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Sample records for acute erythroleukemia m6

  1. Kefir induces apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation in human acute erythroleukemia.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Mohammadreza; Salehi, Rasoul

    2016-01-01

    Acute erythroleukemia is an uncommon subtype of acute myeloid leukemia which has been considered to be a subtype of AML with a worse prognosis. Intensive chemotherapy is the first line of treatment. In recent years, the effect of kefir on some malignancies has been experimented. Kefir is a kind of beverage, which obtained by incubation of kefir grains with raw milk. Kefir grains are a symbiotic complex of different kinds of yeasts and bacteria, especially lactic acid bacteria which gather in a mostly carbohydrate matrix, named kefiran. We investigated the effect of kefir on acute erythroleukemia cell line (KG-1) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The cell line and PBMCs were treated with different doses of kefir and milk and incubated for three different times. We used Polymixin B to block the lipopolysaccharide and NaOH (1 mol/l) to neutralize the acidic media. Viability was detected by MTT assay. Apoptosis and necrosis were assessed by annexin-propidium iodide staining. Our results showed that kefir induced apoptosis and necrosis in KG-1 cell line. It was revealed that kefir decreased proliferation in erythroleukemia cell line. We did not observe a remarkable effect of kefir on PBMCs. Our study suggested that kefir may have potential to be an effective treatment for erythroleukemia.

  2. Acute guttate psoriasis patients have positive streptococcus hemolyticus throat cultures and elevated antistreptococcal M6 protein titers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang; Feng, Xiaoling; Na, Aihua; Yongqiang, Jiang; Cai, Qing; Kong, Jian; Ma, Huijun

    2005-02-01

    To further study the role of Streptococci hemolyticus infection and streptococcal M6 protein in the pathogenesis of acute guttate psoriasis, streptococcal cultures were taken from the throats of 68 patients with acute guttate psoriasis. PCR technique was applied to detect M6 protein encoding DNA from those cultured streptococci. Pure M6 protein was obtained by Sephacry/S-200HR and Mono-Q chromatography from proliferated Streptococcus hemolyticus. Antistreptococcal M6 protein titers were measured in the serum of patients with acute guttate psoriasis, plaque psoriasis and healthy controls by ELISA. A high incidence of Streptococcus hemolyticus culture was observed in the guttate psoriatic group compared with the plaque psoriasis and control groups. Fourteen strains of Streptococcus hemolyticus were cultured from the throats of 68 acute guttate psoriasis patients. Of these, 5 strains contain DNA encoding the M6 protein gene as confirmed by PCR technique. More than 85% purification of M6 protein was obtained from Streptococcus pyogenes. Applying our pure M6 protein with the ELISA methods, we found that the titer of antistreptococcal M6 protein was significantly higher in the serum of guttate psoriasis patients than in the control or plaque psoriasis groups (P < 0.01). We verified that patients of acute guttate psoriasis have a high incidence of Streptococcus hemolyticus in their throats and raised titers of antistreptococcal M6 protein in their sera.

  3. Biomarkers in Bone Marrow Samples From Pediatric Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-17

    Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  4. Bortezomib in Treating Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-30

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  5. Tipifarnib in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-22

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Cellular Diagnosis, Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  6. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without PSC 833, Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation, and/or Interleukin-2 in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  7. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Down Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  8. Caspofungin Acetate or Fluconazole in Preventing Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-23

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Fungal Infection; Neutropenia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  9. Lenalidomide in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-25

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  11. Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  12. Identification of de Novo Fanconi Anemia in Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-13

    Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Fanconi Anemia; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  13. Eltrombopag Olamine in Improving Platelet Recovery in Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  14. Bortezomib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Refractory, or Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-13

    Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-08

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  16. Tipifarnib and Etoposide in Treating Older Patients With Newly Diagnosed, Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  17. Alvocidib, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-14

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. Alvocidib, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  19. Idarubicin, Cytarabine, and Tipifarnib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-09

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  20. Omacetaxine Mepesuccinate, Cytarabine, and Decitabine in Treating Older Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-05

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  1. Eltrombopag Olamine in Treating Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-04

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  2. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Bone Marrow Transplantation in Treating Children With Acute Myelogenous Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  3. Trebananib With or Without Low-Dose Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-25

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  4. Entinostat and Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors or Refractory or Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-18

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  5. Clofarabine, Cytarabine, and Filgrastim Followed by Infusion of Non-HLA Matched Ex Vivo Expanded Cord Blood Progenitors in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-13

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  6. Ixazomib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-18

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  7. Vorinostat and Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-11-03

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  8. Arsenic Trioxide in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  9. Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Malignant Neoplasm; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. Tipifarnib and Etoposide in Treating Older Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  11. Idarubicin, Cytarabine, and Pravastatin Sodium in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-03

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  12. Bortezomib, Daunorubicin, and Cytarabine in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-04

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  13. Alvocidib, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride or Cytarabine and Daunorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-10

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  14. Early Discharge and Outpatients Care in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome or Acute Myeloid Leukemia Previously Treated With Intensive Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-05

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. Reduced Intensity Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With De Novo or Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-19

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  16. Clofarabine and Melphalan Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Myelodysplasia, Acute Leukemia in Remission, or Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-16

    Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia

  17. Clofarabine or Daunorubicin Hydrochloride and Cytarabine Followed By Decitabine or Observation in Treating Older Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-16

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. Sirolimus, Idarubicin, and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-03

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  19. Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Intensive Induction Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-18

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  20. Lithium Carbonate and Tretinoin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-19

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  1. Comparing Three Different Combination Chemotherapy Regimens in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-02

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  2. Cyclosporine, Pravastatin Sodium, Etoposide, and Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-06-18

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  3. Decitabine Followed by Idarubicin and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-09

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts

  4. Spi-1/PU.1 transgenic mice develop multistep erythroleukemias.

    PubMed Central

    Moreau-Gachelin, F; Wendling, F; Molina, T; Denis, N; Titeux, M; Grimber, G; Briand, P; Vainchenker, W; Tavitian, A

    1996-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis of the spi-1 gene is associated with the emergence of malignant proerythroblasts during Friend virus-induced acute erythroleukemia. To determine the role of spi-1/PU.1 in the genesis of leukemia, we generated spi-1 transgenic mice. In one founder line the transgene was overexpressed as an unexpected-size transcript in various mouse tissues. Homozygous transgenic animals gave rise to live-born offspring, but 50% of the animals developed a multistep erythroleukemia within 1.5 to 6 months of birth whereas the remainder survived without evidence of disease. At the onset of the disease, mice became severely anemic. Their hematopoietic tissues were massively invaded with nontumorigenic proerythroblasts that express a high level of Spi-1 protein. These transgenic proerythroblasts are partially blocked in differentiation and strictly dependent on erythropoietin for their proliferation both in vivo and in vitro. A complete but transient regression of the disease was observed after erythrocyte transfusion, suggesting that the constitutive expression of spi-1 is related to the block of the differentiation of erythroid precursors. At relapse, erythropoietin-independent malignant proerythroblasts arose. Growth factor autonomy could be partially explained by the autocrine secretion of erythropoietin; however, other genetic events appear to be necessary to confer the full malignant phenotype. These results reveal that overexpression of spi-1 is essential for malignant erythropoiesis and does not alter other hematopoietic lineages. PMID:8628313

  5. Erythroleukemia cells acquire an alternative mitophagy capability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Fang, Yixuan; Yan, Lili; Yuan, Na; Zhang, Suping; Xu, Li; Nie, Meilan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wang, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia cells are superior to hematopoietic cells with a normal differentiation potential in buffering cellular stresses, but the underlying mechanisms for this leukemic advantage are not fully understood. Using CRISPR/Cas9 deletion of the canonical autophagy-essential gene Atg7, we found that erythroleukemia K562 cells are armed with two sets of autophagic machinery. Alternative mitophagy is functional regardless of whether the canonical autophagic mechanism is intact or disrupted. Although canonical autophagy defects attenuated cell cycling, proliferation and differentiation potential, the leukemia cells retained their abilities for mitochondrial clearance and for maintaining low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Treatment with a specific inducer of mitophagy revealed that the canonical autophagy-defective erythroleukemia cells preserved a mitophagic response. Selective induction of mitophagy was associated with the upregulation and localization of RAB9A on the mitochondrial membrane in both wild-type and Atg7−/− leukemia cells. When the leukemia cells were treated with the alternative autophagy inhibitor brefeldin A or when the RAB9A was knocked down, this mitophagy was prohibited. This was accompanied by elevated ROS levels and apoptosis as well as reduced DNA damage repair. Therefore, the results suggest that erythroleukemia K562 cells possess an ATG7-independent alternative mitophagic mechanism that functions even when the canonical autophagic process is impaired, thereby maintaining the ability to respond to stresses such as excessive ROS and DNA damage. PMID:27091640

  6. Congenital anerythremic erythroleukemia presenting as hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Lazure, Thierry; Beauchamp, Anne; Croisille, Laure; Ferlicot, Sophie; Feneux, Danielle; Fabre, Monique

    2003-10-01

    We report an atypical case of congenital erythroleukemia in a child born with hepatosplenomegaly and abnormal liver tests. The initial peripheral blood cell count showed anemia and hyperleukocytosis with erythroblastosis that disappeared 1 week later. During the next 5 weeks, no blasts were found in the blood, and less than 5% were found on 2 successive bone marrow aspirates. The infant died of hepatic failure. The suspected diagnosis on a premortem liver biopsy was confirmed by an autopsy that showed a blastic infiltration in many organs. These cells expressed only erythroid markers glycophorin A and C. Rearrangement of the myeloid lymphoid leukemia gene was not found by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The main differential diagnoses include metabolic diseases, Langerhans histiocytosis, Pepper syndrome, transient myeloproliferative disorder, and leukemoid reactions. Although some of these can be excluded by the pathologist, others require a multidisciplinary confrontation: clinical, biologic, genetic, and pathologic examinations. PMID:14521454

  7. SB-715992 in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, or Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-10

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  8. Tanespimycin and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

  9. 7-Hydroxystaurosporine and Perifosine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia or High Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. Vorinostat, Cytarabine, and Etoposide in Treating Patients With Relapsed and/or Refractory Acute Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Myeloproliferative Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

  11. Molecular cloning, primary structure, and expression of the human platelet/erythroleukemia cell 12-lipoxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, C.D.; Furci, L.; FitzGerald, G.A. )

    1990-08-01

    The major pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets proceeds via a 12-lipoxygenase enzyme; however, the biological role of the product of this reaction, 12-hydro(pero)xyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-H(P)ETE), is unknown. Using a combination of the polymerase chain reaction and conventional screening procedures, the authors have isolated cDNA clones encoding the human platelet/human erythroleukemia (HEL) cell 12-lipoxygenase. From the deduced primary structure, human platelet/HEL 12-lipoxygenase would encode a M{sub r} 75,000 protein consisting of 663 amino acids. The cDNA encoding the full-length protein (pCDNA-12lx) under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter was expressed in simian COS-M6 cells. Intact cells and lysed-cell supernatants were able to synthesize 12-H(P)ETE from arachidonic acid, whereas no 12-H(P)ETE synthesis was detected in mock-transfected cells. A single 2.4-kilobase mRNA was detected in erythroleukemia cells but not in several other tissues and cell lines evaluated by Northern blot analysis. Comparison of the human platelet/HEL 12-lipoxygenase sequence with that of porcine leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase and human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase revealed 65% amino acid identity to both enzymes. By contrast, the leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase is 86% identical to human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase. Sequence data and previously demonstrated immunochemical and biochemical evidence support the existence of distinct 12-lipoxygenase isoforms. The availability of cDNA probes for human platelet/HEL cell 12-lipoxygenase should facilitate elucidation of the biological role of this pathway.

  12. PU.1 silencing leads to terminal differentiation of erythroleukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Atar, Orna; Levi, Ben-Zion . E-mail: blevi@technion.ac.il

    2005-04-22

    The transcription factor PU.1 plays a central role in development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Evidence from PU.1 knockout mice indicates a pivotal role for PU.1 in myeloid lineage and B-lymphocyte development. In addition, PU.1 is a key player in the development of Friend erythroleukemia disease, which is characterized by proliferation and differentiation arrest of proerythrocytes. To study the role of PU.1 in erythroleukemia, we have used murine erythroleukemia cells, isolated from Friend virus-infected mice. Expression of PU.1 small interfering RNA in these cells led to significant inhibition of PU.1 levels. This was accompanied by inhibition of proliferation and restoration in the ability of the proerythroblastic cells to produce hemoglobin, i.e., reversion of the leukemic phenotype. The data suggest that overexpression of PU.1 gene is the immediate cause for maintaining the leukemic phenotype of the disease by retaining the self-renewal capacity of transformed erythroblastic cells and by blocking the terminal differentiation program towards erythrocytes.

  13. Friend virus utilizes the BMP4-dependent stress erythropoiesis pathway to induce erythroleukemia.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Aparna; Hegde, Shailaja; Porayette, Prashanth; Yon, Michele; Hankey, Pamela; Paulson, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    More than 50 years of genetic analysis has identified a number of host genes that are required for the expansion of infected cells during the progression of Friend-virus-induced erythroleukemia. In this report, we show that Friend virus induces the bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)-dependent stress erythropoiesis pathway in the spleen, which rapidly amplifies target cells, propagating their infection and resulting in acute splenomegaly. This mechanism mimics the response to acute anemia, in which BMP4 expressed in the spleen drives the expansion of a specialized population of stress erythroid progenitors. Previously we demonstrated that these progenitors, termed stress BFU-E, are targets for Friend virus in the spleen (A. Subramanian, H. E. Teal, P. H. Correll, and R. F. Paulson, J. Virol. 79:14586-14594, 2005). Here, we extend those findings by showing that Friend virus infects two distinct populations of bone marrow cells. One population, when infected, differentiates into mature erythrocytes in an Epo-independent manner, while a second population migrates to the spleen after infection, where it induces BMP4 expression and acts as a reservoir of virus. The activation of the stress erythropoiesis pathway in the spleen by Friend virus results in the rapid expansion of stress BFU-E, providing abundant target cells for viral infection. These observations suggest a novel mechanism by which a virus induces a stress response pathway that amplifies target cells for the virus, leading to acute expansion of infected cells.

  14. Effects of trichostatins on differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, M.; Nomura, S.; Beppu, T.

    1987-07-15

    The fungistatic antibiotics trichostatins (TS) A and C were isolated from culture broth of Streptomyces platensis No. 145 and were found to be potent inducers of differentiation in murine erythroleukemia (Friend and RV133) cells at concentrations of 1.5 X 10(-8) M for TSA and 5 X 10(-7) M for TSC. Differentiation induced by TS was cooperatively enhanced by UV irradiation but not by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. This enhanced activity was completely inhibited by adding cycloheximide to the culture medium 2 h after exposure to TS, suggesting that TS are dimethyl sulfoxide-type inducers of erythroid differentiation. No inhibitory effect of TS was observed on macromolecular synthesis in cultured cells.

  15. Spi-1/PU.1 activates transcription through clustered DNA occupancy in erythroleukemia.

    PubMed

    Ridinger-Saison, Maya; Boeva, Valentina; Rimmelé, Pauline; Kulakovskiy, Ivan; Gallais, Isabelle; Levavasseur, Benjamin; Paccard, Caroline; Legoix-Né, Patricia; Morlé, François; Nicolas, Alain; Hupé, Philippe; Barillot, Emmanuel; Moreau-Gachelin, Françoise; Guillouf, Christel

    2012-10-01

    Acute leukemias are characterized by deregulation of transcriptional networks that control the lineage specificity of gene expression. The aberrant overexpression of the Spi-1/PU.1 transcription factor leads to erythroleukemia. To determine how Spi-1 mechanistically influences the transcriptional program, we combined a ChIP-seq analysis with transcriptional profiling in cells from an erythroleukemic mouse model. We show that Spi-1 displays a selective DNA-binding that does not often cause transcriptional modulation. We report that Spi-1 controls transcriptional activation and repression partially through distinct Spi-1 recruitment to chromatin. We revealed several parameters impacting on Spi-1-mediated transcriptional activation. Gene activation is facilitated by Spi-1 occupancy close to transcriptional starting site of genes devoid of CGIs. Moreover, in those regions Spi-1 acts by binding to multiple motifs tightly clustered and with similar orientation. Finally, in contrast to the myeloid and lymphoid B cells in which Spi-1 exerts a physiological activity, in the erythroleukemic cells, lineage-specific cooperating factors do not play a prevalent role in Spi-1-mediated transcriptional activation. Thus, our work describes a new mechanism of gene activation through clustered site occupancy of Spi-1 particularly relevant in regard to the strong expression of Spi-1 in the erythroleukemic cells.

  16. Amplification of the E2F1 transcription factor gene in the HEL erythroleukemia cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, M.; Valentine, M.B.; Look, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    The E2F transcription factor plays an important regulatory role in cell proliferation, mediating the expression of genes whose products are essential for inducing resting cells to enter the cell cycle and synthesize DNA. To investigate the possible involvement of E2F in hematopoietic malignancies, we isolated genomic clones encompassing the human E2F1 gene. We then used fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize E2F1 to human chromosome 20q11, telomeric to the p107 locus, a gene whose product is related to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb). This finding contrasts with the 1p36 and 6q22 chromosomal locations previously assigned E2F2 and E2F3, two additional members of the E2F family. Although deletions or structural rearrangements of E2F1 were not detected in 14 primary acute leukemia or myelodysplasia samples with structural abnormalities of chromosome 20q11, the gene was amplified and overexpressed in HEL erythroleukemia cells and translocated to other chromosomes in several established human leukemia cell lines. This study provides the first evidence of gene amplification involving a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. We propose that E2F1 overexpression in erythroid progenitors may stimulate abnormal cell proliferation by overriding negative regulatory signals mediated by tumor suppressor proteins such as pRb. 76 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Single-nucleotide-resolution mapping of m6A and m6Am throughout the transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Linder, Bastian; Grozhik, Anya V; Olarerin-George, Anthony O; Meydan, Cem; Mason, Christopher E; Jaffrey, Samie R

    2015-08-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant modified base in eukaryotic mRNA and has been linked to diverse effects on mRNA fate. Current mapping approaches localize m6A residues to transcript regions 100-200 nt long but cannot identify precise m6A positions on a transcriptome-wide level. Here we developed m6A individual-nucleotide-resolution cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (miCLIP) and used it to demonstrate that antibodies to m6A can induce specific mutational signatures at m6A residues after ultraviolet light-induced antibody-RNA cross-linking and reverse transcription. We found that these antibodies similarly induced mutational signatures at N(6),2'-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am), a modification found at the first nucleotide of certain mRNAs. Using these signatures, we mapped m6A and m6Am at single-nucleotide resolution in human and mouse mRNA and identified small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) as a new class of m6A-containing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). PMID:26121403

  18. c-myc protooncogene expression in mouse erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, H M

    1989-01-01

    Murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells are erythroid progenitors whose programs of erythroid differentiation has been interrupted by transformation with the Friend virus complex. As a result of the ability of certain chemicals such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to induce terminal erythroid differentiation, the cells have been used as a model for understanding the molecular basis of cellular differentiation. Recent work on MEL cells as well as other differentiating systems indicates that expression of cellular protooncogenes is implicated in chemically mediated differentiation. In MEL cells the expression of the c-myc protooncogene undergoes unusual biphasic changes following inducer treatment. Levels of c-myc mRNA decrease 10- to 20-fold between 1 and 2 hr and are then reexpressed between 12 and 24 hr. These changes occur as a result of complex transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory events. Recent DNA transfection experiments, in which MEL cells were transfected with myc expression vectors, indicate that both the early decrease in c-myc expression and its subsequent reexpression are important events in the differentiation pathway. The work on MEL cells, as well as on other models of differentiation, is directed at understanding the molecular basis of leukemogenic transformation and cellular differentiation. The ability of c-myc, as well as other protooncogenes, to influence both of these events indicates that cellular protooncogenes play a central role in their regulation. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. PMID:2647476

  19. Decitabine With or Without Bortezomib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-14

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  20. Human platelet/erythroleukemia cell prostaglandin G/H synthase: cDNA cloning, expression, and gene chromosomal assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, C.D.; Funk, L.B.; Kennedy, M.E.; Pong, A.S.; Fitzgerald, G.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Platelets metabolize arachidonic acid to thromboxane A{sub 2}, a potent platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor compound. The first step of this transformation is catalyzed by prostaglandin (PG) G/H synthase, a target site for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We have isolated the cDNA for both human platelet and human erythroleukemia cell PGG/H synthase using the polymerase chain reaction and conventional screening procedures. The cDNA encoding the full-length protein was expressed in COS-M6 cells. Microsomal fractions from transfected cells produced prostaglandin endoperoxide derived products which were inhibited by indomethacin and aspirin. Mutagenesis of the serine residue at position 529, the putative aspirin acetylation site, to an asparagine reduced cyclooxygenase activity to barely detectable levels, an effect observed previously with the expressed sheep vesicular gland enzyme. Platelet-derived growth factor and phorbol ester differentially regulated the expression of PGG/H synthase mRNA levels in the megakaryocytic/platelet-like HEL cell line. The PGG/H synthase gene was assigned to chromosome 9 by analysis of a human-hamster somatic hybrid DNA panel. The availability of platelet PGG/H synthase cDNA should enhance our understanding of the important structure/function domains of this protein and it gene regulation.

  1. High-Resolution N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) Map Using Photo-Crosslinking-Assisted m6A Sequencing**

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Lu, Zhike; Wang, Xiao; Fu, Ye; Luo, Guan-Zheng; Liu, Nian; Han, Dali; Dominissini, Dan; Dai, Qing; Pan, Tao; He, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant internal modification in eukaryotic mRNA and plays regulatory roles in mRNA metabolism. However, methods to precisely locate the m6A modification remain limited. We present here a photo-crosslinking-assisted m6A sequencing strategy (PA-m6A-seq) to more accurately define sites with m6A modification. Using this strategy, we obtained a high-resolution map of m6A in a human transcriptome. The map resembles the general distribution pattern observed previously, and reveals new m6A sites at base resolution. Our results provide insight into the relationship between the methylation regions and the binding sites of RNA-binding proteins. PMID:25491922

  2. Recent advances in dynamic m6A RNA modification.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guangchao; Li, Hua-Bing; Yin, Zhinan; Flavell, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    The identification of m(6)A demethylases and high-throughput sequencing analysis of methylated transcriptome corroborated m(6)A RNA epigenetic modification as a dynamic regulation process, and reignited its investigation in the past few years. Many basic concepts of cytogenetics have been revolutionized by the growing understanding of the fundamental role of m(6)A in RNA splicing, degradation and translation. In this review, we summarize typical features of methylated transcriptome in mammals, and highlight the 'writers', 'erasers' and 'readers' of m(6)A RNA modification. Moreover, we emphasize recent advances of biological functions of m(6)A and conceive the possible roles of m(6)A in the regulation of immune response and related diseases. PMID:27249342

  3. Recent advances in dynamic m6A RNA modification

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guangchao; Yin, Zhinan

    2016-01-01

    The identification of m6A demethylases and high-throughput sequencing analysis of methylated transcriptome corroborated m6A RNA epigenetic modification as a dynamic regulation process, and reignited its investigation in the past few years. Many basic concepts of cytogenetics have been revolutionized by the growing understanding of the fundamental role of m6A in RNA splicing, degradation and translation. In this review, we summarize typical features of methylated transcriptome in mammals, and highlight the ‘writers’, ‘erasers’ and ‘readers’ of m6A RNA modification. Moreover, we emphasize recent advances of biological functions of m6A and conceive the possible roles of m6A in the regulation of immune response and related diseases. PMID:27249342

  4. A Self-Diagnostic System for the M6 Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, Patrick M.; Lekki, John

    2001-01-01

    The design of a Self-Diagnostic (SD) accelerometer system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine is presented. This retrofit system connects diagnostic electronic hardware and software to the current M6 accelerometer system. This paper discusses the general operation of the M6 accelerometer SD system and procedures for developing and evaluating the SD system. Signal processing techniques using M6 accelerometer diagnostic data are explained. Test results include diagnostic data responding to changing ambient temperature, mounting torque and base mounting impedance.

  5. m(6)A-LAIC-seq reveals the census and complexity of the m(6)A epitranscriptome.

    PubMed

    Molinie, Benoit; Wang, Jinkai; Lim, Kok Seong; Hillebrand, Roman; Lu, Zhi-Xiang; Van Wittenberghe, Nicholas; Howard, Benjamin D; Daneshvar, Kaveh; Mullen, Alan C; Dedon, Peter; Xing, Yi; Giallourakis, Cosmas C

    2016-08-01

    N(6)-Methyladenosine (m(6)A) is a widespread, reversible chemical modification of RNA molecules, implicated in many aspects of RNA metabolism. Little quantitative information exists as to either how many transcript copies of particular genes are m(6)A modified ('m(6)A levels') or the relationship of m(6)A modification(s) to alternative RNA isoforms. To deconvolute the m(6)A epitranscriptome, we developed m(6)A-level and isoform-characterization sequencing (m(6)A-LAIC-seq). We found that cells exhibit a broad range of nonstoichiometric m(6)A levels with cell-type specificity. At the level of isoform characterization, we discovered widespread differences in the use of tandem alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites by methylated and nonmethylated transcript isoforms of individual genes. Strikingly, there is a strong bias for methylated transcripts to be coupled with proximal APA sites, resulting in shortened 3' untranslated regions, while nonmethylated transcript isoforms tend to use distal APA sites. m(6)A-LAIC-seq yields a new perspective on transcriptome complexity and links APA usage to m(6)A modifications. PMID:27376769

  6. Therapeutic effects of D-aspartic acid beta-hydroxamate (DAH) on Friend erythroleukemia.

    PubMed

    Tournaire, R; Malley, S; Hamedi-Sangsari, F; Thomasset, N; Grange, J; Dore, J F; Vila, J

    1994-08-01

    D-aspartic acid beta-hydroxamate (DAH), an aspartic acid analogue, exerts anti-tumoral activity against murine leukemia L5178Y both in vitro and in vivo. We show here that DAH displays activity against Friend leukemia cells (FLC) in vitro: a concentration of 2 mM results in a total inhibition of cell growth. DAH is also active in vivo against Friend virus (FV-P)-induced erythroleukemia. Treatment with DAH, given for 95 days as a single daily i.p. injection to DBA/2 mice 3 days following FV-P inoculation, induced a marked increase of 212% in the mean survival time (MST) of treated animals. Since FV-P-induced erythroleukemia is characterized by the proliferation of mature erythroid precursors, we examined the effect of DAH treatment on erythroid colony-forming cells (CFU-E) and observed that the number of CFU-E per spleen was 30 times lower in DAH-treated mice than in the controls. To gain further insight into the early effects of DAH treatment on the early phase of Friend disease, we examined the effects of short DAH treatment on spleen size, hematocrit and viremia in FV-P-infected mice. DAH treatment initiated 3 days post infection (p.i.) inhibited splenomegaly, prevented virus-induced polycythemia, and reduced serum viremia. Late DAH treatment (18 days p.i.) induced regression of FVP-induced disease as evidenced by reduction of spleen weight.

  7. [Three pediatric cases of erythroleukemia: review of the literature on prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Kubota, M; Hamahata, K; Watanabe, K; Lin, Y W; Koishi, S; Usami, I; Nakahata, T; Akiyama, Y

    2000-03-01

    We encountered 3 patients with erythroleukemia who showed differing outcomes. The first patient was an 11-year-old girl who was treated with an ANLL 91 national protocol followed by bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-identical brother. She is still in complete remission after 6 years. The second patient was a 15-year-old girl. Treatment with low dose Ara-C was effective. She experienced a relapse once, but achieved her second remission with low dose-Ara-C plus vitamin D. Up to the present, she has maintained remission for 5 years. The third patient was a 1-month-old girl who initially presented with an increase of proerythroblasts with infiltration to the liver. Although her response to Ara-C and etoposide was favorable, she died of a generalized fungal infection in the leukopenic phase. Chromosomal analyses of bone marrow cells were normal for patients 1 and 2, but patient 3 had an abnormal complex karyotype. We think the prognosis for erythroleukemia in childhood is not necessarily poor in all cases. Appropriate treatment should be based on the patient's age, the proportion of proerythroblasts, and the presence of chromosomal abnormalities.

  8. Self-renewal of leukemia stem cells in Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia requires proviral insertional activation of Spi1 and hedgehog signaling but not mutation of p53.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shailaja; Hankey, Pamela; Paulson, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    Friend virus induces erythroleukemia through a characteristic two-stage progression. The prevailing model proposes that during the initial, polyclonal stage of disease most of the infected cells terminally differentiate, resulting in acute erythrocytosis. In the late stage of disease, a clonal leukemia develops through the acquisition of new mutations--proviral insertional activation of Spi1/Pu.1 and mutation of p53. Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that Friend virus activates the bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4)-dependent stress erythropoiesis pathway, which leads to the rapid expansion of stress erythroid progenitors, which are the targets for Friend virus in the spleen. We recently showed that stress erythroid progenitors have intrinsic self-renewal ability and therefore could function as leukemia stem cells (LSCs) when infected with Friend virus. Here, we show that the two stages of Friend virus-induced disease are caused by infection of distinct stress progenitor populations in the spleen. The development of leukemia relies on the ability of the virus to hijack the intrinsic self-renewal capability of stress erythroid progenitors leading to the generation of LSCs. Two signals are required for the self-renewal of Friend virus LSCs proviral insertional activation of Spi1/Pu.1 and Hedgehog-dependent signaling. Surprisingly, mutation of p53 is not observed in LSCs. These data establish a new model for Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia and demonstrate the utility of Friend virus as a model system to study LSC self-renewal.

  9. m(6)A: Signaling for mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Samir; Xiao, Wen; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Yang, Yun-Gui

    2016-09-01

    Among myriads of distinct chemical modifications in RNAs, dynamic N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is one of the most prevalent modifications in eukaryotic mRNAs and non-coding RNAs. Similar to the critical role of chemical modifications in regulation of DNA and protein activities, RNA m(6)A modification is also observed to be involved in the regulation of diverse functions of RNAs including meiosis, fertility, development, cell reprogramming and circadian period. The RNA m(6)A modification is recognized by YTH domain containing family proteins comprising of YTHDC1-2 and YTHDF1-3. Here we focus on the nuclear m(6)A reader YTHDC1 and its regulatory role in alternative splicing and other RNA metabolic processes. PMID:27351695

  10. Topology of the human and mouse m6A RNA methylomes revealed by m6A-seq.

    PubMed

    Dominissini, Dan; Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Sharon; Schwartz, Schraga; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Ungar, Lior; Osenberg, Sivan; Cesarkas, Karen; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Amariglio, Ninette; Kupiec, Martin; Sorek, Rotem; Rechavi, Gideon

    2012-05-10

    An extensive repertoire of modifications is known to underlie the versatile coding, structural and catalytic functions of RNA, but it remains largely uncharted territory. Although biochemical studies indicate that N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent internal modification in messenger RNA, an in-depth study of its distribution and functions has been impeded by a lack of robust analytical methods. Here we present the human and mouse m(6)A modification landscape in a transcriptome-wide manner, using a novel approach, m(6)A-seq, based on antibody-mediated capture and massively parallel sequencing. We identify over 12,000 m(6)A sites characterized by a typical consensus in the transcripts of more than 7,000 human genes. Sites preferentially appear in two distinct landmarks--around stop codons and within long internal exons--and are highly conserved between human and mouse. Although most sites are well preserved across normal and cancerous tissues and in response to various stimuli, a subset of stimulus-dependent, dynamically modulated sites is identified. Silencing the m(6)A methyltransferase significantly affects gene expression and alternative splicing patterns, resulting in modulation of the p53 (also known as TP53) signalling pathway and apoptosis. Our findings therefore suggest that RNA decoration by m(6)A has a fundamental role in regulation of gene expression. PMID:22575960

  11. Differential expression of Ran GTPase during HMBA-induced differentiation in murine erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, N; García-Sacristán, A; López-Fernández, L A; Párraga, M; del Mazo, J; Hernández, P; Schvartzman, J B; Krimer, D B

    2003-07-01

    Murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells undergo erythroid differentiation in vitro when treated with hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). To identify genes involved in the commitment of MEL cells to differentiate, we screened a cDNA library constructed from HMBA-induced cells by differential hybridization and isolated GTPase Ran as a down-regulated gene. We observed that Ran was expressed in a biphasic mode. Following a decrease in mRNA level during the initial hours of induction, Ran re-expressed at 24-48 h, and gradually declined again. To investigate the role of Ran during MEL differentiation we constructed MEL transfectants capable to express or block Ran mRNA production constitutively. No effects were observed on cell growth and proliferation. Blockage of Ran, however, interfered with MEL cell differentiation resulting in a decrease of cell survival in the committed population.

  12. GATA-1 Inhibits PU.1 Gene via DNA and Histone H3K9 Methylation of Its Distal Enhancer in Erythroleukemia.

    PubMed

    Burda, Pavel; Vargova, Jarmila; Curik, Nikola; Salek, Cyril; Papadopoulos, Giorgio Lucio; Strouboulis, John; Stopka, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    GATA-1 and PU.1 are two important hematopoietic transcription factors that mutually inhibit each other in progenitor cells to guide entrance into the erythroid or myeloid lineage, respectively. PU.1 controls its own expression during myelopoiesis by binding to the distal URE enhancer, whose deletion leads to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We herein present evidence that GATA-1 binds to the PU.1 gene and inhibits its expression in human AML-erythroleukemias (EL). Furthermore, GATA-1 together with DNA methyl Transferase I (DNMT1) mediate repression of the PU.1 gene through the URE. Repression of the PU.1 gene involves both DNA methylation at the URE and its histone H3 lysine-K9 methylation and deacetylation as well as the H3K27 methylation at additional DNA elements and the promoter. The GATA-1-mediated inhibition of PU.1 gene transcription in human AML-EL mediated through the URE represents important mechanism that contributes to PU.1 downregulation and leukemogenesis that is sensitive to DNA demethylation therapy.

  13. GATA-1 Inhibits PU.1 Gene via DNA and Histone H3K9 Methylation of Its Distal Enhancer in Erythroleukemia

    PubMed Central

    Burda, Pavel; Vargova, Jarmila; Curik, Nikola; Salek, Cyril; Papadopoulos, Giorgio Lucio; Strouboulis, John; Stopka, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    GATA-1 and PU.1 are two important hematopoietic transcription factors that mutually inhibit each other in progenitor cells to guide entrance into the erythroid or myeloid lineage, respectively. PU.1 controls its own expression during myelopoiesis by binding to the distal URE enhancer, whose deletion leads to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We herein present evidence that GATA-1 binds to the PU.1 gene and inhibits its expression in human AML-erythroleukemias (EL). Furthermore, GATA-1 together with DNA methyl Transferase I (DNMT1) mediate repression of the PU.1 gene through the URE. Repression of the PU.1 gene involves both DNA methylation at the URE and its histone H3 lysine-K9 methylation and deacetylation as well as the H3K27 methylation at additional DNA elements and the promoter. The GATA-1-mediated inhibition of PU.1 gene transcription in human AML-EL mediated through the URE represents important mechanism that contributes to PU.1 downregulation and leukemogenesis that is sensitive to DNA demethylation therapy. PMID:27010793

  14. Azacitidine, Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride, and Etoposide in Treating Older Patients With Poor-Prognosis Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-18

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. Tipifarnib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-19

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  16. FTO: linking m6A demethylation to adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Sharon; Rechavi, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphism of the FTO gene encoding an N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) RNA demethylase was robustly associated with human obesity; however, the mechanism by which FTO affects metabolism, considering its emerging role in RNA modification, is still poorly understood. A new study published in Cell Research reports novel functions implicating FTO in the regulation of mRNA alternative splicing in the control of adipogenesis. PMID:25475057

  17. Tipifarnib and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in Blast Phase

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-14

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Blastic Phase; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Disease; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. BET bromodomain inhibition rescues erythropoietin differentiation of human erythroleukemia cell line UT7

    SciTech Connect

    Goupille, Olivier; Penglong, Tipparat; Lefevre, Carine; Granger, Marine; Kadri, Zahra; Fucharoen, Suthat; Maouche-Chretien, Leila; Leboulch, Philippe; Chretien, Stany

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UT7 erythroleukemia cells are known to be refractory to differentiate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brief JQ1 treatment initiates the first steps of erythroid differentiation program. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Engaged UT7 cells then maturate in the presence of erythropoietin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustained JQ1 treatment inhibits both proliferation and erythroid differentiation. -- Abstract: Malignant transformation is a multistep process requiring oncogenic activation, promoting cellular proliferation, frequently coupled to inhibition of terminal differentiation. Consequently, forcing the reengagement of terminal differentiation of transformed cells coupled or not with an inhibition of their proliferation is a putative therapeutic approach to counteracting tumorigenicity. UT7 is a human leukemic cell line able to grow in the presence of IL3, GM-CSF and Epo. This cell line has been widely used to study Epo-R/Epo signaling pathways but is a poor model for erythroid differentiation. We used the BET bromodomain inhibition drug JQ1 to target gene expression, including that of c-Myc. We have shown that only 2 days of JQ1 treatment was required to transitory inhibit Epo-induced UT7 proliferation and to restore terminal erythroid differentiation. This study highlights the importance of a cellular erythroid cycle break mediated by c-Myc inhibition before initiation of the erythropoiesis program and describes a new model for BET bromodomain inhibitor drug application.

  19. Glutathione level regulates HNE-induced genotoxicity in human erythroleukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Umesh C.S.; Ramana, Kota V.; Awasthi, Yogesh C.; Srivastava, Satish K.

    2008-03-01

    4-Hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) is one of the most abundant and toxic lipid aldehydes formed during lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species. We have investigated the genotoxic effects of HNE and its regulation by cellular glutathione (GSH) levels in human erythroleukemia (K562) cells. Incubation of K562 cells with HNE (5-10 {mu}M) significantly elicited a 3- to 5-fold increased DNA damage in a time- and dose-dependent manner as measured by comet assay. Depletion of GSH in cells by L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO) significantly increased HNE-induced DNA damage, whereas supplementation of GSH by incubating the cells with GSH-ethyl ester significantly decreased HNE-induced genotoxicity. Further, overexpression of mGSTA4-4, a HNE-detoxifying GST isozyme, significantly prevented HNE-induced DNA damage in cells, and ablation of GSTA4-4 and aldose reductase with respective siRNAs further augmented HNE-induced DNA damage. These results suggest that the genotoxicity of HNE is highly dependent on cellular GSH/GST/AR levels and favorable modulation of the aldehyde detoxification system may help in controlling the oxidative stress-induced complications.

  20. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate and of some antiinflammatory agents on mouse erythroleukemia cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Supino, R; Mazzoni, A; Formelli, F

    1984-02-29

    The effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on differentiation were examined using mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and compared with those of antiinflammatory agents. MPA at low doses (10(-6) - 10(-7)M) induced 10-15% cells to differentiate, whereas high doses (10(-4) - 10(-5)M) caused a 30% inhibition of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-induced differentiation. Dexamethasone (10(-4) - 10(-8)M), a steroid antiinflammatory agent, significantly inhibited (77-70%) DMSO-induced differentiation, whereas indomethacin, aspirin, flurbiprofen and BW755c (non steroid antiinflammatory agents) at the same concentrations had no effect. If added 24 h before DMSO, the inhibitory effects of MPA and dexamethasone increased to 65% and 95%, respectively, whereas indomethacin (10(-5)M) caused only a 30% inhibition and the other drugs were inactive. None of these antiinflammatory agents affected differentiation when used without DMSO. MPA and dexamethasone inhibitory effects on DMSO-induced differentiation did not seem to be mediated through the inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandins, since non-steroid prostaglandin inhibitors were slightly active only when added 24 h before DMSO.

  1. Lenalidomide in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Who Have Undergone Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-02

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  2. Cyclopamine and jervine induce COX-2 overexpression in human erythroleukemia cells but only cyclopamine has a pro-apoptotic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezali, Lamia; Leger, David Yannick; Limami, Youness; Cook-Moreau, Jeanne; Beneytout, Jean-Louis; Liagre, Bertrand

    2013-04-15

    Erythroleukemia is generally associated with a very poor response and survival to current available therapeutic agents. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been described to play a crucial role in the proliferation and differentiation of leukemia cells, this enzyme seems to play an important role in chemoresistance in different cancer types. Previously, we demonstrated that diosgenin, a plant steroid, induced apoptosis in HEL cells with concomitant COX-2 overexpression. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of cyclopamine and jervine, two steroidal alkaloids with similar structures, on HEL and TF1a human erythroleukemia cell lines and, for the first time, their effect on COX-2 expression. Cyclopamine, but not jervine, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in these cells. Both compounds induced COX-2 overexpression which was responsible for apoptosis resistance. In jervine-treated cells, COX-2 overexpression was NF-κB dependent. Inhibition of NF-κB reduced COX-2 overexpression and induced apoptosis. In addition, cyclopamine induced apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression via PKC activation. Inhibition of the PKC pathway reduced both apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression in both cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the p38/COX-2 pathway was involved in resistance to cyclopamine-induced apoptosis since p38 inhibition reduced COX-2 overexpression and increased apoptosis in both cell lines. - Highlights: ► Cyclopamine alone but not jervine induces apoptosis in human erythroleukemia cells. ► Cyclopamine and jervine induce COX-2 overexpression. ► COX-2 overexpression is implicated in resistance to cyclopamine-induced apoptosis. ► Apoptotic potential of jervine is restrained by NF-κB pathway activation. ► PKC is involved in cyclopamine-induced apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression.

  3. Berberis libanotica extract targets NF-κB/COX-2, PI3K/Akt and mitochondrial/caspase signalling to induce human erythroleukemia cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Diab, Saada; Fidanzi, Chloe; Léger, David Y; Ghezali, Lamia; Millot, Marion; Martin, Frédérique; Azar, Rania; Esseily, Fadi; Saab, Antoine; Sol, Vincent; Diab-Assaf, Mona; Liagre, Bertrand

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and understand the relationship between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and apoptosis rate in erythroleukemia cells after apoptosis induction by Berberis libanotica (Bl) extract. To achieve this goal we used erythroleukemia cell lines expressing COX‑2 (HEL cell line) or not (K562 cell line). Moreover, we made use of COX‑2 cDNA to overexpress COX‑2 in K562 cells. In light of the reported chemopreventive and chemosensitive effects of natural products on various tumor cells and animal models, we postulated that our Bl extract may mediate their effects through apoptosis induction with suppression of cell survival pathways. Our study is the first report on the specific examination of intrinsic apoptosis and Akt/NF-κB/COX‑2 pathways in human erythroleukemia cells upon Bl extract exposure. Even if Bl extract induced apoptosis of three human erythroleukemia cell lines, a dominant effect of Bl extract treatment on K562 cells was observed resulting in activation of the late markers of apoptosis with caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Whereas, we showed that Bl extract reduced significantly expression of COX‑2 by a dose-dependent manner in HEL and K562 (COX‑2+) cells. Furthermore, in regard to our results, it is clear that the simultaneous inhibition of Akt and NF-κB signalling can significantly contribute to the anticancer effects of Bl extract in human erythroleukemia cells. We observed that the Bl extract is clearly more active than the berberine alone on the induction of DNA fragmentation in human erythro-leukemia cells.

  4. Early aftershock decay rate of the M6 Parkfield earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z.; Vidale, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    Mainshock rupture is typically followed by its aftershocks that diminish in rate approximately as the reciprocal of the elapse time. However, it is notoriously difficult to observe aftershock activity in the noisy aftermath of larger earthquakes. Many aftershocks were missed in the existing seismicity catalogs in the initial few minutes (Kagan, 2004). Yet this period holds valuable information about the transition from mainshock rupture to sporadic aftershocks, and the friction laws that control earthquakes. The Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault is one of most densely seismometered places in the world. Many near-fault, non-clipped and continuous recordings of the M6 Parkfield earthquake and its aftermath have been recovered, providing an excellent opportunity for us to study the aftershock decay rates in the first few hundred seconds after the mainshock. We have so far analyzed recordings from station PKD and 13 stations in the Parkfield High Resolution Seismic Network. By scrutinizing the high-frequency signal, we are able to distinguish mainshock coda from early aftershocks. We find up to 10 times more aftershocks in the first 1000 s than in the USGS NCSN catalog. More than 30 events are detected in the first 200 s after the mainshock. None of these events are in the USGS NCSN catalog. Preliminary results suggest a strong deficit of aftershocks in the first 100 s after the mainshock relative to a 1/t aftershock rate decay. This pattern is consistent with a lack of seismicity in the first 120 s following the 10/31/2001 M5.1 Anza earthquake (Kilb et al., 2004), and our study of early aftershock rates using data from HiNet array in Japan (Vidale et al., 2004). Our observations will allow us to test the prediction of such an interval in rate-and-state friction models prior to the onset of the 1/t aftershock decay rate (Dieterich, 1994).

  5. The sequential addition of ribosomal proteins during the formation of the small ribosomal subunit in Friend erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Todorov, I T; Noll, F; Hadjiolov, A A

    1983-03-15

    Nucleolar '80-S' and '40-S' preribosomes (containing 45-S and 21-S pre-rRNA, respectively), as well as cytoplasmic ribosomes, were isolated from Friend erythroleukemia cells. The presence of structural ribosomal proteins in the isolated particles was studied by using antisera against individual rat liver small ribosomal subunit proteins. The analysis is based on the established crossreactivity between rat and mouse ribosomes [F. Noll and H. Bielka (1970) Mol. Gen. Genet. 106, 106-113]. The identification of the proteins was achieved by two independent immunological techniques: the passive haemagglutination test and the enzyme immunoassay of electrophoretically fractionated proteins, blotted on nitrocellulose. All 17 proteins tested are present in cytoplasmic ribosomes. A large number of proteins (S3a, S6, S7, S8, S11, S14, S18, S20, S23/24 and S25) are present in the '80-S' preribosome. Only two proteins (S3 and S21) are added during the formation of the '40-S' preribosome in the nucleolus. Four proteins (S2, S19, S26 and S29) are added at later, possibly extranucleolar, stages of ribosome formation. The results obtained provide evidence for the sequential addition of proteins during the formation of the small ribosomal subunit in Friend erythroleukemia cells.

  6. Cytarabine With or Without SCH 900776 in Treating Adult Patients With Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  7. Azacitidine and Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-20

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  8. Effects of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and phorbol ester on differentiation of human K562 erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Mitchell, T; Sariban, E; Sabbath, K; Griffin, J; Kufe, D

    1985-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) induces hemoglobin synthesis in human K562 erythroleukemia cells. The present study extends these findings by demonstrating that ara-C treatment of K562 cells results in both increased heme synthesis and accumulation of alpha-, gamma-, epsilon-, and zeta-globin RNA. The results also demonstrate that ara-C enhances K562 cell surface expression of glycophorin. Furthermore, we demonstrate that phorbol ester (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate; TPA) inhibits the effects of ara-C on heme production, accumulation of globin RNA, and glycophorin expression. The inhibitory effect occurs maximally when K562 cells are treated with TPA before undergoing ara-C-induced commitment to erythroid differentiation. These findings suggest that TPA inhibits an early step in the process required for ara-C to enhance expression of genes involved in the erythroid program.

  9. Glycoprotein M6a is present in glutamatergic axons in adult rat forebrain and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ben; Werner, Hauke B; Flügge, Gabriele

    2008-03-01

    Glycoprotein M6a is a neuronally expressed member of the proteolipid protein (PLP) family of tetraspans. In vitro studies suggested a potential role in neurite outgrowth and spine formation and previous investigations have identified M6a as a stress-regulated gene. To investigate whether the distribution of M6a correlates with neuronal structures susceptible to alterations in response to stress, we localized M6a expression in neurons of hippocampal formation, prefrontal cortex and cerebellum using in situ hybridization and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. In situ hybridization confirmed that M6a is expressed in dentate gyrus and cerebellar granule neurons and in hippocampal and cortical pyramidal neurons. Confocal microscopy localized M6a immunoreactivity to distinct sites within axonal membranes, but not in dendrites or neuronal somata. Moreover, M6a colocalized with synaptic markers of glutamatergic, but not GABAergic nerve terminals. M6a expression in the adult brain is particularly strong in unmyelinated axonal fibers, i.e. cerebellar parallel and hippocampal mossy fibers. In contrast, myelinated axons exhibit only minimal M6a immunoreactivity localized exclusively to terminal regions. The present neuroanatomical data demonstrate that M6a is an axonal component of glutamatergic neurons and that it is localized to distinct sites of the axonal plasma membrane of pyramidal and granule cells. PMID:18241840

  10. Unique features of the m6A methylome in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guan-Zheng; MacQueen, Alice; Zheng, Guanqun; Duan, Hongchao; Dore, Louis C; Lu, Zhike; Liu, Jun; Chen, Kai; Jia, Guifang; Bergelson, Joy; He, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries of reversible N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) methylation on messenger RNA (mRNA) and mapping of m(6)A methylomes in mammals and yeast have revealed potential regulatory functions of this RNA modification. In plants, defects in m(6)A methyltransferase cause an embryo-lethal phenotype, suggesting a critical role of m(6)A in plant development. Here, we profile m(6)A transcriptome-wide in two accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana and reveal that m(6)A is a highly conserved modification of mRNA in plants. Distinct from mammals, m(6)A in A. thaliana is enriched not only around the stop codon and within 3'-untranslated regions, but also around the start codon. Gene ontology analysis indicates that the unique distribution pattern of m(6)A in A. thaliana is associated with plant-specific pathways involving the chloroplast. We also discover a positive correlation between m(6)A deposition and mRNA abundance, suggesting a regulatory role of m(6)A in plant gene expression. PMID:25430002

  11. Unique Features of the m6A Methylome in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Hongchao; Dore, Louis C; Lu, Zhike; Liu, Jun; Chen, Kai; Jia, Guifang; Bergelson, Joy; He, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries of reversible N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation on messenger RNA (mRNA) and mapping of m6A methylomes in mammals and yeast have revealed potential regulatory functions of this RNA modification. In plants, defects in m6A methyltransferase cause an embryo-lethal phenotype, suggesting a critical role of m6A in plant development. Here, we profile m6A transcriptome-wide in two accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana and reveal that m6A is a highly conserved modification of mRNA in plants. Distinct from mammals, m6A in A. thaliana is enriched not only around the stop codon and within 3′ untranslated regions (3′ UTRs), but also around the start codon. Gene ontology analysis indicates that the unique distribution pattern of m6A in A. thaliana is associated with plant-specific pathways involving the chloroplast. We also discover a positive correlation between m6A deposition and the mRNA abundance, suggesting a regulatory role of m6A in plant gene expression. PMID:25430002

  12. Veliparib and Topotecan With or Without Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia, High-Risk Myelodysplasia, or Aggressive Myeloproliferative Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-23

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Essential Thrombocythemia; Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Cell Neoplasm; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative, BCR-ABL1 Positive Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Disease; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome

  13. Posttranscriptional m(6)A Editing of HIV-1 mRNAs Enhances Viral Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Edward M; Bogerd, Hal P; Kornepati, Anand V R; Kang, Dong; Ghoshal, Delta; Marshall, Joy B; Poling, Brigid C; Tsai, Kevin; Gokhale, Nandan S; Horner, Stacy M; Cullen, Bryan R

    2016-05-11

    Covalent addition of a methyl group to adenosine N(6) (m(6)A) is an evolutionarily conserved and common RNA modification that is thought to modulate several aspects of RNA metabolism. While the presence of multiple m(6)A editing sites on diverse viral RNAs was reported starting almost 40 years ago, how m(6)A editing affects virus replication has remained unclear. Here, we used photo-crosslinking-assisted m(6)A sequencing techniques to precisely map several m(6)A editing sites on the HIV-1 genome and report that they cluster in the HIV-1 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). Viral 3' UTR m(6)A sites or analogous cellular m(6)A sites strongly enhanced mRNA expression in cis by recruiting the cellular YTHDF m(6)A "reader" proteins. Reducing YTHDF expression inhibited, while YTHDF overexpression enhanced, HIV-1 protein and RNA expression, and virus replication in CD4+ T cells. These data identify m(6)A editing and the resultant recruitment of YTHDF proteins as major positive regulators of HIV-1 mRNA expression. PMID:27117054

  14. Busulfan, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Anti-Thymocyte Globulin Followed By Donor Stem Cell Transplant and Azacitidine in Treating Patients With High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-26

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. m(6)A RNA modification controls cell fate transition in mammalian embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Batista, Pedro J; Molinie, Benoit; Wang, Jinkai; Qu, Kun; Zhang, Jiajing; Li, Lingjie; Bouley, Donna M; Lujan, Ernesto; Haddad, Bahareh; Daneshvar, Kaveh; Carter, Ava C; Flynn, Ryan A; Zhou, Chan; Lim, Kok-Seong; Dedon, Peter; Wernig, Marius; Mullen, Alan C; Xing, Yi; Giallourakis, Cosmas C; Chang, Howard Y

    2014-12-01

    N6-methyl-adenosine (m(6)A) is the most abundant modification on messenger RNAs and is linked to human diseases, but its functions in mammalian development are poorly understood. Here we reveal the evolutionary conservation and function of m(6)A by mapping the m(6)A methylome in mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Thousands of messenger and long noncoding RNAs show conserved m(6)A modification, including transcripts encoding core pluripotency transcription factors. m(6)A is enriched over 3' untranslated regions at defined sequence motifs and marks unstable transcripts, including transcripts turned over upon differentiation. Genetic inactivation or depletion of mouse and human Mettl3, one of the m(6)A methylases, led to m(6)A erasure on select target genes, prolonged Nanog expression upon differentiation, and impaired ESC exit from self-renewal toward differentiation into several lineages in vitro and in vivo. Thus, m(6)A is a mark of transcriptome flexibility required for stem cells to differentiate to specific lineages.

