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Sample records for acute erythroleukemia m6

  1. Kefir induces apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation in human acute erythroleukemia.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Mohammadreza; Salehi, Rasoul

    2016-01-01

    Acute erythroleukemia is an uncommon subtype of acute myeloid leukemia which has been considered to be a subtype of AML with a worse prognosis. Intensive chemotherapy is the first line of treatment. In recent years, the effect of kefir on some malignancies has been experimented. Kefir is a kind of beverage, which obtained by incubation of kefir grains with raw milk. Kefir grains are a symbiotic complex of different kinds of yeasts and bacteria, especially lactic acid bacteria which gather in a mostly carbohydrate matrix, named kefiran. We investigated the effect of kefir on acute erythroleukemia cell line (KG-1) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The cell line and PBMCs were treated with different doses of kefir and milk and incubated for three different times. We used Polymixin B to block the lipopolysaccharide and NaOH (1 mol/l) to neutralize the acidic media. Viability was detected by MTT assay. Apoptosis and necrosis were assessed by annexin-propidium iodide staining. Our results showed that kefir induced apoptosis and necrosis in KG-1 cell line. It was revealed that kefir decreased proliferation in erythroleukemia cell line. We did not observe a remarkable effect of kefir on PBMCs. Our study suggested that kefir may have potential to be an effective treatment for erythroleukemia. PMID:26708130

  2. Acute myeloid leukaemia (M6B: pure acute erythroid leukaemia) in a Thoroughbred foal.

    PubMed

    Forbes, G; Feary, D J; Savage, C J; Nath, L; Church, S; Lording, P

    2011-07-01

    A 10-week-old Thoroughbred filly was referred for anaemia of 4 weeks' duration. Haematology revealed severe anaemia and panleucopenia. Cytological examination of bone marrow smears revealed a myeloid to erythroid ratio <0.02:1 (reference range 0.5-2.4:1.0) and an abundance of erythroid precursor cells. The erythroid cell population included rubriblasts, prorubricytes and rubricytes, with only scant numbers of metarubricytes present. There were numerous mitotic erythroid cells, some of which were atypical and megaloblastic. These cytomorphological changes are consistent with pure acute erythroid leukaemia. No treatment was instituted and the filly died three days after presentation. This case illustrates the need to consider both haematology and bone marrow findings to establish a diagnosis of pure erythroid leukaemia. To our knowledge, there is no documented case of acute myeloproliferative disease in horses involving cells of erythroid lineage, but this condition should be considered a differential diagnosis for horses presenting with anaemia. PMID:21696377

  3. Idarubicin and Cytarabine With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  4. Biomarkers in Bone Marrow Samples From Pediatric Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-17

    Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  5. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without PSC 833, Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation, and/or Interleukin-2 in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  6. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Down Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  7. Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-29

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  8. Caspofungin Acetate or Fluconazole in Preventing Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-23

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Fungal Infection; Neutropenia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  9. Lenalidomide in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-25

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  11. Identification of de Novo Fanconi Anemia in Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-13

    Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Fanconi Anemia; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  12. Eltrombopag Olamine in Improving Platelet Recovery in Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  13. Bortezomib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Refractory, or Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-13

    Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  14. Alvocidib, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-14

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. Alvocidib, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  16. Azacitidine, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-06

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  17. Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-08

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. Omacetaxine Mepesuccinate, Cytarabine, and Decitabine in Treating Older Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-05

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  19. Eltrombopag Olamine in Treating Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-04

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  20. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Bone Marrow Transplantation in Treating Children With Acute Myelogenous Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  1. Trebananib With or Without Low-Dose Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-25

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  2. Clofarabine and Melphalan Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Myelodysplasia or Acute Leukemia in Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-09

    Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  3. Clofarabine, Cytarabine, and Filgrastim Followed by Infusion of Non-HLA Matched Ex Vivo Expanded Cord Blood Progenitors in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-13

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  4. Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Malignant Neoplasm; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  5. Ixazomib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-24

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  6. AKT Inhibitor MK-2206 in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  7. Vorinostat and Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-11-03

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  8. Arsenic Trioxide in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-13

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  9. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Valspodar in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. Bortezomib, Daunorubicin, and Cytarabine in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-04

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  11. Early Discharge and Outpatients Care in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome or Acute Myeloid Leukemia Previously Treated With Intensive Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-05

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  12. Alvocidib, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride or Cytarabine and Daunorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-10

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  13. Reduced Intensity Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With De Novo or Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-19

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  14. Clofarabine or Daunorubicin Hydrochloride and Cytarabine Followed By Decitabine or Observation in Treating Older Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-16

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. Lithium Carbonate and Tretinoin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-19

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  16. Sirolimus, Idarubicin, and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-03

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  17. Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Intensive Induction Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-18

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. MEK Inhibitor MEK162, Idarubicin, and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-25

    Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  19. Cyclosporine, Pravastatin Sodium, Etoposide, and Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-06-18

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  20. Decitabine Followed by Idarubicin and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-09

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts

  1. Spi-1/PU.1 transgenic mice develop multistep erythroleukemias.

    PubMed Central

    Moreau-Gachelin, F; Wendling, F; Molina, T; Denis, N; Titeux, M; Grimber, G; Briand, P; Vainchenker, W; Tavitian, A

    1996-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis of the spi-1 gene is associated with the emergence of malignant proerythroblasts during Friend virus-induced acute erythroleukemia. To determine the role of spi-1/PU.1 in the genesis of leukemia, we generated spi-1 transgenic mice. In one founder line the transgene was overexpressed as an unexpected-size transcript in various mouse tissues. Homozygous transgenic animals gave rise to live-born offspring, but 50% of the animals developed a multistep erythroleukemia within 1.5 to 6 months of birth whereas the remainder survived without evidence of disease. At the onset of the disease, mice became severely anemic. Their hematopoietic tissues were massively invaded with nontumorigenic proerythroblasts that express a high level of Spi-1 protein. These transgenic proerythroblasts are partially blocked in differentiation and strictly dependent on erythropoietin for their proliferation both in vivo and in vitro. A complete but transient regression of the disease was observed after erythrocyte transfusion, suggesting that the constitutive expression of spi-1 is related to the block of the differentiation of erythroid precursors. At relapse, erythropoietin-independent malignant proerythroblasts arose. Growth factor autonomy could be partially explained by the autocrine secretion of erythropoietin; however, other genetic events appear to be necessary to confer the full malignant phenotype. These results reveal that overexpression of spi-1 is essential for malignant erythropoiesis and does not alter other hematopoietic lineages. PMID:8628313

  2. Erythroleukemia cells acquire an alternative mitophagy capability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Fang, Yixuan; Yan, Lili; Yuan, Na; Zhang, Suping; Xu, Li; Nie, Meilan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wang, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia cells are superior to hematopoietic cells with a normal differentiation potential in buffering cellular stresses, but the underlying mechanisms for this leukemic advantage are not fully understood. Using CRISPR/Cas9 deletion of the canonical autophagy-essential gene Atg7, we found that erythroleukemia K562 cells are armed with two sets of autophagic machinery. Alternative mitophagy is functional regardless of whether the canonical autophagic mechanism is intact or disrupted. Although canonical autophagy defects attenuated cell cycling, proliferation and differentiation potential, the leukemia cells retained their abilities for mitochondrial clearance and for maintaining low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Treatment with a specific inducer of mitophagy revealed that the canonical autophagy-defective erythroleukemia cells preserved a mitophagic response. Selective induction of mitophagy was associated with the upregulation and localization of RAB9A on the mitochondrial membrane in both wild-type and Atg7−/− leukemia cells. When the leukemia cells were treated with the alternative autophagy inhibitor brefeldin A or when the RAB9A was knocked down, this mitophagy was prohibited. This was accompanied by elevated ROS levels and apoptosis as well as reduced DNA damage repair. Therefore, the results suggest that erythroleukemia K562 cells possess an ATG7-independent alternative mitophagic mechanism that functions even when the canonical autophagic process is impaired, thereby maintaining the ability to respond to stresses such as excessive ROS and DNA damage. PMID:27091640

  3. Lipid changes associated with erythroid differentiation of Friend erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Fallani, A; Arcangeli, A; Ruggieri, S

    1987-01-01

    Friend erythroleukemia cells were induced to differentiate by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and hexamethylene-bis-acetamide (HBMA) in order to investigate whether their lipid characteristics, common to other systems of transformed cells, revert to a normal differentiation pattern. DBA/2 mouse erythrocytes were examined as a model of terminal differentiation in erythroid lineage. Variants of erythroleukemia cells not inducible to erythroid differentiation by DMSO and HMBA were also used in this study, in order to test whether lipid modifications occurring in differentiated erythroleukemia cells were related to the differentiation process or caused by specific effects of the inducers. Friend erythroleukemia cells showed the same lipid characteristics as those found in other transformed cell types. That is, a high level of ether-linked lipids and low percentages of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids along with an accumulation of monoenoic fatty acids in phospholipids. These lipid characteristics remained unchanged when erythroleukemia cells were induced to differentiation by either DMSO or HMBA. However, other lipid components of erythroleukemia cells, e.g., phosphatidylethanolamine and triglycerides, were affected by erythroid differentiation. There were also changes of some lipid components of erythroleukemia cells, such as cholesteryl esters, which were related to specific effects of the inducers. Both DMSO- and HMBA-resistant variants differed from the inducible erythroleukemia cells, mainly in their ether-linked phospholipid pattern. PMID:3475757

  4. MS-275 and GM-CSF in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome and/or Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  5. SB-715992 in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, or Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-10

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  6. Tanespimycin and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

  7. 7-Hydroxystaurosporine and Perifosine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia or High Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  8. Vorinostat, Cytarabine, and Etoposide in Treating Patients With Relapsed and/or Refractory Acute Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Myeloproliferative Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

  9. Molecular cloning, primary structure, and expression of the human platelet/erythroleukemia cell 12-lipoxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Funk, C D; Furci, L; FitzGerald, G A

    1990-01-01

    The major pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets proceeds via a 12-lipoxygenase enzyme; however, the biological role of the product of this reaction, 12-hydro(pero)xyeicosatetraenoic acid [12-H(P)ETE], is unknown. Using a combination of the polymerase chain reaction and conventional screening procedures, we have isolated cDNA clones encoding the human platelet/human erythroleukemia (HEL) cell 12-lipoxygenase. From the deduced primary structure, human platelet/HEL 12-lipoxygenase would encode a Mr 75,000 protein consisting of 663 amino acids. The cDNA encoding the full-length protein (pCDNA-121x) under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter was expressed in simian COS-M6 cells. Intact cells and lysed-cell supernatants were able to synthesize 12-H(P)ETE from arachidonic acid, whereas no 12-H(P)ETE synthesis was detected in mock-transfected cells. A single 2.4-kilobase mRNA was detected in erythroleukemia cells but not in several other tissues and cell lines evaluated by Northern blot analysis. Comparison of the human platelet/HEL 12-lipoxygenase sequence with that of porcine leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase and human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase revealed 65% amino acid identity to both enzymes. By contrast, the leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase is 86% identical to human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase. Sequence data and previously demonstrated immunochemical and biochemical evidence support the existence of distinct 12-lipoxygenase isoforms. The availability of cDNA probes for human platelet/HEL cell 12-lipoxygenase should facilitate elucidation of the biological role of this pathway. Images PMID:2377602

  10. PU.1 silencing leads to terminal differentiation of erythroleukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Atar, Orna; Levi, Ben-Zion . E-mail: blevi@technion.ac.il

    2005-04-22

    The transcription factor PU.1 plays a central role in development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Evidence from PU.1 knockout mice indicates a pivotal role for PU.1 in myeloid lineage and B-lymphocyte development. In addition, PU.1 is a key player in the development of Friend erythroleukemia disease, which is characterized by proliferation and differentiation arrest of proerythrocytes. To study the role of PU.1 in erythroleukemia, we have used murine erythroleukemia cells, isolated from Friend virus-infected mice. Expression of PU.1 small interfering RNA in these cells led to significant inhibition of PU.1 levels. This was accompanied by inhibition of proliferation and restoration in the ability of the proerythroblastic cells to produce hemoglobin, i.e., reversion of the leukemic phenotype. The data suggest that overexpression of PU.1 gene is the immediate cause for maintaining the leukemic phenotype of the disease by retaining the self-renewal capacity of transformed erythroblastic cells and by blocking the terminal differentiation program towards erythrocytes.

  11. Effects of trichostatins on differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, M.; Nomura, S.; Beppu, T.

    1987-07-15

    The fungistatic antibiotics trichostatins (TS) A and C were isolated from culture broth of Streptomyces platensis No. 145 and were found to be potent inducers of differentiation in murine erythroleukemia (Friend and RV133) cells at concentrations of 1.5 X 10(-8) M for TSA and 5 X 10(-7) M for TSC. Differentiation induced by TS was cooperatively enhanced by UV irradiation but not by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. This enhanced activity was completely inhibited by adding cycloheximide to the culture medium 2 h after exposure to TS, suggesting that TS are dimethyl sulfoxide-type inducers of erythroid differentiation. No inhibitory effect of TS was observed on macromolecular synthesis in cultured cells.

  12. c-myc protooncogene expression in mouse erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, H M

    1989-01-01

    Murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells are erythroid progenitors whose programs of erythroid differentiation has been interrupted by transformation with the Friend virus complex. As a result of the ability of certain chemicals such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to induce terminal erythroid differentiation, the cells have been used as a model for understanding the molecular basis of cellular differentiation. Recent work on MEL cells as well as other differentiating systems indicates that expression of cellular protooncogenes is implicated in chemically mediated differentiation. In MEL cells the expression of the c-myc protooncogene undergoes unusual biphasic changes following inducer treatment. Levels of c-myc mRNA decrease 10- to 20-fold between 1 and 2 hr and are then reexpressed between 12 and 24 hr. These changes occur as a result of complex transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory events. Recent DNA transfection experiments, in which MEL cells were transfected with myc expression vectors, indicate that both the early decrease in c-myc expression and its subsequent reexpression are important events in the differentiation pathway. The work on MEL cells, as well as on other models of differentiation, is directed at understanding the molecular basis of leukemogenic transformation and cellular differentiation. The ability of c-myc, as well as other protooncogenes, to influence both of these events indicates that cellular protooncogenes play a central role in their regulation. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. PMID:2647476

  13. Decitabine With or Without Bortezomib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-14

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  14. Single-nucleotide resolution mapping of m6A and m6Am throughout the transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Bastian; Grozhik, Anya V.; Olarerin-George, Anthony O.; Meydan, Cem; Mason, Christopher E.; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2015-01-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant modified base in eukaryotic mRNA and has been linked to diverse effects on mRNA fate. Current m6A mapping approaches localize m6A residues to 100–200 nt-long regions of transcripts. The precise position of m6A in mRNAs cannot be identified on a transcriptome-wide level because there are no chemical methods to distinguish between m6A and adenosine. Here we show that anti-m6A antibodies can induce specific mutational signatures at m6A residues after ultraviolet light-induced antibody-RNA crosslinking and reverse transcription. We find these antibodies similarly induce mutational signatures at N6,2′-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am), a nucleotide found at the first encoded position of certain mRNAs. Using these mutational signatures, we map m6A and m6Am at single-nucleotide resolution in human and mouse mRNA and identify snoRNAs as a novel class of m6A-containing ncRNAs. PMID:26121403

  15. M-6 steam drive project review report

    SciTech Connect

    Cerrada, R.; Puig, F.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the status and experiences gained in the M-6 steam drive project after 3 yr of steam injection is presented. The M-6 project is being conducted in a fully depleted heavy oil reservoir of Venezuela Bolivar Coast field, and comprises 151 wells of which 19 are injectors. The review is based on the overall project performance and describes operational problems, steam plant performance, production forecast and special data acquisition. After a total of ca 7.8 x 106 metric tons of steam injected, steam breakthrough has been observed in some hexagons. Remedial shut off in oil production wells have performed successfully. The M-6 project continues to provide useful experience and information which will be used in planning future steam drive projects in the heavy oil reservoirs of the Bolivar Coast.

  16. Single-nucleotide-resolution mapping of m6A and m6Am throughout the transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Linder, Bastian; Grozhik, Anya V; Olarerin-George, Anthony O; Meydan, Cem; Mason, Christopher E; Jaffrey, Samie R

    2015-08-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant modified base in eukaryotic mRNA and has been linked to diverse effects on mRNA fate. Current mapping approaches localize m6A residues to transcript regions 100-200 nt long but cannot identify precise m6A positions on a transcriptome-wide level. Here we developed m6A individual-nucleotide-resolution cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (miCLIP) and used it to demonstrate that antibodies to m6A can induce specific mutational signatures at m6A residues after ultraviolet light-induced antibody-RNA cross-linking and reverse transcription. We found that these antibodies similarly induced mutational signatures at N(6),2'-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am), a modification found at the first nucleotide of certain mRNAs. Using these signatures, we mapped m6A and m6Am at single-nucleotide resolution in human and mouse mRNA and identified small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) as a new class of m6A-containing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). PMID:26121403

  17. Cholesterol esterification during differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia (Friend) cells.

    PubMed

    Mulas, Maria Franca; Mandas, Antonella; Abete, Claudia; Dessì, Sandra; Mocali, Alessandra; Paoletti, Francesco

    2011-08-31

    Cholesterol is an essential constituent of all mammalian cell membranes and its availability is therefore a prerequisite for cellular growth and other functions. Several lines of evidence are now indicating an association between alterations of cholesterol homeostasis and cell cycle progression. However, the role of cholesterol in cell differentiation is still largely unknown. To begin to address this issue, in this study we examined changes in cholesterol metabolism and in the mRNA levels of proteins involved in cholesterol import and esterification (multi-drug resistance, MDR-3) and acylCoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and cholesterol export (caveolin-1) in Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia cells (MELC), in the absence or in the presence of the chemical inducer of differentiation, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). FBS-stimulated growth of MELC was accompanied by an immediate elevation of cholesterol synthesis and cholesterol esterification, and by an increase in the levels of MDR-3 and ACAT mRNAs. A decrease in caveolin-1 expression was also observed. However, when MELC were treated with HMBA, the inhibition of DNA synthesis caused by HMBA treatment, was associated with a decrease in cholesterol esterification and in ACAT and MDR-3 mRNA levels and an increase in caveolin-1 mRNA. Detection of cytoplasmic neutral lipids by staining MELC with oil red O, a dye able to evidence CE but not FC, revealed that HMBA-treatment also reduced growth-stimulated accumulation of cholesterol ester to approximately the same extent as the ACAT inhibitor, SaH. Overall, these results indicate for the first time a role of cholesterol esterification and of some related genes in differentiation of erythroid cells. PMID:22184540

  18. Cholesterol esterification during differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia (Friend) cells

    PubMed Central

    Mulas, Maria Franca; Mandas, Antonella; Abete, Claudia; Dessì, Sandra; Mocali, Alessandra; Paoletti, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol is an essential constituent of all mammalian cell membranes and its availability is therefore a prerequisite for cellular growth and other functions. Several lines of evidence are now indicating an association between alterations of cholesterol homeostasis and cell cycle progression. However, the role of cholesterol in cell differentiation is still largely unknown. To begin to address this issue, in this study we examined changes in cholesterol metabolism and in the mRNA levels of proteins involved in cholesterol import and esterification (multi-drug resistance, MDR-3) and acylCoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and cholesterol export (caveolin-1) in Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia cells (MELC), in the absence or in the presence of the chemical inducer of differentiation, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). FBS-stimulated growth of MELC was accompanied by an immediate elevation of cholesterol synthesis and cholesterol esterification, and by an increase in the levels of MDR-3 and ACAT mRNAs. A decrease in caveolin-1 expression was also observed. However, when MELC were treated with HMBA, the inhibition of DNA synthesis caused by HMBA treatment, was associated with a decrease in cholesterol esterification and in ACAT and MDR-3 mRNA levels and an increase in caveolin-1 mRNA. Detection of cytoplasmic neutral lipids by staining MELC with oil red O, a dye able to evidence CE but not FC, revealed that HMBA-treatment also reduced growth-stimulated accumulation of cholesterol ester to approximately the same extent as the ACAT inhibitor, SaH. Overall, these results indicate for the first time a role of cholesterol esterification and of some related genes in differentiation of erythroid cells. PMID:22184540

  19. Human platelet/erythroleukemia cell prostaglandin G/H synthase: cDNA cloning, expression, and gene chromosomal assignment.

