyses supported the structure of all three versions of the BES, with disgust explaining the largest percentage of variance, followed by happiness. Conclusions The findings highlight the utility of profiling basic emotions in understanding the strong associations between emotional phenomena, particularly the emotion of disgust and psychopathology in CSA

  9. Toward Understanding How Early-Life Stress Reprograms Cognitive and Emotional Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuncai; Baram, Tallie Z

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability to emotional disorders including depression derives from interactions between genes and environment, especially during sensitive developmental periods. Adverse early-life experiences provoke the release and modify the expression of several stress mediators and neurotransmitters within specific brain regions. The interaction of these mediators with developing neurons and neuronal networks may lead to long-lasting structural and functional alterations associated with cognitive and emotional consequences. Although a vast body of work has linked quantitative and qualitative aspects of stress to adolescent and adult outcomes, a number of questions are unclear. What distinguishes 'normal' from pathologic or toxic stress? How are the effects of stress transformed into structural and functional changes in individual neurons and neuronal networks? Which ones are affected? We review these questions in the context of established and emerging studies. We introduce a novel concept regarding the origin of toxic early-life stress, stating that it may derive from specific patterns of environmental signals, especially those derived from the mother or caretaker. Fragmented and unpredictable patterns of maternal care behaviors induce a profound chronic stress. The aberrant patterns and rhythms of early-life sensory input might also directly and adversely influence the maturation of cognitive and emotional brain circuits, in analogy to visual and auditory brain systems. Thus, unpredictable, stress-provoking early-life experiences may influence adolescent cognitive and emotional outcomes by disrupting the maturation of the underlying brain networks. Comprehensive approaches and multiple levels of analysis are required to probe the protean consequences of early-life adversity on the developing brain. These involve integrated human and animal-model studies, and approaches ranging from in vivo imaging to novel neuroanatomical, molecular, epigenomic, and computational

  10. Stress and performance: do service orientation and emotional energy moderate the relationship?

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael R; Rasmussen, Jennifer L; Mills, Maura J; Wefald, Andrew J; Downey, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the moderating effect of customer service orientation and emotional energy on the stress-performance relationship for 681 U.S. casual dining restaurant employees. Customer service orientation was hypothesized to moderate the stress-performance relationship for Front-of-House (FOH) workers. Emotional energy was hypothesized to moderate stress-performance for Back-of-House (BOH) workers. Contrary to expectations, customer service orientation failed to moderate the effects of stress on performance for FOH employees, but the results supported that customer service orientation is likely a mediator of the relationship. However, the hypothesis was supported for BOH workers; emotional energy was found to moderate stress performance for these employees. This finding suggests that during times of high stress, meaningful, warm, and empathetic relationships are likely to impact BOH workers' ability to maintain performance. These findings have real-world implications in organizational practice, including highlighting the importance of developing positive and meaningful social interactions among workers and facilitating appropriate person-job fits. Doing so is likely to help in alleviating worker stress and is also likely to encourage worker performance. PMID:22122550

  11. The Influence of Work-Related Chronic Stress on the Regulation of Emotion and on Functional Connectivity in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Golkar, Armita; Johansson, Emilia; Kasahara, Maki; Osika, Walter; Perski, Aleksander; Savic, Ivanka

    2014-01-01

    Despite mounting reports about the negative effects of chronic occupational stress on cognitive and emotional functions, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Recent findings from structural MRI raise the question whether this condition could be associated with a functional uncoupling of the limbic networks and an impaired modulation of emotional stress. To address this, 40 subjects suffering from burnout symptoms attributed to chronic occupational stress and 70 controls were investigated using resting state functional MRI. The participants' ability to up- regulate, down-regulate, and maintain emotion was evaluated by recording their acoustic startle response while viewing neutral and negatively loaded images. Functional connectivity was calculated from amygdala seed regions, using explorative linear correlation analysis. Stressed subjects were less capable of down-regulating negative emotion, but had normal acoustic startle responses when asked to up-regulate or maintain emotion and when no regulation was required. The functional connectivity between the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex correlated with the ability to down-regulate negative emotion. This connectivity was significantly weaker in the burnout group, as was the amygdala connectivity with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the motor cortex, whereas connectivity from the amygdala to the cerebellum and the insular cortex were stronger. In subjects suffering from chronic occupational stress, the functional couplings within the emotion- and stress-processing limbic networks seem to be altered, and associated with a reduced ability to down-regulate the response to emotional stress, providing a biological substrate for a further facilitation of the stress condition. PMID:25184294

  12. Acute Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction after a Negative Exercise Stress Test.

    PubMed

    Al-Alawi, Abdullah M; Janardan, Jyotsna; Peck, Kah Y; Soward, Alan

    2016-05-01

    A myocardial infarction is a rare complication which can occur after an exercise stress test. We report a 48-year-old male who was referred to the Mildura Cardiology Practice, Victoria, Australia, in August 2014 with left-sided chest pain. He underwent an exercise stress test which was negative for myocardial ischaemia. However, the patient presented to the Emergency Department of the Mildura Base Hospital 30 minutes after the test with severe retrosternal chest pain. An acute anteroseptal ST segment elevation myocardial infarction was observed on electrocardiography. After thrombolysis, he was transferred to a tertiary hospital where coronary angiography subsequently revealed significant left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. Thrombus aspiration and a balloon angioplasty were performed. The patient was discharged three days after the surgical procedure in good health.

  13. Acute and chronic stress-induced disturbances of microglial plasticity, phenotype and function.

    PubMed

    Walker, Frederick Rohan; Nilsson, Michael; Jones, Kimberley

    2013-10-01

    Traditionally, microglia have been considered to act as macrophages of the central nervous system. While this concept still remains true it is also becoming increasingly apparent that microglia are involved in a host of nonimmunological activities, such as monitoring synaptic function and maintaining synaptic integrity. It has also become apparent that microglia are exquisitely sensitive to perturbation by environmental challenges. The aim of the current review is to critically examine the now substantial literature that has developed around the ability of acute, sub-chronic and chronic stressors to alter microglial structure and function. The vast majority of studies have demonstrated that stress promotes significant structural remodelling of microglia, and can enhance the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from microglia. Mechanistically, many of these effects appear to be driven by traditional stress-linked signalling molecules, namely corticosterone and norepinephrine. The specific effects of these signalling molecules are, however, complex as they can exert both inhibitory and suppressive effects on microglia depending upon the duration and intensity of exposure. Importantly, research has now shown that these stress-induced microglial alterations, rather than being epiphenomena, have broader behavioural implications, with the available evidence implicating microglia in directly regulating certain aspects of cognitive function and emotional regulation. PMID:24020974

  14. Coping with negative emotions: connections with adolescents' academic performance and stress.

    PubMed

    Arsenio, William F; Loria, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    The authors assessed connections among adolescents' emotional dispositions, negative academic affect, coping strategies, academic stress, and overall grade point average (GPA). A total of 119 ninth through 12th-grade students completed assessments for (a) overall positive and negative moods, (b) GPA, and (c) academically related variables involving stress, negative emotions, and engaged and disengaged coping strategies. Greater negative academic affect and disengaged coping were related to lower GPAs, and disengaged coping mediated the connection between negative academic affect and GPA. By contrast, higher academic stress was related to students' overall moods, negative academic affect, and disengaged coping; disengaged coping mediated the connection between academic stress and negative overall moods. Discussion focused on the especially problematic nature of disengaged academic coping.

  15. Increased oxidative stress following acute and chronic high altitude exposure.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Simoni, Jan; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Swenson, Erik R; Wesson, Donald E; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Johnson, Richard J; Hurtado, Abdias

    2004-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species is typically associated with hyperoxia and ischemia reperfusion. Recent evidence has suggested that increased oxidative stress may occur with hypoxia. We hypothesized that oxidative stress would be increased in subjects exposed to high altitude hypoxia. We studied 28 control subjects living in Lima, Peru (sea level), at baseline and following 48 h exposure to high altitude (4300 m). To assess the effects of chronic altitude exposure, we studied 25 adult males resident in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m). We also studied 27 subjects living in Cerro de Pasco who develop excessive erythrocytosis (hematocrit > 65%) and chronic mountain sickness. Acute high altitude exposure led to increased urinary F(2)-isoprostane, 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.31 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 2.15 +/- 1.1, p = 0.001) and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.37 +/- 0.09, p = 0.002), with a trend to increased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 63.8 +/- 27, p = NS). High altitude residents had significantly elevated levels of urinary 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.3 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 4.1 +/- 3.4, p = 0.007), plasma TBARS (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 85 +/- 28, p = 0.008), and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.55 +/- 0.19, p < 0.0001) compared to sea level. High altitude residents with excessive erythrocytosis had higher levels of oxidative stress compared to high altitude residents with normal hematological adaptation. In conclusion, oxidative stress is increased following both acute exposure to high altitude without exercise and with chronic residence at high altitude.

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, levels of social support, and emotional hiding in returning veterans.

    PubMed

    Duax, Jeanne M; Bohnert, Kipling M; Rauch, Sheila A M; Defever, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the associations among levels of social support, emotional hiding, and screening positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within a sample of 536 Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans. Michigan and Ohio OIF/OEF veterans were contacted to complete a postdeployment mental health screening questionnaire developed as part of the Department of Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System's Serving Returning Veterans Mental Health Program. Approximately 30% of veterans screened positive for PTSD. All sources of social support, as well as emotional hiding, were significantly associated with screening positive for PTSD. Each unit increase of emotional hiding from spouses or significant others, friends, and family was associated with a 32% to 44% increase in odds of screening positive for PTSD. Additional research is needed to examine constructs related to social support and PTSD, such as emotional hiding, in order to identify areas for intervention.

  17. Emotional suppression explains the link between early life stress and plasma oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta; Gross, James J

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) has been found to be associated with lower concentrations of plasma oxytocin (OT) in adulthood. It is not yet clear, however, what mechanisms underlie this association. The goal of the present study was to test the role of emotional suppression as an intervening variable between ELS in childhood and plasma OT. In a nonclinical sample of 90 men, ELS, emotional suppression, and plasma OT were assessed. Emotional suppression was positively associated with ELS (r = 0.37, p < 0.001) and negatively associated with plasma OT concentrations (r = -0.30, p < 0.01). In contrast, cognitive reappraisal - an alternative emotion regulation strategy - was not correlated with ELS or plasma OT concentrations. Cross-sectional regression analyses revealed that the ELS explained variance in plasma OT via emotional suppression. Moderation analyses revealed that the combination of high ELS and high emotional suppression was associated with the lowest concentrations of plasma oxytocin. These findings are consistent with the view that emotional suppression may be one pathway linking ELS and OT.

  18. Acute stress disorder modifies cerebral activity of amygdala and prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Emmanuelle; Guedj, Eric; Trousselard, Marion; El Khoury-Malhame, Myriam; Zendjidjian, Xavier; Fakra, Eric; Souville, Marc; Nazarian, Bruno; Blin, Olivier; Canini, Frédéric; Khalfa, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis constraint of acute stress disorder (ASD), consisting of testing individuals in the month following trauma exposure, limits research on the very early and initial stage of the disease. In this regard, this work aims to explore the cerebral mechanism of ASD in a population of fire-fighters before and after trauma exposure. Thirty-six healthy non-traumatized male fire-fighters were explored by an fMRI emotional face-matching task to evaluate the cerebral substrate of emotional recognition. During the two years of the follow-up, two subjects were traumatized, and thus retested, as were 10 non-traumatized subjects among the initial non-exposed ones. In comparison to non-exposed subjects, fire-fighters with ASD had enhanced amygdala, orbitofrontal, and dorsolateral prefrontal BOLD responses to fearful and angry faces (p < .05, FDR-corrected). These results shed new light on the cerebral mechanism associated with ASD. We observed for the first time the existence of an altered fear processing pathway in ASD that is mediated by amygdala and prefrontal cortex hyperactivity, which might be at the core of the disorder. PMID:25599382

  19. Effects of acute methamphetamine on emotional memory formation in humans: encoding vs consolidation.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Michael E; Weafer, Jessica; Gallo, David A; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how stimulant drugs affect memory is important for understanding their addictive potential. Here we examined the effects of acute d-methamphetamine (METH), administered either before (encoding phase) or immediately after (consolidation phase) study on memory for emotional and neutral images in healthy humans. Young adult volunteers (N = 60) were randomly assigned to either an encoding group (N = 29) or a consolidation group (N = 31). Across three experimental sessions, they received placebo and two doses of METH (10, 20 mg) either 45 min before (encoding) or immediately after (consolidation) viewing pictures of emotionally positive, neutral, and negative scenes. Memory for the pictures was tested two days later, under drug-free conditions. Half of the sample reported sleep disturbances following the high dose of METH, which affected their memory performance. Therefore, participants were classified as poor sleepers (less than 6 hours; n = 29) or adequate sleepers (6 or more hours; n = 31) prior to analyses. For adequate sleepers, METH (20 mg) administered before encoding significantly improved memory accuracy relative to placebo, especially for emotional (positive and negative), compared to neutral, stimuli. For poor sleepers in the encoding group, METH impaired memory. METH did not affect memory in the consolidation group regardless of sleep quality. These results extend previous findings showing that METH can enhance memory for salient emotional stimuli but only if it is present at the time of study, where it can affect both encoding and consolidation. METH does not appear to facilitate consolidation if administered after encoding. The study also demonstrates the important role of sleep in memory studies.

  20. Effects of acute methamphetamine on emotional memory formation in humans: encoding vs consolidation.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Michael E; Weafer, Jessica; Gallo, David A; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how stimulant drugs affect memory is important for understanding their addictive potential. Here we examined the effects of acute d-methamphetamine (METH), administered either before (encoding phase) or immediately after (consolidation phase) study on memory for emotional and neutral images in healthy humans. Young adult volunteers (N = 60) were randomly assigned to either an encoding group (N = 29) or a consolidation group (N = 31). Across three experimental sessions, they received placebo and two doses of METH (10, 20 mg) either 45 min before (encoding) or immediately after (consolidation) viewing pictures of emotionally positive, neutral, and negative scenes. Memory for the pictures was tested two days later, under drug-free conditions. Half of the sample reported sleep disturbances following the high dose of METH, which affected their memory performance. Therefore, participants were classified as poor sleepers (less than 6 hours; n = 29) or adequate sleepers (6 or more hours; n = 31) prior to analyses. For adequate sleepers, METH (20 mg) administered before encoding significantly improved memory accuracy relative to placebo, especially for emotional (positive and negative), compared to neutral, stimuli. For poor sleepers in the encoding group, METH impaired memory. METH did not affect memory in the consolidation group regardless of sleep quality. These results extend previous findings showing that METH can enhance memory for salient emotional stimuli but only if it is present at the time of study, where it can affect both encoding and consolidation. METH does not appear to facilitate consolidation if administered after encoding. The study also demonstrates the important role of sleep in memory studies. PMID:25679982

  1. Effects of Acute Methamphetamine on Emotional Memory Formation in Humans: Encoding vs Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Michael E.; Weafer, Jessica; Gallo, David A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how stimulant drugs affect memory is important for understanding their addictive potential. Here we examined the effects of acute d-methamphetamine (METH), administered either before (encoding phase) or immediately after (consolidation phase) study on memory for emotional and neutral images in healthy humans. Young adult volunteers (N = 60) were randomly assigned to either an encoding group (N = 29) or a consolidation group (N = 31). Across three experimental sessions, they received placebo and two doses of METH (10, 20 mg) either 45 min before (encoding) or immediately after (consolidation) viewing pictures of emotionally positive, neutral, and negative scenes. Memory for the pictures was tested two days later, under drug-free conditions. Half of the sample reported sleep disturbances following the high dose of METH, which affected their memory performance. Therefore, participants were classified as poor sleepers (less than 6 hours; n = 29) or adequate sleepers (6 or more hours; n = 31) prior to analyses. For adequate sleepers, METH (20 mg) administered before encoding significantly improved memory accuracy relative to placebo, especially for emotional (positive and negative), compared to neutral, stimuli. For poor sleepers in the encoding group, METH impaired memory. METH did not affect memory in the consolidation group regardless of sleep quality. These results extend previous findings showing that METH can enhance memory for salient emotional stimuli but only if it is present at the time of study, where it can affect both encoding and consolidation. METH does not appear to facilitate consolidation if administered after encoding. The study also demonstrates the important role of sleep in memory studies. PMID:25679982

  2. Emotionality Modulates the Effect of Chronic Stress on Feeding Behaviour in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Favreau-Peigné, Angélique; Calandreau, Ludovic; Constantin, Paul; Gaultier, Bernard; Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Laurence, Agathe; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Houdelier, Cécilia; Lumineau, Sophie; Boissy, Alain; Leterrier, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress is a long-lasting negative emotional state that induces negative consequences on animals’ psycho-physiological state. This study aimed at assessing whether unpredictable and repeated negative stimuli (URNS) influence feeding behaviour in quail. Sixty-four quail were exposed to URNS from day 17 to 40, while 64 quail were undisturbed. Two lines divergently selected on their inherent emotionality were used to assess the effect of genetic factors on the sensitivity to URNS. All quail were submitted to a sequential feeding procedure (using two diets of different energetic values) which placed them in a contrasting situation. Behavioural tests were performed to assess the emotional reactivity of the two lines. Results confirmed that differences exist between them and that their emotional reactivity was enhanced by URNS. Diet preferences, motivation and daily intake were also measured. URNS did not change the preferences for the hypercaloric diet compared to the hypocaloric diet in choice tests, but they reduced daily intakes in both lines. Motivations for each diet were differently affected by URNS: they decreased the motivation to eat the hypercaloric diet in quail selected for their low inherent fearfulness whereas they increased the motivation to eat the hypocaloric diet in quail selected for their high inherent fearfulness, which suggested a devaluation process in the former and a compensatory behaviour in the later. Growth was furthermore reduced and laying delayed by URNS in both lines. In conclusion, the exposure to URNS induced interesting changes in feeding behaviour added with an increase in emotional reactivity and an alteration of production parameters. This confirms that both lines of quail experienced a chronic stress state. However differences in feed motivation and emotional reactivity between lines under chronic stress suggested that they experienced different emotional state and use different ways to cope with it depending on their

  3. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    PubMed

    Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.

  4. School Climate and Social-Emotional Learning: Predicting Teacher Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Teaching Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers' perceptions of social-emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables--teachers' sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction--and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables. Along with sense of job…

  5. Sources of Occupational Stress for Teachers of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, J. Ron; Maculan, Amelia; Roberts, Maura L.; Ohlund, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    Occupational stress ratings from 415 teachers of students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) was modeled by regression, using teacher demographic characteristics, working conditions, and the ability to work with children with EBD as factors. All working condition variables, professional experience, and ability to work with externalizing…

  6. Reducing Stress through Guided Imagery and Music for Teachers of Emotionally Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandra, Celene

    Four teachers of elementary aged emotionally handicapped students participated in a 10-session relaxation training program using guided imagery and music. Analysis of scores on the A State-Trait Anxiety Inventory revealed that all teachers reduced their stress level through the exercises. Further, all the teachers demonstrated their ability to…

  7. Emotional Distress and Posttraumatic Stress in Children: The Impact of Direct versus Indirect Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhushan, Braj; Kumar, J. Sathya

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether familiarity with the physical environment and verbal/pictorial exposure to a tsunami also inducted posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescents. The Impact of Event Scale (IES) and Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) were administered to 231 subjects (130 directly exposed and 101 indirectly exposed). The directly…

  8. Potentially Stressful Life Events and Emotional Closeness between Grandparents and Adult Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Suzanne; Liossis, Poppy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the variation in emotional closeness in the adult grandchild and grandparent relationship in relation to the occurrence of potentially stressful life events in childhood. A sample of university students (N = 119) completed a questionnaire measuring elements of intergenerational solidarity. Comparisons were…

  9. The influence of motor activity on the development of cardiac arrhythmias during experimental emotional stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulyaninskiy, L. S.; Urmancheyeva, T. G.; Stepanyan, Y. P.; Fufacheva, A. A.; Gritsak, A. V.; Kuznetsova, B. A.; Kvitka, A. A.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental emotional stress which can produce various disorders of cardiac rhythm: sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, ventricular, extrasystoles and paroxysmal ventricular tachysystoles was studied. In these conditions the adrenalin content in the blood and myocardium is increased 3 to 4 times. It is found that moderate motor activity leads to a relative decrease of adrenalin in the myocardium and arrest of cardiac arrhythmias.

  10. Identity, Stress, and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Undergraduates: Evidence for Interaction Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Keith B.; Paysnick, Amy A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined sense of identity (assessed using the Identity subscale of the Psychosocial Maturity Inventory) as a moderator of associations between stressful life events, behavioral/emotional problems, and substance abuse in a sample of 187 college undergraduates (67% female). Correlations showed evidence for positive associations…

  11. The Impact of Early Powered Mobility on Parental Stress, Negative Emotions, and Family Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tefft, Donita; Guerette, Paula; Furumasu, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Powered mobility has been found to have positive effects on young children with severe physical disabilities, but the impact on the family has been less well documented. We evaluated the impact of early powered mobility on parental stress, negative emotions, perceived social interactions, and parental satisfaction with wheelchair characteristics…

  12. Teacher Stress and Pupil Behaviour Explored through a Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Caroline; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using the psychological framework of rational-emotive behaviour therapy, the principal aim of this study was to establish whether irrational beliefs, self-efficacy or pupil behaviour predicted teacher reports of stress. A secondary aim was to establish whether these variables, in addition to teachers' verbal feedback to pupils in class, predicted…

  13. Sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ordaz, Sarah; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-08-01

    Females begin to demonstrate greater negative affective responses to stress than males in adolescence. This may reflect the concurrent emergence of underlying differences in physiological response systems, including corticolimbic circuitries, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This review examines when sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress emerge and the directionality of these differences over development. Indeed, the literature indicates that sex differences emerge during adolescence and persist into adulthood for all three physiological response systems. However, the directionality of the differences varies by system. The emerging corticolimbic reactivity literature suggests greater female reactivity, particularly in limbic regions densely innervated by gonadal hormone receptors. In contrast, males generally show higher levels of HPAA and ANS reactivity. We argue that the contrasting directionality of corticolimbic and peripheral physiological responses may reflect specific effects of gonadal hormones on distinct systems and also sex differences in evolved behavioral responses that demand different levels of peripheral physiological activation. Studies that examine both subjective reports of negative affect and physiological responses indicate that beginning in adolescence, females respond to acute stressors with more intense negative affect than males despite their comparatively lower peripheral physiological responses. This dissociation is not clearly explained by sex differences in the strength of the relationship between physiological and subjective responses. We suggest that females' greater subjective responsivity may instead arise from a greater activity in brain regions that translate stress responses to subjective awareness in adolescence. Future research directions include investigations of the role of pubertal hormones in physiological reactivity across all systems

  14. Effects of social stress and clomipramine on emotional memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Duque, Aranzazu; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Monleón, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We have previously observed impairing effects of social defeat stress (CSDS) on inhibitory avoidance (IA) in mice. Given the similarity between changes produced by social stress in animals and symptoms of certain human psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, the effects of the antidepressant clomipramine on IA impairment produced by CSDS were evaluated in the present study. Male CD1 mice were randomly assigned to the groups: non-stressed+saline, non-stressed+clomipramine, stressed+saline and stressed+clomipramine. Stressed animals were subjected to daily agonistic encounters (10 min) in the home cage of the aggressor over a 20-day period. Just before each encounter, non-stressed and stressed mice were injected i.p. with saline or clomipramine (10 mg/kg) according to their experimental condition. 24 hours after the last CSDS session, all the mice were tested in a step-through IA task. In the IA training phase, animals were punished by a shock to the paw when they entered the dark compartment of the apparatus. In the IA test phase (one week later) the same procedure took place, but without shock. Complementary measures were obtained by evaluating all the animals in an elevated plus maze (locomotor activity and emotionality) and on a hot plate (analgesia). IA learning was confirmed in all groups except the stressed+saline group, which was the only one that exhibited higher anxiety levels. No variations were observed in either locomotor activity or analgesia. In conclusion, CSDS induces anxiety and impairs emotional memory in mice; the negative effects of CSDS on memory appear to be attenuated by clomipramine, and these detrimental effects do not seem to be secondary to the effects of CSDS on locomotor activity, emotionality or pain sensitivity. PMID:27685775

  15. An updated animal model capturing both the cognitive and emotional features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    PubMed Central

    Berardi, Andrea; Trezza, Viviana; Palmery, Maura; Trabace, Luigia; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Campolongo, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    The new-released Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) defines post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a “trauma and stressor-related disorder”. PTSD pathogenesis relies on paradoxical changes of emotional memory processing induced by the trauma exposure and associated with emotional dysfunction. Several animal models of PTSD have been validated and are currently used. Each one mimics a particular subset of the disorder with particular emphasis, mainly driven by the past classification of PTSD in the DSM-4, on the emotional features. In view of the recent update in the DSM-5, our aim was to develop, by using well-validated paradigms, a modified model of PTSD able to mimic at the same time both the cognitive and emotional features of the disease. We exposed male rats to either a piece of worn cat collar or to a series of inescapable footshocks paired with a PTSD risk factor, i.e., social isolation. Animals were subsequently re-exposed to the conditioned contexts at different time intervals in order to test memory retention for the stressors. In addition, footshock-exposed rats were tested in the elevated-plus-maze and social interaction tests. We found that rats exposed to a cat collar exhibited an acute fear response that did not lead to enduring memory retention. Conversely, footshock-exposed rats expressed a successful retention of the stressful experience at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 56 post-exposure days. Footshock-exposed rats displayed an anxious behavioral profile in the social interaction test and a significantly reduced locomotor activity in the elevated-plus-maze test. These dysfunctions were not observed when animals were socially housed, thus highlighting a social buffering effect in the development of the pathology. Our results underline the good validity of a footshock-based paradigm paired with social isolation as a PTSD animal model, able to mimic at the same time both some of the enduring cognitive and emotional facets of the

  16. The acute glucocorticoid stress response does not differentiate between rewarding and aversive social stimuli in rats.

    PubMed

    Buwalda, Bauke; Scholte, Jan; de Boer, Sietse F; Coppens, Caroline M; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2012-02-01

    The mere presence of elevated plasma levels of corticosterone is generally regarded as evidence of compromised well-being. However, environmental stimuli do not necessarily need to be of a noxious or adverse nature to elicit activation of the stress response systems. In the present study, the physiological and neuroendocrine responses to repeated social stimuli that can be regarded as emotional opposites, i.e. social defeat and sexual behavior, were compared. Similar corticosterone responses were observed in animals confronted for the first time with either a highly aggressive male intruder or a receptive female, but a decrease was noticed in defeated rats tested during a third interaction. Only if animals are being physically attacked does the corticosterone response remain similar to the one observed during sexual behavior. In addition, the number of activated cells in the parvocellular hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, as visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry, shows no difference between rats 1h after the third exposure to defeat or sex. Finally, biotelemetric recordings of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity show a robust response to both social stimuli that is generally, however, higher in animals being confronted with a receptive female. The data clearly indicate that acute plasma corticosterone levels are not reflecting the emotional valence of a salient stimulus. The magnitude of the response seems to be a direct reflection of the behavioral activity and hence of the metabolic requirements of activated tissues. Next to its direct metabolic role, acute increases in plasma corticosterone will have neurobiological and behavioral effects that largely depend on the neural circuitry that is activated by the stimulus that triggered its release. PMID:22210197

  17. Emotional intelligence and perceived stress in healthcare students: a multi-institutional, multi-professional survey

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Emotional intelligence (EI) is increasingly discussed as having a potential role in medicine, nursing, and other healthcare disciplines, both for personal mental health and professional practice. Stress has been identified as being high for students in healthcare courses. This study investigated whether EI and stress differed among students in four health professions (dental, nursing, graduate mental health workers, medical) and whether there was evidence that EI might serve as a buffer for stress. Method The Schutte Emotional Intelligence and the Perceived Stress scale instruments were administered to four groups of healthcare students in their first year of study in both the autumn and summer terms of the 2005-6 academic year. The groups were undergraduate dental, nursing and medical students, and postgraduate mental health workers. Results No significant differences were found between males and females nor among professional groups for the EI measure. Dental students reported significantly higher stress than medical students. EI was found to be only moderately stable in test-retest scores. Some evidence was found for EI as a possible factor in mediating stress. Students in different health profession courses did not show significant differences in Emotional Intelligence. Conclusion While stress and EI showed a moderate relationship, results of this study do not allow the direction of relationship to be determined. The limitations and further research questions raised in this study are discussed along with the need for refinement of the EI construct and measures, particularly if Emotional Intelligence were to be considered as a possible selection criterion, as has been suggested by some authors. PMID:19761603

  18. Fish can show emotional fever: stress-induced hyperthermia in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Rey, Sonia; Huntingford, Felicity A; Boltaña, Sebastian; Vargas, Reynaldo; Knowles, Toby G; Mackenzie, Simon

    2015-11-22

    Whether fishes are sentient beings remains an unresolved and controversial question. Among characteristics thought to reflect a low level of sentience in fishes is an inability to show stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH), a transient rise in body temperature shown in response to a variety of stressors. This is a real fever response, so is often referred to as 'emotional fever'. It has been suggested that the capacity for emotional fever evolved only in amniotes (mammals, birds and reptiles), in association with the evolution of consciousness in these groups. According to this view, lack of emotional fever in fishes reflects a lack of consciousness. We report here on a study in which six zebrafish groups with access to a temperature gradient were either left as undisturbed controls or subjected to a short period of confinement. The results were striking: compared to controls, stressed zebrafish spent significantly more time at higher temperatures, achieving an estimated rise in body temperature of about 2-4°C. Thus, zebrafish clearly have the capacity to show emotional fever. While the link between emotion and consciousness is still debated, this finding removes a key argument for lack of consciousness in fishes. PMID:26609087

  19. Fish can show emotional fever: stress-induced hyperthermia in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Rey, Sonia; Huntingford, Felicity A; Boltaña, Sebastian; Vargas, Reynaldo; Knowles, Toby G; Mackenzie, Simon

    2015-11-22

    Whether fishes are sentient beings remains an unresolved and controversial question. Among characteristics thought to reflect a low level of sentience in fishes is an inability to show stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH), a transient rise in body temperature shown in response to a variety of stressors. This is a real fever response, so is often referred to as 'emotional fever'. It has been suggested that the capacity for emotional fever evolved only in amniotes (mammals, birds and reptiles), in association with the evolution of consciousness in these groups. According to this view, lack of emotional fever in fishes reflects a lack of consciousness. We report here on a study in which six zebrafish groups with access to a temperature gradient were either left as undisturbed controls or subjected to a short period of confinement. The results were striking: compared to controls, stressed zebrafish spent significantly more time at higher temperatures, achieving an estimated rise in body temperature of about 2-4°C. Thus, zebrafish clearly have the capacity to show emotional fever. While the link between emotion and consciousness is still debated, this finding removes a key argument for lack of consciousness in fishes.