  16. m6A RNA modification controls cell fate transition in mammalian embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Pedro J; Molinie, Benoit; Wang, Jinkai; Qu, Kun; Zhang, Jiajing; Li, Lingjie; Bouley, Donna M; Lujan, Ernesto; Haddad, Bahareh; Daneshvar, Kaveh; Carter, Ava C; Flynn, Ryan A; Zhou, Chan; Lim, Kok-Seong; Dedon, Peter; Wernig, Marius; Mullen, Alan C; Xing, Yi; Giallourakis, Cosmas C; Chang, Howard Y

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) is the most abundant modification on messenger RNAs and is linked to human diseases, but its functions in mammalian development are poorly understood. Here we reveal the evolutionary conservation and function of m6A by mapping the m6A methylome in mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Thousands of messenger and long noncoding RNAs show conserved m6A modification, including transcripts encoding core pluripotency transcription factors. m6A is enriched over 3′ untranslated regions at defined sequence motifs, and marks unstable transcripts, including transcripts turned over upon differentiation. Genetic inactivation or depletion of mouse and human Mettl3, one of the m6A methylases, led to m6A erasure on select target genes, prolonged Nanog expression upon differentiation, and impaired ESC’s exit from self-renewal towards differentiation into several lineages in vitro and in vivo. Thus, m6A is a mark of transcriptome flexibility required for stem cells to differentiate to specific lineages. PMID:25456834

  17. Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 induce shutoff of host protein synthesis by different mechanisms in Friend erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hill, T M; Sinden, R R; Sadler, J R

    1983-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 disrupt host protein synthesis after viral infection. We have treated both viral types with agents which prevent transcription of the viral genome and used these treated viruses to infect induced Friend erythroleukemia cells. By measuring the changes in globin synthesis after infection, we have determined whether expression of the viral genome precedes the shutoff of host protein synthesis or whether the inhibitor molecule enters the cells as part of the virion. HSV-2-induced shutoff of host protein synthesis was insensitive to the effects of shortwave (254-nm) UV light and actinomycin D. Both of the treatments inhibited HSV-1-induced host protein shutoff. Likewise, treatment of HSV-1 with the cross-linking agent 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen and longwave (360-nm) UV light prevented HSV-1 from inhibiting cellular protein synthesis. Treatment of HSV-2 with 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen did not affect the ability of the virus to interfere with host protein synthesis, except at the highest doses of longwave UV light. It was determined that the highest longwave UV dosage damaged the HSV-2 virion as well as cross-linking the viral DNA. The results suggest that HSV-2 uses a virion-associated component to inhibit host protein synthesis and that HSV-1 requires the expression of the viral genome to cause cellular protein synthesis shutoff.

  18. Increased cyclooxygenase-2 and thromboxane synthase expression is implicated in diosgenin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation in human erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Cailleteau, C; Liagre, B; Battu, S; Jayat-Vignoles, C; Beneytout, J L

    2008-09-01

    Differentiation induction as a therapeutic strategy has, so far, the greatest impact in hematopoietic malignancies, most notably leukemia. Diosgenin is a very interesting natural product because, depending on the specific dose used, its biological effect is very different in HEL (human erythroleukemia) cells. For example, at 10 microM, diosgenin induced megakaryocytic differentiation, in contrast to 40 microM diosgenin, which induced apoptosis in HEL cells previously demonstrated using sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF). The goal of this work focused on the correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and thromboxane synthase (TxS) and megakaryocytic differentiation induced by diosgenin in HEL cells. Furthermore, the technique of SdFFF, having been validated in our models, was used in this new study as an analytical tool that provided us with more or less enriched differentiated cell fractions that could then be used for further analyses of enzyme protein expression and activity for the first time. In our study, we showed the implication of COX-2 and TxS in diosgenin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation in HEL cells. Furthermore, we showed that the analytical technique of SdFFF may be used as a tool to confirm our results as a function of the degree of cell differentiation.

  19. CACCC and GATA-1 sequences make the constitutively expressed alpha-globin gene erythroid-responsive in mouse erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ren, S; Li, J; Atweh, G F

    1996-01-01

    Although the human alpha-globin and beta-globin genes are co-regulated in adult life, they achieve the same end by very different mechanisms. For example, a transfected beta-globin gene is expressed in an inducible manner in mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells while a transfected alpha-globin gene is constitutively expressed at a high level in induced and uninduced MEL cells. Interestingly, when the alpha-globin gene is transferred into MEL cells as part of human chromosome 16, it is appropriately expressed in an inducible manner. We explored the basis for the lack of erythroid-responsiveness of the proximal regulatory elements of the human alpha-globin gene. Since the alpha-globin gene is the only functional human globin gene that lacks CACCC and GATA-1 motifs, we asked whether their addition to the alpha-globin promoter would make the gene erythroid-responsive in MEL cells. The addition of each of these binding sites to the alpha-globin promoter separately did not result in inducibility in MEL cells. However, when both sites were added together, the alpha-globin gene became inducible in MEL cells. This suggests that erythroid non-responsiveness of the alpha-globin gene results from the lack of erythroid binding sites and is not necessarily a function of the constitutively active, GC rich promoter. PMID:8628660

  20. Modulation of ferritin H-chain expression in Friend erythroleukemia cells: transcriptional and translational regulation by hemin.

    PubMed Central

    Coccia, E M; Profita, V; Fiorucci, G; Romeo, G; Affabris, E; Testa, U; Hentze, M W; Battistini, A

    1992-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate the expression of the H chain of the iron storage protein ferritin in Friend erythroleukemia cells (FLCs) after exposure to hemin (ferric protoporphyrin IX), protoporphyrin IX, and ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) have been investigated. Administration of hemin increases the steady-state level of ferritin mRNA about 10-fold and that of ferritin protein expression 20-fold. Experiments with the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D and transfection studies demonstrate that the increment in cytoplasmic mRNA content results from enhanced transcription of the ferritin H-chain gene and cannot be attributed to stabilization of preexisting mRNAs. In addition to transcriptional effects, translational regulation induces the recruitment of stored mRNAs into functional polyribosomes after hemin and FAC administration, resulting in a further increase in ferritin synthesis. Administration of protoporphyrin IX to FLCs produces divergent transcriptional and translational effects. It increases transcription but appears to suppress ferritin mRNA translation. FAC treatment increases the mRNA content slightly (about twofold), and the ferritin levels rise about fivefold over the control values. We conclude that in FLCs, hemin induces ferritin H-chain biosynthesis by multiple mechanisms: a transcriptional mechanism exerted also by protoporphyrin IX and a translational one, not displayed by protoporphyrin IX but shared with FAC. Images PMID:1620112

  1. Dynamic m6A mRNA methylation directs translational control of heat shock response

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Wan, Ji; Gao, Xiangwei; Zhang, Xingqian; Qian, Shu-Bing

    2015-01-01

    The most abundant mRNA post-transcriptional modification is N6-methyladenosine (m6A) that has broad roles in RNA biology1-5. In mammalian cells, the asymmetric distribution of m6A along mRNAs leaves relatively less methylation in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) compared to other regions6,7. However, whether and how 5′UTR methylation is regulated is poorly understood. Despite the crucial role of the 5′UTR in translation initiation, very little is known whether m6A modification influences mRNA translation. Here we show that in response to heat shock stress, m6A is preferentially deposited to the 5′UTR of newly transcribed mRNAs. We found that the dynamic 5′UTR methylation is a result of stress-induced nuclear localization of YTHDF2, a well characterized m6A “reader”. Upon heat shock stress, the nuclear YTHDF2 preserves 5′UTR methylation of stress-induced transcripts by limiting the m6A “eraser” FTO from demethylation. Remarkably, the increased 5′UTR methylation in the form of m6A promotes cap-independent translation initiation, providing a mechanism for selective mRNA translation under heat shock stress. Using Hsp70 mRNA as an example, we demonstrate that a single site m6A modification in the 5′UTR enables translation initiation independent of the 5′ end m7G cap. The elucidation of the dynamic feature of 5′UTR methylation and its critical role in cap-independent translation not only expands the breadth of physiological roles of m6A, but also uncovers a previously unappreciated translational control mechanism in heat shock response. PMID:26458103

  2. Structural Conservation, Variability, and Immunogenicity of the T6 Backbone Pilin of Serotype M6 Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Moreland, Nicole J.; Loh, Jacelyn M.; Bell, Anita; Atatoa Carr, Polly; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N.

    2014-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) is a Gram-positive human pathogen that causes a broad range of diseases ranging from acute pharyngitis to the poststreptococcal sequelae of acute rheumatic fever. GAS pili are highly diverse, long protein polymers that extend from the cell surface. They have multiple roles in infection and are promising candidates for vaccine development. This study describes the structure of the T6 backbone pilin (BP; Lancefield T-antigen) from the important M6 serotype. The structure reveals a modular arrangement of three tandem immunoglobulin-like domains, two with internal isopeptide bonds. The T6 pilin lysine, essential for polymerization, is located in a novel VAKS motif that is structurally homologous to the canonical YPKN pilin lysine in other three- and four-domain Gram-positive pilins. The T6 structure also highlights a conserved pilin core whose surface is decorated with highly variable loops and extensions. Comparison to other Gram-positive BPs shows that many of the largest variable extensions are found in conserved locations. Studies with sera from patients diagnosed with GAS-associated acute rheumatic fever showed that each of the three T6 domains, and the largest of the variable extensions (V8), are targeted by IgG during infection in vivo. Although the GAS BP show large variations in size and sequence, the modular nature of the pilus proteins revealed by the T6 structure may aid the future design of a pilus-based vaccine. PMID:24778112

  3. Fate by RNA methylation: m6A steers stem cell pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Boxuan Simen; He, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    The N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification of mRNA has a crucial function in regulating pluripotency in murine stem cells: it facilitates resolution of naïve pluripotency towards differentiation. PMID:25723450

  4. Structural basis for selective binding of m6A RNA by the YTHDC1 YTH domain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Ke; Roundtree, Ian A; Tempel, Wolfram; Li, Yanjun; Lu, Zhike; He, Chuan; Min, Jinrong

    2014-11-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most abundant internal modification of nearly all eukaryotic mRNAs and has recently been reported to be recognized by the YTH domain family proteins. Here we present the crystal structures of the YTH domain of YTHDC1, a member of the YTH domain family, and its complex with an m(6)A-containing RNA. Our structural studies, together with transcriptome-wide identification of YTHDC1-binding sites and biochemical experiments, not only reveal the specific mode of m(6)A-YTH binding but also explain the preferential recognition of the GG(m(6)A)C sequences by YTHDC1. PMID:25242552

  5. 17. PWD Drawing 1123913 (814M6) (1944), 'Facilities For Cleaning of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. PWD Drawing 11239-13 (814-M-6) (1944), 'Facilities For Cleaning of Battle Damaged Machinery, Steel Cleaning Tank' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Chemical Cleaning Facility, North of Fourteenth Street, between California & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. HnRNP A1 tethers KSRP to an exon splicing silencer that inhibits an erythroid-specific splicing event in PU.1-induced erythroleukemia

    PubMed Central

    Douablin, Alexandre; Deguillien, Mireille; Breig, Osman; Baklouti, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    Exon 16 inclusion is a critical splicing event that triggers the production of a functional protein 4.1R in mature normal erythroblasts, and is obviated in PU.1-induced erythroleukemia cells. Exon 16 contains an exonic splicing silencer (ESS16) that interacts with hnRNP A/B in heterologous cell context. We here show that ESS16 promotes the recruitment of a protein complex containing hnRNP A1 and a 79-kDa protein in nuclear extracts from either proliferative erythroleukemia cells or cells induced to terminal differentiation. By using 2D gel fractionation and mass spectrometry, we unambiguously identified KSRP as the 79-kDa component interacting with ESS16. Furthermore, we show that KSRP slightly decreases in erythroleukemia cells induced to terminal erythroid differentiation. Yet, KSRP inducible knockdown, through stable transfection of small hairpin KSRP RNA, did not alter exon 16 splicing, suggesting that KSRP alone does not modulate the splicing event. Interestingly, absence of hnRNP A1 prevented KSRP from binding to ESS16. Reciprocally, KSRP interaction with ESS16 was recovered when hnRNP A1 expression is restored in hnRNP A1-null cells. Collectively, this study establishes that hnRNPA1 is part of a KSRP-containing RNP complex, and emphasizes that, aside from its function in AU-rich element-mediated mRNA decay and its role in microRNA biogenesis, KSRP associates with hnRNP A1 to bind an ESS. These findings further support the role of members of the KH-domain protein family in organizing large RNA-protein complex formation, rather than primarily in modulating specific splicing events. PMID:26101706

  7. Multiple splice isoforms of proteolipid M6B in neurons and oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Werner, H; Dimou, L; Klugmann, M; Pfeiffer, S; Nave, K A

    2001-12-01

    Proteolipids are abundant integral membrane proteins, initially described as structural proteins of CNS myelin. More recently, two neuronal proteins related to proteolipid protein (PLP), termed M6A and M6B, were identified, suggesting a common function of proteolipids in oligodendrocytes and neurons. We have analyzed the X-linked M6B gene and discovered an unexpected complexity of protein isoforms. Two promoters and alternative exons yield at least eight M6B proteins and polypeptides, differentially expressed in neurons and oligodendrocytes. Six isoforms are tetraspan membrane proteins that differ by highly conserved amino- and carboxy-terminal domains, termed alpha, beta, psi, and omega. In MDCK cells, the beta-domain of M6B stabilizes tetraspan proteolipids at the cell surface, whereas non-beta isoforms are more abundant in intracellular compartments. Cotransfection experiments suggest a physical interaction of M6B and mutant PLP, when retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, that may also contribute to oligodendrocyte dysfunction in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease. PMID:11749036

  8. Effect of a dCTP:dTTP pool imbalance on DNA replication fidelity in Friend murine erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hyland, P L; Keegan, A L; Curran, M D; Middleton, D; McKenna, P G; Barnett, Y A

    2000-01-01

    Nucleotide pool imbalances have been reported to affect the fidelity of DNA replication and repair in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. We have reported previously that the mutagen-hypersensitive thymidine kinase (TK)-deficient Friend erythroleukemia (FEL) cells (subclones 707BUF and 707BUE), have a more than sixfold increase in the dCTP:dTTP pool ratio when compared to that of wild-type, TK-positive (TK(+)) clone 707 cells. In this study we present the results of an investigation of the effect of the dCTP:dTTP pool imbalance on the accuracy of DNA replication within 707BUF cells. We examined the spontaneous mutation spectra occurring at the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt) locus within clone 707 (TK(+)) and 707BUF (TK(-)) FEL cells. Mutations recovered at the aprt locus in FEL cells comprised: base substitutions (43:73), frameshifts (14:13.5), and deletions (43:13.5) [clone 707 (TK(+)):707BUF (TK(-)), respectively, expressed as percentages]. A comparison of the mutation spectra obtained for the two cell lines did not reveal any significant increase in misincorporation of dCTP, the nucleotide in excess, in 707BUF (TK(-)) cells, during DNA replication synthesis. These data suggest that the dCTP:dTTP pool imbalance does not alter the fidelity of DNA replication synthesis in 707BUF (TK(-)) FEL cells. Rather, the predominance of GC --> AT transitions (53%) in the 707BUF (TK(-)) spectrum may reflect a reduced efficiency of repair by uracil DNA glycosylase of uracil residues within these cells.

  9. Regulation of apoptosis by cyclic nucleotides in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells and human myelogenous leukemia (K-562) cells.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Fanni; Wolter, Sabine; Seifert, Roland

    2016-07-15

    The cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides cCMP and cUMP have been recently identified in numerous mammalian cell lines, in primary cells and in intact organs, but very little is still known about their biological function. A recent study of our group revealed that the membrane-permeable cCMP analog cCMP-acetoxymethylester (cCMP-AM) induces apoptosis in mouse lymphoma cells independent of protein kinase A via an intrinsic and mitochondria-dependent pathway. In our present study, we examined the effects of various cNMP-AMs in human tumor cell lines. In HEL cells, a human erythroleukemia cell line, cCMP-AM effectively reduced the number of viable cells, effectively induced apoptosis by altering the mitochondrial membrane potential and thereby caused changes in the cell cycle. cCMP itself was biologically inactive, indicating that membrane penetration is required to trigger intracellular effects. cCMP-AM did not induce apoptosis in K-562 cells, a human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, due to rapid export via multidrug resistance-associated proteins. The biological effects of cCMP-AM differed from those of other cNMP-AMs. In conclusion, cCMP effectively induces apoptosis in HEL cells, cCMP export prevents apoptosis of K-562 cells and cNMPs differentially regulate various aspects of apoptosis, cell growth and mitochondrial function. In a broader perspective, our data support the concept of distinct second messenger roles of cAMP, cGMP, cCMP and cUMP. PMID:27157412

  10. Voltage dependence of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel K(Ca)3.1 in human erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Stoneking, Colin J; Shivakumar, Oshini; Thomas, David Nicholson; Colledge, William H; Mason, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    We have isolated a K(+)-selective, Ca(2+)-dependent whole cell current and single-channel correlate in the human erythroleukemia (HEL) cell line. The whole cell current was inhibited by the intermediate-conductance KCa3.1 inhibitors clotrimazole, TRAM-34, and charybdotoxin, unaffected by the small-conductance KCa2 family inhibitor apamin and the large-conductance KCa1.1 inhibitors paxilline and iberiotoxin, and augmented by NS309. The single-channel correlate of the whole cell current was blocked by TRAM-34 and clotrimazole, insensitive to paxilline, and augmented by NS309 and had a single-channel conductance in physiological K(+) gradients of ~9 pS. RT-PCR revealed that the KCa3.1 gene, but not the KCa1.1 gene, was expressed in HEL cells. The KCa3.1 current, isolated in HEL cells under whole cell patch-clamp conditions, displayed an activated current component during depolarizing voltage steps from hyperpolarized holding potentials and tail currents upon repolarization, consistent with voltage-dependent modulation. This activated current increased with increasing voltage steps above -40 mV and was sensitive to inhibition by clotrimazole, TRAM-34, and charybdotoxin and insensitive to apamin, paxilline, and iberiotoxin. In single-channel experiments, depolarization resulted in an increase in open channel probability (Po) of KCa3.1, with no increase in channel number. The voltage modulation of Po was an increasing monotonic function of voltage. In the absence of elevated Ca(2+), voltage was ineffective at inducing channel activity in whole cell and single-channel experiments. These data indicate that KCa3.1 in HEL cells displays a unique form of voltage dependence modulating Po.

  11. Adsorption and transport of charged vs. neutral hydrophobic molecules at the membrane of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jia; Eckenrode, Heather M; Dai, Hai-Lung; Wilhelm, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    The adsorption and transport of hydrophobic molecules at the membrane surface of pre- and post-DMSO induced differentiated murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells were examined by time- and wavelength-resolved second harmonic light scattering. Two medium (<600 Da) hydrophobic molecules, cationic malachite green (MG) and neutral bromocresol purple (BCP), were investigated. While it was observed that the MG cation adsorbs onto the surface of the MEL cell, neutral BCP does not. It is suggested that an electrostatic interaction between the opposite charges of the cation and the MEL cell surface is the primary driving force for adsorption. Comparisons of adsorption density and free energy, measured at different pH and cell morphology, indicate that the interaction is predominantly through sialic acid carboxyl groups. MG cation adsorption densities have been determined as (0.6±0.3)×10(6) μm(-2) on the surface of undifferentiated MEL cells, and (1.8±0.5)×10(7) μm(-2) on differentiated MEL cells, while the deduced adsorption free energies are effectively identical (ca. -10.9±0.1 and -10.8±0.1 kcal mol(-1), respectively). The measured MG densities indicate that the total number of surface carboxyl groups is largely conserved following differentiation, and therefore the density of carboxylic groups is much larger on the differentiated cell surface than the undifferentiated one. Finally, in contrast to synthetic liposomes and bacterial membranes, surface adsorbed MG cations are unable to traverse the MEL cell membrane. PMID:25660095

  12. Friend spleen focus-forming virus induces factor independence in an erythropoietin-dependent erythroleukemia cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Ruscetti, S K; Janesch, N J; Chakraborti, A; Sawyer, S T; Hankins, W D

    1990-01-01

    Erythroid cells from mice infected with the polycythemia-inducing strain of Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFVP), unlike normal erythroid cells, can proliferate and differentiate in apparent absence of the erythroid hormone erythropoietin (Epo). The unique envelope glycoprotein encoded by SFFV has been shown to be responsible for this biological effect. The recent isolation of an Epo-dependent erythroleukemia cell line, HCD-57, derived from a mouse infected at birth with Friend murine leukemia virus, afforded us the opportunity to study the direct effect of SFFVP on a homogeneous population of factor-dependent cells. The introduction of SFFVP in complex with various helper viruses into these Epo-dependent cells efficiently and reproducibly gave rise to lines which expressed high levels of SFFV and were factor independent. SFFV appears to be unique in its ability to abrogate the factor dependence of Epo-dependent HCD-57 cells, since infection of these cells with retroviruses carrying a variety of different oncogenes had no effect. The induction of Epo independence by SFFV does not appear to involve a classical autocrine mechanism, since there is no evidence that the factor-independent cells synthesize or secrete Epo or depend on it for their growth. However, the SFFV-infected, factor-independent cells had significantly fewer receptors available for binding Epo than their factor-dependent counterparts had, raising the possibility that the induction of factor independence by the virus may be due to the interaction of an SFFV-encoded protein with the Epo receptor. Images PMID:2154592

  13. Voltage dependence of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel K(Ca)3.1 in human erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Stoneking, Colin J; Shivakumar, Oshini; Thomas, David Nicholson; Colledge, William H; Mason, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    We have isolated a K(+)-selective, Ca(2+)-dependent whole cell current and single-channel correlate in the human erythroleukemia (HEL) cell line. The whole cell current was inhibited by the intermediate-conductance KCa3.1 inhibitors clotrimazole, TRAM-34, and charybdotoxin, unaffected by the small-conductance KCa2 family inhibitor apamin and the large-conductance KCa1.1 inhibitors paxilline and iberiotoxin, and augmented by NS309. The single-channel correlate of the whole cell current was blocked by TRAM-34 and clotrimazole, insensitive to paxilline, and augmented by NS309 and had a single-channel conductance in physiological K(+) gradients of ~9 pS. RT-PCR revealed that the KCa3.1 gene, but not the KCa1.1 gene, was expressed in HEL cells. The KCa3.1 current, isolated in HEL cells under whole cell patch-clamp conditions, displayed an activated current component during depolarizing voltage steps from hyperpolarized holding potentials and tail currents upon repolarization, consistent with voltage-dependent modulation. This activated current increased with increasing voltage steps above -40 mV and was sensitive to inhibition by clotrimazole, TRAM-34, and charybdotoxin and insensitive to apamin, paxilline, and iberiotoxin. In single-channel experiments, depolarization resulted in an increase in open channel probability (Po) of KCa3.1, with no increase in channel number. The voltage modulation of Po was an increasing monotonic function of voltage. In the absence of elevated Ca(2+), voltage was ineffective at inducing channel activity in whole cell and single-channel experiments. These data indicate that KCa3.1 in HEL cells displays a unique form of voltage dependence modulating Po. PMID:23407879

  14. Earth's magnetic field anomalies that precede the M6+ global seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    In this work has been analyzed the Earth's magnetic field variations and the M6+ global seismic activity to verify if M6+ earthquakes are preceded by a change of the Earth's magnetic field. The data of Earth's magnetic field used to conduct the study of correlation are provided by the induction magnetometer of Radio Emissions Project's station (Lat: 41°41'4.27"N, Long: 12°38'33,60"E, Albano Laziale, Rome, Italy), equipped with a ELF receiver prototype (with a vertically aligned coil antenna) capable to detect the variations of the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field on Z magnetic component. The M6+ global seismic activity data are provided in real-time by USGS, INGV and CSEM. The sample of data used to conduct the study refers to the period between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2012. The Earth's magnetic field variations data set has been marked with the times (time markers) of M6+ earthquakes occurred on a global scale and has been verified the existence of disturbances of the Earth's geomagnetic field in the time interval that preceded the M6+ global seismic activity. The correlation study showed that all M6+ earthquakes recorded on 2012 were preceded by an increase of the Earth's magnetic field, detected in the Z magnetic component. The authors measured the time lag elapsed between the maximum increment of the Earth's magnetic field recorded before an earthquake M6+ and the date and time at which this occurred, and has been verified that the minimum time lag recorded between the Earth's magnetic field increase and the earthquake M6+ has been 1 minute (9 October 2012, Balleny Islands, M6,4); while, the maximum time lag recorded has been 3600 minutes (26 June 2012, China, M6,3). The average time lag has been 629.47 minutes. In addition, the average time lag is deflected in relation to the magnitude increase. Key words: Seismic Geomagnetic Precursor (SGP), Interplanetary Seismic Precursor (ISP), Earth's magnetic field variations, earthquakes, prevision.

  15. Expression of the axonal membrane glycoprotein M6a is regulated by chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ben; Fuchs, Eberhard; Flügge, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that chronic stress changes dendrites, spines and modulates expression of synaptic molecules. These effects all may impair information transfer between neurons. The present study shows that chronic stress also regulates expression of M6a, a glycoprotein which is localised in axonal membranes. We have previously demonstrated that M6a is a component of glutamatergic axons. The present data reveal that it is the splice variant M6a-Ib, not M6a-Ia, which is strongly expressed in the brain. Chronic stress in male rats (3 weeks daily restraint) has regional effects: quantitative in situ hybridization demonstrated that M6a-Ib mRNA in dentate gyrus granule neurons and in CA3 pyramidal neurons is downregulated, whereas M6a-Ib mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex is upregulated by chronic stress. This is the first study showing that expression of an axonal membrane molecule is differentially affected by stress in a region-dependent manner. Therefore, one may speculate that diminished expression of the glycoprotein in the hippocampus leads to altered output in the corresponding cortical projection areas. Enhanced M6a-Ib expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (in areas prelimbic and infralimbic cortex) might be interpreted as a compensatory mechanism in response to changes in axonal projections from the hippocampus. Our findings provide evidence that in addition to alterations in dendrites and spines chronic stress also changes the integrity of axons and may thus impair information transfer even between distant brain regions. PMID:19180239

  16. Spi-1, Fli-1 and Fli-3 (miR-17-92) oncogenes contribute to a single oncogenic network controlling cell proliferation in friend erythroleukemia.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Samer; Giraud, Guillaume; Morlé, François; Guyot, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Clonal erythroleukemia developing in susceptible mice infected by Friend virus complex are associated with highly recurrent proviral insertions at one of three loci called Spi-1, Fli-1 or Fli-3, leading to deregulated expression of oncogenic Spi-1 or Fli-1 transcription factors or miR-17-92 miRNA cluster, respectively. Deregulated expression of each of these three oncogenes has been independently shown to contribute to cell proliferation of erythroleukemic clones. Previous studies showed a close relationship between Spi-1 and Fli-1, which belong to the same ETS family, Spi-1 activating fli-1 gene, and both Spi-1 and Fli-1 activating multiple common target genes involved in ribosome biogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that Spi-1 and Fli-1 are also involved in direct miR-17-92 transcriptional activation through their binding to a conserved ETS binding site in its promoter. Moreover, we demonstrated that physiological re-expression of exogenous miR-17 and miR-20a are able to partially rescue the proliferation loss induced by Fli-1 knock-down and identified HBP1 as a target of these miRNA in erythroleukemic cells. These results establish that three of the most recurrently activated oncogenes in Friend erythroleukemia are actually involved in a same oncogenic network controlling cell proliferation. The putative contribution of a similar ETS-miR-17-92 network module in other normal or pathological proliferative contexts is discussed.

  17. Constitutive expression of a Mg2+-inhibited K+ current and a TRPM7-like current in human erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael J; Schaffner, Catherine; Floto, R Andres; Teo, Quok An

    2012-03-15

    Whole cell patch-clamp experiments were undertaken to define the basal K(+) conductance(s) in human erythroleukemia cells and its contribution to the setting of resting membrane potential. Experiments revealed a non-voltage-activated, noninactivating K(+) current. The magnitude of the current recorded under whole cell conditions was inhibited by an increase in free intracellular Mg(2+) concentration. Activation or inactivation of the Mg(2+)-inhibited K(+) current (MIP) was paralleled by activation or inactivation of a Mg(2+)-inhibited TRPM7-like current displaying characteristics indistinguishable from those reported for molecularly identified TRPM7 current. The MIP and TRPM7 currents were inhibited by 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors. However, inhibition of the MIP current was temporally distinct from inhibition of TRPM7 current, allowing for isolation of the MIP current. Isolation of the MIP conductance revealed a current reversing near the K(+) equilibrium potential, indicative of a highly K(+)-selective conductance. Consistent with this finding, coactivation of the nonselective cation current TRPM7 and the MIP current following dialysis with nominally Mg(2+)-free pipette solution resulted in hyperpolarized whole cell reversal potentials, consistent with an important role for the MIP current in the setting of a negative resting membrane potential. The MIP and TRPM7-like conductances were constitutively expressed under in vivo conditions of intracellular Mg(2+), as judged by their initial detection and subsequent inactivation following dialysis with a pipette solution containing 5 mM free Mg(2+). The MIP current was blocked in a voltage-dependent fashion by extracellular Cs(+) and, to a lesser degree, by Ba(2+) and was blocked by extracellular La(3+) and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate. MIP currents were unaffected by blockers of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, human ether-à-go-go-related gene current, and intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. In addition

  18. Postearthquake relaxation and aftershock accumulation linearly related after the 2003 M 6.5 Chengkung, Taiwan, and the 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield, California, earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Yu, S.-B.

    2007-01-01

    We treat both the number of earthquakes and the deformation following a mainshock as the superposition of a steady background accumulation and the post-earthquake process. The preseismic displacement and seismicity rates ru and rE are used as estimates of the background rates. Let t be the time after the mainshock, u(t) + u0 the postseismic displacement less the background accumulation rut, and ??N(t) the observed cumulative number of postseismic earthquakes less the background accumulation rE t. For the first 160 days (duration limited by the occurrence of another nearby earthquake) following the Chengkung (M 6.5, 10 December 2003, eastern Taiwan) and the first 560 days following the Parkfield (M 6.0, 28 September 2004, central California) earthquakes u(t) + u0 is a linear function of ??N(t). The aftershock accumulation ??N(t) for both earthquakes is described by the modified Omori Law d??N/dt ?? (1 + t/??)-p with p = 0.96 and ?? = 0.03 days. Although the Chengkung earthquake involved sinistral, reverse slip on a moderately dipping fault and the Parkfield earthquake right-lateral slip on a near-vertical fault, the earthquakes share an unusual feature: both occurred on faults exhibiting interseismic fault creep at the surface. The source of the observed postseismic deformation appears to be afterslip on the coseismic rupture. The linear relation between u(t) + u0 and N(t) suggests that this afterslip also generates the aftershocks. The linear relation between u(t) + u0 and ??N(t) obtains after neither the 1999 M 7.1 Hector Mine (southern California) nor the 1999 M 7.6 Chi-Chi (central Taiwan) earthquakes, neither of which occurred on fault segments exhibiting fault creep.

  19. Structural insights into the molecular mechanism of the m(6)A writer complex.

    PubMed

    Śledź, Paweł; Jinek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of adenosines at the N(6) position (m(6)A) is a dynamic and abundant epitranscriptomic mark that regulates critical aspects of eukaryotic RNA metabolism in numerous biological processes. The RNA methyltransferases METTL3 and METTL14 are components of a multisubunit m(6)A writer complex whose enzymatic activity is substantially higher than the activities of METTL3 or METTL14 alone. The molecular mechanism underpinning this synergistic effect is poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic core of the human m(6)A writer complex comprising METTL3 and METTL14. The structure reveals the heterodimeric architecture of the complex and donor substrate binding by METTL3. Structure-guided mutagenesis indicates that METTL3 is the catalytic subunit of the complex, whereas METTL14 has a degenerate active site and plays non-catalytic roles in maintaining complex integrity and substrate RNA binding. These studies illuminate the molecular mechanism and evolutionary history of eukaryotic m(6)A modification in post-transcriptional genome regulation. PMID:27627798

  20. M6: A diploid potato inbred line for use in breeding and genetics research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    M6 is a vigorous, homozygous breeding line derived by self-pollinating the diploid wild potato relative Solanum chacoense for seven generations. While most wild Solanum species are self-incompatible, this clone is homozygous for the dominant self-incompatibility inhibitor gene Sli. It is homozygous ...

  1. Structural insights into the molecular mechanism of the m6A writer complex

    PubMed Central

    Śledź, Paweł; Jinek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of adenosines at the N6 position (m6A) is a dynamic and abundant epitranscriptomic mark that regulates critical aspects of eukaryotic RNA metabolism in numerous biological processes. The RNA methyltransferases METTL3 and METTL14 are components of a multisubunit m6A writer complex whose enzymatic activity is substantially higher than the activities of METTL3 or METTL14 alone. The molecular mechanism underpinning this synergistic effect is poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic core of the human m6A writer complex comprising METTL3 and METTL14. The structure reveals the heterodimeric architecture of the complex and donor substrate binding by METTL3. Structure-guided mutagenesis indicates that METTL3 is the catalytic subunit of the complex, whereas METTL14 has a degenerate active site and plays non-catalytic roles in maintaining complex integrity and substrate RNA binding. These studies illuminate the molecular mechanism and evolutionary history of eukaryotic m6A modification in post-transcriptional genome regulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18434.001 PMID:27627798

  2. M6.0 South Napa Earthquake Forecasting on the basis of jet stream precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Currently earthquake prediction research methods can be divided into the crust change, radon concentration, well water level, animal behavior, Very high frequency (VHF) signals, GPS/TEC in ionospheric variations, thermal infrared radiation (TIR) anomalies. Before major earthquakes (M> 6) occurred, jet stream in the epicenter area will interrupt or velocity flow lines cross. That meaning is that before earthquake happen, atmospheric pressure in high altitude suddenly dropped during 6~12 hours (Wu & Tikhonov, 2014). This technique has been used to predict the strong earthquakes in real time, and then pre-registered on the website. For example: M6.0 Northern California earthquake on 2014/08/24(figure1) , M6.6 Russia earthquake on 2013/10/12(figure2), As far as 2014/08/24 M6.6 earthquake in CA, USA, the front end of the 60knots speed line was at the S.F. on 2014/06/16 12:00, and then after 69 days ,M6.1 earthquake happened. We predicted that magnitude is larger than 5.5 but the period is only 30 days on 2014/07/16 . The deviation of predicted point was about 70 km. Lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere (LAI) coupling model may be explained this phenomenon : Ionization of the air produced by an increased emanation of radon at epicenter. The water molecules in the air react with these ions, and then release heat. The heat result in temperature rise in the air. They are also accompanied by a large-scale change in the atmospheric pressure and jet streams morphology.We obtain satisfactory accuracy of estimation of the epicenter location. As well we define the short alarm period. That's the positive aspects of our forecast. However, estimates of magnitude jet contain a big uncertainty.Reference:H.C Wu, I.N. Tikhonov, 2014, "Jet streams anomalies as possible short-term precursors of earthquakes with M>6.0", Research in geophysics, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ rg.2014.4939 http://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/rg/article/view/rg.2014.4939

  3. Picking sides: Distinct roles for CYP76M6 and -8 in rice oryzalexin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yisheng; Wang, Qiang; Hillwig, Matthew L.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2013-01-01

    Natural products biosynthesis often requires the action of multiple cytochromes P450 (CYPs), whose ability to introduce oxygen, increasing solubility, is critical for imparting biological activity. In previous investigations of rice diterpenoid biosynthesis, we have characterized CYPs that catalyze alternative hydroxylation of ent-sandaracopimaradiene, the precursor to the rice oryzalexin antibiotic phytoalexins. In particular, CYP76M5, -6 and -8 were all shown to carry out C7β-hydroxylation, while CYP701A8 catalyzes C3α-hydroxylation, with oxy groups found at both positions in oryzalexins A–D, suggesting that these may act consecutively in oryzalexin biosynthesis. Here we report that, although CYP701A8 only poorly reacts with 7β-hydroxy-ent-sandaracopimaradiene, CYP76M6 and -8 readily react with 3α-hydroxy-ent-sandaracopimaradiene. Notably, their activity yields distinct products, resulting from hydroxylation at C9β by CYP76M6 or C7β by CYP76M8, on different sides of the core tricyclic ring structure. Thus, CYP76M6 and -8 have distinct, non-redundant roles in orzyalexin biosynthesis. Moreover, the resulting 3α,7β- and 3α,9β- diols correspond to oryzalexins D and E, respectively. Accordingly, our results complete the functional identification of the biosynthetic pathway underlying the production of these bioactive phytoalexins. In addition, the altered regiochemistry catalyzed by CYP76M6 following C3α-hydroxylation has some implications for its active site configuration, offering further molecular insight. PMID:23795884

  4. Nuclear m(6)A Reader YTHDC1 Regulates mRNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wen; Adhikari, Samir; Dahal, Ujwal; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Hao, Ya-Juan; Sun, Bao-Fa; Sun, Hui-Ying; Li, Ang; Ping, Xiao-Li; Lai, Wei-Yi; Wang, Xing; Ma, Hai-Li; Huang, Chun-Min; Yang, Ying; Huang, Niu; Jiang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Hai-Lin; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Yang, Yun-Gui

    2016-02-18

    The regulatory role of N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) and its nuclear binding protein YTHDC1 in pre-mRNA splicing remains an enigma. Here we show that YTHDC1 promotes exon inclusion in targeted mRNAs through recruiting pre-mRNA splicing factor SRSF3 (SRp20) while blocking SRSF10 (SRp38) mRNA binding. Transcriptome assay with PAR-CLIP-seq analysis revealed that YTHDC1-regulated exon-inclusion patterns were similar to those of SRSF3 but opposite of SRSF10. In vitro pull-down assay illustrated a competitive binding of SRSF3 and SRSF10 to YTHDC1. Moreover, YTHDC1 facilitates SRSF3 but represses SRSF10 in their nuclear speckle localization, RNA-binding affinity, and associated splicing events, dysregulation of which, as the result of YTHDC1 depletion, can be restored by reconstitution with wild-type, but not m(6)A-binding-defective, YTHDC1. Our findings provide the direct evidence that m(6)A reader YTHDC1 regulates mRNA splicing through recruiting and modulating pre-mRNA splicing factors for their access to the binding regions of targeted mRNAs. PMID:26876937

  5. Meclofenamic acid selectively inhibits FTO demethylation of m6A over ALKBH5

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yue; Yan, Jingli; Li, Qi; Li, Jiafei; Gong, Shouzhe; Zhou, Hu; Gan, Jianhua; Jiang, Hualiang; Jia, Gui-Fang; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Cai-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Two human demethylases, the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) enzyme and ALKBH5, oxidatively demethylate abundant N6-methyladenosine (m6A) residues in mRNA. Achieving a method for selective inhibition of FTO over ALKBH5 remains a challenge, however. Here, we have identified meclofenamic acid (MA) as a highly selective inhibitor of FTO. MA is a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug that mechanistic studies indicate competes with FTO binding for the m6A-containing nucleic acid. The structure of FTO/MA has revealed much about the inhibitory function of FTO. Our newfound understanding, revealed herein, of the part of the nucleotide recognition lid (NRL) in FTO, for example, has helped elucidate the principles behind the selectivity of FTO over ALKBH5. Treatment of HeLa cells with the ethyl ester form of MA (MA2) has led to elevated levels of m6A modification in mRNA. Our collective results highlight the development of functional probes of the FTO enzyme that will (i) enable future biological studies and (ii) pave the way for the rational design of potent and specific inhibitors of FTO for use in medicine. PMID:25452335

  6. Meclofenamic acid selectively inhibits FTO demethylation of m6A over ALKBH5.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Yan, Jingli; Li, Qi; Li, Jiafei; Gong, Shouzhe; Zhou, Hu; Gan, Jianhua; Jiang, Hualiang; Jia, Gui-Fang; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Cai-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Two human demethylases, the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) enzyme and ALKBH5, oxidatively demethylate abundant N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) residues in mRNA. Achieving a method for selective inhibition of FTO over ALKBH5 remains a challenge, however. Here, we have identified meclofenamic acid (MA) as a highly selective inhibitor of FTO. MA is a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug that mechanistic studies indicate competes with FTO binding for the m(6)A-containing nucleic acid. The structure of FTO/MA has revealed much about the inhibitory function of FTO. Our newfound understanding, revealed herein, of the part of the nucleotide recognition lid (NRL) in FTO, for example, has helped elucidate the principles behind the selectivity of FTO over ALKBH5. Treatment of HeLa cells with the ethyl ester form of MA (MA2) has led to elevated levels of m(6)A modification in mRNA. Our collective results highlight the development of functional probes of the FTO enzyme that will (i) enable future biological studies and (ii) pave the way for the rational design of potent and specific inhibitors of FTO for use in medicine. PMID:25452335

  7. A new antimitochondria antibody (anti-M6) in iproniazid-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Homberg, J C; Stelly, N; Andreis, I; Abuaf, N; Saadoun, F; Andre, J

    1982-01-01

    A new immunofluorescence pattern of non-organ- and non-species-specific antibody has been observed in occasional sera. Variations of the fluorescence were found in different species. Recognition of the new pattern was particularly characteristic in rat organs (liver: the hepatocytes showed intense roughly granular fluorescence evenly distributed in the cytoplasm; kidney: the bright fluorescence of the first portion of the proximal tubules contrasted with the negative aspect of the other portions of the tubules; stomach: only some cells probably corresponding to the APUD system were positive; pancreas: fluorescence was limited to the islets of Langherhans). The positivity in the ellipsoid region of the rods and cones of the eye and the absorption on different liver organelles showed that this aspect corresponded to the mitochondria. We propose to name this pattern 'antimitochondria antibody number 6' or 'anti-M6'. High titres of anti-M6 were found in four patients suffering from iproniazid-induced hepatitis. A decrease in the titre was obtained after stopping the treatment. The now exceptional use of iproniazid and the rare occurrence of anti-M6 suggest a link between these two phenomena. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7047027

  8. Simulation of metal-ligand self-assembly into spherical complex M6L8.

    PubMed

    Yoneya, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko; Sato, Sota; Fujita, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the self-assembly of a spherical complex through metal-ligand coordination interactions. M(6)L(8), a nanosphere with six palladium ions and eight pyridine-capped tridentate ligands, was selected as a target system. We successfully observed the spontaneous formation of spherical shaped M(6)L(8) cages over the course of our simulations, starting from random initial placement of the metals and ligands. To simulate spontaneous coordination bond formations and breaks, the cationic dummy atom method was employed to model nonbonded metal-ligand interactions. A coarse-grained solvent model was used to fill the gap between the time scale of the supramolecular self-assembly and that accessible by common molecular dynamics simulation. The simulated formation process occurred in the distinct three-stage (assembly, evolution, fixation) process that is well correlated with the experimental results. We found that the difference of the lifetime (or the ligand exchange rate) between the smaller-sized incomplete clusters and the completed M(6)L(8) nanospheres is crucially important in their supramolecular self-assembly.

  9. Influence of the site of tumor growth on the capacity of a low tumorigenic line of Friend erythroleukemia cells to differentiate.

    PubMed Central

    Gresser, I.; Moss, J.; Woodrow, D.; Le Bousse, C.; Maury, C.; Proietti, E.; Belardelli, F.

    1991-01-01

    Friend erythroleukemia cells (FLC) passaged in mice are highly tumorigenic and multiply extensively in the livers of suckling DBA/2 mice without differentiating. In contrast, in vitro passaged FLCs injected intravenously were of low tumorigenicity, multiplied to a limited extent in the livers of suckling mice, and underwent marked differentiation from the proerythroblast to the orthochromatic erythroblast stage in the liver. The presence of characteristic C-type virions budding from the cell surface in various stages of erythroid differentiation served as a marker of the injected FLCs. When the same in vitro passaged FLCs that differentiated in the liver were injected subcutaneously in suckling mice, they formed large subcutaneous tumors consisting of sheets of undifferentiated tumor cells. It is concluded that the tumorigenicity of FLCs depended on the site of tumor growth and that there is an inverse correlation between the tumorigenic capacity and the capacity to differentiate. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2024705

  10. Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Acute Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-27

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Blastic Phase; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome

  11. A majority of m6A residues are in the last exons, allowing the potential for 3' UTR regulation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Shengdong; Alemu, Endalkachew A; Mertens, Claudia; Gantman, Emily Conn; Fak, John J; Mele, Aldo; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Zucker-Scharff, Ilana; Moore, Michael J; Park, Christopher Y; Vågbø, Cathrine Broberg; Kusśnierczyk, Anna; Klungland, Arne; Darnell, James E; Darnell, Robert B

    2015-10-01

    We adapted UV CLIP (cross-linking immunoprecipitation) to accurately locate tens of thousands of m(6)A residues in mammalian mRNA with single-nucleotide resolution. More than 70% of these residues are present in the 3'-most (last) exons, with a very sharp rise (sixfold) within 150-400 nucleotides of the start of the last exon. Two-thirds of last exon m(6)A and >40% of all m(6)A in mRNA are present in 3' untranslated regions (UTRs); contrary to earlier suggestions, there is no preference for location of m(6)A sites around stop codons. Moreover, m(6)A is significantly higher in noncoding last exons than in next-to-last exons harboring stop codons. We found that m(6)A density peaks early in the 3' UTR and that, among transcripts with alternative polyA (APA) usage in both the brain and the liver, brain transcripts preferentially use distal polyA sites, as reported, and also show higher proximal m(6)A density in the last exons. Furthermore, when we reduced m6A methylation by knocking down components of the methylase complex and then examined 661 transcripts with proximal m6A peaks in last exons, we identified a set of 111 transcripts with altered (approximately two-thirds increased proximal) APA use. Taken together, these observations suggest a role of m(6)A modification in regulating proximal alternative polyA choice. PMID:26404942

  12. A majority of m6A residues are in the last exons, allowing the potential for 3′ UTR regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Shengdong; Alemu, Endalkachew A.; Mertens, Claudia; Gantman, Emily Conn; Fak, John J.; Mele, Aldo; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Zucker-Scharff, Ilana; Moore, Michael J.; Park, Christopher Y.; Vågbø, Cathrine Broberg; Kusśnierczyk, Anna; Klungland, Arne; Darnell, James E.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    We adapted UV CLIP (cross-linking immunoprecipitation) to accurately locate tens of thousands of m6A residues in mammalian mRNA with single-nucleotide resolution. More than 70% of these residues are present in the 3′-most (last) exons, with a very sharp rise (sixfold) within 150–400 nucleotides of the start of the last exon. Two-thirds of last exon m6A and >40% of all m6A in mRNA are present in 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs); contrary to earlier suggestions, there is no preference for location of m6A sites around stop codons. Moreover, m6A is significantly higher in noncoding last exons than in next-to-last exons harboring stop codons. We found that m6A density peaks early in the 3′ UTR and that, among transcripts with alternative polyA (APA) usage in both the brain and the liver, brain transcripts preferentially use distal polyA sites, as reported, and also show higher proximal m6A density in the last exons. Furthermore, when we reduced m6A methylation by knocking down components of the methylase complex and then examined 661 transcripts with proximal m6A peaks in last exons, we identified a set of 111 transcripts with altered (approximately two-thirds increased proximal) APA use. Taken together, these observations suggest a role of m6A modification in regulating proximal alternative polyA choice. PMID:26404942

  13. The (Un)Productivity of the 2014 M6.0 South Napa Aftershock Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    The M6.0 South Napa mainshock produced fewer aftershocks than expected for a California earthquake of its magnitude, which became apparent a few days into the sequence. In the first 4.5 days, only 59 M≥1.8 aftershocks had occurred, the largest of which was a M3.9 that happened a little over two days after the mainshock. In contrast, during the same time period the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake had over 220 M≥1.8 aftershocks, 6 of which were M≥4. Here I investigate the aftershock productivity and other sequence statistics of the South Napa sequence and compare it with other M~6 California mainshock-aftershock sequences. By focusing on similar size events, they have similar finite extents within the seismotectonic environment. While the productivities of these sequences vary quite a bit, the b-values of the magnitude-frequency distributions all fall in the 0.6-0.8 range for the northern California sequences, slightly lower than the b-value of ~1 typical of southern California seismicity. Despite the relatively low productivity of the South Napa sequence, I show that the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, JASA, 1988) describes the sequence well and investigate whether the ETAS model parameters suggest that low-productivity sequences are typical for the region. I also explore how quickly after a mainshock these types of models can capture the low productivity of the sequence. The productivity of a sequence is a critical parameter in determining the aftershock probabilities reported in the days following the mainshock. Therefore, the sooner an accurate representation of the aftershock productivity can be obtained, the sooner more accurate aftershock probability reports can be produced.

  14. Chemical abundances of A-type dwarfs in the young open cluster M6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kílíçoǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2011-12-01

    Elemental abundance analysis of five members in the open cluster M6 (age ˜90 myr) were performed using FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectrograph mounted on 8-meter class VLT telescopes. The abundances of 14 chemical elements were derived. Johnson and Geneva photometric systems, hydrogen line profile fittings, and ionization equilibrium were used to derive the atmospheric parameters of the stars. Synthetic spectra were compared to the observed spectra to derive chemical abundances. The abundance analysis of these five members shows that these stars have an enhancement (or solar composition) of metals in general, with some exceptions. C, O, Ca, Sc, Ni, Y, and Ba exhibit the largest star-to-star abundance variations.

  15. Investigation of the Building M6-794 Roofing Fatality, Type A Mishap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, John H.; French, Kristie; Tipton, David A.; Bennardo, C. P.; Miller, Darcy H.; Facemire, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The Building M6-794 Roofing Fatality Mishap Investigation Board (Board) was commissioned to gather information; analyze the facts; identify the proximate causes, root causes, and contributing factors relating to the mishap; and recommend appropriate actions to prevent a similar mishap from occurring in the future. During the investigation of this mishap, the Board also examined the fall protection policies of other NASA Centers and operating locations to gain an understanding of how those entities conduct fall protection, as well as the degree to which fall protection is standardized across the Agency.

  16. Temporal changes in attenuation associated with the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, C. M.; Rietbrock, A.; Faulkner, D. R.; Nadeau, R. M.

    2013-02-01

    Elevated seismic attenuation is often observed in fault zones due to the high degree of fracturing and fluid content. However, temporal changes in attenuation at the time of an earthquake are poorly constrained but can give indications of fracture damage and healing. In this study, spectral ratios between earthquakes within repeating clusters are calculated in an attempt to resolve temporal variations in attenuation at the time of the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake. A sharp increase in attenuation is observed immediately after the earthquake, which then decays over the next 2 years. Influences of intercluster magnitude variations, time window length and previously reported postseismic velocity changes are investigated. The postseismic decay is fit by a logarithmic function. The timescale of the decay is found to be similar to that in GPS data and ambient seismic noise velocities following the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake. The amplitude of the attenuation change corresponds to a decrease of approximately 10% in Qp at the time of the earthquake. The greatest changes are recorded on the northeast of the fault trace, consistent with preferential damage in the extensional quadrant behind a north-westerly propagating rupture tip. Our analysis suggests that significant changes in seismic attenuation and hence fracture dilatancy during coseismic rupture are limited to depths of less than about 5 km.

  17. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect

    CHOU,W.; WEI,J.

    2001-08-14

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade.