    PubMed

    Funk, C D; Funk, L B; Kennedy, M E; Pong, A S; Fitzgerald, G A

    1991-06-01

    Platelets metabolize arachidonic acid to thromboxane A2, a potent platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor compound. The first step of this transformation is catalyzed by prostaglandin (PG) G/H synthase, a target site for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We have isolated the cDNA for both human platelet and human erythroleukemia cell PGG/H synthase using the polymerase chain reaction and conventional screening procedures. The cDNA encoding the full-length protein was expressed in COS-M6 cells. Microsomal fractions from transfected cells produced prostaglandin endoperoxide-derived products which were inhibited by indomethacin and aspirin. Mutagenesis of the serine residue at position 529, the putative aspirin acetylation site, to an asparagine reduced cyclooxygenase activity to barely detectable levels, an effect observed previously with the expressed sheep vesicular gland enzyme. Platelet-derived growth factor and phorbol ester differentially regulated the expression of PGG/H synthase mRNA levels in the megakaryocytic/platelet-like HEL cell line. The PGG/H synthase gene was assigned to chromosome 9 by analysis of a human--hamster somatic hybrid DNA panel. The availability of platelet PGG/H synthase cDNA should enhance our understanding of the important structure/function domains of this protein and its gene regulation. PMID:1907252

  20. Human platelet/erythroleukemia cell prostaglandin G/H synthase: cDNA cloning, expression, and gene chromosomal assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, C.D.; Funk, L.B.; Kennedy, M.E.; Pong, A.S.; Fitzgerald, G.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Platelets metabolize arachidonic acid to thromboxane A{sub 2}, a potent platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor compound. The first step of this transformation is catalyzed by prostaglandin (PG) G/H synthase, a target site for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We have isolated the cDNA for both human platelet and human erythroleukemia cell PGG/H synthase using the polymerase chain reaction and conventional screening procedures. The cDNA encoding the full-length protein was expressed in COS-M6 cells. Microsomal fractions from transfected cells produced prostaglandin endoperoxide derived products which were inhibited by indomethacin and aspirin. Mutagenesis of the serine residue at position 529, the putative aspirin acetylation site, to an asparagine reduced cyclooxygenase activity to barely detectable levels, an effect observed previously with the expressed sheep vesicular gland enzyme. Platelet-derived growth factor and phorbol ester differentially regulated the expression of PGG/H synthase mRNA levels in the megakaryocytic/platelet-like HEL cell line. The PGG/H synthase gene was assigned to chromosome 9 by analysis of a human-hamster somatic hybrid DNA panel. The availability of platelet PGG/H synthase cDNA should enhance our understanding of the important structure/function domains of this protein and it gene regulation.

  1. High-Resolution N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) Map Using Photo-Crosslinking-Assisted m6A Sequencing**

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Lu, Zhike; Wang, Xiao; Fu, Ye; Luo, Guan-Zheng; Liu, Nian; Han, Dali; Dominissini, Dan; Dai, Qing; Pan, Tao; He, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant internal modification in eukaryotic mRNA and plays regulatory roles in mRNA metabolism. However, methods to precisely locate the m6A modification remain limited. We present here a photo-crosslinking-assisted m6A sequencing strategy (PA-m6A-seq) to more accurately define sites with m6A modification. Using this strategy, we obtained a high-resolution map of m6A in a human transcriptome. The map resembles the general distribution pattern observed previously, and reveals new m6A sites at base resolution. Our results provide insight into the relationship between the methylation regions and the binding sites of RNA-binding proteins. PMID:25491922

  2. Recent advances in dynamic m6A RNA modification.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guangchao; Li, Hua-Bing; Yin, Zhinan; Flavell, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    The identification of m(6)A demethylases and high-throughput sequencing analysis of methylated transcriptome corroborated m(6)A RNA epigenetic modification as a dynamic regulation process, and reignited its investigation in the past few years. Many basic concepts of cytogenetics have been revolutionized by the growing understanding of the fundamental role of m(6)A in RNA splicing, degradation and translation. In this review, we summarize typical features of methylated transcriptome in mammals, and highlight the 'writers', 'erasers' and 'readers' of m(6)A RNA modification. Moreover, we emphasize recent advances of biological functions of m(6)A and conceive the possible roles of m(6)A in the regulation of immune response and related diseases. PMID:27249342

  3. Recent advances in dynamic m6A RNA modification

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guangchao; Yin, Zhinan

    2016-01-01

    The identification of m6A demethylases and high-throughput sequencing analysis of methylated transcriptome corroborated m6A RNA epigenetic modification as a dynamic regulation process, and reignited its investigation in the past few years. Many basic concepts of cytogenetics have been revolutionized by the growing understanding of the fundamental role of m6A in RNA splicing, degradation and translation. In this review, we summarize typical features of methylated transcriptome in mammals, and highlight the ‘writers’, ‘erasers’ and ‘readers’ of m6A RNA modification. Moreover, we emphasize recent advances of biological functions of m6A and conceive the possible roles of m6A in the regulation of immune response and related diseases. PMID:27249342

  4. A Self-Diagnostic System for the M6 Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, Patrick M.; Lekki, John

    2001-01-01

    The design of a Self-Diagnostic (SD) accelerometer system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine is presented. This retrofit system connects diagnostic electronic hardware and software to the current M6 accelerometer system. This paper discusses the general operation of the M6 accelerometer SD system and procedures for developing and evaluating the SD system. Signal processing techniques using M6 accelerometer diagnostic data are explained. Test results include diagnostic data responding to changing ambient temperature, mounting torque and base mounting impedance.

  5. m(6)A-LAIC-seq reveals the census and complexity of the m(6)A epitranscriptome.

    PubMed

    Molinie, Benoit; Wang, Jinkai; Lim, Kok Seong; Hillebrand, Roman; Lu, Zhi-Xiang; Van Wittenberghe, Nicholas; Howard, Benjamin D; Daneshvar, Kaveh; Mullen, Alan C; Dedon, Peter; Xing, Yi; Giallourakis, Cosmas C

    2016-08-01

    N(6)-Methyladenosine (m(6)A) is a widespread, reversible chemical modification of RNA molecules, implicated in many aspects of RNA metabolism. Little quantitative information exists as to either how many transcript copies of particular genes are m(6)A modified ('m(6)A levels') or the relationship of m(6)A modification(s) to alternative RNA isoforms. To deconvolute the m(6)A epitranscriptome, we developed m(6)A-level and isoform-characterization sequencing (m(6)A-LAIC-seq). We found that cells exhibit a broad range of nonstoichiometric m(6)A levels with cell-type specificity. At the level of isoform characterization, we discovered widespread differences in the use of tandem alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites by methylated and nonmethylated transcript isoforms of individual genes. Strikingly, there is a strong bias for methylated transcripts to be coupled with proximal APA sites, resulting in shortened 3' untranslated regions, while nonmethylated transcript isoforms tend to use distal APA sites. m(6)A-LAIC-seq yields a new perspective on transcriptome complexity and links APA usage to m(6)A modifications. PMID:27376769

  6. Chromosomal mapping of the human M6 genes

    SciTech Connect

    Olinsky, S.; Loop, B.T.; DeKosky, A.

    1996-05-01

    M6 is a neuronal membrane glycoprotein that may have an important role in neural development. This molecule was initially defined by a monoclonal antibody that affected the survival of cultured cerebellar neurons and the outgrowth of neurites. The nature of the antigen was discovered by expression cDNA cloning using this monoclonal antibody. Two distinct murine M6 cDNAs (designated M6a and M6b) whose deduced amino acid sequences were remarkably similar to that of the myelin proteolipid protein human cDNA and genomic clones encoding M6a and M6b and have characterized them by restriction mapping, Southern hybridization with cDNA probes, and sequence analysis. We have localized these genes within the human genome by FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). The human M6a gene is located at 4q34, and the M6b gene is located at Xp22.2 A number of human neurological disorders have been mapped to the Xp22 region, including Aicardi syndrome (MIM 304050), Rett syndrome (MIM 312750), X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (MIM 302801), and X-linked mental retardation syndromes (MRX1, MIM 309530). This raises the possibility that a defect in the M6b gene is responsible for one of these neurological disorders. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  7. m(6)A: Signaling for mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Samir; Xiao, Wen; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Yang, Yun-Gui

    2016-09-01

    Among myriads of distinct chemical modifications in RNAs, dynamic N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is one of the most prevalent modifications in eukaryotic mRNAs and non-coding RNAs. Similar to the critical role of chemical modifications in regulation of DNA and protein activities, RNA m(6)A modification is also observed to be involved in the regulation of diverse functions of RNAs including meiosis, fertility, development, cell reprogramming and circadian period. The RNA m(6)A modification is recognized by YTH domain containing family proteins comprising of YTHDC1-2 and YTHDF1-3. Here we focus on the nuclear m(6)A reader YTHDC1 and its regulatory role in alternative splicing and other RNA metabolic processes. PMID:27351695

  8. Azacitidine, Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride, and Etoposide in Treating Older Patients With Poor-Prognosis Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-18

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  9. Tipifarnib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-19

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. GATA-1 Inhibits PU.1 Gene via DNA and Histone H3K9 Methylation of Its Distal Enhancer in Erythroleukemia.

    PubMed

    Burda, Pavel; Vargova, Jarmila; Curik, Nikola; Salek, Cyril; Papadopoulos, Giorgio Lucio; Strouboulis, John; Stopka, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    GATA-1 and PU.1 are two important hematopoietic transcription factors that mutually inhibit each other in progenitor cells to guide entrance into the erythroid or myeloid lineage, respectively. PU.1 controls its own expression during myelopoiesis by binding to the distal URE enhancer, whose deletion leads to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We herein present evidence that GATA-1 binds to the PU.1 gene and inhibits its expression in human AML-erythroleukemias (EL). Furthermore, GATA-1 together with DNA methyl Transferase I (DNMT1) mediate repression of the PU.1 gene through the URE. Repression of the PU.1 gene involves both DNA methylation at the URE and its histone H3 lysine-K9 methylation and deacetylation as well as the H3K27 methylation at additional DNA elements and the promoter. The GATA-1-mediated inhibition of PU.1 gene transcription in human AML-EL mediated through the URE represents important mechanism that contributes to PU.1 downregulation and leukemogenesis that is sensitive to DNA demethylation therapy. PMID:27010793

  11. GATA-1 Inhibits PU.1 Gene via DNA and Histone H3K9 Methylation of Its Distal Enhancer in Erythroleukemia

    PubMed Central

    Burda, Pavel; Vargova, Jarmila; Curik, Nikola; Salek, Cyril; Papadopoulos, Giorgio Lucio; Strouboulis, John; Stopka, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    GATA-1 and PU.1 are two important hematopoietic transcription factors that mutually inhibit each other in progenitor cells to guide entrance into the erythroid or myeloid lineage, respectively. PU.1 controls its own expression during myelopoiesis by binding to the distal URE enhancer, whose deletion leads to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We herein present evidence that GATA-1 binds to the PU.1 gene and inhibits its expression in human AML-erythroleukemias (EL). Furthermore, GATA-1 together with DNA methyl Transferase I (DNMT1) mediate repression of the PU.1 gene through the URE. Repression of the PU.1 gene involves both DNA methylation at the URE and its histone H3 lysine-K9 methylation and deacetylation as well as the H3K27 methylation at additional DNA elements and the promoter. The GATA-1-mediated inhibition of PU.1 gene transcription in human AML-EL mediated through the URE represents important mechanism that contributes to PU.1 downregulation and leukemogenesis that is sensitive to DNA demethylation therapy. PMID:27010793

  12. Topology of the human and mouse m6A RNA methylomes revealed by m6A-seq.

    PubMed

    Dominissini, Dan; Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Sharon; Schwartz, Schraga; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Ungar, Lior; Osenberg, Sivan; Cesarkas, Karen; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Amariglio, Ninette; Kupiec, Martin; Sorek, Rotem; Rechavi, Gideon

    2012-05-10

    An extensive repertoire of modifications is known to underlie the versatile coding, structural and catalytic functions of RNA, but it remains largely uncharted territory. Although biochemical studies indicate that N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent internal modification in messenger RNA, an in-depth study of its distribution and functions has been impeded by a lack of robust analytical methods. Here we present the human and mouse m(6)A modification landscape in a transcriptome-wide manner, using a novel approach, m(6)A-seq, based on antibody-mediated capture and massively parallel sequencing. We identify over 12,000 m(6)A sites characterized by a typical consensus in the transcripts of more than 7,000 human genes. Sites preferentially appear in two distinct landmarks--around stop codons and within long internal exons--and are highly conserved between human and mouse. Although most sites are well preserved across normal and cancerous tissues and in response to various stimuli, a subset of stimulus-dependent, dynamically modulated sites is identified. Silencing the m(6)A methyltransferase significantly affects gene expression and alternative splicing patterns, resulting in modulation of the p53 (also known as TP53) signalling pathway and apoptosis. Our findings therefore suggest that RNA decoration by m(6)A has a fundamental role in regulation of gene expression. PMID:22575960

  13. Tipifarnib and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in Blast Phase

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-14

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Blastic Phase; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Disease; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  14. Glutathione level regulates HNE-induced genotoxicity in human erythroleukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Umesh C.S.; Ramana, Kota V.; Awasthi, Yogesh C.; Srivastava, Satish K.

    2008-03-01

    4-Hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) is one of the most abundant and toxic lipid aldehydes formed during lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species. We have investigated the genotoxic effects of HNE and its regulation by cellular glutathione (GSH) levels in human erythroleukemia (K562) cells. Incubation of K562 cells with HNE (5-10 {mu}M) significantly elicited a 3- to 5-fold increased DNA damage in a time- and dose-dependent manner as measured by comet assay. Depletion of GSH in cells by L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO) significantly increased HNE-induced DNA damage, whereas supplementation of GSH by incubating the cells with GSH-ethyl ester significantly decreased HNE-induced genotoxicity. Further, overexpression of mGSTA4-4, a HNE-detoxifying GST isozyme, significantly prevented HNE-induced DNA damage in cells, and ablation of GSTA4-4 and aldose reductase with respective siRNAs further augmented HNE-induced DNA damage. These results suggest that the genotoxicity of HNE is highly dependent on cellular GSH/GST/AR levels and favorable modulation of the aldehyde detoxification system may help in controlling the oxidative stress-induced complications.

  15. BET bromodomain inhibition rescues erythropoietin differentiation of human erythroleukemia cell line UT7

    SciTech Connect

    Goupille, Olivier; Penglong, Tipparat; Lefevre, Carine; Granger, Marine; Kadri, Zahra; Fucharoen, Suthat; Maouche-Chretien, Leila; Leboulch, Philippe; Chretien, Stany

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UT7 erythroleukemia cells are known to be refractory to differentiate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brief JQ1 treatment initiates the first steps of erythroid differentiation program. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Engaged UT7 cells then maturate in the presence of erythropoietin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustained JQ1 treatment inhibits both proliferation and erythroid differentiation. -- Abstract: Malignant transformation is a multistep process requiring oncogenic activation, promoting cellular proliferation, frequently coupled to inhibition of terminal differentiation. Consequently, forcing the reengagement of terminal differentiation of transformed cells coupled or not with an inhibition of their proliferation is a putative therapeutic approach to counteracting tumorigenicity. UT7 is a human leukemic cell line able to grow in the presence of IL3, GM-CSF and Epo. This cell line has been widely used to study Epo-R/Epo signaling pathways but is a poor model for erythroid differentiation. We used the BET bromodomain inhibition drug JQ1 to target gene expression, including that of c-Myc. We have shown that only 2 days of JQ1 treatment was required to transitory inhibit Epo-induced UT7 proliferation and to restore terminal erythroid differentiation. This study highlights the importance of a cellular erythroid cycle break mediated by c-Myc inhibition before initiation of the erythropoiesis program and describes a new model for BET bromodomain inhibitor drug application.

  16. FTO: linking m6A demethylation to adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Sharon; Rechavi, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphism of the FTO gene encoding an N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) RNA demethylase was robustly associated with human obesity; however, the mechanism by which FTO affects metabolism, considering its emerging role in RNA modification, is still poorly understood. A new study published in Cell Research reports novel functions implicating FTO in the regulation of mRNA alternative splicing in the control of adipogenesis. PMID:25475057

  17. Lenalidomide in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Who Have Undergone Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-02

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. Cyclopamine and jervine induce COX-2 overexpression in human erythroleukemia cells but only cyclopamine has a pro-apoptotic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezali, Lamia; Leger, David Yannick; Limami, Youness; Cook-Moreau, Jeanne; Beneytout, Jean-Louis; Liagre, Bertrand

    2013-04-15

    Erythroleukemia is generally associated with a very poor response and survival to current available therapeutic agents. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been described to play a crucial role in the proliferation and differentiation of leukemia cells, this enzyme seems to play an important role in chemoresistance in different cancer types. Previously, we demonstrated that diosgenin, a plant steroid, induced apoptosis in HEL cells with concomitant COX-2 overexpression. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of cyclopamine and jervine, two steroidal alkaloids with similar structures, on HEL and TF1a human erythroleukemia cell lines and, for the first time, their effect on COX-2 expression. Cyclopamine, but not jervine, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in these cells. Both compounds induced COX-2 overexpression which was responsible for apoptosis resistance. In jervine-treated cells, COX-2 overexpression was NF-κB dependent. Inhibition of NF-κB reduced COX-2 overexpression and induced apoptosis. In addition, cyclopamine induced apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression via PKC activation. Inhibition of the PKC pathway reduced both apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression in both cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the p38/COX-2 pathway was involved in resistance to cyclopamine-induced apoptosis since p38 inhibition reduced COX-2 overexpression and increased apoptosis in both cell lines. - Highlights: ► Cyclopamine alone but not jervine induces apoptosis in human erythroleukemia cells. ► Cyclopamine and jervine induce COX-2 overexpression. ► COX-2 overexpression is implicated in resistance to cyclopamine-induced apoptosis. ► Apoptotic potential of jervine is restrained by NF-κB pathway activation. ► PKC is involved in cyclopamine-induced apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression.