  20. Lateral prefrontal cortex activity during cognitive control of emotion predicts response to social stress in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Hooker, Christine I

    2014-01-01

    LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9) during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative mood on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.

  1. Fish can show emotional fever: stress-induced hyperthermia in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Huntingford, Felicity A.; Boltaña, Sebastian; Vargas, Reynaldo; Knowles, Toby G.; Mackenzie, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Whether fishes are sentient beings remains an unresolved and controversial question. Among characteristics thought to reflect a low level of sentience in fishes is an inability to show stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH), a transient rise in body temperature shown in response to a variety of stressors. This is a real fever response, so is often referred to as ‘emotional fever’. It has been suggested that the capacity for emotional fever evolved only in amniotes (mammals, birds and reptiles), in association with the evolution of consciousness in these groups. According to this view, lack of emotional fever in fishes reflects a lack of consciousness. We report here on a study in which six zebrafish groups with access to a temperature gradient were either left as undisturbed controls or subjected to a short period of confinement. The results were striking: compared to controls, stressed zebrafish spent significantly more time at higher temperatures, achieving an estimated rise in body temperature of about 2–4°C. Thus, zebrafish clearly have the capacity to show emotional fever. While the link between emotion and consciousness is still debated, this finding removes a key argument for lack of consciousness in fishes. PMID:26609087

  2. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on platelet aggregation in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Kitamura, Nobuo; Satoh, Eiki

    2014-03-01

    Although psychological stress has long been known to alter cardiovascular function, there have been few studies on the effect of psychological stress on platelets, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on the aggregation of platelets and platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Mice were subjected to both transportation stress (exposure to novel environment, psychological stress) and restraint stress (psychological stress) for 2 h (acute stress) or 3 weeks (2 h/day) (chronic stress). In addition, adrenalectomized mice were subjected to similar chronic stress (both transportation and restraint stress for 3 weeks). The aggregation of platelets from mice and [Ca(2+)]i was determined by light transmission assay and fura-2 fluorescence assay, respectively. Although acute stress had no effect on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, chronic stress enhanced the ability of the platelet agonists thrombin and ADP to stimulate platelet aggregation. However, chronic stress failed to enhance agonist-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Adrenalectomy blocked chronic stress-induced enhancement of platelet aggregation. These results suggest that chronic, but not acute, psychological stress enhances agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation independently of [Ca(2+)]i increase, and the enhancement may be mediated by stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands.

  3. Reducing social stress elicits emotional contagion of pain in mouse and human strangers.

    PubMed

    Martin, Loren J; Hathaway, Georgia; Isbester, Kelsey; Mirali, Sara; Acland, Erinn L; Niederstrasser, Nils; Slepian, Peter M; Trost, Zina; Bartz, Jennifer A; Sapolsky, Robert M; Sternberg, Wendy F; Levitin, Daniel J; Mogil, Jeffrey S

    2015-02-01

    Empathy for another's physical pain has been demonstrated in humans [1] and mice [2]; in both species, empathy is stronger between familiars. Stress levels in stranger dyads are higher than in cagemate dyads or isolated mice [2, 3], suggesting that stress might be responsible for the absence of empathy for the pain of strangers. We show here that blockade of glucocorticoid synthesis or receptors for adrenal stress hormones elicits the expression of emotional contagion (a form of empathy) in strangers of both species. Mice and undergraduates were tested for sensitivity to noxious stimulation alone and/or together (dyads). In familiar, but not stranger, pairs, dyadic testing was associated with increased pain behaviors or ratings compared to isolated testing. Pharmacological blockade of glucocorticoid synthesis or glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors enabled the expression of emotional contagion of pain in mouse and human stranger dyads, as did a shared gaming experience (the video game Rock Band) in human strangers. Our results demonstrate that emotional contagion is prevented, in an evolutionarily conserved manner, by the stress of a social interaction with an unfamiliar conspecific and can be evoked by blocking the endocrine stress response.

  4. Teaching the interrelationship between stress, emotions, and cardiovascular risk using a classic paper by Walter Cannon.

    PubMed

    Gwirtz, Patricia A

    2008-03-01

    Classroom discussion of the classic article by Walter B. Cannon in 1914, entitled "The emergency function of the adrenal medulla in pain and the major emotions," is an excellent tool to teach graduate students the interaction between stress, emotions, and cardiovascular function. Using this article, we are able to review important early research by Dr. Cannon, including discussion of his scientific methods and results and how they hold true today. This article outlines how this classic paper is used to allow students to explore basics principles of cardiovascular control during stress. The teaching points that are presented illustrate how students can be directed to understand the interrelationship between chronic stress and cardiovascular disease. PMID:18334563

  5. Effects of childhood poverty and chronic stress on emotion regulatory brain function in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilyoung; Evans, Gary W; Angstadt, Michael; Ho, S Shaun; Sripada, Chandra S; Swain, James E; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K Luan

    2013-11-12

    Childhood poverty has pervasive negative physical and psychological health sequelae in adulthood. Exposure to chronic stressors may be one underlying mechanism for childhood poverty-health relations by influencing emotion regulatory systems. Animal work and human cross-sectional studies both suggest that chronic stressor exposure is associated with amygdala and prefrontal cortex regions important for emotion regulation. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 49 participants, we examined associations between childhood poverty at age 9 and adult neural circuitry activation during emotion regulation at age 24. To test developmental timing, concurrent, adult income was included as a covariate. Adults with lower family income at age 9 exhibited reduced ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and failure to suppress amygdala activation during effortful regulation of negative emotion at age 24. In contrast to childhood income, concurrent adult income was not associated with neural activity during emotion regulation. Furthermore, chronic stressor exposure across childhood (at age 9, 13, and 17) mediated the relations between family income at age 9 and ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity at age 24. The findings demonstrate the significance of childhood chronic stress exposures in predicting neural outcomes during emotion regulation in adults who grew up in poverty.

  6. How emotional abilities modulate the influence of early life stress on hippocampal functioning

    PubMed Central

    Alkan Härtwig, Elif; Koelsch, Stefan; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Heuser, Isabella; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is known to have considerable influence on brain development, mental health and affective functioning. Previous investigations have shown that alexithymia, a prevalent personality trait associated with difficulties experiencing and verbalizing emotions, is particularly related to ELS. The aim of the present study was to investigate how neural correlates of emotional experiences in alexithymia are altered in the presence and absence of ELS. Therefore, 50 healthy individuals with different levels of alexithymia were matched regarding ELS and investigated with respect to neural correlates of audio-visually induced emotional experiences via functional magnetic resonance imaging. The main finding was that ELS modulated hippocampal responses to pleasant (>neutral) stimuli in high-alexithymic individuals, whereas there was no such modulation in low-alexithymic individuals matched for ELS. Behavioral and psychophysiological results followed a similar pattern. When considered independent of ELS, alexithymia was associated with decreased responses in insula (pleasant > neutral) and temporal pole (unpleasant > neutral). Our results show that the influence of ELS on emotional brain responses seems to be modulated by an individual’s degree of alexithymia. Potentially, protective and adverse effects of emotional abilities on brain responses to emotional experiences are discussed. PMID:23685776

  7. Impairments of spatial working memory and attention following acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Olver, James S; Pinney, Myra; Maruff, Paul; Norman, Trevor R

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm on impaired attention and working memory in humans. Further, the duration of any stress-related cognitive impairment remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm, the Trier Social Stress, on cognitive function in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy male and female subjects were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task. Physiological measures (salivary cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure) and subjective stress ratings were measured at baseline, in anticipation of stress, immediately post-stress and after a period of rest. A neuropsychological test battery including spatial working memory and verbal memory was administered at each time point. Acute psychosocial stress produced significant increases in cardiovascular and subjective measures in the anticipatory and post-stress period, which recovered to baseline after rest. Salivary cortisol steadily declined over the testing period. Acute psychosocial stress impaired delayed verbal recall, attention and spatial working memory. Attention remained impaired, and delayed verbal recall continued to decline after rest. Acute psychosocial stress is associated with an impairment of a broad range of cognitive functions in humans and with prolonged abnormalities in attention and memory.

  8. The effect of severe stress on early brain development, attachment, and emotions: a psychoanatomical formulation.

    PubMed

    Vela, Ricardo M

    2014-12-01

    Child abuse is the most extreme form of stress in childhood and adolescence, and has severe effects on the child's development. Limbic nuclei and circuitry development are especially vulnerable to child abuse and neglect during the first year of life. Development at the neuronal level can be severely disturbed by trauma during early infancy, resulting in maladaptive synaptic formation, impeding experience-expectant brain development. Development of basic emotions may favor the development of negative instead of positive emotions. The new concept of psychoanatomical formulation is introduced. A case vignette is presented and analyzed, based on the disturbed neuroanatomy underlying symptom expression. PMID:25455063

  9. Emotional reactions to involuntary psychiatric hospitalization and stigma-related stress among people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Müller, Mario; Lay, Barbara; Corrigan, Patrick W; Zahn, Roland; Schönenberger, Thekla; Bleiker, Marco; Lengler, Silke; Blank, Christina; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-02-01

    Compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient treatment can be experienced as disempowering and stigmatizing by people with serious mental illness. However, quantitative studies of stigma-related emotional and cognitive reactions to involuntary hospitalization and their impact on people with mental illness are scarce. Among 186 individuals with serious mental illness and a history of recent involuntary hospitalization, shame and self-contempt as emotional reactions to involuntary hospitalization, the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor, self-stigma, empowerment as well as quality of life and self-esteem were assessed by self-report. Psychiatric symptoms were rated by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In multiple linear regressions, more self-stigma was predicted independently by higher levels of shame, self-contempt and stigma stress. A greater sense of empowerment was related to lower levels of stigma stress and self-contempt. These findings remained significant after controlling for psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis, age, gender and the number of lifetime involuntary hospitalizations. Increased self-stigma and reduced empowerment in turn predicted poorer quality of life and reduced self-esteem. The negative effect of emotional reactions and stigma stress on quality of life and self-esteem was largely mediated by increased self-stigma and reduced empowerment. Shame and self-contempt as reactions to involuntary hospitalization as well as stigma stress may lead to self-stigma, reduced empowerment and poor quality of life. Emotional and cognitive reactions to coercion may determine its impact more than the quantity of coercive experiences. Interventions to reduce the negative effects of compulsory admissions should address emotional reactions and stigma as a stressor.

  10. Redefining neuroendocrinology: stress, sex and cognitive and emotional regulation

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Bruce S.; Gray, Jason D.; Nasca, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of steroid hormone receptors in brain regions that mediate every aspect of brain function has broadened the definition of “neuroendocrinology” to include the reciprocal communication between the brain and the body via hormonal and neural pathways. The brain is the central organ of stress and adaptation to stress because it perceives and determines what is threatening, as well as the behavioral and physiological responses to the stressor. The adult and developing brain possess remarkable structural and functional plasticity in response to stress, including neuronal replacement, dendritic remodeling, and synapse turnover. Stress causes an imbalance of neural circuitry subserving cognition, decision-making, anxiety and mood that can alter expression of those behaviors and behavioral states. This imbalance, in turn, affects systemic physiology via neuroendocrine, autonomic, immune and metabolic mediators. In the short term, as for increased fearful vigilance and anxiety in a threatening environment, these changes may be adaptive. But, if the danger passes and the behavioral state persists along with the changes in neural circuitry, such maladaptation may need intervention with a combination of pharmacological and behavioral therapies, as is the case for chronic anxiety and depression. There are important sex differences in the brain responses to stressors that are in urgent need of further exploration. Moreover, adverse early-life experience, interacting with alleles of certain genes, produce lasting effects on brain and body over the life-course via epigenetic mechanisms. While prevention is most important, the plasticity of the brain gives hope for therapies that take into consideration brain-body interactions. PMID:25934706

  11. Acute Stress Symptoms in Children: Results From an International Data Archive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Rork, Kristine; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Kenardy, Justin; Kohser, Kristen L.; Landolt, Markus A.; Le Brocque, Robyne; Marsac, Meghan L.; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Nixon, Reginald D.V.; Bui, Eric; McGrath, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms and to examine proposed "DSM-5" symptom criteria in relation to concurrent functional impairment in children and adolescents. Method: From an international archive, datasets were identified that included assessment of acute traumatic stress reactions and concurrent…

  12. Factor Structure of the Acute Stress Disorder Scale in a Sample of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (A. G. Harvey & R. A. Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (R. A. Bryant, M. L. Moulds, & R. M. Guthrie, 2000), in a…

  13. Dysfunctional cognitive appraisal and psychophysiological reactivity in acute stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Elsesser, Karin; Freyth, Claudia; Lohrmann, Thomas; Sartory, Gudrun

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigated the extent of dysfunctional appraisal as measured with the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI) and physiological responses to trauma-related material in patients with acute stress disorder (ASD; N=44) in comparison to participants without trauma exposure (N=27). Heart-rate (HR), skin conductance responses (SCR), and viewing time were recorded in response to - for trauma victims - idiosyncratically trauma-relevant and control pictures. ASD patients evidenced greater dysfunctional appraisal than control participants with regard to the PTCI scales Self and World and also an accelerative HR reaction and greater SCRs to trauma-relevant pictures. Among patients, PTCI was highly correlated with ASD severity while PTCI World was positively correlated with resting HR and depression. Amplitude of the HR reaction to trauma-related pictures was negatively correlated with viewing time. Results suggest that dysfunctional appraisal and autonomic reactivity are only loosely related in ASD.

  14. Effect of Acute Surgical Stress on Serum Ghrelin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kontoravdis, Nikolaos; Vassilikostas, George; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Pappas, Apostolos; Seretis, Charalampos; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Koronakis, Nikolaos; Chrysikos, John; Karanikas, George; Manouras, Ioannis; Legakis, Ioanis; Voros, Dionysios

    2012-01-01

    Background Ghrelin is an appetite hormone that influences the gastrointestinal function and regulates energy metabolism. Growing evidence also suggests that this hormone plays a central role in immune modulation. Each surgical operation is followed by a series of inflammatory and metabolic changes that constitute the stress response. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of stress during different types of abdominal surgery in ghrelin serum levels. Methods An overall of 25 patients were prospectively allocated in two groups based on the type of surgical operation. Group A (n = 10) patients were scheduled to undergo cholecystectomy, whereas Group B (n = 15) patients underwent colectomy. Serum ghrelin concentrations were evaluated in each patient preoperatively, after the induction of general anesthesia and tracheal intubation, one and five hours after the beginning of surgery and the morning of the first and second postoperative day. Results In both groups serum ghrelin concentrations reached their peak level at 24 hr (Group A: 8.4 ± 3.4 ng/mL; Group B: 7.4 ± 1.8 ng/mL) and these values were significantly higher than those in the preoperative period (Group A: 5.0 ±1.5 ng/mL; Group B: 4.8 ± 0.6 ng/mL) (P < 0.05). Forty eight hours after surgery the levels of ghrelin returned to their preoperative status. Patients’ gender, age, ASA score and type of surgical procedure did not influence the serum ghrelin levels. Conclusions Serum ghrelin concentration appears to elevate in response to surgical stress. Future studies are needed to improve comprehension of the mechanisms underlying responses of this hormone to acute surgical stress and to evaluate their possible clinical implications.

  15. Anger Emotional Stress Influences VEGF/VEGFR2 and Its Induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Wei, Sheng; Wei, Xia; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiao, Mingqi; Wu, Jibiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We discuss the influence of anger emotional stress upon VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Methods. We created a rat model of induced anger (anger-out and anger-in) emotional response using social isolation and resident-intruder paradigms and assessed changes in hippocampus' VEGF content, neuroplasticity, and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Results. The resident-intruder method successfully generated anger-out and anger-in models that differed significantly in composite aggression score, aggression incubation, open field behavior, sucrose preference, and weight gain. Anger emotional stress decreased synaptic connections and VEGFR2 expression. Anger emotional stress led to abnormal expression of VEGF/VEGFR2 mRNA and protein and disorderly expression of key factors in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Fluoxetine administration ameliorated behavioral abnormalities and damage to hippocampal neurons caused by anger emotional stress, as well as abnormal expression of some proteins in VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Conclusion. This research provides a detailed classification of anger emotion and verifies its influence upon VEGF and the VEGF-induced signaling pathway, thus providing circumstantial evidence of mechanisms by which anger emotion damages neurogenesis. As VEGFR2 can promote neurogenesis and vasculogenesis in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, these results suggest that anger emotional stress can result in decreased neurogenesis. PMID:27057362

  16. Anger Emotional Stress Influences VEGF/VEGFR2 and Its Induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Wei, Sheng; Wei, Xia; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiao, Mingqi; Wu, Jibiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We discuss the influence of anger emotional stress upon VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Methods. We created a rat model of induced anger (anger-out and anger-in) emotional response using social isolation and resident-intruder paradigms and assessed changes in hippocampus' VEGF content, neuroplasticity, and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Results. The resident-intruder method successfully generated anger-out and anger-in models that differed significantly in composite aggression score, aggression incubation, open field behavior, sucrose preference, and weight gain. Anger emotional stress decreased synaptic connections and VEGFR2 expression. Anger emotional stress led to abnormal expression of VEGF/VEGFR2 mRNA and protein and disorderly expression of key factors in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Fluoxetine administration ameliorated behavioral abnormalities and damage to hippocampal neurons caused by anger emotional stress, as well as abnormal expression of some proteins in VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Conclusion. This research provides a detailed classification of anger emotion and verifies its influence upon VEGF and the VEGF-induced signaling pathway, thus providing circumstantial evidence of mechanisms by which anger emotion damages neurogenesis. As VEGFR2 can promote neurogenesis and vasculogenesis in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, these results suggest that anger emotional stress can result in decreased neurogenesis. PMID:27057362

  17. Acute stress disorder in hospitalised victims of 26/11-terror attack on Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Balasinorwala, Vanshree Patil; Shah, Nilesh

    2010-11-01

    The 26/11 terror attacks on Mumbai have been internationally denounced. Acute stress disorder is common in victims of terror. To find out the prevalence and to correlate acute stress disorder, 70 hospitalised victims of terror were assessed for presence of the same using DSM-IV TR criteria. Demographic data and clinical variables were also collected. Acute stress disorder was found in 30% patients. On demographic profile and severity of injury, there were some interesting observations and differences between the victims who developed acute stress disorder and those who did not; though none of the differences reached the level of statistical significance. This study documents the occurrence of acute stress disorder in the victims of 26/11 terror attack.

  18. Emotional intelligence: its relationship to stress, coping, well-being and professional performance in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Por, Jitna; Barriball, Louise; Fitzpatrick, Joanne; Roberts, Julia

    2011-11-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been highlighted as an important theoretical and practical construct. It has the potential to enable individuals to cope better and experience less stress thus contributing to a healthy and stable workforce. The study aimed to explore the EI of nursing students (n=130, 52.0%) and its relationship to perceived stress, coping strategies, subjective well-being, perceived nursing competency and academic performance. Students were on the adult pathway of a nursing diploma or degree programme in one Higher Education Institution (HEI) in the United Kingdom (UK). A prospective correlational survey design was adopted. Three methods of data collection were used: i) A self-report questionnaire; ii) an audit of students' academic performance; and iii) mapping of EI teaching in the curricula. Emotional intelligence was positively related to well-being (p<0.05), problem-focused coping (p<0.05) and perceived nursing competency (p<0.05), and negatively related to perceived stress (p<0.05). The findings suggest that increased feelings of control and emotional competence assist nursing students to adopt active and effective coping strategies when dealing with stress, which in turn enhances their subjective well-being. This study highlights the potential value of facilitating the EI of students of nursing and other healthcare professions.

  19. Laugh Away the Fat? Therapeutic Humor in the Control of Stress-induced Emotional Eating.

    PubMed

    Bast, Elizabeth S; Berry, Elliot M

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are also involved in eating behavior. Finally, we present a novel hypothesis that people may be trained to use humor as a "food substitute" at best, or to blunt hunger stimuli, to achieve similar advantages, without the side effect of weight gain. PMID:24498514

  20. Laugh Away the Fat? Therapeutic Humor in the Control of Stress-induced Emotional Eating

    PubMed Central

    Bast, Elizabeth S.; Berry, Elliot M.

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are also involved in eating behavior. Finally, we present a novel hypothesis that people may be trained to use humor as a “food substitute” at best, or to blunt hunger stimuli, to achieve similar advantages, without the side effect of weight gain. PMID:24498514

  1. Cinnamon intake alleviates the combined effects of dietary-induced insulin resistance and acute stress on brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Karine; Hininger, Isabelle; Poulet, Laurent; Anderson, Richard A; Roussel, Anne-Marie; Canini, Frédéric; Batandier, Cécile

    2016-02-01

    Insulin resistance (IR), which is a leading cause of the metabolic syndrome, results in early brain function alterations which may alter brain mitochondrial functioning. Previously, we demonstrated that rats fed a control diet and submitted to an acute restraint stress exhibited a delayed mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. In this study, we evaluated the combined effects of dietary and emotional stressors as found in western way of life. We studied, in rats submitted or not to an acute stress, the effects of diet-induced IR on brain mitochondria, using a high fat/high fructose diet (HF(2)), as an IR inducer, with addition or not of cinnamon as an insulin sensitizer. We measured Ca(2+) retention capacity, respiration, ROS production, enzymatic activities and cell signaling activation. Under stress, HF(2) diet dramatically decreased the amount of Ca(2+) required to open the mPTP (13%) suggesting an adverse effect on mitochondrial survival. Cinnamon added to the diet corrected this negative effect and resulted in a partial recovery (30%). The effects related to cinnamon addition to the diet could be due to its antioxidant properties or to the observed modulation of PI3K-AKT-GSK3β and MAPK-P38 pathways or to a combination of both. These data suggest a protective effect of cinnamon on brain mitochondria against the negative impact of an HF(2) diet. Cinnamon could be beneficial to counteract deleterious dietary effects in stressed conditions. PMID:26878796

  2. How acute is the acute stress response? Baseline corticosterone and corticosteroid-binding globulin levels change 24h after an acute stressor in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Malisch, Jessica L; Satterlee, Daniel G; Cockrem, John F; Wada, Haruka; Breuner, Creagh W

    2010-01-15

    Changes in plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) capacity can alter free plasma concentration and tissue availability of glucocorticoids (GC) and hence alter the organismal response to stress. However, CBG change in response to stress has not been extensively studied. While it is clear that chronic stress can causes CBG decline and in some species acute stressors can reduce CBG during the 30-60 min of the stressor, more long-term changes in CBG following an acute stressor has received less attention. Here we investigated corticosterone (CORT: the primary GC in birds) and CBG levels 24h after an acute stressor in a unique study system: Japanese quail divergently selected for CORT reactivity to acute stress. Using this model, we examined the interaction of selected CORT reactivity with CBG response to determine if CBG shows a delayed decline in response to an acute stressor and if that decline varies by selected genetic background. We found lowered CBG capacity, elevated total CORT and free CORT 24h after acute stress in all three quail groups. These results demonstrate for the first time in an avian species that exposure to an acute stressor can affect CBG and CORT 24h later.

  3. Lemon Odor Reduces Stress-induced Neuronal Activation in the Emotion Expression System: An Animal Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Kazue; Sugimoto, Koji; Shutoh, Fumihiro; Hisano, Setsuji

    Perception of particular sensory stimuli from the surroundings can influence emotion in individuals. In an uncomfortable situation, humans protect themselves from some aversive stimulus by acutely evoking a stress response. Animal model studies have contributed to an understanding of neuronal mechanisms underlying the stress response in humans. To study a possible anti-stressful effect of lemon odor, an excitation of neurons secreting corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) as a primary factor of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) was analyzed in animal model experiments, in which rats are restrained in the presence or absence of the odor. The effect was evaluated by measuring expression of c-Fos (an excited neuron marker) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a key structure of the HPA in the brain. We prepared 3 animal groups: Groups S, L and I. Groups S and L were restrained for 30 minutes while being blown by air and being exposed to the lemon odor, respectively. Group I was intact without any treatment. Two hours later of the onset of experiments, brains of all groups were sampled and processed for microscopic examination. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos immunostaining and/or in situ hybridization for CRH. In Group S but not in Group I, c-Fos expression was found in the PVN. A combined in situ hybridization-immunohistochemical dual labeling revealed that CRH mRNA-expressing neurons express c-Fos. In computer-assisted automatic counting, the incidence of c-Fos-expressing neurons in the entire PVN was statistically lower in Group L than in Group S. Detailed analysis of PVN subregions demonstrated that c-Fos-expressing neurons are fewer in Group L than in Group S in the dorsal part of the medial parvocellular subregion. These results may suggest that lemon odor attenuates the restraint stress-induced neuronal activation including CRH neurons, presumably mimicking an aspect of stress responses in humans.

  4. Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sukwoo

    It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial

  5. Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, Tuva Kolstad; Rø, Karin Isaksson; Vaglum, Per Jørgen Wiggen; Moum, Torbjørn; Røvik, Jan Ole; Gude, Tore; Ekeberg, Øivind; Tyssen, Reidar

    2016-01-01

    The importance of work-home interface stress can vary throughout a medical career and between genders. We studied changes in work-home interface stress over 5 yr, and their prediction of emotional exhaustion (main dimension of burn-out), controlled for other variables. A nationwide doctor cohort (NORDOC; n=293) completed questionnaires at 10 and 15 yr after graduation. Changes over the period were examined and predictors of emotional exhaustion analyzed using linear regression. Levels of work-home interface stress declined, whereas emotional exhaustion stayed on the same level. Lack of reduction in work-home interface stress was an independent predictor of emotional exhaustion in year 15 (β=-0.21, p=0.001). Additional independent predictors were reduction in support from colleagues (β=0.11, p=0.04) and emotional exhaustion at baseline (β=0.62, p<0.001). Collegial support was a more important predictor for men than for women. In separate analyses, significant adjusted predictors were lack of reduction in work-home interface stress among women, and reduction of collegial support and lack of reduction in working hours among men. Thus, change in work-home interface stress is a key independent predictor of emotional exhaustion among doctors 15 yr after graduation. Some gender differences in predictors of emotional exhaustion were found.

  6. The Moderator Role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence in the Relationship between Sources of Stress and Mental Health in Teachers.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Estévez-López, Fernando; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2016-03-03

    This study analyzes the role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) on sources of job stress and mental health in 250 elementary school teachers from Jaén (Spain). The aim of the study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the associations between Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI), sources of occupational stress and mental health; and (2) to determine whether PEI moderates the relationship between sources of occupational stress and mental health. An initial sample of 250 teachers was assessed Three questionnaires, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Sources of Stress Scale in Teachers and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, were used to evaluate PEI, sources of occupational stress and mental health, respectively. Teachers with higher levels of emotional attention reported lower levels of mental health (r = -.30; p < .001), while teachers showing high emotional clarity reported better emotional role (r = .14; p < .05) and social functioning (r = .15; p < .05). Moreover, PEI components moderate the relationship between sources of occupational stress and emotional role. Specifically, each significant interaction (i.e., deficiencies x attention, adaptation x attention, and adaptation x clarity) made a small and unique contribution in the explanation of emotional role (all p < .05, all sr 2 ∼ .02). Finally, our results imply that PEI is an important moderator of teachers´ occupational stressors on mental health.