  18. Receptor-mediated hepatic uptake of M6P-BSA-conjugated triplex-forming oligonucleotides in rats.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhaoyang; Cheng, Kun; Guntaka, Ramareddy V; Mahato, Ram I

    2006-01-01

    Excessive production of extracellular matrix, predominantly type I collagen, results in liver fibrosis. Earlier we synthesized mannose 6-phosphate-bovine serum albumin (M6P-BSA) and conjugated to the type I collagen specific triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) for its enhanced delivery to hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which is the principal liver fibrogenic cell. In this report, we demonstrate a time-dependent cellular uptake of M6P-BSA-33P-TFO by HSC-T6 cells. Both cellular uptake and nuclear deposition of M6P-BSA-33P-TFO were significantly higher than those of 33P-TFO, leading to enhanced inhibition of type I collagen transcription. Following systemic administration into rats, hepatic accumulation of M6P-BSA-33P-TFO increased from 55% to 68% with the number of M6P per BSA from 14 to 27. Unlike 33P-TFO, there was no significant decrease in the hepatic uptake of (M6P)20-BSA-33P-TFO in fibrotic rats. Prior administration of excess M6P-BSA decreased the hepatic uptake of (M6P)20-BSA-33P-TFO from 66% to 40% in normal rats, and from 60% to 15% in fibrotic rats, suggesting M6P/insulin-like growth factor II (M6P/IGF II) receptor-mediated endocytosis of M6P-BSA-33P-TFO by HSCs. Almost 82% of the total liver uptake in fibrotic rats was contributed by HSCs. In conclusion, by conjugation with M6P-BSA, the TFO could be potentially used for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  19. The stress-regulated protein M6a is a key modulator for neurite outgrowth and filopodium/spine formation.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Julieta; Fernández, María E; Cooper, Benjamin; Flugge, Gabriele; Frasch, Alberto C

    2005-11-22

    Neuronal remodeling is a fundamental process by which the brain responds to environmental influences, e.g., during stress. In the hippocampus, chronic stress causes retraction of dendrites in CA3 pyramidal neurons. We have recently identified the glycoprotein M6a as a stress-responsive gene in the hippocampal formation. This gene is down-regulated in the hippocampus of both socially and physically stressed animals, and this effect can be reversed by antidepressant treatment. In the present work, we analyzed the biological function of the M6a protein. Immunohistochemistry showed that the M6a protein is abundant in all hippocampal subregions, and subcellular analysis in primary hippocampal neurons revealed its presence in membrane protrusions (filopodia/spines). Transfection experiments revealed that M6a overexpression induces neurite formation and increases filopodia density in hippocampal neurons. M6a knockdown with small interference RNA methodology showed that M6a low-expressing neurons display decreased filopodia number and a lower density of synaptophysin clusters. Taken together, our findings indicate that M6a plays an important role in neurite/filopodium outgrowth and synapse formation. Therefore, reduced M6a expression might be responsible for the morphological alterations found in the hippocampus of chronically stressed animals. Potential mechanisms that might explain the biological effects of M6a are discussed. PMID:16286650

  20. Variations of terrestrial geomagnetic activity correlated to M6+ global seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2013-04-01

    From the surface of the Sun, as a result of a solar flare, are expelled a coronal mass (CME or Coronal Mass Ejection) that can be observed from the Earth through a coronagraph in white light. This ejected material can be compared to an electrically charged cloud (plasma) mainly composed of electrons, protons and other small quantities of heavier elements such as helium, oxygen and iron that run radially from the Sun along the lines of the solar magnetic field and pushing into interplanetary space. Sometimes the CME able to reach the Earth causing major disruptions of its magnetosphere: mashed in the region illuminated by the Sun and expanding in the region not illuminated. This interaction creates extensive disruption of the Earth's geomagnetic field that can be detected by a radio receiver tuned to the ELF band (Extreme Low Frequency 0-30 Hz). The Radio Emissions Project (scientific research project founded in February 2009 by Gabriele Cataldi and Daniele Cataldi), analyzing the change in the Earth's geomagnetic field through an induction magnetometer tuned between 0.001 and 5 Hz (bandwidth in which possible to observe the geomagnetic pulsations) was able to detect the existence of a close relationship between this geomagnetic perturbations and the global seismic activity M6+. During the arrival of the CME on Earth, in the Earth's geomagnetic field are generated sudden and intensive emissions that have a bandwidth including between 0 and 15 Hz, an average duration of 2-8 hours, that preceding of 0-12 hours M6+ earthquakes. Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2012, all M6+ earthquakes recorded on a global scale were preceded by this type of signals which, due to their characteristics, have been called "Seismic Geomagnetic Precursors" (S.G.P.). The main feature of Seismic Geomagnetic Precursors is represented by the close relationship that they have with the solar activity. In fact, because the S.G.P. are geomagnetic emissions, their temporal modulation depends

  1. N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) in RNA: an old modification with a novel epigenetic function.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yamei; Zhao, Xu; Wu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Ming-Ming; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Yang, Yun-Gui

    2013-02-01

    N(6)-methyl-adenosine (m(6)A) is one of the most common and abundant modifications on RNA molecules present in eukaryotes. However, the biological significance of m(6)A methylation remains largely unknown. Several independent lines of evidence suggest that the dynamic regulation of m(6)A may have a profound impact on gene expression regulation. The m(6)A modification is catalyzed by an unidentified methyltransferase complex containing at least one subunit methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3). m(6)A modification on messenger RNAs (mRNAs) mainly occurs in the exonic regions and 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) as revealed by high-throughput m(6)A-seq. One significant advance in m(6)A research is the recent discovery of the first two m(6)A RNA demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene and ALKBH5, which catalyze m(6)A demethylation in an α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)- and Fe(2+)-dependent manner. Recent studies in model organisms demonstrate that METTL3, FTO and ALKBH5 play important roles in many biological processes, ranging from development and metabolism to fertility. Moreover, perturbation of activities of these enzymes leads to the disturbed expression of thousands of genes at the cellular level, implicating a regulatory role of m(6)A in RNA metabolism. Given the vital roles of DNA and histone methylations in epigenetic regulation of basic life processes in mammals, the dynamic and reversible chemical m(6)A modification on RNA may also serve as a novel epigenetic marker of profound biological significances. PMID:23453015

  2. Detection of a new phosphorus rich star in the open cluster M6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliçoğlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2012-12-01

    We present the first spectroscopic analysis of HD318101, a member of the M6 (NGC 6405, age 100 Myr) open cluster, using low and high resolution (R˜7500, R˜25000) spectra stretching from 4500 to 5840 Å. The atmospheric parameters of the star were determined from Geneva photometry and hydrogen line modeling (T_e = 15400 ± 500 K, log g = 4.0 ± 0.25). The abundances of 8 elements were determined by fitting synthetic spectral lines to the observed ones. We derived a strong overabundance of phosphorus (+1.69 dex, relative to the Sun) from several P II lines. We also found helium to be underabundant (-0.37 dex). These abundance anomalies suggest that HD318101 could be a He-weak PGa type star (CP4).

  3. How to predict Italy L'Aquila M6.3 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guangmeng

    2016-04-01

    According to the satellite cloud anomaly appeared over eastern Italy on 21-23 April 2012, we predicted the M6.0 quake occurred in north Italy successfully. Here checked the satellite images in 2011-2013 in Italy, and 21 cloud anomalies were found. Their possible correlation with earthquakes bigger than M4.7 which located in Italy main fault systems was statistically examined by assuming various lead times. The result shows that when the leading time interval is set to 23≤ΔT≤45 days, 8 of the 10 quakes were preceded by cloud anomalies. Poisson random test shows that AAR (anomaly appearance rate) and EOR (EQ occurrence rate) is much higher than the values by chance. This study proved the relation between cloud anomaly and earthquake in Italy. With this method, we found that L'Aquila earthquake can also be predicted according to cloud anomaly.

  4. N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) marks primary microRNAs for processing

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Claudio R.; Lee, Hyeseung; Goodarzi, Hani; Halberg, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The first step in the biogenesis of microRNAs is the processing of primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) by the microprocessor complex, composed of the RNA binding protein DGCR8 and the ribonuclease type III DROSHA1–4. This initial event requires the recognition of the junction between the stem and the flanking single-stranded RNA of the pri-miRNA hairpin by DGCR8 followed by recruitment of DROSHA, which cleaves the RNA duplex to yield the pre-miRNA product5. While the mechanisms underlying pri-miRNA processing have been elucidated, the mechanism by which DGCR8 recognizes and binds pri-miRNAs as opposed to other secondary structures present in transcripts is not understood. We find that methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3) methylates pri-miRNAs, marking them for recognition and processing by DGCR8. Consistent with this, METTL3 depletion reduced the binding of DGCR8 to pri-miRNAs and resulted in the global reduction of mature miRNAs and concomitant accumulation of unprocessed pri-miRNAs. In vitro processing reactions confirmed the sufficiency of the m6A mark in promoting pri-miRNA processing. Finally, gain-of-function experiments revealed that METTL3 is sufficient to enhance miRNA maturation in a global and non-cell-type specific manner. Our findings reveal that the m6A mark acts as a key post-transcriptional modification that promotes the initiation of miRNA biogenesis. PMID:25799998

  5. RNAMethPre: A Web Server for the Prediction and Query of mRNA m6A Sites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaou; Sun, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common mRNA modification; it occurs in a wide range of taxon and is associated with many key biological processes. High-throughput experiments have identified m6A-peaks and sites across the transcriptome, but studies of m6A sites at the transcriptome-wide scale are limited to a few species and tissue types. Therefore, the computational prediction of mRNA m6A sites has become an important strategy. In this study, we integrated multiple features of mRNA (flanking sequences, local secondary structure information, and relative position information) and trained a SVM classifier to predict m6A sites in mammalian mRNA sequences. Our method achieves ideal performance in both cross-validation tests and rigorous independent dataset tests. The server also provides a comprehensive database of predicted transcriptome-wide m6A sites and curated m6A-seq peaks from the literature for both human and mouse, and these can be queried and visualized in a genome browser. The RNAMethPre web server provides a user-friendly tool for the prediction and query of mRNA m6A sites, which is freely accessible for public use at http://bioinfo.tsinghua.edu.cn/RNAMethPre/index.html. PMID:27723837

  6. Seismomagnetic effects from the long-awaited 28 September 2004 M 6.0 parkfield earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Sasai, Y.; Egbert, G.D.; Mueller, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Precise measurements of local magnetic fields have been obtained with a differentially connected array of seven synchronized proton magnetometers located along 60 km of the locked-to-creeping transition region of the San Andreas fault at Parkfield, California, since 1976. The M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake on 28 September 2004, occurred within this array and generated coseismic magnetic field changes of between 0.2 and 0.5 nT at five sites in the network. No preseismic magnetic field changes exceeding background noise levels are apparent in the magnetic data during the month, week, and days before the earthquake (or expected in light of the absence of measurable precursive deformation, seismicity, or pore pressure changes). Observations of electric and magnetic fields from 0.01 to 20 Hz are also made at one site near the end of the earthquake rupture and corrected for common-mode signals from the ionosphere/magnetosphere using a second site some 115 km to the northwest along the fault. These magnetic data show no indications of unusual noise before the earthquake in the ULF band (0.01-20 Hz) as suggested may have preceded the 1989 ML 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. Nor do we see electric field changes similar to those suggested to occur before earthquakes of this magnitude from data in Greece. Uniform and variable slip piezomagnetic models of the earthquake, derived from strain, displacement, and seismic data, generate magnetic field perturbations that are consistent with those observed by the magnetometer array. A higher rate of longer-term magnetic field change, consistent with increased loading in the region, is apparent since 1993. This accompanied an increased rate of secular shear strain observed on a two-color EDM network and a small network of borehole tensor strainmeters and increased seismicity dominated by three M 4.5-5 earthquakes roughly a year apart in 1992, 1993, and 1994. Models incorporating all of these data indicate increased slip at depth in the region

  7. YTHDF2 destabilizes m(6)A-containing RNA through direct recruitment of the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex.

    PubMed

    Du, Hao; Zhao, Ya; He, Jinqiu; Zhang, Yao; Xi, Hairui; Liu, Mofang; Ma, Jinbiao; Wu, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    Methylation at the N6 position of adenosine (m(6)A) is the most abundant RNA modification within protein-coding and long noncoding RNAs in eukaryotes and is a reversible process with important biological functions. YT521-B homology domain family (YTHDF) proteins are the readers of m(6)A, the binding of which results in the alteration of the translation efficiency and stability of m(6)A-containing RNAs. However, the mechanism by which YTHDF proteins cause the degradation of m(6)A-containing RNAs is poorly understood. Here we report that m(6)A-containing RNAs exhibit accelerated deadenylation that is mediated by the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex. We further show that YTHDF2 recruits the CCR4-NOT complex through a direct interaction between the YTHDF2 N-terminal region and the SH domain of the CNOT1 subunit, and that this recruitment is essential for the deadenylation of m(6)A-containing RNAs by CAF1 and CCR4. Therefore, we have uncovered the mechanism of YTHDF2-mediated degradation of m(6)A-containing RNAs in mammalian cells. PMID:27558897

  8. HNRNPA2B1 is a mediator of m6A-dependent nuclear RNA processing events

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Claudio R.; Goodarzi, Hani; Lee, Hyeseung; Liu, Xuhang; Tavazoie, Saeed; Tavazoie, Sohail F.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal modification of messenger RNA. While the presence of m6A on transcripts can impact alternative splicing, a nuclear reader of this mark that mediates the processing of nuclear transcripts has not been identified. We find that the RNA-binding HNRNPA2B1 protein binds m6A-bearing RNAs in vivo and in vitro and its biochemical footprint matches the m6A consensus motif. HNRNPA2B1 directly binds a set of nuclear transcripts and modulates their alternative splicing in a similar manner as the m6A ‘writer’ METTL3. Moreover, HNRNPA2B1 binds to m6A marks in a subset of primary-miRNA transcripts, interacts with the microRNA Microprocessor complex protein DGCR8, and promotes primary miRNA processing—phenocopying the effect of METTL3 depletion on the processing of these precursor transcripts. We propose HNRNPA2B1 to be a nuclear reader of the m6A mark and to mediate, in part, this mark’s effects on primary microRNA processing and alternative splicing. PMID:26321680

  9. N (6)-Methyladenosine (m(6)A) Methylation in mRNA with A Dynamic and Reversible Epigenetic Modification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruifan; Jiang, Denghu; Wang, Yizhen; Wang, Xinxia

    2016-07-01

    N (6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most abundant and reversible internal modification ubiquitously occurring in eukaryotic mRNA, albeit the significant biological roles of m(6)A methylation have remained largely unclear. The well-known DNA and histone methylations play crucial roles in epigenetic modification of biologic processes in eukaryotes. Analogously, the dynamic and reversible m(6)A RNA modification, which is installed by methyltransferase (METTL3, METTL14, and WTAP), reversed by demethylases (FTO, ALKBH5) and mediated by m(6)A-binding proteins (YTHDF1-3, YTHDC1), may also have a profound impact on gene expression regulation. Recent discoveries of the distributions, functions, and mechanisms of m(6)A modification suggest that this methylation functionally modulates the eukaryotic transcriptome to influence mRNA transcription, splicing, nuclear export, localization, translation, and stability. This reversible mRNA methylation shed light on a new dimension of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression at the RNA level. m(6)A methylation also plays significant and broad roles in various physiological processes, such as development, fertility, carcinogenesis, stemness, early mortality, meiosis and circadian cycle, and links to obesity, cancer, and other human diseases. This review mainly describes the current knowledge of m(6)A and perspectives on future investigations. PMID:27179969

  10. Differential Requirements of Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses for Fv2-Associated Resistance to Erythroleukemia and for Regulation of Retrovirus-Induced Myeloid Leukemia Development

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, Hiroyuki; Matsukuma, Hideaki; Kinoshita, Saori; Chikaishi, Tomomi; Sakamoto, Mayumi; Kawasaki, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    To assess the possible contribution of host immune responses to the exertion of Fv2-associated resistance to Friend virus (FV)-induced disease development, we inoculated C57BL/6 (B6) mice that lacked various subsets of lymphocytes with FV containing no lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. Fv2r B6 mice lacking CD4+ T cells developed early polycythemia and fatal erythroleukemia, while B6 mice lacking CD8+ T cells remained resistant. Erythroid progenitor cells infected with spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) were eliminated, and no polycythemia was observed in B cell-deficient B6 mice, but they later developed myeloid leukemia associated with oligoclonal integration of ecotropic Friend murine leukemia virus. Additional depletion of natural killer and/or CD8+ T cells from B cell-deficient B6 mice resulted in the expansion of SFFV proviruses and the development of polycythemia, indicating that SFFV-infected erythroid cells are not only restricted in their growth but are actively eliminated in Fv2r mice through cellular immune responses. PMID:24109240

  11. Expression of transfected vimentin genes in differentiating murine erythroleukemia cells reveals divergent cis-acting regulation of avian and mammalian vimentin sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, J; Bond, V C; Wold, B J; Lazarides, E

    1987-01-01

    We studied the expression of transfected chicken and hamster vimentin genes in murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. MEL cells normally repress the levels of endogenous mouse vimentin mRNA during inducermediated differentiation, resulting in a subsequent loss of vimentin filaments. Expression of vimentin in differentiating MEL cells reflects the disappearance of vimentin filaments during mammalian erythropoiesis in vivo. In contrast, chicken erythroid cells express high levels of vimentin mRNA and vimentin filaments during terminal differentiation. We demonstrate here that chicken vimentin mRNA levels increase significantly in differentiating transfected MEL cells, whereas similarly transfected hamster vimentin genes are negatively regulated. In conjunction with in vitro nuclear run-on transcription experiments, these results suggest that the difference in vimentin expression in avian and mammalian erythropoiesis is due to a divergence of cis-linked vimentin sequences that are responsible for transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of vimentin gene expression. Transfected chicken vimentin genes produce functional vimentin protein and stable vimentin filaments during MEL cell differentiation, further demonstrating that the accumulation of vimentin filaments is determined by the abundance of newly synthesized vimentin. Images PMID:3481037

  12. Caspase-independent apoptosis in Friend's erythroleukemia cells: role of mitochondrial ATP synthesis impairment in relocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G.

    PubMed

    Comelli, Marina; Genero, Nadia; Mavelli, Irene

    2009-02-01

    Mitochondria have emerged as the central components of both caspase-dependent and independent apoptosis signalling pathways through release of different apoptogenic proteins. We previously documented that parental and differentiated Friend's erythroleukemia cells were induced to apoptosis by oligomycin and H(2)O(2) exposure, showing that the energy impairment occurring in both cases as a consequence of a severe mitochondrial F(0)F(1)ATPsynthase inactivation was a common early feature. Here we provide evidence for AIF and Endo G mitochondrio-nuclear relocation in both cases, as a component of caspase-independent apoptosis pathways. No detectable change in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and no variation in mitochondrial levels of Bcl-2 and Bax are observed. These results point to the osmotic rupture of the mitochondrial outer membrane as occurring in response to cell exposure to the two energy-impairing treatments under conditions preserving the mitochondrial inner membrane. A critical role of the mitochondrial F(0)F(1)ATP synthase inhibition in this process is also suggested.

  13. Synthesis of new steroidal inhibitors of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance and biological evaluation on K562/R7 erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    de Ravel, Marc Rolland; Alameh, Ghina; Melikian, Maxime; Mahiout, Zahia; Emptoz-Bonneton, Agnès; Matera, Eva-Laure; Lomberget, Thierry; Barret, Roland; Rocheblave, Luc; Walchshofer, Nadia; Beltran, Sonia; El Jawad, Lucienne; Mappus, Elisabeth; Grenot, Catherine; Pugeat, Michel; Dumontet, Charles; Le Borgne, Marc; Cuilleron, Claude Yves

    2015-02-26

    A simple route for improving the potency of progesterone as a modulator of P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance was established by esterification or etherification of hydroxylated 5α/β-pregnane-3,20-dione or 5β-cholan-3-one precursors. X-ray crystallography of representative 7α-, 11α-, and 17α-(2'R/S)-O-tetrahydropyranyl ether diastereoisomers revealed different combinations of axial-equatorial configurations of the anomeric oxygen. Substantial stimulation of accumulation and chemosensitization was observed on K562/R7 erythroleukemia cells resistant to doxorubicin, especially using 7α,11α-O-disubstituted derivatives of 5α/β-pregnane-3,20-dione, among which the 5β-H-7α-benzoyloxy-11α-(2'R)-O-tetrahydropyranyl ether 22a revealed promising properties (accumulation index 2.9, IC50 0.5 μM versus 1.2 and 10.6 μM for progesterone), slightly overcoming those of verapamil and cyclosporin A. Several 7α,12α-O-disubstituted derivatives of 5β-cholan-3-one proved even more active, especially the 7α-O-methoxymethyl-12α-benzoate 56 (accumulation index 3.8, IC50 0.2 μM). The panel of modulating effects from different O-substitutions at a same position suggests a structural influence of the substituent completing a simple protection against stimulating effects of hydroxyl groups on P-gp-mediated transport.

  14. Continued withdrawal from the cell cycle and regulation of cellular genes in mouse erythroleukemia cells blocked in differentiation by the c-myc oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, J A; Parker, J M; Schuler, G D; Cole, M D

    1989-01-01

    Constitutive expression of the c-myc oncogene blocks dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-induced differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. During the first 12 h of treatment with DMSO, MEL cells undergo a temporary decrease in the level of c-myc mRNA, followed by a temporary withdrawal from the cell cycle. We found the same shutoff of DNA synthesis during the first 12 to 30 h after DMSO induction in normal MEL cells (which differentiate) and in c-myc-transfected MEL cells (which do not differentiate). We also examined whether deregulated c-myc expression grossly interfered with the regulation of gene expression during MEL cell differentiation. We used run-on transcription assays to monitor the rate of transcription of four oncogenes (c-myc, c-myb, c-fos, and c-K-ras); all except c-K-ras showed a rapid but temporary decrease in transcription after induction in both c-myc-transfected and control cells. Finally, we found the same regulation of cytoplasmic mRNA expression in both types of cells for four oncogenes and three housekeeping genes associated with growth. We conclude that in the MEL cell system, the effects of deregulated c-myc expression do not occur through a disruption of cell cycle control early in induction, nor do they occur through gross deregulation of gene expression. Images PMID:2657403

  15. Earthquake Rupture Forecast of M>= 6 for the Corinth Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, O.; Boiselet, A.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Albini, P.; Bernard, P.; Briole, P.; Ford, M.; Lambotte, S.; Matrullo, E.; Rovida, A.; Satriano, C.

    2014-12-01

    Fourteen years of multidisciplinary observations and data collection in the Western Corinth Rift (WCR) near-fault observatory have been recently synthesized (Boiselet, Ph.D. 2014) for the purpose of providing earthquake rupture forecasts (ERF) of M>=6 in WCR. The main contribution of this work consisted in paving the road towards the development of a "community-based" fault model reflecting the level of knowledge gathered thus far by the WCR working group. The most relevant available data used for this exercise are: - onshore/offshore fault traces, based on geological and high-resolution seismics, revealing a complex network of E-W striking, ~10 km long fault segments; microseismicity recorded by a dense network ( > 60000 events; 1.5=5 19th century events and a few paleoseismological investigations, allowing to consider time-dependent ERF. B-value estimates are found to be catalogue-dependent (WCR, homogenized NOA+Thessaloniki, SHARE), which may call for a potential break in scaling relationship. Furthermore, observed discrepancies between seismicity rates assumed for the modeled faults and those expected from GPS deformation rates call for the presence of aseismic deformation. Uncertainty in the ERF resulting from the lack of precise knowledge concerning both, fault geometries and seismic slip rates, is quantified through a logic tree exploration. Median and precentile predictions are then compared to ERF assuming a uniform seismicity rate in the WCR region. The issues raised by this work will be discussed in the light of seismic hazard assessment.

  16. PBO Borehole Strainmeter Recordings of The M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, D.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Meertens, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    A major goal of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) was to enable researchers to study the role aseismic transients play in the earthquake cycle. To attain this goal the Observatory includes 75 borehole tensor strainmeters (BSMs) installed in targeted regions, one being the area to the north and east of San Francisco. The M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa earthquake was the largest earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area in 25 years and provides an excellent opportunity to examine the response of BSMs to a nearby strong earthquake and analyze the temporal evolution of the postseismic shear strains. In this presentation we will document the co and postseismic signals recorded by the two PBO BSMs in the area, one in Lucas Valley, north of San Francisco, at 30 km from the epicenter and the other in the East Bay, 3 km from the Hayward Fault and 40 km from the event. One month after the event the Lucas Valley instrument continues to record a large postseismic signal in the shear strains. We will compare the coseismic offsets as recorded by the BSMs with those predicted using elastic half-space dislocation theory and with those recorded by nearby USGS borehole instruments and characterize the temporal behavior of the postseismic signal at the Lucas Valley strainmeter. UNAVCO operates a network of 1100 GPS sites and 75 BSMs as part of the NSF funded PBO program. For information on the PBO network see http://www.unavco.org/projects/major-projects/pbo/pbo.html , for further information on PBO BSM design, installation techniques and suite of data products see http://www.unavco.org/data/strain-seismic/bsm-data/bsm-data.html.

  17. Near-Field Deformation Associated with the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake Surface Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B. A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Ericksen, T.

    2014-12-01

    We characterize near-field deformation associated with the surface rupture of the M6.0 South Napa earthquake from repeat mobile laser scanning (MLS) surveys. Starting the day after the main shock, we operated, sometime simultaneously, short (~75 m range) and medium (~400m range) range laser scanners on a truck or backpack. We scanned most of the length of the principal and secondary surface ruptures at speeds less than 10 km/hr. Scanning occurred primarily in either suburban subdivisions or cultivated vineyards of varying varietals with differing leaf patterns and stages of maturity. Spot-spacing is dense enough (100s of points/m^2) to permit creation of 10-25cm digital elevation models of much of the surface rupture. Scanned features of the right-lateral rupture include classic mole tracks through a variety of soil types, en echelon cracks, offset vine rows, and myriad types of pavement-related deformation. We estimate coseismic surface displacements ranging from 5 to 45 cm by examining offset cultural features and vine rows and by comparing the MLS data with preexisting airborne laser scans from 2003 using point-cloud and solid-modeling methodologies. Additionally, we conducted repeat MLS scans to measure the magnitude and spatial variation of fault afterslip, exceeding 20 cm in some places, particularly in the southern portion of the rupture zone. We anticipate these data sets, in conjunction with independently collected ground-based alinement arrays and space-based geodetic data will contribute significant insight into topics of current debate including assessing the most appropriate material models for shallow fault zones and how shallow and deeper fault slip relate to one another.

  18. Postearthquake relaxation after the 2004 M6 Parkfield, California, earthquake and rate-and-state friction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Langbein, J.

    2008-01-01

    An unusually complete set of measurements (including rapid rate GPS over the first 10 days) of postseismic deformation is available at 12 continuous GPS stations located close to the epicenter of the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake. The principal component modes for the relaxation of the ensemble of those 12 GPS stations were determined. The first mode alone furnishes an adequate approximation to the data. Thus, the relaxation at all stations can be represented by the product of a common temporal function and distinct amplitudes for each component (north or east) of relaxation at each station. The distribution in space of the amplitudes indicates that the relaxation is dominantly strike slip. The temporal function, which spans times from about 5 min to 900 days postearthquake, can be fit by a superposition of three creep terms, each of the form ??l loge(1 + t/??l), with characteristic times ??, = 4.06, 0.11, and 0.0001 days. It seems likely that what is actually involved is a broad spectrum of characteristic times, the individual components of which arise from afterslip on different fault patches. Perfettini and Avouac (2004) have shown that an individual creep term can be explained by the spring-slider model with rate-dependent (no state variable) friction. The observed temporal function can also be explained using a single spring-slider model (i.e., single fault patch) that includes rate-and-state-dependent friction, a single-state variable, and either of the two commonly used (aging and slip) state evolution laws. In the latter fits, the rate-and-state friction parameter b is negative.

  19. Precise localization of m6A in Rous sarcoma virus RNA reveals clustering of methylation sites: implications for RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Kane, S E; Beemon, K

    1985-09-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) residues are present as internal base modifications in most higher eucaryotic mRNAs; however, the biological function of this modification is not known. We describe a method for localizing and quantitating m6A within a large RNA molecule, the genomic RNA of Rous sarcoma virus. Specific fragments of 32P-labeled Rous sarcoma virus RNA were isolated by hybridization with complementary DNA restriction fragments spanning nucleotides 6185 to 8050. RNA was digested with RNase and finger-printed, and individual oligonucleotides were analyzed for the presence of m6A by paper electrophoresis and thin-layer chromatography. With this technique, seven sites of methylation in this region of the Rous sarcoma virus genome were localized at nucleotides 6394, 6447, 6507, 6718, 7414, 7424, and 8014. Further, m6A was observed at two additional sites whose nucleotide assignments remain ambiguous. A clustering of two or more m6A residues was seen at three positions within the RNA analyzed. Modification at certain sites was found to be heterogeneous, in that different molecules of RNA appeared to be methylated differently. Previous studies have determined that methylation occurs only in the sequences Gm6AC and Am6AC. We observed a high frequency of methylation at PuGm6ACU sequences. The possible involvement of m6A in RNA splicing events is discussed. PMID:3016525

  20. Chemical Composition of Intermediate-mass Star Members of the M6 (NGC 6405) Open Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıçoğlu, T.; Monier, R.; Richer, J.; Fossati, L.; Albayrak, B.

    2016-03-01

    We present here the first abundance analysis of 44 late B-, A-, and F-type members of the young open cluster M6 (NGC 6405, age about 75 Myr). Low- and medium-resolution spectra, covering the 4500-5840 Å wavelength range, were obtained using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph attached to the ESO Very Large Telescopes. We determined the atmospheric parameters using calibrations of the Geneva photometry and by adjusting the Hβ profiles to synthetic ones. The abundances of up to 20 chemical elements, from helium to mercury, were derived for 19 late B, 16 A, and 9 F stars by iteratively adjusting synthetic spectra to the observations. We also derived a mean cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.07 ± 0.03 dex from the iron abundances of the F-type stars. We find that for most chemical elements, the normal late B- and A-type stars exhibit larger star-to-star abundance variations than the F-type stars probably because of the faster rotation of the B and A stars. The abundances of C, O, Mg, Si, and Sc appear to be anticorrelated with that of Fe, while the opposite holds for the abundances of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Y, and Ba as expected if radiative diffusion is efficient in the envelopes of these stars. In the course of this analysis, we discovered five new peculiar stars: one mild Am, one Am, and one Fm star (HD 318091, CD-32 13109, GSC 07380-01211, CP1), one HgMn star (HD 318126, CP3), and one He-weak P-rich (HD 318101, CP4) star. We also discovered a new spectroscopic binary, most likely a SB2. We performed a detailed modeling of HD 318101, the new He-weak P-rich CP star, using the Montréal stellar evolution code XEVOL which self-consistently treats all particle transport processes. Although the overall abundance pattern of this star is properly reproduced, we find that detailed abundances (in particular the high P excess) resisted modeling attempts even when a range of turbulence profiles and mass-loss rates were considered. Solutions are proposed which are still under

  1. Seismology and Earthquake Ground Motions of the August 24, 2014 M6 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, T.; Wang, S.; Mazzoni, S.; Markam, C.; Lu, Y.; Bozorgnia, Y.; Mahin, S.; Bray, J.; Panagiotou, M.; Stewart, J. P.; Darragh, R. B.; Abrahamson, N. A.; Hollenback, J. C.; Gutierrez, C.; Chiou, B.; Muin, S.; Dreger, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The M6.0 South Napa earthquake produced strong ground motions in the northern San Francisco Bay area. A total of 214 three-component uncorrected digital accelerograms were downloaded from the CESMD website and processed following the PEER standard procedure (Ancheta et al. 2014). Intense ground motions were recorded in the heavily damaged area of Napa with peak acceleration greater than 0.3 g. Pulse-like waveforms were observed in several of the velocity time series at the near-fault stations. Near-fault velocity time series were rotated into fault normal and fault parallel directions and then characterized as pulse-like or non pulse-like according to previous studies by Hayden et al. (2014), Shahi (2013), and Lu and Panagiotou (2014). The near-fault velocity time series at five stations contained pulses with periods within the expected range of 0.7 s to 2.0 s for soil sites (Bray et al. 2009). However, they also contained longer period pulses than the expected range. High-frequency spikes were recorded at Carquinez Bridge Geotechnical Array #1 (CBGA1) of approximately 1.0 g on the NS component. These spikes were in the S-wave portion and were consistently observed in the downhole arrays and several other sites along the same azimuth from the source. The spikes increase in amplitude both from the Hwy 37/Napa River East Geotechnical Array to CBGA1 and from a depth below 100 m to the surface. This suggests that the spikes could be a result of path effects and site amplification through the surficial soft soil deposits. However, these observations do not exclude the possibility of soil-structure interaction effects on the measured recordings. The 5% damped pseudo-spectral accelerations (PSA) from the recorded ground motions compared well to those estimated from the recent NGA-West2 GMPEs. The exceptions are that PSA is under predicted from 1 to 3 seconds at several near fault records due to the velocity pulses and for short periods at Carquinez Bridge where the large

  2. E-DECIDER Rapid Response to the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Parker, J. W.; Pierce, M. E.; Wang, J.; Eguchi, R. T.; Huyck, C. K.; Hu, Z.; Chen, Z.; Yoder, M. R.; Rundle, J. B.; Rosinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    E-DECIDER initiated rapid response mode when the California Earthquake Clearinghouse was activated the morning following the M6 Napa earthquake. Data products, including: 1) rapid damage and loss estimates, 2) deformation magnitude and slope change maps, and 3) aftershock forecasts were provided to the Clearinghouse partners within 24 hours of the event via XchangeCore Web Service Data Orchestration sharing. NASA data products were provided to end-users via XchangeCore, EERI and Clearinghouse websites, and ArcGIS online for Napa response, reaching a wide response audience. The E-DECIDER team helped facilitate rapid delivery of NASA products to stakeholders and participated in Clearinghouse Napa earthquake briefings to update stakeholders on product information. Rapid response products from E-DECIDER can be used to help prioritize response efforts shortly after the event has occurred. InLET (Internet Loss Estimation Tool) post-event damage and casualty estimates were generated quickly after the Napa earthquake. InLET provides immediate post-event estimates of casualties and building damage by performing loss/impact simulations using USGS ground motion data and FEMA HAZUS damage estimation technology. These results were provided to E-DECIDER by their collaborators, ImageCat, Inc. and the Community Stakeholder Network (CSN). Strain magnitude and slope change maps were automatically generated when the Napa earthquake appeared on the USGS feed. These maps provide an early estimate of where the deformation has occurred and where damage may be localized. Using E-DECIDER critical infrastructure overlays with damage estimates, decision makers can direct response effort that can be verified later with field reconnaissance and remote sensing-based observations. Earthquake aftershock forecast maps were produced within hours of the event. These maps highlight areas where aftershocks are likely to occur and can also be coupled with infrastructure overlays to help direct response

  3. SRAMP: prediction of mammalian N6-methyladenosine (m6A) sites based on sequence-derived features.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan; Zeng, Pan; Li, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Ziding; Cui, Qinghua

    2016-06-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is a prevalent RNA methylation modification involved in the regulation of degradation, subcellular localization, splicing and local conformation changes of RNA transcripts. High-throughput experiments have demonstrated that only a small fraction of the m(6)A consensus motifs in mammalian transcriptomes are modified. Therefore, accurate identification of RNA m(6)A sites becomes emergently important. For the above purpose, here a computational predictor of mammalian m(6)A site named SRAMP is established. To depict the sequence context around m(6)A sites, SRAMP combines three random forest classifiers that exploit the positional nucleotide sequence pattern, the K-nearest neighbor information and the position-independent nucleotide pair spectrum features, respectively. SRAMP uses either genomic sequences or cDNA sequences as its input. With either kind of input sequence, SRAMP achieves competitive performance in both cross-validation tests and rigorous independent benchmarking tests. Analyses of the informative features and overrepresented rules extracted from the random forest classifiers demonstrate that nucleotide usage preferences at the distal positions, in addition to those at the proximal positions, contribute to the classification. As a public prediction server, SRAMP is freely available at http://www.cuilab.cn/sramp/. PMID:26896799

  4. SRAMP: prediction of mammalian N6-methyladenosine (m6A) sites based on sequence-derived features

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan; Zeng, Pan; Li, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Ziding; Cui, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a prevalent RNA methylation modification involved in the regulation of degradation, subcellular localization, splicing and local conformation changes of RNA transcripts. High-throughput experiments have demonstrated that only a small fraction of the m6A consensus motifs in mammalian transcriptomes are modified. Therefore, accurate identification of RNA m6A sites becomes emergently important. For the above purpose, here a computational predictor of mammalian m6A site named SRAMP is established. To depict the sequence context around m6A sites, SRAMP combines three random forest classifiers that exploit the positional nucleotide sequence pattern, the K-nearest neighbor information and the position-independent nucleotide pair spectrum features, respectively. SRAMP uses either genomic sequences or cDNA sequences as its input. With either kind of input sequence, SRAMP achieves competitive performance in both cross-validation tests and rigorous independent benchmarking tests. Analyses of the informative features and overrepresented rules extracted from the random forest classifiers demonstrate that nucleotide usage preferences at the distal positions, in addition to those at the proximal positions, contribute to the classification. As a public prediction server, SRAMP is freely available at http://www.cuilab.cn/sramp/. PMID:26896799

  5. Genetic manipulation of iron biomineralization enhances MR relaxivity in a ferritin-M6A chimeric complex

    PubMed Central

    Radoul, Marina; Lewin, Limor; Cohen, Batya; Oren, Roni; Popov, Stanislav; Davidov, Geula; Vandsburger, Moriel H.; Harmelin, Alon; Bitton, Ronit; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Neeman, Michal; Zarivach, Raz

    2016-01-01

    Ferritin has gained significant attention as a potential reporter gene for in vivo imaging by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, due to the ferritin ferrihydrite core, the relaxivity and sensitivity for detection of native ferritin is relatively low. We report here on a novel chimeric magneto-ferritin reporter gene – ferritin-M6A – in which the magnetite binding peptide from the magnetotactic bacteria magnetosome-associated Mms6 protein was fused to the C-terminal of murine h-ferritin. Biophysical experiments showed that purified ferritin-M6A assembled into a stable protein cage with the M6A protruding into the cage core, enabling magnetite biomineralisation. Ferritin-M6A-expressing C6-glioma cells showed enhanced (per iron) r2 relaxivity. MRI in vivo studies of ferritin-M6A-expressing tumour xenografts showed enhanced R2 relaxation rate in the central hypoxic region of the tumours. Such enhanced relaxivity would increase the sensitivity of ferritin as a reporter gene for non-invasive in vivo MRI-monitoring of cell delivery and differentiation in cellular or gene-based therapies. PMID:27211820

  6. Dynamics of the human and viral m(6)A RNA methylomes during HIV-1 infection of T cells.

    PubMed

    Lichinchi, Gianluigi; Gao, Shang; Saletore, Yogesh; Gonzalez, Gwendolyn Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Wang, Yinsheng; Mason, Christopher E; Rana, Tariq M

    2016-01-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent internal modification of eukaryotic mRNA. Very little is known of the function of m(6)A in the immune system or its role in host-pathogen interactions. Here, we investigate the topology, dynamics and bidirectional influences of the viral-host RNA methylomes during HIV-1 infection of human CD4 T cells. We show that viral infection triggers a massive increase in m(6)A in both host and viral mRNAs. In HIV-1 mRNA, we identified 14 methylation peaks in coding and noncoding regions, splicing junctions and splicing regulatory sequences. We also identified a set of 56 human gene transcripts that were uniquely methylated in HIV-1-infected T cells and were enriched for functions in viral gene expression. The functional relevance of m(6)A for viral replication was demonstrated by silencing of the m(6)A writer or the eraser enzymes, which decreased or increased HIV-1 replication, respectively. Furthermore, methylation of two conserved adenosines in the stem loop II region of HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) RNA enhanced binding of HIV-1 Rev protein to the RRE in vivo and influenced nuclear export of RNA. Our results identify a new mechanism for the control of HIV-1 replication and its interaction with the host immune system. PMID:27572442

  7. Stem cells. m6A mRNA methylation facilitates resolution of naïve pluripotency toward differentiation.

    PubMed

    Geula, Shay; Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Sharon; Dominissini, Dan; Mansour, Abed AlFatah; Kol, Nitzan; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Hershkovitz, Vera; Peer, Eyal; Mor, Nofar; Manor, Yair S; Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Eyal, Eran; Yunger, Sharon; Pinto, Yishay; Jaitin, Diego Adhemar; Viukov, Sergey; Rais, Yoach; Krupalnik, Vladislav; Chomsky, Elad; Zerbib, Mirie; Maza, Itay; Rechavi, Yoav; Massarwa, Rada; Hanna, Suhair; Amit, Ido; Levanon, Erez Y; Amariglio, Ninette; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Novershtern, Noa; Rechavi, Gideon; Hanna, Jacob H

    2015-02-27

    Naïve and primed pluripotent states retain distinct molecular properties, yet limited knowledge exists on how their state transitions are regulated. Here, we identify Mettl3, an N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) transferase, as a regulator for terminating murine naïve pluripotency. Mettl3 knockout preimplantation epiblasts and naïve embryonic stem cells are depleted for m(6)A in mRNAs, yet are viable. However, they fail to adequately terminate their naïve state and, subsequently, undergo aberrant and restricted lineage priming at the postimplantation stage, which leads to early embryonic lethality. m(6)A predominantly and directly reduces mRNA stability, including that of key naïve pluripotency-promoting transcripts. This study highlights a critical role for an mRNA epigenetic modification in vivo and identifies regulatory modules that functionally influence naïve and primed pluripotency in an opposing manner.

  8. Stem cells. m6A mRNA methylation facilitates resolution of naïve pluripotency toward differentiation.

    PubMed

    Geula, Shay; Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Sharon; Dominissini, Dan; Mansour, Abed AlFatah; Kol, Nitzan; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Hershkovitz, Vera; Peer, Eyal; Mor, Nofar; Manor, Yair S; Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Eyal, Eran; Yunger, Sharon; Pinto, Yishay; Jaitin, Diego Adhemar; Viukov, Sergey; Rais, Yoach; Krupalnik, Vladislav; Chomsky, Elad; Zerbib, Mirie; Maza, Itay; Rechavi, Yoav; Massarwa, Rada; Hanna, Suhair; Amit, Ido; Levanon, Erez Y; Amariglio, Ninette; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Novershtern, Noa; Rechavi, Gideon; Hanna, Jacob H

    2015-02-27

    Naïve and primed pluripotent states retain distinct molecular properties, yet limited knowledge exists on how their state transitions are regulated. Here, we identify Mettl3, an N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) transferase, as a regulator for terminating murine naïve pluripotency. Mettl3 knockout preimplantation epiblasts and naïve embryonic stem cells are depleted for m(6)A in mRNAs, yet are viable. However, they fail to adequately terminate their naïve state and, subsequently, undergo aberrant and restricted lineage priming at the postimplantation stage, which leads to early embryonic lethality. m(6)A predominantly and directly reduces mRNA stability, including that of key naïve pluripotency-promoting transcripts. This study highlights a critical role for an mRNA epigenetic modification in vivo and identifies regulatory modules that functionally influence naïve and primed pluripotency in an opposing manner. PMID:25569111

  9. Yeast m6A Methylated mRNAs Are Enriched on Translating Ribosomes during Meiosis, and under Rapamycin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bodi, Zsuzsanna; Bottley, Andrew; Archer, Nathan; May, Sean T.; Fray, Rupert G.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in mRNA methylation has exploded in recent years. The sudden interest in a 40 year old discovery was due in part to the finding of FTO’s (Fat Mass Obesity) N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) deaminase activity, thus suggesting a link between obesity-associated diseases and the presence of m6A in mRNA. Another catalyst of the sudden rise in mRNA methylation research was the release of mRNA methylomes for human, mouse and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the molecular function, or functions of this mRNA ‘epimark’ remain to be discovered. There is supportive evidence that m6A could be a mark for mRNA degradation due to its binding to YTH domain proteins, and consequently being chaperoned to P bodies. Nonetheless, only a subpopulation of the methylome was found binding to YTHDF2 in HeLa cells.The model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has only one YTH domain protein (Pho92, Mrb1), which targets PHO4 transcripts for degradation under phosphate starvation. However, mRNA methylation is only found under meiosis inducing conditions, and PHO4 transcripts are apparently non-methylated. In this paper we set out to investigate if m6A could function alternatively to being a degradation mark in S. cerevisiae; we also sought to test whether it can be induced under non-standard sporulation conditions. We find a positive association between the presence of m6A and message translatability. We also find m6A induction following prolonged rapamycin treatment. PMID:26186436

  10. Yeast m6A Methylated mRNAs Are Enriched on Translating Ribosomes during Meiosis, and under Rapamycin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Zsuzsanna; Bottley, Andrew; Archer, Nathan; May, Sean T; Fray, Rupert G

    2015-01-01

    Interest in mRNA methylation has exploded in recent years. The sudden interest in a 40 year old discovery was due in part to the finding of FTO's (Fat Mass Obesity) N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) deaminase activity, thus suggesting a link between obesity-associated diseases and the presence of m6A in mRNA. Another catalyst of the sudden rise in mRNA methylation research was the release of mRNA methylomes for human, mouse and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the molecular function, or functions of this mRNA 'epimark' remain to be discovered. There is supportive evidence that m6A could be a mark for mRNA degradation due to its binding to YTH domain proteins, and consequently being chaperoned to P bodies. Nonetheless, only a subpopulation of the methylome was found binding to YTHDF2 in HeLa cells.The model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has only one YTH domain protein (Pho92, Mrb1), which targets PHO4 transcripts for degradation under phosphate starvation. However, mRNA methylation is only found under meiosis inducing conditions, and PHO4 transcripts are apparently non-methylated. In this paper we set out to investigate if m6A could function alternatively to being a degradation mark in S. cerevisiae; we also sought to test whether it can be induced under non-standard sporulation conditions. We find a positive association between the presence of m6A and message translatability. We also find m6A induction following prolonged rapamycin treatment. PMID:26186436

  11. Yeast m6A Methylated mRNAs Are Enriched on Translating Ribosomes during Meiosis, and under Rapamycin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Zsuzsanna; Bottley, Andrew; Archer, Nathan; May, Sean T; Fray, Rupert G

    2015-01-01

    Interest in mRNA methylation has exploded in recent years. The sudden interest in a 40 year old discovery was due in part to the finding of FTO's (Fat Mass Obesity) N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) deaminase activity, thus suggesting a link between obesity-associated diseases and the presence of m6A in mRNA. Another catalyst of the sudden rise in mRNA methylation research was the release of mRNA methylomes for human, mouse and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the molecular function, or functions of this mRNA 'epimark' remain to be discovered. There is supportive evidence that m6A could be a mark for mRNA degradation due to its binding to YTH domain proteins, and consequently being chaperoned to P bodies. Nonetheless, only a subpopulation of the methylome was found binding to YTHDF2 in HeLa cells.The model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has only one YTH domain protein (Pho92, Mrb1), which targets PHO4 transcripts for degradation under phosphate starvation. However, mRNA methylation is only found under meiosis inducing conditions, and PHO4 transcripts are apparently non-methylated. In this paper we set out to investigate if m6A could function alternatively to being a degradation mark in S. cerevisiae; we also sought to test whether it can be induced under non-standard sporulation conditions. We find a positive association between the presence of m6A and message translatability. We also find m6A induction following prolonged rapamycin treatment.

  12. Calculation of the Rate of M>6.5 Earthquakes for California and Adjacent Portions of Nevada and Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Mueller, Charles

    2008-01-01

    One of the key issues in the development of an earthquake recurrence model for California and adjacent portions of Nevada and Mexico is the comparison of the predicted rates of earthquakes with the observed rates. Therefore, it is important to make an accurate determination of the observed rate of M>6.5 earthquakes in California and the adjacent region. We have developed a procedure to calculate observed earthquake rates from an earthquake catalog, accounting for magnitude uncertainty and magnitude rounding. We present a Bayesian method that corrects for the effect of the magnitude uncertainty in calculating the observed rates. Our recommended determination of the observed rate of M>6.5 in this region is 0.246 ? 0.085 (for two sigma) per year, although this rate is likely to be underestimated because of catalog incompleteness and this uncertainty estimate does not include all sources of uncertainty.

  13. Evolution of the chemical element abundances with age in open clusters: The Hyades, Pleiades, Coma Berenices and M6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliçoǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Gebran, M.; Fossati, L.

    2014-12-01

    We compare the averaged photospheric abundances of A and F stars in open clusters of different ages: M6 (˜80 Myr), Pleiades (˜100 Myr), Coma Berenices (˜450 Myr), and the Hyades (˜800 Myr). The variation in the averaged abundances among F stars generally reflects the differences between the initial compositions of the clusters in their various birthplaces. The differences of the averaged chemical composition of A stars may also reveal the effects of radiative difussion for the stars of different ages. We also discuss the methods, resolutions and wavelength coverages of spectra and discrepancies in the derived microturbulent velocities among the various studies to check if these studies are comparable. We also present the pattern of mean abundances and metallicity for the M6 cluster determined by spectral analysis of GIRAFFE spectra acquired with the VLT, Paranal Observatory.

  14. Characterization of the radiation environment at the UNLV accelerator facility during operation of the Varian M6 linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, M.; Barzilov, A.; Chen, Y.; Lowe, D.

    2016-10-01

    The bremsstrahlung photon flux from the UNLV particle accelerator (Varian M6 model) was determined using MCNP5 code for 3 MeV and 6 MeV incident electrons. Human biological equivalent dose rates due to accelerator operation were evaluated using the photon flux with the flux-to-dose conversion factors. Dose rates were computed for the accelerator facility for M6 linac use under different operating conditions. The results showed that the use of collimators and linac internal shielding significantly reduced the dose rates throughout the facility. It was shown that the walls of the facility, in addition to the earthen berm enveloping the building, provide equivalent shielding to reduce dose rates outside to below the 2 mrem/h limit.

  15. Comparison of genetic and clinical aspects in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes all with more than 50% of bone marrow erythropoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Bacher, Ulrike; Haferlach, Claudia; Alpermann, Tamara; Kern, Wolfgang; Schnittger, Susanne; Haferlach, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization separates acute erythroid leukemia (erythropoiesis in ≥50% of nucleated bone marrow cells; ≥20% myeloblasts of non-erythroid cells) from other entities with increased erythropoiesis – acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (≥20% myeloblasts of all nucleated cells) or myelodysplastic syndromes – and subdivides acute erythroid leukemia into erythroleukemia and pure erythroid leukemia subtypes. We aimed to investigate the biological/genetic justification for the different categories of myeloid malignancies with increased erythropoiesis (≥50% of bone marrow cells). Design and Methods We investigated 212 patients (aged 18.5–88.4 years) with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes characterized by 50% or more erythropoiesis: 108 had acute myeloid leukemia (77 with acute erythroid leukemia, corresponding to erythroid/myeloid erythroleukemia, 7 with pure erythroid leukemia, 24 with acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes) and 104 had myelodysplastic syndromes. Morphological and chromosome banding analyses were performed in all cases; subsets of cases were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and immunophenotyping. Results Unfavorable karyotypes were more frequent in patients with acute myeloid leukemia than in those with myelodysplastic syndromes (42.6% versus 13.5%; P<0.0001), but their frequency did not differ significantly between patients with acute erythroid leukemia (39.0%), pure erythroid leukemia (57.1%), and acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (50.0%). The incidence of molecular mutations did not differ significantly between the different categories. The 2-year overall survival rate was better for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes than for those with acute myeloid leukemia (P<0.0001), without significant differences across the different acute leukemia subtypes. The 2-year overall survival rate was worse in patients with

  16. THE MAGNETIC SYSTEMS TRIGGERING THE M6.6 CLASS SOLAR FLARE IN NOAA ACTIVE REGION 11158

    SciTech Connect

    Toriumi, Shin; Iida, Yusuke; Bamba, Yumi; Kusano, Kanya; Imada, Shinsuke; Inoue, Satoshi

    2013-08-20

    We report a detailed event analysis of the M6.6 class flare in the active region (AR) NOAA 11158 on 2011 February 13. AR 11158, which consisted of two major emerging bipoles, showed prominent activity including one X- and several M-class flares. In order to investigate the magnetic structures related to the M6.6 event, particularly the formation process of a flare-triggering magnetic region, we analyzed multiple spacecraft observations and numerical results of a flare simulation. We observed that, in the center of this quadrupolar AR, a highly sheared polarity inversion line (PIL) was formed through proper motions of the major magnetic elements, which built a sheared coronal arcade lying over the PIL. The observations lend support to the interpretation that the target flare was triggered by a localized magnetic region that had an intrusive structure, namely, a positive polarity penetrating into a negative counterpart. The geometrical relationship between the sheared coronal arcade and the triggering region is consistent with the theoretical flare model based on the previous numerical study. We found that the formation of the trigger region was due to the continuous accumulation of small-scale magnetic patches. A few hours before the flare occurred, the series of emerged/advected patches reconnected with a pre-existing field. Finally, the abrupt flare eruption of the M6.6 event started around 17:30 UT. Our analysis suggests that in the process of triggering flare activity, all magnetic systems on multiple scales are included, not only the entire AR evolution but also the fine magnetic elements.