  19. Berberis libanotica extract targets NF-κB/COX-2, PI3K/Akt and mitochondrial/caspase signalling to induce human erythroleukemia cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Diab, Saada; Fidanzi, Chloe; Léger, David Y; Ghezali, Lamia; Millot, Marion; Martin, Frédérique; Azar, Rania; Esseily, Fadi; Saab, Antoine; Sol, Vincent; Diab-Assaf, Mona; Liagre, Bertrand

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and understand the relationship between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and apoptosis rate in erythroleukemia cells after apoptosis induction by Berberis libanotica (Bl) extract. To achieve this goal we used erythroleukemia cell lines expressing COX‑2 (HEL cell line) or not (K562 cell line). Moreover, we made use of COX‑2 cDNA to overexpress COX‑2 in K562 cells. In light of the reported chemopreventive and chemosensitive effects of natural products on various tumor cells and animal models, we postulated that our Bl extract may mediate their effects through apoptosis induction with suppression of cell survival pathways. Our study is the first report on the specific examination of intrinsic apoptosis and Akt/NF-κB/COX‑2 pathways in human erythroleukemia cells upon Bl extract exposure. Even if Bl extract induced apoptosis of three human erythroleukemia cell lines, a dominant effect of Bl extract treatment on K562 cells was observed resulting in activation of the late markers of apoptosis with caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Whereas, we showed that Bl extract reduced significantly expression of COX‑2 by a dose-dependent manner in HEL and K562 (COX‑2+) cells. Furthermore, in regard to our results, it is clear that the simultaneous inhibition of Akt and NF-κB signalling can significantly contribute to the anticancer effects of Bl extract in human erythroleukemia cells. We observed that the Bl extract is clearly more active than the berberine alone on the induction of DNA fragmentation in human erythro-leukemia cells. PMID:25997834

  20. [Differentiation activity of pyridoxal thiosemicarbazone and its copper and cobalt complexes on Friend erythroleukemia cells].

    PubMed

    Albertini, R; Gasparri Fava, G; Pinelli, S; Tarasconi, P; Starcich, B

    1991-07-01

    Thiosemicarbazones are a wide group of organic derivatives whose biological activities are a function of the parent aldehyde or ketone and of the coordination metal type. Some thiosemicarbazones possess a broad spectrum of potentially useful chemotherapeutic properties (antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, antimalarial). The present study reports the biological effects of pyridoxal thiosemicarbazone, H2L, and relative complexes with copper, [(Cu(HL)(OH2))2]++ and with cobalt, [Co(III)(L)(HL)] on the differentiation of Friend erythroleukemia cells (FLC). They are murine proerythroblasts chronically infected by a producing Friend leukemia virus complex; their exposure to dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) or other chemical agents induces these cells to terminal erythroid differentiation, therefore these cells represent a good model of differentiation in vitro. Here we describe induction differentiation experiment of pyridoxal thiosemicarbazone and relative complexes of copper and cobalt on FLC performed with concentrations of 50 ug/ml (ligand), 2 ug/ml (complexes). These have little effects on cell proliferation at doses used in these experiments. Higher doses have evident cytotoxic effects. The treatment with the copper complex induces a moderate differentiation of FLC and enhances effects on erythroid differentiation of Me2SO-induced FLC. On the contrary H2L and [Co(III)(L)(HL)] haven't inducing effects or enhancing effects on Me2SO-induced FLC hemopoietic differentiation. In conclusion, the present study shows that copper complexes of pyridoxal thiosemicarbazone exert action of inducing agent and are able to enhance Me2SO-induced FLC hemopoietic differentiation. PMID:1818592

  1. Inducer-mediated commitment of murine erythroleukemia cells to differentiation: a multistep process.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z; Banks, J; Rifkind, R A; Marks, P A

    1982-01-01

    There are a number of agents which, when added to cultures of murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC), markedly increase the probability of commitment to express the characteristics of terminal erythroid differentiation, including loss of proliferative capacity and increased accumulation of globin mRNA and hemoglobin. Some characteristics of inducer-mediated commitment of MELC to terminal erythroid differentiation were examined by determining the effects of dexamethasone (an inhibitor of inducer-mediated MELC differentiation) and of hemin (an inducer of globin mRNA accumulation). Previously, it was shown that exposure of MELC to hexamethylene-bisacetamide (HMBA) leads to commitment, detectable within 12 hr. MELC cultured with both HMBA and dexamethasone do not express commitment. MELC transferred from culture with HMBA and dexamethasone to cloning medium without these agents express commitment to terminal erythroid differentiation, indicating that MELC retain a "memory" for some early HMBA-mediated changes leading to commitment which occur even in the presence of the inhibitory steroid. The kinetics of commitment in experiments in which exposure to HMBA is interrupted, or dexamethasone is added to the culture in HMBA, suggest that there is a rate-limiting step early in the commitment process. The memory for this step persists for more than one cell cycle. Addition of hemin to cultures with HMBA and dexamethasone initiated accumulation of globin mRNA but does not reverse the steroid-mediated inhibition of terminal cell division (that is, the cells retain their proliferative capacity). Inducer-mediated MELC commitment is associated with accumulation of the chromatin protein IP25; dexamethasone does not inhibit this accumulation. Accumulation of IP25 may be inducer-related, but it is not sufficient to cause expression of terminal erythroid differentiation. Images PMID:6952199

  2. Glucocorticoids inhibit coordinated translation of. cap alpha. - and. beta. -globin mRNAs in Friend erythroleukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Papaconstantinou, J.; Stewart, J.A.; Rabek, J.P.; McClintock, P.R.; Wong, E.Y.

    1983-12-01

    The dimethylsulfoxide (Me/sub 2/SO)-mediated induction of hemoglobin synthesis in Friend erythroleukemia cells is inhibited by the glucocorticoids hydrocortisone, dexamethasone, and fluocinolone acetonide; hydrocortisone, at concentrations of 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -8/ M inhibits by 90-30% and fluocinolone acetonide at concentrations of 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -11/ M shows a greater than 90% inhibition. At these concentrations the hormones have no effect on cell growth or viability. In this study it has been shown that there is a group of proteins, including the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-globins, whose regulation is associated with the induction of Friend erythroleukemia cell differentiation, and that the expression of these, in addition to ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-globin, is affected by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that, although the translation of ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-globin mRNA is a major site of inhibition by glucocorticoids, there is a detectable amount of ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-globin mRNA translation which results in unequal amounts of globin synthesis and an overall more potent inhibition of hemoglobin formation.

  3. Differential stability of host mRNAs in Friend erythroleukemia cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mayman, B.A.; Nishioka, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The consequences of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection on cellular macromolecules were investigated in Friend erythroleukemia cells. The patterns of protein synthesis, examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, demonstrated that by 4 h postinfection the synthesis of many host proteins, with the exception of histones, was inhibited. Examination of the steady-state level of histone H3 mRNA by molecular hybridization of total RNA to a cloned mouse histone H3 complementary DNA probe demonstrated that the ratio of histone H3 mRNA to total RNA remained unchanged for the first 4 h postinfection. In contrast, the steady-state levels of globin and actin mRNAs decreased progressively at early intervals postinfection. Studies on RNA synthesis in isolated nuclei demonstrated that the transcription of the histone H3 gene was inhibited to approximately the same extent as that of actin gene. It was concluded that the stabilization of preexisting histone H3 mRNA was responsible for the persistence of H3 mRNA and histone protein synthesis in herpes simplex virus type 1-infected Friend erythroleukemia cells. The possible mechanisms influencing the differential stability of host mRNAs during the course of productive infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 are discussed.

  4. Cytarabine With or Without SCH 900776 in Treating Adult Patients With Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  5. Androgen regulation of thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor expression in human erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, K; Mathur, R S; Duzic, E; Halushka, P V

    1993-12-01

    Thromboxane A2 (TxA2), a platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor, has been implicated as a potential mediator of cardiovascular diseases. Abuse of androgenic steroids has been associated with thrombotic cardiovascular diseases. Human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells, a megakaryocyte-like cell line, express functional TxA2/prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) receptors with characteristics similar to those seen in platelets. This study characterized testosterone regulation of HEL cell TxA2/PGH2 receptors. TxA2/PGH2 receptor affinity (Kd) and density (Bmax) were determined via equilibrium binding experiments using the radiolabeled TxA2 mimetic (1S-[1 alpha,2 beta(5Z),3 alpha(1E,3R*),4 alpha])-7-(3-[3-hydroxy-4-(4'- iodophenoxy)-1-butenyl]-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl)-5-he ptenoic acid (125I-labeled BOP). Testosterone (200 nM) but not estradiol increased Bmax from 108 +/- 9 fmol/mg protein to 157 +/- 9 fmol/mg protein (n = 7 experiments; P < 0.01) without any significant change in Kd. Testosterone had no significant effect on alpha 2-adrenergic receptor density. The maximum increase in intracellular free calcium induced by the TxA2 agonists I-BOP or U-46619 was significantly (P < 0.005) greater in testosterone-treated cells compared with controls. Hydroxyflutamide (1 microM), an androgen-receptor antagonist, completely blocked the effect of testosterone (P < 0.01). Dihydrotestosterone, the active metabolite of testosterone, also increased Bmax in a concentration-dependent manner and was more potent than testosterone. The effect of testosterone to increase Bmax was significantly (P < 0.01) inhibited by coincubation with cycloheximide (0.1 microgram/ml) or actinomycin D (10 ng/ml). These results indicate that androgenic steroids regulate the expression of functional TxA2/PGH2 receptors in HEL cells. These findings may have relevance to cardiovascular disease. PMID:8279549

  6. S1 nuclease analysis of alpha-globin gene expression in preleukemic patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease after transfer to mouse erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Helder, J; Deisseroth, A

    1987-04-01

    The loss of alpha-globin gene transcriptional activity rarely occurs as an acquired abnormality during the evolution of myeloproliferative disease or preleukemia. To test whether the mutation responsible for the loss of alpha-globin gene expression (hemoglobin H disease) in these patients is linked with the alpha-globin genes on chromosome 16, we transferred chromosome 16 from preleukemic patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease to mouse erythroleukemia cells and measured the transcriptional activity of the human alpha-globin genes. After transfer to mouse erythroleukemia cells, the expression of human alpha-globin genes from the peripheral blood or marrow cells of preleukemic patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease was similar to that of human alpha-globin genes transferred to mouse erythroleukemia cells from normal donors. These data showed that factor(s) in the mouse erythroleukemia cell can genetically complement the alpha-globin gene defect in these preleukemia patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease and suggest that altered expression of a gene in trans to the alpha-globin gene may be responsible for the acquisition of hemoglobin H disease in these patients. PMID:3031681

  7. Azacitidine and Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-12

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  8. Peptide nucleic acids targeting β-globin mRNAs selectively inhibit hemoglobin production in murine erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Montagner, Giulia; Gemmo, Chiara; Fabbri, Enrica; Manicardi, Alex; Accardo, Igea; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Finotti, Alessia; Breveglieri, Giulia; Salvatori, Francesca; Borgatti, Monica; Lampronti, Ilaria; Bresciani, Alberto; Altamura, Sergio; Corradini, Roberto; Gambari, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In the treatment of hemoglobinopathies, amending altered hemoglobins and/or globins produced in excess is an important part of therapeutic strategies and the selective inhibition of globin production may be clinically beneficial. Therefore the development of drug-based methods for the selective inhibition of globin accumulation is required. In this study, we employed peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) to alter globin gene expression. The main conclusion of the present study was that PNAs designed to target adult murine β-globin mRNA inhibit hemoglobin accumulation and erythroid differentiation of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells with high efficiency and fair selectivity. No major effects were observed on cell proliferation. Our study supports the concept that PNAs may be used to target mRNAs that, similar to globin mRNAs, are expressed at very high levels in differentiating erythroid cells. Our data suggest that PNAs inhibit the excess production of globins involved in the pathophysiology of hemoglobinopathies. PMID:25405921

  9. Veliparib and Topotecan With or Without Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia, High-Risk Myelodysplasia, or Aggressive Myeloproliferative Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-05

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Essential Thrombocythemia; Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Cell Neoplasm; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative, BCR-ABL1 Positive Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Disease; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome

  10. Busulfan, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Anti-Thymocyte Globulin Followed By Donor Stem Cell Transplant and Azacitidine in Treating Patients With High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  11. Modulation of ferritin H-chain expression in Friend erythroleukemia cells: transcriptional and translational regulation by hemin.

    PubMed Central

    Coccia, E M; Profita, V; Fiorucci, G; Romeo, G; Affabris, E; Testa, U; Hentze, M W; Battistini, A

    1992-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate the expression of the H chain of the iron storage protein ferritin in Friend erythroleukemia cells (FLCs) after exposure to hemin (ferric protoporphyrin IX), protoporphyrin IX, and ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) have been investigated. Administration of hemin increases the steady-state level of ferritin mRNA about 10-fold and that of ferritin protein expression 20-fold. Experiments with the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D and transfection studies demonstrate that the increment in cytoplasmic mRNA content results from enhanced transcription of the ferritin H-chain gene and cannot be attributed to stabilization of preexisting mRNAs. In addition to transcriptional effects, translational regulation induces the recruitment of stored mRNAs into functional polyribosomes after hemin and FAC administration, resulting in a further increase in ferritin synthesis. Administration of protoporphyrin IX to FLCs produces divergent transcriptional and translational effects. It increases transcription but appears to suppress ferritin mRNA translation. FAC treatment increases the mRNA content slightly (about twofold), and the ferritin levels rise about fivefold over the control values. We conclude that in FLCs, hemin induces ferritin H-chain biosynthesis by multiple mechanisms: a transcriptional mechanism exerted also by protoporphyrin IX and a translational one, not displayed by protoporphyrin IX but shared with FAC. Images PMID:1620112

  12. Apoptogenic and necrogenic effects of mercuric acetate on the chromatin structure of K562 human erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Erzsebet; Ujvarosi, Kinga; Nagy, Gabor; Posta, Jozsef; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2010-02-01

    Time lapse video photography was used to follow the movement of individual cells after in vitro treatment with Hg(II) acetate. Cellular changes of mercuric ions were characterized by their properties of causing reduced cellular mobility (10-50microM), and complete lack of cellular movement at higher concentrations (100-1000microM). Results show that after mercury treatment at subtoxic levels (1microM): (a) chromatin changes were the earliest signs of cytotoxicity, (b) two major parts in nuclear material of K562 erythroleukemia cells could be distinguished, highly condensed supercoiled and decondensed veil-like chromatin, (c) decondensed chromosomes were rejected as clustered puffs and (d) often the nuclear material was broken down to apoptotic bodies. Nuclear changes caused by Hg(II) acetate in the concentration range between 10 and 50microM were characterized by apoptosis seen as broken nuclei and apoptotic bodies. High concentration of Hg(2+) ions (100microM) initiated necrotic nuclear changes, with enlarged leaky or opened nuclei. PMID:19723577

  13. Glycoprotein M6a is present in glutamatergic axons in adult rat forebrain and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ben; Werner, Hauke B; Flügge, Gabriele

    2008-03-01

    Glycoprotein M6a is a neuronally expressed member of the proteolipid protein (PLP) family of tetraspans. In vitro studies suggested a potential role in neurite outgrowth and spine formation and previous investigations have identified M6a as a stress-regulated gene. To investigate whether the distribution of M6a correlates with neuronal structures susceptible to alterations in response to stress, we localized M6a expression in neurons of hippocampal formation, prefrontal cortex and cerebellum using in situ hybridization and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. In situ hybridization confirmed that M6a is expressed in dentate gyrus and cerebellar granule neurons and in hippocampal and cortical pyramidal neurons. Confocal microscopy localized M6a immunoreactivity to distinct sites within axonal membranes, but not in dendrites or neuronal somata. Moreover, M6a colocalized with synaptic markers of glutamatergic, but not GABAergic nerve terminals. M6a expression in the adult brain is particularly strong in unmyelinated axonal fibers, i.e. cerebellar parallel and hippocampal mossy fibers. In contrast, myelinated axons exhibit only minimal M6a immunoreactivity localized exclusively to terminal regions. The present neuroanatomical data demonstrate that M6a is an axonal component of glutamatergic neurons and that it is localized to distinct sites of the axonal plasma membrane of pyramidal and granule cells. PMID:18241840

  14. Unique features of the m6A methylome in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guan-Zheng; MacQueen, Alice; Zheng, Guanqun; Duan, Hongchao; Dore, Louis C; Lu, Zhike; Liu, Jun; Chen, Kai; Jia, Guifang; Bergelson, Joy; He, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries of reversible N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) methylation on messenger RNA (mRNA) and mapping of m(6)A methylomes in mammals and yeast have revealed potential regulatory functions of this RNA modification. In plants, defects in m(6)A methyltransferase cause an embryo-lethal phenotype, suggesting a critical role of m(6)A in plant development. Here, we profile m(6)A transcriptome-wide in two accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana and reveal that m(6)A is a highly conserved modification of mRNA in plants. Distinct from mammals, m(6)A in A. thaliana is enriched not only around the stop codon and within 3'-untranslated regions, but also around the start codon. Gene ontology analysis indicates that the unique distribution pattern of m(6)A in A. thaliana is associated with plant-specific pathways involving the chloroplast. We also discover a positive correlation between m(6)A deposition and mRNA abundance, suggesting a regulatory role of m(6)A in plant gene expression. PMID:25430002

  15. Unique Features of the m6A Methylome in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Hongchao; Dore, Louis C; Lu, Zhike; Liu, Jun; Chen, Kai; Jia, Guifang; Bergelson, Joy; He, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries of reversible N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation on messenger RNA (mRNA) and mapping of m6A methylomes in mammals and yeast have revealed potential regulatory functions of this RNA modification. In plants, defects in m6A methyltransferase cause an embryo-lethal phenotype, suggesting a critical role of m6A in plant development. Here, we profile m6A transcriptome-wide in two accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana and reveal that m6A is a highly conserved modification of mRNA in plants. Distinct from mammals, m6A in A. thaliana is enriched not only around the stop codon and within 3′ untranslated regions (3′ UTRs), but also around the start codon. Gene ontology analysis indicates that the unique distribution pattern of m6A in A. thaliana is associated with plant-specific pathways involving the chloroplast. We also discover a positive correlation between m6A deposition and the mRNA abundance, suggesting a regulatory role of m6A in plant gene expression. PMID:25430002

  16. Diversity and wiring variability of visual local neurons in the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum

    PubMed Central

    Chin, An-Lun; Lin, Chih-Yung; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Dickson, Barry J; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2014-01-01

    Local neurons in the vertebrate retina are instrumental in transforming visual inputs to extract contrast, motion, and color information and in shaping bipolar-to-ganglion cell transmission to the brain. In Drosophila, UV vision is represented by R7 inner photoreceptor neurons that project to the medulla M6 stratum, with relatively little known of this downstream substrate. Here, using R7 terminals as references, we generated a 3D volume model of the M6 stratum, which revealed a retinotopic map for UV representations. Using this volume model as a common 3D framework, we compiled and analyzed the spatial distributions of more than 200 single M6-specific local neurons (M6-LNs). Based on the segregation of putative dendrites and axons, these local neurons were classified into two families, directional and nondirectional. Neurotransmitter immunostaining suggested a signal routing model in which some visual information is relayed by directional M6-LNs from the anterior to the posterior M6 and all visual information is inhibited by a diverse population of nondirectional M6-LNs covering the entire M6 stratum. Our findings suggest that the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum contains diverse LNs that form repeating functional modules similar to those found in the vertebrate inner plexiform layer. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:3795–3816, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24782245

  17. Posttranscriptional m(6)A Editing of HIV-1 mRNAs Enhances Viral Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Edward M; Bogerd, Hal P; Kornepati, Anand V R; Kang, Dong; Ghoshal, Delta; Marshall, Joy B; Poling, Brigid C; Tsai, Kevin; Gokhale, Nandan S; Horner, Stacy M; Cullen, Bryan R

    2016-05-11

    Covalent addition of a methyl group to adenosine N(6) (m(6)A) is an evolutionarily conserved and common RNA modification that is thought to modulate several aspects of RNA metabolism. While the presence of multiple m(6)A editing sites on diverse viral RNAs was reported starting almost 40 years ago, how m(6)A editing affects virus replication has remained unclear. Here, we used photo-crosslinking-assisted m(6)A sequencing techniques to precisely map several m(6)A editing sites on the HIV-1 genome and report that they cluster in the HIV-1 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). Viral 3' UTR m(6)A sites or analogous cellular m(6)A sites strongly enhanced mRNA expression in cis by recruiting the cellular YTHDF m(6)A "reader" proteins. Reducing YTHDF expression inhibited, while YTHDF overexpression enhanced, HIV-1 protein and RNA expression, and virus replication in CD4+ T cells. These data identify m(6)A editing and the resultant recruitment of YTHDF proteins as major positive regulators of HIV-1 mRNA expression. PMID:27117054

  18. HnRNP A1 tethers KSRP to an exon splicing silencer that inhibits an erythroid-specific splicing event in PU.1-induced erythroleukemia

    PubMed Central

    Douablin, Alexandre; Deguillien, Mireille; Breig, Osman; Baklouti, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    Exon 16 inclusion is a critical splicing event that triggers the production of a functional protein 4.1R in mature normal erythroblasts, and is obviated in PU.1-induced erythroleukemia cells. Exon 16 contains an exonic splicing silencer (ESS16) that interacts with hnRNP A/B in heterologous cell context. We here show that ESS16 promotes the recruitment of a protein complex containing hnRNP A1 and a 79-kDa protein in nuclear extracts from either proliferative erythroleukemia cells or cells induced to terminal differentiation. By using 2D gel fractionation and mass spectrometry, we unambiguously identified KSRP as the 79-kDa component interacting with ESS16. Furthermore, we show that KSRP slightly decreases in erythroleukemia cells induced to terminal erythroid differentiation. Yet, KSRP inducible knockdown, through stable transfection of small hairpin KSRP RNA, did not alter exon 16 splicing, suggesting that KSRP alone does not modulate the splicing event. Interestingly, absence of hnRNP A1 prevented KSRP from binding to ESS16. Reciprocally, KSRP interaction with ESS16 was recovered when hnRNP A1 expression is restored in hnRNP A1-null cells. Collectively, this study establishes that hnRNPA1 is part of a KSRP-containing RNP complex, and emphasizes that, aside from its function in AU-rich element-mediated mRNA decay and its role in microRNA biogenesis, KSRP associates with hnRNP A1 to bind an ESS. These findings further support the role of members of the KH-domain protein family in organizing large RNA-protein complex formation, rather than primarily in modulating specific splicing events. PMID:26101706

  19. m6A RNA modification controls cell fate transition in mammalian embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Pedro J; Molinie, Benoit; Wang, Jinkai; Qu, Kun; Zhang, Jiajing; Li, Lingjie; Bouley, Donna M; Lujan, Ernesto; Haddad, Bahareh; Daneshvar, Kaveh; Carter, Ava C; Flynn, Ryan A; Zhou, Chan; Lim, Kok-Seong; Dedon, Peter; Wernig, Marius; Mullen, Alan C; Xing, Yi; Giallourakis, Cosmas C; Chang, Howard Y

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) is the most abundant modification on messenger RNAs and is linked to human diseases, but its functions in mammalian development are poorly understood. Here we reveal the evolutionary conservation and function of m6A by mapping the m6A methylome in mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Thousands of messenger and long noncoding RNAs show conserved m6A modification, including transcripts encoding core pluripotency transcription factors. m6A is enriched over 3′ untranslated regions at defined sequence motifs, and marks unstable transcripts, including transcripts turned over upon differentiation. Genetic inactivation or depletion of mouse and human Mettl3, one of the m6A methylases, led to m6A erasure on select target genes, prolonged Nanog expression upon differentiation, and impaired ESC’s exit from self-renewal towards differentiation into several lineages in vitro and in vivo. Thus, m6A is a mark of transcriptome flexibility required for stem cells to differentiate to specific lineages. PMID:25456834

  20. Role of peroxide in AC electrical field exposure effects on Friend murine erythroleukemia cells during dielectrophoretic manipulations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xujing; Yang, Jun; Gascoyne, Peter R.C.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of AC field exposure on the viability and proliferation of mammalian cells under conditions appropriate for their dielectrophoretic manipulation and sorting were investigated using DS19 murine erythroleukemia cells as a model system. The frequency range 100 Hz-10 MHz and medium conductivities of 10 mS/m, 30 mS/m and 56 mS/m were studied for fields generated by applying signals of up to 7V peak to peak (p-p) to a parallel electrode array having equal electrode widths and gaps of 100 μm. Between 1 kHz and 10 MHz, cell viability after up to 40 min of field exposure was found to be above 95% and cells were able to proliferate. However, cell growth lag phase was extended with decreasing field frequency and with increasing voltage, medium conductivity and exposure duration. Modified growth behavior was not passed on to the next cell passage, indicating that field exposure did not cause permanent alterations in cell proliferation characteristics. Cell membrane potentials induced by field exposure were calculated and shown to be well below values typically associated with cell damage. Furthermore, medium treated by field exposure and then added to untreated cells produced the same modifications of growth as exposing cells directly, and these modifications occurred only when the electrode polarization voltage exceeded a threshold of ~0.4 V p-p. These findings suggested that electrochemical products generated during field exposure were responsible for the changes in cell growth. Finally, it was found that hydrogen peroxide was produced when sugar-containing media were exposed to fields and that normal cell growth could be restored by addition of catalase to the medium, whether or not field exposure occurred in the presence of cells. These results show that AC fields typically used for dielectrophoretic manipulation and sorting of cells do not damage DS19 cells and that cell alterations arising from electrochemical effects can be completely mitigated. PMID

  1. Regulation of apoptosis by cyclic nucleotides in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells and human myelogenous leukemia (K-562) cells.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Fanni; Wolter, Sabine; Seifert, Roland

    2016-07-15

    The cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides cCMP and cUMP have been recently identified in numerous mammalian cell lines, in primary cells and in intact organs, but very little is still known about their biological function. A recent study of our group revealed that the membrane-permeable cCMP analog cCMP-acetoxymethylester (cCMP-AM) induces apoptosis in mouse lymphoma cells independent of protein kinase A via an intrinsic and mitochondria-dependent pathway. In our present study, we examined the effects of various cNMP-AMs in human tumor cell lines. In HEL cells, a human erythroleukemia cell line, cCMP-AM effectively reduced the number of viable cells, effectively induced apoptosis by altering the mitochondrial membrane potential and thereby caused changes in the cell cycle. cCMP itself was biologically inactive, indicating that membrane penetration is required to trigger intracellular effects. cCMP-AM did not induce apoptosis in K-562 cells, a human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, due to rapid export via multidrug resistance-associated proteins. The biological effects of cCMP-AM differed from those of other cNMP-AMs. In conclusion, cCMP effectively induces apoptosis in HEL cells, cCMP export prevents apoptosis of K-562 cells and cNMPs differentially regulate various aspects of apoptosis, cell growth and mitochondrial function. In a broader perspective, our data support the concept of distinct second messenger roles of cAMP, cGMP, cCMP and cUMP. PMID:27157412

  2. Long- and short-range order in the Pd6B monoclinic superstructure and M6X5 and M6X allied superstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. I.

    2011-07-01

    Symmetry analysis of the Pd6B monoclinic superstructure (space group C2/ c) formed in the cubic (with the B1 structure) solid solution of boron in palladium (PdB y ) has been carried out. The formation of this superstructure proceeds as a first-order phase transition via the disorder-order channel including nine nonequivalent superstructure vectors of four stars { k 10}, { k 4}, { k 3}, and { k 0}. For the Pd6B monoclinic super-structure (space group C2/ c), the distribution function for boron atoms is calculated and the interval of admissible values of the long-range order parameters is defined. It is shown that the transition channel determined in this way coincides with the channel in which the M6X monoclinic superstructure (space group C2) is formed; therefore, the Pd6B superstructure can also be described in space group C2 to the same degree of accuracy. The higher symmetry of the monoclinic model (space group C2/ c) suggests that it describes the structure of the Pd6B phase (Pd6B□5), as well as of mutually inverse phases M6X□5 and M6X5□, more adequately than the model with space group C2. It is shown that superstructures of the M6X□5 type (space groups C2/ c, C2, C2/ m, and P31) and inverse superstructures of the M6X5□ type with the same space groups have the positions of the nearest surrounding of metal atoms by two types of nonmetallic sublattice sites located in the first and second coordination spheres.

  3. Dynamic m6A mRNA methylation directs translational control of heat shock response

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Wan, Ji; Gao, Xiangwei; Zhang, Xingqian; Qian, Shu-Bing

    2015-01-01

    The most abundant mRNA post-transcriptional modification is N6-methyladenosine (m6A) that has broad roles in RNA biology1-5. In mammalian cells, the asymmetric distribution of m6A along mRNAs leaves relatively less methylation in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) compared to other regions6,7. However, whether and how 5′UTR methylation is regulated is poorly understood. Despite the crucial role of the 5′UTR in translation initiation, very little is known whether m6A modification influences mRNA translation. Here we show that in response to heat shock stress, m6A is preferentially deposited to the 5′UTR of newly transcribed mRNAs. We found that the dynamic 5′UTR methylation is a result of stress-induced nuclear localization of YTHDF2, a well characterized m6A “reader”. Upon heat shock stress, the nuclear YTHDF2 preserves 5′UTR methylation of stress-induced transcripts by limiting the m6A “eraser” FTO from demethylation. Remarkably, the increased 5′UTR methylation in the form of m6A promotes cap-independent translation initiation, providing a mechanism for selective mRNA translation under heat shock stress. Using Hsp70 mRNA as an example, we demonstrate that a single site m6A modification in the 5′UTR enables translation initiation independent of the 5′ end m7G cap. The elucidation of the dynamic feature of 5′UTR methylation and its critical role in cap-independent translation not only expands the breadth of physiological roles of m6A, but also uncovers a previously unappreciated translational control mechanism in heat shock response. PMID:26458103

  4. 17. PWD Drawing 1123913 (814M6) (1944), 'Facilities For Cleaning of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. PWD Drawing 11239-13 (814-M-6) (1944), 'Facilities For Cleaning of Battle Damaged Machinery, Steel Cleaning Tank' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Chemical Cleaning Facility, North of Fourteenth Street, between California & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Fate by RNA methylation: m6A steers stem cell pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Boxuan Simen; He, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    The N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification of mRNA has a crucial function in regulating pluripotency in murine stem cells: it facilitates resolution of naïve pluripotency towards differentiation. PMID:25723450

  6. Structural basis for selective binding of m6A RNA by the YTHDC1 YTH domain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Ke; Roundtree, Ian A; Tempel, Wolfram; Li, Yanjun; Lu, Zhike; He, Chuan; Min, Jinrong

    2014-11-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most abundant internal modification of nearly all eukaryotic mRNAs and has recently been reported to be recognized by the YTH domain family proteins. Here we present the crystal structures of the YTH domain of YTHDC1, a member of the YTH domain family, and its complex with an m(6)A-containing RNA. Our structural studies, together with transcriptome-wide identification of YTHDC1-binding sites and biochemical experiments, not only reveal the specific mode of m(6)A-YTH binding but also explain the preferential recognition of the GG(m(6)A)C sequences by YTHDC1. PMID:25242552

  7. Nuclear m(6)A Reader YTHDC1 Regulates mRNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Roundtree, Ian A; He, Chuan

    2016-06-01

    N(6)-Methyladenosine (m(6)A) is emerging as a chemical mark that broadly affects the flow of genetic information in various biological processes in eukaryotes. Recently, Xiao et al. reported that the nuclear m(6)A reader protein YTHDC1 impacts mRNA splicing, providing a transcriptome-wide glance of splicing changes affected by this mRNA methylation reader protein. PMID:27050931

  8. Multiple splice isoforms of proteolipid M6B in neurons and oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Werner, H; Dimou, L; Klugmann, M; Pfeiffer, S; Nave, K A

    2001-12-01

    Proteolipids are abundant integral membrane proteins, initially described as structural proteins of CNS myelin. More recently, two neuronal proteins related to proteolipid protein (PLP), termed M6A and M6B, were identified, suggesting a common function of proteolipids in oligodendrocytes and neurons. We have analyzed the X-linked M6B gene and discovered an unexpected complexity of protein isoforms. Two promoters and alternative exons yield at least eight M6B proteins and polypeptides, differentially expressed in neurons and oligodendrocytes. Six isoforms are tetraspan membrane proteins that differ by highly conserved amino- and carboxy-terminal domains, termed alpha, beta, psi, and omega. In MDCK cells, the beta-domain of M6B stabilizes tetraspan proteolipids at the cell surface, whereas non-beta isoforms are more abundant in intracellular compartments. Cotransfection experiments suggest a physical interaction of M6B and mutant PLP, when retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, that may also contribute to oligodendrocyte dysfunction in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease. PMID:11749036

  9. Earth's magnetic field anomalies that precede the M6+ global seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    In this work has been analyzed the Earth's magnetic field variations and the M6+ global seismic activity to verify if M6+ earthquakes are preceded by a change of the Earth's magnetic field. The data of Earth's magnetic field used to conduct the study of correlation are provided by the induction magnetometer of Radio Emissions Project's station (Lat: 41°41'4.27"N, Long: 12°38'33,60"E, Albano Laziale, Rome, Italy), equipped with a ELF receiver prototype (with a vertically aligned coil antenna) capable to detect the variations of the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field on Z magnetic component. The M6+ global seismic activity data are provided in real-time by USGS, INGV and CSEM. The sample of data used to conduct the study refers to the period between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2012. The Earth's magnetic field variations data set has been marked with the times (time markers) of M6+ earthquakes occurred on a global scale and has been verified the existence of disturbances of the Earth's geomagnetic field in the time interval that preceded the M6+ global seismic activity. The correlation study showed that all M6+ earthquakes recorded on 2012 were preceded by an increase of the Earth's magnetic field, detected in the Z magnetic component. The authors measured the time lag elapsed between the maximum increment of the Earth's magnetic field recorded before an earthquake M6+ and the date and time at which this occurred, and has been verified that the minimum time lag recorded between the Earth's magnetic field increase and the earthquake M6+ has been 1 minute (9 October 2012, Balleny Islands, M6,4); while, the maximum time lag recorded has been 3600 minutes (26 June 2012, China, M6,3). The average time lag has been 629.47 minutes. In addition, the average time lag is deflected in relation to the magnitude increase. Key words: Seismic Geomagnetic Precursor (SGP), Interplanetary Seismic Precursor (ISP), Earth's magnetic field variations, earthquakes, prevision.

  10. Expression of the axonal membrane glycoprotein M6a is regulated by chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ben; Fuchs, Eberhard; Flügge, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that chronic stress changes dendrites, spines and modulates expression of synaptic molecules. These effects all may impair information transfer between neurons. The present study shows that chronic stress also regulates expression of M6a, a glycoprotein which is localised in axonal membranes. We have previously demonstrated that M6a is a component of glutamatergic axons. The present data reveal that it is the splice variant M6a-Ib, not M6a-Ia, which is strongly expressed in the brain. Chronic stress in male rats (3 weeks daily restraint) has regional effects: quantitative in situ hybridization demonstrated that M6a-Ib mRNA in dentate gyrus granule neurons and in CA3 pyramidal neurons is downregulated, whereas M6a-Ib mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex is upregulated by chronic stress. This is the first study showing that expression of an axonal membrane molecule is differentially affected by stress in a region-dependent manner. Therefore, one may speculate that diminished expression of the glycoprotein in the hippocampus leads to altered output in the corresponding cortical projection areas. Enhanced M6a-Ib expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (in areas prelimbic and infralimbic cortex) might be interpreted as a compensatory mechanism in response to changes in axonal projections from the hippocampus. Our findings provide evidence that in addition to alterations in dendrites and spines chronic stress also changes the integrity of axons and may thus impair information transfer even between distant brain regions. PMID:19180239

  11. Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Acute Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-27

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Blastic Phase; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome

  12. Postearthquake relaxation and aftershock accumulation linearly related after the 2003 M 6.5 Chengkung, Taiwan, and the 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield, California, earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Yu, S.-B.

    2007-01-01

    We treat both the number of earthquakes and the deformation following a mainshock as the superposition of a steady background accumulation and the post-earthquake process. The preseismic displacement and seismicity rates ru and rE are used as estimates of the background rates. Let t be the time after the mainshock, u(t) + u0 the postseismic displacement less the background accumulation rut, and ??N(t) the observed cumulative number of postseismic earthquakes less the background accumulation rE t. For the first 160 days (duration limited by the occurrence of another nearby earthquake) following the Chengkung (M 6.5, 10 December 2003, eastern Taiwan) and the first 560 days following the Parkfield (M 6.0, 28 September 2004, central California) earthquakes u(t) + u0 is a linear function of ??N(t). The aftershock accumulation ??N(t) for both earthquakes is described by the modified Omori Law d??N/dt ?? (1 + t/??)-p with p = 0.96 and ?? = 0.03 days. Although the Chengkung earthquake involved sinistral, reverse slip on a moderately dipping fault and the Parkfield earthquake right-lateral slip on a near-vertical fault, the earthquakes share an unusual feature: both occurred on faults exhibiting interseismic fault creep at the surface. The source of the observed postseismic deformation appears to be afterslip on the coseismic rupture. The linear relation between u(t) + u0 and N(t) suggests that this afterslip also generates the aftershocks. The linear relation between u(t) + u0 and ??N(t) obtains after neither the 1999 M 7.1 Hector Mine (southern California) nor the 1999 M 7.6 Chi-Chi (central Taiwan) earthquakes, neither of which occurred on fault segments exhibiting fault creep.