  7. Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career

    PubMed Central

    HERTZBERG, Tuva Kolstad; RØ, Karin Isaksson; VAGLUM, Per Jørgen Wiggen; MOUM, Torbjørn; RØVIK, Jan Ole; GUDE, Tore; EKEBERG, Øivind; TYSSEN, Reidar

    2015-01-01

    The importance of work-home interface stress can vary throughout a medical career and between genders. We studied changes in work-home interface stress over 5 yr, and their prediction of emotional exhaustion (main dimension of burn-out), controlled for other variables. A nationwide doctor cohort (NORDOC; n=293) completed questionnaires at 10 and 15 yr after graduation. Changes over the period were examined and predictors of emotional exhaustion analyzed using linear regression. Levels of work-home interface stress declined, whereas emotional exhaustion stayed on the same level. Lack of reduction in work-home interface stress was an independent predictor of emotional exhaustion in year 15 (β=−0.21, p=0.001). Additional independent predictors were reduction in support from colleagues (β=0.11, p=0.04) and emotional exhaustion at baseline (β=0.62, p<0.001). Collegial support was a more important predictor for men than for women. In separate analyses, significant adjusted predictors were lack of reduction in work-home interface stress among women, and reduction of collegial support and lack of reduction in working hours among men. Thus, change in work-home interface stress is a key independent predictor of emotional exhaustion among doctors 15 yr after graduation. Some gender differences in predictors of emotional exhaustion were found. PMID:26538002

  8. The Moderator Role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence in the Relationship between Sources of Stress and Mental Health in Teachers.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Estévez-López, Fernando; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) on sources of job stress and mental health in 250 elementary school teachers from Jaén (Spain). The aim of the study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the associations between Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI), sources of occupational stress and mental health; and (2) to determine whether PEI moderates the relationship between sources of occupational stress and mental health. An initial sample of 250 teachers was assessed Three questionnaires, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Sources of Stress Scale in Teachers and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, were used to evaluate PEI, sources of occupational stress and mental health, respectively. Teachers with higher levels of emotional attention reported lower levels of mental health (r = -.30; p < .001), while teachers showing high emotional clarity reported better emotional role (r = .14; p < .05) and social functioning (r = .15; p < .05). Moreover, PEI components moderate the relationship between sources of occupational stress and emotional role. Specifically, each significant interaction (i.e., deficiencies x attention, adaptation x attention, and adaptation x clarity) made a small and unique contribution in the explanation of emotional role (all p < .05, all sr 2 ∼ .02). Finally, our results imply that PEI is an important moderator of teachers´ occupational stressors on mental health. PMID:26936220

  9. Computer Models of Stress, Allostasis, and Acute and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The past century has seen a profound shift in diseases of humankind. Acute, unifactorial diseases are being replaced increasingly by multifactorial disorders that arise from complex interactions among genes, environment, concurrent morbidities and treatments, and time. According to the concept of allostasis, there is no single, ideal set of steady-state conditions in life. Allostasis reflects active, adaptive processes that maintain apparent steady states, via multiple, interacting effectors regulated by homeostatic comparators “homeostats.” Stress can be defined as a condition or state in which a sensed discrepancy between afferent information and a setpoint for response leads to activation of effectors, reducing the discrepancy. “Allostatic load” refers to the consequences of sustained or repeated activation of mediators of allostasis. From the analogy of a home temperature control system, the temperature can be maintained at any of a variety of levels (allostatic states) by multiple means (effectors), regulated by a comparator thermostat (homeostat). Stress might exert adverse health consequences via allostatic load. This presentation describes models of homeostatic systems that incorporate negative feedback regulation, multiple effectors, effector sharing, environmental influences, intrinsic obsolescence, and destabilizing positive feedback loops. These models can be used to predict effects of environmental and genetic alterations on allostatic load and therefore on the development of multi-system disorders and failures. PMID:19120114

  10. Neural activity related to cognitive and emotional empathy in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Monica; Tempesta, Daniela; Pino, Maria Chiara; Nigri, Anna; Catalucci, Alessia; Guadagni, Veronica; Gallucci, Massimo; Iaria, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the empathic ability and its functional brain correlates in post-traumatic stress disorder subjects (PTSD). Seven PTSD subjects and ten healthy controls, all present in the L'Aquila area during the earthquake of the April 2009, underwent fMRI during which they performed a modified version of the Multifaceted Empathy Test. PTSD patients showed impairments in implicit and explicit emotional empathy, but not in cognitive empathy. Brain responses during cognitive empathy showed an increased activation in patients compared to controls in the right medial frontal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus. During implicit emotional empathy responses patients with PTSD, compared to controls, exhibited greater neural activity in the left pallidum and right insula; instead the control group showed an increased activation in right inferior frontal gyrus. Finally, in the explicit emotional empathy responses the PTSD group showed a reduced neural activity in the left insula and the left inferior frontal gyrus. The behavioral deficit limited to the emotional empathy dimension, accompanied by different patterns of activation in empathy related brain structures, represent a first piece of evidence of a dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in PTSD patients. The present findings support the idea that empathy is a multidimensional process, with different facets depending on distinct anatomical substrates. PMID:25555525

  11. Neural activity related to cognitive and emotional empathy in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Monica; Tempesta, Daniela; Pino, Maria Chiara; Nigri, Anna; Catalucci, Alessia; Guadagni, Veronica; Gallucci, Massimo; Iaria, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the empathic ability and its functional brain correlates in post-traumatic stress disorder subjects (PTSD). Seven PTSD subjects and ten healthy controls, all present in the L'Aquila area during the earthquake of the April 2009, underwent fMRI during which they performed a modified version of the Multifaceted Empathy Test. PTSD patients showed impairments in implicit and explicit emotional empathy, but not in cognitive empathy. Brain responses during cognitive empathy showed an increased activation in patients compared to controls in the right medial frontal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus. During implicit emotional empathy responses patients with PTSD, compared to controls, exhibited greater neural activity in the left pallidum and right insula; instead the control group showed an increased activation in right inferior frontal gyrus. Finally, in the explicit emotional empathy responses the PTSD group showed a reduced neural activity in the left insula and the left inferior frontal gyrus. The behavioral deficit limited to the emotional empathy dimension, accompanied by different patterns of activation in empathy related brain structures, represent a first piece of evidence of a dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in PTSD patients. The present findings support the idea that empathy is a multidimensional process, with different facets depending on distinct anatomical substrates.

  12. Physical and emotional stress have differential effects on preference for saccharine and open field behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Pijlman, Femke T A; Wolterink, Gerrit; Van Ree, Jan M

    2003-02-17

    Stress may influence the sensitivity of subjects to rewarding stimuli and stress modality may differentially affect this sensitivity. This relation was investigated in our animal model using chronic physical (repeated mild foot shocks) and emotional (witness) stress. Previous research has established that the two stressors have differential long-term effects on behaviour, where physical stress caused inactivity in a small open field and emotional stress hyperactivity. Rats were stressed on 5 consecutive days and tested for locomotor activity in a small open field (day 10) and saccharine preference (day 11). The preference for graded concentrations of saccharine over water was used as a measure for their sensitivity to reward. Physical stress treatment induced a long-term decrease both in preference for saccharine and open field activity compared to control treatment. Emotional stress animals showed an increase in open field behaviour activity and a slight increase in saccharine preference. Physical stress seems to cause anhedonia, while emotional stress might cause an increased sensitivity to reward. In conclusion, stress can induce differential long-term effects on sensitivity to positive stimuli and the response to novelty depending on stress modality.

  13. Effects of Acute Stress on Decision Making under Ambiguous and Risky Conditions in Healthy Young Men.

    PubMed

    Cano-López, Irene; Cano-López, Beatriz; Hidalgo, Vanesa; González-Bono, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Acute stress and decision making (DM) interact in life - although little is known about the role of ambiguity and risk in this interaction. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of acute stress on DM under various conditions. Thirty-one young healthy men were randomly distributed into two groups: experimental and control. DM processes were evaluated before and after an experimental session. For the experimental group, the session consisted of an acute stress battery; and the protocol was similar for the control group but the instructions were designed to minimize acute stress. Cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded 30 minutes before the DM tasks and during the experimental session. Cortisol, glucose, mood responses, and personality factors were also assessed. Acute stress was found to enhance disadvantageous decisions under ambiguous conditions (F(1, 29) = 4.16, p = .05, η2 p = .13), and this was mainly explained by the stress induced cortisol response (26.1% of variance, F(1, 30) = 11.59, p = .002). While there were no significant effects under risky conditions, inhibition responses differed between groups (F(1, 29) = 4.21, p = .05, η2 p = .13) and these differences were explained by cardiovascular and psychological responses (39.1% of variance, F(3, 30) = 7.42, p < .001). Results suggest that DM tasks could compete with cognitive resources after acute stress and could have implications for intervention in acute stress effects on DM in contexts such as addiction or eating disorders. PMID:27644414

  14. Victimization and Biological Stress Responses in Urban Adolescents: Emotion Regulation as a Moderator.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy

    2016-09-01

    Associations between urban adolescents' victimization experiences and biological stress responses were examined, as well as emotion regulation as a moderator of these associations. Data from a 4-wave longitudinal study with a low-income, community-based sample (n = 242; 91 % African American; 57 % female; M = 11.98, SD = 1.56 years at baseline) revealed that victimization, assessed over 3 study waves, was associated with an attenuated cortisol response to a stress interview at the final study wave, indicating that responses of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis were dysregulated. Cortisol responses were moderated by caregiver-reported adolescent emotion regulation, suggesting that this modifiable protective factor that is taught in many school-based prevention programs could help reduce harm associated with HPA axis dysregulation linked to victimization.

  15. Stress and its relationship to expressed emotion in community mental health workers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, N; Kuipers, E

    1996-01-01

    A small opportunistic study of Stress and Expressed Emotion was undertaken with community mental health workers, who were all case managers or keyworkers to clients with severe mental illness. It was hypothesised that a range of EE ratings would be found in staff, and that they would have high levels of burnout and stress. Job satisfaction was also measured. Ten staff were interviewed about 28 clients. Thirty nine percent of interviewees were rated as high EE (7/10 staff were high EE about at least one client), with low EE interviews showing significantly more warmth. Emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and GHQ levels were above norms for the general population, and were similar to those found in other inner city community teams, but were not related to EE levels. Nevertheless personal accomplishment and job satisfaction were high. High EE interviews were related to increased client symptomatology. Implications for long term community care are discussed. PMID:8811399

  16. Stress, emotions, and coping: a study of elderly women with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Downe-Wamboldt, B

    1991-01-01

    My purpose in conducting this study was to identify and describe the illness-related stressors and emotions experienced by elderly women with osteoarthritis and the coping strategies they used to manage these situations. The theoretical framework for the investigation was based on a process theory of stress and coping developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1984). In a home interview, 90 women completed a demographic profile and identified concerns, feelings, and coping strategies used to manage problems associated with osteoarthritis. Descriptive statistics and content analysis of data indicated that the stress of osteoarthritis involved physical, social, and psychological aspects of life and evoked both positive and negative feelings. The women used a broad repertoire of coping behaviors, including problem- and emotion-focused strategies to manage the problems associated with osteoarthritis in their day-to-day life. This information has implications in both treatment and prevention areas for health professionals who provide services for this group of people.

  17. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p < 0.001) and returned to baseline by 180 min, whereas H(2)O(2) increased at 120 min and remained increased at 240 min (p = 0.001). No changes in exhaled NO and NO(2)/NO(3) were observed, while decreases in FEV(1) (p < 0.001) and FEV(1)/FVC (p < 0.001) were observed after exposure and returned to baseline by 180 min. A 1-h exposure to secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28.

  18. [French translation and validation of the Tension-Effort Stress Inventory (TESI, 7) emotional list].

    PubMed

    Legrand, F

    2002-01-01

    Since emotion became a central topic in scientific psychology, a conceptual consensus is needed with regard to its definition. Reversal theory provides such a widely, comprehensive theory of emotion that is currently missing from the psychology literature. According to reversal theorists, there are 16 primary emotions corresponding directly to one's preferred and non preferred phenomenological experiences. These include 4 pleasant/somatic emotions (relaxation, excitement, placidity, provocativeness), 4 unpleasant/somatic emotions (anxiety, anger, boredom, sullenness), 4 pleasant/transactional emotions (pride, modesty, gratitude, virtue) and 4 unpleasant/transactional emotions (humiliation, resentment, shame and guilt). Tension-Effort Stress Inventory (TESI, is an auto questionnaire with the 3rd section containing this 16 primary emotions list. The aim of our study deals with french translation and factorial validation of this list. Method and procedure - Participants (n=46) were voluntary french speaking individuals who prepared to be involved in a new tourist attraction established in a french winter sport resort. This attraction is made up of a 950 meters-long carrying cable tightened to an altitude of 100 meters above the ground, offering anyone whose weight exceeds 40 kg a thrilling 90 km/h rush. Of the sample of 46 individuals, 29 were male and 17 were female. The average age was 31,4 years with a 18-59 range and 7,7 as standard deviation value. Each subject had to complete a french version of TESI just before being hang on the cable and just after his or her arrival on the landing zone. Results - Pre- and post-activity descriptive statistics for each item were subjected to Pearson correlations calculation and then, an explanatory factorial analysis was carried out. Principal component analysis results (after varimax rotation) exhibited 6 factors explaining a proportion of 64% of the total variance: 4 of these 6 dimensions seemed to be similar to the ones

  19. The relationship between emotional intelligence and academic stress in students of medical sciences

    PubMed Central

    Miri, Mohammad Reza; Kermani, Tayyebe; Khoshbakht, Hoda; Moodi, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Emotional intelligence (EI) theory provides a view about predicting effective factors in people's lives whether in education or profession. According to earlier studies, people who have higher emotional skills are more successful in many of life aspects :e.g., reaction to stress and controlling stress situations. Since students are the future of society, this study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between EI and education stress in the students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences (BUMS). Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 260 students were selected by proportional sampling in four faculties: Medicine, Nursing and Midwifery, Paramedical Sciences, and Health. Data were collected using two questionnaires: The standardized EI Shering's (33 questions, five domains) and the Student-Life Stress Inventory (57 questions, nine domains). The obtained data were analyzed by independent t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and linear regression at the significant level of α = 0.05. Results: Totally, 65.8% of participants were females and 31.1% were males. The educational level of the participants included Associate's degree (44.6%) Bachelor's degree in science (31.2%), and medical science (23.1%). There was no significant correlation between EI scores and educational stress in students. But there was a significant relationship between EI with sex (P = 0.02) and mean of EI scores with three domains of academic stress: Personal favorites (P = 0.004), reaction to stressors (P = 0.002), and performance in stressful situations (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Although EI growth in different individuals can promote their success, it cannot decrease academic stress by itself which was particularly significant in females. Therefore, other causes of stress such as individual differences must be taken into consideration. PMID:24083290

  20. Incidental Retrieval of Emotional Contexts in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Depression: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, Matthew G.; Rugg, Michael D.; Smith, Adam P. R.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Brewin, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we used fMRI to assess patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression, and trauma-exposed controls, during an episodic memory retrieval task that included non-trauma-related emotional information. In the study phase of the task neutral pictures were presented in emotional or neutral contexts.…

  1. Acute stress disorder as a predictor of posttraumatic stress: A longitudinal study of Chinese children exposed to the Lushan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiling; Zhang, Yuqing; Wei, Chuguang; Liu, Zhengkui; Hannak, Walter

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children who experienced the Lushan earthquake in Sichuan, China, and assessed the ability of ASD to predict PTSD. The Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS) was used to assess acute stress reaction within weeks of the trauma. The University of California at Los Angeles Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA-PTSD) for children was administered at intervals of 2, 6, and 12 months after the earthquake to 197 students who experienced the Lushan earthquake at the Longxing Middle School. The results demonstrated that 28.4% of the children suffered from ASD, but only a small percentage of the population went on to develop PTSD. Among all of the students, 35.0% of those who met the criteria for ASD were diagnosed with PTSD at the 12-month interval. The severity of ASD symptoms correlated with later PTSD symptoms.

  2. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Improves Emotional Reactivity to Social Stress: Results from A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Willoughby B.; Shahar, Ben; Szepsenwol, Ohad; Jacobs, W. Jake

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The high likelihood of recurrences in depression is linked to progressive increase in emotional reactivity to stress (stress sensitization). Mindfulness-based therapies teach mindfulness skills designed to decrease emotional reactivity in the face of negative-affect producing stressors. The primary aim of the current study was to assess whether Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is efficacious in reducing emotional reactivity to social evaluative threat in a clinical sample with recurrent depression. A secondary aim was to assess whether improvement in emotional reactivity mediates improvements in depressive symptoms. Methods Fifty-two individuals with partially-remitted depression were randomized into an 8-week MBCT course or a waitlist control condition. All participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) before and after the 8-week trial period. Emotional reactivity to stress was assessed with the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory at several time points before, during and after the stressor. Results MBCT was associated with decreased emotional reactivity to social stress, specifically during the recovery (post-stressor) phase of the TSST. Waitlist controls showed an increase in anticipatory (pre-stressor) anxiety, which was absent in the MBCT group. Improvements in emotional reactivity partially mediated improvements in depressive symptoms. Limitations Limitations include small sample size, lack of objective or treatment adherence measures, and non-generalizability to more severely depressed populations. Conclusions Given that emotional reactivity to stress is an important psychopathological process underlying the chronic and recurrent nature of depression, these findings suggest that mindfulness skills are important in adaptive emotion regulation when coping with stress. PMID:22440072

  3. Acute stress differentially affects aromatase activity in specific brain nuclei of adult male and female quail.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction.

  4. Maternal separation stress leads to enhanced emotional responses to noxious stimuli in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Uhelski, Megan L; Fuchs, Perry N

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of the current study was to examine pain processing in adult rats following repeated maternal separation in infancy, a common model of early life stress. Sensory pain processing remained unaltered, as measured using threshold testing of nociception. However, affective pain processing was enhanced as revealed by increased responding during the tonic phase of the formalin test and during the place escape/avoidance test. The pattern of enhanced responses suggests that early life stress alters the emotional response to pain. Further research could determine if this pattern holds true for different pain models, or if post-weaning enrichment could reverse the effects of maternal separation on pain processing.

  5. Orexin administration to mice that underwent chronic stress produces bimodal effects on emotion-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye-Seung; Kim, Jae-Gon; Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Yoon, Bong-June

    2014-11-01

    Orexin plays diverse roles in regulating behaviors, such as sleep and wake, reward processing, arousal, and stress and anxiety. The orexin system may accomplish these multiple tasks through its complex innervations throughout the brain. The emerging evidence indicates a role of orexin in emotional behaviors; however, most of the previous studies have investigated the function of orexin in naïve animals. Here, we examined a functional role of orexin in mice that had been exposed to repeated stress. Chronic social defeat stress produced differential social interaction behaviors in mice (susceptible versus resilient) and these two groups of mice displayed different levels of prepro-orexin in the hypothalamus. Exogenously added orexin A to the brain induced an antidepressant-like effect in only the susceptible mice but not in the resilient mice. In contrast, orexin A and orexin B infused together produced an anxiogenic effect in only the resilient mice and not in the susceptible mice. Furthermore, we found that the antidepressant-like effect of orexin A is mediated by the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) after exposure to chronic restraint stress. These findings reveal a bimodal effect of the orexin system in regulating emotional behavior that depends on stress susceptibility.

  6. Entrainment of the mouse circadian clock by sub-acute physical and psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Yu; Shiraishi, Takuya; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Kuriki, Daisuke; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Motohashi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Tomoko; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of acute stress on the peripheral circadian system are not well understood in vivo. Here, we show that sub-acute stress caused by restraint or social defeat potently altered clock gene expression in the peripheral tissues of mice. In these peripheral tissues, as well as the hippocampus and cortex, stressful stimuli induced time-of-day-dependent phase-advances or -delays in rhythmic clock gene expression patterns; however, such changes were not observed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, i.e. the central circadian clock. Moreover, several days of stress exposure at the beginning of the light period abolished circadian oscillations and caused internal desynchronisation of peripheral clocks. Stress-induced changes in circadian rhythmicity showed habituation and disappeared with long-term exposure to repeated stress. These findings suggest that sub-acute physical/psychological stress potently entrains peripheral clocks and causes transient dysregulation of circadian clocks in vivo.

  7. Gender Differences in Acute Alcohol Effects on Self-Regulation of Arousal in Response to Emotional and Alcohol-Related Picture Cues

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Tomoko; Bates, Marsha E.; Mun, Eun Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Lehrer, Paul; Ray, Suchismita

    2010-01-01

    Basic mechanisms through which men and women self-regulate arousal have received little attention in human experimental addiction research although stress-response-dampening and craving theories suggest an important role of emotional arousal in motivating alcohol use. This study examined gender differences in the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on psychophysiological and self-reported arousal in response to emotionally negative, positive, and neutral, and alcohol-related, picture cues. Thirty-six social drinkers (16 women) were randomly assigned to an alcohol, placebo, or control beverage group, and exposed to picture cues every 10 s (0.1 Hz presentation frequency). Psychophysiological arousal was assessed via a 0.1-Hz heart rate variability (HRV) index. A statistically significant beverage group-by-gender interaction effect on psychophysiological, but not self-reported, arousal was found. 0.1-Hz HRV responses to picture cues were suppressed by alcohol only in men. This gender-specific suppression pattern did not differ significantly across picture cue types. There were no significant gender differences in the placebo or control group. Greater dampening of arousal by alcohol intoxication in men, compared to women, may contribute to men's greater tendency to use alcohol to cope with stress. PMID:19586136

  8. Emotion differentiation and intensity during acute tobacco abstinence: A comparison of heavy and light smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Erin S.; Bujarski, Spencer; Leventhal, Adam M.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recognize and label discrete emotions, termed emotion differentiation, is particularly pertinent to overall emotion regulation abilities. Patterns of deficient emotion differentiation have been associated with mood and anxiety disorders but have yet to be examined in relation to nicotine dependence. This study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine smokers’ subjective experience of discrete emotions during 24-h of forced tobacco abstinence. Thirty daily smokers rated their emotions up to 23 times over the 24-hour period, and smoking abstinence was biologically verified. From these data, we computed individual difference measures of emotion differentiation, overall emotion intensity, and emotional variability. As hypothesized, heavy smokers reported poorer negative emotion differentiation than light smokers (d = 0.55), along with more intense negative emotion (d = 0.97) and greater negative emotion variability (d = 0.97). No differences were observed in positive emotion differentiation. Across the sample, poorer negative emotion differentiation was associated with greater endorsement of psychological motives to smoke, including negative and positive reinforcement motives, while positive emotion differentiation was not. PMID:25885662

  9. Emotion differentiation and intensity during acute tobacco abstinence: A comparison of heavy and light smokers.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Erin S; Bujarski, Spencer; Leventhal, Adam M; Ray, Lara A

    2015-08-01

    The ability to recognize and label discrete emotions, termed emotion differentiation, is particularly pertinent to overall emotion regulation abilities. Patterns of deficient emotion differentiation have been associated with mood and anxiety disorders but have yet to be examined in relation to nicotine dependence. This study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine smokers' subjective experience of discrete emotions during 24-h of forced tobacco abstinence. Thirty daily smokers rated their emotions up to 23 times over the 24-hour period, and smoking abstinence was biologically verified. From these data, we computed individual difference measures of emotion differentiation, overall emotion intensity, and emotional variability. As hypothesized, heavy smokers reported poorer negative emotion differentiation than light smokers (d=0.55), along with more intense negative emotion (d=0.97) and greater negative emotion variability (d=0.97). No differences were observed in positive emotion differentiation. Across the sample, poorer negative emotion differentiation was associated with greater endorsement of psychological motives to smoke, including negative and positive reinforcement motives, while positive emotion differentiation was not. PMID:25885662

  10. Emotion differentiation and intensity during acute tobacco abstinence: A comparison of heavy and light smokers.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Erin S; Bujarski, Spencer; Leventhal, Adam M; Ray, Lara A

    2015-08-01

    The ability to recognize and label discrete emotions, termed emotion differentiation, is particularly pertinent to overall emotion regulation abilities. Patterns of deficient emotion differentiation have been associated with mood and anxiety disorders but have yet to be examined in relation to nicotine dependence. This study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine smokers' subjective experience of discrete emotions during 24-h of forced tobacco abstinence. Thirty daily smokers rated their emotions up to 23 times over the 24-hour period, and smoking abstinence was biologically verified. From these data, we computed individual difference measures of emotion differentiation, overall emotion intensity, and emotional variability. As hypothesized, heavy smokers reported poorer negative emotion differentiation than light smokers (d=0.55), along with more intense negative emotion (d=0.97) and greater negative emotion variability (d=0.97). No differences were observed in positive emotion differentiation. Across the sample, poorer negative emotion differentiation was associated with greater endorsement of psychological motives to smoke, including negative and positive reinforcement motives, while positive emotion differentiation was not.

  11. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making. PMID:27679566

  12. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making. PMID:27679566

  13. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making.

  14. Association of stress management skills and perceived stress with physical and emotional well-being among advanced prostrate cancer survivors following androgen deprivation treatment.

    PubMed

    Penedo, Frank J; Benedict, Catherine; Zhou, Eric S; Rasheed, Mikal; Traeger, Lara; Kava, Bruce R; Soloway, Mark; Czaja, Sara; Antoni, Michael H

    2013-03-01

    Advanced prostate cancer (APC) is associated with disruptions that compromise health related quality of life (HRQOL). Treatment often includes androgendeprivation therapy (ADT), which results in a range of side effects (e.g., fatigue, urinary dysfunction) that further impact HRQOL. Despite these challenges, there are limited evaluations of the impact of stress and stress management skills on HRQOL among APC survivors on ADT. This study evaluated relationships among stress, stress management skills, and HRQOL, and it was hypothesized that better stress management skills would relate to greater physical and emotional well-being by mitigating perceived stress levels. Participants (N = 77) were 69.7 years old (SD = 9.8), 18.6 months post-treatment (SD = 17.5), and ethnically diverse (65 % Non-Hispanic White, 13 % Hispanic, 21 % African-American). Measures included the Measure of Current Status for stress management skills, the Perceived Stress Scale for perceived stress, and the Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form (MOS SF-36; physical functioning and emotional well-being subscales) for HRQOL. Direct effects and mediation models were evaluated to determine the relationships between perceived stress, stress management skills, and HRQOL domains, controlling for relevant covariates. Stress management skills and perceived stress were significantly associated with physical functioning (β = .24, p < .05 and β = -.43, p < .01, respectively) and emotional well-being (β = .35, p < .01 and β = -.64, p < .01, respectively). Regression analyses supported the hypothesis that reduced perceived stress mediated the relationship between stress management skills and both physical functioning and emotional well-being. These results demonstrate that one way stress management skills may impact HRQOL is by lessening ongoing perceptions of stress.

  15. Cognitive Load Undermines Thought Suppression in Acute Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Reginald D V; Rackebrandt, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Thought suppression studies demonstrate that attempts to suppress can be undermined by cognitive load. We report the first instance in which this has been tested experimentally in a sample of recently traumatized individuals. Individuals with and without acute stress disorder (ASD) were recruited following recent trauma and randomized to load or no load conditions (N=56). They monitored intrusive memories during baseline, suppression, and think anything phases. The impact of suppression and load on self-reported intrusions, attention bias (dot-probe), and memory priming (word-stem task) was assessed. The ASD load group were less able to suppress memories (d=0.32, CI95 [-0.15, 0.83], p=.088) than the ASD no load group (d=0.63, CI95 [0.08, 1.24], p<.001). In the think anything phase, the ASD load group reported more intrusions than the ASD no load or non-ASD groups (with and without load). No consistent findings were observed in relation to attentional bias. ASD load individuals exhibited stronger priming responses for motor vehicle accident and assault words than all other groups (ds between 0.35-0.73). Working memory did not moderate any outcomes of interest. The findings indicate that cognitive load interferes with suppression and may enhance access to trauma memories and associated material. The study extends previous research by demonstrating these effects for the first time in a clinical sample of recent survivors of trauma. PMID:27157032

  16. Acute administration of nicotine into the higher order auditory Te2 cortex specifically decreases the fear-related charge of remote emotional memories.

    PubMed

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Grosso, Anna; Renna, Annamaria; Concina, Giulia; Sacchetti, Benedetto

    2015-12-01

    Nicotine elicits several behavioural effects on mood as well as on stress and anxiety processes. Recently, it was found that the higher order components of the sensory cortex, such as the secondary auditory cortex Te2, are essential for the long-term storage of remote fear memories. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effects of acute nicotine injection into the higher order auditory cortex Te2, on the remote emotional memories of either threat or incentive experiences in rats. We found that intra-Te2 nicotine injection decreased the fear-evoked responses to a tone previously paired with footshock. This effect was cue- and dose-specific and was not due to any interference with auditory stimuli processing, innate anxiety and fear processes, or with motor responses. Nicotine acts acutely in the presence of threat stimuli but it did not determine the permanent degradation of the fear-memory trace, since memories tested one week after nicotine injection were unaffected. Remarkably, nicotine did not affect the memory of a similar tone that was paired to incentive stimuli. We conclude from our results that nicotine, when acting acutely in the auditory cortex, relieves the fear charge embedded by learned stimuli. PMID:26319210

  17. Acute administration of nicotine into the higher order auditory Te2 cortex specifically decreases the fear-related charge of remote emotional memories.

    PubMed

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Grosso, Anna; Renna, Annamaria; Concina, Giulia; Sacchetti, Benedetto

    2015-12-01

    Nicotine elicits several behavioural effects on mood as well as on stress and anxiety processes. Recently, it was found that the higher order components of the sensory cortex, such as the secondary auditory cortex Te2, are essential for the long-term storage of remote fear memories. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effects of acute nicotine injection into the higher order auditory cortex Te2, on the remote emotional memories of either threat or incentive experiences in rats. We found that intra-Te2 nicotine injection decreased the fear-evoked responses to a tone previously paired with footshock. This effect was cue- and dose-specific and was not due to any interference with auditory stimuli processing, innate anxiety and fear processes, or with motor responses. Nicotine acts acutely in the presence of threat stimuli but it did not determine the permanent degradation of the fear-memory trace, since memories tested one week after nicotine injection were unaffected. Remarkably, nicotine did not affect the memory of a similar tone that was paired to incentive stimuli. We conclude from our results that nicotine, when acting acutely in the auditory cortex, relieves the fear charge embedded by learned stimuli.

  18. Acute administration of nicotine into the higher order auditory Te2 cortex specifically decreases the fear-related charge of remote emotional memories

    PubMed Central

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Grosso, Anna; Renna, Annamaria; Concina, Giulia; Sacchetti, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine elicits several behavioural effects on mood as well as on stress and anxiety processes. Recently, it was found that the higher order components of the sensory cortex, such as the secondary auditory cortex Te2, are essential for the long-term storage of remote fear memories. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effects of acute nicotine injection into the higher order auditory cortex Te2, on the remote emotional memories of either threat or incentive experiences in rats. We found that intra-Te2 nicotine injection decreased the fear-evoked responses to a tone previously paired with footshock. This effect was cue- and dose-specific and was not due to any interference with auditory stimuli processing, innate anxiety and fear processes, or with motor responses. Nicotine acts acutely in the presence of threat stimuli but it did not determine the permanent degradation of the fear-memory trace, since memories tested one week after nicotine injection were unaffected. Remarkably, nicotine did not affect the memory of a similar tone that was paired to incentive stimuli. We conclude from our results that nicotine, when acting acutely in the auditory cortex, relieves the fear charge embedded by learned stimuli. PMID:26319210

  19. Stress and selective attention: the interplay of mood, cortisol levels, and emotional information processing.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Mark A; Schwartzman, Alex E; Stewart, Jane; Walker, Claire-Dominique

    2002-11-01

    The effects of a stressful challenge on the processing of emotional words were examined in college students. Stress induction was achieved using a competitive computer task, where the individual either repeatedly lost or won against a confederate. Mood, attention, and cortisol were recorded during the study. There were four findings: (1) Participants in the negative stressor condition were faster to shift attention away from negative words than positive or neutral words; (2) attentional shifts away from negative words were associated with stress-induced mood lowering; (3) participants in the negative stress condition with elevated scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were slow to disengage attention from all stimuli; and (4) elevated depression scores were associated with lower cortisol change from baseline during the experimental phase, and with higher cortisol levels during the recovery phase. These findings point to information-processing strategies as a means to regulate emotion, and to atypical features of cognitive and adrenocortical function that may serve as putative risk markers of depression.