  17. Structural and functional insights into the molecular mechanism of rRNA m6A methyltransferase RlmJ.

    PubMed

    Punekar, Avinash S; Liljeruhm, Josefine; Shepherd, Tyson R; Forster, Anthony C; Selmer, Maria

    2013-11-01

    RlmJ catalyzes the m(6)A2030 methylation of 23S rRNA during ribosome biogenesis in Escherichia coli. Here, we present crystal structures of RlmJ in apo form, in complex with the cofactor S-adenosyl-methionine and in complex with S-adenosyl-homocysteine plus the substrate analogue adenosine monophosphate (AMP). RlmJ displays a variant of the Rossmann-like methyltransferase (MTase) fold with an inserted helical subdomain. Binding of cofactor and substrate induces a large shift of the N-terminal motif X tail to make it cover the cofactor binding site and trigger active-site changes in motifs IV and VIII. Adenosine monophosphate binds in a partly accommodated state with the target N6 atom 7 Å away from the sulphur of AdoHcy. The active site of RlmJ with motif IV sequence 164DPPY167 is more similar to DNA m(6)A MTases than to RNA m(6)2A MTases, and structural comparison suggests that RlmJ binds its substrate base similarly to DNA MTases T4Dam and M.TaqI. RlmJ methylates in vitro transcribed 23S rRNA, as well as a minimal substrate corresponding to helix 72, demonstrating independence of previous modifications and tertiary interactions in the RNA substrate. RlmJ displays specificity for adenosine, and mutagenesis experiments demonstrate the critical roles of residues Y4, H6, K18 and D164 in methyl transfer. PMID:23945937

  18. Combined UAVSAR and GPS Estimates of Fault Slip for the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Hawkins, B.; Hensley, S.; Jones, C. E.; Owen, S. E.; Moore, A. W.; Wang, J.; Pierce, M. E.; Rundle, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Combined UAVSAR and GPS Estimates of Fault Slip for the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake Andrea Donnellan, Jay Parker, Brian Hawkins, Scott Hensley, Cathleen Jones, Susan Owen, Angelyn Moore Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Marlon Pierce, Jun Wang Indiana University John Rundle University of California, Davis The South Napa to Santa Rosa area has been observed with NASA's UAVSAR since late 2009 as part of an experiment to monitor areas identified as having a high probability of an earthquake. The M 6.0 South Napa earthquake occurred on 24 August 2014. The area was flown 29 May 2014 preceeding the earthquake, and again on 29 August 2014, five days after the earthquake. The UAVSAR results show slip on a single fault at the south end of the rupture near the epicenter of the event. The rupture branches out into multiple faults further north near the Napa area. A combined inversion of rapid GPS results and the unwrapped UAVSAR interferogram indicate nearly pure strike slip motion. Using this assumption, the UAVSAR data show horizontal right-lateral slip across the fault of 19 cm at the south end of the rupture and increasing to 70 cm northward over a distance of 6.5 km. The joint inversion indicates slip of ~30 cm on a network of sub-parallel faults is concentrated in a zone about 17 km long. The lower depths of the faults are 5-8.5 km. The eastern two sub-parallel faults break the surface, while three faults to the west are buried at depths ranging from 2-6 km with deeper depths to the north and west. The geodetic moment release is equivalent to a M 6.1 event. Additional ruptures are observed in the interferogram, but the inversions suggest that they represent superficial slip that does not contribute to the overall moment release.

  19. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 ...

  20. Elemental abundance analysis of the early-type members of the open cluster M6: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kııçoǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2014-11-01

    Differences in chemical composition among main sequence stars within a given cluster are probably due to differences in their masses and other effects such as radiative diffusion, magnetic field, rotation, mixing mechanisms, mass loss, accretion and multiplicity. The early type main-sequence members of open clusters of different ages support studies of the competition between radiative diffusion and mixing mechanisms. We have analysed low- and high-resolution spectra covering the spectral range λ 4500-5840 Å of late B-, A- and F-type members of the open cluster M6 (age ˜100 Myr). The spectra were obtained with the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph mounted at UT2, the 8-m VLT telescope. The effective temperatures, surface gravities and microturbulent velocities of the stars were derived from both photometric and spectral methods. We have also performed a chemical abundance analysis using synthetic spectra. Abundances were determined for the elements C, O, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba. The star-to-star variations in element abundances among the members of M6 are discussed.

  1. Perturbation of m6A writers reveals two distinct classes of mRNA methylation at internal and 5' sites.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Schraga; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Jovanovic, Marko; Wang, Tim; Maciag, Karolina; Bushkin, G Guy; Mertins, Philipp; Ter-Ovanesyan, Dmitry; Habib, Naomi; Cacchiarelli, Davide; Sanjana, Neville E; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Pacold, Michael E; Satija, Rahul; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S; Hacohen, Nir; Zhang, Feng; Carr, Steven A; Lander, Eric S; Regev, Aviv

    2014-07-10

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a common modification of mRNA with potential roles in fine-tuning the RNA life cycle. Here, we identify a dense network of proteins interacting with METTL3, a component of the methyltransferase complex, and show that three of them (WTAP, METTL14, and KIAA1429) are required for methylation. Monitoring m6A levels upon WTAP depletion allowed the definition of accurate and near single-nucleotide resolution methylation maps and their classification into WTAP-dependent and -independent sites. WTAP-dependent sites are located at internal positions in transcripts, topologically static across a variety of systems we surveyed, and inversely correlated with mRNA stability, consistent with a role in establishing "basal" degradation rates. WTAP-independent sites form at the first transcribed base as part of the cap structure and are present at thousands of sites, forming a previously unappreciated layer of transcriptome complexity. Our data shed light on the proteomic and transcriptional underpinnings of this RNA modification. PMID:24981863

  2. Seismicity rate changes along the central California coast due to stress changes from the 2003 M 6.5 San Simeon and 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aron, A.; Hardebeck, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between seismicity rate changes and modeled Coulomb static stress changes from the 2003 M 6.5 San Simeon and the 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield earthquakes in central California. Coulomb stress modeling indicates that the San Simeon mainshock loaded parts of the Rinconada, Hosgri, and San Andreas strike-slip faults, along with the reverse faults of the southern Los Osos domain. All of these loaded faults, except for the San Andreas, experienced a seismicity rate increase at the time of the San Simeon mainshock. The Parkfield earthquake occurred 9 months later on the loaded portion of the San Andreas fault. The Parkfield earthquake unloaded the Hosgri fault and the reverse faults of the southern Los Osos domain, which both experienced seismicity rate decreases at the time of the Parkfield event, although the decreases may be related to the decay of San Simeon-triggered seismicity. Coulomb stress unloading from the Parkfield earthquake appears to have altered the aftershock decay rate of the southern cluster of San Simeon after-shocks, which is deficient compared to the expected number of aftershocks from the Omori decay parameters based on the pre-Parkfield aftershocks. Dynamic stress changes cannot explain the deficiency of aftershocks, providing evidence that static stress changes affect earthquake occurrence. However, a burst of seismicity following the Parkfield earthquake at Ragged Point, where the static stress was decreased, provides evidence for dynamic stress triggering. It therefore appears that both Coulomb static stress changes and dynamic stress changes affect the seismicity rate.

  3. Offline Performance of the Filter Bank EEW Algorithm in the 2014 M6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, M. A.; Heaton, T. H.; Clinton, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Medium size events like the M6.0 South Napa earthquake are very challenging for EEW: the damage such events produce can be severe, but it is generally confined to relatively small zones around the epicenter and the shaking duration is short. This leaves a very short window for timely EEW alerts. Algorithms that wait for several stations to trigger before sending out EEW alerts are typically not fast enough for these kind of events because their blind zone (the zone where strong ground motions start before the warnings arrive) typically covers all or most of the area that experiences strong ground motions. At the same time, single station algorithms are often too unreliable to provide useful alerts. The filter bank EEW algorithm is a new algorithm that is designed to provide maximally accurate and precise earthquake parameter estimates with minimum data input, with the goal of producing reliable EEW alerts when only a very small number of stations have been reached by the p-wave. It combines the strengths of single station and network based algorithms in that it starts parameter estimates as soon as 0.5 seconds of data are available from the first station, but then perpetually incorporates additional data from the same or from any number of other stations. The algorithm analyzes the time dependent frequency content of real time waveforms with a filter bank. It then uses an extensive training data set to find earthquake records from the past that have had similar frequency content at a given time since the p-wave onset. The source parameters of the most similar events are used to parameterize a likelihood function for the source parameters of the ongoing event, which can then be maximized to find the most likely parameter estimates. Our preliminary results show that the filter bank EEW algorithm correctly estimated the magnitude of the South Napa earthquake to be ~M6 with only 1 second worth of data at the nearest station to the epicenter. This estimate is then

  4. Spatial stress variations in the aftershock sequence following the 2008 M6 earthquake doublet in the South Iceland Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensch, M.; Árnadóttir, Th.; Lund, B.; Brandsdóttir, B.

    2012-04-01

    The South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) is an approximately 80 km wide E-W transform zone, bridging the offset between the Eastern Volcanic Zone and the Hengill triple junction to the west. The plate motion is accommodated in the brittle crust by faulting on many N-S trending right-lateral strike-slip faults of 2-5 km separation. Major sequences of large earthquakes (M>6) has occurred repeatedly in the SISZ since the settlement in Iceland more than thousand years ago. On 29th May 2008, two M6 earthquakes hit the western part of the SISZ on two adjacent N-S faults within a few seconds. The intense aftershock sequence was recorded by the permanent Icelandic SIL network and a promptly installed temporary network of 11 portable seismometers in the source region. The network located thousands of aftershocks during the following days, illuminating a 12-17 km long region along both major fault ruptures as well as several smaller parallel faults along a diffuse E-W trending region west of the mainshock area without any preceding main rupture. This episode is suggested to be the continuation of an earthquake sequence which started with two M6.5 and several M5-6 events in June 2000. The time delay between the 2000 and 2008 events could be due to an inflation episode in Hengill during 1993-1998, that potentially locked N-S strike slip faults in the western part of the SISZ. Around 300 focal solutions for aftershocks have been derived by analyzing P-wave polarities, showing predominantly strike-slip movements with occasional normal faulting components (unstable P-axis direction), which suggests an extensional stress regime as their driving force. A subsequent stress inversion of four different aftershock clusters reveals slight variations of the directions of the average σ3 axes. While for both southern clusters, including the E-W cluster, the σ3 axes are rather elongated perpendicular to the overall plate spreading axis, they are more northerly trending for shallower clusters

  5. Metformin+Cytarabine for the Treatment of Relapsed/Refractory AML

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-31

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  6. AML Therapy With Irradiated Allogeneic Cells

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-08

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  7. Seismic Documentation for Rock Damage and Heal on the San Andreas Fault Involved in the 2004 M6 Parkfield Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, P. M.; Li, Y.; Chen, P.; Cochran, E. M.; Vidale, J. E.

    2007-12-01

    After the M6 Parkfield earthquake that occurred on 28 September 2004, we deployed a dense seismic array at the same sites as used in our experiment in the fall of 2002. The measurements using moving-window cross- correlation of waveforms for the repeated explosions and microearthquakes recorded in 2002 and 2004 show a decrease in shear velocity of at least ~2.5% within a ~200-m-wide zone across the San Andreas main fault trace most likely owing to co-seismic damage of fault rocks caused by dynamic rupture in this M6 earthquake. The width of the damage zone characterized by larger velocity changes is consistent with the low-velocity waveguide model on the SAF near Parkfield derived from fault-zone trapped waves [Li et al., 2004]. The estimated ratio between the P and S wave traveltime changes is 0.57 within the rupture zone and ~0.65 in the surrounding rocks, indicating wetter cracks within the damaged fault zone, probably due to the ground water percolating into the cracks opened in the mainshock. The measurements of traveltime changes for repeated aftershocks in 21 clusters, with a total of ~130 events, located at different depths along the rupture in 2004 show that the maximum shear velocity increased by ~1.2% within the damage zone in 3.5 months starting a week after the mainshock, indicating that the fault heals in the post-seismic stage due to the closure of cracks in the damaged rock. The data recorded at a seismograph installed in the SAFOD mainhole passing the San Andreas fault zone at ~3-km depths for repeated aftershocks in December of 2004 and later show that seismic velocities within the damage zone were changed by ~0.3% in a month, but no changes were registered at seismographs installed in the vertical pilot borehole drilled ~1.8 km away from the main fault trace for the same repeated events. We find that the healing rate is logarithmically decreasing through time with greater healing rate in the earlier stage after the mainshock. The magnitude of

  8. Acoustic Emission Precursors of M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Korneev, Valeri

    2005-02-01

    Two recent strike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault(SAF) in California, the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietaevents, revealed peaks in the acoustic emission (AE) activity in thesurrounding crust several months prior to the main events. Earthquakesdirectly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded from theanalysis. The observed increase in AE is assumed to be a signature of theincreasing stress level in the surrounding crust, while the peak andsubsequent decrease in AE starting several months prior to the mainevents is attributed to damage-induced softening processes as discussedherein. Further, distinctive zones of low seismic activity surroundingthe epicentral regions in the pre-event time period are present for thetwo studied events. Both AE increases in the crust surrounding apotential future event and the development of a low-seismicity epicentralzone can be regarded as promising precursory information that could helpsignal the arrival of large earthquakes.

  9. Earthquake-triggered slumps (1935 Timiskaming M6.2) in Lake Kipawa, Western Quebec Seismic Zone, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, M.; Eyles, N.; Daurio, L.

    2010-07-01

    The Western Quebec Seismic Zone (WQSZ) of eastern North America is characterised by frequent moderate magnitude intracratonic earthquakes (e.g., 1732, M5.8; 1935, M6.2 and 1944, M5.2). The WQSZ is centered along the Timiskaming and Ottawa-Bonnechere grabens, which form part of a complex aulacogen (St.Lawrence Rift) within the Canadian Shield. The WQSZ includes the urban areas of Montreal and Ottawa but seismic risk analysis is challenged by short instrumental records and long recurrence intervals. The M6.2 1935 Timiskaming Earthquake is the largest recorded to date and was felt over some 1.3 million km 2 of eastern North America with many aftershocks of magnitude 4 to 5. Its epicenter lies below the western margin of Lake Kipawa, Quebec in the area where a major Proterozoic crustal boundary (the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone) crosses the Timiskaming Graben. A high-resolution 'chirp' seismic reflection survey of the lateglacial and postglacial sediment infill of Lake Kipawa reveals a clear record of recent ground shaking that is attributed to the 1935 earthquake. Widespread large slumps record down slope failure of the lateglacial and postglacial sediment fill indicating that the 1935 temblor was the largest in this area since deglaciation some 8000 years ago. Systematic mapping of landslides shows that they extend across an area of 600 km 2 around the earthquake's epicenter. Lakes cover a large area of eastern Canada; a regional-scale survey of lake floors could constrain historic epicenters and postglacial seismic history of the heavily populated WQSZ.

  10. Treatment for Relapsed/Refractory AML Based on a High Throughput Drug Sensitivity Assay

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-10

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts

  11. The effect of the 2004 M6.0 earthquake on small repeating earthquakes recorded downhole at Parkfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonley, E.; Abercrombie, R. E.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the sources of the three clusters of repeating M2 earthquakes targeted by SAFOD. They repeat regularly before the M6.0 mainshock, and then more frequently immediately after. The seismic source parameters of all three clusters are similar to those of small earthquakes elsewhere. The spectra of the earthquakes in the two shallow clusters appear unaffected by the M6.0, but the deeper cluster shows small but systematic changes in frequency content. Progress in understanding the dynamics of earthquake rupture is currently limited by the large uncertainties in the observed source parameters. This is particularly a problem for small earthquakes, the source parameters of which are needed to understand fundamental processes of earthquake rupture at all scales. Parkfield represents an ideal setting to improve our knowledge of small earthquakes for a number of reasons: downhole, high frequency recording by the HRSN began in 1987 providing exceptional, long-term borehole azimuthal coverage; the instrumentation in the SAFOD pilot hole (PH) began in 2002 greatly increasing the high frequency bandwidth; and the presence of highly clustered seismicity, including many repeating events, enables the use of empirical Green's function (EGF) analysis. Smaller earthquakes in a cluster can be used to represent the earth's transfer function between source and observer. The transfer function can then be removed, in either the time or frequency domain, from a co-located, similar earthquake of larger magnitude. Preliminary work by Abercrombie and Nadeau (2004) and Imanishi (2004) found that the stress drops of small earthquakes in Parkfield, including the two SAFOD target earthquakes in October 2003 (M2 and M2.2) and those in another cluster (M1) are similar to the stress drops found by seismic methods for earthquakes elsewhere. These results contrast with the extremely high stress drops previously suggested for these small earthquakes based on the fault slip rate (Nadeau and

  12. Dynamically Triggered Earthquakes in the Geysers Region following the 2014 M6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X.; Peng, Z.; Aiken, C.; Kilb, D.

    2014-12-01

    The 08/24/2014 M6.0 South Napa earthquake is the largest seismic event to strike the San Francisco Bay Area since the 10/17/1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. The South Napa event caused severe damage near the epicenter. Based on the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) catalog, we find a clear increase of seismicity near the Geysers Geothermal Field following the South Napa event, which is located along its rupture directivity path ~50 km NNW from the hypocenter. Visually inspecting 10 Hz high-pass filtered waveforms at seismic stations near Geysers, we can identify many local earthquakes during the surface waves of the mainshock event that are missing from the NCSN catalog. To obtain a more complete catalog, we apply a recently developed matched filter technique to detect new events within continuous seismic recordings from 74 seismic stations near the Geysers. We use 4000 local earthquakes listed in the NCSN catalog from 06/01/2014 to 09/10/2014 as templates and systematically scan continuous data within ±7 days from the South Napa mainshock. As a result, we detect ~10 times more earthquakes than in the NCSN catalog, and the magnitude of completeness reduces from 0.75 to -0.6. Of the 8091 new events, 28 occurred within the mainshock wavetrain. Depending on the filter used, the first triggered event has an inferred magnitude in the range 3.6-4.0. The intensive seismic activity near the Geysers gradually decays with a p-value of ~0.7 and returns to pre-shock level in about one day. We fit the seismicity rate in the week prior to the South Napa event with the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model and extrapolate to obtain a post-mainshock rate. The observed post-mainshock seismicity rate clearly deviates from the ETAS prediction, which suggests that not all increased seismicity near the Geysers can be explained as aftershocks of the first triggered event. Instead these new events may be associated with stress transients (e.g. creep) or fluid

  13. YTHDF2 destabilizes m6A-containing RNA through direct recruitment of the CCR4–NOT deadenylase complex

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hao; Zhao, Ya; He, Jinqiu; Zhang, Yao; Xi, Hairui; Liu, Mofang; Ma, Jinbiao; Wu, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    Methylation at the N6 position of adenosine (m6A) is the most abundant RNA modification within protein-coding and long noncoding RNAs in eukaryotes and is a reversible process with important biological functions. YT521-B homology domain family (YTHDF) proteins are the readers of m6A, the binding of which results in the alteration of the translation efficiency and stability of m6A-containing RNAs. However, the mechanism by which YTHDF proteins cause the degradation of m6A-containing RNAs is poorly understood. Here we report that m6A-containing RNAs exhibit accelerated deadenylation that is mediated by the CCR4–NOT deadenylase complex. We further show that YTHDF2 recruits the CCR4–NOT complex through a direct interaction between the YTHDF2 N-terminal region and the SH domain of the CNOT1 subunit, and that this recruitment is essential for the deadenylation of m6A-containing RNAs by CAF1 and CCR4. Therefore, we have uncovered the mechanism of YTHDF2-mediated degradation of m6A-containing RNAs in mammalian cells. PMID:27558897

  14. Investigation of the M6.6 Niigata-Chuetsu Oki, Japan, earthquake of July 16, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert; Collins, Brian D.; Abrahamson, Norm; Ashford, Scott; Brandenberg, Scott J.; Cluff, Lloyd; Dickenson, Stephen; Johnson, Laurie; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tokimatsu, Kohji; Kabeyasawa, Toshimi; Kawamata, Yohsuke; Koumoto, Hidetaka; Marubashi, Nanako; Pujol, Santiago; Steele, Clint; Sun, Joseph I.; Tsai, Ben; Yanev, Peter; Yashinsky, Mark; Yousok, Kim

    2007-01-01

    The M6.6 mainshock of the Niigata Chuetsu Oki (offshore) earthquake occurred at 10:13 a.m. local time on July 16, 2007, and was followed by a sequence of aftershocks that were felt during the entire time of the reconnaissance effort. The mainshock had an estimated focal depth of 10 km and struck in the Japan Sea offshore Kariwa. Analysis of waveforms from source inversion studies indicates that the event occurred along a thrust fault with a NE trend. The fault plane is either a strike of 34 degrees with a dip of 51 degrees or a strike of 238 degrees with a dip of 41 degrees. Which of these two planes is associated with the mainshock rupture is unresolved, although attenuation relationship analysis indicates that the northwest-dipping fault is favored. The quake affected an approximately 100-km-wide area along the coastal areas of southwestern Niigata prefecture. The event triggered ground failures as far as the Unouma Hills, located in central Niigata approximately 50 km from the shore and the source area of the 2004 Niigata Chuetsu earthquake. The primary event produced tsunami run-ups that reached maximum runup heights of about 20 centimeters along the shoreline of southern Niigata Prrefecture.

  15. Validation of a ground motion synthesis and prediction methodology for the 1988, M=6.0, Saguenay Earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.; Foxall, W.

    1998-01-01

    We model the 1988, M=6.0, Saguenay earthquake. We utilize an approach that has been developed to predict strong ground motion. this approach involves developing a set of rupture scenarios based upon bounds on rupture parameters. rupture parameters include rupture geometry, hypocenter, rupture roughness, rupture velocity, healing velocity (rise times), slip distribution, asperity size and location, and slip vector. Scenario here refers to specific values of these parameters for an hypothesized earthquake. Synthetic strong ground motion are then generated for each rupture scenario. A sufficient number of scenarios are run to span the variability in strong ground motion due to the source uncertainties. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to the site from the one standard deviation value of engineering parameters we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation, For this study we developed bounds on rupture scenarios from previous research on this earthquake. The time history closest to the observed ground motion was selected as a model for the Saguenay earthquake.

  16. Preliminary simulation of a M6.5 earthquake on the Seattle Fault using 3D finite-difference modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, William J.; Frankel, Arthur D.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite-difference simulation of a moderate-sized (M 6.5) thrust-faulting earthquake on the Seattle fault demonstrates the effects of the Seattle Basin on strong ground motion in the Puget lowland. The model area includes the cities of Seattle, Bremerton and Bellevue. We use a recently developed detailed 3D-velocity model of the Seattle Basin in these simulations. The model extended to 20-km depth and assumed rupture on a finite fault with random slip distribution. Preliminary results from simulations of frequencies 0.5 Hz and lower suggest amplification can occur at the surface of the Seattle Basin by the trapping of energy in the Quaternary sediments. Surface waves generated within the basin appear to contribute to amplification throughout the modeled region. Several factors apparently contribute to large ground motions in downtown Seattle: (1) radiation pattern and directivity from the rupture; (2) amplification and energy trapping within the Quaternary sediments; and (3) basin geometry and variation in depth of both Quaternary and Tertiary sediments

  17. Seismicity Precursors of the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-03-09

    The M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietastrike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) were preceded byseismicity peaks occurring several months prior to the main events.Earthquakes directly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded fromthe analysis because they manifest stress-release processes rather thanstress accumulation. The observed increase in seismicity is interpretedas a signature of the increasing stress level in the surrounding crust,whereas the peaks and the subsequent decrease in seismicity areattributed to damage-induced softening processes. Furthermore, in bothcases there is a distinctive zone of low seismic activity that surroundsthe epicentral region in the pre-event period. The increase of seismicityin the crust surrounding a potential future event and the development ofa low-seismicity epicentral zone can be regarded as promising precursoryinformation that could help signal the arrival of large earthquakes. TheGutenberg-Richter relationship (GRR) should allow extrapolation ofseismicity changes down to seismic noise level magnitudes. Thishypothesis is verified by comparison of seismic noise at 80 Hz with theParkfield M4 1993-1994 series, where noise peaks 5 months before theseries to about twice the background level.

  18. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when ...

  19. Vorinostat, Azacitidine, and Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin for Older Patients With Relapsed or Refractory AML

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-22

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  20. Heterogeneous stress field in the source area of the 2003 M6.4 Northern Miyagi Prefecture, NE Japan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira; Okada, Tomomi

    2016-07-01

    We investigated a detailed spatial distribution of principal stress axis orientations in the source area of the 2003 M6.4 Northern Miyagi Prefecture earthquake that occurred in the forearc of northeastern Japan. Aftershock hypocentres were precisely relocated by applying the double difference method to arrival time data obtained at temporary stations as well as at surrounding routine stations. We picked many P-wave polarity data from seismograms at these stations, which enabled us to obtain 312 well-determined focal mechanism solutions. Stress tensor inversions were performed by using these focal mechanism data. The results show that quite a lot of focal mechanisms are difficult to explain by the uniform stress field, especially near the large slip area of the main-shock rupture. Stress tensor inversions at the location of individual earthquakes show that σ1 axes are orientated mainly to WSW-ENE in the northern part of the source area, while they are oriented to NW-SE in the southern part. This spatial pattern is roughly similar to those of the static stress change by the main shock, which suggests that the observed spatially heterogeneous stress field was formed by the static stress change. If this is the case, the deviatoric stress magnitude before the main shock was very small. Another possibility is the heterogeneous stress field observed after the main shock had existed even before the main shock, although we do not know why it was formed. Unfavourable orientation of the main shock fault with respect to this stress field suggests that the fault is not strong in this case too.

  1. A Radioactivity-Based Assay for Screening Human m6A-RNA Methyltransferase, METTL3-METTL14 Complex, and Demethylase ALKBH5.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengling; Kennedy, Steven; Hajian, Taraneh; Gibson, Elisa; Seitova, Alma; Xu, Chao; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Vedadi, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most common reversible internal modification in mammalian RNA. Changes in m(6)A levels have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including nuclear RNA export, control of protein translation, and protein splicing, and they have been linked to obesity, cancer, and other human diseases. METTL3 and METTL14 are N(6)-adenosine methyltransferases that work more efficiently in a stable METTL3-METTL14 heterodimer complex (METTL3-14). ALKBH5 is an m(6)A-RNA demethylase that belongs to the AlkB family of dioxygenases. We report the development of radioactivity-based assays for kinetic characterization of m(6)A-RNA modifications by METTL3-14 complex and ALKBH5 and provide optimal assay conditions suitable for screening for ligands in a 384-well format with Z' factors of 0.78 and 0.77, respectively. PMID:26701100

  2. Modeling of the Coseismic Electromagnetic Field Observed during the 28 September 2004, M 6.0 Parkfield Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Harris, J. M.; Wen, J.; Chen, X.; Hu, H.

    2014-12-01

    On 28 September 2004, the M6.0 Parkfield earthquake took place on the San Andreas fault, California. A seismic station which is named PKD and located near the epicenter recorded both of the seismic and electromagnetic (EM) signals during this earthquake. This station is operated by Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and installed with broadband seismometer and EM sensors which are close to each other. Significant seismic signals as well as clear coseismic EM signals were recorded during this earthquake, providing a good opportunity to study the coseismic EM phenomenon. We modeled the coseismic EM signals from the viewpoint of the electrokinetic effect on the basis of Pride's equations. The earthquake source is taken as a finite fault with length of 40 km along the strike direction and width of 15 km along the dip direction. The source parameters that we use for calculation were inverted by Liu et al. [2006, BSSA] by utilizing the seismic data. While in their inversion the earth crust are treated as 7 horizontally-layered elastic solids, in our calculation these solid layers are regarded as porous media. Each porous layer has the same P-velocity, S-velocity and density to its counterpart solid layer. The salinity is set to be 0.1 mol/L for all the layers so that conductivity is uniformly distributed with the value of 0.036 S/m. To evaluate the electric and magnetic responses during the rupturing of the earthquake, we use the algorithm developed by Hu and Gao [2011, JGR] which calculates both the seismic and EM wavefields simultaneously. Since the inversion of source parameters was operated in the frequency band 0.16 Hz-1 Hz, we filter both of the synthetic seismoelectric wavefields and the real data before making comparison between them. Our preliminary result shows that in this frequency range, the amplitude of the simulated coseismic electric field is of the order of 1μV/m, which is the same to the real electric data. This supports the electrokinetic effect to be

  3. Solar wind ion density variations that preceded the M6+ earthquakes occurring on a global scale between 3 and 15 September 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2015-04-01

    Between 3 and 15 September 2013 on Earth were recorded nine M6+ earthquakes: Canada M6,1 earthquake occurred on 3 September at 20:19 UTC; Japan M6,5 earthquake occurred on 4 September at 00:18 UTC; Canada M6,0 earthquake occurred on 4 September at 00:23 UTC; Alaska M6,5 earthquake occurred on 4 September at 02:32 UTC; Alaska M6,0 earthquake occurred on 4 September at 06:27 UTC; Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge M6,0 earthquake occurred on 5 September at 04:01 UTC; Guatemala M6,4 earthquake occurred on 7 September at 00:13 UTC; Central East Pacific Rise M6,1 earthquake occurred on 11 September at 12:44 UTC; Alaska M6,1 earthquake occurred on 15 September at 16:21 UTC. The authors analyzed the modulation of solar wind ion density during the period from 1 to 18 September 2013 to determine whether the nine earthquakes were preceded by a variations of the solar wind ion density and for testing a method to be applied in the future also for the prediction of tsunami. The data on ion density used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density that have these characteristics: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV) and differential proton flux 115-195 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). This data set has been marked with the times (time markers) of M6+ earthquakes occurred on a global scale (the data on M6+ seismic activity are provided in real time by USGS, INGV and the CSEM) between

  4. Cysteine residues in the large extracellular loop (EC2) are essential for the function of the stress-regulated glycoprotein M6a.

    PubMed

    Fuchsova, Beata; Fernández, María E; Alfonso, Julieta; Frasch, Alberto C

    2009-11-13

    Gpm6a was identified as a stress-responsive gene in the hippocampal formation. This gene is down-regulated in the hippocampus of both socially and physically stressed animals, and this effect can be reversed by antidepressant treatment. Previously we showed that the stress-regulated protein M6a is a key modulator for neurite outgrowth and filopodium/spine formation. In the present work, mutational analysis was used to characterize the action of M6a at the molecular level. We show that four cysteines 162, 174, 192, and 202 within EC2 are functionally crucial sites. The presence of cysteines 162 and 202 is essential for the efficient cell surface expression of the M6a protein. In contrast, cysteines 174 and 192, which form a disulfide bridge as shown by biochemical analysis, are not required for the efficient surface expression of M6a. Their mutation to alanine does not interfere with the localization of M6a to filopodial protrusions in primary hippocampal neurons. The neurons expressing C174A and/or C192A mutants display decreased filopodia number. In non-permeabilized cells, these mutant proteins are not recognized by a function-blocking monoclonal antibody directed to M6a. Moreover, neurons in contact with axons expressing C174A/C192A mutant display significantly lower density of presynaptic clusters over their dendrites. Taken together, this study demonstrates that cysteines in the EC2 domain are critical for the role of M6a in filopodium outgrowth and synaptogenesis. PMID:19737934

  5. Nonlinear and linear site response and basin effects in Seattle for the M 6.8 Nisqually, Washington, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.D.; Carver, D.L.; Williams, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We used recordings of the M 6.8 Nisqually earthquake and its ML 3.4 aftershock to study site response and basin effects for 35 locations in Seattle, Washington. We determined site amplification from Fourier spectral ratios of the recorded horizontal ground motions, referenced to a soft-rock site. Soft-soil sites (generally National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program [NEHRP] class E) on artificial fill and young alluvium have the largest 1-Hz amplifications (factors of 3-7) for both the mainshock and aftershock. These amplifications are correlated with areas of higher damage from the mainshock to major buildings and liquefaction. There are several indications of nonlinear response at the soft-soil sites for the mainshock ground motions, despite relatively modest peak accelerations in the S waves of 15%-22%g. First, the mainshock spectral ratios do not show amplification at 2-8 Hz as do the aftershock spectral ratios. Spectral peaks at frequencies below 2 Hz generally occur at lower frequencies for the mainshock spectral ratios than for the aftershock ratios. At one soft-soil site, there is a clear shift of the resonant frequency to a lower frequency for the mainshock compared with the aftershock. The frequency of this resonance increases in the coda of the mainshock record, indicating that the site response during the weaker motions of the coda is more linear than that of the initial S wave. Three of the soft-soil sites display cusped, one-sided mainshock accelerograms after the S wave. These soft-soil sites also show amplification at 10-20 Hz in the S wave, relative to the rock site, that is not observed for the aftershock. The cusped waveforms and 10-20-Hz amplification are symptomatic of nonlinear response at the soft-soil sites. These sites had nearby liquefaction. The largest amplifications for 0.5 Hz occur at soft-soil sites on the southern portion of the Seattle Basin. Stiff-soil sites (NEHRP classes D and C) on Pleistocene-age glacial deposits display

  6. Insights from the Genome Sequence of Acidovorax citrulli M6, a Group I Strain of the Causal Agent of Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Cucurbits

    PubMed Central

    Eckshtain-Levi, Noam; Shkedy, Dafna; Gershovits, Michael; Da Silva, Gustavo M.; Tamir-Ariel, Dafna; Walcott, Ron; Pupko, Tal; Burdman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Acidovorax citrulli is a seedborne bacterium that causes bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbit plants including watermelon and melon. A. citrulli strains can be divided into two major groups based on DNA fingerprint analyses and biochemical properties. Group I strains have been generally isolated from non-watermelon cucurbits, while group II strains are closely associated with watermelon. In the present study, we report the genome sequence of M6, a group I model A. citrulli strain, isolated from melon. We used comparative genome analysis to investigate differences between the genome of strain M6 and the genome of the group II model strain AAC00-1. The draft genome sequence of A. citrulli M6 harbors 139 contigs, with an overall approximate size of 4.85 Mb. The genome of M6 is ∼500 Kb shorter than that of strain AAC00-1. Comparative analysis revealed that this size difference is mainly explained by eight fragments, ranging from ∼35–120 Kb and distributed throughout the AAC00-1 genome, which are absent in the M6 genome. In agreement with this finding, while AAC00-1 was found to possess 532 open reading frames (ORFs) that are absent in strain M6, only 123 ORFs in M6 were absent in AAC00-1. Most of these M6 ORFs are hypothetical proteins and most of them were also detected in two group I strains that were recently sequenced, tw6 and pslb65. Further analyses by PCR assays and coverage analyses with other A. citrulli strains support the notion that some of these fragments or significant portions of them are discriminative between groups I and II strains of A. citrulli. Moreover, GC content, effective number of codon values and cluster of orthologs’ analyses indicate that these fragments were introduced into group II strains by horizontal gene transfer events. Our study reports the genome sequence of a model group I strain of A. citrulli, one of the most important pathogens of cucurbits. It also provides the first comprehensive comparison at the genomic level between

  7. Stress rotations due to the M6.5 foreshock and M7.3 main shock in the 2016 Kumamoto, SW Japan, earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira; Saito, Tatsuhiko; Asano, Youichi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Sawazaki, Kaoru; Urata, Yumi; Fukuyama, Eiichi

    2016-10-01

    A shallow M7.3 event with a M6.5 foreshock occurred along the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone in Kyushu, SW Japan. We investigated the spatiotemporal variation of the stress orientations in and around the source area of this 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence by inverting 1218 focal mechanisms. The results show that the σ3 axis in the vicinity of the fault plane significantly rotated counterclockwise after the M6.5 foreshock and rotated clockwise after the M7.3 main shock in the Hinagu fault segment. This observation indicates that a significant portion of the shear stress was released both by the M6.5 foreshock and M7.3 main shock. It is estimated that the stress release by the M6.5 foreshock occurred in the shallower part of the Hinagu fault segment, which brought the stress concentration in its deeper part. This might have caused the M7.3 main shock rupture mainly along the deeper part of the Hinagu fault segment after 28 h.

  8. Hypoxia induces the breast cancer stem cell phenotype by HIF-dependent and ALKBH5-mediated m6A-demethylation of NANOG mRNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanzhao; Samanta, Debangshu; Lu, Haiquan; Bullen, John W; Zhang, Huimin; Chen, Ivan; He, Xiaoshun; Semenza, Gregg L

    2016-04-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) modification of mRNA plays a role in regulating embryonic stem cell pluripotency. However, the physiological signals that determine the balance between methylation and demethylation have not been described, nor have studies addressed the role of m(6)A in cancer stem cells. We report that exposure of breast cancer cells to hypoxia stimulated hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α- and HIF-2α-dependent expression of AlkB homolog 5 (ALKBH5), an m(6)A demethylase, which demethylated NANOG mRNA, which encodes a pluripotency factor, at an m(6)A residue in the 3'-UTR. Increased NANOG mRNA and protein expression, and the breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) phenotype, were induced by hypoxia in an HIF- and ALKBH5-dependent manner. Insertion of the NANOG 3'-UTR into a luciferase reporter gene led to regulation of luciferase activity by O2, HIFs, and ALKBH5, which was lost upon mutation of the methylated residue. ALKBH5 overexpression decreased NANOG mRNA methylation, increased NANOG levels, and increased the percentage of BCSCs, phenocopying the effect of hypoxia. Knockdown of ALKBH5 expression in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells significantly reduced their capacity for tumor initiation as a result of reduced numbers of BCSCs. Thus, HIF-dependent ALKBH5 expression mediates enrichment of BCSCs in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. PMID:27001847

  9. From the Macro to the Micro: Gel Mapping to Differentiate between Sporozoites of Two Immunologically Distinct Strains of Eimeria maxima (Strains M6 and Guelph)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbin; Al Nasr, Ibrahim; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun; Barta, John

    2015-01-01

    Two immunologically distinct strains of E. maxima were examined in this study: the M6 strain and the Guelph strain. The differential expression between the sporozoites of the two strains of E. maxima was determined by image analysis of 100 μg of protein from each strain separated by standard one- and conventional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition to differences in both molecular weight and the electrophoretic mobility, differences in the intensity of polypeptide bands for example, GS 136.4 and M6 169 were explored. Pooled gels were prepared from each strain. A representative 2D-PAGE gel spanning a non-linear pH range of 3–10 of E. maxima strain M6 consisted of approximately 694 polypeptide spots with about 67 (9.6%) of the polypeptide spots being unique relative to the other strain. E. maxima strain GS had about 696 discernable polypeptide spots with 69 spots (9.9%) that differed from those of the M6 strain. In-depth characterization of the variable polypeptide spots; unique polypeptide spots (absence or presence) and shared polypeptide spots with modifications may lead to novel vaccine target in the form of multi-component, multi-stage, multi-immunovariant strains, multi-species subunit vaccine, and diagnostic probe for E. maxima. PMID:26641262

  10. Mouse Maternal High-Fat Intake Dynamically Programmed mRNA m6A Modifications in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissues in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Youbo; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Xin’e; Yang, Gongshe

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms have an important role in the pre- and peri-conceptional programming by maternal nutrition. Yet, whether or not RNA m6A methylation—an old epigenetic marker receiving increased attention recently—is involved remains an unknown question. In this study, mouse high-fat feeding prior to conception was shown to induce overweight and glucose intolerant dams, which then continued to be exposed to a high-fat diet during gestation and lactation. The dams on a standard diet throughout the whole experiment were used as a control. Results showed that maternal high-fat intake impaired postnatal growth in male offspring, indicated by decreased body weight and Lee’s index at 3, 8 and 15 weeks old, but the percentages of visceral fat and tibialis anterior relative to the whole body weights were significantly increased at eight weeks of age. The maternal high-fat exposure significantly increased mRNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) levels in visceral fat at three weeks old, combined with downregulated Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and upregulated Methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3) transcription, and these changes were reversed at eight weeks of age. In the tibialis anterior muscle, the maternal high-fat diet significantly enhanced m6A modifications at three weeks, and lowered m6A levels at 15 weeks of age. Accordingly, FTO transcription was significantly inhibited at three weeks and stimulated at 15 weeks of age, and METTL3 transcripts were significantly improved at three weeks. Interestingly, both FTO and METTL3 transcription was significantly elevated at eight weeks of age, and yet the m6A modifications remained unchanged. Our study showed that maternal high-fat intake could affect mRNA m6A modifications and its related genes in offspring in a tissue-specific and development-dependent way, and provided an interesting indication of the working of the m6A system during the transmission from maternal nutrition to subsequent generations. PMID:27548155

  11. A novel algorithm for calling mRNA m6A peaks by modeling biological variances in MeRIP-seq data

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaodong; Meng, Jia; Zhang, Shaowu; Chen, Yidong; Huang, Yufei

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent mRNA methylation but precise prediction of its mRNA location is important for understanding its function. A recent sequencing technology, known as Methylated RNA Immunoprecipitation Sequencing technology (MeRIP-seq), has been developed for transcriptome-wide profiling of m6A. We previously developed a peak calling algorithm called exomePeak. However, exomePeak over-simplifies data characteristics and ignores the reads’ variances among replicates or reads dependency across a site region. To further improve the performance, new model is needed to address these important issues of MeRIP-seq data. Results: We propose a novel, graphical model-based peak calling method, MeTPeak, for transcriptome-wide detection of m6A sites from MeRIP-seq data. MeTPeak explicitly models read count of an m6A site and introduces a hierarchical layer of Beta variables to capture the variances and a Hidden Markov model to characterize the reads dependency across a site. In addition, we developed a constrained Newton’s method and designed a log-barrier function to compute analytically intractable, positively constrained Beta parameters. We applied our algorithm to simulated and real biological datasets and demonstrated significant improvement in detection performance and robustness over exomePeak. Prediction results on publicly available MeRIP-seq datasets are also validated and shown to be able to recapitulate the known patterns of m6A, further validating the improved performance of MeTPeak. Availability and implementation: The package ‘MeTPeak’ is implemented in R and C ++, and additional details are available at https://github.com/compgenomics/MeTPeak Contact: yufei.huang@utsa.edu or xdchoi@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307641

  12. Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, unlike acute erythroid leukemia, predicts an unfavorable outcome after allogeneic HSCT.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Ken; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Eto, Tetsuya; Ohashi, Kazuteru; Uchida, Naoyuki; Kanamori, Heiwa; Fukuda, Takahiro; Miyamura, Koichi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Taguchi, Jun; Mori, Takehiko; Iwato, Koji; Morishima, Yasuo; Nagamura-Inoue, Tokiko; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Takami, Akiyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Acute erythroid leukemia (FAB-M6) and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (FAB-M7) exhibit closely related properties in cells regarding morphology and the gene expression profile. Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is considered the mainstay of the treatment for both subtypes of leukemia due to their refractoriness to chemotherapy and high rates of relapse, it remains unclear whether allo-HSCT is curative in such cases due to their scarcity. We retrospectively examined the impact of allo-HSCT in 382 patients with M6 and 108 patients with M7 using nationwide HSCT data and found the overall survival (OS) and relapse rates of the M6 patients to be significantly better than those of the M7 patients after adjusting for confounding factors and statistically comparable with those of the patients with M0/M1/M2/M4/M5 disease. Consequently, the factors of age, gender, performance status, karyotype, disease status at HSCT and development of graft-vs.-host disease predicted the OS for the M6 patients, while the performance status and disease status at HSCT were predictive of the OS for the M7 patients. These findings substantiate the importance of distinguishing between M6 and M7 in the HSCT setting and suggest that unknown mechanisms influence the HSCT outcomes of these closely related subtypes of leukemia. PMID:27244257

  13. Method for site-specific detection of m6A nucleoside presence in RNA based on high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Golovina, Anna Y; Dzama, Margarita M; Petriukov, Kirill S; Zatsepin, Timofei S; Sergiev, Petr V; Bogdanov, Alexey A; Dontsova, Olga A

    2014-02-01

    Chemical landscape of natural RNA species is decorated with the large number of modified nucleosides. Some of those could easily be detected by reverse transcription, while others permit only high-performance liquid chromatography or mass-spectrometry detection. Presence of m(6)A nucleoside at a particular position of long RNA molecule is challenging to observe. Here we report an easy and high-throughput method for detection of m(6)A nucleosides in RNA based on high-resolution melting analysis. The method relies on the previous knowledge of the modified nucleoside position at a particular place of RNA and allows rapid screening for conditions or genes necessary for formation of that modification. PMID:24265225

  14. Acute leukemia of adults. Ultrastructural, cytochemical and histologic observations in 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Glick, A D; Paniker, K; Flexner, J M; Graber, S E; Collins, R D

    1980-04-01

    In order to establish guidelines for categorization of acute leukemia, marrow histology, special stains, and electron microscopy were performed in 100 adult leukemia cases. Differential counts for each stain were performed, and the results were combined with those obtained by electron microscopy for final classification. Myeloid (non-lymphoid) leukemia was most common (83 cases), and there were 13 lymphoid cases, two cases of erythroleukemia, and two undifferentiated leukemias. Histologic studies of marrow particles revealed significant admixtures of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and abnormal erythroid elements, particularly in acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Interpretations of cytochemical results were confirmed by ultrastructural studies in 90% of the cases. Clinically significant discrepancies between cytochemical and ultrastructural interpretations were rarely found. Only two myeloid and five lymphoid cases did not mark typically with any cytochemical stain. The single most reliable special stain was the periodic acid-Schiff stain, whereas the stain most difficult to interpret was the alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase stain. Sudan black stain was particularly helpful in demonstrating Auer rods. Five of six cases unclassified by cytochemistry were categorized by electron microscopy. Although patterns of cytochemical staining were delineated for each type of leukemia, significant intragroup variation in cytochemical reactions was recognized. This study indicates that ultrastructural examination should be routinely used for categorization of cases with equivocal cytochemical findings and for analysis of unclassified cases.

  15. Expression of M6 and M7 lysin in Mytilus edulis is not restricted to sperm, but occurs also in oocytes and somatic tissue of males and females.

    PubMed

    Heß, Anne-Katrin; Bartel, Manuela; Roth, Karina; Messerschmidt, Katrin; Heilmann, Katja; Kenchington, Ellen; Micheel, Burkhard; Stuckas, Heiko

    2012-08-01

    Sperm proteins of marine sessile invertebrates have been extensively studied to understand the molecular basis of reproductive isolation. Apart from molecules such as bindin of sea urchins or lysin of abalone species, the acrosomal protein M7 lysin of Mytilus edulis has been analyzed. M7 lysin was found to be under positive selection, but mechanisms driving the evolution of this protein are not fully understood. To explore functional aspects, this study investigated the protein expression pattern of M7 and M6 lysin in gametes and somatic tissue of male and female M. edulis. The study employs a previously published monoclonal antibody (G26-AG8) to investigate M6 and M7 lysin protein expression, and explores expression of both genes. It is shown that these proteins and their encoding genes are expressed in gametes and somatic tissue of both sexes. This is in contrast to sea urchin bindin and abalone lysin, in which gene expression is strictly limited to males. Although future studies need to clarify the functional importance of both acrosomal proteins in male and female somatic tissue, new insights into the evolution of sperm proteins in marine sessile invertebrates are possible. This is because proteins with male-specific expression (bindin, lysin) might evolve differently than proteins with expression in both sexes (M6/M7 lysin), and the putative function of both proteins in females opens the possibility that the evolution of M6/M7 lysin is under sexual antagonistic selection, for example, mutations beneficial to the acrosomal function that are less beneficial the function in somatic tissue of females. PMID:22674895

  16. A dose-dependent decrease in the fraction of cases harboring M6P/IGF2R mutations in hepatocellular carcinomas from the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Keisuke S; Yano, Shiho; Barber, Chad L; MacPhee, Donald G; Tokuoka, Shoji

    2006-12-01

    The risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development is significantly heightened in the atomic bomb survivors, but the mechanism is unclear. We have previously reported finding a radiation dose-dependent increase in HCCs with TP53 mutations from the survivors. We now show that, in the same HCC samples, the frequency of 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) mutations in M6P/IGF2R, a candidate HCC tumor suppressor gene, decreases with dose (P = 0.0091), implying a radiation dose-dependent negative selection of cells harboring such mutations. The fact that they were in the 3'UTR implicates changes in transcript stability rather than in protein function as the mechanism. Moreover, these M6P/IGF2R 3'UTR mutations and the TP53 mutations detected previously were mutually exclusive in most of the tumors, suggesting two independent pathways to HCC development, with the TP53 pathway being more favored with increasing radiation dose than the M6P/IGF2R pathway. These results suggest that tumors attributable to radiation may be genotypically different from tumors of other etiologies and hence may provide a way of distinguishing radiation-induced cancers from "background" cancers--a shift from the current paradigm.

  17. Experiment M-6: Bone Demineralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Pauline B.; Vose, George; Vogt, Fred B.; LaChance, Paul A.

    1966-01-01

    Densitometric evaluations of serial radiographs of "normal" subjects have often shown rather frequent changes in bone mass within relatively short periods of time. For this reason it was decided to make two pre-flight and two post flight radiographs of the Gemini V backup crew. In comparing the changes observed preflight and post flight as the conventional os calcis scanning site between the two crews, it was found that no changes greater than 4 percent were evident in either member of the backup crew. In comparing the changes observed preflight and postflight as the conventional o calcis scanning site between the two crews, it was found that no changes greater than 4 percent were evident in either member of the backup crew. This is in contract to the 15.1 and 8.9 percent losses observed in the prime crew. It has long been known that the skeletal system experiences a general loss of mineral under immobilization or extended bed rest. However, in both Gemini IV and Gemini V studies, bone mass losses were greater in both the os calcis and phalanx than were shown by the TWU bed-rest subjects during the same period of time. Although the bone mass losses in the 8-day Gemini V flight were generally greater than in the 4-day Gemini IV flight, the information to date is still insufficient to conclude that the losses tend to progress linearly with time, or whether a form of physiological adaptation may occur in longer space flights.

  18. Fault-Zone Trapped Waves from Aftershocks of the M7.2 Darfield and M6.3 Christchurch Earthquake Sequence for Document of Subsurface Damage Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; De Pascale, G. P.; Gravley, D.; Cherrington, J.; Alvarez, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    The M6.3 Christchurch earthquake struck the Canterbury region in NZ's South Island on 22 February 2011, following ~6 months after the Sept. 4, 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquake in the same region. It has generated a significant series of aftershocks, many of which are considered big for a M6.3 earthquake. It is not know clearly whether the later M6.3 event is technically an aftershock because of its relationship to the ongoing activity since September last year, or it is a separate event, given its location on a separate fault system, a previously unknown blind fault line running 17 km south of Christchurch. In order to study the complicated subsurface structure of the damage zones caused by this sequence of earthquakes in NZ, under the support of NSF-RAPID Program, we deployed 12 PASSCAL seismographs in two ~300-m long seismic lines across the Greendale fault where the horizontal right-lateral slip of 4.5 m and vertical slip of 1.6 m were caused by the 2010 M7.2 Darfield earthquake and the aftershock zone of the M6.3 Christchurch earthquake, respectively, to record fault-zone trapped waves (FZTWs) generated by aftershocks, starting from May 5th, 2011. We have recorded the data for ~300 M>3 aftershocks with good locations and more than ~1000 small events not located yet but with good signal-to-noise ratio at these two arrays, including M5.3, M6, M5.4, M5.1 aftershocks with their clustered events at depths of 10-15 km. Preliminary examination of the waveform data shows FZTWs clearly at stations located within the 50-75-m wide rupture zone with high density of en-echelon cracks on the ground surface along the Greendale fault. 3-D finite-difference simulations of these FZTWs show a distinct low-velocity zone (LVZ) at seismogenic depth, indicating that the Greendale fault has undergone strong dynamic stresses and pervasive cracking during the 2010 M7.2 Darfield earthquake. We interpret this LVZ as being a remnant of damage zone in dynamic ruptures that accumulated damage

  19. Mutational analysis defines the roles of conserved amino acid residues in the predicted catalytic pocket of the rRNA:m6A methyltransferase ErmC'.