  13. M6: A diploid potato inbred line for use in breeding and genetics research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    M6 is a vigorous, homozygous breeding line derived by self-pollinating the diploid wild potato relative Solanum chacoense for seven generations. While most wild Solanum species are self-incompatible, this clone is homozygous for the dominant self-incompatibility inhibitor gene Sli. It is homozygous ...

  14. Structural insights into the molecular mechanism of the m(6)A writer complex.

    PubMed

    Śledź, Paweł; Jinek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of adenosines at the N(6) position (m(6)A) is a dynamic and abundant epitranscriptomic mark that regulates critical aspects of eukaryotic RNA metabolism in numerous biological processes. The RNA methyltransferases METTL3 and METTL14 are components of a multisubunit m(6)A writer complex whose enzymatic activity is substantially higher than the activities of METTL3 or METTL14 alone. The molecular mechanism underpinning this synergistic effect is poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic core of the human m(6)A writer complex comprising METTL3 and METTL14. The structure reveals the heterodimeric architecture of the complex and donor substrate binding by METTL3. Structure-guided mutagenesis indicates that METTL3 is the catalytic subunit of the complex, whereas METTL14 has a degenerate active site and plays non-catalytic roles in maintaining complex integrity and substrate RNA binding. These studies illuminate the molecular mechanism and evolutionary history of eukaryotic m(6)A modification in post-transcriptional genome regulation. PMID:27627798

  15. Spectral analysis of A and F dwarf members of the open cluster M6: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıçoǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2010-12-01

    We present the first abundance analysis of CD-32 13109 (NGC 6405 47), member of the M6 open cluster. The photospheric abundances of 14 chemical elements were determined by comparing synthetic spectra and observed spectra of the star. Findings show that this star should be an Am star.

  16. M6.0 South Napa Earthquake Forecasting on the basis of jet stream precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Currently earthquake prediction research methods can be divided into the crust change, radon concentration, well water level, animal behavior, Very high frequency (VHF) signals, GPS/TEC in ionospheric variations, thermal infrared radiation (TIR) anomalies. Before major earthquakes (M> 6) occurred, jet stream in the epicenter area will interrupt or velocity flow lines cross. That meaning is that before earthquake happen, atmospheric pressure in high altitude suddenly dropped during 6~12 hours (Wu & Tikhonov, 2014). This technique has been used to predict the strong earthquakes in real time, and then pre-registered on the website. For example: M6.0 Northern California earthquake on 2014/08/24(figure1) , M6.6 Russia earthquake on 2013/10/12(figure2), As far as 2014/08/24 M6.6 earthquake in CA, USA, the front end of the 60knots speed line was at the S.F. on 2014/06/16 12:00, and then after 69 days ,M6.1 earthquake happened. We predicted that magnitude is larger than 5.5 but the period is only 30 days on 2014/07/16 . The deviation of predicted point was about 70 km. Lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere (LAI) coupling model may be explained this phenomenon : Ionization of the air produced by an increased emanation of radon at epicenter. The water molecules in the air react with these ions, and then release heat. The heat result in temperature rise in the air. They are also accompanied by a large-scale change in the atmospheric pressure and jet streams morphology.We obtain satisfactory accuracy of estimation of the epicenter location. As well we define the short alarm period. That's the positive aspects of our forecast. However, estimates of magnitude jet contain a big uncertainty.Reference:H.C Wu, I.N. Tikhonov, 2014, "Jet streams anomalies as possible short-term precursors of earthquakes with M>6.0", Research in geophysics, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ rg.2014.4939 http://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/rg/article/view/rg.2014.4939

  17. Picking sides: Distinct roles for CYP76M6 and -8 in rice oryzalexin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yisheng; Wang, Qiang; Hillwig, Matthew L.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2013-01-01

    Natural products biosynthesis often requires the action of multiple cytochromes P450 (CYPs), whose ability to introduce oxygen, increasing solubility, is critical for imparting biological activity. In previous investigations of rice diterpenoid biosynthesis, we have characterized CYPs that catalyze alternative hydroxylation of ent-sandaracopimaradiene, the precursor to the rice oryzalexin antibiotic phytoalexins. In particular, CYP76M5, -6 and -8 were all shown to carry out C7β-hydroxylation, while CYP701A8 catalyzes C3α-hydroxylation, with oxy groups found at both positions in oryzalexins A–D, suggesting that these may act consecutively in oryzalexin biosynthesis. Here we report that, although CYP701A8 only poorly reacts with 7β-hydroxy-ent-sandaracopimaradiene, CYP76M6 and -8 readily react with 3α-hydroxy-ent-sandaracopimaradiene. Notably, their activity yields distinct products, resulting from hydroxylation at C9β by CYP76M6 or C7β by CYP76M8, on different sides of the core tricyclic ring structure. Thus, CYP76M6 and -8 have distinct, non-redundant roles in orzyalexin biosynthesis. Moreover, the resulting 3α,7β- and 3α,9β- diols correspond to oryzalexins D and E, respectively. Accordingly, our results complete the functional identification of the biosynthetic pathway underlying the production of these bioactive phytoalexins. In addition, the altered regiochemistry catalyzed by CYP76M6 following C3α-hydroxylation has some implications for its active site configuration, offering further molecular insight. PMID:23795884

  18. Renin and the IGFII/M6P Receptor System in Cardiac Biology

    PubMed Central

    Heger, Jacqueline; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Nonenzymatic cardiac activities of renin are well described during the last years and contribute either to cardiac-specific effects of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) or to the pharmacological effects of RAAS inhibition. The interaction of renin with insulin-like growth factor II/mannose-6-phosphate (IGFII/M6P) receptors participates in nonclassical renin effects and contributes to cardiac remodelling caused by RAAS activation. The current findings suggest an important role for renin IGFII/M6P receptor interaction in cardiac adaptation to stress and support the idea that excessive accumulation of renin during inhibition of RAAS directly contributes to blood pressure-independent effects of these pharmacological interventions. It becomes a challenge for future studies focussing on chronic hypertension or myocardial infarction to comprise regulatory adaptations of the kidney, the main source of plasma renin and prorenin, because they directly contribute to key steps in regulation of cardiac (mal)adaptation via IGFII/M6P receptors. This receptor system is part of peptide/receptor interactions that modifies and possibly limits adverse remodelling effects caused by angiotensin II. Evaluation of interactions of renin with other pro-hypertrophic agonists is required to decide whether this receptor may become a target of pharmacological intervention. PMID:24288471

  19. Meclofenamic acid selectively inhibits FTO demethylation of m6A over ALKBH5.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Yan, Jingli; Li, Qi; Li, Jiafei; Gong, Shouzhe; Zhou, Hu; Gan, Jianhua; Jiang, Hualiang; Jia, Gui-Fang; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Cai-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Two human demethylases, the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) enzyme and ALKBH5, oxidatively demethylate abundant N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) residues in mRNA. Achieving a method for selective inhibition of FTO over ALKBH5 remains a challenge, however. Here, we have identified meclofenamic acid (MA) as a highly selective inhibitor of FTO. MA is a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug that mechanistic studies indicate competes with FTO binding for the m(6)A-containing nucleic acid. The structure of FTO/MA has revealed much about the inhibitory function of FTO. Our newfound understanding, revealed herein, of the part of the nucleotide recognition lid (NRL) in FTO, for example, has helped elucidate the principles behind the selectivity of FTO over ALKBH5. Treatment of HeLa cells with the ethyl ester form of MA (MA2) has led to elevated levels of m(6)A modification in mRNA. Our collective results highlight the development of functional probes of the FTO enzyme that will (i) enable future biological studies and (ii) pave the way for the rational design of potent and specific inhibitors of FTO for use in medicine. PMID:25452335

  20. Nuclear m(6)A Reader YTHDC1 Regulates mRNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wen; Adhikari, Samir; Dahal, Ujwal; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Hao, Ya-Juan; Sun, Bao-Fa; Sun, Hui-Ying; Li, Ang; Ping, Xiao-Li; Lai, Wei-Yi; Wang, Xing; Ma, Hai-Li; Huang, Chun-Min; Yang, Ying; Huang, Niu; Jiang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Hai-Lin; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Yang, Yun-Gui

    2016-02-18

    The regulatory role of N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) and its nuclear binding protein YTHDC1 in pre-mRNA splicing remains an enigma. Here we show that YTHDC1 promotes exon inclusion in targeted mRNAs through recruiting pre-mRNA splicing factor SRSF3 (SRp20) while blocking SRSF10 (SRp38) mRNA binding. Transcriptome assay with PAR-CLIP-seq analysis revealed that YTHDC1-regulated exon-inclusion patterns were similar to those of SRSF3 but opposite of SRSF10. In vitro pull-down assay illustrated a competitive binding of SRSF3 and SRSF10 to YTHDC1. Moreover, YTHDC1 facilitates SRSF3 but represses SRSF10 in their nuclear speckle localization, RNA-binding affinity, and associated splicing events, dysregulation of which, as the result of YTHDC1 depletion, can be restored by reconstitution with wild-type, but not m(6)A-binding-defective, YTHDC1. Our findings provide the direct evidence that m(6)A reader YTHDC1 regulates mRNA splicing through recruiting and modulating pre-mRNA splicing factors for their access to the binding regions of targeted mRNAs. PMID:26876937

  1. Meclofenamic acid selectively inhibits FTO demethylation of m6A over ALKBH5

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yue; Yan, Jingli; Li, Qi; Li, Jiafei; Gong, Shouzhe; Zhou, Hu; Gan, Jianhua; Jiang, Hualiang; Jia, Gui-Fang; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Cai-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Two human demethylases, the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) enzyme and ALKBH5, oxidatively demethylate abundant N6-methyladenosine (m6A) residues in mRNA. Achieving a method for selective inhibition of FTO over ALKBH5 remains a challenge, however. Here, we have identified meclofenamic acid (MA) as a highly selective inhibitor of FTO. MA is a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug that mechanistic studies indicate competes with FTO binding for the m6A-containing nucleic acid. The structure of FTO/MA has revealed much about the inhibitory function of FTO. Our newfound understanding, revealed herein, of the part of the nucleotide recognition lid (NRL) in FTO, for example, has helped elucidate the principles behind the selectivity of FTO over ALKBH5. Treatment of HeLa cells with the ethyl ester form of MA (MA2) has led to elevated levels of m6A modification in mRNA. Our collective results highlight the development of functional probes of the FTO enzyme that will (i) enable future biological studies and (ii) pave the way for the rational design of potent and specific inhibitors of FTO for use in medicine. PMID:25452335

  2. A majority of m6A residues are in the last exons, allowing the potential for 3' UTR regulation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Shengdong; Alemu, Endalkachew A; Mertens, Claudia; Gantman, Emily Conn; Fak, John J; Mele, Aldo; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Zucker-Scharff, Ilana; Moore, Michael J; Park, Christopher Y; Vågbø, Cathrine Broberg; Kusśnierczyk, Anna; Klungland, Arne; Darnell, James E; Darnell, Robert B

    2015-10-01

    We adapted UV CLIP (cross-linking immunoprecipitation) to accurately locate tens of thousands of m(6)A residues in mammalian mRNA with single-nucleotide resolution. More than 70% of these residues are present in the 3'-most (last) exons, with a very sharp rise (sixfold) within 150-400 nucleotides of the start of the last exon. Two-thirds of last exon m(6)A and >40% of all m(6)A in mRNA are present in 3' untranslated regions (UTRs); contrary to earlier suggestions, there is no preference for location of m(6)A sites around stop codons. Moreover, m(6)A is significantly higher in noncoding last exons than in next-to-last exons harboring stop codons. We found that m(6)A density peaks early in the 3' UTR and that, among transcripts with alternative polyA (APA) usage in both the brain and the liver, brain transcripts preferentially use distal polyA sites, as reported, and also show higher proximal m(6)A density in the last exons. Furthermore, when we reduced m6A methylation by knocking down components of the methylase complex and then examined 661 transcripts with proximal m6A peaks in last exons, we identified a set of 111 transcripts with altered (approximately two-thirds increased proximal) APA use. Taken together, these observations suggest a role of m(6)A modification in regulating proximal alternative polyA choice. PMID:26404942

  3. A majority of m6A residues are in the last exons, allowing the potential for 3′ UTR regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Shengdong; Alemu, Endalkachew A.; Mertens, Claudia; Gantman, Emily Conn; Fak, John J.; Mele, Aldo; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Zucker-Scharff, Ilana; Moore, Michael J.; Park, Christopher Y.; Vågbø, Cathrine Broberg; Kusśnierczyk, Anna; Klungland, Arne; Darnell, James E.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    We adapted UV CLIP (cross-linking immunoprecipitation) to accurately locate tens of thousands of m6A residues in mammalian mRNA with single-nucleotide resolution. More than 70% of these residues are present in the 3′-most (last) exons, with a very sharp rise (sixfold) within 150–400 nucleotides of the start of the last exon. Two-thirds of last exon m6A and >40% of all m6A in mRNA are present in 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs); contrary to earlier suggestions, there is no preference for location of m6A sites around stop codons. Moreover, m6A is significantly higher in noncoding last exons than in next-to-last exons harboring stop codons. We found that m6A density peaks early in the 3′ UTR and that, among transcripts with alternative polyA (APA) usage in both the brain and the liver, brain transcripts preferentially use distal polyA sites, as reported, and also show higher proximal m6A density in the last exons. Furthermore, when we reduced m6A methylation by knocking down components of the methylase complex and then examined 661 transcripts with proximal m6A peaks in last exons, we identified a set of 111 transcripts with altered (approximately two-thirds increased proximal) APA use. Taken together, these observations suggest a role of m6A modification in regulating proximal alternative polyA choice. PMID:26404942

  4. Investigation of the Building M6-794 Roofing Fatality, Type A Mishap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, John H.; French, Kristie; Tipton, David A.; Bennardo, C. P.; Miller, Darcy H.; Facemire, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The Building M6-794 Roofing Fatality Mishap Investigation Board (Board) was commissioned to gather information; analyze the facts; identify the proximate causes, root causes, and contributing factors relating to the mishap; and recommend appropriate actions to prevent a similar mishap from occurring in the future. During the investigation of this mishap, the Board also examined the fall protection policies of other NASA Centers and operating locations to gain an understanding of how those entities conduct fall protection, as well as the degree to which fall protection is standardized across the Agency.

  5. Chemical abundances of A-type dwarfs in the young open cluster M6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kílíçoǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2011-12-01

    Elemental abundance analysis of five members in the open cluster M6 (age ˜90 myr) were performed using FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectrograph mounted on 8-meter class VLT telescopes. The abundances of 14 chemical elements were derived. Johnson and Geneva photometric systems, hydrogen line profile fittings, and ionization equilibrium were used to derive the atmospheric parameters of the stars. Synthetic spectra were compared to the observed spectra to derive chemical abundances. The abundance analysis of these five members shows that these stars have an enhancement (or solar composition) of metals in general, with some exceptions. C, O, Ca, Sc, Ni, Y, and Ba exhibit the largest star-to-star abundance variations.

  6. Multifractal analysis of seismic electric signals observed prior a earthquake of M6.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Rojas, Alejandro; Rebeca Moreno-Torres, Lucía

    2014-05-01

    In this work we studied the multifractal spectrum behavior calculated during the presence of a possible seismic electrical signal (SES). This signal was detected in a geolectrical time series registered prior a seism of M6.7 occurred on October 24, 1993 in México. We calculated the multifractal spectrum by using nonoverlapping windows of segments of 1 hour. Our results display the singularities spectrum calculated before, during and after the possible SES, showing important differences in some parameters like the width and maxima values, among others, in the spectra. Those observations suggest that the physical system has different dynamical features along the process and possibly as a precursor sign.

  7. The stress-regulated protein M6a is a key modulator for neurite outgrowth and filopodium/spine formation.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Julieta; Fernández, María E; Cooper, Benjamin; Flugge, Gabriele; Frasch, Alberto C

    2005-11-22

    Neuronal remodeling is a fundamental process by which the brain responds to environmental influences, e.g., during stress. In the hippocampus, chronic stress causes retraction of dendrites in CA3 pyramidal neurons. We have recently identified the glycoprotein M6a as a stress-responsive gene in the hippocampal formation. This gene is down-regulated in the hippocampus of both socially and physically stressed animals, and this effect can be reversed by antidepressant treatment. In the present work, we analyzed the biological function of the M6a protein. Immunohistochemistry showed that the M6a protein is abundant in all hippocampal subregions, and subcellular analysis in primary hippocampal neurons revealed its presence in membrane protrusions (filopodia/spines). Transfection experiments revealed that M6a overexpression induces neurite formation and increases filopodia density in hippocampal neurons. M6a knockdown with small interference RNA methodology showed that M6a low-expressing neurons display decreased filopodia number and a lower density of synaptophysin clusters. Taken together, our findings indicate that M6a plays an important role in neurite/filopodium outgrowth and synapse formation. Therefore, reduced M6a expression might be responsible for the morphological alterations found in the hippocampus of chronically stressed animals. Potential mechanisms that might explain the biological effects of M6a are discussed. PMID:16286650

  8. Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-30

    Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  9. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect

    CHOU,W.; WEI,J.

    2001-08-14

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade.