  20. Effects of emotional and perceptual-motor stress on a voice recognition system's accuracy: An applied investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poock, G. K.; Martin, B. J.

    1984-02-01

    This was an applied investigation examining the ability of a speech recognition system to recognize speakers' inputs when the speakers were under different stress levels. Subjects were asked to speak to a voice recognition system under three conditions: (1) normal office environment, (2) emotional stress, and (3) perceptual-motor stress. Results indicate a definite relationship between voice recognition system performance and the type of low stress reference patterns used to achieve recognition.

  1. Pharmacological Correction of Alcohol Motivation Depends on the Phenotype of the Response to Emotional Stress.

    PubMed

    Kolik, L G; Gudasheva, T A; Martyanov, V A; Seredenin, S B

    2016-08-01

    The specific features of alcohol behavior were studied in MR and MNRA rats that exhibit an opposite reaction to emotional stress. We evaluated the effect of a dipeptide anxiolytic GB-115 (N-phenyl-hexanoyl-glycyl-L-tryptophan amide, neuropeptide cholecystokinin-4 analogue with antagonistic activity) on alcohol motivation in rats, which was formed over 12 months. High-emotionality MR rats were more sensitive to the anxiolytic effect of ethanol in the conflict situation test than low-emotionality MNRA rats. MNRA rats consumed a greater amount of ethanol under a free-choice condition with 15% ethanol solution and water (as in comparison with MR rats). However, the behavior of MR rats was transformed due to a significant increase in alcohol motivation from the 5th month of long-term free access to ethanol. An anxiolytic GB-115 (0.025 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 14 days) with selective activity in high-emotionality rats was shown to reduce significantly the average daily consumption and alcohol-deprivation effect in MR rats, but did not modulate ethanol addiction in MNRA rats. PMID:27590755

  2. Stress and puberty-related hormone reactivity, negative emotionality, and parent--adolescent relationships.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Dorn, Lorah D; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2012-08-01

    Hormone reactivity to stressors and hormones that rapidly change at puberty are hypothesized to influence moods, which may in turn affect parent-child relationship quality. The present study investigated whether reactivity of testosterone, DHEA, and cortisol in a clinic setting (venipuncture paradigm) predicted negative emotionality and family problems at Time 1 (0 months), Time 2 (6 months), and Time 3 (12 months) in a sample of 56 boys (M = 12.72, SD = 1.32 years) and 52 girls (M = 11.99, SD = 1.55 years). Reactivity of each hormone, negative emotionality, and family problems were measured at each of three laboratory visits. Testosterone reactivity at the first assessment predicted family problems one year later. DHEA stress reactivity was related to concurrent negative emotionality at six and 12 months. Cortisol reactivity did not predict negative emotionality or family problems. Reactivity of different hormones that change at puberty may play an important role in adolescent moods and family processes during puberty.

  3. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular.

  4. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular. PMID:27174311

  5. Variations of physiological and innate immunological responses in goldfish (Carassius auratus) subjected to recurrent acute stress.

    PubMed

    Eslamloo, Khalil; Akhavan, Sobhan R; Fallah, Farzin Jamalzad; Henry, Morgane A

    2014-03-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of repeated acute stress on the physiological status and non-specific immune response of goldfish, Carassius auratus. The acute stress was a succession of a 3 min-chasing period followed by a 2 min-air exposure. The goldfish in triplicate tanks were subjected 3 times daily to this stress for one (S3) or three (S9) days. A separate group of unstressed fish was used as control for each sampling time. Blood samples were collected 12, 48 and 120 h after the last stress procedure. Variations of globulin levels, plasma anti-protease and bactericidal activities were not significant in the present study. The haematological parameters and plasma total protein and albumin strongly declined in S9 fish 12 h post-stress compared to control fish. However, plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in both S3 and S9 transiently increased compared to the control fish. Similarly, plasma peroxidase activity transiently increased in both stressed groups 12 h after stress. An increase in plasma lysozyme and complement activities suggested a hormesis-like effect with one-day acute stress improving the immunological response of goldfish while an extension of the stress period to three days impaired physiology and immunity for up to 5 days. This study revealed that recurrent acute stress could immunosuppress goldfish as usually expected of chronic stress.

  6. The roles of sex and serotonin transporter levels in age- and stress-related emotionality in mice.

    PubMed

    Joeyen-Waldorf, Jennifer; Edgar, Nicole; Sibille, Etienne

    2009-08-25

    Mood disorders are influenced by genetic make-up and differentially affect men and women. The s/l promoter polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene moderates both trait emotion and the vulnerability to develop depressive states in humans. Similarly, male mice lacking SERT (Knockout/KO) display an elevated emotionality phenotype. We now report that the SERT-KO phenotype is maintained throughout late-adulthood, and that female KO mice develop a larger emotionality phenotype with increasing age. Thus, to test the hypothesis that these findings reflected a putative sexual dimorphism in SERT-mediated modulation of emotionality, we submitted adult male and female wild-type, heterozygous (HZ) and KO mice to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and assessed behavioral changes. In males, the elevated SERT-KO emotion-related behavior converged with other groups after UCMS. Conversely, female SERT-KO displayed a normal non-stressed baseline, but highest UCMS-induced emotionality. SERT-HZ displayed variable and intermediate phenotypes in both experiments. Thus, consistent results across different biological modalities (age, stress) revealed a high contribution of SERT genotype for baseline "trait" emotionality in males, and low contribution for females. In contrast, age-correlated and stress-induced behavioral changes resulted in a high SERT genotype-mediated behavioral variance in females, but low in males. This suggests that high emotionality states associated with low SERT were differentially achieved in males (high baseline/trait) compared to females (increased vulnerability to develop high emotionality). This sex-by-SERT double dissociation provides a framework to investigate molecular substrates of emotionality regulation in concert with serotonin function and may contribute to the sexually dimorphic features of mood disorders. PMID:19577546

  7. Emotional and cardiovascular sensitization to daily stress following childhood parental loss.

    PubMed

    Luecken, Linda J; Kraft, Amy; Appelhans, Bradley M; Enders, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Adverse childhood events can influence the development of emotional and physiological self-regulatory abilities, with significant consequences for vulnerability to psychological and physical illness. This study evaluated stress sensitization and inoculation models of the impact of early parental death on stress exposure and reactivity in late adolescence/young adulthood. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and diary reports of minor stress were collected every 30 min during waking hours over a 24-hr period from 91 late adolescents/young adults (43 early bereaved, 48 nonbereaved). Across the sample, minor stressors were associated with elevated BP and negative affect. The bereaved group had lower BP than did the nonbereaved group. Within the bereaved group, higher perceived caring from the surviving parent was associated with fewer reports of minor stress and lower stress-related negative affect. Higher perceived parental caring during childhood was associated with lower BP across the sample and more frequent hassles in the nonbereaved group. Findings support both the stress inoculation and sensitization models, suggesting that childhood parental loss and parental caring exert important influences on children's development of stress sensitivity.

  8. Perceived Chronic Stress Exposure Modulates Reward-Related Medial Prefrontal Cortex Responses to Acute Stress in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M.; Berghorst, Lisa H.; Treadway, Michael T.; Brooks, Nancy H.; Dutra, Sunny J.; Greve, Douglas N.; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E.; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. Methods In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Results Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r = 0.79, p = 0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r = 0.79) and no-stress (r = −0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC grey matter, but functional findings remained when accounting for structural differences. Limitation Small sample size, which warrants replication. Conclusion Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. PMID:25898329

  9. Self-Compassion, Emotion Regulation and Stress among Australian Psychologists: Testing an Emotion Regulation Model of Self-Compassion Using Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Finlay-Jones, Amy L.; Rees, Clare S.; Kane, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists tend to report high levels of occupational stress, with serious implications for themselves, their clients, and the discipline as a whole. Recent research suggests that self-compassion is a promising construct for psychologists in terms of its ability to promote psychological wellbeing and resilience to stress; however, the potential benefits of self-compassion are yet to be thoroughly explored amongst this occupational group. Additionally, while a growing body of research supports self-compassion as a key predictor of psychopathology, understanding of the processes by which self-compassion exerts effects on mental health outcomes is limited. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test an emotion regulation model of self-compassion and stress among psychologists, including postgraduate trainees undertaking clinical work (n = 198). Self-compassion significantly negatively predicted emotion regulation difficulties and stress symptoms. Support was also found for our preliminary explanatory model of self-compassion, which demonstrates the mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties in the self-compassion-stress relationship. The final self-compassion model accounted for 26.2% of variance in stress symptoms. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:26207900

  10. Self-Compassion, Emotion Regulation and Stress among Australian Psychologists: Testing an Emotion Regulation Model of Self-Compassion Using Structural Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Finlay-Jones, Amy L; Rees, Clare S; Kane, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists tend to report high levels of occupational stress, with serious implications for themselves, their clients, and the discipline as a whole. Recent research suggests that self-compassion is a promising construct for psychologists in terms of its ability to promote psychological wellbeing and resilience to stress; however, the potential benefits of self-compassion are yet to be thoroughly explored amongst this occupational group. Additionally, while a growing body of research supports self-compassion as a key predictor of psychopathology, understanding of the processes by which self-compassion exerts effects on mental health outcomes is limited. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test an emotion regulation model of self-compassion and stress among psychologists, including postgraduate trainees undertaking clinical work (n = 198). Self-compassion significantly negatively predicted emotion regulation difficulties and stress symptoms. Support was also found for our preliminary explanatory model of self-compassion, which demonstrates the mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties in the self-compassion-stress relationship. The final self-compassion model accounted for 26.2% of variance in stress symptoms. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:26207900

  11. Self-Compassion, Emotion Regulation and Stress among Australian Psychologists: Testing an Emotion Regulation Model of Self-Compassion Using Structural Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Finlay-Jones, Amy L; Rees, Clare S; Kane, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists tend to report high levels of occupational stress, with serious implications for themselves, their clients, and the discipline as a whole. Recent research suggests that self-compassion is a promising construct for psychologists in terms of its ability to promote psychological wellbeing and resilience to stress; however, the potential benefits of self-compassion are yet to be thoroughly explored amongst this occupational group. Additionally, while a growing body of research supports self-compassion as a key predictor of psychopathology, understanding of the processes by which self-compassion exerts effects on mental health outcomes is limited. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test an emotion regulation model of self-compassion and stress among psychologists, including postgraduate trainees undertaking clinical work (n = 198). Self-compassion significantly negatively predicted emotion regulation difficulties and stress symptoms. Support was also found for our preliminary explanatory model of self-compassion, which demonstrates the mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties in the self-compassion-stress relationship. The final self-compassion model accounted for 26.2% of variance in stress symptoms. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed.

  12. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT) known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34) to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol) activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area. PMID:23671762

  13. Behavioral, endocrine, immune, and performance measures for pigs exposed to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Hicks, T A; McGlone, J J; Whisnant, C S; Kattesh, H G; Norman, R L

    1998-02-01

    Weanling pigs (n = 132) were used to investigate the effects of three common stressors (and a control) and differing social status on behavior, immunity, plasma cortisol, blood chemical, and performance measures. Eleven blocks of 12 pigs each were evaluated. Each pen contained three pigs of dominant (DOM), intermediate (INT), or submissive (SUB) social status. Two weeks later, random pens of pigs experienced either a control treatment (CON) or they were stressed for 4 h by shipping (SHIP), heat-stressed (HEAT) with overhead heat lamps in their home pens, or cold-stressed (COLD) by direct application of water and an air current. Treatments did not influence body weights; however, percentage weight loss during SHIP was greater than for other treatments. Body weights were heavier for DOM pigs than for INT and SUB pigs. Social status had large effects on plasma cortisol, globulin, acute-phase proteins, body weight, and weight changes. Only acute shipping stress resulted in weight loss. Many immune and blood measures were not changed among acutely stressed pigs; however, the relationship between social status and mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell cytotoxicity was disrupted during acute stress. Pig behavior was significantly changed by each stress treatment in a unique manner. During acute stress, behavioral changes seem to be the most consistent and reliable indicators.

  14. Neural Systems for Cognitive and Emotional Processing in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Vanessa M.; Morey, Rajendra A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show altered cognition when trauma-related material is present. PTSD may lead to enhanced processing of trauma-related material, or it may cause impaired processing of trauma-unrelated information. However, other forms of emotional information may also alter cognition in PTSD. In this review, we discuss the behavioral and neural effects of emotion processing on cognition in PTSD, with a focus on neuroimaging results. We propose a model of emotion-cognition interaction based on evidence of two network models of altered brain activation in PTSD. The first is a trauma-disrupted network made up of ventrolateral PFC, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), hippocampus, insula, and dorsomedial PFC that are differentially modulated by trauma content relative to emotional trauma-unrelated information. The trauma-disrupted network forms a subnetwork of regions within a larger, widely recognized network organized into ventral and dorsal streams for processing emotional and cognitive information that converge in the medial PFC and cingulate cortex. Models of fear learning, while not a cognitive process in the conventional sense, provide important insights into the maintenance of the core symptom clusters of PTSD such as re-experiencing and hypervigilance. Fear processing takes place within the limbic corticostriatal loop composed of threat-alerting and threat-assessing components. Understanding the disruptions in these two networks, and their effect on individuals with PTSD, will lead to an improved knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of PTSD and potential targets for both psychotherapeutic and pharmacotherapeutic interventions. PMID:23162499

  15. Alterations in neuronal morphology in infralimbic cortex predict resistance to fear extinction following acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Moench, Kelly M.; Maroun, Mouna; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Wellman, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction in corticolimbic circuits that mediate the extinction of learned fear responses is thought to underlie the perseveration of fear in stress-related psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Chronic stress produces dendritic hypertrophy in basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dendritic hypotrophy in medial prefrontal cortex, whereas acute stress leads to hypotrophy in both BLA and prelimbic cortex. Additionally, both chronic and acute stress impair extinction retrieval. Here, we examined the effects of a single elevated platform stress on extinction learning and dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex, a region considered to be critical for extinction. Acute stress produced resistance to extinction, as well as dendritic retraction in infralimbic cortex. Spine density on apical and basilar terminal branches was unaffected by stress. However, animals that underwent conditioning and extinction had decreased spine density on apical terminal branches. Thus, whereas dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex appears to be particularly sensitive to stress, changes in spines may more sensitively reflect learning. Further, in stressed rats that underwent conditioning and extinction, the level of extinction learning was correlated with spine densities, in that rats with poorer extinction retrieval had more immature spines and fewer thin spines than rats with better extinction retrieval, suggesting that stress may have impaired learning-related spine plasticity. These results may have implications for understanding the role of medial prefrontal cortex in learning deficits associated with stress-related pathologies. PMID:26844245

  16. A Study of the Relationship between Cognitive Emotion Regulation, Optimism, and Perceived Stress among Selected Teachers in Lutheran Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliebe, Sudi Kate

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The problem of this study was to determine the relationship between perceived stress, as measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and a specific set of predictor variables among selected teachers in Lutheran schools in the United States. These variables were cognitive emotion regulation strategies (positive reappraisal and…

  17. Occupational Stress Levels among Rural Teachers in the Areas of Mental Retardation, Learning Disabilities, and Emotional Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Tommy; Wiley, Susan

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 154 rural special educators in the areas of mental retardation, learning disabilities, and emotional conflict found no significant differences in stress levels among groups, as measured by the Teacher Stress Inventory. An ad-hoc analysis found no significant differences among groups in supervisor support, room type, or job…

  18. The Interplay Between Parental Beliefs about Children’s Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children’s Attachment Security

    PubMed Central

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children’s emotions and parental stress relate to children’s feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children’s feelings of security were tested. Participants were 85 African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian 4th and 5th grade children and one of their parents. Children reported their feelings of security in the parent-child relationship; parents independently reported on their beliefs and their stress. Parental stress moderated relationships between three of the four parental beliefs about the value of children’s emotions and children’s attachment security. When parent stress was low, parental beliefs accepting and valuing children’s emotions were not related to children’s feelings of security; when parent stress was high, however, parental beliefs accepting and valuing children’s emotions were related to children’s feelings of security. These findings highlight the importance of examining parental beliefs and stress together for children’s attachment security. PMID:21731472

  19. Impacts of Autistic Behaviors, Emotional and Behavioral Problems on Parenting Stress in Caregivers of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed…

  20. Sources of Stress, Coping Strategies, Emotional Experience: Effects of the Level of Experience in Primary School Teachers in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carton, Annie; Fruchart, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This study attempted to determine whether the level of experience affected sources of stress, coping responses and emotional experience in primary school teachers. The first aim was to identify sources of stress and to evaluate coping strategies using the questionnaire of Graziani et al. ("Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et…

  1. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  2. Acute stress regulates nociception and inflammatory response induced by bee venom in rats: possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Sheng; Li, Feng-Peng; Li, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Bao-Jun; Qu, Fang; Wen, Wei-Wei; Wang, Yang; Lin, Qing

    2013-09-01

    Restraint stress modulates pain and inflammation. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of acute restraint stress on inflammatory pain induced by subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV). First, we investigated the effect of 1 h restraint on the spontaneous paw-flinching reflex (SPFR), decrease in paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) and increase in paw volume (PV) of the injected paw induced by BV. SPFR was measured immediately after BV injection, and PWMT and PV were measured 2 h before BV and 2-8 h after BV. The results showed that acute restraint inhibited significantly the SPFR but failed to affect mechanical hyperalgesia. In contrast, stress enhanced significantly inflammatory swelling of the injected paw. In a second series of experiments, the effects of pretreatment with capsaicin locally applied to the sciatic nerve, systemic 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), and systemic naloxone were examined on the antinociception and proinflammation produced by acute restraint stress. Local capsaicin pretreatment inhibited BV-induced nociception and inflammatory edema, and had additive effects with stress on nociception but reduced stress enhancement of edema. Systemic 6-OHDA treatment attenuated the proinflammatory effect of stress, but did not affect the antinociceptive effect. Systemic naloxone pretreatment eliminated the antinociceptive effect of stress, but did not affect proinflammation. Taken together, our data indicate that acute restraint stress contributes to antinociception via activating an endogenous opioid system, while sympathetic postganglionic fibers may contribute to enhanced inflammation in the BV pain model.

  3. Chronic and acute effects of stress on energy balance: are there appropriate animal models?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates multiple neural and endocrine systems to allow an animal to respond to and survive in a threatening environment. The corticotropin-releasing factor system is a primary initiator of this integrated response, which includes activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The energetic response to acute stress is determined by the nature and severity of the stressor, but a typical response to an acute stressor is inhibition of food intake, increased heat production, and increased activity with sustained changes in body weight, behavior, and HPA reactivity. The effect of chronic psychological stress is more variable. In humans, chronic stress may cause weight gain in restrained eaters who show increased HPA reactivity to acute stress. This phenotype is difficult to replicate in rodent models where chronic psychological stress is more likely to cause weight loss than weight gain. An exception may be hamsters subjected to repeated bouts of social defeat or foot shock, but the data are limited. Recent reports on the food intake and body composition of subordinate members of group-housed female monkeys indicate that these animals have a similar phenotype to human stress-induced eaters, but there are a limited number of investigators with access to the model. Few stress experiments focus on energy balance, but more information on the phenotype of both humans and animal models during and after exposure to acute or chronic stress may provide novel insight into mechanisms that normally control body weight. PMID:25519732

  4. Emotions and eating. Self-reported and experimentally induced changes in food intake under stress.

    PubMed

    Wallis, D J; Hetherington, M M

    2009-04-01

    Two studies investigated the stress-eating relationship. The first examined self-reported changes in intake of snack foods, whilst the second investigated stress-induced overconsumption in a laboratory setting comparing high (HF) and low-fat (LF) snacks. Eighty-nine females completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) [Van Strien, T., Fritjers, J. E. R., Bergers, G. P. A., & Defares, P. B. (1986). Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating behaviour. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 295-315] and a self-report measure designed to evaluate changes in eating in response to stress. Increased intake of HF snacks was associated with high emotional eating but not with restraint. A laboratory-based experiment compared intake of HF and LF snacks after ego-threatening and neutral Stroop colour-naming tasks. Intake was suppressed by 31.8% in restrained compared to unrestrained eaters across tasks. Restrained eaters consumed significantly less after ego-threat than after the neutral manipulation, but this was associated only with intake of the LF snack. Restrained eaters' intake of dried fruit was suppressed by 33.2% after ego-threat relative to the neutral task, despite a significant increase in hunger for this group following ego-threat. These results suggest that the type and variety of foods offered influences the link between stress and eating in laboratory settings. Further research should aim to replicate and extend these findings, with a view to informing potential interventions for stress-related eating.

  5. Maternal Weight Predicts Children's Psychosocial Development via Parenting Stress and Emotional Availability

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Sarah; Schlesier-Michel, Andrea; Wendt, Verena; Grube, Matthias; Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Gausche, Ruth; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for obesity in children and may also affect children's psychosocial outcomes. It is not yet clear whether there are also psycho-emotional mechanisms explaining the effects of maternal weight on young children's weight and psychosocial development. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal body mass index (BMI), mother–child emotional availability (EA), and maternal parenting stress are associated with children's weight and psychosocial development (i.e., internalizing/externalizing symptoms and social competence) and whether these predictors interact with each other. Methods: This longitudinal study included three assessment points (~11 months apart). The baseline sample consisted of N = 194 mothers and their children aged 5–47 months (M = 28.18, SD = 8.44, 99 girls). At t1, we measured maternal weight and height to calculate maternal BMI. We videotaped mother–child interactions, coding them with the EA Scales (fourth edition). We assessed maternal parenting stress with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) short form. At t1 to t3, we measured height and weight of children and calculated BMI–SDS scores. Children's externalizing and internalizing problems (t1–t3) and social competence (t3, N = 118) were assessed using questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 1.5–5), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: prosocial behavior), and a checklist for behavioral problems at preschool age (VBV 3–6: social-emotional competence). Results: By applying structural equation modeling (SEM) and a latent regression analysis, we found maternal BMI to predict higher BMI–SDS and a poorer psychosocial development (higher externalizing symptoms, lower social competence) in children. Higher parenting stress predicted higher levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and lower social competence. Better maternal EA was associated with higher social competence. We found parenting stress to serve as

  6. Neuroimaging Study of the Human Amygdala - Toward an Understanding of Emotional and Stress Responses -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya

    The amygdala plays a critical role in the neural system involved in emotional responses and conditioned fear. The dysfunction of this system is thought to be a cause of several neuropsychiatric disorders. A neuroimaging study provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive investigation of the human amygdala. We studied the activity of this structure in normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia by using the face recognition task. Our results showed that the amygdala was activated by presentation of face stimuli, and negative face activated the amygdala to a greater extent than a neutral face. Under the happy face condition, the activation of the amygdala was higher in the schizophrenic patients than in control subjects. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the regulatory region of the serotonin type 3 receptor gene had modulatory effects on the amygdaloid activity. The emotion regulation had a significant impact on neural interaction between the amygdala and prefrontal cortices. Thus, studies on the human amygdala would greatly contribute to the elucidation of the neural system that determines emotional and stress responses. To clarify the relevance of the neural dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disorders, further studies using physiological, genetic, and hormonal approaches are essential.

  7. Functional Neuroimaging of Emotionally Intense Autobiographical Memories in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    St. Jacques, Peggy L.; Botzung, Anne; Miles, Amanda; Rubin, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects regions that support autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval, such as the hippocampus, amygdala and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, it is not well understood how PTSD may impact the neural mechanisms of memory retrieval for the personal past. We used a generic cue method combined with parametric modulation analysis and functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms affected by PTSD symptoms during the retrieval of a large sample of emotionally intense AMs. There were three main results. First, the PTSD group showed greater recruitment of the amygdala/hippocampus during the construction of negative versus positive emotionally intense AMs, when compared to controls. Second, across both the construction and elaboration phases of retrieval the PTSD group showed greater recruitment of the ventral medial PFC for negatively intense memories, but less recruitment for positively intense memories. Third, the PTSD group showed greater functional coupling between the ventral medial PFC and the amygdala for negatively intense memories, but less coupling for positively intense memories. In sum, the fMRI data suggest that there was greater recruitment and coupling of emotional brain regions during the retrieval of negatively intense AMs in the PTSD group when compared to controls. PMID:21109253

  8. Job Stress across Gender: The Importance of Emotional and Intellectual Demands and Social Support in Women

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Torres, Pilar; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel; Montero-Simó, María José

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to analyse whether any differences exist between the genders with respect to the effect of perceived Job Demands, Control and Support (JDCS model) on how individuals reach high levels of job stress. To do this, the perceived risk of suffering an illness or having an accident in the workplace is used as an outcome measure. The study is based on the First Survey on Working Conditions in Andalusia, which has a sample of 5,496 men and 2,779 women. We carry out a multi-sample analysis with structural equation models, controlling for age and sector. The results show that the generation of job stress has a different pattern in men and women. In the case of men, the results show that only one dimension of the job demands stressor is significant (quantitative demands), whose effect on job stress is weakened slightly by the direct effects of control and support. With women, in contrast, emotional and intellectual aspects (qualitative demands) are also statistically significant. Moreover, social support has a greater weakening effect on the levels of job stress in women than in men. These results suggest that applying the JDCS model in function of the gender will contribute to a greater understanding of how to reduce the levels of job stress in men and women, helping the design of more effective policies in this area. PMID:23343989

  9. How are neuroticism and depression related to the psychophysiological stress response to acute stress in healthy older people?

    PubMed

    Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-03-15

    Neuroticism and depressive symptomatology have been related to a heightened and diminished physiological stress response, which may partly explain their negative relationship with health and wellbeing. Identifying factors that may increase disease vulnerability is especially relevant in older people, whose physiological systems decline. With this in mind, we investigated the influence of neuroticism and depression on the psychophysiological stress response in healthy older people (from 55 to 76years old). A total of 36 volunteers were exposed to a stressful task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), while 35 volunteers performed a control non-stressful task. The physiological stress response was assessed through measures of cortisol, alpha-amylase, heart rate (HR). Our results showed that, neuroticism was not related to physiological stress response. However, depression was related to higher cortisol response and lower HR reactivity in the stress condition. In summary, emotional states such as depressive mood seem to amplify the cortisol stress response and reduce the cardiovascular response, whereas more stable dispositions such as neuroticism did not affect stress response in older people. These findings confirm, in healthy older people, the adverse effects of depression, acting on different subsystems of the stress response. PMID:26780150

  10. How are neuroticism and depression related to the psychophysiological stress response to acute stress in healthy older people?

    PubMed

    Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-03-15

    Neuroticism and depressive symptomatology have been related to a heightened and diminished physiological stress response, which may partly explain their negative relationship with health and wellbeing. Identifying factors that may increase disease vulnerability is especially relevant in older people, whose physiological systems decline. With this in mind, we investigated the influence of neuroticism and depression on the psychophysiological stress response in healthy older people (from 55 to 76years old). A total of 36 volunteers were exposed to a stressful task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), while 35 volunteers performed a control non-stressful task. The physiological stress response was assessed through measures of cortisol, alpha-amylase, heart rate (HR). Our results showed that, neuroticism was not related to physiological stress response. However, depression was related to higher cortisol response and lower HR reactivity in the stress condition. In summary, emotional states such as depressive mood seem to amplify the cortisol stress response and reduce the cardiovascular response, whereas more stable dispositions such as neuroticism did not affect stress response in older people. These findings confirm, in healthy older people, the adverse effects of depression, acting on different subsystems of the stress response.

  11. Acute stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among English and Spanish speaking children with recent trauma exposure

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Beth A.; Kohl, Krista L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    A growing literature suggests the clinical importance of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms in youth following potentially traumatic events. A multisite sample of English and Spanish speaking children and adolescents (N=479) between the ages of 8 to 17, along with their caregivers completed interviews and self-report questionnaires between 2 days and one month following the event. The results indicate that children with greater total acute stress symptoms reported greater depressive (r = .41, p < .01), and anxiety symptoms (r = .53, p < .01). Examining specific acute stress subscales, re-experiencing was correlated with anxiety (r = .47, p < .01) and arousal was correlated with depression (r = .50, p < .01) and anxiety (r = .55, p < .01). Age was inversely associated with total acute stress symptoms (r = -.24, p < .01), re-experiencing (r = -.17, p < .01), avoidance (r = -.27, p < .01), and arousal (r = -.19, p < .01) and gender was related to total anxiety symptoms (Spearman's rho = .17, p < .01). The current study supports the importance of screening acute stress symptoms and other mental health outcomes following a potentially traumatic event in children and adolescents. Early screening may enable clinicians to identify and acutely intervene to support children's psychological and physical recovery. PMID:24337685

  12. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Acute Stress Disorder Resulting from an Anti-Gay Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaysen, Debra; Lostutter, Ty W.; Goines, Marie A.