    PubMed

    Maravić, Gordana; Feder, Marcin; Pongor, Sándor; Flögel, Mirna; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2003-09-01

    Methyltransferases (MTases) from the Erm family catalyze S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent modification of a specific adenine residue in bacterial 23S rRNA, thereby conferring resistance to clinically important macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B antibiotics. Despite the available structural data and functional analyses on the level of the RNA substrate, still very little is known about the mechanism of rRNA:adenine-N(6) methylation. Only predictions regarding various aspects of this reaction have been made based on the analysis of the crystal structures of methyltransferase ErmC' (without the RNA) and their comparison with the crystallographic and biochemical data for better studied DNA:m(6)A MTases. To validate the structure-based predictions of presumably essential residues in the catalytic pocket of ErmC', we carried out the site-directed mutagenesis and studied the function of the mutants in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that the active site of rRNA:m(6)A MTases is much more tolerant to amino acid substitutions than the active site of DNA:m(6)A MTases. Only the Y104 residue implicated in stabilization of the target base was found to be indispensable. Remarkably, the N101 residue from the "catalytic" motif IV and two conserved residues that form the floor (F163) and one of the walls (N11) of the base-binding site are not essential for catalysis in ErmC'. This somewhat surprising result is discussed in the light of the available structural data and in the phylogenetic context of the Erm family. PMID:12946350

  20. Methylations of adenosine residues (m6A) in pre-mRNA are important for formation of late simian virus 40 mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Finkel, D; Groner, Y

    1983-12-01

    Cycloleucine, a competitive inhibitor of methionine transferase was used to generate in vivo partially methylated mRNA in SV40-infected BSC-1 cells. Cycloleucine at 0.5 mg/ml causes more than a 30% decrease in internal m6As of late SV40 mRNA with only minor effect on the dimethyladenosine of the 5' caps m7GpppmAm. After treatment with 2 and 5 mg/ml of cycloleucine, internal m6As were reduced by 10- and 100-fold, respectively. The inhibition of BSC-1 mRNA methylations paralleled that observed for late SV40 mRNAs. In cells exposed to 2 mg/ml cycloleucine production of late SV40 mRNA was inhibited by 80% whereas the amount of SV40 nuclear RNA was only slightly reduced. Size fractionation of SV40 nuclear RNA from cycloleucine-treated cells revealed a loss of SV40 19 S RNA with a corresponding increase of fragmented RNA sedimenting between 11 to 5 S, so that the total amount of SV40 RNA in the nucleus was almost unchanged. Analysis of viral transcription complexes from cells treated with cycloleucine indicated that SV40 transcription was not affected by cycloleucine. SV40-transformed cells, in contrast to BSC-1 cells, were able to process and transport undermethylated RNA. When transformed cells were treated with 2 mg/ml cycloleucine no changes in quantities or size of cytoplasmic and nuclear RNA were detected. The data argues for a role of internal m6A moieties in modulating the processing-linked transport of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of nontransformed cells. Transformed cells may escape these controls due to structural alterations in their perinuclear regions. PMID:6318439

  1. Predicted liquefaction in the greater Oakland area and northern Santa Clara Valley during a repeat of the 1868 Hayward Fault (M6.7-7.0) earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction due to a repeat of the 1868 (M6.7-7.0) earthquake on the southern segment of the Hayward Fault were calculated for two areas along the margin of San Francisco Bay, California: greater Oakland and the northern Santa Clara Valley. Liquefaction is predicted to be more common in the greater Oakland area than in the northern Santa Clara Valley owing to the presence of 57 km2 of susceptible sandy artificial fill. Most of the fills were placed into San Francisco Bay during the first half of the 20th century to build military bases, port facilities, and shoreline communities like Alameda and Bay Farm Island. Probabilities of liquefaction in the area underlain by this sandy artificial fill range from 0.2 to ~0.5 for a M7.0 earthquake, and decrease to 0.1 to ~0.4 for a M6.7 earthquake. In the greater Oakland area, liquefaction probabilities generally are less than 0.05 for Holocene alluvial fan deposits, which underlie most of the remaining flat-lying urban area. In the northern Santa Clara Valley for a M7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m (the historically shallowest water level), liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For a M6.7 earthquake, probabilities are greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. Areas with high probabilities in the Santa Clara Valley are underlain by young Holocene levee deposits along major drainages where liquefaction and lateral spreading occurred during large earthquakes in 1868 and 1906.

  2. Mutational analysis defines the roles of conserved amino acid residues in the predicted catalytic pocket of the rRNA:m6A methyltransferase ErmC'.

    PubMed

    Maravić, Gordana; Feder, Marcin; Pongor, Sándor; Flögel, Mirna; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2003-09-01

    Methyltransferases (MTases) from the Erm family catalyze S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent modification of a specific adenine residue in bacterial 23S rRNA, thereby conferring resistance to clinically important macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B antibiotics. Despite the available structural data and functional analyses on the level of the RNA substrate, still very little is known about the mechanism of rRNA:adenine-N(6) methylation. Only predictions regarding various aspects of this reaction have been made based on the analysis of the crystal structures of methyltransferase ErmC' (without the RNA) and their comparison with the crystallographic and biochemical data for better studied DNA:m(6)A MTases. To validate the structure-based predictions of presumably essential residues in the catalytic pocket of ErmC', we carried out the site-directed mutagenesis and studied the function of the mutants in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that the active site of rRNA:m(6)A MTases is much more tolerant to amino acid substitutions than the active site of DNA:m(6)A MTases. Only the Y104 residue implicated in stabilization of the target base was found to be indispensable. Remarkably, the N101 residue from the "catalytic" motif IV and two conserved residues that form the floor (F163) and one of the walls (N11) of the base-binding site are not essential for catalysis in ErmC'. This somewhat surprising result is discussed in the light of the available structural data and in the phylogenetic context of the Erm family.

  3. Seismic evidence for rock damage and healing on the San Andreas fault associated with the 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Y.-G.; Chen, P.; Cochran, E.S.; Vidale, J.E.; Burdette, T.

    2006-01-01

    We deployed a dense linear array of 45 seismometers across and along the San Andreas fault near Parkfield a week after the M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake on 28 September 2004 to record fault-zone seismic waves generated by aftershocks and explosions. Seismic stations and explosions were co-sited with our previous experiment conducted in 2002. The data from repeated shots detonated in the fall of 2002 and 3 months after the 2004 M 6.0 mainshock show ???1.0%-1.5% decreases in seismic-wave velocity within an ???200-m-wide zone along the fault strike and smaller changes (0.2%-0.5%) beyond this zone, most likely due to the coseismic damage of rocks during dynamic rupture in the 2004 M 6.0 earthquake. The width of the damage zone characterized by larger velocity changes is consistent with the low-velocity waveguide model on the San Andreas fault, near Parkfield, that we derived from fault-zone trapped waves (Li et al., 2004). The damage zone is not symmetric but extends farther on the southwest side of the main fault trace. Waveform cross-correlations for repeated aftershocks in 21 clusters, with a total of ???130 events, located at different depths and distances from the array site show ???0.7%-1.1% increases in S-wave velocity within the fault zone in 3 months starting a week after the earthquake. The velocity recovery indicates that the damaged rock has been healing and regaining the strength through rigidity recovery with time, most likely . due to the closure of cracks opened during the mainshock. We estimate that the net decrease in seismic velocities within the fault zone was at least ???2.5%, caused by the 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake. The healing rate was largest in the earlier stage of the postmainshock healing process. The magnitude of fault healing varies along the rupture zone, being slightly larger for the healing beneath Middle Mountain, correlating well with an area of large mapped slip. The fault healing is most prominent at depths above ???7 km.

  4. A physical model for the precursory magnetic anomalies of the M5.4 Alum Rock and M6.0 Parkfield earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dologlou, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    Here, we propose an alternative physical model, based on the concept of criticality, for the explanation of the observed magnetic signals prior to the M6.0 Parkfield and the M5.4 Alum Rock earthquakes. Motivated by an analogous experience from major earthquakes in Greece, where both magnetic field variations and seismic electric signals were also recorded few weeks before the main shock, we suggest that in all these cases, similar dynamic processes characterized by critical behaviour should govern the corresponding pre-focal areas when the relevant precursory signals emerged.

  5. Acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Graves, Nancy S

    2013-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a common infectious disease syndrome, causing a combination of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. There are more than 350 million cases of acute gastroenteritis in the United States annually and 48 million of these cases are caused by foodborne bacteria. Traveler's diarrhea affects more than half of people traveling from developed countries to developing countries. In adult and pediatric patients, the prevalence of Clostridium difficile is increasing. Contact precautions, public health education, and prudent use of antibiotics are necessary goals in decreasing the prevalence of Clostridium difficle. Preventing dehydration or providing appropriate rehydration is the primary supportive treatment of acute gastroenteritis.

  6. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  7. Acute Pericarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large pericardial effusions). Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen ) taken ... reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. ...

  8. Perturbation of m6A writers reveals two distinct classes of mRNA methylation at internal and 5’ sites

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Schraga; Mumbach, Maxwell R.; Jovanovic, Marko; Wang, Tim; Maciag, Karolina; Bushkin, G. Guy; Mertins, Philipp; Ter-Ovanesyan, Dmitry; Habib, Naomi; Cacchiarelli, Davide; Sanjana, Neville E.; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Pacold, Michael E.; Satija, Rahul; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Hacohen, Nir; Zhang, Feng; Carr, Steven A.; Lander, Eric S.; Regev, Aviv

    2014-01-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a common modification of mRNA, with potential roles in fine-tuning the RNA life-cycle. Here, we identify a dense network of proteins interacting with METTL3, a component of the methyltransferase complex, and show that three of them, WTAP, METTL14 and KIAA1429, are required for methylation. Monitoring m6A levels upon WTAP depletion allowed the definition of accurate and near single-nucleotide resolution methylation maps, and their classification into WTAP-dependent and independent sites. WTAP-dependent sites are located at internal positions in transcripts, are topologically static across a variety of systems we surveyed, and are inversely correlated with mRNA stability, consistent with a role in establishing ‘basal’ degradation rates. WTAP-independent sites form at the first transcribed base as part of the cap structure, and are present at thousands of sites, forming a previously unappreciated layer of transcriptome complexity. Our data sheds new light on proteomic and transcriptional underpinnings of this epitranscriptomic modification. PMID:24981863

  9. Salivaricin D, a novel intrinsically trypsin-resistant lantibiotic from Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c isolated from a healthy infant.

    PubMed

    Birri, Dagim Jirata; Brede, Dag Anders; Nes, Ingolf F

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we purified and characterized a newly identified lantibiotic (salivaricin D) from Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c. Salivaricin D is a 34-amino-acid-residue peptide (3,467.55 Da); the locus of the gene encoding this peptide is a 16.5-kb DNA segment which contains genes encoding the precursor of two lantibiotics, two modification enzymes (dehydratase and cyclase), an ABC transporter, a serine-like protease, immunity proteins (lipoprotein and ABC transporters), a response regulator, and a sensor histidine kinase. The immunity gene (salI) was heterologously expressed in a sensitive indicator and provided significant protection against salivaricin D, confirming its immunity function. Salivaricin D is a naturally trypsin-resistant lantibiotic that is similar to nisin-like lantibiotics. It is a relatively broad-spectrum bacteriocin that inhibits members of many genera of Gram-positive bacteria, including the important human pathogens Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Thus, Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c may be a potential biological agent for the control of oronasopharynx-colonizing streptococcal pathogens or may be used as a probiotic bacterium. PMID:22101034

  10. Salivaricin D, a Novel Intrinsically Trypsin-Resistant Lantibiotic from Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c Isolated from a Healthy Infant

    PubMed Central

    Birri, Dagim Jirata; Brede, Dag Anders

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we purified and characterized a newly identified lantibiotic (salivaricin D) from Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c. Salivaricin D is a 34-amino-acid-residue peptide (3,467.55 Da); the locus of the gene encoding this peptide is a 16.5-kb DNA segment which contains genes encoding the precursor of two lantibiotics, two modification enzymes (dehydratase and cyclase), an ABC transporter, a serine-like protease, immunity proteins (lipoprotein and ABC transporters), a response regulator, and a sensor histidine kinase. The immunity gene (salI) was heterologously expressed in a sensitive indicator and provided significant protection against salivaricin D, confirming its immunity function. Salivaricin D is a naturally trypsin-resistant lantibiotic that is similar to nisin-like lantibiotics. It is a relatively broad-spectrum bacteriocin that inhibits members of many genera of Gram-positive bacteria, including the important human pathogens Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Thus, Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c may be a potential biological agent for the control of oronasopharynx-colonizing streptococcal pathogens or may be used as a probiotic bacterium. PMID:22101034

  11. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Self-Potential Field Prior to the M 6.5, October 24, 1993 Earthquake in MÉXICO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, F.; González-Trejo, J. I.; Real-Ramírez, C. A.; Hoyos-Reyes, L. F.; Area de Sistemas Computacionales

    2013-05-01

    In the current literature on seismo electromagnetic, it has been reported many earthquakes which present electromagnetic anomalies as probable precursors of their occurrences. Although this methodology remains yet under discussion, is relevant to study many particular cases. In this work, we report a multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) of electroseismic signals recorded in the Acapulco station during 1993. In October 24, 1993, occurred and earthquake (EQ) with M 6.5, with epicenter at (16.54 N, 98.98 W), 100Km away from the mentioned station. The multifractal spectrum identifies the deviations in fractal structure within time periods with large and small fluctuations. We discuss the dynamical meaning of this analysis and its possible relation with the mentioned EQ.

  12. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  13. Multi-sensor Integration of Space and Ground Observations of Pre-earthquake Anomalies Associated with M6.0, August 24, 2014 Napa, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Tramutoli, Valerio; Pulinets, Sergey; Liu, Tiger; Filizzola, Carolina; Genzano, Nicola; Lisi, Mariano; Petrov, Leonid; Kafatos, Menas

    2015-04-01

    We integrate multiple space-born and ground sensors for monitoring pre-earthquake geophysical anomalies that can provide significant early notification for earthquakes higher than M5.5 worldwide. The latest M6.0 event of August 24, 2014 in South Napa, California generated pre-earthquake signatures during our outgoing tests for California, and an experimental warning was documented about 17 days in advance. We process in controlled environment different satellite and ground data for California (and several other test areas) by using: a) data from the NPOES sensors recording OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) in the infrared; b) 2/GNSS, FORMOSAT (GPS/TEC); c) Earth Observing System assimilation models from NASA; d) ground-based gas observations and meteorological data; e) TIR (Thermal Infrared) data from geostationary satellite (GOES). On Aug 4th, we detected (prospectively) a large anomaly of OLR transient field at the TOA over Northern California. The location was shifted in the northeast direction about 150 km from the Aug 23rd epicentral area. Compared to the reference field of August 2004 to 2014 the hotspot anomaly was the largest energy flux anomaly over the entire continental United States at this time. Based on the temporal and spatial estimates of the anomaly, on August 4th we issued an internal warning for a M5.5+ earthquake in Northern California within the next 1-4 weeks. TIR retrospective analysis showed significant (spatially extended and temporally persistent) sequences of TIR anomalies starting August 1st just in the future epicenter area and approximately in the same area affected by OLR anomalies in the following days. GPS/TEC retrospective analysis based on GIM and TGIM products show anomalies TEC variations 1-3 days, over region north form the Napa earthquake epicenter. The calculated index of atmospheric chemical potential based on the NASA numerical Assimilation weather model GEOS5 indicates for abnormal variations near the epicentral area days

  14. Afterslip Behavior Following the M6.0, 2014 South Napa Earthquake with Implications for Afterslip Forecasting on Other Seismogenic Faults.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienkaemper, J. J.; DeLong, S. B.; Domrose, C. J.; Rosa, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Surface slip on the 15-km-long 2014 Napa rupture occurred mostly as afterslip on its southern 8-9 km, but mostly coseismically on its northern section, with maximum coseismic slip reaching 0.4-0.5 m. Urban post-earthquake recovery demands rapid and realistic answers to: How much more afterslip can occur? How long will it last? About 69% of all surface slip was postseismic. Cumulative slip approaches 0.3-0.5 m in the middle of the rupture, estimated with program AFTER (Boatwright et al., 1989). At 1-yr post-earthquake, slip should be 96-99% complete on the southern section. However, 0.8 km north of the coseismic maximum (site NLOD), slip is ≤92% complete. Model estimates of total fault displacement (Uf) improved in the weeks following the earthquake. By 3 weeks, uncertainties were ≤±5 cm; by 3 months, 3 sites had stable Uf values and ≤±1 cm uncertainties, except site NLOD, where at 9 months its formal Uf-uncertainty was ±2 cm, but the model is uncertain. To estimate the impact of afterslip following a large future earthquake expected on the Hayward fault in the densely populated San Francisco East Bay, we are analyzing how rapidly we can resolve final displacement (Uf) from other records, e.g., the M6.0, 2004 Parkfield earthquake. Napa uncertainties resolve faster than Parkfield's by a few months. Although 1-yr solutions are shown to be accurate for the central Parkfield rupture, at the rupture tips, afterslip rates, and thus Uf estimates, increased considerably in later years. Unstable Uf values at NLOD resemble behavior at the Parkfield rupture tips. Unlike Napa, Parkfield afterslip was only ~74% complete after 1 year,~91% after 6 years, and ultimately taking 8-11 yr to reach interseismic creep rates. The Napa and Parkfield afterslip behaviors represent end members, locked-versus-creeping fault sections. Though we might expect the creeping Hayward Fault to behave more like Parkfield, its much larger expected magnitude (M6.8) could make an important

  15. Liquefaction Scenarios in the Northern Santa Clara Valley for a Repeat of the 1868 Hayward Fault (M6.7-7.0) Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    The spatial distribution of the probability of liquefaction in the northern Santa Clara Valley, California, was predicted for a repeat of an earthquake like the 1868 Hayward Fault (M6.7-7.0) earthquake. Probabilities were computed with the methodology for probabilistic liquefaction hazard mapping that was developed by Holzer and others (USGS OFR 02-296, 2006). The methodology relies on field-based plots of cumulative frequency of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) for spatially homogenous surficial geologic units. LPI, which is a scalar parameter that integrates the liquefaction potential of the entire soil column, was computed for 164 seismic cone penetration tests (SCPT) that were conducted in Holocene and Pleistocene geologic units. The plots of cumulative frequency were used to estimate the liquefaction probability distribution for each surficial geologic unit given peak ground acceleration (PGA) and earthquake magnitude. Scenario maps were produced with ArcGIS Model Builder. PGA at each node in a 50-m grid was estimated with the new attenuation relation proposed by Boore and Atkinson (2007, v. 3.04). Regional averages of VS30 values, which were based on the SCPT, were used to account for local site amplification. The probability of liquefaction was estimated at each node using the liquefaction probability distribution appropriate for the surficial geology at the node. For a M7 earthquake and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m in the central part of the valley, liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For an M6.7 earthquake, probabilities remain greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. For assumed water-table depths greater than 5 m, liquefaction probabilities are less than 0.05 throughout the valley. The probability of lateral spreading is less than 0.05 throughout the valley for both water table depths and both earthquakes

  16. Afterslip behavior following the M6.0, 2014 South Napa earthquake with implications for afterslip forecasting on other seismogenic faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, James J.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Domrose, Carolyn J; Rosa, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    The M6.0, 24 Aug. 2014 South Napa, California, earthquake exhibited unusually large slip for a California strike-slip event of its size with a maximum coseismic surface slip of 40-50 cm in the north section of the 15 km-long rupture. Although only minor (<10 cm) surface slip occurred coseismically in the southern 9-km section of the rupture, there was considerable postseismic slip, so that the maximum total slip one year after the event approached 40-50 cm, about equal to the coseismic maximum in the north. We measured the accumulation of postseismic surface slip on four, ~100-m-long alignment arrays for one year following the event. Because prolonged afterslip can delay reconstruction of fault-damaged buildings and infrastructure, we analyzed its gradual decay to estimate when significant afterslip would likely end. This forecasting of Napa afterslip suggests how we might approach the scientific and engineering challenges of afterslip from a much larger M~7 earthquake anticipated on the nearby, urban Hayward Fault. However, we expect its afterslip to last much longer than one year.The M6.0, 24 Aug. 2014 South Napa, California, earthquake exhibited unusually large slip for a California strike-slip event of its size with a maximum coseismic surface slip of 40-50 cm in the north section of the 15 km-long rupture. Although only minor (<10 cm) surface slip occurred coseismically in the southern 9-km section of the rupture, there was considerable postseismic slip, so that the maximum total slip one year after the event approached 40-50 cm, about equal to the coseismic maximum in the north. We measured the accumulation of postseismic surface slip on four, ~100-m-long alignment arrays for one year following the event. Because prolonged afterslip can delay reconstruction of fault-damaged buildings and infrastructure, we analyzed its gradual decay to estimate when significant afterslip would likely end. This forecasting of Napa afterslip suggests how we might approach the

  17. Cyanide-bridged [Fe8M6] clusters displaying single-molecule magnetism (M=Ni) and electron-transfer-coupled spin transitions (M=Co).

    PubMed

    Mitsumoto, Kiyotaka; Oshiro, Emiko; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Shiga, Takuya; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Saito, Kazuya; Oshio, Hiroki

    2011-08-22

    Cyanide-bridged metal complexes of [Fe(8)M(6)(μ-CN)(14)(CN)(10)(tp)(8)(HL)(10)(CH(3)CN)(2)][PF(6)](4)⋅n CH(3)CN⋅m H(2)O (HL=3-(2-pyridyl)-5-[4-(diphenylamino)phenyl]-1H-pyrazole), tp(-) =hydrotris(pyrazolylborate), 1: M=Ni with n=11 and m=7, and 2: M=Co with n=14 and m=5) were prepared. Complexes 1 and 2 are isomorphous, and crystallized in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n. They have tetradecanuclear cores composed of eight low-spin (LS) Fe(III) and six high-spin (HS) M(II) ions (M=Ni and Co), all of which are bridged by cyanide ions, to form a crown-like core structure. Magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed that intramolecular ferro- and antiferromagnetic interactions are operative in 1 and in a fresh sample of 2, respectively. Ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of 1 showed frequency-dependent in- and out-of-phase signals, characteristic of single-molecule magnetism (SMM), while desolvated samples of 2 showed thermal- and photoinduced intramolecular electron-transfer-coupled spin transition (ETCST) between the [(LS-Fe(II))(3) (LS-Fe(III))(5)(HS-Co(II))(3)(LS-Co(III))(3)] and the [(LS-Fe(III))(8)(HS-Co(II))(6)] states. PMID:21830241

  18. The 2014 M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake in the Context of the Earthquake Cycle in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaume, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 M 6.0 South Napa earthquake is the second M ≥ 5.5 earthquake to occur in the San Francisco Bay region since the 1989 M 7.0 Loma Prieta earthquake. This poster will examine how this earthquake fits into the earthquake history of the Bay region, which has shown considerable variation in the rate of moderate (M 5.5-6.5) earthquakes. A number of models have been developed to explain these changes in moderate earthquake rates, including the Accelerating Moment Release model (e.g., Sykes and Jaumé, Nature, 1990; Bufe and Varnes, J. Geophys. Res., 1993) and the Stress Shadow model (e.g., Harris and Simpson, J. Geophys. Res., 1998). In addition, various groups have made projections of future earthquake activity in the San Francisco Bay region, including the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (Field et al., USGS OFR, 2008) and Bebbington et al. (PAGEOPH, 2010), utilizing different physical models for earthquake occurrence. In my poster I will compare and contrast these different views of seismicity in the Bay region and where the 2014 South Napa earthquake fits into them. In particular, I will explore what these different models imply for future moderate earthquake occurrence and hazards thereof.

  19. A stochastic estimate of ground motion at Oceano, California, for the M 6.5 22 December 2003 San Simeon earthquake, derived from aftershock recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di, Alessandro C.; Boatwright, J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey deployed a digital seismic station in Oceano, California, in February 2004, to investigate the cause of damage and liquefaction from the 22 December 2003 M 6.5 San Simeon earthquake. This station recorded 11 M > 2.8 aftershocks in almost 8 weeks. We analyze these recordings, together with recordings of the mainshock and the same aftershocks obtained from nearby stations in Park Hill and San Luis Obispo, to estimate the mainshock ground motion in Oceano. We estimate the Fourier amplitude spectrum using generalized spectral ratio analysis. We test a set of aftershocks as Green's functions by comparing simulated and recorded acceleration amplitude spectra for the mainshock at San Luis Obispo and Park Hill. We convolve the aftershock accelerograms with a stochastic operator to simulate the duration and phase of the mainshock accelerograms. This approximation allows us to extend the range of aftershocks that can be used as Green's functions to events nearly three magnitude units smaller than the mainshock. Our realizations for the mainshock accelerogram at Oceano yield peak ground accelerations distributed as 28% ?? 4%g. We interpret these realizations as upper bounds for the actual ground motion, because our analysis assumes a linear response, whereas the presence of liquefaction indicates that the ground behaved nonlinearly in Oceano.

  20. Acute Vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835

  1. [Acute diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Burgmann, Konstantin; Schoepfer, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Diarrhea, defined as three or more loose or watery stools per day, represents a frequent problem in outpatients as well as inpatients. As most of the patients with acute diarrhea show a self-limiting disease course, the main challenge for the physician is to discriminate patients for whom symptomatic therapy is sufficient from those with severe disease course and threatening complications. This review aims to provide a practical guidance for such decisions.

  2. Estimating the probability of occurrence of earthquakes (M>6) in the Western part of the Corinth rift using fault-based and classical seismotectonic approaches.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiselet, Aurelien; Scotti, Oona; Lyon-Caen, Hélène

    2014-05-01

    -SISCOR Working Group. On the basis of this consensual logic tree, median probability of occurrences of M>=6 events were computed for the region of study. Time-dependent models (Brownian Passage time and Weibull probability distributions) were also explored. The probability of a M>=6.0 event is found to be greater in the western region compared to the eastern part of the Corinth rift, whether a fault-based or a classical seismotectonic approach is used. Percentile probability estimates are also provided to represent the range of uncertainties in the results. The percentile results show that, in general, probability estimates following the classical approach (based on the definition of seismotectonic source zones), cover the median values estimated following the fault-based approach. On the contrary, the fault-based approach in this region is still affected by a high degree of uncertainty, because of the poor constraints on the 3D geometries of the faults and the high uncertainties in their slip rates.

  3. A Stochastic Estimate of Ground Motion at Oceano, California, for the M6.5 December 22, 2003, San Simeon Earthquake, Derived from Aftershock Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Alessandro, C.; Boatwright, J.

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey deployed a digital seismic station in Oceano, California, in February 2004, to investigate the cause of damage and liquefaction from the 22 December 2003 M6.5 San Simeon earthquake. This station recorded 11 M\\> 2.8 aftershocks in almost eight weeks. We use these recordings, together with recordings of the main shock and the same aftershocks obtained from nearby stations in Park Hill and San Luis Obispo, to estimate the mainshock ground motion in Oceano. We estimate the Fourier amplitude spectrum using a generalized spectral ratio analysis that averages the spectral ratios from both stations for all the co-recorded aftershocks. We test three aftershocks as Green's functions by comparing simulated and recorded acceleration amplitude spectra for the main shock at Park Hill and San Luis Obispo. Instead of deconvolving the aftershock recordings from the mainshock recordings to estimate a source-time function, we convolve the aftershock accelerograms with a stochastic operator to simulate the duration and phase of the mainshock accelerograms. These stochastic operators are determined as sets of delta functions whose delays are randomly generated from a gamma distribution with a shape parameter of 1. We choose the scale parameter by fitting Husid plots of the Park Hill and San Luis Obsipo mainshock accelerograms. This stochastic approach allows us to extend the range of aftershocks that can be used as Green's functions to events nearly three magnitude units smaller than the main shock. Our realizations for the mainshock accelerogram at Oceano yield PGAs distributed as 28±4% g. We interpret these realizations as upper bounds for the actual ground motion because our analysis assumes that the ground behaved linearly, while the liquefaction and lateral spreading indicates that the ground behaved non-linearly. Geotechnical analysis of the site indicates that a PGA of 25% g would have initiated the liquefaction.

  4. Dosimetric and radiobiological comparison of CyberKnife M6™ InCise multileaf collimator over IRIS™ variable collimator in prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Kathriarachchi, Vindu; Shang, Charles; Evans, Grant; Leventouri, Theodora; Kalantzis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    The impetus behind our study was to establish a quantitative comparison between the IRIS collimator and the InCise multileaf collimator (MLC) (Accuray Inc. Synnyvale, CA) for prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Treatment plans for ten prostate cancer patients were performed on MultiPlan™ 5.1.2 treatment planning system utilizing MLC and IRIS for 36.25 Gy in five fractions. To reduce the magnitude of variations between cases, the planning tumor volume (PTV) was defined and outlined for treating prostate gland only, assuming no seminal vesicle or ex-capsule involvement. Evaluation indices of each plan include PTV coverage, conformity index (CI), Paddick's new CI, homogeneity index, and gradient index. Organ at risk (OAR) dose sparing was analyzed by the bladder wall Dmax and V37Gy, rectum Dmax and V36Gy. The radiobiological response was evaluated by tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability based on equivalent uniform dose. The dose delivery efficiency was evaluated on the basis of planned monitor units (MUs) and the reported treatment time per fraction. Statistical significance was tested using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The studies indicated that CyberKnife M6™ IRIS and InCise™ MLC produce equivalent SBRT prostate treatment plans in terms of dosimetry, radiobiology, and OAR sparing, except that the MLC plans offer improvement of the dose fall-off gradient by 29% over IRIS. The main advantage of replacing the IRIS collimator with MLC is the improved efficiency, determined from the reduction of MUs by 42%, and a 36% faster delivery time. PMID:27217626

  5. Space and Ground observations of Pre-earthquake Anomalies.Prospective/Retrospective Testing for M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, D.; Kafatos, M.; Petrov, L.; Pulinets, S. A.; Liu, J. Y.; Su, Y. C.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    We integrate multiple geo-space and ground sensors for monitoring pre-earthquake geophysical anomalies that can provide significant early notification for earthquakes higher than M5.5 in California. The latest M6.0 event of August 24 in South Napa, generated a pre-earthquake signature during our prospective tests for California, and an experimental warning was documented about 17 days in advance. We process in controlled environment different satellite and ground data for California and several other test areas by using: A.) TIR (thermal infrared) data from the NPOES recording long-wavelength radiation (OLR) and; B.) 2/GNSS, FORMOSAT (GPS/TEC); 3) Earth Observing System assimilation models from NASA and 4) ground-based gas observations and meteorological data. On Aug 4th, we detected (prospectively) a large anomaly of OLR transient field in the atmosphere over Northern California. The location was shifted in the northeast direction about 150 km from the Aug 23rd epicentral area. Compared to the reference field of August 2004 to 2014, a rapid change in the thermals anomalous flux rate, of >1.6 W/m2 at 7:00AM LT been observed on Aug 4. The hotspot anomaly was the largest energy flux anomaly over the entire continental United States at this time. Based on the temporal and spatial estimates of the anomaly, on August 4th we issued an internal warning for a M5.5+ earthquake in Northern California within the next 1-4 weeks. Our approach needs additional continuous validation. The results could be explained within the framework of a model of Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling between the crust and the atmosphere/ionosphere.

  6. A Teachable Moment in Earth Deformation: An Undergraduate Strain Module Incorporating GPS Measurement of the August 24, 2014 M6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resor, P. G.; Cronin, V. S.; Hammond, W. C.; Pratt-Sitaula, B.; Olds, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The August 24, 2014 M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake was the largest earthquake to occur in the San Francisco Bay Area, home to more than 7 million people, in almost 25 years. The event occurred within an area of dense GPS instrumentation including continuous stations from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, Bay Area Regional Deformation Network and other networks. Coseismic displacements of up to 3 cm were rapidly estimated within one day after the event, providing a map of Earth shape change at over one hundred stations around the epicenter. The earthquake thus presets as an excellent "teachable moment" to introduce students to basic geoscience concepts, modern geophysical methods, and the state of knowledge in earthquake science. We have developed an example exercise that uses GPS-derived interseismic velocities and coseismic offsets to explore deformation in the vicinity of the earthquake rupture. This exercise builds on the UNAVCO education resource "Infinitesimal Strain Analysis Using GPS Data" (http://www.unavco.org/education/resources/educational-resources/lesson/majors-gps-strain/majors-gps-strain.html), a module designed to introduce undergraduate geoscience majors to concepts of crustal deformation using GPS velocity data. In the module students build their intuition about infinitesimal strain through manipulation of physical models, apply this intuition to interpret maps of GPS velocity vectors, and ultimately calculate the instantaneous deformation rate of triangles on the Earth's surface defined by three GPS sites. The South Napa data sets provide an example with clear societal relevance that can be used to explore the basic concepts of deformation, but may also be extended to explore topics such as strain accumulation, release, and transfer associated with the earthquake cycle. The UNAVCO module could be similarly extended to create additional exercises in response to future events with clear geodetic signals.

  7. Modelling macroseismic observations for historical earthquakes: the cases of the M = 7.0, 1954 Sofades and M = 6.8, 1957 Velestino events (central Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazachos, Giannis; Papazachos, Costas; Skarlatoudis, Andreas; Kkallas, Harris; Lekkas, Efthimios

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to model the spatial distribution of the strong ground motion for the large M = 7.0, 1954 Sofades and M = 6.8, 1957 Velestino events (southern Thessaly basin, central Greece), using the macroseismic intensities ( I M M up to 9+) observed within the broader Thessaly area. For this reason, we employ a modified stochastic method realised by the EXSIM algorithm for extended sources, in order to reproduce the damage distribution of these earthquakes, in an attempt to combine existing earthquake information and appropriate scaling relations with surface geology and to investigate the efficiency of the available macroseismic data. For site-effects assessment, we use a new digital geological map of the broader Thessaly basin, where geological formations are grouped by age and mapped on appropriate NEHRP soil classes. Using the previous approach, we estimate synthetic time series for different rupture scenarios and employ various calibrating relations between PGA/PGV and macroseismic intensity, allowing the generation of synthetic (stochastic) isoseismals. Also, different site amplification factors proposed for the broader Aegean area, according to local geology, are tested. Finally, we also perform a sensitivity analysis of the fault location, taking into account the available neotectonic data for the broader southern Thessaly fault zone. The finally determined fault locations are different than previously proposed, in agreement with the available neotectonic information. The observed macroseismic intensities are in good agreement with the ones derived from the synthetic waveforms, verifying both the usefulness of the approach, as well as of the macroseismic data used. Finally, site-effects show clear correlation with the geological classification employed, with constant amplification factors for each soil class generally providing better results than generic transfer functions.

  8. Dosimetric and radiobiological comparison of CyberKnife M6™ InCise multileaf collimator over IRIS™ variable collimator in prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kathriarachchi, Vindu; Shang, Charles; Evans, Grant; Leventouri, Theodora; Kalantzis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    The impetus behind our study was to establish a quantitative comparison between the IRIS collimator and the InCise multileaf collimator (MLC) (Accuray Inc. Synnyvale, CA) for prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Treatment plans for ten prostate cancer patients were performed on MultiPlan™ 5.1.2 treatment planning system utilizing MLC and IRIS for 36.25 Gy in five fractions. To reduce the magnitude of variations between cases, the planning tumor volume (PTV) was defined and outlined for treating prostate gland only, assuming no seminal vesicle or ex-capsule involvement. Evaluation indices of each plan include PTV coverage, conformity index (CI), Paddick's new CI, homogeneity index, and gradient index. Organ at risk (OAR) dose sparing was analyzed by the bladder wall Dmax and V37Gy, rectum Dmax and V36Gy. The radiobiological response was evaluated by tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability based on equivalent uniform dose. The dose delivery efficiency was evaluated on the basis of planned monitor units (MUs) and the reported treatment time per fraction. Statistical significance was tested using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The studies indicated that CyberKnife M6™ IRIS and InCise™ MLC produce equivalent SBRT prostate treatment plans in terms of dosimetry, radiobiology, and OAR sparing, except that the MLC plans offer improvement of the dose fall-off gradient by 29% over IRIS. The main advantage of replacing the IRIS collimator with MLC is the improved efficiency, determined from the reduction of MUs by 42%, and a 36% faster delivery time. PMID:27217626

  9. Fluid‐driven seismicity response of the Rinconada fault near Paso Robles, California, to the 2003 M 6.5 San Simeon earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2012-01-01

    The 2003 M 6.5 San Simeon, California, earthquake caused significant damage in the city of Paso Robles and a persistent cluster of aftershocks close to Paso Robles near the Rinconada fault. Given the importance of secondary aftershock triggering in sequences of large events, a concern is whether this cluster of events could trigger another damaging earthquake near Paso Robles. An epidemic‐type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model is fit to the Rinconada seismicity, and multiple realizations indicate a 0.36% probability of at least one M≥6.0 earthquake during the next 30 years. However, this probability estimate is only as good as the projection into the future of the ETAS model. There is evidence that the seismicity may be influenced by fluid pressure changes, which cannot be forecasted using ETAS. The strongest evidence for fluids is the delay between the San Simeon mainshock and a high rate of seismicity in mid to late 2004. This delay can be explained as having been caused by a pore pressure decrease due to an undrained response to the coseismic dilatation, followed by increased pore pressure during the return to equilibrium. Seismicity migration along the fault also suggests fluid involvement, although the migration is too slow to be consistent with pore pressure diffusion. All other evidence, including focal mechanisms and b‐value, is consistent with tectonic earthquakes. This suggests a model where the role of fluid pressure changes is limited to the first seven months, while the fluid pressure equilibrates. The ETAS modeling adequately fits the events after July 2004 when the pore pressure stabilizes. The ETAS models imply that while the probability of a damaging earthquake on the Rinconada fault has approximately doubled due to the San Simeon earthquake, the absolute probability remains low.

  10. a Goes-W Satellite Thermal Infrared Survey (2006-2014) Over South Western us Earthquake Prone Area: Preliminary Results on 24 August 2014 Napa Earthquake (M=6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, V.; Genzano, N.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Satriano, V.

    2014-12-01

    The RST (Robust Satellite Technique) methodology has been widely applied to tens of earthquakes occurred in different continents (Europe, Asia, America and Africa), in various geo-tectonic settings (compressive, extensional and transcurrent) and with a wide range of magnitudes (from 4.0 to 7.9) trying to identify anomalous fluctuations of the Earth's emitted TIR (Thermal InfraRed) radiation in possible relation with earthquake occurrence discriminating them from those variations due to other causes. An extended study is presented in the AGU2014 NH008 session by Tramutoli et al. which is devoted to verify to which extent Significant (space-time persistent, non-spurious) Sequences of TIR Anomalies (SSTAs) appear within prefixed space-time windows around earthquakes of magnitude M>4 occurred on 6 years (2006-2011) over South Western US seismic area. Results of such a study (with a rate of false positive of 35%) give an idea on the possible relevance of RST based TIR surveys in the framework of an operational, multi-parametric system for time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH). In this paper all the data available from the new GOES-W satellite (in orbit in between 2010 and 2014) have been analysed by the same way in the case of the earthquake occurred on 24 August 2014 (M=6) over Napa valley (California). The results presented in this paper, even if still preliminary, seem to confirm the significance of RST based TIR survey in a t-DASH perspective. It should however mentioned, that such an approach (even if not devoted to be used for short-term Earthquake Forecast outside a multiparametric t-DASH system), when compared with whatever traditional OEF (Operational Earthquake Forecast) method (like the one abandoned ten years ago in US but recently re-proposed for Italy) seems already to gives forecast reliabilities of orders of magnitude greater.

  11. TEC variations over Mediteranean before and during the strong earthquake (M=6.2) of 12th October 2013 in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, Michael; Arabelos, Dimitrios; Vergos, Georgios; Spatalas, Spyridon

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the Total Electron Content (TEC) data of 9 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations of the EUREF network, which are being provided by IONOLAB (Turkey), were analysed using Discrete Fourier Analysis in order to investigate the TEC variations over Mediteranean before and during the strong earthquake of 12th of October 2013, Which occur in western of Crete, Greece. In accordance to the results of similar analysis on the occasion of earthquakes in the area (Contadakis et al 2008, 2012a,2012b) the main conclusions of this analysis are the following. (a) TEC oscillations in a broad range of frequencies occur randomly over a broad area of several hundred km from the earthquake and (b) high frequency oscillations (f ≥ 0.0003Hz, periods T ≤ 60m) seems to point to the location of the earthquake with a questionable accuracy but the fractal characteristics of the frequencies distribution, points to the locus of the earthquake with a rather higher accuracy. We conclude that the LAIC mechanism through acoustic or gravity wave could explain this phenomenology. Key words: GPS network, ionospheric total electron content, wavelet analysis References Contadakis, M.E., Arabelos, D.N. G. Asteriadis, S.D. Spatalas and Ch. Pikridas, 2008. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 1267-1276 M.E. Contadakis, D.N. Arabelos, Ch. Pikridas and S.D. Spatalas, 2012a,TEC variations over Southern Europe before and during the M6.3 Abruzzo earthquake of 6th April 2009, Annals of Geophysics, Vol.55,1, p.83-93 M.E.Contadakis, D.N.Arabelos, and G.Vergos, 2012b, TEC variations over North-western Balkan peninsula before and during the seismic activity of 24th May 2009, EGU GA, Geoph. Res. Abs., Vol. 14, EGU2012-2319-2

  12. High-Dose Busulfan and High-Dose Cyclophosphamide Followed By Donor Bone Marrow Transplant in Treating Patients With Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Multiple Myeloma, or Recurrent Hodgkin or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-08-05

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; De Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent

  13. Along-Arc and Back-Arc Attenuation, Site Response, and Source Spectrum for the Intermediate-Depth 8 January 2006 M 6.7 Kythera, Greece, Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Skarlatoudis, A.A.; Margaris, B.N.; Costas, B.P.; Ventouzi, C.

    2009-01-01

    An M 6.7 intermediate-depth (66 km), in-slab earthquake occurring near the island of Kythera in Greece on 8 January 2006 was well recorded on networks of stations equipped with acceleration sensors and with broadband velocity sensors. All data were recorded digitally using recording instruments with resolutions ranging from almost 11 to 24 bits. We use data from these networks to study the distance dependence of the horizontal-component Fourier acceleration spectra (FAS) and horizontal-component pseudoabsolute response spectral acceleration (PSA). For purposes of simulating motions in the future, we parameterize the distance decay using several forms of the geometrical-spreading function, for each of which we derive Q as a function of frequency. By extrapolating the distance decay back to 1 km, we obtain a reference spectrum that can be used in future simulations. This spectrum requires a more complicated spectral shape than the classic single-corner-frequency model; in particular, there appears to be an enhancement of motion around 0.2-0.3 Hz that may be due to the radiation of a 3-5 sec pulse from the source. We infer a ??0 value of about 0.055 sec for rock stations and a stress parameter in the range of 400-600 bars. We also find distinctive differences in the site response of stations on soft soil and soil; both the FAS and the 5% damped PSA amplifications have similar peak amplitudes (about 2 and 4 for soil and soft-soil sites, respectively, relative to the rock sites) at similar frequencies (between about 0.4 and 2.0 Hz, with the soft-soil amplifications peaking at somewhat lower frequencies than the soil amplifications). One of the most distinctive features of the data is the clear difference in the motions for along-arc and back-arc stations, with the former being significantly higher than the latter over a broad range of frequencies at distances beyond about 250 km. The motions from the Kythera earthquake are roughly comparable to those from intermediate

  14. Tectonic Seasonal Loading Inferred from cGPS Measurements as a Potential Trigger for the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraner, M.; Holt, W. E.; Borsa, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements from continuous global positioning system (cGPS) networks continue to unfold details about transient strain signals [Mavrommatis et al., 2014; Heki, 2003]. Linking these transient strain signals to seismic events remains elusive, as it requires detailed information about the steady-state tectonic loading sources, faulting geometries, and strain distribution with depth. Here we use cGPS measurements to uncover a regional strain transient peaking just prior to the M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa earthquake. This signal appears to have produced a coulomb stress increase, favoring slip on the West Napa faulting system. Analysis of cGPS time series during the interseismic period from 2006 to 2014 shows a stacked summer dilatational lobe of +142 ± 64 x 10-9 in the 100 km2 earthquake region. The Napa region is part of a broad, long wavelength, zone of positive dilatational strain and coulomb stress increase peaking each summer season. Summer transients are associated with horizontal displacements of 3-5 mm directed eastward toward the Sacramento Basin and of 1-3 mm directed southwest toward the San Francisco Bay and Pacific Ocean. Winter transients involve the opposite of these motions, causing negative dilatational strains and negative coulomb stress changes in the Napa region. We observe a significant increase in summer seismicity rates (greater than 95% confidence for a Chi-square test) within regions of positive coulomb stress change in Northern California. Large scale models of vertical hydrologic loading predict some components of the long-wavelength horizontal signal in Northern California, but this loading accounts for only 20 - 30% of the total anomalous signal. We hypothesize that the remaining signal is associated with smaller-scale seasonal groundwater fluctuations in local basins (e.g., the Sonoma and Napa sub-basins) along with thermoelastic effects. We provide details regarding the amount of thermoelastic strain from the elastic portion of the

  15. Near Surface Damage Caused by the Strong Ground Motion of the M6.9 Loma Prieta and M5.4 Chittenden Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, J. L.; Beroza, G. C.; Bokelmann, G.; Schaff, D.

    2002-12-01

    We use a catalog of 57 repeating earthquake sequences to study the damage to near-surface materials, manifest as changes in seismic wave velocity, caused by strong ground motion. We believe that near surface damage (cracking) is the most likely cause for velocity reductions that we observe immediately following both the M6.9 Loma Prieta and M5.4 Chittenden earthquakes. The strong ground motion during both of these events was strong enough to open cracks near the Earth's surface, the presence of which reduces seismic velocities. The velocity reductions heal with time, following Loma Prieta and Chittenden in a manner similar to the "slow dynamic" healing behavior observed in laboratory studies [TenCate, et al., 2000]. Since the damage left by Loma Prieta had not completely healed by the time Chittenden occurred, it is probable that the local rocks were more susceptible to further damage, allowing the much weaker motions of the Chittenden Earthquake to cause damage comparable in magnitude as that of the Loma Prieta Earthquake. We have identified the above conditions by studying repeating earthquakes (multiplets) on the San Andreas Fault. Using a moving window cross correlation technique to identify changes in the nearly identical waveforms of a repeating earthquake sequence, we can observe late-arriving phases, after both the Loma Prieta and Chittenden earthquakes. We attribute these delays to near surface velocity reductions localized to a damage zone close to the Loma Prieta rupture zone. We observe a similar phenomenon in the cross correlation coefficient (CCC) data. Immediately following the Loma Prieta and Chittenden Earthquakes, the CCC drops sharply and heals in time in a manner similar to the healing of the velocity reductions. This is not surprising because the changes in CCC reductions should scale linearly with the magnitude of the velocity perturbation. The drops in CCC don't always parallel velocity changes; however, they can also measure more general

  16. XK469R in Treating Patients With Refractory Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-07

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  17. Shallow reflection imaging by PSDM of dense, wide-aperture data: application to the causative fault of the 1980, M6.9, southern Italy earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiello, Antonio; Bruno, Pier Paolo; Improta, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    Shallow reflection imaging of active faults in unconsolidated deposits is a challenging task. Main factors hindering seismic imaging are the presence of steep-dipping reflectors and strong lateral velocity changes across the fault-zone, which often make standard CDP processing inappropriate. This drawback can be in principle overcome by Prestack Depth Migration (PSDM). However, performance of PSDM strongly relies on the availability of an accurate background velocity model, which is critical to account properly for the seismic wave propagation and ray-path bending in the depth domain. Such a velocity model cannot be obtained by standard seismic reflection acquisition geometries due to the small-aperture of the receiver/shot array and to the difficulty in collecting good-quality near-vertical reflection data in the very near-surface. Consequently, PSDM of shallow reflection data is very rare in the scientific literature. Recent applications of PSDM to very complex crustal structures have revealed that the use of non-conventional, dense wide-aperture acquisition geometries allows to successfully face the problem of the background velocity estimation. In this study, we investigate if the PSDM of dense, wide-aperture data can be an effective strategy for shallow imaging of complex structures, such as fault zone. We target the Irpinia Fault (IF), source of the 1980, M6.9, southern Italy normal-faulting earthquake. A 256 m long, ultrahigh resolution wide-aperture profile has been collected across the 1980 fault scarp in a small intermountain basin in the Southern Apennines range (Pantano di San Gregorio Magno). The source and receiver spacing is 3 m and 1.5 m, respectively, and the source is provided by a Buffalo gun. The survey aims at imaging the first 100 m of subsurface and at providing valuable information on the fault zone architecture below a collocated paleoseismic trench. The presence of unconsolidated deposits above a limestone basin substratum translates into

  18. Acute sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Feldt, Brent; Dion, Gregory R; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-10-01

    Sinusitis is a common patient complaint that carries with it a large economic burden. It is one of the most common reasons patients visit their primary care physician. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) can be distinguished from other forms of rhinosinusitis based on symptom duration of <4 weeks in a patient with purulent rhinorrhea associated with facial pain or pressure. Native upper aerodigestive tract bacteria are the most common etiologic agents. Treatment of ABRS is targeted primarily at symptom improvement. Amoxicillin can be used based on the clinical scenario and patient comorbidities. Computed tomographic scans are reserved for complicated presentations or when there is concern for intracranial extension or other complications. A systematic approach to ABRS will allow for improved patient quality of life and a decreased overall economic burden of this common entity.

  19. 17-N-Allylamino-17-Demethoxygeldanamycin and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  20. Donor Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-18

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult

  1. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  2. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  3. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  4. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery ...

  5. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... virus. Viral infections that may cause this include chickenpox , Coxsackie disease, Epstein-Barr, and echovirus . Other causes ...

  6. A carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance study of the 3'-terminus of 16S ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli specifically labeled with carbon-13 in the methylgroups of the m6(2)Am6(2)A sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Van Charldorp, R; Verhoeven, J J; Van Knippenberg, P H; Haasnoot, C A; Hilbers, C W

    1982-01-01

    30S ribosomes were isolated from a kasugamycin resistant mutant of E. coli that lacks methylgroups on two adjacent adenines in 16S ribosomal RNA. These ribosomes were methylated in vitro with a purified methylating enzyme and 5-S-adenosyl-(13C-methyl)-L-methionine chloride ((13C-methyl)-SAM) as methyldonor. After in situ cleavage of the 16S ribosomal RNA by the bacteriocin cloacin DF13, the 49 nucleotide fragment from the 3'-end of the RNA was isolated. The carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the fragment at various temperatures were compared with those of 6-N-dimethyladenosine (m6(2)A) and 6-N-dimethyladenylyl-(3' leads to 5')-6-N-dimethyladenosine (m6(2)Am6(2)A). The data show that the two methylated adenines, which are part of a four membered hairpin loop, show a strong tendency to be stacked in analogy to the dinucleotide m6(2)Am6(2). PMID:6750555

  7. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist.

  8. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  9. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of “chyle” occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  10. Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Wald, Ellen R

    2011-05-01

    Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis are 2 of the most common indications for antimicrobial agents in children. Together, they are responsible for billions of dollars of health care expenditures. The pathogenesis of the 2 conditions is identical. In the majority of children with each condition, a preceding viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of the acute bacterial complication. It has been shown that viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of acute otitis media in 37% of cases. Currently, precise microbiologic diagnosis of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis requires performance of tympanocentesis in the former and sinus aspiration in the latter. The identification of a virus from the nasopharynx in either case does not obviate the need for antimicrobial therapy. Furthermore, nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs are not useful in predicting the results of culture of the middle ear or paranasal sinus. However, it is possible that a combination of information regarding nasopharyngeal colonization with bacteria and infection with specific viruses may inform treatment decisions in the future.

  11. Acute mastoiditis--revisited.

    PubMed

    Luntz, M; Keren, G; Nusem, S; Kronenberg, J

    1994-09-01

    The clinical course and causative organisms were studied in 18 patients with acute mastoiditis, 13 of whom (72%) had no previous history of middle ear disease. Their age ranged from 5 months to 21 years, and duration of middle ear symptoms immediately prior to admission ranged from 1 to 45 days (average 9.7 days). None had undergone a myringotomy prior to admission, while 13 (72%) had been receiving antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media. Three were admitted with intracranial complications. Bacteria were isolated in 10 of the 16 patients in whom samples were available for bacterial culture, and included Streptococcus pneumonia (2), Streptococcus pyogenes (2), Staphylococcus aureus (2), Staphlococcus coagulase negative (2), Klebsiella pneumonia (1), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1). Of the 17 patients treated by us, 11 received surgery. Acute otitis media, secretory otitis media, acute mastoiditis, subacute mastoiditis and masked mastoiditis create a continuum. Antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media cannot be considered as an absolute safeguard against acute mastoiditis. When antibiotics are prescribed for acute mastoiditis before culture result is available, an anti-staphylococcal agent should be included. At least some patients with acute mastoiditis develop a primary infection of the bony framework of the middle ear cleft. The prevalence of the intracranial complications in acute mastoiditis is still high and may appear soon after or concomitant with the first sign of acute mastioditis.

  12. Monitoring of an Alkaline 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol-Degrading Enrichment Culture by DNA Fingerprinting Methods and Isolation of the Responsible Organism, Haloalkaliphilic Nocardioides sp. Strain M6

    PubMed Central

    Maltseva, O.; Oriel, P.