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum-through-Golgi transport assay based on O-glycosylation of native glycophorin in permeabilized erythroleukemia cells: role for Gi3.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, B S; Palade, G E; Farquhar, M G

    1993-01-01

    An assay for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-through-Golgi transport has been developed in streptolysin O-permeabilized murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. The reporter proteins are metabolically labeled native murine glycophorins, which display a distinctive shift in electrophoretic mobility after acquisition of O-linked oligosaccharides. The O-linked sugars are acquired at a site distal to a brefeldin A block, presumably in a cis Golgi compartment, and sialylation occurs in middle and/or trans Golgi compartments. In permeabilized cells supplemented with cytosolic proteins and an ATP-generating system, 20-50% of the radiolabeled precursor glycophorins can be converted to the mature, sialylated form. This maturation process is ATP- and cytosol-dependent and is blocked by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[gamma S]). Electron microscopy of permeabilized MEL cells shows retention of ER elements, stacked Golgi cisternae, free polysomes, and other subcellular components. In the presence of GTP[gamma S], dilated vesicles accumulate around the Golgi stacks. Antisera to the carboxyl terminus of the Golgi resident alpha subunit of Gi3 inhibit maturation of glycophorin. To our knowledge, a transport assay utilizing O-glycosylation of an endogenous protein as a monitor of ER-through-Golgi traffic in permeabilized cells has not been reported previously. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein involvement in Golgi function. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8446582

  11. N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) in RNA: an old modification with a novel epigenetic function.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yamei; Zhao, Xu; Wu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Ming-Ming; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Yang, Yun-Gui

    2013-02-01

    N(6)-methyl-adenosine (m(6)A) is one of the most common and abundant modifications on RNA molecules present in eukaryotes. However, the biological significance of m(6)A methylation remains largely unknown. Several independent lines of evidence suggest that the dynamic regulation of m(6)A may have a profound impact on gene expression regulation. The m(6)A modification is catalyzed by an unidentified methyltransferase complex containing at least one subunit methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3). m(6)A modification on messenger RNAs (mRNAs) mainly occurs in the exonic regions and 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) as revealed by high-throughput m(6)A-seq. One significant advance in m(6)A research is the recent discovery of the first two m(6)A RNA demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene and ALKBH5, which catalyze m(6)A demethylation in an α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)- and Fe(2+)-dependent manner. Recent studies in model organisms demonstrate that METTL3, FTO and ALKBH5 play important roles in many biological processes, ranging from development and metabolism to fertility. Moreover, perturbation of activities of these enzymes leads to the disturbed expression of thousands of genes at the cellular level, implicating a regulatory role of m(6)A in RNA metabolism. Given the vital roles of DNA and histone methylations in epigenetic regulation of basic life processes in mammals, the dynamic and reversible chemical m(6)A modification on RNA may also serve as a novel epigenetic marker of profound biological significances. PMID:23453015

  12. Variations of terrestrial geomagnetic activity correlated to M6+ global seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2013-04-01

    From the surface of the Sun, as a result of a solar flare, are expelled a coronal mass (CME or Coronal Mass Ejection) that can be observed from the Earth through a coronagraph in white light. This ejected material can be compared to an electrically charged cloud (plasma) mainly composed of electrons, protons and other small quantities of heavier elements such as helium, oxygen and iron that run radially from the Sun along the lines of the solar magnetic field and pushing into interplanetary space. Sometimes the CME able to reach the Earth causing major disruptions of its magnetosphere: mashed in the region illuminated by the Sun and expanding in the region not illuminated. This interaction creates extensive disruption of the Earth's geomagnetic field that can be detected by a radio receiver tuned to the ELF band (Extreme Low Frequency 0-30 Hz). The Radio Emissions Project (scientific research project founded in February 2009 by Gabriele Cataldi and Daniele Cataldi), analyzing the change in the Earth's geomagnetic field through an induction magnetometer tuned between 0.001 and 5 Hz (bandwidth in which possible to observe the geomagnetic pulsations) was able to detect the existence of a close relationship between this geomagnetic perturbations and the global seismic activity M6+. During the arrival of the CME on Earth, in the Earth's geomagnetic field are generated sudden and intensive emissions that have a bandwidth including between 0 and 15 Hz, an average duration of 2-8 hours, that preceding of 0-12 hours M6+ earthquakes. Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2012, all M6+ earthquakes recorded on a global scale were preceded by this type of signals which, due to their characteristics, have been called "Seismic Geomagnetic Precursors" (S.G.P.). The main feature of Seismic Geomagnetic Precursors is represented by the close relationship that they have with the solar activity. In fact, because the S.G.P. are geomagnetic emissions, their temporal modulation depends

  13. Distribution of magnetogravity waves during strong earthquakes ( M > 6.5) preparation periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhatova, O. M.; Barkhatov, N. A.; Kosolapova, N. V.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetogravity activity during the preparation of four strong ( M > 6.5) earthquake with epicenters at medium (35-40° N) and low (10° S-10° N) latitudes is detected. For this purpose a comparison of simultaneous disturbances at dynamic spectra of ionospheric layers Es, E, F2 critical frequencies and geomagnetic field X, Y, Z components was performed. It was found that the greatest number of magnetogravity events noted in epicenters vicinity takes place at two days before the considered earthquakes. Evaluation of dynamic spectra intensity level which was obtained by data from magnetic stations located around the epicenter, allows to identify the magnetogravity waves (MGW) propagation direction with least damping. In most cases they coincide with geomagnetic field direction. Attention is paid to ionospheric wind influence for low-frequency MGW mode.

  14. How to predict Italy L'Aquila M6.3 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guangmeng

    2016-04-01

    According to the satellite cloud anomaly appeared over eastern Italy on 21-23 April 2012, we predicted the M6.0 quake occurred in north Italy successfully. Here checked the satellite images in 2011-2013 in Italy, and 21 cloud anomalies were found. Their possible correlation with earthquakes bigger than M4.7 which located in Italy main fault systems was statistically examined by assuming various lead times. The result shows that when the leading time interval is set to 23≤ΔT≤45 days, 8 of the 10 quakes were preceded by cloud anomalies. Poisson random test shows that AAR (anomaly appearance rate) and EOR (EQ occurrence rate) is much higher than the values by chance. This study proved the relation between cloud anomaly and earthquake in Italy. With this method, we found that L'Aquila earthquake can also be predicted according to cloud anomaly.

  15. Anomalous decrease in groundwater radon before the Taiwan M6.8 Chengkung earthquake.

    PubMed

    Kuo, T; Fan, K; Kuochen, H; Han, Y; Chu, H; Lee, Y

    2006-01-01

    On December 10, 2003, an earthquake of magnitude (M) 6.8, the strongest since 1951, occurred near the Chengkung area in eastern Taiwan. Approximately 65 d prior to the 2003 Chengkung earthquake, precursory changes in the groundwater radon concentration were observed at the Antung radon-monitoring station located 20 km from the epicenter. The radon anomaly was a decrease from a background level of 28.9 BqL(-1) to a minimum of 12.2 BqL(-1). Observations at the Antung hot spring suggest that the groundwater radon, when observed under suitable geological conditions, can be a sensitive tracer for strain changes in the crust preceding an earthquake. PMID:16533545

  16. Detection of a new phosphorus rich star in the open cluster M6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliçoğlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2012-12-01

    We present the first spectroscopic analysis of HD318101, a member of the M6 (NGC 6405, age 100 Myr) open cluster, using low and high resolution (R˜7500, R˜25000) spectra stretching from 4500 to 5840 Å. The atmospheric parameters of the star were determined from Geneva photometry and hydrogen line modeling (T_e = 15400 ± 500 K, log g = 4.0 ± 0.25). The abundances of 8 elements were determined by fitting synthetic spectral lines to the observed ones. We derived a strong overabundance of phosphorus (+1.69 dex, relative to the Sun) from several P II lines. We also found helium to be underabundant (-0.37 dex). These abundance anomalies suggest that HD318101 could be a He-weak PGa type star (CP4).

  17. N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) marks primary microRNAs for processing

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Claudio R.; Lee, Hyeseung; Goodarzi, Hani; Halberg, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The first step in the biogenesis of microRNAs is the processing of primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) by the microprocessor complex, composed of the RNA binding protein DGCR8 and the ribonuclease type III DROSHA1–4. This initial event requires the recognition of the junction between the stem and the flanking single-stranded RNA of the pri-miRNA hairpin by DGCR8 followed by recruitment of DROSHA, which cleaves the RNA duplex to yield the pre-miRNA product5. While the mechanisms underlying pri-miRNA processing have been elucidated, the mechanism by which DGCR8 recognizes and binds pri-miRNAs as opposed to other secondary structures present in transcripts is not understood. We find that methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3) methylates pri-miRNAs, marking them for recognition and processing by DGCR8. Consistent with this, METTL3 depletion reduced the binding of DGCR8 to pri-miRNAs and resulted in the global reduction of mature miRNAs and concomitant accumulation of unprocessed pri-miRNAs. In vitro processing reactions confirmed the sufficiency of the m6A mark in promoting pri-miRNA processing. Finally, gain-of-function experiments revealed that METTL3 is sufficient to enhance miRNA maturation in a global and non-cell-type specific manner. Our findings reveal that the m6A mark acts as a key post-transcriptional modification that promotes the initiation of miRNA biogenesis. PMID:25799998

  18. Involvement of T6 Pili in Biofilm Formation by Serotype M6 Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Keiji Richard; Nakata, Masanobu; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Podbielski, Andreas; Terao, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    The group A streptococcus (GAS) Streptococcus pyogenes is known to cause self-limiting purulent infections in humans. The role of GAS pili in host cell adhesion and biofilm formation is likely fundamental in early colonization. Pilus genes are found in the FCT (fibronectin-binding protein, collagen-binding protein, and trypsin-resistant antigen) genomic region, which has been classified into nine subtypes based on the diversity of gene content and nucleotide sequence. Several epidemiological studies have indicated that FCT type 1 strains, including serotype M6, produce large amounts of monospecies biofilm in vitro. We examined the direct involvement of pili in biofilm formation by serotype M6 clinical isolates. In the majority of tested strains, deletion of the tee6 gene encoding pilus shaft protein T6 compromised the ability to form biofilm on an abiotic surface. Deletion of the fctX and srtB genes, which encode pilus ancillary protein and class C pilus-associated sortase, respectively, also decreased biofilm formation by a representative strain. Unexpectedly, these mutant strains showed increased bacterial aggregation compared with that of the wild-type strain. When the entire FCT type 1 pilus region was ectopically expressed in serotype M1 strain SF370, biofilm formation was promoted and autoaggregation was inhibited. These findings indicate that assembled FCT type 1 pili contribute to biofilm formation and also function as attenuators of bacterial aggregation. Taken together, our results show the potential role of FCT type 1 pili in the pathogenesis of GAS infections. PMID:22155780

  19. HNRNPA2B1 Is a Mediator of m(6)A-Dependent Nuclear RNA Processing Events.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Claudio R; Goodarzi, Hani; Lee, Hyeseung; Liu, Xuhang; Tavazoie, Saeed; Tavazoie, Sohail F

    2015-09-10

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most abundant internal modification of messenger RNA. While the presence of m(6)A on transcripts can impact nuclear RNA fates, a reader of this mark that mediates processing of nuclear transcripts has not been identified. We find that the RNA-binding protein HNRNPA2B1 binds m(6)A-bearing RNAs in vivo and in vitro and its biochemical footprint matches the m(6)A consensus motif. HNRNPA2B1 directly binds a set of nuclear transcripts and elicits similar alternative splicing effects as the m(6)A writer METTL3. Moreover, HNRNPA2B1 binds to m(6)A marks in a subset of primary miRNA transcripts, interacts with the microRNA Microprocessor complex protein DGCR8, and promotes primary miRNA processing. Also, HNRNPA2B1 loss and METTL3 depletion cause similar processing defects for these pri-miRNA precursors. We propose HNRNPA2B1 to be a nuclear reader of the m(6)A mark and to mediate, in part, this mark's effects on primary microRNA processing and alternative splicing. PAPERCLIP. PMID:26321680

  20. YTHDF2 destabilizes m(6)A-containing RNA through direct recruitment of the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex.

    PubMed

    Du, Hao; Zhao, Ya; He, Jinqiu; Zhang, Yao; Xi, Hairui; Liu, Mofang; Ma, Jinbiao; Wu, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    Methylation at the N6 position of adenosine (m(6)A) is the most abundant RNA modification within protein-coding and long noncoding RNAs in eukaryotes and is a reversible process with important biological functions. YT521-B homology domain family (YTHDF) proteins are the readers of m(6)A, the binding of which results in the alteration of the translation efficiency and stability of m(6)A-containing RNAs. However, the mechanism by which YTHDF proteins cause the degradation of m(6)A-containing RNAs is poorly understood. Here we report that m(6)A-containing RNAs exhibit accelerated deadenylation that is mediated by the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex. We further show that YTHDF2 recruits the CCR4-NOT complex through a direct interaction between the YTHDF2 N-terminal region and the SH domain of the CNOT1 subunit, and that this recruitment is essential for the deadenylation of m(6)A-containing RNAs by CAF1 and CCR4. Therefore, we have uncovered the mechanism of YTHDF2-mediated degradation of m(6)A-containing RNAs in mammalian cells. PMID:27558897

  1. HNRNPA2B1 is a mediator of m6A-dependent nuclear RNA processing events

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Claudio R.; Goodarzi, Hani; Lee, Hyeseung; Liu, Xuhang; Tavazoie, Saeed; Tavazoie, Sohail F.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal modification of messenger RNA. While the presence of m6A on transcripts can impact alternative splicing, a nuclear reader of this mark that mediates the processing of nuclear transcripts has not been identified. We find that the RNA-binding HNRNPA2B1 protein binds m6A-bearing RNAs in vivo and in vitro and its biochemical footprint matches the m6A consensus motif. HNRNPA2B1 directly binds a set of nuclear transcripts and modulates their alternative splicing in a similar manner as the m6A ‘writer’ METTL3. Moreover, HNRNPA2B1 binds to m6A marks in a subset of primary-miRNA transcripts, interacts with the microRNA Microprocessor complex protein DGCR8, and promotes primary miRNA processing—phenocopying the effect of METTL3 depletion on the processing of these precursor transcripts. We propose HNRNPA2B1 to be a nuclear reader of the m6A mark and to mediate, in part, this mark’s effects on primary microRNA processing and alternative splicing. PMID:26321680

  2. N (6)-Methyladenosine (m(6)A) Methylation in mRNA with A Dynamic and Reversible Epigenetic Modification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruifan; Jiang, Denghu; Wang, Yizhen; Wang, Xinxia

    2016-07-01

    N (6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most abundant and reversible internal modification ubiquitously occurring in eukaryotic mRNA, albeit the significant biological roles of m(6)A methylation have remained largely unclear. The well-known DNA and histone methylations play crucial roles in epigenetic modification of biologic processes in eukaryotes. Analogously, the dynamic and reversible m(6)A RNA modification, which is installed by methyltransferase (METTL3, METTL14, and WTAP), reversed by demethylases (FTO, ALKBH5) and mediated by m(6)A-binding proteins (YTHDF1-3, YTHDC1), may also have a profound impact on gene expression regulation. Recent discoveries of the distributions, functions, and mechanisms of m(6)A modification suggest that this methylation functionally modulates the eukaryotic transcriptome to influence mRNA transcription, splicing, nuclear export, localization, translation, and stability. This reversible mRNA methylation shed light on a new dimension of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression at the RNA level. m(6)A methylation also plays significant and broad roles in various physiological processes, such as development, fertility, carcinogenesis, stemness, early mortality, meiosis and circadian cycle, and links to obesity, cancer, and other human diseases. This review mainly describes the current knowledge of m(6)A and perspectives on future investigations. PMID:27179969

  3. Maintaining a Class M 5.5 environment in a Class M 6.5 cleanroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David W.; Hedgeland, Randy J.; Geer, Wayne C.; Greenberg, Barry N.

    1994-10-01

    During Kennedy Space Center processing of the Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission, critical optical components were integrated in a Class 100,000 (M 6.5 at 0.5 micrometers and 5.0 micrometers , per Fed-Std 209E) cleanroom. A Class 10,000 (M 5.5) environment was mandated by the 400B (per Mil-Std 1246B) surface cleanliness requirement of the Scientific Instruments. To maintain a Class M 5.5 environment, a contamination control plan was implemented which addressed personnel constraints, operations, and site management. This plan limited personnel access, imposed strict gowning requirements, and increased cleanroom janitorial operations, prohibited operations known to generate contamination while sensitive hardware was exposed to the environment, and controlled roadwork, insecticide spraying, and similar activities. Facility preparations included a ceiling to floor cleaning, sealing of vents and doors, and revising the garment change room entry patterns. The cleanroom was successfully run below Class 5000 while the instruments were present; certain operations, however, were observed to cause local contamination levels to increase above Class M 5.5.

  4. A comparison of cell killing by heat and/or x rays in Chinese hamster V79 cells, Friend erythroleukemia mouse cells, and human thymocyte MOLT-4 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Szekely, J.; Lobreau, A.; Azzam, E.I.

    1983-05-01

    The radiation and/or heat sensitivity of Chinese hamster V79 cells, Friend erythroleukemia (FELC) mouse cells, and MOLT-4 human transformed thymocytes were compared. MOLT-4 cells were more radiosensitive (D/sub o/=0.50 Gy) than FELC (D/sub o/ = 0.65 Gy) and V79 cells (D/sub o/ = 1.43 Gy). Arrhenius analysis showed that MOLT-4 cells were more heat sensitive than FELC or V79 cells below 42.0/sup 0/C, but more heat resistant at higher temperatures. In addition, the MOLT-4 cells showed a single-heat inactivation energy between 41.0 and 45.0/sup 0/C, while FELC and V79 cells both showed a transition in the inactivation energy at about 43.0 and 43.5/sup 0/C, respectively. These differences may be related to the fact that the upper temperature limit for the development of thermal tolerance during continuous heating was lower for MOLT-4 cells than for FELC or V79 cells. Killing of FELC and V79 cells was dependent on the sequence in which heat and X rays were applied, but the greatest effect was obtained when both treatments were given simultaneously. Recovery occurred when treatments were separated by incubation at 37.0/sup 0/C. The MOLT-4 cells did not show a sequence dependence for heating and irradiation. Survival of MOLT-4 cells after heating and/or irradiation was compared using trypan blue dye exclusion or colony formation. Both assays showed similar qualitative responses, but survival levels measured by the trypan blue assay were much higher than those determined from the colony-forming assay.