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a 30-year-old gay man with symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) following a recent homophobic assault. Treatment addressed assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Also addressed were low self-esteem, helplessness, and high degrees of…

  13. Sex steroid levels temporarily increase in response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Billig, Håkan; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2012-06-01

    It is well known that acute psychosocial stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). However, the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and levels of sex steroids are less known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute psychosocial stress on serum concentrations of sex steroids in healthy men and women. Twenty men and 19 women (age 30-50 years) underwent Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. Concentrations of androgens were measured with high specificity LC-MS/MS method; concentrations of cortisol, estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined using immunoassays. In both men and women we observed significantly elevated levels of testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione and sex hormone binding globulin along with significantly increased adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol, heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) as a response to the stressor. Thus, even though the HPG axis and the production of sex steroids may be inhibited during prolonged periods of stress, the sex steroid levels may increase in the initial phase of acute psychosocial stress.

  14. Acute Restraint Stress Enhances Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Function via Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meina; Hill, Matthew N.; Zhang, Longhua; Gorzalka, Boris B.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Alger, Bradley E.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to behavioral stress normally triggers a complex, multi-level response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that helps maintain homeostatic balance. Although the endocannabinoid (eCB) system (ECS) is sensitive to chronic stress, few studies have directly addressed its response to acute stress. Here we show that acute restraint stress enhances eCB-dependent modulation of GABA release measured by whole-cell voltage clamp of inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in vitro. Both Ca2+-dependent, eCB-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), and muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) mediated eCB mobilization are enhanced following acute stress exposure. DSI enhancement is dependent on the activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and is mimicked by both in vivo and in vitro corticosterone treatment. This effect does not appear to involve cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme that can degrade eCBs; however, treatment of hippocampal slices with the L-type calcium (Ca2+) channel inhibitor, nifedipine, reverses while an agonist of these channels mimics the effect of in vivo stress. Finally, we find that acute stress produces a delayed (by 30 min) increase in the hippocampal content of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the eCB responsible for DSI. These results support the hypothesis that the ECS is a biochemical effector of glucocorticoids in the brain, linking stress with changes in synaptic strength. PMID:21890595

  15. Japanese Quail’s Genetic Background Modulates Effects of Chronic Stress on Emotional Reactivity but Not Spatial Learning

    PubMed Central

    Laurence, Agathe; Houdelier, Cécilia; Petton, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic; Arnould, Cécile; Favreau-Peigné, Angélique; Leterrier, Christine; Boissy, Alain; Lumineau, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress is known to enhance mammals’ emotional reactivity and alters several of their cognitive functions, especially spatial learning. Few studies have investigated such effects in birds. We investigated the impact of a two-week stress on Japanese quail’s emotional reactivity and spatial learning. Quail is an avian model widely used in laboratory studies and for extrapolation of data to other poultry species. As sensitivity to chronic stress can be modulated by intrinsic factors, we tested juvenile female Japanese quail from three lines, two of them divergently selected on tonic immobility duration, an indicator of general fearfulness. The different emotional reactivity levels of quail belonging to these lines can be revealed by a large variety of tests. Half of the birds were submitted to repeated unpredictable aversive events for two weeks, whereas the other half were left undisturbed. After this procedure, two tests (open field and emergence tests) evaluated the emotional reactivity of treated and control quails. They were then trained in a T-maze for seven days and their spatial learning was tested. The chronic stress protocol had an impact on resting, preening and foraging in the home cage. As predicted, the emotional reactivity of treated quails, especially those selected for long tonic immobility duration, was higher. Our spatial learning data showed that the treatment enhanced acquisition but not memorization. However, intrinsic fearfulness did not seem to interact with the treatment in this test. According to an inverted U-shaped relationship between stress and cognition, chronic stress can improve the adaptability of birds to a stressful environment. We discussed the mechanisms possibly implied in the increase of emotional reactivity and spatial abilities. PMID:23071811

  16. Phase-Dependent Shifting of the Adrenal Clock by Acute Stress-Induced ACTH.

    PubMed

    Engeland, William C; Yoder, J Marina; Karsten, Carley A; Kofuji, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex has a molecular clock that generates circadian rhythms in glucocorticoid production, yet it is unclear how the clock responds to acute stress. We hypothesized that stress-induced ACTH provides a signal that phase shifts the adrenal clock. To assess whether acute stress phase shifts the adrenal clock in vivo in a phase-dependent manner, mPER2:LUC mice on a 12:12-h light:dark cycle underwent restraint stress for 15 min or no stress at zeitgeber time (ZT) 2 (early subjective day) or at ZT16 (early subjective night). Adrenal explants from mice stressed at ZT2 showed mPER2:LUC rhythms that were phase-advanced by ~2 h, whereas adrenals from mice stressed at ZT16 showed rhythms that were phase-delayed by ~2 h. The biphasic response was also observed in mice injected subcutaneously either with saline or with ACTH at ZT2 or ZT16. Blockade of the ACTH response with the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, prevented restraint stress-induced phase shifts in the mPER2:LUC rhythm both at ZT2 and at ZT16. The finding that acute stress results in a phase-dependent shift in the adrenal mPER2:LUC rhythm that can be blocked by dexamethasone indicates that stress-induced effectors, including ACTH, act to phase shift the adrenal clock rhythm. PMID:27445984

  17. Phase-Dependent Shifting of the Adrenal Clock by Acute Stress-Induced ACTH

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, William C.; Yoder, J. Marina; Karsten, Carley A.; Kofuji, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex has a molecular clock that generates circadian rhythms in glucocorticoid production, yet it is unclear how the clock responds to acute stress. We hypothesized that stress-induced ACTH provides a signal that phase shifts the adrenal clock. To assess whether acute stress phase shifts the adrenal clock in vivo in a phase-dependent manner, mPER2:LUC mice on a 12:12-h light:dark cycle underwent restraint stress for 15 min or no stress at zeitgeber time (ZT) 2 (early subjective day) or at ZT16 (early subjective night). Adrenal explants from mice stressed at ZT2 showed mPER2:LUC rhythms that were phase-advanced by ~2 h, whereas adrenals from mice stressed at ZT16 showed rhythms that were phase-delayed by ~2 h. The biphasic response was also observed in mice injected subcutaneously either with saline or with ACTH at ZT2 or ZT16. Blockade of the ACTH response with the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, prevented restraint stress-induced phase shifts in the mPER2:LUC rhythm both at ZT2 and at ZT16. The finding that acute stress results in a phase-dependent shift in the adrenal mPER2:LUC rhythm that can be blocked by dexamethasone indicates that stress-induced effectors, including ACTH, act to phase shift the adrenal clock rhythm. PMID:27445984

  18. Infusion of glucose and lipids at physiological rates causes acute endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Boden, Guenther; Song, Weiwei; Duan, Xunbao; Cheung, Peter; Kresge, Karen; Barrero, Carlos; Merali, Salim

    2011-07-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has recently been implicated as a cause for obesity-related insulin resistance; however, what causes ER stress in obesity has remained uncertain. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that macronutrients can cause acute (ER) stress in rat liver. Examined were the effects of intravenously infused glucose and/or lipids on proximal ER stress sensor activation (PERK, eIF2-α, ATF4, Xbox protein 1 (XBP1s)), unfolded protein response (UPR) proteins (GRP78, calnexin, calreticulin, protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), stress kinases (JNK, p38 MAPK) and insulin signaling (insulin/receptor substrate (IRS) 1/2 associated phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)) in rat liver. Glucose and/or lipid infusions, ranging from 23.8 to 69.5 kJ/4 h (equivalent to between ~17% and ~50% of normal daily energy intake), activated the proximal ER stress sensor PERK and ATF6 increased the protein abundance of calnexin, calreticulin and PDI and increased two GRP78 isoforms. Glucose and glucose plus lipid infusions induced comparable degrees of ER stress, but only infusions containing lipid activated stress kinases (JNK and p38 MAPK) and inhibited insulin signaling (PI3K). In summary, physiologic amounts of both glucose and lipids acutely increased ER stress in livers 12-h fasted rats and dependent on the presence of fat, caused insulin resistance. We conclude that this type of acute ER stress is likely to occur during normal daily nutrient intake.

  19. Acute Immobilization Stress Modulate GABA Release from Rat Olfactory Bulb: Involvement of Endocannabinoids—Cannabinoids and Acute Stress Modulate GABA Release

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Alejandra; Jaffé, Erica H.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of cannabinoids and acute immobilization stress on the regulation of GABA release in the olfactory bulb. Glutamate-stimulated 3H-GABA release was measured in superfused slices. We report that cannabinoids as WIN55, 212-2, methanandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were able to inhibit glutamate- and KCl-stimulated 3H-GABA release. This effect was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM281. On the other hand, acute stress was able per se to increase endocannabinoid activity. This effect was evident since the inhibition of stimulated GABA release by acute stress was reversed with AM281 and tetrahydrolipstatin. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid transport or its catabolism showed reduction of GABA release, antagonized by AM281 in control and stressed animals. These results point to endocannabinoids as inhibitory modulators of GABA release in the olfactory bulb acting through an autocrine mechanism. Apparently, stress increases the endocannabinoid system, modulating GABAergic synaptic function in a primary sensory organ. PMID:21785597

  20. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress.

  1. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. PMID:26511907

  2. GLP-1 is both anxiogenic and antidepressant; divergent effects of acute and chronic GLP-1 on emotionality.

    PubMed

    Anderberg, Rozita H; Richard, Jennifer E; Hansson, Caroline; Nissbrandt, Hans; Bergquist, Filip; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2016-03-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), produced in the intestine and hindbrain, is known for its glucoregulatory and appetite suppressing effects. GLP-1 agonists are in clinical use for treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. GLP-1, however, may also affect brain areas associated with emotionality regulation. Here we aimed to characterize acute and chronic impact of GLP-1 on anxiety and depression-like behavior. Rats were subjected to anxiety and depression behavior tests following acute or chronic intracerebroventricular or intra-dorsal raphe (DR) application of GLP-1 receptor agonists. Serotonin or serotonin-related genes were also measured in the amygdala, DR and the hippocampus. We demonstrate that both GLP-1 and its long lasting analog, Exendin-4, induce anxiety-like behavior in three rodent tests of this behavior: black and white box, elevated plus maze and open field test when acutely administered intraperitoneally, into the lateral ventricle, or directly into the DR. Acute central GLP-1 receptor stimulation also altered serotonin signaling in the amygdala. In contrast, chronic central administration of Exendin-4 did not alter anxiety-like behavior but significantly reduced depression-like behavior in the forced swim test. Importantly, this positive effect of Exendin-4 was not due to significant body weight loss and reduced food intake, since rats pair-fed to Exendin-4 rats did not show altered mood. Collectively we show a striking impact of central GLP-1 on emotionality and the amygdala serotonin signaling that is divergent under acute versus chronic GLP-1 activation conditions. We also find a novel role for the DR GLP-1 receptors in regulation of behavior. These results may have direct relevance to the clinic, and indicate that Exendin-4 may be especially useful for obese patients manifesting with comorbid depression. PMID:26724568

  3. Emotional control, styles of coping with stress and acceptance of illness among patients suffering from chronic somatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Janowski, Konrad; Kurpas, Donata; Kusz, Joanna; Mroczek, Bożena; Jedynak, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the associations of emotional control with sociodemographic and clinical variables in a sample of patients with a range of chronic somatic diseases. The relationships between emotional control, coping styles and adjustment to the disease were investigated. The sample consisted of 300 patients with the mean age of 54.60 ± 17.57 years. Courtauld Emotional Control Scale was used to measure the patients' tendency to suppress negative emotions, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was used to measure coping styles and Acceptance of Illness Scale was applied to determine adjustment to the disease. Patients with neurological conditions showed significantly lower suppression of anger. Levels of emotional control were found to be related to gender, age and educational level but not to the place of residence. Task-oriented style of coping with stress correlated positively with suppression of depression and anxiety, whereas acceptance of illness correlated negatively with suppression of anger. Levels of emotional control are only weakly related to the type of diagnosis; however, some clinical samples may show lower suppression of anger. Suppression of negative emotions is weakly related to adjustment indicators such as certain coping styles and acceptance of illness.

  4. Heightened stress responsivity and emotional reactivity during pubertal maturation: Implications for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2009-01-01

    This commentary reviews and reflects on the studies of this special section: studies that collectively provide compelling evidence for meaningful changes in stress- and emotionally reactive psychophysiological systems with the transition from middle childhood into adolescence. The observed changes were complex and often overlaid upon ontogenetic differences in basal levels of activation of these systems. Maturational increases in responsiveness to stressors were stressor dependent and differentially expressed across autonomic and hormonal measures. Pubertal status increased the impact of some affective valence manipulations, although not significantly influencing others, including negative affect-related potentiation of startle/reflexes. Such ontogenetic increases in stressor and affect sensitivity may have implications for developmental psychopathology. Developmental increases in stressor reactivity may normally aid youth in responding adaptively to the challenges of adolescence, but may result in stress dysregulation among at-risk adolescents, increasing further their vulnerability for psychopathology. Pubertal-related increases in sensitivity to emotionally laden stimuli may exacerbate individual predispositions for exaggerated affective processing, perhaps contributing to the emergence of psychological disorders in these youth. Together, these studies, with their innovative use of autonomic, reflexive, and hormonal measures to index age- and pubertal-related changes in reactivity to stressors and affective stimuli, provide promising directions for future research. Some of these, along with a few cautionary notes, are outlined.

  5. Posttraumatic stress and worry as mediators and moderators between political stressors and emotional and behavioral disorders in Palestinian children.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to assess whether the symptoms of posttraumatic stress mediate or moderate the relationship between political stressors and emotional and behavioral disorders in Palestinian children. It was hypothesized that (a) posttraumatic stress and worry mediate the effect of political stressors on behavioral and emotional disorders and (b) the relationship between political stressors and behavioral and emotional disorders should be attenuated for children with low levels of worry and posttraumatic stress and strengthened for children with high levels of worry and posttraumatic stress. The total sample was 1267 school age children of both sexes with a mean age of 11.97 years. Interviews were conducted with children at school. As hypothesized, the results indicated that posttraumatic stress and worry mediated and moderated the relationship between political stressors and emotional and behavioral disorders in children. Cognitive-behavioral therapy may be used to reduce the incidence of posttraumatic stress and decrease self-reported worry, somatic symptoms, general anxiety, and depression among children exposed to political trauma. Cognitive-behavioral treatment that exclusively targets excessive worry can lead to clinical change in the other interacting subsystems at the cognitive, physiological, affective and behavioral levels.

  6. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities.

  7. Media’s role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings

    PubMed Central

    Holman, E. Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), −2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = −2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, −4.31, −0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  8. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  9. Childhood poverty and recruitment of adult emotion regulatory neurocircuitry.

    PubMed

    Liberzon, Israel; Ma, Sean T; Okada, Go; Ho, S Shaun; Swain, James E; Evans, Gary W

    2015-11-01

    One in five American children grows up in poverty. Childhood poverty has far-reaching adverse impacts on cognitive, social and emotional development. Altered development of neurocircuits, subserving emotion regulation, is one possible pathway for childhood poverty's ill effects. Children exposed to poverty were followed into young adulthood and then studied using functional brain imaging with an implicit emotion regulation task focused. Implicit emotion regulation involved attention shifting and appraisal components. Early poverty reduced left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex recruitment in the context of emotional regulation. Furthermore, this emotion regulation associated brain activation mediated the effects of poverty on adult task performance. Moreover, childhood poverty also predicted enhanced insula and reduced hippocampal activation, following exposure to acute stress. These results demonstrate that childhood poverty can alter adult emotion regulation neurocircuitry, revealing specific brain mechanisms that may underlie long-term effects of social inequalities on health. The role of poverty-related emotion regulatory neurocircuitry appears to be particularly salient during stressful conditions.

  10. Physiological stress reactivity and empathy following social exclusion: a test of the defensive emotional analgesia hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bass, Ellyn Charlotte; Stednitz, Sarah Josephine; Simonson, Kevin; Shen, Tori; Gahtan, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of social exclusion elicit social pain responses. The current study examined the ability of social exclusion to activate physiological stress responses and adaptively modulate affect and empathy consistent with "defensive emotional analgesia." Measures of affect and empathy, and saliva samples for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) analysis, were collected before and after subjects participated in a computer game ("Cyberball") designed to manipulate feelings of social exclusion. Contrary to our hypotheses, social exclusion was associated with a reduction in cortisol, and social inclusion with an increase in cortisol. Both Cyberball groups showed increases in sAA and decreases in both positive and negative affect, with the greatest drop in affect occurring after social exclusion. Empathy did not differ between the social exclusion and inclusion groups and was not correlated with cortisol or sAA levels. These results support the presence of a defensive response to social exclusion in which central stress pathways controlling cortisol release are inhibited. Cortisol and sAA were shown to have distinct patterns of responses to psychological stress, with sAA responding more rapidly. Related methodological concerns for the use of these physiological stress markers and of Cyberball in social neuroscience research are discussed.

  11. Assessment of oxidative stress parameters of brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice in acute stress model

    PubMed Central

    Hacioglu, Gulay; Senturk, Ayse; Ince, Imran; Alver, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Exposing to stress may be associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, high level of oxidative stress may eventually give rise to accumulation of oxidative damage and development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. It has been presented that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports neurons against various neurodegenerative conditions. Lately, there has been growing evidence that changes in the cerebral neurotrophic support and especially in the BDNF expression and its engagement with ROS might be important in various disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, we aimed to investigate protective effects of BDNF against stress-induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Five- to six-month-old male wild-type and BDNF knock-down mice were used in this study. Activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes, and the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the cerebral homogenates of studied groups in response to acute restraint stress. Results: Exposing to acute physiological stress led to significant elevation in the markers of oxidative stress in the cerebral cortexes of experimental groups. Conclusion: As BDNF-deficient mice were observed to be more susceptible to stress-induced oxidative damage, it can be suggested that there is a direct interplay between oxidative stress indicators and BDNF levels in the brain. PMID:27279982

  12. Plasma omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and monounsaturated fatty acids are altered by chronic social stress and predict endocrine responses to acute stress in titi monkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may link chronic psychological stress, endocrine responsiveness, and psychopathology. Therefore, lipid metabolome-wide responses and their relationships with endocrine (cortisol; insulin; adiponectin) responsiveness to acute stress (AS) were assessed in a ...

  13. Influence of perinatal trans fat on behavioral responses and brain oxidative status of adolescent rats acutely exposed to stress.

    PubMed

    Pase, C S; Roversi, Kr; Trevizol, F; Roversi, K; Kuhn, F T; Schuster, A J; Vey, L T; Dias, V T; Barcelos, R C S; Piccolo, J; Emanuelli, T; Bürger, M E

    2013-09-01

    Because consumption of processed foods has increased in the last decades and so far its potential influence on emotionality and susceptibility to stress is unknown, we studied the influence of different fatty acids (FA) on behavioral and biochemical parameters after acute restrain stress (AS) exposure. Two sequential generations of female rats were supplemented with soybean oil (control group; C-SO), fish oil (FO) and hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) from pregnancy and during lactation. At 41days of age, half the animals of each supplemented group were exposed to AS and observed in open field and elevated plus maze task, followed by euthanasia for biochemical assessments. The HVF-supplemented group showed higher anxiety-like symptoms per se, while the C-SO and FO groups did not show these behaviors. Among groups exposed to AS, HVF showed locomotor restlessness in the open field, while both C-SO and HVF groups showed anxiety-like symptoms in the elevated plus maze, but this was not observed in the FO group. Biochemical evaluations showed higher lipoperoxidation levels and lower cell viability in cortex in the HVF group. In addition, HVF-treated rats showed reduced catalase activity in striatum and hippocampus, as well as increased generation of reactive species in striatum, while FO was associated with increased cell viability in the hippocampus. Among groups exposed to AS, HVF increased reactive species generation in the brain, decreased cell viability in the cortex and striatum, and decreased catalase activity in the striatum and hippocampus. Taken together, our findings show that the type of FA provided during development and growth over two generations is able to modify the brain oxidative status, which was particularly adversely affected by trans fat. In addition, the harmful influence of chronic consumption of trans fats as observed in this study can enhance emotionality and anxiety parameters resulting from stressful situations of everyday life, which can

  14. Zonal corticosteroid hormone biosynthesis in the adrenal cortex in rats exposed to emotional stress combined with salt loading

    SciTech Connect

    Shul'ga, V.A.

    1987-07-01

    The authors study the pattern of biosynthesis of corticosteroid hormones in the zona glomerulosa and the combined zona fasciculata + zona reticularis of the adrenals, which are responsible for the mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid function of the glands, during simultaneous exposure of animals to salt loading and emotional stress. Experiments were carried out on rats. The adrenals were divided into parts and samples were incubated in vitro with the addition of /sup 3/H-progesterone to each sample. The specific activity of the /sup 3/H-labeled corticosteroids decreased significantly in rats with a normal salt intake exposed to emotional stress.

  15. Glucocorticoids Protect Against the Delayed Behavioral and Cellular Effects of Acute Stress on the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Rajnish P.; Anilkumar, Shobha; McEwen, Bruce; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2013-01-01

    Background A single episode of acute immobilization stress has previously been shown to trigger a delayed onset of anxiety-like behavior and spinogenesis in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of rats. Spurred on by a seemingly paradoxical observation in which even a modest increase in corticosterone (CORT), caused by a single vehicle injection before stress, could dampen the delayed effects of stress, we hypothesized a protective role for glucocorticoids against stress. Methods We tested this hypothesis by analyzing how manipulations in CORT levels modulate delayed increase in anxiety-like behavior of rats on the elevated plus-maze 10 days after acute stress. We also investigated the cellular correlates of different levels of anxiety under different CORT conditions by quantifying spine density on Golgi-stained BLA principal neurons. Results CORT in drinking water for 12 hours preceding acute stress prevented delayed increase in anxiety rather than exacerbating it. Conversely, vehicle injection failed to prevent the anxiogenic effect of stress in bilaterally adrenalectomized rats. However, when CORT was restored in adrenalectomized rats by injection, the delayed anxiogenic effect of stress was once again blocked. Finally, high and low anxiety states were accompanied by high and low levels of BLA spine density. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the presence of elevated levels of CORT at the time of acute stress confers protection against the delayed enhancing effect of stress on BLA synaptic connectivity and anxiety-like behavior. These observations are consistent with clinical reports on the protective effects of glucocorticoids against the development of posttraumatic symptoms triggered by traumatic stress. PMID:22572034

  16. Diazepam blocks striatal lipid peroxidation and improves stereotyped activity in a rat model of acute stress.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Cuesta, Luis A; Márquez-Valadez, Berenice; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Escobar-Briones, Carolina; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Alvarez-Ruiz, Yarummy; Maldonado, Perla D; Santana, Ricardo A; Santamaría, Abel; Carrillo-Mora, Paul

    2011-11-01

    In this work, the effect of a single dose of diazepam was tested on different markers of oxidative damage in the striatum of rats in an acute model of immobilization (restraint) stress. In addition, the locomotor activity was measured at the end of the restraint period. Immobilization was induced to animals for 24 hr, and then, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and content, and mitochondrial function were all estimated in striatal tissue samples. Corticosterone levels were measured in serum. Diazepam was given to rats as a pre-treatment (1 mg/kg, i.p.) 20 min. before the initiation of stress. Our results indicate that acute stress produced enhanced striatal levels of lipid peroxidation (73% above the control), decreased superoxide dismutase activity (54% below the control), reduced levels of mitochondrial function (35% below the control) and increased corticosterone serum levels (86% above the control). Pre-treatment of stressed rats with diazepam decreased the striatal lipid peroxidation levels (68% below the stress group) and improved mitochondrial function (18% above the stress group), but only mild preservation of superoxide dismutase activity was detected (17% above the stress group). In regard to the motor assessment, only the stereotyped activity was increased in the stress group with respect to control (46% above the control), and this effect was prevented by diazepam administration (30% below the stress group). The preventive actions of diazepam in this acute model of stress suggest that drugs exhibiting anxiolytic and antioxidant properties might be useful for the design of therapies against early acute phases of physic stress.

  17. Emotional burnout, perceived sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement among medical residents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Perianayagam, Wilson; Rampal, Krishna Gopal

    2013-01-01

    This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6). The most common source of job stress was "fear of making mistakes." Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies. Nothing will sustain you more potently than the power to recognize in your humdrum routine, as perhaps it may be thought, the true poetry of life-the poetry of the common place, of the common man, of the plain, toil-worn woman, with their loves and their joys, their sorrows and their grief.SirWilliam Osler, Aphorisms from the Student Life (Aequanimitas, 1952). PMID:24367238

  18. Emotional burnout, perceived sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement among medical residents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Perianayagam, Wilson; Rampal, Krishna Gopal

    2013-01-01

    This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6). The most common source of job stress was "fear of making mistakes." Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies. Nothing will sustain you more potently than the power to recognize in your humdrum routine, as perhaps it may be thought, the true poetry of life-the poetry of the common place, of the common man, of the plain, toil-worn woman, with their loves and their joys, their sorrows and their grief.SirWilliam Osler, Aphorisms from the Student Life (Aequanimitas, 1952).

  19. Acute restraint stress induces rapid and prolonged changes in erythrocyte and hippocampal redox status.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Jereme G; Chen, Hsiao-Jou; Bradley, Adrian J; Anderson, Stephen T; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A

    2013-11-01

    The onset and consequential changes in reduction-oxidation (redox) status that take place in response to short-term stress have not been well defined. This study utilized erythrocytes and neural tissue from male Wistar rats to demonstrate the rapid redox alterations that occur following an acute restraining stress. Serial blood samples collected from catheterized animals were used to measure prolactin, corticosterone, glucose, general oxidative status, and glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratios. Restraint increased prolactin concentration by approximately 300% at 30 min and rapidly returned to baseline values by 120 min of stress. Baseline blood glucose and corticosterone increased during stress exposure by approximately 25% and 150% respectively. Over the experimental period, the erythrocytic oxidative status of restrained animals increased by approximately 10% per hour which persisted after stress exposure, while changes in the glutathione redox couple were not observed until 120 min following the onset of stress. Application of restraint stress increased hippocampal oxidative status by approximately 17% while no change was observed in the amygdala. It was concluded that while endocrine and metabolic markers of stress rapidly increase and habituate to stress exposure, redox status continues to change following stress in both peripheral and neural tissue. Studies with longer post-restraint times and the inclusion of several brain regions should further elucidate the consequential redox changes induced by acute restraint stress.

  20. The effects of acute and chronic stress on motor and sensory performance in male Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Metz, G A; Schwab, M E; Welzl, H

    2001-01-01

    Any behavioral testing induces stress to some degree. A meaningful interpretation of behavioral results can be difficult if stress, caused by handling or the testing situation, modifies the experimental outcome. Especially for neurological animal models, it is important to know how stress affects motor and sensory performance. Therefore, we investigated the effects of varying degrees of stress on several motor and sensory tasks that are frequently used to assess functional recovery after lesion-induced impairments in adult rats. Acute, subchronic, and chronic stress impaired ladder walking and prolonged the duration of grasping a bar. Stress also altered walking patterns by increasing the base of support and foot rotation and reducing stride length. Furthermore, chronic stress induced hypersensitivity to painful stimuli, but did not significantly influence the latency to remove sticky papers from the hindpaws (sticky paper test). In the light--dark (L/D) test, stress reduced the latency to enter the dark compartment and enhanced the number of transitions supporting that cold swim stress modifies the animal's level of anxiety. These data point towards a critical influence of acute or chronic stress on motor control and sensory performance of rats, suggesting that stress might be a critical intervening variable of the outcome of behavioral tests. PMID:11239978

  1. Perfectionism related to self-reported insomnia severity, but not when controlled for stress and emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Serge; Kirov, Roumen; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Lemola, Sakari; Correll, Christoph U; Cortese, Samuele; Meyer, Till; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Background Perfectionism is understood as a set of personality traits such as unrealistically high and rigid standards for performance, fear of failure, and excessive self-criticism. Previous studies showed a direct association between increased perfectionism and poor sleep, though without taking into account possible mediating factors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that perfectionism was directly associated with poor sleep, and that this association collapsed, if mediating factors such as stress and poor emotion regulation were taken into account. Methods Three hundred and forty six young adult students (M=23.87 years) completed questionnaires relating to perfectionism traits, sleep, and psychological functioning such as stress perception, coping with stress, emotion regulation, and mental toughness. Results Perfectionism was directly associated with poor sleep and poor psychological functioning. When stress, poor coping, and poor emotion regulation were entered in the equation, perfectionism traits no longer contributed substantively to the explanation of poor sleep. Conclusion Though perfectionism traits seem associated with poor sleep, the direct role of such traits seemed small, when mediating factors such as stress perception and emotion regulation were taken into account. PMID:25678791

  2. Personal and situational factors that predict coping strategies for acute stress among basketball referees.

    PubMed

    Kaissidis-Rodafinos, A; Anshel, M H; Porter, A

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the ways in which coping style and situational appraisals are related to the consistency of using approach and avoidance coping strategies for skilled Australian basketball referees (n = 133) after three game-related stressful events. The events, 'making a mistake', 'aggressive reactions by coaches or players' and 'presence of important others', were determined from previous research on sources of acute stress among basketball officials. Our findings indicated that: referees exhibited consistent avoidance, but not approach, coping styles; they used more avoidance than approach strategies; and they perceived stress to be positively correlated with approach, and negatively associated with avoidance, coping strategies. These findings suggest that individual differences exist in perceptions of stress (i.e. situational appraisals), controllability and coping styles among moderately and highly skilled basketball referees. The implications for teaching cognitive and behavioural strategies for effective coping with acute stress in basketball officiating are discussed.

  3. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases.

  4. Being a grump only makes things worse: a transactional account of acute stress on mind wandering

    PubMed Central

    Vinski, Melaina T.; Watter, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The current work investigates the influence of acute stress on mind wandering. Participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule as a measure of baseline negative mood, and were randomly assigned to either the high-stress or low-stress version of the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants then completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task as a measure of mind-wandering behavior. In Experiment 1, participants reporting a high degree of negative mood that were exposed to the high-stress condition were more likely to engage in a variable response time, make more errors, and were more likely to report thinking about the stressor relative to participants that report a low level of negative mood. These effects diminished throughout task performance, suggesting that acute stress induces a temporary mind-wandering state in participants with a negative mood. The temporary affect-dependent deficits observed in Experiment 1 were replicated in Experiment 2, with the high negative mood participants demonstrating limited resource availability (indicated by pupil diameter) immediately following stress induction. These experiments provide novel evidence to suggest that acute psychosocial stress briefly suppresses the availability of cognitive resources and promotes an internally oriented focus of attention in participants with a negative mood. PMID:24273520

  5. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol.