    1997-01-01

    A site situated near Alkali Lake (Oregon) and highly contaminated by chloroaromatic compounds was chosen for isolation of alkaliphilic chlorophenol-degrading bacteria. Prolonged cultivation of an enrichment culture followed by successive transfers resulted in a strong increase in the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) degradation rate. Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis were applied to distinguish members of the enrichment culture and monitor them during the enrichment procedure. Comparison of the fingerprints of the isolates obtained from the enrichment culture and its total DNA fingerprint indicated the presence of an unidentified bacterium in the enrichment culture, assisting in its isolation. The 2,4,6-TCP-degrading isolate, M6, was tentatively identified as a Nocardioides sp. strain based on its partial 16S RNA sequence and fatty acid profile. Strain M6 was capable of utilizing up to 1.6 g of 2,4,6-TCP per liter as a sole carbon and energy source and could also grow on 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. A high-cell-density suspension of this strain degraded a wide range of chlorinated phenols from di- to pentachlorophenol while showing a clear preference for phenols containing chlorine substituents in positions 2 plus 4. Based on its optimal pH (9.0 to 9.4) and sodium ion concentration (0.2 to 0.4 M) for growth, Nocardioides sp. strain M6 is a slightly halophilic alkaliphile. PMID:16535723

  13. [Pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Masashi

    2011-03-01

    Many aspects of the pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy have been clarified in this decade, although many unknown mechanisms remain to be elucidated. According to progress of MRI and neuroimmunological analysis and the observation of clinical findings, many new syndromes were found, which enhanced our understanding of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy. The pathogenesis of encephalitis is divided into infection and immune mediated mechanisms. The antibodies to neuronal surface antigens(NSA) such as NMDA receptors, leucin-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) and aquaporin 4 were demonstrated in specific encephalitis, limbic encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica. Anti-NSA antibody encephalitis should be treated by immunotherapy such as corticosteroid and plasmapheresis. Acute encephalitis with refractory repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) is a devastating postinfectious disease in children and adults, although the pathogenesis of AERRPS is poorly understood. Influenza associated encephalopathy(IAE) is characterized by it's high incidence in Japanese children between 1 year and 5 years of age, its onset in the first or the second day of illness and its high mortality (15-30%) and morbidity (25-40%). We proposed the classification of IAE with poor prognosis from the neuroradiological findings. Four types of encephalopathy seem to be differentiated from each other, acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) type, hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES) type, acute brain swelling (ABS) type, febrile convulsive status epilepticus (FCSE) type. The notable radiological features are thalamic lesions in ANE, diffuse cerebral cortical cytotoxic edema in HSES, reversible cerebral swelling in ABS which sometimes reaches lethal brain herniation, and in FCSE type, dendritic high signal in subcortical white matter by DWI ("bright tree appearance") appears simultaneously with the later onset of repetitive focal seizure. These four types are

  14. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients.

  15. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients. PMID:26319342

  16. [Acute mastoiditis in children].

    PubMed

    Kajosaari, Lauri; Sinkkonen, Saku T; Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Jero, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Acute mastoiditis in children develops when acute otitis media (AOM) spreads into the mastoid air cells inside the temporal bone. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings of AOM with simultaneous signs of infection in the mastoid area. The most common pathogen causing acute mastoiditis in children is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Intravenous antimicrobial medication, tympanostomy and microbial sample are the cornerstones of the treatment. If a complication of mastoiditis is suspected, imaging studies are needed, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging. The most common complication of acute mastoiditis is a subperiosteal abscess. PMID:24660384

  17. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-12-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  18. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Ned; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  19. Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, D. Montgomery; Wang, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a set of diseases, each representing an individual defect in one of the eight enzymes mediating the pathway of heme synthesis. The diseases are genetically distinct but have in common the overproduction of heme precursors. In the case of the acute (neurologic) porphyrias, the cause of symptoms appears to be overproduction of a neurotoxic precursor. For the cutaneous porphyrias, it is photosensitizing porphyrins. Some types have both acute and cutaneous manifestations. The clinical presentation of acute porphyria consists of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasionally seizures. Only a small minority of those who carry a mutation for acute porphyria have pain attacks. The triggers for an acute attack encompass certain medications and severely decreased caloric intake. The propensity of females to acute attacks has been linked to internal changes in ovarian physiology. Symptoms are accompanied by large increases in delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in plasma and urine. Treatment of an acute attack centers initially on pain relief and elimination of inducing factors such as medications; glucose is administered to reverse the fasting state. The only specific treatment is administration of intravenous hemin. An important goal of treatment is preventing progression of the symptoms to a neurological crisis. Patients who progress despite hemin administration have undergone liver transplantation with complete resolution of symptoms. A current issue is the unavailability of a rapid test for urine porphobilinogen in the urgent-care setting. PMID:26357631

  20. Uncomplicated acute bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, R; Sande, M A

    2000-12-19

    Acute bronchitis is an acute cough illness in otherwise healthy adults that usually lasts 1 to 3 weeks. This review describes the pathophysiology of the condition and provides a practical approach to the evaluation and treatment of adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis. Practical points to be made are:1. Respiratory viruses appear to cause the large majority of cases of uncomplicated acute bronchitis.2. Pertussis infection is present in up to 10% to 20% of adults with cough illness of more than 2 to 3 weeks' duration. No clinical features distinguish pertussis from nonpertussis infection in adults who were immunized against pertussis as children.3. Transient bronchial hyperresponsiveness appears to be the predominant mechanism of the bothersome cough of acute bronchitis.4. Ruling out pneumonia is the primary objective in evaluating adults with acute cough illness in whom comorbid conditions and occult asthma are absent or unlikely. In the absence of abnormalities in vital signs (heart rate > 100 beats/min, respiratory rate > 24 breaths/min, and oral body temperature > 38 degrees C), the likelihood of pneumonia is very low.5. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials do not support routine antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis.6. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have shown that inhaled albuterol decreases the duration of cough in adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis.7. Intervention studies suggest that antibiotic treatment of acute bronchitis can be reduced by using a combination of patient and physician education. Decreased rates of antibiotic treatment are not associated with increased utilization, return visits, or dissatisfaction with care.

  1. Acute mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sise, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is uncommon and always occurs in the setting of preexisting comorbidities. Mortality rates remain high. The 4 major types of acute mesenteric ischemia are acute superior mesenteric artery thromboembolic occlusion, mesenteric arterial thrombosis, mesenteric venous thrombosis, and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, including ischemic colitis. Delays in diagnosis are common and associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis requires attention to history and physical examination, a high index of suspicion, and early contract CT scanning. Selective use of nonoperative therapy has an important role in nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia of the small bowel and colon.

  2. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  3. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sudden inflammation of the pancreas manifested clinically by abdominal pain, nausea and dehydration that is usually self-limiting ... room for evaluation should they develop any abnormal abdominal pain symptoms. Conclusions While a rare event, acute pancreatitis ...

  4. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  5. Treatment of acute gout.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the treatment of acute gout. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments, monotherapy versus combination therapy, suggested recommendations, guidelines for treatment, and drugs under development are discussed.

  6. Acute interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bouros, D; Nicholson, A C; Polychronopoulos, V; du Bois, R M

    2000-02-01

    The term "acute interstitial pneumonia" (AIP) describes an idiopathic clinicopathological condition, characterized clinically by an interstitial lung disease causing rapid onset of respiratory failure, which is distinguishable from the other more chronic forms of interstitial pneumonia. It is synonymous with Hamman-Rich syndrome, occurring in patients without pre-existing lung disease. The histopathological findings are those of diffuse alveolar damage. AIP radiologically and physiologically resembles acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is considered to represent the small subset of patients with idiopathic ARDS. It is frequently confused with other clinical entities characterized by rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia, especially secondary acute interstitial pneumonia, acute exacerbations and accelerated forms of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis . Furthermore, many authors use the above terms, both erroneously and interchangeably. It has a grave prognosis with >70% mortality in 3 months, despite mechanical ventilation. This review aims to clarify the relative clinical and pathological issues and terminology.

  7. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  8. Acute genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  9. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  10. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary Radiation Emergencies & Your Health Possible Health Effects Contamination and Exposure Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) Cutaneous Radiation ... Decision Making in Radiation Emergencies Protective Actions Internal Contamination Clinical Reference (ICCR) Application Psychological First Aid in ...

  11. Expression of homeobox genes in human erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, W F; Largman, C; Lowney, P; Hack, F M; Lawrence, H J

    1989-01-01

    Because homeobox-containing genes play a major role in embryogenesis and tissue identity in Drosophila and because similar genes encode tissue-specific transcription factors in mammalian cells, we hypothesized that homeobox genes might plan a role in hematopoietic differentiation and lineage commitment. We therefore surveyed a number of human leukemic cell lines for expression of homeobox-containing genes by Northern gel analysis with probes from the Hox 2 cluster of homeobox genes on chromosome 17. We observed transcripts for Hox 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 and 2.6 in the erythroid line HEL and for Hox 2.3 and 2.6 in the erythroid line K562. Using homeobox-specific probes we confirmed that the transcripts visualized contained the homeodomains for each gene as well as the flanking sequences. The myeloid lines HL60, KG1 and U937 did not express specific transcripts for any of the 4 genes studied. However, all these cell lines demonstrated bands when probed at low stringency with certain Hox 2 probes, indicating the expression of other homologous but as yet unidentified homeobox genes. Expression of Hox 2.3 and 2.6 was seen in some T and B lymphoid cell lines. Induction of differentiation in HEL cells resulted in complex modulation of expression of the Hox 2 genes. We have therefore observed erythroid-restricted expression of certain Hox 2 homeobox containing genes in human erythroid cell lines and modulation of that expression with differentiation, suggesting a role for these genes in the regulation of hematopoiesis. Different homeobox genes appear to be expressed in non-erythroid leukemic cell lines.

  12. Neuronal filopodium formation induced by the membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) is facilitated by coronin-1a, Rac1, and p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1).

    PubMed

    Alvarez Juliá, Anabel; Frasch, Alberto C; Fuchsova, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Stress-responsive neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) functions in neurite extension, filopodium and spine formation and synaptogenesis. The mechanisms of Gpm6a action in these processes are incompletely understood. Previously, we identified the actin regulator coronin-1a (Coro1a) as a putative Gpm6a interacting partner. Here, we used co-immunoprecipitation assays with the anti-Coro1a antibody to show that Coro1a associates with Gpm6a in rat hippocampal neurons. By immunofluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated that in hippocampal neurons Coro1a localizes in F-actin-enriched regions and some of Coro1a spots co-localize with Gpm6a labeling. Notably, the over-expression of a dominant-negative form of Coro1a as well as its down-regulation by siRNA interfered with Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Coro1a is known to regulate the plasma membrane translocation and activation of small GTPase Rac1. We show that Coro1a co-immunoprecipitates with Rac1 together with Gpm6a. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 resulted in a significant decrease in filopodium formation by Gpm6a. The same was observed upon the co-expression of Gpm6a with the inactive GDP-bound form of Rac1. In this case, the elevated membrane recruitment of GDP-bound Rac1 was detected as well. Moreover, the kinase activity of the p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), a main downstream effector of Rac1 that acts downstream of Coro1a, was required for Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Taken together, our results provide evidence that a signaling pathway including Coro1a, Rac1, and Pak1 facilitates Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Formation of filopodia by membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) requires actin regulator coronin-1a (Coro1a), known to regulate plasma membrane localization and activation of Rac1 and its downstream effector Pak1. Coro1a associates with Gpm6a. Blockage of Coro1a, Rac1, or Pak1 interferes with Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Moreover, Gpm6a facilitates Rac1 membrane recruitment

  13. Neuronal filopodium formation induced by the membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) is facilitated by coronin-1a, Rac1, and p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1).

    PubMed

    Alvarez Juliá, Anabel; Frasch, Alberto C; Fuchsova, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Stress-responsive neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) functions in neurite extension, filopodium and spine formation and synaptogenesis. The mechanisms of Gpm6a action in these processes are incompletely understood. Previously, we identified the actin regulator coronin-1a (Coro1a) as a putative Gpm6a interacting partner. Here, we used co-immunoprecipitation assays with the anti-Coro1a antibody to show that Coro1a associates with Gpm6a in rat hippocampal neurons. By immunofluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated that in hippocampal neurons Coro1a localizes in F-actin-enriched regions and some of Coro1a spots co-localize with Gpm6a labeling. Notably, the over-expression of a dominant-negative form of Coro1a as well as its down-regulation by siRNA interfered with Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Coro1a is known to regulate the plasma membrane translocation and activation of small GTPase Rac1. We show that Coro1a co-immunoprecipitates with Rac1 together with Gpm6a. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 resulted in a significant decrease in filopodium formation by Gpm6a. The same was observed upon the co-expression of Gpm6a with the inactive GDP-bound form of Rac1. In this case, the elevated membrane recruitment of GDP-bound Rac1 was detected as well. Moreover, the kinase activity of the p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), a main downstream effector of Rac1 that acts downstream of Coro1a, was required for Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Taken together, our results provide evidence that a signaling pathway including Coro1a, Rac1, and Pak1 facilitates Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Formation of filopodia by membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) requires actin regulator coronin-1a (Coro1a), known to regulate plasma membrane localization and activation of Rac1 and its downstream effector Pak1. Coro1a associates with Gpm6a. Blockage of Coro1a, Rac1, or Pak1 interferes with Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Moreover, Gpm6a facilitates Rac1 membrane recruitment

  14. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children. PMID:27613655

  15. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.

  16. Synthesis of opioidmimetics, 3-[H-Dmt-NH(CH(2))(m)]-6-[H-Dmt-NH(CH(2))(n)]-2(1H)-pyrazinones, and studies on structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Anna; Li, Tingyou; Tsuda, Yuko; Yokoi, Toshio; Ambo, Akihiro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Bryant, Sharon D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Okada, Yoshio

    2007-11-01

    Opioidmimetics containing 3-[H-Dmt-NH-(CH(2))(m)]-6-[H-Dmt-NH-(CH(2))(n)]-2(1H)-pyrazinone symmetric (m = n, 1-4) (1 - 4) and asymmetric (m, n = 1 - 4) aliphatic chains (5 - 16) were synthesized using dipeptidyl chloromethylketone intermediates. They had high mu-affinity (K(i)mu = 0.021 - 2.94 nM), delta-affinity (K(i)delta = 1.06 - 152.6 nM), and mu selectivity (K(i)delta/K(i)mu = 14 - 3,126). The opioidmimetics (1 - 16) exhibited mu agonism in proportion to their mu-receptor affinity. delta-Agonism was essentially lacking in the compounds except (4) and (16), and (1) and (2) indicated weak delta antagonism (pA(2) = 6.47 and 6.56, respectively). The data verify that a specific length of aliphatic linker is required between the Dmt pharmacophore and the pyrazinone ring to produce unique mu-opioid receptor ligands.

  17. Cyclophosphamide for Prevention of Graft-Versus-Host Disease After Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Hematological Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-04

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell

  18. The t(3;5)(q25.1;q34) of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia produces a novel fusion gene, NPM-MLF1.

    PubMed

    Yoneda-Kato, N; Look, A T; Kirstein, M N; Valentine, M B; Raimondi, S C; Cohen, K J; Carroll, A J; Morris, S W

    1996-01-18

    A t(3;5)(q25.1;q34) chromosomal translocation associated with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was found to rearrange part of the nucleophosmin (NPM) gene on chromosome 5 with sequences from a novel gene on chromosome 3. Chimeric transcripts expressed by these cells contain 5' NPM coding sequences fused in-frame to those of the new gene, which we named myelodysplasia/myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1). RNA-based polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed identical NPM-MLF1 mRNA fusions in each of the three t(3;5)-positive cases of AML examined. The predicted MLF1 amino acid sequence lacked homology to previously characterized proteins and did not contain known functional motifs. Normal MLF1 transcripts were expressed in a variety of tissues, most abundantly in testis, ovary, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney and colon. Anti-MLF1 antibodies detected the wild-type 31 kDa protein in K562 and HEL erythroleukemia cell lines, but not in HL-60, U937 or KG-1 myeloid leukemia lines. By contrast, t(3;5)-positive leukemia cells expressed a 54 kDa NPM-MLF1 protein, but not normal MLF1. Immunostaining experiments indicated that MLF1 is normally located in the cytoplasm, whereas NPM-MLF1 is targeted to the nucleus, with highest levels in the nucleolus. The nuclear/nucleolar localization of NPM-MLF1 mirrors that of NPM, indicating that NPM trafficking signals direct MLF1 to an inappropriate cellular compartment in myeloid leukemia cells.

  19. Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  20. Acute bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  1. Thrombosis and acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Solís, Erick

    2012-04-01

    Thrombosis is a common complication in patients with acute leukemia. While the presence of central venous lines, concomitant steroids, the use of Escherichia coli asparaginase and hereditary thrombophilic abnormalities are known risk factors for thrombosis in children, information on the pathogenesis, risk factors, and clinical outcome of thrombosis in adult patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still scarce. Expert consensus and guidelines regarding leukemia-specific risk factors, thrombosis prevention, and treatment strategies, as well as optimal type of central venous catheter in acute leukemia patients are required. It is likely that each subtype of acute leukemia represents a different setting for the development of thrombosis and the risk of bleeding. This is perhaps due to a combination of different disease-specific pathogenic mechanisms of thrombosis, including the type of chemotherapy protocol chosen, the underlying patients health, associated risk factors, as well as the biology of the disease itself. The risk of thrombosis may also vary according to ethnicity and prevalence of hereditary risk factors for thrombosis; thus, it is advisable for Latin American, Asian, and African countries to report on their specific patient population. PMID:22507812

  2. Acute Appendicitis Secondary to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Lopez, Marvin A.; Valluri, Kartik; Wang, Danlu; Fischer, Andrew; Perdomo, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 43 Final Diagnosis: Myeloid sarcoma appendicitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chills • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic appendectomy, bone marrow biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for extramedullary involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Case Report: A 43-year-old female with no past medical history presented complaining of mild abdominal pain, fever, and chills for the past day. On examination, she was tachycardic and febrile, with mild tenderness of her right lower quadrant and without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia and DIC, with a fibrinogen level of 290 mg/dL. CT of the abdomen showed a thickened and hyperemic appendix without perforation or abscess, compatible with acute appendicitis. The patient was given IV broad-spectrum antibiotics and was transfused with packed red blood cells and platelets. She underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy and bone marrow biopsy, which revealed neo-plastic cells of 90% of the total bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometry indicated presence of 92.4% of immature myeloid cells with t (15: 17) and q (22: 12) mutations, and FISH analysis for PML-RARA demonstrated a long-form fusion transcript, positive for APL. Appendix pathology described leukemic infiltration with co-expression of myeloperoxidase and CD68, consistent with myeloid sarcoma of the appendix. The patient completed a course of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and all trans-retinoic acid. Repeat bone marrow biopsy demonstrated complete remission. She will follow up with her primary care physician and hematologist/oncologist. Conclusions: Myeloid sarcoma of the appendix in the setting of APL is very rare and it might play a role in the development of acute appendicitis. Urgent management, including bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention

  3. [Acute pancreatitis in children].

    PubMed

    Rottier, B L; Holl, R A; Draaisma, J M

    1998-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is probably commoner in children than was previously thought. In children it is most commonly associated with trauma or viral infection. The presentation may be subtler than in adults, requiring a high index of suspicion in the clinician. In three children, two boys aged 4 and 10 and a girl of 15 years, acute pancreatitis was suspected because of the findings at ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed when the disease recurred (the boy aged 4), apathy and immobility without dehydration or other obvious causes (the boy aged 10), and severe abdominal pain in combination with vomiting (the girl). All three patients had severely increased (urinary) amylase levels. Most often, acute pancreatitis in children tends to be a self-limiting disease which responds well to conservative treatment.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE GLOMERULITIS

    PubMed Central

    Lukens, Francis D. W.; Longcope, Warfield T.

    1931-01-01

    1. Both focal and diffuse glomerulitis has been produced in rabbits by the injection directly into the left renal artery of suspensions of heat killed hemolytic streptococci. 2. Similar lesions in the glomeruli could not be obtained by the injection of suspensions of bismuth oxychloride into the left renal artery of normal rabbits. 3. The acute glomerulitis occurred in only about one-half of the rabbits employed for the experiments. 4. Glomerulitis was observed much more frequently in rabbits in which an acute localized streptococcus infection had been produced by the intracutaneous injection of living hemolytic streptococci, than in normal rabbits. The occurrence of acute glomerulitis was usually associated with a well marked skin reaction to the filtrates of hemolytic streptococci. PMID:19869861

  5. Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Susan M.; Cedars, Ari M.; Ewald, Gregory A.; Geltman, Edward M.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    Hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure are increasing in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of heart failure is increasing consequent to an increased number of older individuals, as well as to improvement in therapies for coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death that have enabled patients to live longer with cardiovascular disease. The main treatment goals in the hospitalized patient with heart failure are to restore euvolemia and to minimize adverse events. Common in-hospital treatments include intravenous diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropic agents. Novel pharmaceutical agents have shown promise in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure and may simplify the treatment and reduce the morbidity associated with the disease. This review summarizes the contemporary management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure. PMID:20069075

  6. Acute asthma during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Stenius-Aarniala, B. S.; Hedman, J.; Teramo, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute asthma during pregnancy is potentially dangerous to the fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute attack of asthma during pregnancy on the course of pregnancy or delivery, or the health of the newborn infant, and to identify undertreatment as a possible cause of the exacerbations. METHODS: Five hundred and four pregnant asthmatic subjects were prospectively followed and treated. The data on 47 patients with an attack of asthma during pregnancy were compared with those of 457 asthmatics with no recorded acute exacerbation and with 237 healthy parturients. RESULTS: Of 504 asthmatics, 177 patients were not initially treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Of these, 17% had an acute attack compared with only 4% of the 257 patients who had been on inhaled anti-inflammatory treatment from the start of pregnancy. There were no differences between the groups as to length of gestation, length of the third stage of labour, or amount of haemorrhage after delivery. No differences were observed between pregnancies with and without an exacerbation with regard to relative birth weight, incidence of malformations, hypoglycaemia, or need for phototherapy for jaundice during the neonatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with inadequate inhaled anti-inflammatory treatment during pregnancy run a higher risk of suffering an acute attack of asthma than those treated with an anti-inflammatory agent. However, if the acute attack of asthma is relatively mild and promptly treated, it does not have a serious effect on the pregnancy, delivery, or the health of the newborn infant. PMID:8733495

  7. Acute Intraoperative Pulmonary Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Katie S.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Acute intraoperative aspiration is a potentially fatal complication with significant associated morbidity. Patients undergoing thoracic surgery are at increased risk for anesthesia-related aspiration, largely due to the predisposing conditions associated with this complication. Awareness of the risk factors, predisposing conditions, maneuvers to decrease risk and immediate management options by both the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesia team is imperative to reducing risk and optimizing patient outcomes associated with acute intraoperative pulmonary aspiration. Based on the root-cause analyses that many of the aspiration events can be traced back to provider factors, having an experienced anesthesiologist present for high-risk cases is also critical. PMID:26210926

  8. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  9. Acute rheumatic fever

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, Gordon R.

    1974-01-01

    While rheumatic fever is relatively uncommon except where there are poor and crowded living conditions, sporadic acute attacks continue to occur in a family or pediatric medical practice. The physician's role in management of the sore throat in the diagnosis of suspected cases of rheumatic fever and in follow-up for continued prophylaxis is discussed. The frequency of admissions and presenting features of 159 patients with acute rheumatic fever is reviewed. Continued surveillance is required if we are to achieve a further reduction in attack rate and complications. PMID:4419123

  10. Acute sinusitis in children.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2013-04-01

    Acute rhinosinusitis is a common illness in children. Viral upper respiratory tract infection is the most common presentation of rhinosinusitis. Most children resolve the infection spontaneously and only a small proportion develops a secondary bacterial infection. The proper choice of antibiotic therapy depends on the likely infecting pathogens, bacterial antibiotic resistance, and pharmacologic profiles of antibiotics. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is currently recommended as the empiric treatment in those requiring antimicrobial therapy. Isolation of the causative agents should be considered in those who failed the initial treatment. In addition to antibiotics, adjuvant therapies and surgery may be used in the management of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

  11. Continuous borehole strain and pore pressure in the near field of the 28 September 2004 M 6.0 parkfield, California, earthquake: Implications for nucleation, fault response, earthquake prediction and tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Linde, A.T.; Gladwin, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Near-field observations of high-precision borehole strain and pore pressure, show no indication of coherent accelerating strain or pore pressure during the weeks to seconds before the 28 September 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake. Minor changes in strain rate did occur at a few sites during the last 24 hr before the earthquake but these changes are neither significant nor have the form expected for strain during slip coalescence initiating fault failure. Seconds before the event, strain is stable at the 10-11 level. Final prerupture nucleation slip in the hypocentral region is constrained to have a moment less than 2 ?? 1012 N m (M 2.2) and a source size less than 30 m. Ground displacement data indicate similar constraints. Localized rupture nucleation and runaway precludes useful prediction of damaging earthquakes. Coseismic dynamic strains of about 10 microstrain peak-to-peak were superimposed on volumetric strain offsets of about 0.5 microstrain to the northwest of the epicenter and about 0.2 microstrain to the southeast of the epicenter, consistent with right lateral slip. Observed strain and Global Positioning System (GPS) offsets can be simply fit with 20 cm of slip between 4 and 10 km on a 20-km segment of the fault north of Gold Hill (M0 = 7 ?? 1017 N m). Variable slip inversion models using GPS data and seismic data indicate similar moments. Observed postseismic strain is 60% to 300% of the coseismic strain, indicating incomplete release of accumulated strain. No measurable change in fault zone compliance preceding or following the earthquake is indicated by stable earth tidal response. No indications of strain change accompany nonvolcanic tremor events reported prior to and following the earthquake.

  12. Seismological evidence of an active footwall shortcut thrust in the Northern Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line derived by the aftershock sequence of the 2014 M 6.7 Northern Nagano earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayotopoulos, Yannis; Hirata, Naoshi; Hashima, Akinori; Iwasaki, Takaya; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    A destructive M 6.7 earthquake struck Northern Nagano prefecture on November 22, 2014. The main shock occurred on the Kamishiro fault segment of the northern Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL). We used data recorded at 41 stations of the local seismographic network in order to locate 2118 earthquakes that occurred between November 18 and November 30, 2014. To estimate hypocenters, we assigned low Vp models to stations within the Northern Fossa Magna (NFM) basin thus accounting for large lateral crustal heterogeneities across the Kamishiro fault. In order to further improve accuracy, the final hypocenter locations were recalculated inside a 3D velocity model using the double-difference method. We used the aftershock activity distribution and focal mechanism solutions of major events in order to estimate the source fault area of the main shock. Our analysis suggests that the shallow part of the source fault corresponds to the surface trace of the Kamishiro fault and dips 30°-45° SE, while the deeper part of the source fault corresponds to the downdip portion of the Otari-Nakayama fault, a high angle fault dipping 50°-65° SE that formed during the opening of the NFM basin in the Miocene. Along its surface trace the Otari-Nakayama fault has been inactive during the late Quaternary. We verified the validity of our model by calculating surface deformation using a simple homogeneous elastic half-space model and comparing it to observed surface deformation from satellite interferometry, assuming large coseismic slip in the areas of low seismicity and small coseismic slip in the areas of high seismicity. Shallowing of the source fault from 50°-65° to 30°-45° in the upper 4 km, in the areas where both surface fault traces are visible, is a result of footwall shortcut thrusting by the Kamishiro fault off the Otari-Nakayama fault.

  13. SU-E-T-604: Penumbra Characteristics of a New InCiseâ„¢ Multileaf Collimator of CyberKnife M6â„¢ System

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, M; Jang, S; Ozhasoglu, C; Lalonde, R; Heron, D; Huq, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The InCise™ Multileaf Collimator (MLC) of CyberKnife M6™ System has been released recently. The purpose of this study was to explore the dosimetric characteristics of the new MLC. In particular, the penumbra characteristics of MLC fields at varying locations are evaluated. Methods: EBT3-based film measurements were performed with varying MLC fields ranging from 7.5 mm to 27.5 mm. Seventeen regions of interests (ROIs) were identified for irradiation. These are regions located at the central area (denoted as reference field), at the left/right edge areas of reference open field, at an intermediate location between central and edge area. Single beam treatment plans were designed by using the MultiPlan and was delivered using the Blue Phantom. Gafchromic films were irradiated at 1.5 cm depth in the Blue Phantom and analyzed using the Film Pro software. Variation of maximum dose, penumbra of MLC-defined fields, and symmetry/flatness were calculated as a function of locations of MLC fields. Results: The InCise™ MLC System showed relatively consistent dose distribution and penumbra size with varying locations of MLC fields. The measured maximum dose varied within 5 % at different locations compared to that at the central location and agreed with the calculated data well within 2%. The measured penumbrae were in the range of 2.9 mm and 3.7 mm and were relatively consistent regardless of locations. However, dose profiles in the out-of-field and in-field regions varied with locations and field sizes. Strong variation was seen for all fields located at 55 mm away from the central field. The MLC leakage map showed that the leakage is dependent on position. Conclusion: The size of penumbra and normalized maximum dose for MLC-defined fields were consistent in different regions of MLC. However, dose profiles in the out-field region varied with locations and field sizes.

  14. The July 2009 flurry of 3≤M<6 seismicity across Taiwan, and its possible relationship to coseismic and postseismic stresses imparted by the 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.; Chan, C.

    2009-12-01

    An unusually productive sequence of twelve 3≤M<6 earthquakes occurred in central and northeastern Taiwan during 2-28 July 2009. These events have strike-slip and thrust focal mechanisms. We study the progression of these shocks, as well as smaller (M≥2) shocks since the time of the 21 September 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi event, and calculate of the impact of stress transferred by Chi-Chi on their occurrence. We estimate the Coulomb stress imparted by the coseismic slip, afterslip and viscoelastic deformation, all of which are important for this ramp-thrust event. Eleven out of the 12 July 2009 shocks sustained a Coulomb stress increase on at least one of their nodal planes caused by the coseismic and postseismic stress imparted by the Chi-Chi event (assuming a friction coefficient of 0.4). The stress increases range from 0.05 to 2.1 bars. Nevertheless, only 7 out of the 12 shocks can be associated with postseismic stress increases resolved onto their nodal planes, so the influence of postseismic stress remains equivocal. In examining the much more abundant M≥2 shocks, we find a good spatial correlation between the seismicity rate change and the calculated postseismic stress imparted 15 months after Chi-Chi. Here, the seismicity rate 15-75 months after the 1999 quake is divided by the rate during the 60 months before the 1999 quake. A very high rate of seismicity is observed just northeast of the northern end of the Chelungpu fault relative to the period immediately after the Chi-Chi shock. This pattern of seismicity appears to be associated with stress imparted by afterslip and viscoelastic deformation. Thus, the recent flurry of earthquakes seems largely consistent with the calculated evolution of stress and seismicity during the past decade, as does the occurrence of smaller events.

  15. Sliding charge density wave in the monophosphate tungsten bronze (PO2)4(WO3)2m with alternate stacking of m=4 and m=6 WO3 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foury-Leylekian, P.; Sandré, E.; Ravy, S.; Pouget, J.-P.; Elkaim, E.; Roussel, P.; Groult, D.; Labbé, Ph.

    2002-08-01

    The monophosphate tungsten bronzes (PO2)4(WO3)2m form family of two-dimensional metals which exhibit charge density wave (CDW) instabilities. These materials are generally built by the regular stacking of (a,b) layers in which chains made of segments of m WO6 octahedra directed along the a and a+/-b directions are delimited. Their electronic structure thus originates from quasi-one-dimensional (1D) bands located on these chains. As a consequence their Fermi surface (FS) exhibits large flat portions whose nesting gives rise to successive CDW instabilities. Here we present a structural study of the CDW instability of the (PO2)4(WO3)10 member formed by the alternate stacking of layers built with segments of m=4 and m=6 WO6 octahedra. Its ab initio electronic structure calculation shows that the FS of this member exhibits large flat portions which can be extremely well nested. Its best nesting wave vector accounts for the modulation wave vector stabilized by the CDW transition which occurs at 156 K. Because of the regular stacking of layers of different m values the FS is slightly split. The unusual thermal dependence of the x-ray satellite intensity provides evidence that the two types of layers become modulated at different temperature. This also leads to a slight thermal sliding of the CDW-nesting modulation wave vector, which can be accounted for within the framework of a Landau-Ginzburg theory. In addition, the observation of a global hysteresis in the thermal cycling of the satellite intensity, as well as the degradation of the interlayer order upon cooling, suggest the formation of a disordered lattice of dilute solitons. Such solitons allow to accomodate the charge transferred between the two types of layer. Finally the relevance of local charge transfers, at intergrowth defects, for example, to create pinned discommensurations that break the CDW coherence is emphasized in this whole family of bronzes.

  16. What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about acute myeloid leukemia? What is acute myeloid leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in a part of ... the body from doing their jobs. Types of leukemia Not all leukemias are the same. There are ...

  17. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  18. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery.

  19. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  20. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment. PMID:25486670

  1. Acute radiation risk models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Olga

    Biologically motivated mathematical models, which describe the dynamics of the major hematopoietic lineages (the thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems) in acutely/chronically irradiated humans are developed. These models are implemented as systems of nonlinear differential equations, which variables and constant parameters have clear biological meaning. It is shown that the developed models are capable of reproducing clinical data on the dynamics of these systems in humans exposed to acute radiation in the result of incidents and accidents, as well as in humans exposed to low-level chronic radiation. Moreover, the averaged value of the "lethal" dose rates of chronic irradiation evaluated within models of these four major hematopoietic lineages coincides with the real minimal dose rate of lethal chronic irradiation. The demonstrated ability of the models of the human thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems to predict the dynamical response of these systems to acute/chronic irradiation in wide ranges of doses and dose rates implies that these mathematical models form an universal tool for the investigation and prediction of the dynamics of the major human hematopoietic lineages for a vast pattern of irradiation scenarios. In particular, these models could be applied for the radiation risk assessment for health of astronauts exposed to space radiation during long-term space missions, such as voyages to Mars or Lunar colonies, as well as for health of people exposed to acute/chronic irradiation due to environmental radiological events.

  2. Acute coronary care 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the titles are: The measurement of acute myocardial infarct size by CT; Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of myocardial ischemia and infarction; Poistron imaging in the evaluation of ischemia and myocardial infarction; and New inotropic agents.

  3. Acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Vlodov, J; Tenner, S M

    2001-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis has multiple causes, an unpredictable course, and myriad complications. The diagnosis relies on a combination of history, physical examination, serologic markers, and radiologic findings. The mainstay of therapy includes aggressive hydration, maintenance of NPO, and adequate analgesia with narcotics. Antibiotic and nutritional support with total parenteral nutrition should be used when appropriate.

  4. Low back pain - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back strain - new ... lower back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that Americans see ...

  5. [Management of acute tendinitis].

    PubMed

    Rapp, H J; Heisse, K; Becker, M; Stechele, M

    1992-12-01

    Ultrasonography must be used in combination with physical examination for the appropriate diagnosis of acute tendon injuries. Therapy should be designed to return the tendon to its normal function and appearance. Local and systemic anti-inflammatory agents, cold hydrotherapy and massage minimize excessive scar formation and progressively increasing tensile forces directs scar tissue to replace the tendon function.

  6. Acute streptococcal necrotising fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Frankish, P D; Mason, G H; Allen, P R; Milsom, F P; Christmas, T I

    1988-10-12

    Two cases of acute streptococcal necrotising fasciitis are reported. Both patients were taking nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs when they developed this infection. Urgent surgical debridement was undertaken and resulted in a successful outcome in both patients. The clinical and histopathological features of this condition are reviewed.

  7. The management of acute pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Wells, T A; Curzen, N P

    2005-01-01

    Acute pericarditis is usually a benign self-limiting condition, often of unexplained or viral aetiology, involving inflammation of the pericardial layers. It is often part of the differential diagnosis in patients admitted with acute chest pain and can be confused with acute myocardial infarction, acute pulmonary embolism and pleurisy. Occasionally it can result in cardiac tamponade and, if associated with myocarditis, in heart failure. This article sets out how to diagnose acute pericarditis, the common underlying causes, the possible treatment options and outcomes. PMID:21655516

  8. Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

  9. Acute pain management.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B

    2000-07-01

    We encounter patients with acute pain many times each day, and few aspects of veterinary practice offer such an opportunity to help so many in such a profoundly rewarding way. As emphasized here and elsewhere, we now have excellent tools with which to help these animals, and the biggest impediment to optimal treatment of their pain is often our own difficulty in recognizing its presence. Perhaps the single most important aspect of treating acute pain is to cultivate an ability to see past our personal biases and expectations which may limit treatment and to rediscover the common sense we had about pain before we entered the profession. By rededicating ourselves to seeking out, preventing, and relieving pain, we not only perform a vital service for our patients but also elevate our profession even as we reap financial and spiritual rewards for our efforts. What could be better? PMID:10932832

  10. [Schistosomiasis and acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Jacinta; Santos, Ângela; Clemente, Horácio; Lourenço, Augusto; Costa, Sandra; Grácio, Maria Amélia; Belo, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Acute appendicitis associated to Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection has been found in patients submitted to urgent appendectomy at the Hospital Américo Boavida in Luanda. Due to the high prevalence and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis (or bilharziasis) in the country, we suspect that the involvement of Schistosoma infection on appendicular pathology could be very frequent, in particular for those individuals more exposed to the parasite transmission. We report two clinical cases of acute appendicitis whose surgical specimens of the appendix revealed S. haematobium and S. mansoni eggs in histological samples. The reported patients live in endemic areas and have been exposed to schistosome during childhood, which may explain the infection's chronicity. Information of these clinical cases could be relevant, particularly for surgery specialists and clinical pathologists, due to the possibility of finding more patients with concurrent appendicitis and schistosomiasis.

  11. Acute aortic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  12. Acute organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Sheemona; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2014-04-20

    Acute organophosphorus poisoning continues to be a detrimental problem and a potential cause of mortality especially in developing countries. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme is the main mechanism of toxicity of such pesticides and measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity is the commonly used laboratory diagnosis approved for the purpose. It is now proved beyond any doubt that early intervention is beneficial for cases of acute organophosphorus poisoning and, therefore, considerable current interest has been generated for development of point of care testing tool for screening of the same. However, to the best of our knowledge so far the matter is not reviewed from the view of point of care testing tool development. In this paper, this subject is reviewed highlighting the methodological aspects and point of care testing tool development in the context of organophosphorus poisoning.

  13. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Laraki, M; Harti, A; Bouderka, M A; Barrou, H; Matar, N; Benaguida, M

    1993-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy is a serious condition and diagnosis is often difficult. The authors report the case of a 32-year-old woman in the 32nd week of her fifth pregnancy, in which the outcome was fatal for both mother and child. The cause of pancreatitis during pregnancy has been attributed to many factors, chiefly cholelithiasis. A number of recent studies have shown the relationship existing between the role played by pregnancy in predisposing to gallbladder disease with lithiasis. Many diagnosis errors are made in this condition. Thus modern treatment methods have improved the prognosis in acute pancreatitis but, when it occurs during pregnancy, diagnostic delays often lead to a gloomy outlook. PMID:8248696

  14. Acute aortic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corvera, Joel S

    2016-05-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  15. Cytokines and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Brady, M; Christmas, S; Sutton, R; Neoptolemos, J; Slavin, J

    1999-07-01

    Cytokines have been shown to play a pivotal role in multiple organ dysfunction, a major cause of death in severe acute pancreatitis. Moreover, the two-hit hypothesis of the cytokine-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome explains the variable individual response to severe acute pancreatitis and the impact of secondary events such as sepsis or therapeutic intervention. Many experimental anti-cytokine therapies have been administered following induction of experimental pancreatitis, and have proved to be therapeutic. Patients with severe pancreatitis present early because of pain. Clearly then a window for therapeutic intervention is available between onset of symptoms and peak pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. It is this fundamental observation that convinces many in the field that the treatment of AP will be one of the first clinical successes for novel drugs or therapy that seek to modulate the inflammatory response.

  16. Acute arsenic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J P; Alvarez, J A

    1989-12-01

    The diagnosis of acute arsenic poisoning should be considered in any patient presenting with severe gastrointestinal complaints. Signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, colicky abdominal pain and profuse, watery diarrhea. Hypotension, fluid and electrolyte disturbances, mental status changes, electrocardiographic abnormalities, respiratory failure and death can result. Quantitative measurement of 24-hour urinary arsenic excretion is the only reliable laboratory test to confirm arsenic poisoning. Treatment includes gastric emesis or lavage, chelation therapy, electrolyte and fluid replacement, and cardiorespiratory support.

  17. [Acute Chest Pain].

    PubMed

    Gmür, Christian

    2016-02-17

    Acute chest pain is a frequent consultation reason in general practice as well as in emergency departments. With the help of history, physical examination, ECG, laboratory and newly developed risk scores, potentially life-threatening diseases and high-risk patients may be detected and treated early, quickly and cost-effectively. New biomarkers and their combination with risk scores can increase the negative predictive value to exclude certain diseases. PMID:26886697

  18. IMMUNOTHERAPY IN ACUTE LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Wing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in immunotherapy of cancer may represent a successful example in translational research, in which progress in knowledge and technology in immunology has lead to new strategies of immunotherapy, and even past failure in many clinical trials have led to a better understanding of basic cancer immunobiology. This article reviews the latest concepts in antitumor immunology and its application in the treatment of cancer, with particular focus on acute leukemia. PMID:19100371

  19. Neuropsychology of acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Sinanović, Osman

    2010-06-01

    Neuropsychology includes both the psychiatric manifestations of neurological illness (primary brain-based disorders) and neurobiology of "idiopathic" psychiatric disorders. Neurological primary brain disorders provoke broad spectrum of brain pathophysiology that cause deficit sin human behaviour, and the magnitude of neurobehavioral-related problems is a world wide health concern. Speech disorders of aphasic type, unilateral neglect, anosognosia (deficit disorders), delirium and mood disorders (productive disorders) in urgent neurology, first of all in acute phase of stroke are more frequent disorders then it verified in routine exam, not only in the developed and large neurological departments. Aphasia is common consequence of left hemispheric lesion and most common neuropsychological consequence of stroke, with prevalence of one third of all stroke patients in acute phase although exist reports on greater frequency. Unilateral neglect is a disorder that mostly effects the patient after the lesion of the right hemisphere, mostly caused by a cerebrovascular insult (infarct or haemorrhage affecting a large area - up to two thirds of the right hemisphere), and in general the left-side neglect is the most widespread neuropsychological deficit after the lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere. Reports on the incidence of visual neglect vary and they range from 13 to 85%. Anosognosia is on the second place as neuropsychological syndrome of stroke in right hemisphere, characterized by the denial of the motor, visual or cognitive deficit. This syndrome, defined as denial of hemiparesis or hemianopsia, is a common disorder verified in 17-28% of all patents with acute brain stoke. There are different reports on frequency of delirium in acute stroke, from 24 to 48%, and it is more frequent in hemorrhagic then ischemic stoke. Post stroke depression (PSD) is one of the more frequent consequences on the stroke, and the prevalence of PSD has ranged from 5 to 63% of patients in

  20. [Acute coronary syndromes: epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Alev Arat

    2013-04-01

    Coronary heart disease is the main cause of death in the world as well as in Turkey. It's not only a health issue but also a social problem with a high economic burden and negative impact on quality of life. The majority of deaths are attributable to acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and their complications.This review summarizes some important facts regarding ACS epidemiology in the world and in Turkey. PMID:27323430

  1. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4000 million cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 1996, resulting in 2.5 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries traveling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, and oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution). PMID:19450323

  2. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4.6 billion cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 2004, resulting in 2.2 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries travelling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 72 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution), vitamin A supplementation, and zinc supplementation. PMID:21718555

  3. Acupuncture for acute hordeolum

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ke; Wang, Xue; Guo, Menghu; Wieland, L. Susan; Shen, Xueyong; Lao, Lixing

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The objective of this review is to determine the effects and, when possible, the safety of acupuncture for the treatment of acute hordeola, in comparison to no specific treatment (e.g., observation), sham acupuncture, or other active treatments. Acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment also will be compared to that treatment alone. PMID:25214814

  4. Diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Marchisio, Paola; Tenconi, Rossana; Tagliaferri, Laura; Albertario, Giada; Patria, Maria Francesca; Principi, Nicola

    2012-08-01

    Rhinosinusitis is almost always a complication of a viral infection involving the upper respiratory tract. A common cold is the first symptom of rhinosinusitis, but infectious processes involving the nose inevitably affect the paranasal sinuses because of their anatomical contiguity. The symptoms remain those of a common cold as long as nasal phlogosis is moderate and the ostia between the nose and sinuses are patent. If the inflammation is intense, edema may obliterate the ostia and isolate the sinuses, thus stopping the removal of the exudates. The duration of symptoms makes it possible to distinguish acute (10-30 days) from subacute (30-90 days) and chronic rhinosinusitis (>90 days). The diagnosis of rhinosinusitis should only be based on anamnestic and clinical criteria in children with serious or persistent symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection, or which appear within a short time of an apparent recovery. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of the paranasal sinuses should be reserved for children reasonably considered to be candidates for surgery. Antibiotics are recommended in cases of mild acute bacterial rhinosinusitis as a means of accelerating the resolution of symptoms. The use of antibiotics is mandatory in severe acute bacterial rhinosinusitis to cure the disease and avoid the possible onset of severe complications.

  5. Acute lung injury review.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Kenji; King, Landon S; Aggarwal, Neil R; De Gorordo, Antonio; D'Alessio, Franco R; Kubo, Keishi

    2009-01-01

    The first report of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was published in 1967, and even now acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS are severe forms of diffuse lung disease that impose a substantial health burden all over the world. Recent estimates indicate approximately 190,000 cases per year of ALI in the United States each year, with an associated 74,500 deaths per year. Common causes of ALI/ARDS are sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, aspiration pneumonia, pancreatitis, and so on. Several pathologic stages of ALI/ARDS have been described: acute inflammation with neutrophil infiltration, fibroproliferative phase with hyaline membranes, with varying degrees of interstitial fibrosis, and resolution phase. There has been intense investigation into the pathophysiologic events relevant to each stage of ALI/ARDS, and much has been learned in the alveolar epithelial, endobronchial homeostasis, and alveolar cell immune responses, especially neutrophils and alveolar macrophages in an animal model. However, these effective results in the animal models are not equally adoptive to those in randomized, controlled trials. The clinical course of ALI/ARDS is variable with the likely pathophysiologic complexity of human ALI/ARDS. In 1994, the definition was recommended by the American-European Consensus Conference Committee, which facilitated easy nomination of patients with ALI/ARDS for a randomized, clinical trial. Here, we review the recent randomized, clinical trials of ALI/ARDS.

  6. Damage Proxy Map from InSAR Coherence Applied to February 2011 M6.3 Christchurch Earthquake, 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-oki Earthquake, and 2011 Kirishima Volcano Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, S.; Agram, P. S.; Fielding, E. J.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Tanaka, A.; Lundgren, P.; Owen, S. E.; Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.

    2011-12-01

    Under ARIA (Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis) project at JPL and Caltech, we developed a prototype algorithm to detect surface property change caused by natural or man-made damage using InSAR coherence change. The algorithm was tested on building demolition and construction sites in downtown Pasadena, California. The developed algorithm performed significantly better, producing 150 % higher signal-to-noise ratio, than a standard coherence change detection method. We applied the algorithm to February 2011 M6.3 Christchurch earthquake in New Zealand, 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake in Japan, and 2011 Kirishima volcano eruption in Kyushu, Japan, using ALOS PALSAR data. In Christchurch area we detected three different types of damage: liquefaction, building collapse, and landslide. The detected liquefaction damage is extensive in the eastern suburbs of Christchurch, showing Bexley as one of the most significantly affected areas as was reported in the media. Some places show sharp boundaries of liquefaction damage, indicating different type of ground materials that might have been formed by the meandering Avon River in the past. Well reported damaged buildings such as Christchurch Cathedral, Canterbury TV building, Pyne Gould building, and Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament were detected by the algorithm. A landslide in Redcliffs was also clearly detected. These detected damage sites were confirmed with Google earth images provided by GeoEye. Larger-scale damage pattern also agrees well with the ground truth damage assessment map indicated with polygonal zones of 3 different damage levels, compiled by the government of New Zealand. The damage proxy map of Sendai area in Japan shows man-made structure damage due to the tsunami caused by the M9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake. Long temporal baseline (~2.7 years) and volume scattering caused significant decorrelation in the farmlands and bush forest along the coastline. The 2011 Kirishima volcano eruption caused a lot of ash

  7. Medical treatment of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mayerle, Julia; Simon, Peter; Lerch, Markus M

    2004-12-01

    Eighty percent of all cases of acute pancreatitis are linked etiologically to gallstone disease or caused by immoderate alcohol consumption. No specific causal treatment for acute pancreatitis exists. Early prognostic factors that indicate severe disease are three or more signs on organ failure scores according to Ranson, Imrie, or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) 11, extrapancreatic complications of the disease, or the detection of pancreatic necrosis on CT scans. Elevated CRP levels above 130 mg/L can also predict a severe course of acute pancreatitis. The essential medical treatment for acute pancreatitis is the correction of hypovolemia. Moreover, relief of often severe visceral pain is a high priority. Prophylactic antibiotics should be restricted to patients with necrotizing pancreatitis, infected necrosis, or other infectious complications. Enteral nutrition has no adverse effect compared with parenteral nutrition during the course of acute pancreatitis, and is probably beneficial in regard to outcome.

  8. Targeted Therapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-28

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Myelodysplasia-Related Changes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  9. [Computer tomography in acute pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Triller, J; Scheidegger, J; Terrier, F

    1983-07-01

    Computer tomography of the kidneys was performed on 30 patients with acute renal infections (acute suppurative pyelonephritis, acute renal abscess, infected cyst, pyelonephrosis, calculus perforation, retroperitoneal abscess). Computer tomography provided more accurate information concerning the extent of the renal and extra-renal inflammatory process than did the urogram or sonogram. This may significantly affect the choice of treatment, particularly concerning the use of drugs or of surgery. Angiography and retrograde pyelography may be used in selected cases, especially where there is a suspicion of acute bacterial nephritis, renal vein thrombosis or ureteric obstruction.

  10. Acute exacerbation of COPD.

    PubMed

    Ko, Fanny W; Chan, Ka Pang; Hui, David S; Goddard, John R; Shaw, Janet G; Reid, David W; Yang, Ian A

    2016-10-01

    The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations. The diagnostic approach to AECOPD varies based on the clinical setting and severity of the exacerbation. After history and examination, a number of investigations may be useful, including oximetry, sputum culture, chest X-ray and blood tests for inflammatory markers. Arterial blood gases should be considered in severe exacerbations, to characterize respiratory failure. Depending on the severity, the acute management of AECOPD involves use of bronchodilators, steroids, antibiotics, oxygen and noninvasive ventilation. Hospitalization may be required, for severe exacerbations. Nonpharmacological interventions including disease-specific self-management, pulmonary rehabilitation, early medical follow-up, home visits by respiratory health workers, integrated programmes and telehealth-assisted hospital at home have been studied during hospitalization and shortly after discharge in patients who have had a recent AECOPD. Pharmacological approaches to reducing risk of future exacerbations include long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, mucolytics, vaccinations and long-term macrolides. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions in preventing COPD exacerbations.

  11. Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Juergen; Kvasnicka, Hans M; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette

    2004-04-01

    Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis (APMF) is an ill-defined disorder that may either evolve as a clonal hematopoietic condition or as a sequel of toxic exposure to the bone marrow (BM). Therefore, controversy and discussion continues as to whether APMF may be considered as a hyperfibrotic (de novo) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or as a severe toxic myelopathy with accompanying myelofibrosis. In this context scant knowledge exists about BM findings, but especially evolution of this disorder according to sequential examinations. Clinically patients present with pancytopenia, a very few blasts in the peripheral blood and no or little splenomegaly. Initially BM histopathology is characterized by different degrees of reticulin-collagen fibrosis and wide ranges of cellularity with a prominent left-shifted and often macrocytic erythropoiesis associated with a reduction and maturation defects of the neutrophil series. Most conspicuous are abnormalities of the megakaryocytes including loose clustering, dislocation towards the endosteal border and appearance of atypical microforms with compact nuclei. Moreover, besides myelofibrosis in a number of patients the interstitial compartment displays a remarkable inflammatory reaction with lymphoid nodules, abundant iron-laden macrophages, perivascular plasmacytosis and increase in microvessels. Repeatedly performed BM biopsies reveal an accumulation of dispersed or clustered CD34+ and lysozyme-expressing blasts in keeping with the insidious transformation into acute leukemia. Prognosis is unfavorable with a median survival of less than 1 year. In conclusion, APMF has to be regarded as a condition that shows considerable overlappings with primary hyperfibrotic MDS, AML and toxic myelopathy (secondary MDS) with accompanying myelofibrosis and therefore can not be considered as a definite clinical entity.

  12. Acute brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Martin, G T

    2016-01-01

    In the 20th century, the complications of head injuries were controlled but not eliminated. The wars of the 21st century turned attention to blast, the instant of impact and the primary injury of concussion. Computer calculations have established that in the first 5 milliseconds after the impact, four independent injuries on the brain are inflicted: 1) impact and its shockwave, 2) deceleration, 3) rotation and 4) skull deformity with vibration (or resonance). The recovery, pathology and symptoms after acute brain trauma have always been something of a puzzle. The variability of these four modes of injury, along with a variable reserve of neurones, explains some of this problem.

  13. [Infant acute leukemia].