  5. Synthesis of new steroidal inhibitors of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance and biological evaluation on K562/R7 erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    de Ravel, Marc Rolland; Alameh, Ghina; Melikian, Maxime; Mahiout, Zahia; Emptoz-Bonneton, Agnès; Matera, Eva-Laure; Lomberget, Thierry; Barret, Roland; Rocheblave, Luc; Walchshofer, Nadia; Beltran, Sonia; El Jawad, Lucienne; Mappus, Elisabeth; Grenot, Catherine; Pugeat, Michel; Dumontet, Charles; Le Borgne, Marc; Cuilleron, Claude Yves

    2015-02-26

    A simple route for improving the potency of progesterone as a modulator of P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance was established by esterification or etherification of hydroxylated 5α/β-pregnane-3,20-dione or 5β-cholan-3-one precursors. X-ray crystallography of representative 7α-, 11α-, and 17α-(2'R/S)-O-tetrahydropyranyl ether diastereoisomers revealed different combinations of axial-equatorial configurations of the anomeric oxygen. Substantial stimulation of accumulation and chemosensitization was observed on K562/R7 erythroleukemia cells resistant to doxorubicin, especially using 7α,11α-O-disubstituted derivatives of 5α/β-pregnane-3,20-dione, among which the 5β-H-7α-benzoyloxy-11α-(2'R)-O-tetrahydropyranyl ether 22a revealed promising properties (accumulation index 2.9, IC50 0.5 μM versus 1.2 and 10.6 μM for progesterone), slightly overcoming those of verapamil and cyclosporin A. Several 7α,12α-O-disubstituted derivatives of 5β-cholan-3-one proved even more active, especially the 7α-O-methoxymethyl-12α-benzoate 56 (accumulation index 3.8, IC50 0.2 μM). The panel of modulating effects from different O-substitutions at a same position suggests a structural influence of the substituent completing a simple protection against stimulating effects of hydroxyl groups on P-gp-mediated transport. PMID:25634041

  6. A high concentration of triiodothyronine attenuates the stimulatory effect on hemin-induced erythroid differentiation of human erythroleukemia K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Mieno; Yamamoto, Yoritsuna; Hirooka, Nobutaka; Obuchi, Yasuhiro; Tachibana, Shoichi; Makishima, Makoto; Tanaka, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Although thyroid hormone is a known stimulator of erythropoietic differentiation, severe anemia is sometimes observed in patients with hyperthyroidism and this mechanism is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of triiodothyronine (T3) on hemin-induced erythropoiesis. Human erythroleukemia K562 cells were used as an erythroid differentiation model. Cell differentiation was induced by hemin and the effect of pre-incubation with T3 (0.1 to 100 nM) was analyzed by measuring the benzidine-positive rate, hemoglobin content, CD71 expression (transferrin receptor), and mRNA expression for transcription factors related to erythropoiesis and thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). Hemin, a promoter of erythroid differentiation, increased the levels of mRNAs for TRα, TRβ, and retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), as well as those for nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NFE2), GATA-binding protein 1 (GATA1) and GATA-binding protein 2 (GATA2). Lower concentrations of T3 had a stimulatory effect on hemin-induced hemoglobin production (1 and 10 nM), CD71 expression (0.1 nM), and α-globin mRNA expression (1 nM), while a higher concentration of T3 (100 nM) abrogated the stimulatory effect on these parameters. T3 at 100 nM did not affect cell viability and proliferation, suggesting that the abrogation of erythropoiesis enhancement was not due to toxicity. T3 at 100 nM also significantly inhibited expression of GATA2 and RXRα mRNA, compared to 1 nM T3. We conclude that a high concentration of T3 attenuates the classical stimulatory effect on erythropoiesis exerted by a low concentration of T3 in hemin-induced K562 cells. PMID:25787723

  7. M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity in head and neck cancer associated with poor patient prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Timothy A; Brizel, David M; Killian, J Keith; Oka, Yoshihiko; Jang, Hong-Seok; Fu, Xiaolong; Clough, Robert W; Vollmer, Robin T; Anscher, Mitchell S; Jirtle, Randy L

    2003-01-01

    Background The mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R) encodes for a multifunctional receptor involved in lysosomal enzyme trafficking, fetal organogenesis, cytotoxic T cell-induced apoptosis and tumor suppression. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the M6P/IGF2R tumor suppressor gene is mutated in human head and neck cancer, and if allelic loss is associated with poor patient prognosis. Methods M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was assessed with six different gene-specific nucleotide polymorphisms. The patients studied were enrolled in a phase 3 trial of twice daily radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy; median follow-up for surviving patients is 76 months. Results M6P/IGF2R was polymorphic in 64% (56/87) of patients, and 54% (30/56) of the tumors in these informative patients had loss of heterozygosity. M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity was associated with a significantly reduced 5 year relapse-free survival (23% vs. 69%, p = 0.02), locoregional control (34% vs. 75%, p = 0.03) and cause specific survival (29% vs. 75%, p = 0.02) in the patients treated with radiotherapy alone. Concomitant chemotherapy resulted in a better outcome when compared to radiotherapy alone only in those patients whose tumors had M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity predicts for poor therapeutic outcome in patients treated with radiotherapy alone. Our findings also indicate that head and neck cancer patients with M6P/IGF2R allelic loss benefit most from concurrent chemotherapy. PMID:12589712

  8. Earthquake Rupture Forecast of M>= 6 for the Corinth Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, O.; Boiselet, A.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Albini, P.; Bernard, P.; Briole, P.; Ford, M.; Lambotte, S.; Matrullo, E.; Rovida, A.; Satriano, C.

    2014-12-01

    Fourteen years of multidisciplinary observations and data collection in the Western Corinth Rift (WCR) near-fault observatory have been recently synthesized (Boiselet, Ph.D. 2014) for the purpose of providing earthquake rupture forecasts (ERF) of M>=6 in WCR. The main contribution of this work consisted in paving the road towards the development of a "community-based" fault model reflecting the level of knowledge gathered thus far by the WCR working group. The most relevant available data used for this exercise are: - onshore/offshore fault traces, based on geological and high-resolution seismics, revealing a complex network of E-W striking, ~10 km long fault segments; microseismicity recorded by a dense network ( > 60000 events; 1.5=5 19th century events and a few paleoseismological investigations, allowing to consider time-dependent ERF. B-value estimates are found to be catalogue-dependent (WCR, homogenized NOA+Thessaloniki, SHARE), which may call for a potential break in scaling relationship. Furthermore, observed discrepancies between seismicity rates assumed for the modeled faults and those expected from GPS deformation rates call for the presence of aseismic deformation. Uncertainty in the ERF resulting from the lack of precise knowledge concerning both, fault geometries and seismic slip rates, is quantified through a logic tree exploration. Median and precentile predictions are then compared to ERF assuming a uniform seismicity rate in the WCR region. The issues raised by this work will be discussed in the light of seismic hazard assessment.

  9. Postearthquake relaxation after the 2004 M6 Parkfield, California, earthquake and rate-and-state friction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Langbein, J.

    2008-01-01

    An unusually complete set of measurements (including rapid rate GPS over the first 10 days) of postseismic deformation is available at 12 continuous GPS stations located close to the epicenter of the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake. The principal component modes for the relaxation of the ensemble of those 12 GPS stations were determined. The first mode alone furnishes an adequate approximation to the data. Thus, the relaxation at all stations can be represented by the product of a common temporal function and distinct amplitudes for each component (north or east) of relaxation at each station. The distribution in space of the amplitudes indicates that the relaxation is dominantly strike slip. The temporal function, which spans times from about 5 min to 900 days postearthquake, can be fit by a superposition of three creep terms, each of the form ??l loge(1 + t/??l), with characteristic times ??, = 4.06, 0.11, and 0.0001 days. It seems likely that what is actually involved is a broad spectrum of characteristic times, the individual components of which arise from afterslip on different fault patches. Perfettini and Avouac (2004) have shown that an individual creep term can be explained by the spring-slider model with rate-dependent (no state variable) friction. The observed temporal function can also be explained using a single spring-slider model (i.e., single fault patch) that includes rate-and-state-dependent friction, a single-state variable, and either of the two commonly used (aging and slip) state evolution laws. In the latter fits, the rate-and-state friction parameter b is negative.

  10. Near-Field Deformation Associated with the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake Surface Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B. A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Ericksen, T.

    2014-12-01

    We characterize near-field deformation associated with the surface rupture of the M6.0 South Napa earthquake from repeat mobile laser scanning (MLS) surveys. Starting the day after the main shock, we operated, sometime simultaneously, short (~75 m range) and medium (~400m range) range laser scanners on a truck or backpack. We scanned most of the length of the principal and secondary surface ruptures at speeds less than 10 km/hr. Scanning occurred primarily in either suburban subdivisions or cultivated vineyards of varying varietals with differing leaf patterns and stages of maturity. Spot-spacing is dense enough (100s of points/m^2) to permit creation of 10-25cm digital elevation models of much of the surface rupture. Scanned features of the right-lateral rupture include classic mole tracks through a variety of soil types, en echelon cracks, offset vine rows, and myriad types of pavement-related deformation. We estimate coseismic surface displacements ranging from 5 to 45 cm by examining offset cultural features and vine rows and by comparing the MLS data with preexisting airborne laser scans from 2003 using point-cloud and solid-modeling methodologies. Additionally, we conducted repeat MLS scans to measure the magnitude and spatial variation of fault afterslip, exceeding 20 cm in some places, particularly in the southern portion of the rupture zone. We anticipate these data sets, in conjunction with independently collected ground-based alinement arrays and space-based geodetic data will contribute significant insight into topics of current debate including assessing the most appropriate material models for shallow fault zones and how shallow and deeper fault slip relate to one another.

  11. Tectonic Setting of 24 August, 2014 M = 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yikilmaz, M. B.; Turcotte, D. L.; Kellogg, L. H.; Rundle, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The 24 August 2014 M=6.0 South Napa earthquake had strike-slip surface deformation extending over some 15 km with a maximum offset of 46 cm. The San Andreas fault (SAF) system in this region is relatively simple, the deformation zone is about 100 km wide and is bounded by the rigid Pacific Plate and the rigid Sierra-Nevada Plate. The deformation in this zone has some 33 mm/yr of right lateral strike-slip motion, some 20 mm/yr of this motion is accommodated on the SAF. There are a number of other right-lateral strike-slip faults in this zone. The South Napa Earthquake occurred on a branch of one of these, the West Napa Fault. The deformation zone has high heat flow indicating a thin lithosphere. This thin lithosphere is attributed to the recent subduction of the Farallon Plate beneath the Sierra-Nevada Plate. This subduction left a gap known as a slab window. Extensive GPS observations are available in the deformation zone, these data are well approximated by a near uniform shear strain between the two rigid boundary plates. We suggest that this near uniform surface shear can be attributed to viscoplastic deformation of the lower crust in the slab window. The thin brittle upper crust responds to this deformation. Because of the geometrical incompatibilities between the orientation of the San Andreas Fault and the imposed deformation, the brittle upper crust is subjected to distributed internal deformation. The 2014 South Napa earthquake is an example of this deformation, the localized co-seismic deformation is redistributed over the slab window by viscoplastic deformation of the lower crust.

  12. Coordination of m(6)A mRNA Methylation and Gene Transcription by ZFP217 Regulates Pluripotency and Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Aguilo, Francesca; Zhang, Fan; Sancho, Ana; Fidalgo, Miguel; Di Cecilia, Serena; Vashisht, Ajay; Lee, Dung-Fang; Chen, Chih-Hung; Rengasamy, Madhumitha; Andino, Blanca; Jahouh, Farid; Roman, Angel; Krig, Sheryl R; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Weijia; Wohlschlegel, James A; Wang, Jianlong; Walsh, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    Epigenetic and epitranscriptomic networks have important functions in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and somatic cell reprogramming. However, the mechanisms integrating the actions of these distinct networks are only partially understood. Here we show that the chromatin-associated zinc finger protein 217 (ZFP217) coordinates epigenetic and epitranscriptomic regulation. ZFP217 interacts with several epigenetic regulators, activates the transcription of key pluripotency genes, and modulates N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A) deposition on their transcripts by sequestering the enzyme m(6)A methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3). Consistently, Zfp217 depletion compromises ESC self-renewal and somatic cell reprogramming, globally increases m(6)A RNA levels, and enhances m(6)A modification of the Nanog, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc mRNAs, promoting their degradation. ZFP217 binds its own target gene mRNAs, which are also METTL3 associated, and is enriched at promoters of m(6)A-modified transcripts. Collectively, these findings shed light on how a transcription factor can tightly couple gene transcription to m(6)A RNA modification to ensure ESC identity. PMID:26526723

  13. Precise localization of m6A in Rous sarcoma virus RNA reveals clustering of methylation sites: implications for RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Kane, S E; Beemon, K

    1985-09-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) residues are present as internal base modifications in most higher eucaryotic mRNAs; however, the biological function of this modification is not known. We describe a method for localizing and quantitating m6A within a large RNA molecule, the genomic RNA of Rous sarcoma virus. Specific fragments of 32P-labeled Rous sarcoma virus RNA were isolated by hybridization with complementary DNA restriction fragments spanning nucleotides 6185 to 8050. RNA was digested with RNase and finger-printed, and individual oligonucleotides were analyzed for the presence of m6A by paper electrophoresis and thin-layer chromatography. With this technique, seven sites of methylation in this region of the Rous sarcoma virus genome were localized at nucleotides 6394, 6447, 6507, 6718, 7414, 7424, and 8014. Further, m6A was observed at two additional sites whose nucleotide assignments remain ambiguous. A clustering of two or more m6A residues was seen at three positions within the RNA analyzed. Modification at certain sites was found to be heterogeneous, in that different molecules of RNA appeared to be methylated differently. Previous studies have determined that methylation occurs only in the sequences Gm6AC and Am6AC. We observed a high frequency of methylation at PuGm6ACU sequences. The possible involvement of m6A in RNA splicing events is discussed. PMID:3016525

  14. Chemical Composition of Intermediate-mass Star Members of the M6 (NGC 6405) Open Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıçoğlu, T.; Monier, R.; Richer, J.; Fossati, L.; Albayrak, B.

    2016-03-01

    We present here the first abundance analysis of 44 late B-, A-, and F-type members of the young open cluster M6 (NGC 6405, age about 75 Myr). Low- and medium-resolution spectra, covering the 4500-5840 Å wavelength range, were obtained using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph attached to the ESO Very Large Telescopes. We determined the atmospheric parameters using calibrations of the Geneva photometry and by adjusting the Hβ profiles to synthetic ones. The abundances of up to 20 chemical elements, from helium to mercury, were derived for 19 late B, 16 A, and 9 F stars by iteratively adjusting synthetic spectra to the observations. We also derived a mean cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.07 ± 0.03 dex from the iron abundances of the F-type stars. We find that for most chemical elements, the normal late B- and A-type stars exhibit larger star-to-star abundance variations than the F-type stars probably because of the faster rotation of the B and A stars. The abundances of C, O, Mg, Si, and Sc appear to be anticorrelated with that of Fe, while the opposite holds for the abundances of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Y, and Ba as expected if radiative diffusion is efficient in the envelopes of these stars. In the course of this analysis, we discovered five new peculiar stars: one mild Am, one Am, and one Fm star (HD 318091, CD-32 13109, GSC 07380-01211, CP1), one HgMn star (HD 318126, CP3), and one He-weak P-rich (HD 318101, CP4) star. We also discovered a new spectroscopic binary, most likely a SB2. We performed a detailed modeling of HD 318101, the new He-weak P-rich CP star, using the Montréal stellar evolution code XEVOL which self-consistently treats all particle transport processes. Although the overall abundance pattern of this star is properly reproduced, we find that detailed abundances (in particular the high P excess) resisted modeling attempts even when a range of turbulence profiles and mass-loss rates were considered. Solutions are proposed which are still under

  15. Supershear During Nucleation of the 2009 M 6.3 L’Aquila, Italy Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellsworth, W. L.; Chiaraluce, L.

    2009-12-01

    The city of L’Aquila and the surrounding region of central Italy were devastated when the M 6.3 normal faulting earthquake ruptured directly beneath them on April 6, 2009. Nearfield recordings of the earthquake on 16 stations of the Italian National Strong Motion Network and MedNet station AQU show that the earthquake began with a weak nucleation phase followed 0.6 s later by a strong breakaway phase. To study the nature of the nucleation and breakaway we image the rupture process using both displacement and velocity seismograms from the nearfield accelerometers. The rupture is well-imaged by the network and during a total rupture time of about 10 s propagated 9 km up dip and 15 km to the SE, with maximum dislocations of about 1 m. To refine the image of the nucleation process, we model the first 4 s of rupture using just 4 s of broad band displacement and velocity seismograms sampled at 0.1 s on a 280 m grid. We find that the breakaway propagates up-dip at a high velocity (4.1 - 4.3 km/s) back across the area ruptured during the comparatively weak nucleation phase. Slip concentrates in the narrow rupture front, and little, if any slip follows in its wake suggesting that the breakaway was a supershear slip pulse. We are investigating the local crustal velocity structure for alternatives to supershear rupture velocity, but thus far have not found one. Previously, the breakaway phase was proposed to represent either 1) the growth of the rupture beyond the boundaries of an initial rupture in which aseismic preslip had lowered the stress, or 2) a statistical manifestation of a cascading rupture growing in an irregular manner. The L’Aquila nucleation process suggests a third possibility, that breakaway can represent initiation of a supershear slip pulse that forms through re-rupture of the initial slip area. Conditions for formation of a supershear slip pulse are restrictive. Transition to supershear rupture requires the initial stress to be relatively nearer to the

  16. Seismology and Earthquake Ground Motions of the August 24, 2014 M6 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, T.; Wang, S.; Mazzoni, S.; Markam, C.; Lu, Y.; Bozorgnia, Y.; Mahin, S.; Bray, J.; Panagiotou, M.; Stewart, J. P.; Darragh, R. B.; Abrahamson, N. A.; Hollenback, J. C.; Gutierrez, C.; Chiou, B.; Muin, S.; Dreger, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The M6.0 South Napa earthquake produced strong ground motions in the northern San Francisco Bay area. A total of 214 three-component uncorrected digital accelerograms were downloaded from the CESMD website and processed following the PEER standard procedure (Ancheta et al. 2014). Intense ground motions were recorded in the heavily damaged area of Napa with peak acceleration greater than 0.3 g. Pulse-like waveforms were observed in several of the velocity time series at the near-fault stations. Near-fault velocity time series were rotated into fault normal and fault parallel directions and then characterized as pulse-like or non pulse-like according to previous studies by Hayden et al. (2014), Shahi (2013), and Lu and Panagiotou (2014). The near-fault velocity time series at five stations contained pulses with periods within the expected range of 0.7 s to 2.0 s for soil sites (Bray et al. 2009). However, they also contained longer period pulses than the expected range. High-frequency spikes were recorded at Carquinez Bridge Geotechnical Array #1 (CBGA1) of approximately 1.0 g on the NS component. These spikes were in the S-wave portion and were consistently observed in the downhole arrays and several other sites along the same azimuth from the source. The spikes increase in amplitude both from the Hwy 37/Napa River East Geotechnical Array to CBGA1 and from a depth below 100 m to the surface. This suggests that the spikes could be a result of path effects and site amplification through the surficial soft soil deposits. However, these observations do not exclude the possibility of soil-structure interaction effects on the measured recordings. The 5% damped pseudo-spectral accelerations (PSA) from the recorded ground motions compared well to those estimated from the recent NGA-West2 GMPEs. The exceptions are that PSA is under predicted from 1 to 3 seconds at several near fault records due to the velocity pulses and for short periods at Carquinez Bridge where the large

  17. E-DECIDER Rapid Response to the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Parker, J. W.; Pierce, M. E.; Wang, J.; Eguchi, R. T.; Huyck, C. K.; Hu, Z.; Chen, Z.; Yoder, M. R.; Rundle, J. B.; Rosinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    E-DECIDER initiated rapid response mode when the California Earthquake Clearinghouse was activated the morning following the M6 Napa earthquake. Data products, including: 1) rapid damage and loss estimates, 2) deformation magnitude and slope change maps, and 3) aftershock forecasts were provided to the Clearinghouse partners within 24 hours of the event via XchangeCore Web Service Data Orchestration sharing. NASA data products were provided to end-users via XchangeCore, EERI and Clearinghouse websites, and ArcGIS online for Napa response, reaching a wide response audience. The E-DECIDER team helped facilitate rapid delivery of NASA products to stakeholders and participated in Clearinghouse Napa earthquake briefings to update stakeholders on product information. Rapid response products from E-DECIDER can be used to help prioritize response efforts shortly after the event has occurred. InLET (Internet Loss Estimation Tool) post-event damage and casualty estimates were generated quickly after the Napa earthquake. InLET provides immediate post-event estimates of casualties and building damage by performing loss/impact simulations using USGS ground motion data and FEMA HAZUS damage estimation technology. These results were provided to E-DECIDER by their collaborators, ImageCat, Inc. and the Community Stakeholder Network (CSN). Strain magnitude and slope change maps were automatically generated when the Napa earthquake appeared on the USGS feed. These maps provide an early estimate of where the deformation has occurred and where damage may be localized. Using E-DECIDER critical infrastructure overlays with damage estimates, decision makers can direct response effort that can be verified later with field reconnaissance and remote sensing-based observations. Earthquake aftershock forecast maps were produced within hours of the event. These maps highlight areas where aftershocks are likely to occur and can also be coupled with infrastructure overlays to help direct response