  6. Evidence for a Role of Adolescent Endocannabinoid Signaling in Regulating HPA Axis Stress Responsivity and Emotional Behavior Development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tiffany T-Y; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period characterized by many distinct physical, behavioral, and neural changes during the transition from child- to adulthood. In particular, adolescent neural changes often confer greater plasticity and flexibility, yet with this comes the potential for heightened vulnerability to external perturbations such as stress exposure or recreational drug use. There is substantial evidence to suggest that factors such as adolescent stress exposure have longer lasting and sometimes more deleterious effects on an organism than stress exposure during adulthood. Moreover, the adolescent neuroendocrine response to stress exposure is different from that of adults, suggesting that further maturation of the adolescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is required. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a potential candidate underlying these age-dependent differences given that it is an important regulator of the adult HPA axis and neuronal development. Therefore, this review will focus on (1) the functionality of the adolescent HPA axis, (2) eCB regulation of the adult HPA axis, (3) dynamic changes in eCB signaling during the adolescent period, (4) the effects of adolescent stress exposure on the eCB system, and (5) modulation of HPA axis activity and emotional behavior by adolescent cannabinoid treatment. Collectively, the emerging picture suggests that the eCB system mediates interactions between HPA axis stress responsivity, emotionality, and maturational stage. These findings may be particularly relevant to our understanding of the development of affective disorders and the risks of adolescent cannabis consumption on emotional health and stress responsivity. PMID:26638764

  7. Evidence for a Role of Adolescent Endocannabinoid Signaling in Regulating HPA Axis Stress Responsivity and Emotional Behavior Development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tiffany T-Y; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period characterized by many distinct physical, behavioral, and neural changes during the transition from child- to adulthood. In particular, adolescent neural changes often confer greater plasticity and flexibility, yet with this comes the potential for heightened vulnerability to external perturbations such as stress exposure or recreational drug use. There is substantial evidence to suggest that factors such as adolescent stress exposure have longer lasting and sometimes more deleterious effects on an organism than stress exposure during adulthood. Moreover, the adolescent neuroendocrine response to stress exposure is different from that of adults, suggesting that further maturation of the adolescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is required. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a potential candidate underlying these age-dependent differences given that it is an important regulator of the adult HPA axis and neuronal development. Therefore, this review will focus on (1) the functionality of the adolescent HPA axis, (2) eCB regulation of the adult HPA axis, (3) dynamic changes in eCB signaling during the adolescent period, (4) the effects of adolescent stress exposure on the eCB system, and (5) modulation of HPA axis activity and emotional behavior by adolescent cannabinoid treatment. Collectively, the emerging picture suggests that the eCB system mediates interactions between HPA axis stress responsivity, emotionality, and maturational stage. These findings may be particularly relevant to our understanding of the development of affective disorders and the risks of adolescent cannabis consumption on emotional health and stress responsivity.

  8. Integrated interventions for improving negative emotions and stress reactions of young women receiving total hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Li, Chun-Bo; Li, Shenghua; Li, Quan

    2014-01-01

    50% of women had obvious abnormal emotions before hysterectomy and hysterectomy can cause strong mental stress reaction. This study was to investigate the impact of psychological health education based integrated interventions on the preoperative negative emotions and stress of patients younger than 45 years receiving total hysterectomy. Forty patients undergoing total hysterectomy were randomly divided into psychological intervention (PI) group and control group (n=20 per group). Patients in PI received peri-operative psychological intervention (supportive psychotherapy, health education, individual depth psychotherapy, family and society supportive care, education on anesthesia and surgery etc.); Interventions were not used in control group. Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used to evaluate patients in two groups on admission (T1) and before surgery (T2; after interventions in PI group). Serum levels of cortisol and IL-6 were detected at T1, T2 and the second day after surgery (T3). Results showed that 1) Patients had obvious anxiety and depression symptoms before and after total hysterectomy. For patients in PI group, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) score decreased from 14.4±5.9 to 9.1±4.2 and the Hamilton Depressing Scale (HAMD) score from 17.8±3.5 to 9.4±6.8 after interventions; 2) In PI group, the serum cortisol was 13.4±3.9 μg/dl at T2 and 14.2±4.8 μg/dl at T3 which were significantly lower than that at T1 (16.6±4.0 μg/dl) and that in the control group at T2 (13.4±3.9/15.5±4.3 μg/dl, t=2.10, P<0.05). Thus, preoperative integrated intervention based on psychological health education can improve peri-operative negative emotions and psychological stress in young patients undergoing hysterectomy. PMID:24482729

  9. Brain vasopressin V(1) receptors contribute to enhanced cardiovascular responses to acute stress in chronically stressed rats and rats with myocardial infarcton.

    PubMed

    Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Agnieszka; Szczepanska-Sadowska, Ewa; Dobruch, Jakub; Gomolka, Ryszard; Puchalska, Liana

    2010-03-01

    The present study was designed to determine the role of central vasopressin 1 receptors (V(1)R) in the regulation of cardiovascular parameters in chronically stressed infarcted rats and sham-operated rats under resting conditions and during exposure to acute alarming stress. The experiments were performed on four groups of conscious sham-operated and four groups of infarcted rats subjected to intraventricular infusion of either vehicle or a V(1)R antagonist (V(1)RANT). Two groups of infarcted and two groups of sham-operated rats were subjected to mild chronic stressing. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate (HR) were determined under resting conditions and after exposure to acute stress (air jet). During vehicle infusion, MABP and HR increases in response to acute stress in the infarcted rats not subjected to chronic stress, and in the infarcted and sham-operated chronically stressed rats, were significantly greater than in the sham-operated rats not exposed to chronic stress. However, MABP and HR responses to acute stress in the chronically stressed infarcted rats and chronically stressed sham-operated rats did not differ. V(1)RANT abolished differences in cardiovascular responses to acute stress between the experimental groups. Resting cardiovascular parameters were not affected by any of the experimental treatments. It is concluded that chronic stressing enhances the pressor and tachycardic responses to acute stress in the sham-operated rats but does not further intensify these responses in infarcted rats.The results provide evidence that central V(1)Rs are involved in potentiation of cardiovascular responses to acute stress in chronically stressed rats, infarcted rats, and chronically stressed infarcted rats.

  10. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers.

    PubMed

    Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The present study compared neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure in current smokers, ex-smokers, and those who had never smoked in a large community sample. Salivary cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and frequency components of systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured at rest and during exposure to a battery of three standardized stress tasks in 480 male and female participants from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study. Current smokers had significantly lower cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate reactions to stress. They also exhibited smaller changes in the low frequency band of blood pressure variability compared to ex- and never smokers. There were no group differences in stress related changes in overall heart rate variability as measured by the root mean square of successive interbeat interval differences or in the high frequency band of heart rate variability. In all cases, effects remained significant following statistical adjustment for a host of variables likely to be associated with reactivity and/or smoking. In secondary analyses, there were no significant associations between lifetime cigarette consumption or current consumption and stress reactivity. In conclusion, compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers, current smokers exhibited attenuated neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Among smokers and ex-smokers, there is no evidence that lifetime exposure was associated with physiological reactions to acute stress, nor that current levels of cigarette consumption were associated with reactivity. It is possible, then, that

  11. Models and Methods to Investigate Acute Stress Responses in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Arsenault, Ryan; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation within the livestock industry and throughout society that animal stress is an important issue that must be addressed. With implications for animal health, well-being, and productivity, minimizing animal stress through improved animal management procedures and/or selective breeding is becoming a priority. Effective management of stress, however, depends on the ability to identify and quantify the effects of various stressors and determine if individual or combined stressors have distinct biological effects. Furthermore, it is critical to determine the duration of stress-induced biological effects if we are to understand how stress alters animal production and disease susceptibility. Common stress models used to evaluate both psychological and physical stressors in cattle are reviewed. We identify some of the major gaps in our knowledge regarding responses to specific stressors and propose more integrated methodologies and approaches to measuring these responses. These approaches are based on an increased knowledge of both the metabolic and immune effects of stress. Finally, we speculate on how these findings may impact animal agriculture, as well as the potential application of large animal models to understanding human stress. PMID:26633525

  12. Models and Methods to Investigate Acute Stress Responses in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Arsenault, Ryan; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation within the livestock industry and throughout society that animal stress is an important issue that must be addressed. With implications for animal health, well-being, and productivity, minimizing animal stress through improved animal management procedures and/or selective breeding is becoming a priority. Effective management of stress, however, depends on the ability to identify and quantify the effects of various stressors and determine if individual or combined stressors have distinct biological effects. Furthermore, it is critical to determine the duration of stress-induced biological effects if we are to understand how stress alters animal production and disease susceptibility. Common stress models used to evaluate both psychological and physical stressors in cattle are reviewed. We identify some of the major gaps in our knowledge regarding responses to specific stressors and propose more integrated methodologies and approaches to measuring these responses. These approaches are based on an increased knowledge of both the metabolic and immune effects of stress. Finally, we speculate on how these findings may impact animal agriculture, as well as the potential application of large animal models to understanding human stress. PMID:26633525

  13. Identifying, describing, and expressing emotions after critical incidents in paramedics.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Janice; Maunder, Robert G; Schwartz, Brian; Gurevich, Maria

    2012-02-01

    For paramedics, critical incidents evoke intense emotions and may result in later psychological difficulties. We examined 2 ways to deal with emotions after critical incidents: (a) identifying emotions, and (b) describing and expressing emotions, and their association with recovery from acute stress and psychological symptoms. We surveyed 190 paramedics, examining how impaired capacity to identify and describe emotions (alexithymia) and voluntary expression of emotions during contacts with others in the first 24 hours after the incident were associated with recovery from acute stress and current symptoms of PTSD, depression, burnout, and somatization. Overall alexithymia was not associated with recovery, but the component of difficulty identifying feelings was associated with prolonged physical arousal (χ(2) = 10.1, p = .007). Overall alexithymia and all its components were associated with virtually all current symptoms (correlation coefficients .23-.38, p < .05). Voluntary emotional expression was unrelated to current symptoms. Greater emotional expression was related to greater perceived helpfulness of contacts (χ(2) = 56.8, p < .001). This suggests that identifying emotions may be important in managing occupational stress in paramedics. In contrast, voluntary emotional expression, although perceived as helpful, may not prevent symptoms. These findings may inform education for paramedics in dealing with stress.

  14. A diagnostic interview for acute stress disorder for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alisa; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Reich, Wendy; Saxe, Glenn

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a semistructured clinical interview for assessing acute stress disorder (ASD) in youth and test its psychometric properties. Youth (N = 168) with an acute burn or injury were administered the acute stress disorder module of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA-ASD). The DICA-ASD demonstrated strong psychometric properties, including high internal consistency (alpha = .97) and perfect diagnostic interrater agreement (kappa = 1.00). Participants diagnosed with ASD scored significantly higher than those not diagnosed on validated traumatic stress symptomatology measures but not on other symptomatology measures, providing evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the first semistructured clinical interview for diagnosing ASD in youth.

  15. [Perception, processing of visual information and resistance to emotional stresses in athletes of different ages].

    PubMed

    Korobeĭnikova, L H; Makarchuk, M Iu

    2013-01-01

    Among the numerous studies devoted to the study of perception and information processing, no data available on the effects of age on these processes. In this paper we studied the influence of psycho-emotional stress and different levels of stress on the mental processes of perception and information processing in highly skilled athletes divided into two groups. The first group included the athletes aged 19-24 years (12 athletes, members of the Ukrainian team in Greco-Roman wrestling), the second group included the athletes aged 27-31 years (7 highly skilled athletes, members of the Ukrainian team in Greco-Roman wrestling). We revealed that the athletes of the first group had higher productivity and better visual perception and visual information processing efficiency, compared with athletes from the second group. This observation suggests a dependency of cognitive component of perception and information processing on the age of the athletes. Sportsmen from the second group had higher stress resistance compared to the older age group.

  16. Mental health response to acute stress following wilderness disaster.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Amanda R

    2010-12-01

    Expedition physicians should be prepared to respond to traumatic stress disorders following wilderness disasters. Stress disorder symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, avoiding stimuli associated with the traumatic event, and increased physical arousal. These symptoms can also be seen in healthy individuals, and should only lead to disorder diagnosis when they cause distress or impairment. Treatment options for stress disorders include observation, psychological interventions, and medication. Approximately half of those with diagnosable stress disorders will return to nondiagnosable status over time without therapeutic intervention. Psychological interventions with empirical support concentrate on providing either noninvasive support in the short term, such as psychological first aid (PFA), or more long-term controlled re-experiencing of the precipitating trauma, such as many exposure-based therapies. Exposure-based treatments can result in temporary increases in symptoms before long-term gains are realized, so they are not recommended for wilderness settings. Medications to treat stress disorders include benzodiazepines, propranolol, and antidepressant medications. Benzodiazepines are often carried in wilderness first aid kits, but they provide very limited stress disorder symptom relief. Propranolol is being explored as a method of preventing traumatic stress disorders, but the data are not currently conclusive. Antidepressant medications are a good long-term strategy for stress disorder treatment, but they are of limited utility in wilderness settings as they are unlikely to be included in expedition medical kits and require approximately 4 weeks of administration for symptom reduction. Recommendations for wilderness treatment of stress disorders focus on increasing knowledge of stress disorder diagnosis and PFA.

  17. Life stress, emotional health, and mean telomere length in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk population study.

    PubMed

    Surtees, Paul G; Wainwright, Nicholas W J; Pooley, Karen A; Luben, Robert N; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Easton, Douglas F; Dunning, Alison M

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the association between psychological stress, emotional health, and relative mean telomere length in an ethnically homogeneous population of 4,441 women, aged 41-80 years. Mean telomere length was measured using high-throughput quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Social adversity exposure and emotional health were assessed through questionnaire and covariates through direct measurement and questionnaire. This study found evidence that adverse experiences during childhood may be associated with shorter telomere length. This finding remained after covariate adjustment and showed evidence of a dose-response relationship with increasing number of reported childhood difficulties associated with decreasing relative mean telomere length. No associations were observed for any of the other summary measures of social adversity and emotional health considered. These results extend and provide support for some previous findings concerning the association of adverse experience and emotional health histories with shorter telomere length in adulthood. Replication of these findings in longitudinal studies is now essential.

  18. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory, Emotional Maltreatment, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Evidence of a Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2012-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is associated with depression and may confer risk for the development of depressed mood, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated OGM as a predictor of depressive symptoms in early adolescence, particularly in the context of environmental stressors. We investigated whether OGM and emotional maltreatment would interact to predict prospective increases in depressive symptoms in early adolescents and whether these effects differed by race. Among 174 seventh-graders, OGM and familial emotional abuse interacted to predict depressive symptoms eight months later, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Specifically, emotional abuse predicted increases in depressive symptoms among Caucasian adolescents with more OGM, but not among those with less OGM. This association was not significant for African American adolescents. These results provide support for a cognitive vulnerability-stress relationship between OGM and emotional abuse in early adolescence and suggest that these mechanisms of risk for depression may be specific to Caucasian adolescents. PMID:23186994

  19. Overgeneral autobiographical memory, emotional maltreatment, and depressive symptoms in adolescence: evidence of a cognitive vulnerability-stress interaction.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamlat, Elissa J; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-02-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is associated with depression and may confer risk for the development of depressed mood, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated OGM as a predictor of depressive symptoms in early adolescence, particularly in the context of environmental stressors. We investigated whether OGM and emotional maltreatment would interact to predict prospective increases in depressive symptoms in early adolescents and whether these effects differed by race. Among 174 seventh-graders, OGM and familial emotional abuse interacted to predict depressive symptoms eight months later, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Specifically, emotional abuse predicted increases in depressive symptoms among Caucasian adolescents with more OGM, but not among those with less OGM. This association was not significant for African American adolescents. These results provide support for a cognitive vulnerability-stress relationship between OGM and emotional abuse in early adolescence and suggest that these mechanisms of risk for depression may be specific to Caucasian adolescents.

  20. Pain-related stress in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and salivary cortisol reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 3-month-old very preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Giusti, Lorenzo; Fumagalli, Monica; Tasca, Hilarj; Ciceri, Francesca; Menozzi, Giorgia; Mosca, Fabio; Morandi, Francesco; Borgatti, Renato; Montirosso, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Very preterm (VPT) infants are hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and exposed to varying levels of skin-breaking procedures (pain-related stress), even in absence of severe clinical conditions. Repeated and prolonged pain exposure may alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in VPT infants. During the post-discharge period, altered HPA axis reactivity has been documented in response to non-social stressors, using salivary cortisol as a biomarker. However, little is known about the effects of NICU pain-related stress on subsequent HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress in infants. We examined the relationship between pain-related stress in NICU and HPA axis reactivity (i.e., salivary cortisol reactivity) to an age-appropriate socio-emotional condition in 37 healthy VPT infants compared to 53 full-term (FT) controls. The number of skin-breaking procedures was obtained across NICU stay for VPT infants. At 3 months (corrected age for prematurity), all infants participated in the maternal Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) procedure, in order to assess HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness). VPT infants exhibited a blunted salivary cortisol reactivity, which was associated with the amount of skin-breaking procedures during NICU: greater pain-related stress predicted lower salivary cortisol reactivity, adjusting for neonatal confounders. These findings further advance our knowledge of how early exposure to pain-related stress in NICU contributes to the programming of an altered HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 3-month-old VPT infants, even in the absence of major perinatal complications.

  1. Further Investigation of the Association between Anxiety Sensitivity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Examining the Influence of Emotional Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Bardeen, Joseph R.; Tull, Matthew T.; Stevens, Erin N.; Gratz, Kim L.

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) and the tendency to avoid emotions have both been identified as vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Furthermore, both cross-sectional and prospective research have provided evidence that emotional avoidance and AS interact to predict anxiety symptoms, such that AS may only be associated with anxiety-related pathology among those who exhibit a tendency to avoid their emotions. The purpose of the present study was to determine if this moderator model extends to PTSD within a sample of substance dependent patients. Specifically, this study examined if AS is associated with PTSD only among individuals with high (vs. low) levels of negative emotional avoidance. As predicted, results of a logistic regression analysis revealed a significant interaction between negative emotional avoidance and AS in predicting PTSD status. Follow-up analyses revealed a significant positive association between AS and PTSD status for participants high in negative emotional avoidance; however, AS was not associated with PTSD for those low in negative emotional avoidance. This finding remained even when relevant covariates were included in the model. Results confirm hypotheses and are consistent with the extant anxiety-risk literature. PMID:27617195

  2. New avenues for treating emotional memory disorders: towards a reconsolidation intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kindt, Merel; van Emmerik, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The discovery that fear memories may change upon retrieval, a process referred to as memory reconsolidation, opened avenues to develop a revolutionary new treatment for emotional memory disorders. Reconsolidation is a two-phase process in which retrieval of a memory initiates a transient period of memory destabilization, followed by a protein synthesis-dependent restabilization phase. This reconsolidation window offers unique opportunities for amnesic agents to interfere with the process of memory restabilization, thereby weakening or even erasing the emotional expression from specific fear memories. Here we present four uncontrolled case descriptions of patients with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who received a reconsolidation intervention. The intervention basically involves a brief reactivation of the trauma memory aimed to trigger memory destabilization, followed by the intake of one pill of 40 mg propranolol HCl (i.e. a noradrenergic beta-blocker) that should disrupt the process of memory restabilization. We present three cases who showed a steep decline of fear symptoms after only one or two intervention sessions. To illustrate that the translation from basic science to clinical practice is not self-evident, we also present a description of a noneffective intervention in a relatively complex case. Even though the reconsolidation intervention is very promising, the success of the treatment depends on whether the memory reactivation actually triggers memory reconsolidation. Obviously the uncontrolled observations described here warrant further study in placebo-controlled designs. PMID:27536348

  3. Effects of Acute Laboratory Stress on Executive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Starcke, Katrin; Wiesen, Carina; Trotzke, Patrick; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999): attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40) were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20), or to a rest condition (N = 20). Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group). The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning. PMID:27065926

  4. Relationships of Personality, Affect, Emotional Intelligence and Coping with Student Stress and Academic Success: Different Patterns of Association for Stress and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saklofske, Donald H.; Austin, Elizabeth J.; Mastoras, Sarah M.; Beaton, Laura; Osborne, Shona E.

    2012-01-01

    The associations of personality, affect, trait emotional intelligence (EI) and coping style measured at the start of the academic year with later academic performance were examined in a group of undergraduate students at the University of Edinburgh. The associations of the dispositional and affect measures with concurrent stress and life…

  5. Dual-task performance under acute stress in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism. PMID:26852226

  6. [Biological function prediction of mir-210 in the liver of acute cold stress rat].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Jin; Lian, Shuai; Guo, Jing-Ru; Zhai, Jun-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Chen; Li, Yue; Zhen, Li; Ji, Hong; Yang, Huan-Min

    2016-04-25

    The study was aimed to observe mir-210 expression in liver tissue of acute cold stress rat and predict the function of mir-210 in cold stress. Thirty SPF Wistar male rats which were 12-week-old and weighed (340 ± 20) g were used. The rats were pre-fed in normal room temperature for one week, and then were randomly divided into acute cold stress group at (4 ± 0.1) °C and normal control group at (24 ± 0.1) °C. After the rats were treated with cold stress for 12 h, the liver tissue was extracted and the gene expression of mir-210 was assayed using qRT-PCR. The results demonstrated that the gene expression of mir-210 was significantly enhanced in acute cold stress group compared with that in normal control group (n = 3, P < 0.01). The bioinformatics analysis showed that mir-210 has over hundreds of target genes and four kinds of target genes such as E2F3, RAD52, ISCU and Ephrin-A3 are more relative with liver cold stress. ISCU regulates the cell respiratory metabolism and Ephrin-A3 is related with cell proliferation and apoptosis. On the other hand, up-regulated mir-210 affects the DNA repairing mechanism which usually leads to genetic instabilities. Our results suggest that cold stress-induced up-regulation of mir-210 in liver harmfully influences cell growth, energy metabolism and hereditary.

  7. Leptin concentrations in response to acute stress predict subsequent intake of comfort foods

    PubMed Central

    Tomiyama, A. Janet; Schamarek, Imke; Lustig, Robert H.; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter J.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2012-01-01

    Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more “comfort food” (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to affect eating behavior. This study examined whether leptin reactivity accounts for individual differences in stress eating. To test this, we exposed forty women to standardized acute psychological laboratory stress (Trier Social Stress Test) while blood was sampled repeatedly for measurements of plasma leptin. We then measured food intake after the stressor in 29 of these women. Increasing leptin during the stressor predicted lower intake of comfort food. These initial findings suggest that acute changes in leptin may be one of the factors modulating down the consumption of comfort food following stress. PMID:22579988

  8. History of chronic stress modifies acute stress-evoked fear memory and acoustic startle in male rats.

    PubMed

    Schmeltzer, Sarah N; Vollmer, Lauren L; Rush, Jennifer E; Weinert, Mychal; Dolgas, Charles M; Sah, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Chronicity of trauma exposure plays an important role in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thus, exposure to multiple traumas on a chronic scale leads to worse outcomes than acute events. The rationale for the current study was to investigate the effects of a single adverse event versus the same event on a background of chronic stress. We hypothesized that a history of chronic stress would lead to worse behavioral outcomes than a single event alone. Male rats (n = 14/group) were exposed to either a single traumatic event in the form of electric foot shocks (acute shock, AS), or to footshocks on a background of chronic stress (chronic variable stress-shock, CVS-S). PTSD-relevant behaviors (fear memory and acoustic startle responses) were measured following 7 d recovery. In line with our hypothesis, CVS-S elicited significant increases in fear acquisition and conditioning versus the AS group. Unexpectedly, CVS-S elicited reduced startle reactivity to an acoustic stimulus in comparison with the AS group. Significant increase in FosB/ΔFosB-like immunostaining was observed in the dentate gyrus, basolateral amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex of CVS-S rats. Assessments of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a stress-regulatory transmitter associated with chronic PTSD, revealed selective reduction in the hippocampus of CVS-S rats. Collectively, our data show that cumulative stress potentiates delayed fear memory and impacts defensive responding. Altered neuronal activation in forebrain limbic regions and reduced NPY may contribute to these phenomena. Our preclinical studies support clinical findings reporting worse PTSD outcomes stemming from cumulative traumatization in contrast to acute trauma.

  9. Effect of neonatal handling on adult rat spatial learning and memory following acute stress.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, A; Pondiki, S; Kitraki, E; Diamantopoulou, A; Panagiotaropoulos, T; Raftogianni, A; Stylianopoulou, F

    2008-03-01

    Brief neonatal handling permanently alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function resulting in increased ability to cope with stress. Since stress is known to affect cognitive abilities, in the present study we investigated the effect of brief (15 min) handling on learning and memory in the Morris water maze, following exposure to an acute restraint stress either before training or recall. Exposure of non-handled rats to the acute stress prior to training resulted in quicker learning of the task, than in the absence of the stressor. When acute stress preceded acquisition, male handled rats showed an overall better learning performance, and both sexes of handled animals were less impaired in the subsequent memory trial, compared to the respective non-handled. In addition, the number of neurons immunoreactive for GR was higher in all areas of Ammon's horn of the handled rats during the recall. In contrast, the number of neurons immunoreactive for MR was higher in the CA1 and CA2 areas of the non-handled males. When the acute restraint stress was applied prior to the memory test, neonatal handling was not effective in preventing mnemonic impairment, as all animal groups showed a similar deficit in recall. In this case, no difference between handled and non-handled rats was observed in the number of GR positive neurons in the CA2 and CA3 hippocampal areas during the memory test. These results indicate that early experience interacts with sex and acute stress exposure in adulthood to affect performance in the water maze. Hippocampal corticosterone receptors may play a role in determining the final outcome.

  10. Student Teachers' Perceptions of Self-Competence in and Emotions/Stress about Teaching in Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldi, Stavroula

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses upon identifying and classifying prospective teachers' perceptions of self-competence in teaching after a four-year university course on primary education and the relationship between their personal well-being, views, emotions and stress about teaching and their teaching competencies during their undergraduate school teaching…

  11. Economic Stress, Emotional Quality of Life, and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…

  12. Does Written Emotional Disclosure about Stress Improve College Students' Academic Performance? Results from Three Randomized, Controlled Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliffe, Alison M.; Stevenson, Jennifer K.; Lumley, Mark A.; D'Souza, Pamela J.; Kraft, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Several early studies and subsequent reviews suggested that written emotional disclosure (WED)--writing repeatedly about personal stressful experiences--leads to improved academic performance of college students. A critical review of available studies casts some doubt on this conclusion, so we conducted three randomized, controlled experiments of…

  13. Coping Self-Efficacy and Academic Stress among Hispanic First-Year College Students: The Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joshua C.; Watson, April A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the role that emotional intelligence plays in moderating the relationship between academic stress and coping self-efficacy among a sample of 125 Hispanic 1st-year college students enrolled at a medium-size, southern Hispanic-serving institution. Results of a 2-stage hierarchical multiple regression analysis…

  14. Effects of acute and chronic immobilization stress on rat Leydig cell steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Marić, D; Kostić, T; Kovacević, R

    1996-06-01

    In rats, acute immobilization (IMO) stress (2 h) induced a fall in the serum androgen concentrations (T+DHT) without detectable changes in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) values. In vitro studies, using a suspension of Leydig cells from adult rat testis, demonstrated that acute stress inhibited conversion of progesterone (P) or 17hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) to T while conversion of androstendione (delta 4 A) was not affected. Acute IMO reduced activity of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) and decreased basal and hCG-stimulated progesterone and androgen production. Chronic IMO stress (2 h daily for 10 days) induced a decrease in serum androgen level with decline in serum LH values. In vitro, hCG-stimulated progesterone and androgen production by suspension of Leydig cells, as well as conversion of P and 17OHP to T were not significantly altered. Our data demonstrates that acute IMO stress impaired testicular steroidogenesis primarily at the testicular level (decreasing the activity of certain enzymes), while chronic IMO stress exerts the effect mainly on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis; reduced serum LH levels elicit a decrease in serum androgen levels.