    PubMed

    Brethon, Benoît; Cavé, Hélène; Fahd, Mony; Baruchel, André

    2016-03-01

    If acute leukemia is the most frequent cancer in childhood (33%), it remains a very rare diagnosis in infants less than one year old, e.g. less than 5% of cases. At this age, the frequency of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (almost all of B-lineage) is quite similar to the one of myeloblastic forms (AML). Infant leukemia frequently presents with high hyperleucocytosis, major tumoral burden and numerous extra-hematological features, especially in central nervous system and skin. Whatever the lineage, the leukemic cell is often very immature cytologically and immunologically. Rearrangements of the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene, located on band 11q23, are the hallmark of these immature leukemias and confer a particular resistance to conventional approaches, corticosteroids and chemotherapy. The immaturity of infants less than 1-year-old is associated to a decrease of the tolerable dose-intensity of some drugs (anthracyclines, alkylating agents) or asks questions about some procedures like radiotherapy or high dose conditioning regimen, responsible of inacceptable acute and late toxicities. The high level of severe infectious diseases and other high-grade side effects limits also the capacity to cure these infants. The survival of infants less than 1-year-old with AML is only 50% but similar to older children. On the other hand, survival of those with ALL is the same, then quite limited comparing the 80% survival in children over one year. Allogeneic stem cell transplantations are indicated in high-risk subgroups of infant ALL (age below 6 months, high hyperleucocytosis >300.10(9)/L, MLL-rearrangement, initial poor prednisone response). However, morbidity and mortality remain very important and these approaches cannot be extended to all cases. During the neonatal period, the dismal prognosis linked to the high number of primary failures or very early relapses and uncertainties about the late toxicities question physicians about ethics. It is an emergency to

  14. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP.

  15. Acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Gretchen

    2014-03-01

    One in 4 children will have at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by age 10 years. AOM results from infection of fluid that has become trapped in the middle ear. The bacteria that most often cause AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Differentiating AOM from otitis media with effusion (OME) is a critical skill for physicians, as accurate diagnosis will guide appropriate treatment of these conditions. Although fluid is present in the middle ear in both conditions, the fluid is not infected in OME as is seen in AOM patients. PMID:24439877

  16. [Acute necrotizing enteritis].

    PubMed

    Marincaş, M; Bratucu, E; Straja, D; Daha, C; Boru, C

    2003-01-01

    The authors present a retrospective clinical study done on a 13-pacients basis diagnosed during surgery with acute necrotizing enteritis. This study follows the complexity of pathogenic factors and the difficulties one confronts with when establishing a diagnosis since the clinical manifestations are non-specifical and shows the contribution of laboratory data to an earliest possible diagnosis. Both medical and surgical treatment are analyzed depending on the results achieved with an attempt to determine a therapeutic approach as beneficial as possible, aiming at making clear either enterectomy or a conservatory surgical decision should be made. Mortality rate under such therapeutical approach was 38%.

  17. Acute lead arsenate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tallis, G A

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of acute lead arsenate poisoning which occurred in South Australia during a 12 month interval are described. The case reports demonstrate a number of features of the characteristic clinical syndrome which may follow ingestion of lead arsenate. The recommended management is immediate gastric lavage and subsequent chelation therapy with calcium EDTA and dimercaprol. Early gastric lavage may prevent significant lead absorption. However, arsenic acid (produced in the stomach when lead arsenate reacts with hydrochloric acid) is relatively water soluble and prompt gastric lavage is unlikely to prevent extensive arsenic absorption. It remains controversial as to whether chelation with dimercaprol prevents arsenical neuropathy.

  18. Acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Gretchen

    2014-03-01

    One in 4 children will have at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by age 10 years. AOM results from infection of fluid that has become trapped in the middle ear. The bacteria that most often cause AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Differentiating AOM from otitis media with effusion (OME) is a critical skill for physicians, as accurate diagnosis will guide appropriate treatment of these conditions. Although fluid is present in the middle ear in both conditions, the fluid is not infected in OME as is seen in AOM patients.

  19. Acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Barie, Philip S; Eachempati, Soumitra R

    2010-06-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (ACC) can develop with or without gallstones after surgery and in critically ill or injured patients. Diabetes mellitus, malignant disease, abdominal vasculitis, congestive heart failure, cholesterol embolization, shock, and cardiac arrest also have been associated with AAC. The pathogenesis of AAC is complex and multifactorial. Ultrasound of the gallbladder is most accurate for the diagnosis of AAC in the critically ill patient. CT is probably of comparable accuracy, but carries both advantages and disadvantages. Rapid improvement may be expected when AAC is diagnosed correctly and cholecystostomy is performed timely. PMID:20478490

  20. Acute medial elbow ruptures.

    PubMed

    Norwood, L A; Shook, J A; Andrews, J R

    1981-01-01

    Disruption of the ulnar collateral ligament, flexor muscles, and anterior elbow capsule may result from valgus vector forces and subsequently cause difficulty in throwing, pulling, pushing and catching. Complete medial elbow tears were diagnosed acutely in four elbows by abduction stress tests at 15 degrees of flexion. Three elbows had associated ulnar nerve compression. We repaired torn medial structures by direct suture without ligamentous reconstruction. We also decompressed ulnar nerves and performed one anterior transposition. Full range of motion, strength, and return to previous functional level was attained without infection, neurovascular compression, or myositis ossificans.

  1. Acute ischemic stroke update.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kathleen; Orr, Sean; Briand, Mary; Piazza, Carolyn; Veydt, Annita; McCoy, Stacey

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States and is the number one cause of long-term disability. Legislative mandates, largely the result of the American Heart Association, American Stroke Association, and Brain Attack Coalition working cooperatively, have resulted in nationwide standardization of care for patients who experience a stroke. Transport to a skilled facility that can provide optimal care, including immediate treatment to halt or reverse the damage caused by stroke, must occur swiftly. Admission to a certified stroke center is recommended for improving outcomes. Most strokes are ischemic in nature. Acute ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous group of vascular diseases, which makes targeted treatment challenging. To provide a thorough review of the literature since the 2007 acute ischemic stroke guidelines were developed, we performed a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1, 2004-July 1, 2009) for relevant English-language studies. Results (through July 1, 2009) from clinical trials included in the Internet Stroke Center registry were also accessed. Results from several pivotal studies have contributed to our knowledge of stroke. Additional data support the efficacy and safety of intravenous alteplase, the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke since 1995. Due to these study results, the American Stroke Association changed its recommendation to extend the time window for administration of intravenous alteplase from within 3 hours to 4.5 hours of symptom onset; this recommendation enables many more patients to receive the drug. Other findings included clinically useful biomarkers, the role of inflammation and infection, an expanded role for placement of intracranial stents, a reduced role for urgent carotid endarterectomy, alternative treatments for large-vessel disease, identification of nontraditional risk factors, including risk factors for women, and newly published pediatric stroke guidelines. In addition, new devices for

  2. Acute extremity compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tumbarello, C

    2000-01-01

    Acute Extremity Compartment Syndrome is a disorder, which can cause loss of limb if left untreated. Compartment syndrome develops when pressures within the fascial compartments become elevated, resulting in decreased perfusion to muscles and nerves. Left untreated, tissue death occurs. Rapid identification of clinical signs can decrease severity of symptoms. Diligent nursing assessment and monitoring of clinical signs, with communication to the physician, will facilitate rapid treatment by the physician. The primary treatment option is early identification and intervention through performance of a fasciotomy.

  3. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Edwin C.; Durie, Brian G. M.; Garewal, Harinder S.

    1987-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia frequently associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Data on 11 patients with APL treated at our institution were analyzed and compared with those of 147 published cases. Most had a bleeding diathesis at presentation and evidence of DIC eventually developed in all. Seven patients (64%) showed the t(15;17)(q22;q21) karyotype or a similar translocation. Using a chemotherapy induction regimen containing an anthracycline, complete remission, requiring a total of 14 courses of treatment, was achieved in six patients (55%). The median duration of response and median survival for complete responders were 10 and 15 months, respectively. Three patients (27%) died of bleeding complications during induction therapy. The tritiated-thymidine labeling index of leukemia cells predicted which patients would achieve a complete remission. Review of six studies of 147 patients with APL from the past 12 years supports the use of a chemotherapy induction regimen containing anthracycline or amsacrine and heparin for the treatment of DIC. PMID:3472414

  4. Acute systemic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Botham, Philip A

    2002-01-01

    Use of the test that aimed to identify the single lethal dose of a substance that kills half the animals in a test group (the LD50 test) should finally be discontinued by the end of 2002, after many years of controversy and debate. In its stead are three recently developed alternative animal tests that significantly improve animal welfare: the fixed dose procedure, the acute toxic class method, and the up and down procedure. These tests have already undergone revision, both to improve their scientific performance and, importantly, to increase their regulatory acceptance. They can now be used within a strategy of acute toxicity testing for all types of test substances and for all regulatory and in-house purposes. In vitro cytotoxicity tests could be used (perhaps by mid-2002) as adjuncts to these alternative animal tests to improve dose level selection and reduce (at least modestly) the number of animals used. However, the total replacement of animal tests requires a considerable amount of further test development, followed by validation, which will require at least 10 yr.

  5. Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Anna; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a global public health concern associated with high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Other than dialysis, no therapeutic interventions reliably improve survival, limit injury, or speed recovery. Despite recognized shortcomings of in vivo animal models, the underlying pathophysiology of AKI and its consequence, chronic kidney disease (CKD), is rich with biological targets. We review recent findings relating to the renal vasculature and cellular stress responses, primarily the intersection of the unfolded protein response, mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy, and the innate immune response. Maladaptive repair mechanisms that persist following the acute phase promote inflammation and fibrosis in the chronic phase. Here macrophages, growth-arrested tubular epithelial cells, the endothelium, and surrounding pericytes are key players in the progression to chronic disease. Better understanding of these complex interacting pathophysiological mechanisms, their relative importance in humans, and the utility of biomarkers will lead to therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat AKI or impede progression to CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

  6. Imaging acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    González, R Gilberto; Schwamm, Lee H

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is common and often treatable, but treatment requires reliable information on the state of the brain that may be provided by modern neuroimaging. Critical information includes: the presence of hemorrhage; the site of arterial occlusion; the size of the early infarct "core"; and the size of underperfused, potentially threatened brain parenchyma, commonly referred to as the "penumbra." In this chapter we review the major determinants of outcomes in ischemic stroke patients, and the clinical value of various advanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging methods that may provide key physiologic information in these patients. The focus is on major strokes due to occlusions of large arteries of the anterior circulation, the most common cause of a severe stroke syndrome. The current evidence-based approach to imaging the acute stroke patient at the Massachusetts General Hospital is presented, which is applicable for all stroke types. We conclude with new information on time and stroke evolution that imaging has revealed, and how it may open the possibilities of treating many more patients. PMID:27432672

  7. Management of acute sunburn.

    PubMed

    Han, Amy; Maibach, Howard I

    2004-01-01

    Current literature documents the use of many pharmacologic agents in the management of acute sunburn. While numerous studies have been undertaken, there is no consensus on an algorithm for such treatment. We review the literature for an evidence-based approach to the management of sunburn. A MEDLINE search was conducted whereby all published articles related to sunburn or ultraviolet (UV)-induced erythema from 1966-2001 were evaluated. Studies and reviews were excluded if they were not conducted in human beings. The results of these studies are varying and often conflicting in terms of clinical effectiveness or feasibility. A total of 40 studies were reviewed. Fourteen out of the 40 studies addressed the actual treatment of sunburn (i.e. the application of a substance after the development of signs or symptoms). The majority concluded that either corticosteroids, NSAIDs, antioxidants, antihistamines or emollients were ineffective at decreasing recovery time. The remaining studies showed mild improvement with such treatments, but study designs or methods were flawed. Furthermore, regardless of the treatment modality, the damage to epidermal cells is the same. Given the lack of convincing data and consensus of opinion regarding sunburn management, the most effective and practical approach to acute sunburn is symptomatic treatment of UV light-induced symptoms, including erythema, pain and pruritus.

  8. Neurological emergencies: acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, R.; Dennis, M.

    2000-01-01

    Stroke causes a vast amount of death and disability throughout the world, yet for many healthcare professionals it remains an area of therapeutic nihilism, and thus uninteresting. This negative perception is shared by the general public, who often have a poor understanding of the early symptoms and significance of a stroke. Yet within the past few years there have been many important developments in the approach to caring for stroke patients, for both the acute management and secondary prevention. After the completion of numerous clinical trials, there is now robust evidence to either support or discredit various interventions. Even more exciting is the prospect of yet more data becoming available in the near future, testing a whole array of treatments, as clinical interest in stroke expands exponentially. In this review an evidence based approach to the management of acute stroke within the first few days is presented, including ischaemic and haemorrhagic events, but not subarachnoid haemorrhage. It is explained why stroke is regarded as a medical emergency, and the importance of a rational, methodic approach to the initial assessment, which is the key to accurate diagnosis and subsequent management, is emphasised. The potential early problems associated with stroke are identified and specific interventions for different stroke types are discussed. The review ends with a brief discussion of the implications that the evolving treatments have for the organisation of modern stroke services.

 PMID:10675208

  9. Acute Bacterial Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Vincent; Lammert, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute bacterial cholangitis for the most part owing to common bile duct stones is common in gastroenterology practice and represents a potentially life-threatening condition often characterized by fever, abdominal pain, and jaundice (Charcot's triad) as well as confusion and septic shock (Reynolds' pentad). Methods This review is based on a systematic literature review in PubMed with the search items ‘cholangitis’, ‘choledocholithiasis’, ‘gallstone disease’, ‘biliary infection’, and ‘biliary sepsis’. Results Although most patients respond to empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, timely endoscopic biliary drainage depending on the severity of the disease is required to eliminate the underlying obstruction. Specific recommendations have been derived from the Tokyo guideline working group consensus 2006 and its update in 2013, albeit poorly evidence-based, providing a comprehensive overview of diagnosis, classification, risk stratification, and treatment algorithms in acute bacterial cholangitis. Conclusion Prompt clinical recognition and accurate diagnostic workup including adequate laboratory assessment and (aetiology-oriented) imaging are critical steps in the management of cholangitis. Treatment is directed at the two major interrelated pathophysiologic components, i.e. bacterial infection (immediate antimicrobial therapy) and bile duct obstruction (biliary drainage). As for the latter, transpapillary endoscopic drainage by stent or nasobiliary drain and/or same-session bile duct clearance, depending on individual disease severity, represent first-line treatment approaches. PMID:26468310

  10. Acute traumatic patellar dislocation.

    PubMed

    Duthon, V B

    2015-02-01

    Inaugural traumatic patellar dislocation is most often due to trauma sustained during physical or sports activity. Two-thirds of acute patellar dislocations occur in young active patients (less than 20 years old). Non-contact knee sprain in flexion and valgus is the leading mechanism in patellar dislocation, accounting for as many as 93% of all cases. The strong displacement of the patella tears the medial stabilizing structures, and notably the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), which is almost always injured in acute patellar dislocation, most frequently at its femoral attachment. Lateral patellar glide can be assessed with the knee in extension or 20° flexion. Displacement by more than 50% of the patellar width is considered abnormal and may induce apprehension. Plain X-ray and CT are mandatory to diagnose bony risk factors for patellar dislocation, such as trochlear dysplasia or increased tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance (TT-TG), and plan correction. MRI gives information on cartilage and capsulo-ligamentous status for treatment planning: free bodies or osteochondral fracture have to be treated surgically. If patellar dislocation occurs in an anatomically normal knee and osteochondral fracture is ruled out on MRI, non-operative treatment is usually recommended.

  11. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... key statistics about acute lymphocytic leukemia? What is acute lymphocytic leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... leukemias). The rest of this document focuses on acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in adults. For information on ALL in ...

  12. Acute diabetic abdomen in childhood.

    PubMed

    Valerio, D

    1976-01-10

    Three children presented as acute surgical emergencies due to undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Where diabetic ketoacidosis mimicks the acute abdomen three clinical features are important in reaching the right diagnosis-namely, a history of polydipsia, polyuria, and anorexia preceding the abdominal pain, the deep sighing and rapid respirations, and severe dehydration.

  13. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    PubMed

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  14. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    PubMed

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months. PMID:26508422

  15. Acute pain medicine in anesthesiology

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Anastacia P.; Tighe, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The American Academy of Pain Medicine and the American Society for Regional Anesthesia have recently focused on the evolving practice of acute pain medicine. There is increasing recognition that the scope and practice of acute pain therapies must extend beyond the subacute pain phase to include pre-pain and pre-intervention risk stratification, resident and fellow education in regional anesthesia and multimodal analgesia, as well as a deeper understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that are integral to the variability observed among individual responses to nociception. Acute pain medicine is also being established as a vital component of successful systems-level acute pain management programs, inpatient cost containment, and patient satisfaction scores. In this review, we discuss the evolution and practice of acute pain medicine and we aim to facilitate further discussion on the evolution and advancement of this field as a subspecialty of anesthesiology. PMID:24381730

  16. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  17. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  18. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Hiroto; Greaves, Mel; Mullighan, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is seen in both children and adults, but its incidence peaks between ages 2 and 5 years. The causation of ALL is considered to be multi-factorial, including exogenous or endogenous exposures, genetic susceptibility, and chance. The survival rate of paediatric ALL has improved to approximately 90% in recent trials with risk stratification by biologic features of leukaemic cells and response to therapy, therapy modification based on patient pharmacodynamics and pharmacogenomics, and improved supportive care. However, innovative approaches are needed to further improve survival while reducing adverse effects. While most children can be cured, the prognosis of infants and adults with ALL remains poor. Recent genome-wide profiling of germline and leukaemic cell DNA has identified novel submicroscopic structural genetic alterations and sequence mutations that contribute to leukaemogenesis, define new ALL subtypes, influence responsiveness to treatment, and may provide novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for personalized medicine. PMID:23523389

  19. [Acute intermittent porphyria].

    PubMed

    Catania, A; Caimi, G

    1983-11-10

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a congenital disease which as its name suggests, runs intermittently. Biochemically it is characterised by over-production of hepatic ALA synthetase (ALA-s), inducible mitochondrial enzyme and an increase in prophyrinic precursors (PBG, ac S-ALA). Clinically it is characterised by an abdominal nervous symptomatology. The primary metabolic error has been identified as a deficiency in enzyme activity which partially blocks haem biosynthesis. During the appearance of clinical manifestations, certain factors are present which have the capacity of inducing hepatic ALA-s production in vitro. Apart from some preventive measures treatment is mainly of symptomatology and complications. More recently the use of ALA-s inhibitors has been introduced. PMID:6657112

  20. Nutrition in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Nompleggi, D J

    1999-08-01

    Pancreatitis is a common disorder. Numerous factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic pancreatitis, but the exact mechanisms of these conditions are still poorly understood. Depending on the cause of the disorder, patients who have pancreatitis are usually not malnourished and are able to eat within 5 to 7 days of disease onset. In these patients, nutritional support is unnecessary. However, severe disease induces a catabolic state similar to that seen in trauma and sepsis, resulting in rapid weight loss and increased morbidity and mortality. Thus, vigorous nutritional support may be useful in the treatment of severe pancreatitis. Studies have shown that parenteral and enteral nutritional support are well tolerated and can maintain or improve nutritional status in patients with pancreatitis. This article reviews nutritional assessment and therapy in pancreatitis.

  1. Acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Helen; Wallis, Sebastian; Coatesworth, Andrew P

    2015-05-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common problem facing general practitioners, paediatricians and otolaryngologists. This article reviews the aetiopathogenesis, epidemiology, presentation, natural history, complications and management of AOM. The literature was reviewed by using the PubMed search engine and entering a combination of terms including 'AOM', 'epidemiology' and 'management'. Relevant articles were identified and examined for content. What is the take-home message? AOM is a very common problem affecting the majority of children at least once and places a large burden on health care systems throughout the world. Although symptomatic relief is often enough for most children, more severe and protracted cases require treatment with antibiotics, especially in younger children. PMID:25913598

  2. [Acute epiglottitis in adults].

    PubMed

    Castillo, A

    1992-09-01

    The author presents the clinical history of 14 patients, from 21 to 48 years of age, 10 men and 4 women, with a final diagnosis of acute epiglottitis who were hospitalized at Gorgas Army Hospital or at the San Fernando Clinic. All the patients had pharyngitis and dysphagia, a few with nasal voice, stridor and difficulty breathing, as the chief complaint. All the patients were initially intubated orally for diagnostic purposes and immediately after nasotracheal intubation was done until the patient improved in 2 or 3 days (one patient remained intubated for 5 days). All patients were kept in the Intensive Care Unit and were treated with Ampicillin and Chloramphenicol IV and lately with a second generation cephalosporin (Cefamandole). The patients allergic to Penicillin were treated with Clindamycin and Chloramphenicol. Corticosteroids were not used in any of the patients. There were no sequelae and none of the patients expired. PMID:1439005

  3. Acute haematogenous osteitis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J R; Orr, J D; Maclean, D A; Scobie, W G

    1980-01-01

    During a 10-year period 217 cases of acute haematogenous osteitis were treated. In 131 patients the diagnosis was confirmed either radiologically or bacteriologically, but in the other 86 the diagnosis was based on clinical examination. Either cloxacillin or lincomycin proved to be effective if given before bacteriological diagnosis. Frequent clinical examination, assessing both local signs and the child's general state, will decide which child requires surgery (which should be reserved for the toxic child, the child with concomitant medical disorders lowering host resistance, and the child who does not respond to, or has a lesion which flares up after, initial conservative treatment). Constant vigilance is required by clinicians looking after children with this disease in order to reduce the disabling long-term sequelae. PMID:7458395

  4. Acute Leukemias in Children

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Mohan K. R.

    1979-01-01

    With combination chemotherapy approximately 50% of children with lymphoblastic leukemia survive for five or more years and it is now realistic to hope for a cure. Development of sophisticated cytochemical and immunological techniques have enabled us to recognize the factors that predispose to treatment failures. The survival in acute non-lymphocytic leukemia continues to be poor despite the introduction of several innovative treatment regimens. Current research is focused on the manipulation of the host-tumor immune response to eradicate the disease by treatment modalities such as immunotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Since the treatment regimens are becoming more complex, the initial diagnosis and treatment is best carried out at centres specialized in the management of childhood malignancies. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:21297755

  5. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Estenssoro, Elisa; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute respiratory failure produced by an inflammatory edema secondary to increased lung capillary permeability. This causes alveolar flooding and subsequently deep hypoxemia, with intrapulmonary shunt as its most important underlying mechanism. Characteristically, this alteration is unresponsive to high FIO2 and only reverses with end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP). Pulmonary infiltrates on CXR and CT are the hallmark, together with decreased lung compliance. ARDS always occurs within a week of exposition to a precipitating factor; most frequently pneumonia, shock, aspiration of gastric contents, sepsis, and trauma. In CT scan, the disease is frequently inhomogeneous, with gravitational infiltrates coexisting with normal-density areas and also with hyperaerated parenchyma. Mortality is high (30-60%) especially in ARDS associated with septic shock and neurocritical diseases. The cornerstone of therapy lies in the treatment of the underlying cause and in the use mechanical ventilation which, if inappropriately administered, can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. Tidal volume = 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight to maintain an end-inspiratory (plateau) pressure = 30 cm H2O ("protective ventilation") is the only variable consistently associated with decreased mortality. Moderate-to-high PEEP levels are frequently required to treat hypoxemia, yet no specific level or titration strategy has improved outcomes. Recently, the use of early prone positioning in patients with PaO2/FIO2 = 150 was associated with increased survival. In severely hypoxemic patients, it may be necessary to use adjuvants of mechanical ventilation as recruitment maneuvers, pressure-controlled modes, neuromuscular blocking agents, and extracorporeal-membrane oxygenation. Fluid restriction appears beneficial. PMID:27576283

  6. Asthma in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction About 10% of adults have suffered an attack of asthma, and up to 5% of these have severe disease that responds poorly to treatment. Patients with severe disease have an increased risk of death, but patients with mild to moderate disease are also at risk of exacerbations. Most guidelines about the management of asthma follow stepwise protocols. This review does not endorse or follow any particular protocol, but presents the evidence about specific interventions. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute asthma? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 100 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: beta2 agonists (plus ipratropium bromide, pressured metered-dose inhalers, short-acting continuous nebulised, short-acting intermittent nebulised, short-acting iv, and inhaled formoterol); corticosteroids (inhaled); corticosteroids (single oral, combined inhaled, and short courses); education about acute asthma; generalist care; helium–oxygen mixture (heliox); magnesium sulphate (iv and adding isotonic nebulised magnesium to inhaled beta2 agonists); mechanical ventilation; oxygen supplementation (controlled 28% oxygen and controlled 100% oxygen); and specialist care. PMID:21463536

  7. Biomarkers in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Aditi; Januzzi, James L

    2015-06-01

    The care of patients with acutely decompensated heart failure is being reshaped by the availability and understanding of several novel and emerging heart failure biomarkers. The gold standard biomarkers in heart failure are B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, which play an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Novel biomarkers that are increasingly involved in the processes of myocardial injury, neurohormonal activation, and ventricular remodeling are showing promise in improving diagnosis and prognosis among patients with acute decompensated heart failure. These include midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide, soluble ST2, galectin-3, highly-sensitive troponin, and midregional proadrenomedullin. There has also been an emergence of biomarkers for evaluation of acute decompensated heart failure that assist in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea, such as procalcitonin (for identification of acute pneumonia), as well as markers that predict complications of acute decompensated heart failure, such as renal injury markers. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology and usefulness of established and emerging biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure.

  8. [Latest advances in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The present article analyses the main presentations on acute pancreatitis at Digestive Disease Week 2015. Arterial pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon complication of acute pancreatitis (incidence 0.7%) and mortality from this cause is currently anecdotal. Diabetes mellitus has little impact on the clinical course of acute pancreatitis, unlike cirrhosis, which doubles the risk of mortality. Intake of unsaturated fat could be associated with an increased severity of acute pancreatitis and is a confounding factor in studies evaluating the relationship between obesity and morbidity and mortality. PET-CT (positron emission tomography-computed tomography) could be a non-invasive tool to detect infection of collections in acute pancreatitis. Peripancreatic fat necrosis is less frequent than pancreatic fat necrosis and is associated with a better clinical course. If the clinical course is poor, increasing the calibre of the percutaneous drains used in the treatment of infected necrosis can avoid surgery in 20% of patients. The use of low molecular-weight heparin in moderate or severe pancreatitis could be associated with a better clinical course, specifically with a lower incidence of necrosis. In acute recurrent pancreatitis, simvastatin is a promising drug for prophylaxis of new episodes of acute pancreatitis. Nutritional support through a nasogastric tube does not improve clinical course compared with oral nutrition.

  9. [Cerebrolysin for acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    iganshina, L E; Abakumova, T R

    2013-01-01

    The review discusses existing evidence of benefits and risks of cerebrolysin--a mixture of low-molecular-weight peptides and amino acids derived from pigs' brain tissue with proposed neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties, for acute ischemic stroke. The review presents results of systematic search and analysis of randomised clinical trials comparing cerebrolysin with placebo in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Only one trial was selected as meeting quality criteria. No difference in death and adverse events between cerebrolysin and placebo was established. The authors conclude about insufficiency of evidence to evaluate the effect of cerebrolysin on survival and dependency in people with acute ischemic stroke.

  10. Early management of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Nicolien J; Besselink, Marc G H; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Bakker, Olaf J; Bruno, Marco J

    2013-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the most common gastro-intestinal indication for acute hospitalization and its incidence continues to rise. In severe pancreatitis, morbidity and mortality remains high and is mainly driven by organ failure and infectious complications. Early management strategies should aim to prevent or treat organ failure and to reduce infectious complications. This review addresses the management of acute pancreatitis in the first hours to days after onset of symptoms, including fluid therapy, nutrition and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. This review also discusses the recently revised Atlanta classification which provides new uniform terminology, thereby facilitating communication regarding severity and complications of pancreatitis.

  11. [Acute heart failure: acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Marteles, Marta; Urrutia, Agustín

    2014-03-01

    Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock are two of the main forms of presentation of acute heart failure. Both entities are serious, with high mortality, and require early diagnosis and prompt and aggressive management. Acute pulmonary edema is due to the passage of fluid through the alveolarcapillary membrane and is usually the result of an acute cardiac episode. Correct evaluation and clinical identification of the process is essential in the management of acute pulmonary edema. The initial aim of treatment is to ensure hemodynamic stability and to correct hypoxemia. Other measures that can be used are vasodilators such as nitroglycerin, loop diuretics and, in specific instances, opioids. Cardiogenic shock is characterized by sustained hypoperfusion, pulmonary wedge pressure > 18 mmHg and a cardiac index < 2.2l/min/m(2). The process typically presents with hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg or a decrease in mean arterial pressure > 30 mmHg) and absent or reduced diuresis (< 0.5 ml/kg/h). The most common cause is left ventricular failure due to acute myocardial infarction. Treatment consists of general measures to reverse acidosis and hypoxemia, as well as the use of vasopressors and inotropic drugs. Early coronary revascularization has been demonstrated to improve survival in shock associated with ischaemic heart disease.

  12. [Ascites and acute kidney injury].

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. Ascites develops as a consequence of an abnormal splanchnic vasodilation with reduction of effecting circulating volume and activation of endogenous vasoconstrictors system causing salt and water retention. Patients with ascites have a high risk to develop further complications of cirrhosis such as hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and acute kidney injury resulting in a poor survival. In recent years, new studies helped a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ascites and acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Furthermore, new diagnostic criteria have been proposed for acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome and a new algorithm for their management has been recommended with the aim of an early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we will review the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of ascites and acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and we will identify the unmet needs that should be clarified in the next years. PMID:27571467

  13. Acute intestinal anisakiasis: CT findings.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, H N; Avcu, S; Pauwels, W; Mortelé, K J; De Backer, A I

    2012-09-01

    Small bowel anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease that results from consumption of raw or insufficiently pickled, salted, smoked, or cooked wild marine fish infected with Anisakis larvae. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis in a 63-year-old woman presenting with acute onset of abdominal complaints one day after ingestion of raw wild-caught herring from the Northsea. Computed tomography (CT) scanning demonstrated thickening of the distal small bowel wall, mucosa with hyperenhancement, mural stratification, fluid accumulation within dilated small-bowel loops and hyperemia of mesenteric vessels. In patients with a recent history of eating raw marine fish presenting with acute onset of abdominal complaints and CT features of acute small bowel inflammation the possibility of anisakiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal syndromes.

  14. Biomarkers in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mokra, Daniela; Kosutova, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its milder form acute lung injury (ALI) may result from various diseases and situations including sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, acute pancreatitis, aspiration of gastric contents, near-drowning etc. ALI/ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar injury, lung edema formation, neutrophil-derived inflammation, and surfactant dysfunction. Clinically, ALI/ARDS is manifested by decreased lung compliance, severe hypoxemia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Severity and further characteristics of ALI/ARDS may be detected by biomarkers in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (or tracheal aspirate) of patients. Changed concentrations of individual markers may suggest injury or activation of the specific types of lung cells-epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, etc.), and thereby help in diagnostics and in evaluation of the patient's clinical status and the treatment efficacy. This chapter reviews various biomarkers of acute lung injury and evaluates their usefulness in diagnostics and prognostication of ALI/ARDS.

  15. Ultrasonography in acute gallbladder perforation.

    PubMed

    Soiva, M; Pamilo, M; Päivänsalo, M; Taavitsainen, M; Suramo, I

    1988-01-01

    The files of patients with acute cholecystitis from two large university hospitals from the years 1978-1985 were employed to find the cases with acute gallbladder perforation for this study. Only those patients (n = 9) were selected for the analysis of sonographic signs of acute gallbladder perforation who had less than 48 hours of symptoms before sonography, and were operated upon within 24 hours of the sonography. Patients (n = 10) with non-complicated acute cholecystitis and identical in regard to the duration of the symptoms and the timing of the sonography and the operation formed a control group. The sonographic findings in patients with gallbladder perforation were pericholecystic fluid collections, free peritoneal fluid, disappearance of the gallbladder wall echoes, focal highly echogenic areas with acoustic shadows in the gallbladder, and an inhomogeneous, generally echo-poor gallbladder wall. PMID:2964842

  16. Causes of acute bronchitis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the bronchial tubes, the part of the respiratory system that leads into the lungs. Acute bronchitis has a sudden onset and usually appears after a respiratory infection, such as a cold, and can be ...

  17. Inflammatory mediators in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, M; Brady, M; Shokuhi, S; Christmas, S; Neoptolemos, J P; Slavin, J

    2000-02-01

    Inflammatory mediators play a key role in acute pancreatitis and the resultant multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, which is the primary cause of death in this condition. Recent studies have confirmed the critical role played by inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, PAF, IL-10, C5a, ICAM-1, and substance P. The systemic effects of acute pancreatitis have many similarities to those of other conditions such as septicaemia, severe burns, and trauma. The delay between the onset of inflammation in the pancreas and the development of the systemic response makes acute pancreatitis an ideal experimental and clinical model with which to study the role of inflammatory mediators and to test novel therapies. Elucidation of the key mediators involved in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis will facilitate the development of clinically effective anti-inflammatory therapy.

  18. [Ascites and acute kidney injury].

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. Ascites develops as a consequence of an abnormal splanchnic vasodilation with reduction of effecting circulating volume and activation of endogenous vasoconstrictors system causing salt and water retention. Patients with ascites have a high risk to develop further complications of cirrhosis such as hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and acute kidney injury resulting in a poor survival. In recent years, new studies helped a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ascites and acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Furthermore, new diagnostic criteria have been proposed for acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome and a new algorithm for their management has been recommended with the aim of an early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we will review the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of ascites and acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and we will identify the unmet needs that should be clarified in the next years.

  19. Acute upper airway infections.

    PubMed

    West, J V

    2002-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections are common and important. Although rarely fatal, they are a source of significant morbidity and carry a considerable economic burden. Numerous therapies for the common cold have no effect on symptoms or outcome. Complications such as cough are not improved by over-the-counter preparations, while labelling cough alone as a symptom of asthma may result in unnecessary use of inhaled steroid treatment. Clinical presentation of sore throat does not accurately predict whether the infection is viral or bacterial, while throat culture and rapid antigen tests do not significantly change prescribing practice. Antibiotics have only a limited place in the management of recurrent sore throat due to group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection. Routine use of antibiotics in upper respiratory infection enhances parent belief in their effectiveness and increases the likelihood of future consultation in primary care for minor self-limiting illness. Respiratory viruses play a major role in the aetiology of acute otitis media (AOM); prevention includes the use of influenza or RSV vaccination, in addition to reducing other risk factors such as early exposure to respiratory viruses in day-care settings and to environmental tobacco smoke. The use of ventilation tubes (grommets) in secretory otitis media (SOM) remains controversial with conflicting data on developmental outcome and quality of life in young children. New conjugate pneumococcal vaccines appear safe in young children and prevent 6-7% of clinically diagnosed AOM.

  20. Acute Diarrhea in Children.

    PubMed

    Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Vuletić, Biljana; Radlović, Vladimir; Simić, Dušica

    2015-01-01

    Acute diarrhea (AD) is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child's treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea.The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD. PMID:26946776

  1. Traumatic stress in acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodin, Gary; Yuen, Dora; Mischitelle, Ashley; Minden, Mark D; Brandwein, Joseph; Schimmer, Aaron; Marmar, Charles; Gagliese, Lucia; Lo, Christopher; Rydall, Anne; Zimmermann, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acute leukemia is a condition with an acute onset that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. However, the psychological impact of this life-threatening condition and its intensive treatment has not been systematically examined. In the present study, we investigate the prevalence and correlates of post-traumatic stress symptoms in this population. Methods Patients with acute myeloid, lymphocytic, and promyelocytic leukemia who were newly diagnosed, recently relapsed, or treatment failures were recruited at a comprehensive cancer center in Toronto, Canada. Participants completed the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, CARES Medical Interaction Subscale, and other psychosocial measures. A multivariate regression analysis was used to assess independent predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Results Of the 205 participants, 58% were male, mean age was 50.1 ± 15.4 years, 86% were recently diagnosed, and 94% were receiving active treatment. The mean Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire score was 30.2 ± 22.5, with 27 of 200 (14%) patients meeting criteria for acute stress disorder and 36 (18%) for subsyndromal acute stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were associated with more physical symptoms, physical symptom distress, attachment anxiety, and perceived difficulty communicating with health-care providers, and poorer spiritual well-being (all p <0.05). Conclusions The present study demonstrates that clinically significant symptoms of traumatic stress are common in acute leukemia and are linked to the degree of physical suffering, to satisfaction with relationships with health-care providers, and with individual psychological characteristics. Longitudinal study is needed to determine the natural history, but these findings suggest that intervention may be indicated to alleviate or prevent traumatic stress in this population. PMID:22081505

  2. [Correlation between hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Monaco, R; Durante, E; Pampolini, M; Tioli, P

    1981-05-31

    It is often difficult to differentiate acute pancreatitis (A.P.) from some other acute abdominal diseases, when there is an elevated serum amylase. In contrast, the renal clearance of amylase, expressed as a percentage of creatinine clearance, can separate patients with A.P. from patients with acute colecistitis, common duct stone without pancreatitis, hyperamylasemia after biliary surgery, acute peptic ulcer and acute salivary diseases.

  3. Perioperative acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Goren, O; Matot, I

    2015-12-01

    Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is not uncommon and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Recently, several definition systems for AKI were proposed, incorporating both small changes of serum creatinine and urinary output reduction as diagnostic criteria. Novel biomarkers are under investigation as fast and accurate predictors of AKI. Several special considerations regarding the risk of AKI are of note in the surgical patient. Co-morbidities are important risk factors for AKI. The surgery in itself, especially emergency and major surgery in the critically ill, is associated with a high incidence of AKI. Certain types of surgeries, such as cardiac and transplantation surgeries, require special attention because they carry higher risk of AKI. Nephrotoxic drugs, contrast dye, and diuretics are commonly used in the perioperative period and are responsible for a significant amount of in-hospital AKI. Before surgery, the anaesthetist is required to identify patients at risk of AKI, optimize anaemia, and treat hypovolaemia. During surgery, normovolaemia is of utmost importance. Additionally, the surgical and anaesthesia team is advised to use measures to reduce blood loss and avoid unnecessary blood transfusion. Hypotension should be avoided because even short periods of mean arterial pressure <55-60 mm Hg carry a risk of postoperative AKI. Higher blood pressures are probably required for hypertensive patients. Urine output can be reduced significantly during surgery and is unrelated to perioperative renal function. Thus, fluids should not be given in excess for the sole purpose of avoiding or treating oliguria. Use of hydroxyethyl starch needs to be reconsidered. Recent evidence indicates a beneficial effect of administering low-chloride solutions. PMID:26658199

  4. Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kallet, Richard H; Matthay, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged breathing of very high FIO2 (FIO2 ≥ 0.9) uniformly causes severe hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) and, without a reduction of FIO2, is usually fatal. The severity of HALI is directly proportional to PO2 (particularly above 450 mm Hg, or an FIO2 of 0.6) and exposure duration. Hyperoxia produces extraordinary amounts of reactive O2 species that overwhelms natural antioxidant defenses and destroys cellular structures through several pathways. Genetic predisposition has been shown to play an important role in HALI among animals, and some genetics-based epidemiologic research suggests that this may be true for humans as well. Clinically, the risk of HALI likely occurs when FIO2exceeds 0.7, and may become problematic when FIO2 exceeds 0.8 for an extended period of time. Both high-stretch mechanical ventilation and hyperoxia potentiate lung injury and may promote pulmonary infection. During the 1960s, confusion regarding the incidence and relevance of HALI largely reflected such issues as the primitive control of FIO2, the absence of PEEP, and the fact that at the time both ALI and ventilator-induced lung injury were unknown. The advent of PEEP and precise control over FIO2, as well as lung-protective ventilation, and other adjunctive therapies for severe hypoxemia, has greatly reduced the risk of HALI for the vast majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the 21st century. However, a subset of patients with very severe ARDS requiring hyperoxic therapy is at substantial risk for developing HALI, therefore justifying the use of such adjunctive therapies. PMID:23271823

  5. Acute Migraine Treatment in Adults.

    PubMed

    Becker, Werner J

    2015-06-01

    There are many options for acute migraine attack treatment, but none is ideal for all patients. This study aims to review current medical office-based acute migraine therapy in adults and provides readers with an organized approach to this important facet of migraine treatment. A general literature review includes a review of several recent published guidelines. Acetaminophen, 4 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid [ASA], naproxen sodium, and diclofenac potassium), and 7 triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, and zolmitriptan) have good evidence for efficacy and form the core of acute migraine treatment. NSAID-triptan combinations, dihydroergotamine, non-opioid combination analgesics (acetaminophen, ASA, and caffeine), and several anti-emetics (metoclopramide, domperidone, and prochlorperazine) are additional evidence-based options. Opioid containing combination analgesics may be helpful in specific patients, but should not be used routinely. Clinical features to be considered when choosing an acute migraine medication include usual headache intensity, usual rapidity of pain intensity increase, nausea, vomiting, degree of disability, patient response to previously used medications, history of headache recurrence with previous attacks, and the presence of contraindications to specific acute medications. Available acute medications can be organized into 4 treatment strategies, including a strategy for attacks of mild to moderate severity (strategy one: acetaminophen and/or NSAIDs), a triptan strategy for patients with severe attacks and for attacks not responding to strategy one, a refractory attack strategy, and a strategy for patients with contraindications to vasoconstricting drugs. Acute treatment of migraine attacks during pregnancy, lactation, and for patients with chronic migraine is also discussed. In chronic migraine, it is particularly important that medication

  6. Genetically Modified T-cell Immunotherapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-10

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Donor; Early Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Late Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  7. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of paralleled Aza resveratrol-chalcone compounds as potential anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbo; Ge, Xiangting; Xu, Fengli; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Zhiguo; Pan, Jialing; Song, Jiao; Dai, Yuanrong; Zhou, Jianmin; Feng, Jianpeng; Liang, Guang

    2015-08-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of acute respiratory failure in critically-ill patients. It has been reported that both resveratrol and chalcone derivatives could ameliorate lung injury induced by inflammation. A series of paralleled Aza resveratrol-chalcone compounds (5a-5m, 6a-6i) were designed, synthesized and screened for anti-inflammatory activity. A majority showed potent inhibition on the IL-6 and TNF-α expression-stimulated by LPS in macrophages, of which compound 6b is the most potent analog by inhibition of LPS-induced IL-6 release in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, 6b exhibited protection against LPS-induced acute lung injury in vivo. These results offer further insight into the use of Aza resveratrol-chalcone compounds for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, and the use of compound 6b as a lead compound for the development of anti-ALI agents.

  8. Acute kidney injury in acute liver failure: a review.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joanna K; Love, Eleanor; Craig, Darren G; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2013-11-01

    Acute liver failure is a rare and often devastating condition consequent on massive liver cell necrosis that frequently affects young, previously healthy individuals resulting in altered cognitive function, coagulopathy and peripheral vasodilation. These patients frequently develop concurrent acute kidney injury (AKI). This abrupt and sustained decline in renal function, through a number of pathogenic mechanisms such as renal hypoperfusion, direct drug-induced nephrotoxicity or sepsis/systemic inflammatory response contributes to increased morbidity and is strongly associated with a worse prognosis. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology AKI in the context of acute liver failure may be beneficial in a number of areas; the development of new and sensitive biomarkers of renal dysfunction, refining prognosis and organ allocation, and ultimately leading to the development of novel treatment strategies, these issues are discussed in more detail in this expert review.

  9. [Tomodensitometry of severe acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Frija, J; Abanou, A; Viandier, A; Laval-Jeantet, M

    1983-01-01

    90 computed tomographic examinations were performed to 57 patients referred at Hospital Saint-Louis for an acute pancreatitis. 32 patients were operated or autopsied. Among these 32 patients, 19 patients had 21 examinations before surgery or autopsy; the other 13 patients had their computed tomographic examinations after one or more surgical procedures. During a severe acute pancreatitis the pancreas is always large either locally or diffusely. A pancreatic reaction is visible around and possibly at distance of the pancreas. When extraluminal gas is visible (3/5) it signifies gangrenous pancreatitis but it is necessary to eliminate a digestive fistulous tract and/or a communication between a pseudocyst and the digestive tract. Except gangrenous it is not possible to precise the nature of pancreatic reaction. The diagnosis of pseudocyst was easy 9/10, difficult 1/10; we did a false positive diagnosis of pseudocyst. Computed tomography and ultrasounds were compared in ten patients for the search of gallbladder lithiasis. Computed tomography can show large and small (2/4) biliary calculus in the gallbladder that cannot be shown by ultrasounds. A normal pancreas in a normal retroperitoneal space exclude the diagnosis of a severe acute pancreatitis. CT aspects of acute pancreatitis must be considered as a good diagnostic test of an acute pancreatitis.

  10. Natural course of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Beger, H G; Rau, B; Mayer, J; Pralle, U

    1997-02-01

    Acute pancreatitis comprises, in terms of clinical, pathologic, biochemical, and bacteriologic data, four entities. Interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis are the most frequent clinical manifestations; pancreatic pseudocyst and pancreatic abscess are late complications after necrotizing pancreatitis, developing after 3 to 5 weeks. Determinants of the natural course of acute pancreatitis are pancreatic parenchymal necrosis, extrapancreatic retroperitoneal fatty tissue necrosis, biologically active compounds in pancreatic ascites, and infection of necrosis. Early in the course of acute pancreatitis multiple organ failure is the consequence of various inflammatory mediators that are released from the inflammatory process and from activated leukocytes attracted by pancreatic injury. During the late course, starting the second week, local and systemic septic complications are dominant. Around 80% of deaths in acute pancreatitis are caused by septic complications. The infection of pancreatic necrosis occurs in 8% to 12% of acute pancreatitis and in 30% to 40% of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis. Bacteriologic analysis of intraoperative smears and aspirates reveals predominantly gram-negative germs deriving from the intestine, most frequently Escherichia coli. It has been confirmed that after necrotizing pancreatitis a considerable large group of patients suffer long-lasting exocrine and endocrine insufficiency.

  11. Endoscopic Treatment of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis and Smoldering Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Das, Rohit; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I

    2015-10-01

    Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) is a challenging condition that can lead to chronic pancreatitis and long-term morbidity. Etiology-based treatment can potentially have an impact on the natural history of RAP and its progression to chronic pancreatitis. In cases of divisum-associated RAP and idiopathic RAP, several studies have been performed to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic therapy in alleviation of symptoms and frequency of AP events. This review discusses the literature available on these topic as well as touching on the role of endoscopic therapy in smoldering acute pancreatitis.

  12. Decitabine, Cytarabine, and Daunorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  13. Autophagy in acute brain injury.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Blomgren, Klas; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-08-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism that ensures the lysosomal degradation of old, supernumerary or ectopic cytoplasmic entities. Most eukaryotic cells, including neurons, rely on proficient autophagic responses for the maintenance of homeostasis in response to stress. Accordingly, autophagy mediates neuroprotective effects following some forms of acute brain damage, including methamphetamine intoxication, spinal cord injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage. In some other circumstances, however, the autophagic machinery precipitates a peculiar form of cell death (known as autosis) that contributes to the aetiology of other types of acute brain damage, such as neonatal asphyxia. Here, we dissect the context-specific impact of autophagy on non-infectious acute brain injury, emphasizing the possible therapeutic application of pharmacological activators and inhibitors of this catabolic process for neuroprotection. PMID:27256553

  14. Biochemical markers of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Matull, W R; Pereira, S P; O'Donohue, J W

    2006-04-01

    Serum amylase remains the most commonly used biochemical marker for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, but its sensitivity can be reduced by late presentation, hypertriglyceridaemia, and chronic alcoholism. Urinary trypsinogen-2 is convenient, of comparable diagnostic accuracy, and provides greater (99%) negative predictive value. Early prediction of the severity of acute pancreatitis can be made by well validated scoring systems at 48 hours, but the novel serum markers procalcitonin and interleukin 6 allow earlier prediction (12 to 24 hours after admission). Serum alanine transaminase >150 IU/l and jaundice suggest a gallstone aetiology, requiring endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. For obscure aetiologies, serum calcium and triglycerides should be measured. Genetic polymorphisms may play an important role in "idiopathic" acute recurrent pancreatitis.

  15. Acute Stroke Imaging Research Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Hacke, Werner; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kloska, Stephan P.; Köhrmann, Martin; Koroshetz, Walter; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lees, Kennedy R.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Ostergaard, Leif; Powers, William J.; Provenzale, James; Schellinger, Peter; Silbergleit, Robert; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wu, Ona; Warach, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The recent “Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment” meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), industry representatives, and members of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the role of advanced neuroimaging in acute stroke treatment. The goals of the meeting were to assess state-of-the-art practice in terms of acute stroke imaging research and to propose specific recommendations regarding: (1) the standardization of perfusion and penumbral imaging techniques, (2) the validation of the accuracy and clinical utility of imaging markers of the ischemic penumbra, (3) the validation of imaging biomarkers relevant to clinical outcomes, and (4) the creation of a central repository to achieve these goals. The present article summarizes these recommendations and examines practical steps to achieve them. PMID:18477656

  16. Update on acute rheumatic fever

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Sharen; Kelly, Len

    2009-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To remind physicians who work with aboriginal populations of the ongoing prevalence of acute rheumatic fever and to review the recent evidence on presentation, treatment, and secondary prophylaxis. SOURCES OF INFORMATION The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched from 1996 to 2007 with a focus on prevention, epidemiology, and disease management. Case series data from medical records at the Sioux Lookout Meno Ya Win Health Centre in Ontario were also used. MAIN MESSAGE Acute rheumatic fever is still a clinical entity in aboriginal communities in northwest Ontario. Identification, treatment, and secondary prophylaxis are necessary. CONCLUSION Acute rheumatic fever is not a forgotten disease and still exists in remote areas of Canada. PMID:19439697

  17. 3-Methoxynaltrexone is not a selective antagonist for the acute psychomotor stimulating effects of heroin and 6-monoacetylmorphine in mice.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Guro Søe; Andersen, Jannike Mørch; Boix, Fernando; Mørland, Jørg

    2014-07-01

    The opioid receptor antagonist 3-methoxynaltrexone (3-MeONtx) has previously been shown in rodents to selectively reverse the analgesic actions of heroin and its metabolites 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), but not that of morphine. Based on these and other results, a heroin/6-MAM/M6G μ-opioid receptor binding site or subreceptor mediating their analgesic activity has been proposed. It is however unknown whether this also accounts for the acute psychomotor stimulating properties of these opioids. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore if the acute psychomotor stimulating effects of heroin, 6-MAM, and morphine are mediated by distinct μ-opioid receptor binding sites or subreceptors. To address this aim, we examined how pretreatment with 3-MeONtx or naltrexone (NTX) affected the acute increase in locomotor activity induced by heroin, 6-MAM, or morphine in mice. The pharmacokinetic profiles of 3-MeONtx and NTX were also assessed in mouse brain. We found that 3-MeONtx similarly antagonized the acute increase in locomotor activity induced by equipotent doses of heroin, 6-MAM, or morphine. This antagonistic effect was comparable to the one observed following administration of NTX, and both antagonists gave similar pharmacokinetic profiles in mouse brain. Our findings do not support that different μ-opioid receptor subtypes or a distinct binding site at the μ-opioid receptor is involved in morphine-induced versus heroin/6-MAM-induced psychomotor activation. This might suggest that the opioid-induced psychomotor stimulation is mediated by different μ-opioid subreceptors than those responsible for their analgesic effects.

  18. Prevalence of acute mountain sickness in the Eastern Alps.

    PubMed

    Mairer, Klemens; Wille, Maria; Bucher, Thomas; Burtscher, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Little information is available on the prevalence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) in the Eastern Alps compared with the Western Alps. Because of differences regarding the populations of mountaineers, we hypothesized that the prevalence differs between the Eastern and Western Alps. Thus, we determined the prevalence and risk factors of AMS at four different altitudes in the Eastern Alps of Austria. Four hundred and thirty-one recreational hikers were studied using questionnaires on the morning of their first night at high altitude. A diagnosis of AMS was based on a Lake Louise Score > or =4, the presence of headache, and at least one additional symptom. Overall 16.2% of the subjects met the criteria for AMS, and the prevalence of AMS increased significantly with altitude (2200 m: 6.9%; 2500 m: 9.1%; 2800 m: 17.4%; 3500 m: 38.0%). Heavy perceived exertion, a history of migraine, the absolute altitude reached, little mountaineering experience, and inadequate water intake (< or =2 L) were independent AMS risk factors. The reported altitude-related AMS prevalence in the Western Alps is 4% to 8% lower compared with that found in this study for the Eastern Alps. In conclusion, the prevalence of AMS is higher in the tourist population of the Eastern Alps compared to the more experienced mountaineers of the Western Alps. Consideration of easily modifiable risk factors such as individual exertion and water intake could markedly reduce AMS and contribute to the enjoyment of mountaineering. PMID:19775213

  19. Acute kidney injury in children.

    PubMed

    Merouani, A; Flechelles, O; Jouvet, P

    2012-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 5% of critically ill hospitalized children and is a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. The current review focuses on new definitions of acute kidney injury, standardized to reflect the entire spectrum of the disease, as well as on ongoing research to identify early biomarkers of kidney injury. Its also provides an overview of current practice and available therapies, with emphasis on new strategies for the prevention and pharmacological treatment of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Furthermore, a decision-making algorithm is presented for the use of renal replacement therapies in critically ill children with AKI. PMID:22495187

  20. [Pregnancy and acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Bereczki, Dániel

    2016-05-15

    Pregnancy-related ischemic strokes play an important role in both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Changes in hemostaseology and hemodynamics as well as risk factors related to or independent from pregnancy contribute to the increased stroke-risk during gestation and the puerperium. Potential teratogenic effects make diagnostics, acute therapy and prevention challenging. Because randomized, controlled trials are not available, a multicenter registry of patients with gestational stroke would be desirable. Until definite guidelines emerge, management of acute ischemic stroke during pregnancy remains individual, involving experts and weighing the risks and benefits.