  15. Acute Psychological Stress Results in the Rapid Development of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Li, Xiaohua; Zhou, Wenjun; Messina, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the roles of chronic stress and depression as an independent risk factor for decreased insulin sensitivity and the development of diabetes have been increasingly recognized. However, an understanding and the mechanisms linking insulin resistance and acute psychological stress are very limited. We hypothesized that acute psychological stress may cause the development of insulin resistance, which may be a risk factor in developing type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis in a well-established mouse model using 180 episodes of inescapable foot shock (IES), followed by a behavioral escape test. In this study, mice that received IES treatment were tested for acute insulin resistance by measuring glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. When compared to normal and sham mice, mice that were exposed to IES resulting in escape failure (defined as IES with behavioral escape failure) displayed elevated blood glucose levels in both glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. Furthermore, mice with IES exposure and behavioral escape failure exhibited impaired hepatic insulin signaling via the insulin-induced insulin receptor/insulin receptor substrate 1/Akt pathway, without affecting similar pathways in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and brain. Additionally, a rise in murine growth-related oncogene KC/GRO was associated with impaired glucose metabolism in IES mice, suggesting a mechanism by which psychological stress by IES may influence glucose metabolism. The present results indicate that psychological stress induced by IES can acutely alter hepatic responsiveness to insulin and affect whole-body glucose metabolism. PMID:23444388

  16. Impact of acute guanfacine administration on stress and cue reactivity in cocaine-dependent individuals

    PubMed Central

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Brady, Kathleen T.; McRae-Clark, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress and drug-paired cues increase drug craving and noradrenergic activity in cocaine-dependent individuals, thus medications that attenuate noradrenergic activity may be effective therapeutic treatment options for cocaine-dependent individuals. Objectives To examine the impact of acute administration of the α-2 adrenergic receptor agonist guanfacine on responses to multiple risk factors for relapse in cocaine-dependent individuals. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, cocaine-dependent individuals (N=84), were randomized to receive either 2 mg guanfacine (n=50) or placebo (n=34). Within each treatment arm, subjects were randomized to either a stress (guanfacine n=26; placebo n=15) or a no-stress (guanfacine n=24; placebo n=19) group. Participants in the stress group performed the Trier Social Stress Test. Subjects in each group were exposed to a neutral cue and then to cocaine-related cues. Plasma cortisol and subjective responses were compared between the four groups. Results The no-stress guanfacine group reported greater craving in response to cocaine-cues as compared to the neutral cue (p<0.001). The guanfacine stress group reported greater subjective stress at the neutral cue than at baseline (p=0.032). The cocaine-cue increased subjective stress in the guanfacine (p<0.001) no-stress group. There were no effects of guanfacine on cortisol levels in either the stress or no stress groups (all p>0.70). Conclusion This study found no effects of a single 2 mg dose of guanfacine on reactivity to stress and cues alone or on the interaction of stress and drug cues. In cocaine-dependent individuals an acute 2 mg dose of guanfacine may not be an effective therapeutic treatment strategy. PMID:25140866

  17. Acute stress blocks the caffeine-induced enhancement of contextual memory retrieval in mice.

    PubMed

    Pierard, Chistophe; Krazem, Ali; Henkous, Nadia; Decorte, Laurence; Béracochéa, Daniel

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated in mice the dose-effect of caffeine on memory retrieval in non-stress and stress conditions. C57 Bl/6 Jico mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a four-hole board which involved either distinct contextual (CSD) or similar contextual (SSD) cues. All mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or caffeine (8, 16 or 32mg/kg) 30min before the test session. Results showed that in non-stress conditions, the 16mg/kg caffeine dose induced a significant enhancement of D1 performance in CSD but not in SSD. Hence, we studied the effect of an acute stress (electric footshocks) administered 15min before the test session on D1 performance in caffeine-treated mice. Results showed that stress significantly decreased D1 performance in vehicle-treated controls and the memory-enhancing effect induced by the 16mg/kg caffeine dose in non-stress condition is no longer observed. Interestingly, whereas caffeine-treated mice exhibited weaker concentrations of plasma corticosterone as compared to vehicles in non-stress condition, stress significantly increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in caffeine-treated mice which reached similar level to that of controls. Overall, the acute stress blocked both the endocrinological and memory retrieval enhancing effects of caffeine.

  18. Acute heat stress induces oxidative stress and decreases adaptation in young white leghorn cockerels by downregulation of avian uncoupling protein.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, A; Akiba, Y; Toyomizu, M

    2007-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species-induced damage of cells and molecules is one of the mechanisms responsible for the decline in an animal's performance due to heat stress. Mitochondria are the main producers of cellular superoxide, a process that is sensitive to proton motive force, and this superoxide production can be decreased by mild uncoupling. We studied the effects of heat stress on the production of mitochondrial superoxide as well as heat stress effects on the expression of avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) and avian A nucleotide translocator (avANT) in skeletal muscles of chicks and young cockerels. Male White Leghorn (Julia) chicks at 16 d and cockerels at 87 d of age were exposed to acute heat stress, 34 degrees C for 18 h, or kept at moderate ambient temperature (25 and 21 degrees C, respectively). There was no difference in mitochondrial superoxide production between heat-exposed and control chicks, whereas significant differences were observed in the case of young cockerels. Greater substrate-independent superoxide production was found in muscle mitochondria from heat-stressed young cockerels. In chicks, neither avUCP nor avANT transcript expression was changed by heat exposure, whereas in young cockerels avUCP transcript was decreased, but avANT transcript level was not changed. Thus, in heat-stressed young cockerels, increased mitochondrial superoxide production was accompanied by downregulation of avUCP. Taken together, these results suggest that exposure of young cockerels to heat stress stimulates mitochondrial superoxide production, possibly via downregulation of avUCP. Chicks with persistent avUCP expression, on the other hand, are relatively better adapted to high temperature. It can be assumed that appropriate expression of avUCP may alleviate overproduction of mitochondrial superoxide and could help birds adapt to oxidative stress resulting from acute heat stress.

  19. Stress-related symptoms and positive emotions after a myocardial infarction: a longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, Cristina; Vázquez, Carmelo

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a controversy as to whether the diagnostic umbrella of post-traumatic stress reactions is directly applicable to serious health conditions like myocardial infarction (MI). Objective The principal objective of this study was to examine longitudinally the prevalence of posttraumatic stress-related symptoms, throughout three measurement periods, for patients who had suffered a first MI. In addition to the analysis of symptoms related to stress and general distress, the presence of and temporary evolution of positive emotions and optimism in these patients was also evaluated. Design A longitudinal study with three periods of evaluation after the MI (Time 1 (T1): 48–72 hours, Time 2 (T2): 5 months, and Time 3 (T3): 13 months). Results In T1 few symptoms related to the stressful event were found. The probable prevalence of PTSD was 8–11% at 5 months after the MI and 0–3% 13 months after the event. With regard to subjective severity of the infarction, although in the first instance patients did not regard the event as excessively traumatic, in the periods T2 and T3 this perception increased significantly [F (2, 32)=20.00; p=0.0001]. At all times during the measurement period the mean positive affect was significantly greater than the negative affect. Conclusions As the results show, the probable prevalence of PTSD, as well as the severity of different symptom clusters, is low at all times of the evaluation. The diagnostic implications of these findings are discussed as well as the uses and abuses of diagnostic labels to characterize the psychological experiences lived through after a potentially life-threatening health problem. PMID:22893827

  20. Deficiency of antinociception and excessive grooming induced by acute immobilization stress in Per1 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Zhouqiao; Zhou, Linglin; Li, Huili; Teng, Huajing; Dai, Wei; Wang, Yongqing; Sun, Zhong Sheng

    2011-01-14

    Acute stressors induce changes in numerous behavioral parameters through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Several important hormones in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) play the roles in these stress-induced reactions. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and corticosterone are considered as molecular markers for stress-induced grooming behavior. Oxytocin in PVN is an essential modulator for stress-induced antinociception. The clock gene, Per1, has been identified as an effecter response to the acute stresses, but its function in neuroendocrine stress systems remains unclear. In the present study we observed the alterations in grooming and nociceptive behaviors induced by acute immobilization stress in Per1 mutant mice and other genotypes (wild types and Per2 mutant). The results displayed that stress elicited a more robust effect on grooming behavior in Per1 mutant mice than in other genotypes. Subsequently, the obvious stress-induced antinociception was observed in the wild-type and Per2 mutant mice, however, in Per1 mutant, this antinociceptive effects were partially-reversed (mechanical sensitivity), or over-reversed to hyperalgesia (thermal sensitivity). The real-time qPCR results showed that in PVN, there were stress-induced up-regulations of Crh, Avp and c-fos in all of genotypes; moreover, the expression change of Crh in Per1 mutant mice was much larger than in others. Another hormonal gene, Oxt, was up-regulated induced by stress in wild-type and Per2 mutant but not in Per1 mutant. In addition, the stress significantly elevated the serum corticosterone levels without genotype-dependent differences, and accordingly the glucocorticoid receptor gene, Nr3c1, expressed with a similar pattern in PVN of all strains. Taken together, the present study indicated that in acute stress treated Per1 mutant mice, there are abnormal hormonal responses in PVN, correlating with the aberrant

  1. Neurophysiological responses to unpleasant stimuli (acute electrical stimulations and emotional pictures) are increased in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Duval, Céline Z; Goumon, Yannick; Kemmel, Véronique; Kornmeier, Jürgen; Dufour, André; Andlauer, Olivier; Vidailhet, Pierre; Poisbeau, Pierrick; Salvat, Eric; Muller, André; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoé G; Schmidt-Mutter, Catherine; Giersch, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have often been described as insensitive to nociceptive signals, but objective evidence is sparse. We address this question by combining subjective behavioral and objective neurochemical and neurophysiological measures. The present study involved 21 stabilized and mildly symptomatic patients with schizophrenia and 21 control subjects. We applied electrical stimulations below the pain threshold and assessed sensations of pain and unpleasantness with rating scales, and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs/EEG). We also measured attention, two neurochemical stress indices (ACTH/cortisol), and subjective VEPs/EEG responses to visual emotional stimuli. Our results revealed that, subjectively, patients' evaluations do not differ from controls. However, the amplitude of EEG evoked potentials was greater in patients than controls as early as 50 ms after electrical stimulations and beyond one second after visual processing of emotional pictures. Such responses could not be linked to the stress induced by the stimulations, since stress hormone levels were stable. Nor was there a difference between patients and controls in respect of attention performance and tactile sensitivity. Taken together, all indices measured in patients in our study were either heightened or equivalent relative to healthy volunteers. PMID:26935652

  2. Neurophysiological responses to unpleasant stimuli (acute electrical stimulations and emotional pictures) are increased in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Duval, Céline Z; Goumon, Yannick; Kemmel, Véronique; Kornmeier, Jürgen; Dufour, André; Andlauer, Olivier; Vidailhet, Pierre; Poisbeau, Pierrick; Salvat, Eric; Muller, André; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoé G; Schmidt-Mutter, Catherine; Giersch, Anne

    2016-03-03

    Patients with schizophrenia have often been described as insensitive to nociceptive signals, but objective evidence is sparse. We address this question by combining subjective behavioral and objective neurochemical and neurophysiological measures. The present study involved 21 stabilized and mildly symptomatic patients with schizophrenia and 21 control subjects. We applied electrical stimulations below the pain threshold and assessed sensations of pain and unpleasantness with rating scales, and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs/EEG). We also measured attention, two neurochemical stress indices (ACTH/cortisol), and subjective VEPs/EEG responses to visual emotional stimuli. Our results revealed that, subjectively, patients' evaluations do not differ from controls. However, the amplitude of EEG evoked potentials was greater in patients than controls as early as 50 ms after electrical stimulations and beyond one second after visual processing of emotional pictures. Such responses could not be linked to the stress induced by the stimulations, since stress hormone levels were stable. Nor was there a difference between patients and controls in respect of attention performance and tactile sensitivity. Taken together, all indices measured in patients in our study were either heightened or equivalent relative to healthy volunteers.

  3. Neurophysiological responses to unpleasant stimuli (acute electrical stimulations and emotional pictures) are increased in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Céline Z.; Goumon, Yannick; Kemmel, Véronique; Kornmeier, Jürgen; Dufour, André; Andlauer, Olivier; Vidailhet, Pierre; Poisbeau, Pierrick; Salvat, Eric; Muller, André; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoé G.; Schmidt-Mutter, Catherine; Giersch, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have often been described as insensitive to nociceptive signals, but objective evidence is sparse. We address this question by combining subjective behavioral and objective neurochemical and neurophysiological measures. The present study involved 21 stabilized and mildly symptomatic patients with schizophrenia and 21 control subjects. We applied electrical stimulations below the pain threshold and assessed sensations of pain and unpleasantness with rating scales, and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs/EEG). We also measured attention, two neurochemical stress indices (ACTH/cortisol), and subjective VEPs/EEG responses to visual emotional stimuli. Our results revealed that, subjectively, patients’ evaluations do not differ from controls. However, the amplitude of EEG evoked potentials was greater in patients than controls as early as 50 ms after electrical stimulations and beyond one second after visual processing of emotional pictures. Such responses could not be linked to the stress induced by the stimulations, since stress hormone levels were stable. Nor was there a difference between patients and controls in respect of attention performance and tactile sensitivity. Taken together, all indices measured in patients in our study were either heightened or equivalent relative to healthy volunteers. PMID:26935652

  4. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging.

    PubMed

    Buechel, Heather M; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9-12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  5. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    PubMed Central

    Buechel, Heather M.; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L.; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9–12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors. PMID:24575039

  6. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated

  7. Interleukin-18 expression in pig salivary glands and salivary content changes during acute immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Muneta, Y; Minagawa, Y; Nakane, T; Shibahara, T; Yoshikawa, T; Omata, Y

    2011-09-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has recently been considered a promising marker of stress responses. In this study, to evaluate IL-18 as a noninvasive stress marker in pigs, we investigated the expression of IL-18 in porcine salivary glands and its presence in saliva, and its dynamics during acute immobilization stress in pigs. IL-18 mRNA was detected robustly in the pig salivary glands by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining of IL-18 protein expression revealed that the expression patterns differed among the three types of salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual gland). IL-18 was also detected in pig saliva by ELISA, and a diurnal rhythm with a peak in the afternoon was observed. The IL-18 concentration in saliva was significantly increased during a 60-min acute immobilization stress in thirteen 5-month-old pigs. These results are the first evidence of a stress-related change of IL-18 in pig saliva. Salivary IL-18 may thus become a useful noninvasive marker for the evaluation of acute stress in pigs.

  8. Differential changes in platelet reactivity induced by acute physical compared to persistent mental stress.

    PubMed

    Hüfner, Katharina; Koudouovoh-Tripp, Pia; Kandler, Christina; Hochstrasser, Tanja; Malik, Peter; Giesinger, Johannes; Semenitz, Barbara; Humpel, Christian; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Platelets are important in hemostasis, but also contain adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory and immune-modulatory compounds, as well as most of the serotonin outside the central nervous system. Dysbalance in the serotonin pathways is involved in the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms. Thus, changes in platelet aggregation and content of bioactive compounds are of interest when investigating physiological stress-related mental processes as well as stress-related psychiatric diseases such as depression. In the present study, a characterization of platelet reactivity in acute physical and persistent mental stress was performed (aggregation, serotonin and serotonin 2A-receptor, P-selectin, CD40 ligand, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and -9), platelet/endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF-4). Acute physical stress increased platelet aggregability while leaving platelet content of bioactive compounds unchanged. Persistent mental stress led to changes in platelet content of bioactive compounds and serotonin 2A-receptor only. The values of most bioactive compounds correlated with each other. Acute physical and persistent mental stress influences platelets through distinct pathways, leading to differential changes in aggregability and content of bioactive compounds. PMID:26192713

  9. Exploring the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, homicide-related posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    PubMed

    Chung, Man Cheung; Di, Xiaohu; Wan, King Hung

    2016-09-30

    This study investigated the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following homicide and psychiatric co-morbidity. One hundred and fifty male homicide perpetrators and 156 male perpetrators of non-violent crime completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (except for non-violent perpetrators), the General Health Questionnaire-28, the Defense Styles Questionnaire, the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. The results showed that 44% of homicide perpetrators met the criteria for PTSD. No significant differences were found between groups in alexithymia, defense style and psychiatric co-morbidity. Homicide perpetrators suppressed depression significantly more than the non-violent group. PLS analyses showed that alexithymia was significantly correlated with defense style. Defense styles were significantly correlated with emotional suppression which, in turn, was associated with homicide-related PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. To conclude, perpetrators can experience PTSD reactions following the act of homicide. The severity of these reactions and other psychological problems were related to difficulty getting in touch with distressing emotions, the defenses they used to protect themselves psychologically and the way they suppressed their emotion.

  10. Exploring the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, homicide-related posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    PubMed

    Chung, Man Cheung; Di, Xiaohu; Wan, King Hung

    2016-09-30

    This study investigated the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following homicide and psychiatric co-morbidity. One hundred and fifty male homicide perpetrators and 156 male perpetrators of non-violent crime completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (except for non-violent perpetrators), the General Health Questionnaire-28, the Defense Styles Questionnaire, the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. The results showed that 44% of homicide perpetrators met the criteria for PTSD. No significant differences were found between groups in alexithymia, defense style and psychiatric co-morbidity. Homicide perpetrators suppressed depression significantly more than the non-violent group. PLS analyses showed that alexithymia was significantly correlated with defense style. Defense styles were significantly correlated with emotional suppression which, in turn, was associated with homicide-related PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. To conclude, perpetrators can experience PTSD reactions following the act of homicide. The severity of these reactions and other psychological problems were related to difficulty getting in touch with distressing emotions, the defenses they used to protect themselves psychologically and the way they suppressed their emotion. PMID:27449006

  11. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G.; Branco, L.G.S.; Leite-Panissi, C.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress. PMID:25387672

  12. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Costa, P G; Branco, L G S; Leite-Panissi, C R A

    2014-12-01

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress. PMID:25387672

  13. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Costa, P G; Branco, L G S; Leite-Panissi, C R A

    2014-09-19

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress. PMID:25250589

  14. Efficacy of Tai Chi, brisk walking, meditation, and reading in reducing mental and emotional stress.

    PubMed

    Jin, P

    1992-05-01

    Tai Chi, a moving meditation, is examined for its efficacy in post-stressor recovery. Forty-eight male and 48 female Tai Chi practitioners were randomly assigned to four treatment groups: Tai Chi, brisk walking, mediation and neutral reading. Mental arithmetic and other difficult tests were chosen as mental challenges, and a stressful film was used to produce emotional disturbance. Tai Chi and the other treatments were applied after these stressors. After all treatments, the salivary cortisol level dropped significantly, and the mood states were also improved. In general the stress-reduction effect of Tai Chi characterized moderate physical exercise. Heart rate, blood pressure, and urinary catecholamine changes for Tai Chi were found to be similar to those for walking at a speed of 6 km/hr. Although Tai Chi appeared to be superior to neutral reading in the reduction of state anxiety and the enhancement of vigour, this effect could be partially accounted for by the subjects' high expectations about gains from Tai Chi. Approaches controlling for expectancy level are recommended for further assessment.

  15. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  16. A systematic review of biopsychosocial training programs for the self-management of emotional stress: potential applications for the military.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Cindy; Wallerstedt, Dawn B; Khorsan, Raheleh; Clausen, Shawn S; Jonas, Wayne B; Walter, Joan A G

    2013-01-01

    Combat-exposed troops and their family members are at risk for stress reactions and related disorders. Multimodal biopsychosocial training programs incorporating complementary and alternative self-management techniques have the potential to reduce stress-related symptoms and dysfunction. Such training can preempt or attenuate the posttraumatic stress response and may be effectively incorporated into the training cycle for deploying and redeploying troops and their families. A large systematic review was conducted to survey the literature on multimodal training programs for the self-management of emotional stress. This report is an overview of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in this systematic review. Select programs such as mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management, Autogenic Training, Relaxation Response Training, and other meditation and mind-body skills practices are highlighted, and the feasibility of their implementation within military settings is addressed.

  17. Impacts of autistic behaviors, emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed that caregivers of children with mild/moderate autistic behavior problems perceived lower parenting stress than did those of children with no or severe problems. In addition, prosocial behaviors and conduct problems respectively predicted stress in the parent-child relationship and child-related stress. The findings can provide guidance in evaluations and interventions with a focus on mitigating parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism.

  18. A Systematic Review of Biopsychosocial Training Programs for the Self-Management of Emotional Stress: Potential Applications for the Military

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Shawn S.; Jonas, Wayne B.; Walter, Joan A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Combat-exposed troops and their family members are at risk for stress reactions and related disorders. Multimodal biopsychosocial training programs incorporating complementary and alternative self-management techniques have the potential to reduce stress-related symptoms and dysfunction. Such training can preempt or attenuate the posttraumatic stress response and may be effectively incorporated into the training cycle for deploying and redeploying troops and their families. A large systematic review was conducted to survey the literature on multimodal training programs for the self-management of emotional stress. This report is an overview of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in this systematic review. Select programs such as mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management, Autogenic Training, Relaxation Response Training, and other meditation and mind-body skills practices are highlighted, and the feasibility of their implementation within military settings is addressed. PMID:24174982

  19. Chemical composition of rainbow trout urine following acute hypoxic stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, Joseph B.

    1969-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) were anesthetized with MS-222, catheterized, and introduced into urine collecting chambers. Twenty-four hours after introduction, a 4-hour accumulation of urine was collected to serve as the control. Water flow to the chambers was then discontinued for 30 minutes during which the oxygen content of the water exiting in the chamber dropped from 4.9 to 2.8 mg/l. Following this hypoxic stress fresh water was restored and accumulated urine samples were taken for analysis at 1, 4, and 20 hours post-hypoxic stress. Rainbow trout excrete abnormally high concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Cl, and inorganic PO4 following hypoxia.

  20. Emotional intelligence, life satisfaction and subjective happiness in female student health professionals: the mediating effect of perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aranda, D; Extremera, N; Pineda-Galán, C

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to extend previous findings by examining the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and well-being indicators (life satisfaction and happiness) in a 12-week follow-up study. In addition, we examined the influence of perceived stress on the relationship between EI and well-being. Female students from the School of Health Sciences (n = 264) completed an ability measure of emotional intelligence. After 12 weeks, participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Subjective Happiness Scale. Participants with higher EI reported less perceived stress and higher levels of life satisfaction and happiness. The results of this study suggest that perceived stress mediates the relationship between EI and well-being indicators, specifically life satisfaction and happiness. These findings suggest an underlying process by which high emotional intelligence may increase well-being in female students in nursing and allied health sciences by reducing the experience of stress. The implications of these findings for future research and for working with health professions to improve well-being outcomes are discussed.

  1. Dysregulation of Prefrontal Cortex-Mediated Slow-Evolving Limbic Dynamics Drives Stress-Induced Emotional Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Rainbo; Mague, Stephen D; Li, Qiang; Katz, Brittany M; Michel, Nadine; Lin, Lizhen; Wang, Joyce; David, Lisa K; Blount, Cameron; Chandy, Rithi; Carlson, David; Ulrich, Kyle; Carin, Lawrence; Dunson, David; Kumar, Sunil; Deisseroth, Karl; Moore, Scott D; Dzirasa, Kafui

    2016-07-20

    Circuits distributed across cortico-limbic brain regions compose the networks that mediate emotional behavior. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) regulates ultraslow (<1 Hz) dynamics across these networks, and PFC dysfunction is implicated in stress-related illnesses including major depressive disorder (MDD). To uncover the mechanism whereby stress-induced changes in PFC circuitry alter emotional networks to yield pathology, we used a multi-disciplinary approach including in vivo recordings in mice and chronic social defeat stress. Our network model, inferred using machine learning, linked stress-induced behavioral pathology to the capacity of PFC to synchronize amygdala and VTA activity. Direct stimulation of PFC-amygdala circuitry with DREADDs normalized PFC-dependent limbic synchrony in stress-susceptible animals and restored normal behavior. In addition to providing insights into MDD mechanisms, our findings demonstrate an interdisciplinary approach that can be used to identify the large-scale network changes that underlie complex emotional pathologies and the specific network nodes that can be used to develop targeted interventions. PMID:27346529

  2. Contribution of infralimbic cortex in the cardiovascular response to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia Camargos de Figueirêdo; Zaretsky, Dmitry V; Zaretskaia, Maria V; Santos, Robson A S; DiMicco, Joseph A; Fontes, Marco Antônio Peliky

    2012-09-15

    The infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (IL) modulates autonomic and neuroendocrine function via projections to subcortical structures involved in the response to stress. We evaluated the contribution of the IL to the cardiovascular response evoked by acute stress. Under anesthesia (80 mg/kg ketamine-11.5 mg/kg xylazine), rats were implanted with telemetry probes or arterial lines for recording heart rate and blood pressure. Guide cannulas were implanted to target the IL for microinjection of muscimol (100 pmol/100 nl), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) (6 pmol/100 nl), or vehicle (100 nl). Microinjection of muscimol, an agonist of GABA(A) receptors, into the IL had no effect on stress-evoked cardiovascular and thermogenic changes in any of the paradigms evaluated (cage switch, restraint plus air-jet noise, or air-jet stress). However, microinjection of the excitatory amino acid NMDA into the IL attenuated the pressor and tachycardic response to air-jet stress. Pretreatment with the selective NMDA antagonist dl-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5, 100 pmol/100 nl) blocked the effect of NMDA on the cardiovascular response to air-jet stress. We conclude that 1) the IL region is not tonically involved in cardiovascular or thermogenic control during stress or under baseline conditions, and 2) activation of NMDA receptors in the IL can suppress the cardiovascular response to acute stress exposure.

  3. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. PMID:25896419

  4. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  5. The Nature of Trauma Memories in Acute Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmond, C. H.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Glucksman, E.; Thompson, P.; Dalgleish, T.; Smith, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is increasing theoretical, clinical and research evidence for the role of trauma memory in the aetiology of acute pathological stress responses in adults. However, research into the phenomenology of trauma memories in young people is currently scarce. Methods: This study compared the nature of trauma narratives to narratives of…

  6. The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2005-01-01

    This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…

  7. Family Stress Management Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Educational and Skills Training Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…

  8. Acute exercise improves endothelial function despite increasing vascular resistance during stress in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rooks, Cherie R; McCully, Kevin K; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of acute exercise on flow mediated dilation (FMD) and reactivity to neurovascular challenges among female smokers and nonsmokers. FMD was determined by arterial diameter, velocity, and blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography after forearm occlusion. Those measures and blood pressure and heart rate were also assessed in response to forehead cold and the Stroop Color-Word Conflict Test (CWT) before and after 30 min of rest or an acute bout of cycling exercise (∼50% VO₂ peak). Baseline FMD and stress responses were not different between smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to passive rest, exercise increased FMD and decreased arterial velocity and blood flow responses during the Stroop CWT and forehead cold in both groups. Overall, acute exercise improved endothelial function among smokers and nonsmokers despite increasing vascular resistance and reducing limb blood flow during neurovascular stress. PMID:21457274

  9. Effect of acute heat stress on plant nutrient metabolism proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abrupt heating decreased the levels (per unit total root protein) of all but one of the nutrient metabolism proteins examined, and for most of the proteins, effects were greater for severe vs. moderate heat stress. For many of the nutrient metabolism proteins, initial effects of heat (1 d) were r...

  10. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  11. Effects of several degrees of chronic social defeat stress on emotional and spatial memory in CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Monleón, Santiago; Duque, Aranzazu; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the effects of several degrees of CSDS (Chronic Social Defeat Stress) on emotional and spatial memory in mice were evaluated in separate experiments. Male CD1 mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n=10-12) for each experiment: NS (non-stressed), S5, S10 and S20 (5, 10 and 20 sessions of CSDS, respectively). The S groups underwent the corresponding number of agonistic encounters (10min each) over a 20-day period. 24h after the last session of CSDS, mice performed the inhibitory avoidance (Experiment 1) or the Morris water maze test (Experiment 2). In both experiments, animals were also evaluated in the elevated plus maze for 5min to obtain complementary measures of locomotor activity and emotionality. The results showed that the highest degree of CSDS had impairing effects on inhibitory avoidance, while there were no significant differences between groups in the water maze. The S20 group exhibited higher anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze. No variations in locomotor activity were observed in any experiment. In conclusion, CSDS has a greater impact on emotional memory than on spatial memory. These negative effects of CSDS on memory do not seem to be secondary to the motor or emotional effects of stress.