  1. Nutrition support in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    McClave, Stephen A

    2007-03-01

    The benefit of early enteral nutrition (EN) for the disease process and for patient outcome in severe acute pancreatitis is dramatic. A narrow window of opportunity exists during which there is potential for EN to decrease disease severity and reduce overall complications. Most patients with severe pancreatitis tolerate enteral feeds. Any signs of symptom exacerbation or increasing inflammation in response to EN may be ameliorated by subtle adjustments in the feeding strategy. In this manner, provision of EN represents primary therapy in the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis and is emerging as the gold standard of therapy in nutrition support for this disease process.

  2. Intravenous magnesium for acute asthma?

    PubMed

    2003-10-01

    Each year in the UK, around 1,500 people die from asthma. Standard treatment has been based on bronchodilators (e.g. beta 2-stimulants) and anti-inflammatory drugs (corticosteroids). The recently revised British Guideline on the Management of Asthma suggests also using a single dose of i.v. magnesium sulphate in patients with acute severe asthma, an unlicensed indication. Here we discuss the rationale for giving i.v. magnesium and whether it offers any advantage for patients with acute severe asthma.

  3. Acute liver failure in children.

    PubMed

    Devictor, Denis; Tissieres, Pierre; Afanetti, Mickael; Debray, Dominique

    2011-06-01

    The management of children with acute liver failure mandates a multidisciplinary approach and intense monitoring. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in developing specific and supportive medical measures, but clinical studies have mainly concerned adult patients. There are no specific medical therapies, except for a few metabolic diseases presenting with acute liver failure. Liver transplantation still remains the only definitive therapy in most instances. Recent clinical studies suggest that hepatocyte transplantation may be useful for bridging patients to liver transplantation, for providing metabolic support during liver failure and for replacing liver transplantation in certain metabolic liver diseases.

  4. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, G N; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of acute silicosis as bilateral pneumothorax. PMID:24862410

  5. Acute tibial tubercle avulsion fractures.

    PubMed

    McKoy, Brodie E; Stanitski, Carl L

    2003-07-01

    Acute tibial tubercle avulsion fractures are uncommon, and these injuries typically occur in mature-appearing adolescent boys involved in jumping sports, particularly basketball. The developmental anatomy of the tibial tuberosity and the changes surrounding normal physiologic epiphysiodesis render this structure susceptible to acute avulsion fractures. Possible associated injuries include patellar and quadriceps avulsions, collateral and cruciate ligament tears, and meniscal damage. The treatment of this injury is based on the amount of displacement and associated injuries. Nondisplaced fractures are treated nonoperatively with cast immobilization. Displaced fractures require open reduction and internal fixation. Even in Type III injuries, the outcome is usually excellent.

  6. Acute interstitial pneumonia and acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Swigris, Jeffrey J; Brown, Kevin K

    2006-12-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) and acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AEIPF) are similar respiratory disorders characterized by the rapid development of progressive dyspnea and cough. Both frequently lead to respiratory failure and death. Pathologically, each is characterized by the presence of a diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) pattern; in AIP, DAD is the sole pattern, whereas in AEIPF DAD is superimposed upon a background usual interstitial pneumonia. They differ in that patients with AEIPF have preexisting idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, whereas patients with AIP have no predisposing disorders to account for their disease. Because both presentations overlap with multiple other causes of acute lung injury, a comprehensive evaluation is necessary to rule out disorders such as overwhelming infection or congestive heart failure. Although a confident diagnosis can be achieved without it, a surgical lung biopsy is necessary to provide a definitive diagnosis. Despite minimal evidence, glucocorticoids are frequently begun once microbiological evaluation confirms the absence of infection. Despite therapy, the case fatality rate ranges up to 70% for both, with most patients dying in the first 2 weeks. Survivors of the acute event can recover to their previous baseline; however, most AIP survivors will stabilize with some functional impairment, whereas in those with AEIPF, progressive fibrosis with functional deterioration is the rule.

  7. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home Diet and Nutrition The glucose effect in acute porphyrias The disorders Acute Intermittent ... are treated initially with the administration of carbohydrate/glucose. This therapy has its basis in the ability ...

  8. General Information about Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  9. General Information about Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  10. General Information about Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Go to Health ... the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  11. Targeted Therapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monoclonal antibodies to treat acute lymphocytic leukemia Targeted therapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia In recent years, new ... These drugs are often referred to as targeted therapy. Some of these drugs can be useful in ...

  12. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  13. Stages of Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  15. How Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Classified?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How is acute lymphocytic leukemia treated? How is acute lymphocytic leukemia classified? Most types of cancers are assigned numbered ... ALL are now named as follows: B-cell ALL Early pre-B ALL (also called pro-B ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: acute promyelocytic leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... acute myeloid leukemia, a cancer of the blood-forming tissue ( bone marrow ). In normal bone marrow, hematopoietic ... 7186-203. Review. Citation on PubMed de Thé H, Chen Z. Acute promyelocytic leukaemia: novel insights into ...

  17. Acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarvesh Pal

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication after pediatric cardiac surgery. The definition, staging, risk factors, biomarkers and management of acute kidney injury in children is detailed in the following review article. PMID:27052074

  18. Obstructive Uropathy Secondary to Missed Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is a rare complication of acute appendicitis. We present a case of missed appendicitis in a 52-year-old female which presented as a right-sided hydronephrosis. 2 days after admission to the Department of Urology CT revealed acute appendicitis for what open appendectomy was performed. Acute appendicitis can lead to obstructive uropathy by periappendiceal inflammation due to adjacency. Urologists, surgeons, and emergency physicians should be aware of this rare complication of atypical acute appendicitis.

  19. Optical diagnosis of acute scrotum in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn; Nigro, Mark; Afshar, Kourosh; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    Acute scrotum is a urologic condition defined by scrotal pain, swelling, and redness of acute onset. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are necessary to preserve testicular viability. The history and clinical symptoms reported are key to diagnosis and proper treatment, but are not always readily obtained in children, in whom common causes of acute scrotum include testicular torsion, torsion of the appendix testis, and epididymitis. These acute conditions have different causal pathology that mandate specific treatment, hence the importance of early and accurate diagnosis.

  20. Acute Kidney Injury in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Palevsky, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis The aging kidney undergoes a number of important anatomic and physiologic changes that increase the risk of acute kidney injury (formerly acute renal failure) in the elderly. This article reviews these changes and discusses the diagnoses frequently encountered in the elderly patient with acute kidney injury. The incidence, staging, evaluation, management, and prognosis of acute kidney injury are also examined with special focus given to older adults. PMID:19765485

  1. Acute treatment of migraine headaches.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2010-04-01

    Optimum acute treatment of migraine requires prevention of headache as a top priority. Recognition of the multitude of migraine presentations, the frequency of total headache attacks, and number of days of headache disability are critical. Successful treatment requires excellent patient-clinician communication enhancing confidence and mutual trust based on patient needs and preferences. Optimum management of acute migraine nearly always requires pharmacologic treatment for rapid resolution. Migraine-specific triptans, dihydroergotamine, and several antiinflammatories have substantial empirical clinical efficacy. Older nonspecific drugs, particularly butalbital and opioids, contribute to medication overuse headache and are to be avoided. Clinicians should utilize evidence-based acute migraine-specific therapy stressing the imperative acute treatment goal of early intervention, but not too often with the correct drug, formulation, and dose. This therapy needs to provide cost-effective fast results, meaningful to the patient while minimizing the need for additional drugs. Migraine-ACT evaluates 2-hour pain freedom with return to normal function, comfort with treatment, and consistency of response. Employ a thoroughly educated patient, formulary, testimonials, stratification, and rational cotherapy against the race to central sensitization for optimum outcomes. PMID:20352584

  2. Acute arsenical myopathy: morphological description.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Sola, J; Nogue, S; Grau, J M; Casademont, J; Munne, P

    1991-01-01

    We describe the histological findings of the muscle in a case of acute voluntary massive arsenic intoxication resulting in severe rhabdomyolysis. The main features on muscle biopsy were perifascicular hypercontracted fibers, myofibrillar disruption, mitochondrial abnormalities and abundant cytoplasmic vacuoles containing lipids.

  3. Acute arsenical poisoning in Dunedin.

    PubMed

    Gillies, A J; Taylor, A J

    1979-05-23

    Four cases of acute poisoning with arsenic are described. Although no new approach to therapy is proposed it is suggested from the data of arsenic recovery from the dialysate of one of the patients studied, that peritoneal dialysis is unlikely to be satisfactory.

  4. Polyhydramnios and acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D. V.; Kelly, Moira B.; Pryor, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Acute renal failure secondary to ureteric obstruction is described in a primigravida with twin gestation and polyhydramnios. Relief of the obstruction occurred on drainage of the liquor and return to normal renal function following delivery. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7022419

  5. Dirofilariasis Mimicking an Acute Scrotum.

    PubMed

    Bertozzi, Mirko; Rinaldi, Victoria Elisa; Prestipino, Marco; Giovenali, Paolo; Appignani, Antonino

    2015-10-01

    Human infections caused by Dirofilaria repens have been reported in many areas of the world. We describe a case of a 3-year-old child with an intrascrotal mass caused by D repens mimicking an acute scrotum. This represents the first case of scrotal dirofilariasis described in pediatric age with such an unusual presentation.

  6. Early seizures in acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Chraa; Kissani, Najib

    2015-01-01

    Early seizures (ES) may complicate the clinical course of patients with acute stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and the predictive factors for early seizures as well the clinical outcome in patients with first-ever stroke. A total of 352 consecutive patients with first-ever stroke, admitted to our department, were included in this retrospective study. Early seizures were defined as seizures occurring within 7 days from acute stroke. Patients with history of epilepsy were excluded. About 47 patients (13%) had early seizure, and 8 had a status epilepticus. We had 28 women and 19 men. The mean age was 71.6 ± 14.6. They were significantly more common in patients with cortical involvement, severe and large stroke, and in patient with cortical associated hemorrhage. ES were associated with an increase in adverse outcome (mortality and disability). Early seizures occured in about 13% of patients with acute stroke. In these patients hemorrhagic transformation is a predictive factor for ES. ES seem to be associated with a worse outcome after acute stroke. PMID:26097640

  7. The management of acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Cross, S

    1997-04-01

    Health professionals likely to come into contact with people experiencing an acute episode of asthma, such as school nurses, ambulance personnel and A&E staff, need clear guidelines on management. The British Thoracic Society guidelines, revised this year, advise on the categorisation of asthma, assessment and treatment.

  8. [Radionuclide diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Mil'ko, V I; Moskalenko, N I; Tikhonenko, E P

    1986-01-01

    Nephroscintigraphy using a 67Ga-citrate complex and 99mTc-pyrophosphate was performed in 88 patients with acute pyelonephritis. Nuclide hyperfixation was revealed in 97.8% of the cases. Three groups of patients were singled out on the basis of the intensity of incorporation and nature of the distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals (RP) in the kidneys. In the 1st group the RP incorporation was insignificant but higher than normal values; the RP distribution in the affected kidney was diffuse-inhomogenous. These changes were considered to be typical of acute serous pyelonephritis. In the 2nd and 3rd groups a sharp rise of the RP accumulation was noted, being typical of acute purulent pyelonephritis. One could distinguish between diffuse and focal lesions by the picture of the RP distribution in the renal parenchyma. Diuresis stimulation made it possible to differentiate an actual nuclide fixation during inflammation from nuclide mechanical retention as a result of urine outflow disorder. According to the authors, both radiopharmaceuticals could be applied for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis as well as for differential diagnosis of various forms of the disease. PMID:3001474

  9. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  10. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF-VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis.

  11. Acute calcium pyrophosphate deposition arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Thomas; Furman, Janet

    2016-06-01

    Acute calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) arthropathy, also called pseudogout, is common, and becomes more prevalent as patients age. The presenting symptoms are similar to both gout and septic arthritis but may be treated differently. This article describes a typical patient presentation and management from an emergency medicine and orthopedic surgery standpoint. PMID:27228038

  12. Managing acute invasive fungal sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Dwyhalo, Kristina M; Donald, Carrlene; Mendez, Anthony; Hoxworth, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Acute invasive fungal sinusitis is the most aggressive form of fungal sinusitis and can be fatal, especially in patients who are immunosuppressed. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial and potentially lifesaving, so primary care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion for this disease. Patients may need to be admitted to the hospital for IV antifungal therapy and surgical debridement.

  13. Decitabine and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-06

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  14. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-23

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  16. Acute coronary care: Principles and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 58 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radionuclide Techniques for Diagnosing and Sizing of Myocardial Infarction; The Use of Serial Radionuclide Angiography for Monitoring Function during Acute Myocardial Infarction; Hemodynamic Monitoring in Acute Myocardial Infarction; and The Valve of Radionuclide Angiography for Risk Assessment of Patients following Acute Myocardial Infarction.

  17. Towards Prevention of Acute Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A.; Thongprayoon, C.; Pickering, B.W.; Akhoundi, A.; Wilson, G.; Pieczkiewicz, D.; Herasevich, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Identifying patients at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) before their admission to intensive care is crucial to prevention and treatment. The objective of this study is to determine the performance of an automated algorithm for identifying selected ARDS predisposing conditions at the time of hospital admission. Methods This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study included 3,005 patients admitted to hospital between January 1 and December 31, 2010. The automated algorithm for five ARDS predisposing conditions (sepsis, pneumonia, aspiration, acute pancreatitis, and shock) was developed through a series of queries applied to institutional electronic medical record databases. The automated algorithm was derived and refined in a derivation cohort of 1,562 patients and subsequently validated in an independent cohort of 1,443 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of an automated algorithm to identify ARDS risk factors were compared with another two independent data extraction strategies, including manual data extraction and ICD-9 code search. The reference standard was defined as the agreement between the ICD-9 code, automated and manual data extraction. Results Compared to the reference standard, the automated algorithm had higher sensitivity than manual data extraction for identifying a case of sepsis (95% vs. 56%), aspiration (63% vs. 42%), acute pancreatitis (100% vs. 70%), pneumonia (93% vs. 62%) and shock (77% vs. 41%) with similar specificity except for sepsis and pneumonia (90% vs. 98% for sepsis and 95% vs. 99% for pneumonia). The PPV for identifying these five acute conditions using the automated algorithm ranged from 65% for pneumonia to 91 % for acute pancreatitis, whereas the NPV for the automated algorithm ranged from 99% to 100%. Conclusion A rule-based electronic data extraction can reliably and accurately identify patients at risk of ARDS at the time of hospital

  18. siRNA capsulated brain-targeted nanoparticles specifically knock down OATP2B1 in mice: a mechanism for acute morphine tolerance suppression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zi-Zhao; Li, Li; Wang, Lu; Xu, Ming-Cheng; An, Sai; Jiang, Chen; Gu, Jing-Kai; Wang, Zai-Jie Jim; Yu, Lu-Shan; Zeng, Su

    2016-01-01

    Regulating main brain-uptake transporter of morphine may restrict its tolerance generation, then modify its antinociception. In this study, more than 2 fold higher intracellular uptake concentrations for morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were observed in stable expression cells, HEK293-hOATP2B1 than HEK293-MOCK. Specifically, the Km value of morphine to OATP2B1 (57.58 ± 8.90 μM) is 1.4-time more than that of M6G (80.31 ± 21.75 μM); Cyclosporine A (CsA), an inhibitor of OATP2B1, can inhibit their intracellular accumulations with IC50 = 3.90 ± 0.50 μM for morphine and IC50 = 6.04 ± 0.86 μM for M6G, respectively. To further investigate the role of OATP2B1 in morphine brain transport and tolerance, the novel nanoparticles of DGL-PEG/dermorphin capsulated siRNA (OATP2B1) were applied to deliver siRNA into mouse brain. Along with OATP2B1 depressed, a main reduction was found for each of morphine or M6G in cerebrums or epencephalons of acute morphine tolerance mice. Furthermore, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) in mouse prefrontal cortex (mPFC) underwent dephosphorylation at Thr286. In conclusion, OATP2B1 downregulation in mouse brain can suppress tolerance via blocking morphine and M6G brain transport. These findings might help to improve the pharmacological effects of morphine. PMID:27629937

  19. siRNA capsulated brain-targeted nanoparticles specifically knock down OATP2B1 in mice: a mechanism for acute morphine tolerance suppression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zi-Zhao; Li, Li; Wang, Lu; Xu, Ming-Cheng; An, Sai; Jiang, Chen; Gu, Jing-Kai; Wang, Zai-Jie Jim; Yu, Lu-Shan; Zeng, Su

    2016-09-15

    Regulating main brain-uptake transporter of morphine may restrict its tolerance generation, then modify its antinociception. In this study, more than 2 fold higher intracellular uptake concentrations for morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were observed in stable expression cells, HEK293-hOATP2B1 than HEK293-MOCK. Specifically, the Km value of morphine to OATP2B1 (57.58 ± 8.90 μM) is 1.4-time more than that of M6G (80.31 ± 21.75 μM); Cyclosporine A (CsA), an inhibitor of OATP2B1, can inhibit their intracellular accumulations with IC50 = 3.90 ± 0.50 μM for morphine and IC50 = 6.04 ± 0.86 μM for M6G, respectively. To further investigate the role of OATP2B1 in morphine brain transport and tolerance, the novel nanoparticles of DGL-PEG/dermorphin capsulated siRNA (OATP2B1) were applied to deliver siRNA into mouse brain. Along with OATP2B1 depressed, a main reduction was found for each of morphine or M6G in cerebrums or epencephalons of acute morphine tolerance mice. Furthermore, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) in mouse prefrontal cortex (mPFC) underwent dephosphorylation at Thr286. In conclusion, OATP2B1 downregulation in mouse brain can suppress tolerance via blocking morphine and M6G brain transport. These findings might help to improve the pharmacological effects of morphine.

  20. siRNA capsulated brain-targeted nanoparticles specifically knock down OATP2B1 in mice: a mechanism for acute morphine tolerance suppression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zi-Zhao; Li, Li; Wang, Lu; Xu, Ming-Cheng; An, Sai; Jiang, Chen; Gu, Jing-Kai; Wang, Zai-Jie Jim; Yu, Lu-Shan; Zeng, Su

    2016-01-01

    Regulating main brain-uptake transporter of morphine may restrict its tolerance generation, then modify its antinociception. In this study, more than 2 fold higher intracellular uptake concentrations for morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were observed in stable expression cells, HEK293-hOATP2B1 than HEK293-MOCK. Specifically, the Km value of morphine to OATP2B1 (57.58 ± 8.90 μM) is 1.4-time more than that of M6G (80.31 ± 21.75 μM); Cyclosporine A (CsA), an inhibitor of OATP2B1, can inhibit their intracellular accumulations with IC50 = 3.90 ± 0.50 μM for morphine and IC50 = 6.04 ± 0.86 μM for M6G, respectively. To further investigate the role of OATP2B1 in morphine brain transport and tolerance, the novel nanoparticles of DGL-PEG/dermorphin capsulated siRNA (OATP2B1) were applied to deliver siRNA into mouse brain. Along with OATP2B1 depressed, a main reduction was found for each of morphine or M6G in cerebrums or epencephalons of acute morphine tolerance mice. Furthermore, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) in mouse prefrontal cortex (mPFC) underwent dephosphorylation at Thr286. In conclusion, OATP2B1 downregulation in mouse brain can suppress tolerance via blocking morphine and M6G brain transport. These findings might help to improve the pharmacological effects of morphine. PMID:27629937

  1. Tsutsugamushi infection-associated acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Young, Park Chi; Hae, Chung Choon; Lee, Kim Hyun; Hoon, Chung Jong

    2003-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication that emerges in a variety of infectious diseases, such as tsutsugamushi infection. In this study, we report a 71-year-old female patient with tsutsugamushi infection who exhibiting rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. On admission, an eschar, which is characteristic of tsutsugamushi infection, was found on her right flank area. Moreover, her tsutsugamushi antibody titer was 1:40960. The elevated values of serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aldolase, creatinine and dark brown urine secondary to myoglobinuria are consistent with indications of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure due to tsutsugamushi infection. Her health improved without any residual effects after treatment with doxycyclin and hydration with normal saline. PMID:14717236

  2. Glucocorticoids improve acute dizziness symptoms following acute unilateral vestibulopathy.

    PubMed

    Batuecas-Caletrío, Angel; Yañez-Gonzalez, Raquel; Sanchez-Blanco, Carmen; Pérez, Pedro Blanco; González-Sanchez, Enrique; Sanchez, Luis Alberto Guardado; Kaski, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Acute unilateral vestibulopathy (AUV) is characterized by acute vertigo, nausea, and imbalance without neurological deficits or auditory symptomatology. Here, we explore the effect of glucocorticoid treatment on the degree of canal paresis in patients with AUV, and critically, establish its relationship with dizziness symptom recovery. We recruited consecutive patients who were retrospectively assigned to one of the two groups according to whether they received glucocorticoid treatment (n = 32) or not (n = 44). All patients underwent pure-tone audiometry, bithermal caloric testing, MRI brain imaging, and were asked to complete a dizziness handicap inventory on admission to hospital and just prior to hospital discharge. In the treatment group, the canal paresis at discharge was significantly lower than in the control group (mean ± SD % 38.04 ± 21.57 versus 82.79 ± 21.51, p < 0.001). We also observed a significant reduction in the intensity of nystagmus in patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment compared to the non-treatment group (p = 0.03). DHI test score was significantly lower at discharge in the treatment group (mean ± SD % 23.15 ± 12.40 versus 64.07 ± 12.87, p < 0.001), as was the length of hospital stay (2.18 ± 1.5 days versus 3.6 ± 1.7 days, p = 0.002). Glucocorticoid treatment leads to acute symptomatic improvement, with a reduced hospital stay and reduction in the intensity of acute nystagmus. Our findings suggest that glucocorticoids may accelerate vestibular compensation via a restoration of peripheral vestibular function, and therefore has important clinical implications for the treatment of AUV. PMID:26459091

  3. Acute pyelonephritis can have serious complications.

    PubMed

    Shields, Joanne; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2010-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) may predominantly involve the lower urinary tract, i.e. acute cystitis, or upper urinary tract consisting of the renal pelvis and kidney,, i.e. acute pyelonephritis The incidence of acute pyelonephritis is higher in young women than in men but the incidence in men over 65 is similar to that in older women. Women have up to a 10% risk of recurrent acute pyelonephritis in the year following a first acute episode. The equivalent risk in men is 6%. Acute pyelonephritis may be uncomplicated and resolve without serious sequelae. A minority of episodes may be complicated by acute kidney injury, papillary necrosis, renal or perinephric abscess or the development of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Acute pyelonephritis is generally caused by microorganisms ascending from the urethra via the bladder into the upper urinary tract. Rarely the kidney may be seeded by blood-borne infection. Ecoli is the most common uropathogen causing pyelonephritis accounting for 70-90% of infections. Species of Enterococci, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Staphylococci are responsible for the remaining infections. There is a rising incidence in the community of UTI with bacteria that produce extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes. These ESBL bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporins and increasingly to quinolones. Risk factors for uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis include recent sexual intercourse, acute cystitis, stress incontinence and diabetes and for complicated acute pyelonephritis include pregnancy, diabetes, anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract and renal calculi. PMID:20486480

  4. Endocrine function following acute SAH.

    PubMed

    Vespa, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes may occur after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, resulting in hypopituitarism. An electronic literature search was conducted to identify articles with English-language abstracts published between 1980 and March 2011, which addressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis insufficiency and hormone replacement. A total of 18 observational and prospective, randomized studies were selected for this review. Limited data are available, evaluating pituitary effects during the acute stage after subarachnoid hemorrhage, with inconsistent results being reported. Overall, after acute subarachnoid hemorrhage, cortisol levels may initially be supranormal, decreasing toward normal levels over time. During the months to years after subarachnoid hemorrhage, pituitary deficiency may occur in one out of three patients. Limited data suggest modest outcome benefits with fludrocortisone and no benefit or harm from corticosteroids. PMID:21809154

  5. Abdominal actinomycosis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Robert Joseph; Riela, Steven; Patel, Ravi; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the emergency department, reporting worsening sharp lower right quadrant abdominal pain for 3 days. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of inflammation in the peritoneal soft tissues adjacent to an enlarged and thick-walled appendix, an appendicolith, no abscess formation and a slightly thickened caecum consistent with acute appendicitis. During laparoscopic appendectomy, the caecum was noted to be firm, raising suspicion of malignancy. Surgical oncology team was consulted and open laparotomy with right hemicolectomy was performed. Pathology reported that the ileocaecal mass was not a malignancy but was, rather, actinomycosis. The patient was discharged after 10 days of intravenous antibiotics in the hospital, with the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. Although the original clinical and radiological findings in this case were highly suggestive of acute appendicitis, abdominal actinomycosis should be in the differential for right lower quadrant pain as it may be treated non-operatively.

  6. Clinical cases in acute intoxication.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sean B; Maguire, Jennifer; Mauck, Karen F

    2009-12-01

    Over 2.5 million accidental and intentional drug-related poisonings are reported annually in the United States. Early diagnosis and management of patients who present with acute intoxication can significantly reduce both morbidity and mortality. The initial evaluation of patients with suspected or proven intoxications should focus on hemodynamic stability, mental status, and respiratory function. However, early recognition of toxic ingestion is paramount to implementing life-saving treatments. Important historical clues are often found in a social history that considers intravenous drug use, alcohol use, and any access or exposure to illicit substances. A patient's medication list should also be scrutinized for psychoactive or sedative medications, such as tricyclic antidepressants or opioids. In this article we present case-based discussions of the specific diagnosis and management of 5 commonly occurring acute intoxication syndromes. PMID:20877175

  7. Severe acute pancreatitis and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K W; Stewart, I S; Imrie, C W

    2006-01-01

    For most patients with pregnancy-associated pancreatitis there is little maternal survival threat and only occasionally are there foetal deaths. We describe 4 young women with pregnancy-associated severe acute pancreatitis who each had gallstones. Their ages were 17, 18, 20 and 24 years. Each was a tertiary referral to our unit in Glasgow and each pursued a life-threatening course with hospital stays ranging from 37 to 90 days. One patient required pancreatic necrosectomy for infected necrosis, another had percutaneous management of a pancreatic abscess and 2 had cystogastrostomy as treatment for pancreatic pseudocyst. All underwent early endoscopic sphincterotomy and later cholecystectomy. It is important to be aware that pregnancy-associated acute pancreatitis may be severe, posing a survival threat even in the youngest patients. Gallstones, as we reported almost 20 years ago, are the most common aetiological factor in such patients.

  8. Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy.

    PubMed

    Serra E Moura Garcia, C; Sokolova, A; Torre, M L; Amaro, C

    2016-01-01

    Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy is a small vessel leucocytoclastic vasculitis affecting young infants. It is characterized by large, target-like, macular to purpuric plaques predominantly affecting the face, ear lobes and extremities. Non-pitting edema of the distal extremities and low-grade fever may also be present. Extra-cutaneous involvement is very rare. Although the lesions have a dramatic onset in a twenty-four to forty-eight hour period, usually the child has a non-toxic appearance. In most cases there are no changes in laboratory parameters. The cutaneous biopsy reveals an inflammatory perivascular infiltrate. It is a benign and auto-limited disease, with complete resolution within two to three weeks leaving no sequelae in the majority of cases. No recurrences are described. We report a case of a 42-day old girl admitted at our hospital with Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy.

  9. Evolution of acute orthopaedic care.

    PubMed

    Mamczak, Christiaan N; Born, Christopher T; Obremskey, William T; Dromsky, David M

    2012-01-01

    Current combat battlefield injuries are among the most complex and challenging orthopaedic cases. These injuries carry high risks for exsanguination and global contamination of extensive soft-tissue and complicated bony injuries. Military orthopaedic surgeons must employ the latest advances in acute combat casualty care to achieve favorable outcomes. Adaptive changes over the past 10 years of war have given today's surgeons the armamentarium to optimize patient care. Innovative methods of damage control resuscitation and surgery have led to increased survival. However, the fundamentals of surgical hemostasis and decontamination remain critical to successful management. The acute treatment of combat casualties involves a continuum of care from the point of injury through transport out of theater. Future research and education are paramount to better prepare military orthopaedic surgeons to further increase survivability and enhance the outcomes of service members with complex wounds.

  10. Genomic characterization of acute leukemias.

    PubMed

    Chiaretti, Sabina; Gianfelici, Valentina; Ceglie, Giulia; Foà, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, hematologic malignancies have been extensively evaluated due to the introduction of powerful technologies, such as conventional karyotyping, FISH analysis, gene and microRNA expression profiling, array comparative genomic hybridization and SNP arrays, and next-generation sequencing (including whole-exome sequencing and RNA-seq). These analyses have allowed for the refinement of the mechanisms underlying the leukemic transformation in several oncohematologic disorders and, more importantly, they have permitted the definition of novel prognostic algorithms aimed at stratifying patients at the onset of disease and, consequently, treating them in the most appropriate manner. Furthermore, the identification of specific molecular markers is opening the door to targeted and personalized medicine. The most important findings on novel acquisitions in the context of acute lymphoblastic leukemia of both B and T lineage and de novo acute myeloid leukemia are described in this review.

  11. Acute oesophageal necrosis (black oesophagus).

    PubMed

    Galtés, Ignasi; Gallego, María Ángeles; Esgueva, Raquel; Martin-Fumadó, Carles

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital after being found unconscious in his home. He had a history of alcoholism, multiple drug addictions, and type I diabetes mellitus. At admission, he had hyperglycaemia (550 mg/dL) with glucosuria and ketone bodies in the urine, along with septic shock refractory to bilateral alveolar infiltrates and severe respiratory failure. The patient died 24 hours post admission due to multiple organ failure, with diabetic ketoacidosis decompensated by possible respiratory infection in a patient with polytoxicomania. The autopsy confirmed the presence of acute bilateral bronchopneumonia, chronic pancreatitis, severe hepatic steatosis, and generalized congestive changes. At the oesophagus, acute oesophageal necrosis was evident. PMID:26949146

  12. Treating acute pancreatitis: what's new?

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikesh K; Moran, Robert A; Afghani, Elham; de-Madaria, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    The medical treatment of acute pancreatitis continues to focus on supportive care, including fluid therapy, nutrition, and antibiotics, all of which will be critically reviewed. Pharmacologic agents that were previously studied were found to be ineffective likely due to a combination of their targets and flaws in trial design. Potential future pharmacologic agents, particularly those that target intracellular calcium signaling, as well as considerations for trial design will be discussed. As the incidence of acute pancreatitis continues to increase, greater efforts will be needed to prevent hospitalization, readmission and excessive imaging in order to reduce overall healthcare costs. Primary prevention continues to focus on post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis and secondary prevention on cholecystectomy for biliary pancreatitis as well as alcohol and smoking abstinence.

  13. Acute exposure to rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Dire, D J; Wilkinson, J A

    1987-01-01

    Rhodamine B is a red colored dye that is used in cosmetic products. We report a case of 17 patients who were exposed to aerosolized Rhodamine B inside a maintenance shop. The mean duration of exposure was 26 minutes (range 2-65). Sixteen of the patients (94%) complained of acute symptoms including: burning of the eyes (82%), excessive tearing (47%), nasal burning (41%), nasal itching (35%), chest pain/tightness (35%), rhinorhea (29%), cough (29%), dyspnea (29%), burning of the throat (24%), burning/pruritic skin (24%), chest burning (12%), headache (6%), and nausea (6%). All of the patients had resolution of their symptoms within 24 hours (less than 4 hours in 63%). Acute exposure to Rhodamine B resulted in transient mucous membrane and skin irritation without evidence of serious sequellae.

  14. [Differential diagnosis of acute arthritis].

    PubMed

    Eviltis, Egidijus

    2003-01-01

    Acute arthritis can first present as a symptom of dangerous and rapidly progressing disease. It is quite easy to differentiate between arthritis and periarthritis. More problematical is correct early differential diagnosis of the acute arthritis. Determining whether one, several or many joints are affected can narrow the diagnostic possibilities. Arthrocentesis and synovial fluid testing provide much information and should be done at initial evaluation if possible. The presence or absence of fever, rash, family history of joint disease and exposure to infective organisms can further direct diagnostic studies and treatment. In general, to avoid masking clues, drug therapy should be delayed for mild symptoms until diagnosis is complete. This article is designed mostly for primary care physicians, residents and includes author's original data and review of recommended reading. PMID:12794379

  15. Managing acute enigmatic chest pain.

    PubMed

    Wielgosz, A T

    1996-09-01

    The author comments on the report by Dr. Akbar Panju and associates (see pages 541 to 547 of this issue) on patient outcomes associated with a discharge diagnosis of "chest pain not yet diagnosed." Acute chest pain without evidence of cardiac involvement presents a diagnostic challenge for the clinician, particularly in the present climate of cost containment. Esophageal disorders and psychiatric conditions appear to be the most prevalent causes of noncardiac chest pain. Although screening by means of electrocardiography and cardiac enzyme testing may rule out acute ischemia, and other tests may clearly point to a gastrointestinal cause, it is possible for cardiac and gastrointestinal problems to present simultaneously. Understanding and managing persistent chest pain even after a diagnosis has been made continues to challenge clinicians and researchers, and further progress in this area will depend on multidisciplinary collaboration.

  16. Managing acute enigmatic chest pain.

    PubMed Central

    Wielgosz, A T

    1996-01-01

    The author comments on the report by Dr. Akbar Panju and associates (see pages 541 to 547 of this issue) on patient outcomes associated with a discharge diagnosis of "chest pain not yet diagnosed." Acute chest pain without evidence of cardiac involvement presents a diagnostic challenge for the clinician, particularly in the present climate of cost containment. Esophageal disorders and psychiatric conditions appear to be the most prevalent causes of noncardiac chest pain. Although screening by means of electrocardiography and cardiac enzyme testing may rule out acute ischemia, and other tests may clearly point to a gastrointestinal cause, it is possible for cardiac and gastrointestinal problems to present simultaneously. Understanding and managing persistent chest pain even after a diagnosis has been made continues to challenge clinicians and researchers, and further progress in this area will depend on multidisciplinary collaboration. PMID:8804262

  17. Acute onset of postoperative syringohydromyelia

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Santosh Mohan; Balasubramaniam, Chidambaram; Subramaniam, K.

    2015-01-01

    Syringohydromyelia is a frequent finding in cases of tethered cord syndrome. The classical teaching is that the development and progression of a syrinx is a chronic process. We present a case report of an acute onset syringomyelia in an infant, who underwent an excision of a lumbosacral transitional lipoma and detethering of the cord. Immediately after recovery, the infant was found to have flaccid paraplegia. An emergency magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large acute onset syringomyelia for which he underwent an emergency midline myelotomy and release of fluid from the syrinx. Though the eventual recovery was good, this made us re-visit our understanding of the concept of syringohydromyelia. The case details and a plausible hypothesis for the rapid development of the syrinx are presented. PMID:26557165

  18. [Loperamide for acute infectious diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Douma, Joeri A J; Smulders, Yvo M

    2015-01-01

    Many physicians are resistant to the idea of prescribing loperamide for acute infectious traveller's diarrhoea and community-acquired diarrhoea because of the fear of possible adverse effects. Large randomized trials with loperamide, either alone or as an adjunct to antibiotic treatment, have in fact revealed positive rather than negative effects. International guidelines now often support the use of loperamide for the treatment of infectious diarrhoea without dysentery. There seems to be no reason to systematically avoid loperamide in patients with dysentery, but caution is advised. Loperamide can be used as monotherapy or as an adjunct to antibiotic treatment in immunocompetent adults with acute infectious traveller's diarrhoea or community-acquired diarrhoea without severe comorbidities. This can reduce both the frequency of diarrhoea and the time until the diarrhoea stops without the risk of severe complications.

  19. Progress in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kadia, Tapan M; Ravandi, Farhad; O'Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop M

    2015-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Steady gains in clinical research and a renaissance of genomics in leukemia have led to improved outcomes. The recognition of tremendous heterogeneity in AML has allowed individualized treatments of specific disease entities within the context of patient age, cytogenetics, and mutational analysis. The following is a comprehensive review of the current state of AML therapy and a roadmap of our approach to these distinct disease entities. PMID:25441110

  20. Acute hepatic failure in children.

    PubMed Central

    Riely, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Many diseases may present as acute hepatic failure in the pediatric age group, including viral hepatitis A and B, adverse drug reactions, both toxic and "hepatitic," and inherited metabolic disorders such as tyrosinemia, alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Management is primarily supportive, with care taken to anticipate the known complications of hepatic failure. Few "curative" therapies are known, although attempts at stimulating hepatic regeneration may be helpful. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:6433587

  1. Acute disposition of neck injuries.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Leslie

    2005-02-01

    Neck injuries can be some of the most serious and anxiety-producing injuries that occur during sporting events. It is important for the team physician to be prepared for the care of these injuries and be able to identify some of the more serious injuries. Proper care of these injuries can be life saving and prevent further injury and permanent disability. This article reviews the principles of management and latest evidence for acute neck injuries.

  2. Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) or “black esophagus” is a rare clinical entity with an unclear etiology. It is diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. The treatment is primarily medical, but the prognosis is generally poor due to advanced age and comorbid illnesses in patients who develop AEN. Herein, we discussed the implications of poor glycemic control in regards with AEN and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:27583242

  3. Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Update.

    PubMed

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) or "black esophagus" is a rare clinical entity with an unclear etiology. It is diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. The treatment is primarily medical, but the prognosis is generally poor due to advanced age and comorbid illnesses in patients who develop AEN. Herein, we discussed the implications of poor glycemic control in regards with AEN and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:27583242

  4. [The acute bleeding rectal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Hansen, H

    1985-06-14

    An acute bleeding rectal ulcer was the solitary condition in four patients. The cause of such an ulcer, which always results in heavy arterial bleeding, remains unknown. The source of bleeding is demonstrated by rectoscopy which may at times be difficult because of the large amount of blood in the rectum and the hidden position of the small ulcer. Sclerosing or circumferential suturing of the ulcer provides immediate cessation of bleeding and cure.

  5. Acute hydrocephalus following cerebellar infarct

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Elliot; Naqvi, Huma

    2010-01-01

    A 59-year-old man was admitted with a diagnosis of acute cerebellar infarct. The next day his level of consciousness deteriorated (Glasgow Coma Score 5) and repeat computed tomography (CT) brain scan showed subtle signs of hydrocephalus. Following neurosurgical intervention, he recovered and is now walking with a frame and assistance. The CT changes of hydrocephalus were subtle and difficult to spot. Recognition of these signs of hydrocephalus and prompt neurosurgical intervention were lifesaving. PMID:22355298

  6. Non-traumatic acute rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Taly, A B; Nair, K P; Arunodaya, G R; Das, S; Christopher, R; Mohan, C; Swamy, H S

    1999-03-01

    A boy developed sudden severe generalized muscle stiffness, bulbar weakness and passed dark coloured urine. Laboratory tests revealed marked elevation of creatinine kinase(CK) levels and myoglobinuria. Histopathology of quadriceps muscle showed features of acute rhabdomyolysis. Patient made complete clinical recovery over a period of three weeks and CK returned to normal level. The possible aetiologies of non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis are discussed and the relevant literature reviewed. PMID:10339709

  7. [Acute myocardial infarction during sport].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, M; Asakuma, S; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, T; Yasutomi, N; Iwasaki, T

    1995-10-01

    Thirty patients with acute myocardial infarction which occurred during sport were investigated to identify the type of sport, prodromata, situations at the onset of disease, habit of exercise, preceding medical evaluation, coronary risk factors, and coronary angiographic findings. Infarction occurred during golf in 12 patients, bowling in 4, gateball in 4, jogging or running in 5, baseball in 2, and tennis or table tennis in 3. The majority of the patients were playing ball games. Twenty-seven patients were men (90%) and 3 were women (10%). All patients had played the same kind of sport for several years. Twenty-four patients had one or more coronary risk factors, and especially 18 patients smoked cigarettes. Nine patients had experienced anterior chest pain but only two patients had received medical evaluation. Coronary angiography was performed in 25 patients (83.3%), revealing single-vessel disease in 14, two-vessel disease in 6, three-vessel disease in 4, and disease of all left main coronary trunks in 1. The acute episode of infarction occurred mainly in spring or fall. Many patients with acute myocardial infarction occurring during sport participate in sports of low or moderate dynamic and low static exercises which are generally regarded safe. Many patients had enjoyed their sports regularly for a long time. Though many patients had coronary risk factors, only a few had received a medical check before their heart attack.

  8. Acute poisoning with Tricholoma equestre.

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Chwaluk, Paweł; Sut, Michał

    2009-01-01

    Four cases, including three adults and one child, suffering from acute poisoning with Tricholoma equestre were described. The patients had eaten from 100 to 400 grams of the mushroom within a few consecutive meals. After consuming about 1000 grams of Tricholoma equestre for 3-4 days, the subjects developed fatigue, muscle weakness, myalgia, and in two cases acute respiratory failure with the need of respiratorotherapy. Maximal serum CK was 48136 U/L in the adults and 306 U/L in children. Maximal serum levels of AST and ALT were 802 U/L and 446 U/L in adults and 39 U/L, and 56 U/L in a child. All routine biochemical tests were within normal range. No other causes of rhabdomyolysis such as parasitic or viral infections, immune diseases, trauma or exposure to medications were found. Patient, aged 72 yrs., who developed acute respiratory failure, died in the second day of hospitalization. In other patients all the above mentioned symptoms and biochemical abnormalities disappeared from 2 to 3 weeks of hospitalization. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of appearance of rhabdo-myolysis after repeated consumption of large quantities of Tricholoma equestre. PMID:19788144

  9. Risk-Based Classification System of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-24

    Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  10. [Perioperative acute kidney injury and failure].

    PubMed

    Chhor, Vibol; Journois, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Perioperative period is very likely to lead to acute renal failure because of anesthesia (general or perimedullary) and/or surgery which can cause acute kidney injury. Characterization of acute renal failure is based on serum creatinine level which is imprecise during and following surgery. Studies are based on various definitions of acute renal failure with different thresholds which skewed their comparisons. The RIFLE classification (risk, injury, failure, loss, end stage kidney disease) allows clinicians to distinguish in a similar manner between different stages of acute kidney injury rather than using a unique definition of acute renal failure. Acute renal failure during the perioperative period can mainly be explained by iatrogenic, hemodynamic or surgical causes and can result in an increased morbi-mortality. Prevention of this complication requires hemodynamic optimization (venous return, cardiac output, vascular resistance), discontinuation of nephrotoxic drugs but also knowledge of the different steps of the surgery to avoid further degradation of renal perfusion. Diuretics do not prevent acute renal failure and may even push it forward especially during the perioperative period when venous retourn is already reduced. Edema or weight gain following surgery are not correlated with the vascular compartment volume, much less with renal perfusion. Treatment of perioperative acute renal failure is similar to other acute renal failure. Renal replacement therapy must be mastered to prevent any additional risk of hemodynamic instability or hydro-electrolytic imbalance.

  11. Acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yewen; Yin, Xing; Wijaya, Cori; Huang, Ming-He; McConnell, Bradley K

    2011-01-01

    With heart failure leading the cause of death in the USA (Hunt), biomedical research is fundamental to advance medical treatments for cardiovascular diseases. Animal models that mimic human cardiac disease, such as myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia-reperfusion (IR) that induces heart failure as well as pressure-overload (transverse aortic constriction) that induces cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (Goldman and Tarnavski), are useful models to study cardiovascular disease. In particular, myocardial ischemia (MI) is a leading cause for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality despite controlling certain risk factors such as arteriosclerosis and treatments via surgical intervention (Thygesen). Furthermore, an acute loss of the myocardium following myocardial ischemia (MI) results in increased loading conditions that induces ventricular remodeling of the infarcted border zone and the remote non-infarcted myocardium. Myocyte apoptosis, necrosis and the resultant increased hemodynamic load activate multiple biochemical intracellular signaling that initiates LV dilatation, hypertrophy, ventricular shape distortion, and collagen scar formation. This pathological remodeling and failure to normalize the increased wall stresses results in progressive dilatation, recruitment of the border zone myocardium into the scar, and eventually deterioration in myocardial contractile function (i.e. heart failure). The progression of LV dysfunction and heart failure in rats is similar to that observed in patients who sustain a large myocardial infarction, survive and subsequently develops heart failure (Goldman). The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model in rats has been used to mimic human cardiovascular disease; specifically used to study cardiac signaling mechanisms associated with heart failure as well as to assess the contribution of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of heart failure. The method described in this report is the rat model of acute myocardial

  12. Acute pancreatitis: clinical vs. CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.C.; Barkin, J.; Isikoff, M.B.; Silver stein, W.; Kalser, M.

    1982-08-01

    In a prospective study of 91 patients with acute pancreatitis, computed tomographic (CT) findings were correlated with the clinical type of acute pancreatitis. In acute edematous pancreatitis (63 patients; 16 with repeat CT), CT was normal (28%) or showed inflammation limited to the pancreas (61%). Phlegmonous changes were present in 11%, including one patient with focal pancreatic hemorrhage, indicating that clinically unsuspected hemorrhagic pancreatitis can occur. In acute necrotizing (hemorrhagic, suppurative) pancreatitis (nine patients; eight with repeat CT), no patient had a normal CT scan and 89% had phlegmonous changes. One patient had hemorrhagic pancreatitis and three had abscesses. In acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis (10 patients; three with repeat CT), there were pancreatic calcifications (70%), a focal mass (40%), and pancreatic ductal dilation (30%). On follow-up CT, the findings of acute pancreatitis did not always disappear with resolution of the clinical symptons. This was especialy true of phlegmonous pancreatitis, where the CT findings could persist for months.

  13. Rim sign: association with acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.L.; Perlman, S.B.; Wilson, M.A.; Polcyn, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    In a retrospective analysis of 218 hepatobiliary studies in patients clinically suspected of acute cholecystitis, a rim of increased hepatic activity adjacent to the gallbladder fossa (the rim sign) has been evaluated as a scintigraphic predictor of confirmed acute cholecystitis. Of 28 cases with pathologic confirmation of acute cholecystitis in this series, 17 (60%) demonstrated this sign. When associated with nonvisualization of the gallbladder at 1 hr, the positive predictive value of this photon-intense rim for acute cholecystitis was 94%. When the rim sign was absent, the positive predictive value of nonvisualization of the gallbladder at 1 hr for acute cholecystitis was only 36%. As this sign was always seen during the first hour postinjection, it can, when associated with nonvisualization, reduce the time required for completion of an hepatobiliary examination in suspected acute cholecystitis.

  14. Dengue fever with acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Keng-Liang; Changchien, Chi-Sin; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Eng, Hock-Liew; Kuo, Chung-Huang

    2003-06-01

    Dengue fever (DF) with acute acalculous cholecystitis is rarely reported. To investigate the incidence, treatment, and prognosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis in DF patients, we retrospectively studied 10 patients with DF and acute acalculous cholecystitis. From October 2001 to July 2002, 131 patients were diagnosed with DF. Ten of 131 DF patients (7.63%) had complications of acute acalculous cholecystitis. Two patients underwent cholecystectomy and one underwent percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage due to poor resolution of acute acalculous cholecystitis. We found acute acalculous cholecystitis in a small proportion of patients with DF. In our experience, closely monitoring vital signs to avoid shock and correct thrombocytopenia to avoid bleeding could be adequate for most patients. In some cases, surgical treatment may be needed for DF fever patients with complications of diffuse peritonitis.

  15. Stenting in Acute Lower Limb Arterial Occlusions

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, Jowad; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2008-07-15

    Management of critical limb ischemia of acute onset includes surgical embolectomy, bypass grafting, aspiration thrombectomy, thrombolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy followed by treatment of the underlying cause. We present our experience with the use of stents to treat acute embolic/thrombotic occlusions in one iliac and three femoropopliteal arteries. Although this is a small case series, excellent immediate and midterm results suggest that stenting of acute occlusions of the iliac, superficial femoral, and popliteal arteries is a safe and effective treatment option.

  16. Normal gallbladder scintigraphy in acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohrt, H.J.; Posalaky, I.P.; Shafer, R.B.

    1983-03-01

    Normal gallbladder scintigraphy occurs in 2 to 5% of reported patients with acute cholecystitis. Gallbladder visualization is found in patients with acalculous cholecystitis and in those with recent relief of cystic duct obstruction but persistence of inflammation. A patient is reported who had clinical and pathologic findings of acute cholecystitis but normal gallbladder visualization. This reemphasizes that the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis cannot be excluded by normal gallbladder scintigraphy.

  17. The cell cycle and acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Price, Peter M; Safirstein, Robert L; Megyesi, Judit

    2009-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) activates pathways of cell death and cell proliferation. Although seemingly discrete and unrelated mechanisms, these pathways can now be shown to be connected and even to be controlled by similar pathways. The dependence of the severity of renal-cell injury on cell cycle pathways can be used to control and perhaps to prevent acute kidney injury. This review is written to address the correlation between cellular life and death in kidney tubules, especially in acute kidney injury.

  18. A Case Report of Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis and Acute Hemorrhagic Cystitis due to Salmonella Typhi

    PubMed Central

    Beyazal Polat, Hatice; Beyazal Çeliker, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute hemorrhagic cystitis due to Salmonella Typhi are a rare condition. A 24-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with abdominal pain, nausea, fever, headache, urinary burning, and bloody urine. Based on clinical, laboratory, and radiological evaluations, the patient was diagnosed with acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute hemorrhagic cystitis due to Salmonella Typhi. The patient was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for two weeks. After the treatment, the patient's clinical and laboratory findings improved. Acute acalculous cholecystitis due to Salmonella Typhi concomitant with acute hemorrhagic cystitis is very rare and might be difficult to diagnose. Infectious agents such as Salmonella Typhi should be considered when acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute hemorrhagic cystitis are detected in adult patients with no underlying diseases. PMID:25161668

  19. Imaging of acute pancreatitis and its complications. Part 2: complications of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Türkvatan, A; Erden, A; Türkoğlu, M A; Seçil, M; Yüce, G

    2015-02-01

    The Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was introduced in 1992 and divides patients into mild and severe groups based on clinical and biochemical criteria. Recently, the terminology and classification scheme proposed at the initial Atlanta Symposium have been reviewed and a new consensus statement has been proposed by the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group. Major changes include subdividing acute fluid collections into "acute peripancreatic fluid collection" and "acute post-necrotic pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collection (acute necrotic collection)" based on the presence of necrotic debris. Delayed fluid collections have been similarly subdivided into "pseudocyst" and "walled of pancreatic necrosis". Appropriate use of the new terms describing the fluid collections is important for management decision-making in patients with acute pancreatitis. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of complications of the acute pancreatitis with emphasis on their prognostic significance and impact on clinical management and to clarify confusing terminology for pancreatic fluid collections.

  20. Drug induced acute pancreatitis: Does it exist?

    PubMed Central

    Tenner, Scott

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of acute pancreatitis continues to rise, establishing the etiology in order to prevent recurrence is important. Although the etiology of acute pancreatitis is not difficult in the majority of patients, almost a quarter of patients are initially labeled as having idiopathic acute pancreatitis. When confronted with a patient with acute pancreatitis and no clear etiology defined as an absence alcoholism, gallstones (ultrasound and/or MRI), a normal triglyceride level, and absence of tumor, it often appears reasonable to consider a drug as the cause of acute pancreatitis. Over 100 drugs have been implicated by case reports as causing acute pancreatitis. While some of these case reports are well written, many case reports represent poorly written experiences of the clinician simply implicating a drug without a careful evaluation. Over-reliance on case reports while ignoring randomized clinical trials and large pharmacoepidemiologic surveys has led to confusion about drug induced acute pancreatitis. This review will explain that drug induced acute pancreatitis does occur, but it is rare, and over diagnosis leads to misconceptions about the disease resulting in inappropriate patient care, increased litigation and a failure to address the true entity: idiopathic acute pancreatitis. PMID:25469020