  12. Effects of several degrees of chronic social defeat stress on emotional and spatial memory in CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Monleón, Santiago; Duque, Aranzazu; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the effects of several degrees of CSDS (Chronic Social Defeat Stress) on emotional and spatial memory in mice were evaluated in separate experiments. Male CD1 mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n=10-12) for each experiment: NS (non-stressed), S5, S10 and S20 (5, 10 and 20 sessions of CSDS, respectively). The S groups underwent the corresponding number of agonistic encounters (10min each) over a 20-day period. 24h after the last session of CSDS, mice performed the inhibitory avoidance (Experiment 1) or the Morris water maze test (Experiment 2). In both experiments, animals were also evaluated in the elevated plus maze for 5min to obtain complementary measures of locomotor activity and emotionality. The results showed that the highest degree of CSDS had impairing effects on inhibitory avoidance, while there were no significant differences between groups in the water maze. The S20 group exhibited higher anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze. No variations in locomotor activity were observed in any experiment. In conclusion, CSDS has a greater impact on emotional memory than on spatial memory. These negative effects of CSDS on memory do not seem to be secondary to the motor or emotional effects of stress. PMID:26679824

  13. A Minority StressEmotion Regulation Model of Sexual Compulsivity among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Restar, Arjee; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual compulsivity represents a significant public health concern among gay and bisexual men given its co-occurrence with other mental health problems and HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to examine a model of sexual compulsivity based on minority stress theory and emotion regulation models of mental health among gay and bisexual men. Method Gay and bisexual men in New York City reporting at least nine past-90-day sexual partners (n = 374) completed measures of distal minority stressors (i.e., boyhood gender nonconformity and peer rejection, adulthood perceived discrimination), hypothesized proximal minority stress mediators (i.e., rejection sensitivity, internalized homonegativity), hypothesized universal mediators (i.e., emotion dysregulation, depression and anxiety), and sexual compulsivity. Results The hypothesized model fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.95, SRMR = 0.03). Distal minority stress processes (e.g., peer rejection) were generally found to confer risk for both proximal minority stressors (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and emotion dysregulation. Proximal minority stressors and emotion dysregulation, in turn, generally predicted sexual compulsivity both directly and indirectly through anxiety and depression. Conclusions The final model suggests that gay-specific (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and universal (e.g., emotion dysregulation) processes represent potential treatment targets to attenuate the impact of minority stress on gay and bisexual men's sexual health. Tests of interventions that address these targets to treat sexual compulsivity among gay and bisexual men represent a promising future research endeavor. PMID:25528179

  14. Assessment of Mental, Emotional and Physical Stress through Analysis of Physiological Signals Using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Mohino-Herranz, Inma; Gil-Pita, Roberto; Ferreira, Javier; Rosa-Zurera, Manuel; Seoane, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Determining the stress level of a subject in real time could be of special interest in certain professional activities to allow the monitoring of soldiers, pilots, emergency personnel and other professionals responsible for human lives. Assessment of current mental fitness for executing a task at hand might avoid unnecessary risks. To obtain this knowledge, two physiological measurements were recorded in this work using customized non-invasive wearable instrumentation that measures electrocardiogram (ECG) and thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) signals. The relevant information from each measurement is extracted via evaluation of a reduced set of selected features. These features are primarily obtained from filtered and processed versions of the raw time measurements with calculations of certain statistical and descriptive parameters. Selection of the reduced set of features was performed using genetic algorithms, thus constraining the computational cost of the real-time implementation. Different classification approaches have been studied, but neural networks were chosen for this investigation because they represent a good tradeoff between the intelligence of the solution and computational complexity. Three different application scenarios were considered. In the first scenario, the proposed system is capable of distinguishing among different types of activity with a 21.2% probability error, for activities coded as neutral, emotional, mental and physical. In the second scenario, the proposed solution distinguishes among the three different emotional states of neutral, sadness and disgust, with a probability error of 4.8%. In the third scenario, the system is able to distinguish between low mental load and mental overload with a probability error of 32.3%. The computational cost was calculated, and the solution was implemented in commercially available Android-based smartphones. The results indicate that execution of such a monitoring solution is negligible

  15. Assessment of Mental, Emotional and Physical Stress through Analysis of Physiological Signals Using Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Mohino-Herranz, Inma; Gil-Pita, Roberto; Ferreira, Javier; Rosa-Zurera, Manuel; Seoane, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Determining the stress level of a subject in real time could be of special interest in certain professional activities to allow the monitoring of soldiers, pilots, emergency personnel and other professionals responsible for human lives. Assessment of current mental fitness for executing a task at hand might avoid unnecessary risks. To obtain this knowledge, two physiological measurements were recorded in this work using customized non-invasive wearable instrumentation that measures electrocardiogram (ECG) and thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) signals. The relevant information from each measurement is extracted via evaluation of a reduced set of selected features. These features are primarily obtained from filtered and processed versions of the raw time measurements with calculations of certain statistical and descriptive parameters. Selection of the reduced set of features was performed using genetic algorithms, thus constraining the computational cost of the real-time implementation. Different classification approaches have been studied, but neural networks were chosen for this investigation because they represent a good tradeoff between the intelligence of the solution and computational complexity. Three different application scenarios were considered. In the first scenario, the proposed system is capable of distinguishing among different types of activity with a 21.2% probability error, for activities coded as neutral, emotional, mental and physical. In the second scenario, the proposed solution distinguishes among the three different emotional states of neutral, sadness and disgust, with a probability error of 4.8%. In the third scenario, the system is able to distinguish between low mental load and mental overload with a probability error of 32.3%. The computational cost was calculated, and the solution was implemented in commercially available Android-based smartphones. The results indicate that execution of such a monitoring solution is negligible

  16. Increase of peripheral type benzodiazepine binding sites in kidney and olfactory bulb in acutely stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Novas, M L; Medina, J H; Calvo, D; De Robertis, E

    1987-03-17

    Fifteen minutes after the initiation of swimming stress in the rat we observed a 50% increase in the number of [3H]RO 5-4864 binding sites in kidney and a 37% increase in the olfactory bulb, without change in affinity. The binding in heart and cerebral cortex remained unchanged after the stress. These results are discussed in relation to previous work on both the action of an acute stress in central benzodiazepine receptors and the possible modulation of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors of the kidney by adrenocortical hormones.

  17. [Influence of chronic emotional stress on the behaviour in "open field" test of rats with different level of motor activity].

    PubMed

    Shever'ova, V M

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on 41 Wistar mail rats with body weight of 180 - 200 g. It was shown that in 'open field' the rats differed in the level of motional activity. Independently from level of locomotion investigated groups of rats were dissimilar at the criterions for "emotionality" and latent period of go out from the centr of "field". Prolonged neurogen stress rendered various (modulating) influence on the behaviour of the rats in'open field' that was depended from their start level of activity. In the lowactive rats stress in the main activated the motional and searching components of behaviour against a background of some decrease of the acts of defecation. In the meanactive rats stress increased the frequency of rearing and strengthened excretion function and in the highactive of rats stress reduced the quantity of horizontal moving and lowered the thresholds of reactions of rats on the skin electrical stimulation, facilitated increase in these of rats the level of "emotionality". Direction of changes of the time go out from the centr of "field" in each tested group basically depended by its start indexes and on peak of stress action had reverse dependence. It is supposed that changes of behaviour of rats in the "open field" under corresponding intensity of stress may be caused as by neuroendokrine changes as by stress damage of brain structures.

  18. Acute stress eliminates female advantage in detection of ambiguous negative affect.

    PubMed

    DeDora, Daniel J; Carlson, Joshua M; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2011-11-15

    The human stress response evolved to maximize an individual's probability of survival when threatened. The present study addressed whether physical danger modulates perception of an unrelated ambiguous threat and, if so, to what extent this response is sex- specific. The authors utilized a first-time tandem skydive as a stressor, which had been previously validated as producing a highly-controlled, genuinely stressful environment. In a counter-balanced within-subjects design, participants wore a virtual reality helmet to complete an emotion-identification task during the plane's ascent (stress condition) and in the laboratory (control condition). Participants were presented static male faces morphed between 20-80% aggression, which gradually emerged from degraded images. Using a binary forced-choice design, participants identified each ambiguous face as aggressive or neutral. Results showed that participants characterized emotion more rapidly under stress versus control conditions. Unexpectedly, the results also show that while women were more sensitive to affect ambiguity than men under control conditions, they exhibited a marked decrease in sensitivity equivalent to men while under stress.

  19. Stress and parental care: Prolactin responses to acute stress throughout the breeding cycle in a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Riou, Samuel; Chastel, Olivier; Lacroix, André; Hamer, Keith C

    2010-08-01

    While the role of corticosterone in mediating the response of birds to acute stress is well established, it has recently been proposed that a decrease in prolactin levels following stress may complement corticosterone in redirecting resources away from breeding activities and towards behaviors promoting immediate survival. Here, for the first time, we detail changes in the prolactin stress response of birds throughout the breeding cycle. We then discuss the modulation of the corticosterone and prolactin stress responses over successive stages of breeding, differing in reproductive value and parental effort. In a long-lived Procellariiform seabird, the Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus, we found that prolactin levels decreased in response to acute stress during incubation and mid chick-rearing but increased in response to stress during late chick-rearing and in non parenting birds, a pattern similar to that previously described for mammals. The high corticosterone stress response in pre-breeders was consistent with predictions based on reproductive value, but a similar response during late chick-rearing was not. This probably reflected foraging effort and a heightened importance of the parents' own nutritional status at this stage of the season, in advance of post-breeding migration. We also found that baseline prolactin levels were maintained at high levels during chick-rearing and were only slightly lower during late chick-rearing and in failed breeders and non-breeders. These data suggest that prolactin may play a role in nestling care long beyond the brooding phase, that this is not due to birds spending long periods away from the colony and that prolactin secretion may be necessary for nest-guarding behavior.

  20. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis. PMID:25016451

  1. Guilt is associated with acute stress symptoms in children after road traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Ann-Christin; Zehnder, Daniel; Landolt, Markus A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although previous research has consistently found considerable rates of acute stress disorder (ASD) in children with accidental injuries, knowledge about determinants of ASD remains incomplete. Guilt is a common reaction among children after a traumatic event and has been shown to contribute to posttraumatic stress disorder. However, its relationship to ASD has never been examined. Objective This study assessed the prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents following road traffic accidents (RTAs). Moreover, the association between peritraumatic guilt and ASD was investigated relying on current cognitive theories of posttraumatic stress and controlling for female sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), injury severity, inpatient treatment, pretrauma psychopathology, and maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Methods One hundred and one children and adolescents (aged 7–16 years) were assessed by means of a clinical interview approximately 10 days after an RTA. Mothers were assessed by questionnaires. Results Three participants (3.0%) met diagnostic criteria for full ASD according to DSM-IV, and 17 (16.8%) for subsyndromal ASD. In a multivariate regression model, guilt was found to be a significant predictor of ASD severity. Female sex, outpatient treatment, and maternal PTSS also predicted ASD severity. Child age, SES, injury severity, and pretraumatic child psychopathology were not related to ASD severity. Conclusions Future research should examine the association between peritraumatic guilt and acute stress symptoms in more detail. Moreover, guilt appraisals in the acute phase after an accident might be a relevant target for clinical attention. PMID:26514158

  2. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis.

  3. Having your cake and eating it too: A habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases mesenteric fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of...

  4. Stress and adaptation responses to repeated acute acceleration.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Study in which groups of adult male chickens (single-comb white leghorn) were exposed daily to acceleration (centrifugation) of 2 or 3 G for 10 min, 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 hr (continuously), or 0 time (controls). After approximately five months of this intermittent treatment (training), the birds were exposed to continuous accelerations of the same G force (intensity). The degree of stress and adaptation of each bird was determined by survival and relative lymphocyte count criteria. Intermittent training exposures of 2 G developed levels of adaptation in birds directly proportional to the duration of their daily exposure. Intermittent training periods at 3 G, however, produced a physiological deterioration in birds receiving daily exposures of 8 hr or more. Adaptive benefits were found only in the 1- and 4-hr-daily intermittent 3-G exposure groups. Exposure to 3 G produced an immediate stress response as indicated by a low relative lymphocyte count which returned to control (preexposed) values prior to the next daily acceleration period in the 10-min, 1-hr, and 4-hr groups. This daily recovery period from stress appeared to be necessary for adaptation as opposed to deterioration for the more severe environmental (3 G) alteration.

  5. Abducted by the illness: a qualitative study of traumatic stress in individuals with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nissim, Rinat; Zimmermann, Camilla; Minden, Mark; Rydall, Anne; Yuen, Dora; Mischitelle, Ashley; Gagliese, Lucia; Schimmer, Aaron; Rodin, Gary

    2013-05-01

    Symptoms of traumatic stress are common in acute leukemia. The goal of the present qualitative study was to understand this traumatic stress, as perceived by patients. Participants were 43 patients with acute leukemia in Toronto, Canada. Participants were asked in serial interviews about their experience of diagnosis and treatment. A total of 65 interviews were analyzed utilizing the grounded theory method. Our findings provide insight into the traumatic experience of the diagnosis and treatment, as well as the initial psychological response to this trauma. Patients coped by surrendering control to the medical team, in whom they felt great trust. Patients also expressed a strong preference for limited information, with a preference to avoid discussions about overall prognosis. These results may inform interventions to relieve traumatic stress in this high risk population.

  6. Abducted by the illness: A qualitative study of traumatic stress in individuals with acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nissim, Rinat; Zimmermann, Camilla; Minden, Mark; Rydall, Anne; Yuen, Dora; Mischitelle, Ashley; Gagliese, Lucia; Schimmer, Aaron; Rodin, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of traumatic stress are common in acute leukemia. The goal of the present qualitative study was to understand this traumatic stress, as perceived by patients. Participants were 43 patients with acute leukemia in Toronto, Canada. Participants were asked in serial interviews about their experience of diagnosis and treatment. A total of 65 interviews were analyzed utilizing the grounded theory method. Our findings provide insight into the traumatic experience of the diagnosis and treatment, as well as the initial psychological response to this trauma. Patients coped by surrendering control to the medical team, in whom they felt great trust. Patients also expressed a strong preference for limited information, with a preference to avoid discussions about overall prognosis. These results may inform interventions to relieve traumatic stress in this high risk population. PMID:23352641

  7. Adrenal response to acute stress in mammillary medial nuclei lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Suarez, M; Perassi, N I

    1993-01-01

    In view of the inhibitory influence of Mammillary Medial Nuclei, pars lateralis (MMN) on corticoadrenal activity, experiments were conducted in order to determine whether these nuclei are involved in the control of adrenal response to ether stress. In bilateral MMN lesioned rats, prestress plasma corticosterone concentration (C) is significantly higher than that in sham lesioned animals. Acute stress produced a significant C increase in both, sham and lesioned rats, being this increase lower in lesioned animals. After exposure to ether vapors. adrenal concentration of norepinephrine was similar in lesioned and control animals. Whereas, adrenal epinephrine concentration was significantly higher in lesioned rats than that found in the sham lesioned ones. This study demonstrates that the integrity of MMN is not essential for adrenal response to acute stress.

  8. Acute stress increases neuropsin mRNA expression in the mouse hippocampus through the glucocorticoid pathway.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akiko; Shiosaka, Sadao; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Komai, Shoji

    2008-05-01

    Stress affects synaptic plasticity and may alter various types of behaviour, including anxiety or memory formation. In the present study, we examined the effects of acute stress (1 h restraint with or without tail-shock) on mRNA levels of a plasticity-related serine protease neuropsin (NP) in the hippocampus using semiquantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. We found that NP mRNA expression was dramatically increased shortly after exposure to the acute restraint tail-shock stress and remained at high level for at least 24 h. The level of NP mRNA would be correlated to the elevated plasma concentration of the glucocorticoid corticosterone (CORT) and to the stress intensity. Application of CORT either onto primary cultured hippocampal neurons (5 nM) or in vivo to adrenalectomized (ADX) mice (10 mg/kg B.W., s.c.) mimicked the effect of stress and significantly elevated NP mRNA. These results suggest that the upregulation of NP mRNA after stress is CORT-dependent and point to a role for neuropsin in stress-induced neuronal plasticity.

  9. Acute stress-related changes in eating in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Rutters, Femke; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-01-01

    Obesity results from chronic deregulation of energy balance, which may in part be caused by stress. Our objective was to investigate the effect of acute and psychological stress on food intake, using the eating in the absence of hunger paradigm, in normal and overweight men and women (while taking dietary restraint and disinhibition into account). In 129 subjects (BMI = 24.5 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2) and age = 27.6 +/- 8.8 years), scores were determined on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (dietary restraint = 7.2 +/- 4.4; disinhibition = 4.5 +/- 2.6; feeling of hunger = 3.9 +/- 2.6) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait score = 31.7 +/- 24.2). In a randomized crossover design, the "eating in absence of hunger" protocol was measured as a function of acute stress vs. a control task and of state anxiety scores. Energy intake from sweet foods (708.1 kJ vs. 599.4 kJ, P < 0.03) and total energy intake (965.2 kJ vs. 793.8 kJ, P < 0.01) were significantly higher in the stress condition compared to the control condition. Differences in energy intake between the stress and control condition were a function of increase in state anxiety scores during the stress task (Delta state anxiety scores) (R(2) = 0.05, P < 0.01). This positive relationship was stronger in subjects with high disinhibition scores (R(2) = 0.12, P < 0.05). Differences in state anxiety scores were a function of trait anxiety scores (R(2) = 0.07, P < 0.05). We conclude that acute psychological stress is associated with eating in the absence of hunger, especially in vulnerable individuals characterized by disinhibited eating behavior and sensitivity to chronic stress. PMID:18997672

  10. [Stress reactions among bus drivers: towards the development of an educational resource for better management of emotions].

    PubMed

    Nakai, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Kazuhisa

    2014-10-01

    Interview and questionnaire surveys were conducted with bus drivers in Japan, with the goal of developing an educational program for better control of emotions among bus drivers. The interviews aimed at identifying stressors and ways in which stress negatively influenced bus services. The questionnaire survey. which was being developed as a self-diagnosis tool, further provided bus drivers with the opportunity to understand their own emotional tendencies. Factor analysis identified six factors underlying work-related stress: anger at unsafe behaviours of nearby road users, irritation caused by complaints from passengers, time pressures, anxiety about traffic accidents, impatience with slow passengers, and resentment of bad-mannered passengers. The influence of stress on the drivers comprised four factors: cognitive failure, sullen behaviour, abrupt acceleration/deceleration, and aggressive driving. Moreover, drivers with lower stress were relatively older and more experienced. Based on these results, educational materials were proposed with the aim of enhancing bus drivers' understanding of their emotional processes and coping skills.

  11. A Prospective Investigation of Emotion Dysregulation as a Moderator of the Relation between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Substance Use Severity

    PubMed Central

    Tull, Matthew T.; Bardeen, Joseph R.; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri; Gratz, Kim L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite strong evidence for an association between the experience of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and substance use, little is known about the particular individuals most at-risk for problematic substance use in response to PTS symptoms. Consequently, the goal of this study was to conduct a prospective investigation of the moderating role of emotion dysregulation (assessed through self-report and behavioral measures) in the relation between PTS symptoms and substance use 8-months later within a sample of 106 young adult women. No main effect of PTS symptoms on substance use was found. Instead, PTS symptoms were only associated with later substance use in the context of heightened emotion dysregulation. Results provide support for emotion dysregulation as a key factor that may increase risk for substance use among women experiencing PTS symptoms and highlight a target for future interventions aimed at reducing risk for the development of maladaptive behaviors stemming from PTS symptoms. PMID:25483275

  12. The effects of forgiveness therapy on depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress for women after spousal emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Reed, Gayle L; Enright, Robert D

    2006-10-01

    Emotionally abused women experience negative psychological outcomes long after the abusive spousal relationship has ended. This study compares forgiveness therapy (FT) with an alternative treatment (AT; anger validation, assertiveness, interpersonal skill building) for emotionally abused women who had been permanently separated for 2 or more years (M = 5.00 years, SD = 2.61; n = 10 per group). Participants, who were matched, yoked, and randomized to treatment group, met individually with the intervener. Mean intervention time was 7.95 months (SD = 2.61). The relative efficacy of FT and AT was assessed at p < .05. Participants in FT experienced significantly greater improvement than AT participants in depression, trait anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptoms, self-esteem, forgiveness, environmental mastery, and finding meaning in suffering, with gains maintained at follow-up (M = 8.35 months, SD = 1.53). FT has implications for the long-term recovery of postrelationship emotionally abused women. PMID:17032096

  13. The effect of acute tyrosine phenylalanine depletion on emotion-based decision-making in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Wahlstrom, Dustin; White, Tonya; Luciana, Monica

    2013-04-01

    Despite interest in dopamine's role in emotion-based decision-making, few reports of the effects of dopamine manipulations are available in this area in humans. This study investigates dopamine's role in emotion-based decision-making through a common measure of this construct, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), using Acute Tyrosine Phenylalanine Depletion (ATPD). In a between-subjects design, 40 healthy adults were randomized to receive either an ATPD beverage or a balanced amino acid beverage (a control) prior to completing the IGT, as well as pre- and post-manipulation blood draws for the neurohormone prolactin. Together with conventional IGT performance metrics, choice selections and response latencies were examined separately for good and bad choices before and after several key punishment events. Changes in response latencies were also used to predict total task performance. Prolactin levels increased significantly in the ATPD group but not in the control group. However, no significant group differences in performance metrics were detected, nor were there sex differences in outcome measures. However, the balanced group's bad deck latencies speeded up across the task, while the ATPD group's latencies remained adaptively hesitant. Additionally, modulation of latencies to the bad decks predicted total score for the ATPD group only. One interpretation is that ATPD subtly attenuated reward salience and altered the approach by which individuals achieved successful performance, without resulting in frank group differences in task performance.

  14. Early Life Stress and Trauma and Enhanced Limbic Activation to Emotionally Valenced Faces in Depressed and Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideo; Luby, Joan L.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Dietrich, Rachel; McAvoy, Mark P.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have examined the relationships between structural brain characteristics and early life stress in adults. However, there is limited evidence for functional brain variation associated with early life stress in children. We hypothesized that early life stress and trauma would be associated with increased functional brain activation to negative emotional faces in children with and without a history of depression. Method Psychiatric diagnosis and life events in children (starting at ages 3–5) were assessed in a longitudinal study. A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study acquired data (N = 115 at ages 7–12, 51% female) on functional brain response to fearful, sad, and happy faces relative to neutral faces. We used a region of interest (ROI) mask within cortico-limbic areas and conducted regression analyses and repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results Greater activations to fearful, sad, and happy faces in the amygdala and its neighboring regions were found in children with higher life stress. Moreover, an association between life stress and left hippocampal and globus pallidus activity depended on children's diagnostic status. Finally, all children with higher life trauma showed greater bilateral amygdala and cingulate activity specific to sad faces, but not the other emotional faces, although right amygdala activity was moderated by psychiatric status. Conclusions These findings may suggest that limbic hyperactivity is a biomarker of early life stress and trauma in children and may have implications in the risk trajectory for depression and other stress-related disorders. However, this pattern varied based on emotion type and history of psychopathology. PMID:24954829

  15. [Clinical manifestation of acute pancreatitis in children with caustic ingestion injury - the role of oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Brankov, O; Shivachev, Kh; Drebov, R; Dumanov, K

    2007-01-01

    For a 10 years period (1996-2005) 66 children with severe caustic injuries of the esophagus and stomach were admitted at the Department of Pediatric Surgery. Subject of this article are 17 children with clinical, laboratory and intraoperative proven acute pancreatitis. The patients were admitted at the clinic 12 hours to 12 days after the ingestion of the corrosive agent. Fifteen of them underwent surgery and different surgical procedures were performed - gastric resection, transhiatal esophagectomy, gastrectomy, gastrostomy. In all patients were found elevated levels of alpha-amilase in blood serum and urine as well as elevated CRP in blood serum. Clinically manifested acute pancreatitis was diagnosed on ultrasound studies and laparotomy. The newest theories about the genesis of acute pancreatitis emphasize on the role of oxidative stress. Experimental models suggest that burn trauma (thermal or chemical) cause critical increase of free oxygen radicals and lipid peroxydation products in the tissue of the damaged organ and the bloodstream. The local tissue damage leads to release of inflammatory mediators which enter the bloodstream and cause distant organs damage of - lung, liver, kidneys and pancreas. In this preliminary report the authors discuss the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in children with acute corrosive ingestion injury of the esophagus and stomach. We call this phenomenon " caustic " oxidative stress. This is the first scientific report on this topic in the reviewed literature.

  16. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of Child Acute Stress Measures in Spanish and English

    PubMed Central

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I.; Montaño, Zorash; Kohser, Kristen L.; Cuadra, Anai; Muñoz, Cynthia; Armstrong, F. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers need tools for accurate early assessment of children’s acute stress reactions and acute stress disorder (ASD). There is a particular need for independently validated Spanish-language measures. The current study reports on 2 measures of child acute stress (a self-report checklist and a semi-structured interview), describing the development of the Spanish version of each measure and psychometric evaluation of both the Spanish and English versions. Children between the ages of 8 to 17 years who had experienced a recent traumatic event completed study measures in Spanish (n = 225) or in English (n = 254). Results provide support for reliability (internal consistency of the measures in both languages ranges from .83 to .89; cross-language reliability of the checklist is .93) and for convergent validity (with later PTSD symptoms, and with concurrent anxiety symptoms). Comparing checklist and interview results revealed a strong association between severity scores within the Spanish and English samples. Checklist-interview differences in evaluating the presence of ASD appear to be linked to different content coverage for dissociation symptoms. Future studies should further assess the impact of differing assessment modes, content coverage, and the use of these measures in children with diverse types of acute trauma exposure in English- and Spanish-speaking children. PMID:23371337

  17. Encoding negative events under stress: high subjective arousal is related to accurate emotional memory despite misinformation exposure.

    PubMed

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; LaBar, Kevin S; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W Jake; Nadel, Lynn

    2014-07-01

    Stress at encoding affects memory processes, typically enhancing, or preserving, memory for emotional information. These effects have interesting implications for eyewitness accounts, which in real-world contexts typically involve encoding an aversive event under stressful conditions followed by potential exposure to misinformation. The present study investigated memory for a negative event encoded under stress and subsequent misinformation endorsement. Healthy young adults participated in a between-groups design with three experimental sessions conducted 48 h apart. Session one consisted of a psychosocial stress induction (or control task) followed by incidental encoding of a negative slideshow. During session two, participants were asked questions about the slideshow, during which a random subgroup was exposed to misinformation. Memory for the slideshow was tested during the third session. Assessment of memory accuracy across stress and no-stress groups revealed that stress induced just prior to encoding led to significantly better memory for the slideshow overall. The classic misinformation effect was also observed - participants exposed to misinformation were significantly more likely to endorse false information during memory testing. In the stress group, however, memory accuracy and misinformation effects were moderated by arousal experienced during encoding of the negative event. Misinformed-stress group participants who reported that the negative slideshow elicited high arousal during encoding were less likely to endorse misinformation for the most aversive phase of the story. Furthermore, these individuals showed better memory for components of the aversive slideshow phase that had been directly misinformed. Results from the current study provide evidence that stress and high subjective arousal elicited by a negative event act concomitantly during encoding to enhance emotional memory such that the most aversive aspects of the event are well remembered and

  18. Differential Effects of Acute Stress on Anticipatory and Consummatory Phases of Reward Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Poornima; Berghorst, Lisa H.; Nickerson, Lisa D.; Dutra, Sunny J.; Goer, Franziska; Greve, Douglas; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    Anhedonia is one of the core symptoms of depression and has been linked to blunted responses to rewarding stimuli in striatal regions. Stress, a key vulnerability factor for depression, has been shown to induce anhedonic behavior, including reduced reward responsiveness in both animals and humans, but the brain processes associated with these effects remain largely unknown in humans. Emerging evidence suggests that stress has dissociable effects on distinct components of reward processing, as it has been found to potentiate motivation/‘wanting’ during the anticipatory phase but reduce reward responsiveness/‘liking’ during the consummatory phase. To examine the impact of stress on reward processing, we used a monetary incentive delay (MID) task and an acute stress manipulation (negative performance feedback) in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy participants performed the MID task under no-stress and stress conditions. We hypothesized that stress would have dissociable effects on the anticipatory and consummatory phases in reward-related brain regions. Specifically, we expected reduced striatal responsiveness during reward consumption (mirroring patterns previously observed in clinical depression) and increased striatal activation during reward anticipation consistent with non-human findings. Supporting our hypotheses, significant Phase (Anticipation/Consumption) x Stress (Stress/No-stress) interactions emerged in the putamen, nucleus accumbens, caudate and amygdala. Post-hoc tests revealed that stress increased striatal and amygdalar activation during anticipation but decreased striatal activation during consumption. Importantly, stress-induced striatal blunting was similar to the profile observed in clinical depression under baseline (no-stress) conditions in prior studies. Given that stress is a pivotal vulnerability factor for depression, these results offer insight to better understand the etiology of this

  19. Reported exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors: the roles of adult age and global perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Robert S; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M

    2008-03-01

    A central goal of daily stress research is to identify resilience and vulnerability factors associated with exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. The present study examined how age differences and global perceptions of stress relate to exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Sixty-seven younger (M age = 20) and 116 older (M age = 80) adults completed a daily stress diary and measures of positive and negative affect on 6 days over a 14-day period. Participants also completed a measure of global perceived stress. Results revealed that reported exposure to daily stressors is reduced in old age but that emotional reactivity to daily stressors did not differ between younger and older adults. Global perceived stress was associated with greater reported exposure to daily stressors in older adults and greater stress-related increases in negative affect in younger adults. Furthermore, across days on which daily stressors were reported, intraindividual variability in the number and severity of stressors reported was associated with increased negative affect, but only among younger adults. PMID:18361654

  20. Involvement of dorsal hippocampus glutamatergic and nitrergic neurotransmission in autonomic responses evoked by acute restraint stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Moraes-Neto, T B; Scopinho, A A; Biojone, C; Corrêa, F M A; Resstel, L B M

    2014-01-31

    The dorsal hippocampus (DH) is a structure of the limbic system that is involved in emotional, learning and memory processes. There is evidence indicating that the DH modulates cardiovascular correlates of behavioral responses to stressful stimuli. Acute restraint stress (RS) is an unavoidable stress situation that evokes marked and sustained autonomic changes, which are characterized by elevated blood pressure (BP), intense heart rate (HR) increase and a decrease in cutaneous temperature. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor/nitric oxide (NO) pathway of the DH in the modulation of autonomic (arterial BP, HR and tail skin temperature) responses evoked by RS in rats. Bilateral microinjection of the NMDA receptor antagonist AP-7 (10 nmol/500 nL) into the DH attenuated RS-evoked autonomic responses. Moreover, RS evoked an increase in the content of NO₂/NO₃ in the DH, which are products of the spontaneous oxidation of NO under physiological conditions that can provide an indirect measurement of NO production. Bilateral microinjection of N-propyl-L-arginine (0.1 nmol/500 nL; N-propyl, a neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) inhibitor) or carboxy-PTIO (2 nmol/500 nL; c-PTIO, an NO scavenger) into the DH also attenuated autonomic responses evoked by RS. Therefore, our findings suggest that a glutamatergic system present in the DH is involved in the autonomic modulation during RS, acting via NMDA receptors and nNOS activation. Furthermore, the present results suggest that NMDA receptor/nNO activation has a facilitatory influence on RS-evoked autonomic responses. PMID:24269610

  1. The first histological demonstration of pancreatic oxidative stress in human acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Telek, G; Regöly-Mérei, J; Kovács, G C; Simon, L; Nagy, Z; Hamar, J; Jakab, F

    2001-01-01

    Necrotizing acute pancreatitis is associated with an inflammatory explosion involving numerous pro-inflammatory mediator cascades and oxidative stress. Acinar oxygen free radical production aggravates pancreatic tissue damage, and promotes cellular adhesion molecule upregulation resulting in leukocyte adherence and activation. The cerium capture oxygen free radical histochemistry combined with reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy allows the "in situ" histological demonstration of oxygen free radical formation in live tissues. Here we present a case report, where oxidative stress is demonstrated on a histological level for the first time in human acute pancreatitis. A 44-year-old male patient suffering from acute exacerbation of his chronic pancreatitis developed a pancreato-pleural fistula with amylase-rich left pleural exudate causing respiratory compromise. Subsequent to an urgent thoracic decompression a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed with the closure of abdomino-thoracic fistula. The postoperative course was uneventful, except for a transient pancreatico-cutaneous fistula, which healed after conservative treatment. To carry out cerium capture oxygen free radical histochemistry the resected pancreas specimen was readily perfused with cerium-chloride solution through the arteries on the resection surface. Frozen sections were cut, E-, P-selectin, ICAM