  18. Genetic manipulation of iron biomineralization enhances MR relaxivity in a ferritin-M6A chimeric complex

    PubMed Central

    Radoul, Marina; Lewin, Limor; Cohen, Batya; Oren, Roni; Popov, Stanislav; Davidov, Geula; Vandsburger, Moriel H.; Harmelin, Alon; Bitton, Ronit; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Neeman, Michal; Zarivach, Raz

    2016-01-01

    Ferritin has gained significant attention as a potential reporter gene for in vivo imaging by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, due to the ferritin ferrihydrite core, the relaxivity and sensitivity for detection of native ferritin is relatively low. We report here on a novel chimeric magneto-ferritin reporter gene – ferritin-M6A – in which the magnetite binding peptide from the magnetotactic bacteria magnetosome-associated Mms6 protein was fused to the C-terminal of murine h-ferritin. Biophysical experiments showed that purified ferritin-M6A assembled into a stable protein cage with the M6A protruding into the cage core, enabling magnetite biomineralisation. Ferritin-M6A-expressing C6-glioma cells showed enhanced (per iron) r2 relaxivity. MRI in vivo studies of ferritin-M6A-expressing tumour xenografts showed enhanced R2 relaxation rate in the central hypoxic region of the tumours. Such enhanced relaxivity would increase the sensitivity of ferritin as a reporter gene for non-invasive in vivo MRI-monitoring of cell delivery and differentiation in cellular or gene-based therapies. PMID:27211820

  19. Genetic manipulation of iron biomineralization enhances MR relaxivity in a ferritin-M6A chimeric complex.

    PubMed

    Radoul, Marina; Lewin, Limor; Cohen, Batya; Oren, Roni; Popov, Stanislav; Davidov, Geula; Vandsburger, Moriel H; Harmelin, Alon; Bitton, Ronit; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Neeman, Michal; Zarivach, Raz

    2016-01-01

    Ferritin has gained significant attention as a potential reporter gene for in vivo imaging by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, due to the ferritin ferrihydrite core, the relaxivity and sensitivity for detection of native ferritin is relatively low. We report here on a novel chimeric magneto-ferritin reporter gene - ferritin-M6A - in which the magnetite binding peptide from the magnetotactic bacteria magnetosome-associated Mms6 protein was fused to the C-terminal of murine h-ferritin. Biophysical experiments showed that purified ferritin-M6A assembled into a stable protein cage with the M6A protruding into the cage core, enabling magnetite biomineralisation. Ferritin-M6A-expressing C6-glioma cells showed enhanced (per iron) r2 relaxivity. MRI in vivo studies of ferritin-M6A-expressing tumour xenografts showed enhanced R2 relaxation rate in the central hypoxic region of the tumours. Such enhanced relaxivity would increase the sensitivity of ferritin as a reporter gene for non-invasive in vivo MRI-monitoring of cell delivery and differentiation in cellular or gene-based therapies. PMID:27211820

  20. SRAMP: prediction of mammalian N6-methyladenosine (m6A) sites based on sequence-derived features.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan; Zeng, Pan; Li, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Ziding; Cui, Qinghua

    2016-06-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is a prevalent RNA methylation modification involved in the regulation of degradation, subcellular localization, splicing and local conformation changes of RNA transcripts. High-throughput experiments have demonstrated that only a small fraction of the m(6)A consensus motifs in mammalian transcriptomes are modified. Therefore, accurate identification of RNA m(6)A sites becomes emergently important. For the above purpose, here a computational predictor of mammalian m(6)A site named SRAMP is established. To depict the sequence context around m(6)A sites, SRAMP combines three random forest classifiers that exploit the positional nucleotide sequence pattern, the K-nearest neighbor information and the position-independent nucleotide pair spectrum features, respectively. SRAMP uses either genomic sequences or cDNA sequences as its input. With either kind of input sequence, SRAMP achieves competitive performance in both cross-validation tests and rigorous independent benchmarking tests. Analyses of the informative features and overrepresented rules extracted from the random forest classifiers demonstrate that nucleotide usage preferences at the distal positions, in addition to those at the proximal positions, contribute to the classification. As a public prediction server, SRAMP is freely available at http://www.cuilab.cn/sramp/. PMID:26896799

  1. SRAMP: prediction of mammalian N6-methyladenosine (m6A) sites based on sequence-derived features

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan; Zeng, Pan; Li, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Ziding; Cui, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a prevalent RNA methylation modification involved in the regulation of degradation, subcellular localization, splicing and local conformation changes of RNA transcripts. High-throughput experiments have demonstrated that only a small fraction of the m6A consensus motifs in mammalian transcriptomes are modified. Therefore, accurate identification of RNA m6A sites becomes emergently important. For the above purpose, here a computational predictor of mammalian m6A site named SRAMP is established. To depict the sequence context around m6A sites, SRAMP combines three random forest classifiers that exploit the positional nucleotide sequence pattern, the K-nearest neighbor information and the position-independent nucleotide pair spectrum features, respectively. SRAMP uses either genomic sequences or cDNA sequences as its input. With either kind of input sequence, SRAMP achieves competitive performance in both cross-validation tests and rigorous independent benchmarking tests. Analyses of the informative features and overrepresented rules extracted from the random forest classifiers demonstrate that nucleotide usage preferences at the distal positions, in addition to those at the proximal positions, contribute to the classification. As a public prediction server, SRAMP is freely available at http://www.cuilab.cn/sramp/. PMID:26896799

  2. Dynamics of the human and viral m(6)A RNA methylomes during HIV-1 infection of T cells.

    PubMed

    Lichinchi, Gianluigi; Gao, Shang; Saletore, Yogesh; Gonzalez, Gwendolyn Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Wang, Yinsheng; Mason, Christopher E; Rana, Tariq M

    2016-01-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent internal modification of eukaryotic mRNA. Very little is known of the function of m(6)A in the immune system or its role in host-pathogen interactions. Here, we investigate the topology, dynamics and bidirectional influences of the viral-host RNA methylomes during HIV-1 infection of human CD4 T cells. We show that viral infection triggers a massive increase in m(6)A in both host and viral mRNAs. In HIV-1 mRNA, we identified 14 methylation peaks in coding and noncoding regions, splicing junctions and splicing regulatory sequences. We also identified a set of 56 human gene transcripts that were uniquely methylated in HIV-1-infected T cells and were enriched for functions in viral gene expression. The functional relevance of m(6)A for viral replication was demonstrated by silencing of the m(6)A writer or the eraser enzymes, which decreased or increased HIV-1 replication, respectively. Furthermore, methylation of two conserved adenosines in the stem loop II region of HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) RNA enhanced binding of HIV-1 Rev protein to the RRE in vivo and influenced nuclear export of RNA. Our results identify a new mechanism for the control of HIV-1 replication and its interaction with the host immune system. PMID:27572442

  3. Stem cells. m6A mRNA methylation facilitates resolution of naïve pluripotency toward differentiation.

    PubMed

    Geula, Shay; Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Sharon; Dominissini, Dan; Mansour, Abed AlFatah; Kol, Nitzan; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Hershkovitz, Vera; Peer, Eyal; Mor, Nofar; Manor, Yair S; Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Eyal, Eran; Yunger, Sharon; Pinto, Yishay; Jaitin, Diego Adhemar; Viukov, Sergey; Rais, Yoach; Krupalnik, Vladislav; Chomsky, Elad; Zerbib, Mirie; Maza, Itay; Rechavi, Yoav; Massarwa, Rada; Hanna, Suhair; Amit, Ido; Levanon, Erez Y; Amariglio, Ninette; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Novershtern, Noa; Rechavi, Gideon; Hanna, Jacob H

    2015-02-27

    Naïve and primed pluripotent states retain distinct molecular properties, yet limited knowledge exists on how their state transitions are regulated. Here, we identify Mettl3, an N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) transferase, as a regulator for terminating murine naïve pluripotency. Mettl3 knockout preimplantation epiblasts and naïve embryonic stem cells are depleted for m(6)A in mRNAs, yet are viable. However, they fail to adequately terminate their naïve state and, subsequently, undergo aberrant and restricted lineage priming at the postimplantation stage, which leads to early embryonic lethality. m(6)A predominantly and directly reduces mRNA stability, including that of key naïve pluripotency-promoting transcripts. This study highlights a critical role for an mRNA epigenetic modification in vivo and identifies regulatory modules that functionally influence naïve and primed pluripotency in an opposing manner. PMID:25569111

  4. Yeast m6A Methylated mRNAs Are Enriched on Translating Ribosomes during Meiosis, and under Rapamycin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Zsuzsanna; Bottley, Andrew; Archer, Nathan; May, Sean T; Fray, Rupert G

    2015-01-01

    Interest in mRNA methylation has exploded in recent years. The sudden interest in a 40 year old discovery was due in part to the finding of FTO's (Fat Mass Obesity) N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) deaminase activity, thus suggesting a link between obesity-associated diseases and the presence of m6A in mRNA. Another catalyst of the sudden rise in mRNA methylation research was the release of mRNA methylomes for human, mouse and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the molecular function, or functions of this mRNA 'epimark' remain to be discovered. There is supportive evidence that m6A could be a mark for mRNA degradation due to its binding to YTH domain proteins, and consequently being chaperoned to P bodies. Nonetheless, only a subpopulation of the methylome was found binding to YTHDF2 in HeLa cells.The model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has only one YTH domain protein (Pho92, Mrb1), which targets PHO4 transcripts for degradation under phosphate starvation. However, mRNA methylation is only found under meiosis inducing conditions, and PHO4 transcripts are apparently non-methylated. In this paper we set out to investigate if m6A could function alternatively to being a degradation mark in S. cerevisiae; we also sought to test whether it can be induced under non-standard sporulation conditions. We find a positive association between the presence of m6A and message translatability. We also find m6A induction following prolonged rapamycin treatment. PMID:26186436

  5. Abundance analysis of B, A and F dwarfs in the M6 open cluster: Spectrum synthesis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliçoğlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical abundances of 10 stars in the M6 open cluster (˜100 Myr) were derived using spectrum synthesis. The stars were observed using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph. We found star-to-star variations in abundances for A type stars. General enrichment of Si, Cr, and Y were obtained for the cluster.

  6. Altered GPM6A/M6 dosage impairs cognition and causes phenotypes responsive to cholesterol in human and Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gregor, Anne; Kramer, Jamie M; van der Voet, Monique; Schanze, Ina; Uebe, Steffen; Donders, Rogier; Reis, André; Schenck, Annette; Zweier, Christiane

    2014-12-01

    Glycoprotein M6A (GPM6A) is a neuronal transmembrane protein of the PLP/DM20 (proteolipid protein) family that associates with cholesterol-rich lipid rafts and promotes filopodia formation. We identified a de novo duplication of the GPM6A gene in a patient with learning disability and behavioral anomalies. Expression analysis in blood lymphocytes showed increased GPM6A levels. An increase of patient-derived lymphoblastoid cells carrying membrane protrusions supports a functional effect of this duplication. To study the consequences of GPM6A dosage alterations in an intact nervous system, we employed Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. We found that knockdown of Drosophila M6, the sole member of the PLP family in flies, in the wing, and whole organism causes malformation and lethality, respectively. These phenotypes as well as the protrusions of patient-derived lymphoblastoid cells with increased GPM6A levels can be alleviated by cholesterol supplementation. Notably, overexpression as well as loss of M6 in neurons specifically compromises long-term memory in the courtship conditioning paradigm. Our findings thus indicate a critical role of correct GPM6A/M6 levels for cognitive function and support a role of the GPM6A duplication for the patient's phenotype. Together with other recent findings, this study highlights compromised cholesterol homeostasis as a recurrent feature in cognitive phenotypes. PMID:25224183

  7. Picking sides: distinct roles for CYP76M6 and CYP76M8 in rice oryzalexin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yisheng; Wang, Qiang; Hillwig, Matthew L; Peters, Reuben J

    2013-09-01

    Natural products biosynthesis often requires the action of multiple CYPs (cytochromes P450), whose ability to introduce oxygen, increasing solubility, is critical for imparting biological activity. In previous investigations of rice diterpenoid biosynthesis, we characterized CYPs that catalyse alternative hydroxylation of ent-sandaracopimaradiene, the precursor to the rice oryzalexin antibiotic phytoalexins. In particular, CYP76M5, CYP76M6 and CYP76M8 were all shown to carry out C-7β hydroxylation, whereas CYP701A8 catalyses C-3α hydroxylation, with oxy groups found at both positions in oryzalexins A-D, suggesting that these may act consecutively in oryzalexin biosynthesis. In the present paper, we report that, although CYP701A8 only poorly reacts with 7β-hydroxy-ent-sandaracopimaradiene, CYP76M6 and CYP76M8 readily react with 3α-hydroxy-ent-sandaracopimaradiene. Notably, their activity yields distinct products, resulting from hydroxylation at C-9β by CYP76M6 or C-7β by CYP76M8, on different sides of the core tricyclic ring structure. Thus CYP76M6 and CYP76M8 have distinct non-redundant roles in orzyalexin biosynthesis. Moreover, the resulting 3α,7β- and 3α,9β-diols correspond to oryzalexins D and E respectively. Accordingly, the results of the present study complete the functional identification of the biosynthetic pathway underlying the production of these bioactive phytoalexins. In addition, the altered regiochemistry catalysed by CYP76M6 following C-3α hydroxylation has some implications for its active-site configuration, offering further molecular insight. PMID:23795884

  8. Evolution of the chemical element abundances with age in open clusters: The Hyades, Pleiades, Coma Berenices and M6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliçoǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Gebran, M.; Fossati, L.

    2014-12-01

    We compare the averaged photospheric abundances of A and F stars in open clusters of different ages: M6 (˜80 Myr), Pleiades (˜100 Myr), Coma Berenices (˜450 Myr), and the Hyades (˜800 Myr). The variation in the averaged abundances among F stars generally reflects the differences between the initial compositions of the clusters in their various birthplaces. The differences of the averaged chemical composition of A stars may also reveal the effects of radiative difussion for the stars of different ages. We also discuss the methods, resolutions and wavelength coverages of spectra and discrepancies in the derived microturbulent velocities among the various studies to check if these studies are comparable. We also present the pattern of mean abundances and metallicity for the M6 cluster determined by spectral analysis of GIRAFFE spectra acquired with the VLT, Paranal Observatory.

  9. Characterization of the radiation environment at the UNLV accelerator facility during operation of the Varian M6 linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, M.; Barzilov, A.; Chen, Y.; Lowe, D.

    2016-10-01

    The bremsstrahlung photon flux from the UNLV particle accelerator (Varian M6 model) was determined using MCNP5 code for 3 MeV and 6 MeV incident electrons. Human biological equivalent dose rates due to accelerator operation were evaluated using the photon flux with the flux-to-dose conversion factors. Dose rates were computed for the accelerator facility for M6 linac use under different operating conditions. The results showed that the use of collimators and linac internal shielding significantly reduced the dose rates throughout the facility. It was shown that the walls of the facility, in addition to the earthen berm enveloping the building, provide equivalent shielding to reduce dose rates outside to below the 2 mrem/h limit.

  10. Calculation of the Rate of M>6.5 Earthquakes for California and Adjacent Portions of Nevada and Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Mueller, Charles

    2008-01-01

    One of the key issues in the development of an earthquake recurrence model for California and adjacent portions of Nevada and Mexico is the comparison of the predicted rates of earthquakes with the observed rates. Therefore, it is important to make an accurate determination of the observed rate of M>6.5 earthquakes in California and the adjacent region. We have developed a procedure to calculate observed earthquake rates from an earthquake catalog, accounting for magnitude uncertainty and magnitude rounding. We present a Bayesian method that corrects for the effect of the magnitude uncertainty in calculating the observed rates. Our recommended determination of the observed rate of M>6.5 in this region is 0.246 ? 0.085 (for two sigma) per year, although this rate is likely to be underestimated because of catalog incompleteness and this uncertainty estimate does not include all sources of uncertainty.

  11. Metformin+Cytarabine for the Treatment of Relapsed/Refractory AML

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-31

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  12. Structural and functional insights into the molecular mechanism of rRNA m6A methyltransferase RlmJ.

    PubMed

    Punekar, Avinash S; Liljeruhm, Josefine; Shepherd, Tyson R; Forster, Anthony C; Selmer, Maria

    2013-11-01

    RlmJ catalyzes the m(6)A2030 methylation of 23S rRNA during ribosome biogenesis in Escherichia coli. Here, we present crystal structures of RlmJ in apo form, in complex with the cofactor S-adenosyl-methionine and in complex with S-adenosyl-homocysteine plus the substrate analogue adenosine monophosphate (AMP). RlmJ displays a variant of the Rossmann-like methyltransferase (MTase) fold with an inserted helical subdomain. Binding of cofactor and substrate induces a large shift of the N-terminal motif X tail to make it cover the cofactor binding site and trigger active-site changes in motifs IV and VIII. Adenosine monophosphate binds in a partly accommodated state with the target N6 atom 7 Å away from the sulphur of AdoHcy. The active site of RlmJ with motif IV sequence 164DPPY167 is more similar to DNA m(6)A MTases than to RNA m(6)2A MTases, and structural comparison suggests that RlmJ binds its substrate base similarly to DNA MTases T4Dam and M.TaqI. RlmJ methylates in vitro transcribed 23S rRNA, as well as a minimal substrate corresponding to helix 72, demonstrating independence of previous modifications and tertiary interactions in the RNA substrate. RlmJ displays specificity for adenosine, and mutagenesis experiments demonstrate the critical roles of residues Y4, H6, K18 and D164 in methyl transfer. PMID:23945937

  13. THE MAGNETIC SYSTEMS TRIGGERING THE M6.6 CLASS SOLAR FLARE IN NOAA ACTIVE REGION 11158

    SciTech Connect

    Toriumi, Shin; Iida, Yusuke; Bamba, Yumi; Kusano, Kanya; Imada, Shinsuke; Inoue, Satoshi

    2013-08-20

    We report a detailed event analysis of the M6.6 class flare in the active region (AR) NOAA 11158 on 2011 February 13. AR 11158, which consisted of two major emerging bipoles, showed prominent activity including one X- and several M-class flares. In order to investigate the magnetic structures related to the M6.6 event, particularly the formation process of a flare-triggering magnetic region, we analyzed multiple spacecraft observations and numerical results of a flare simulation. We observed that, in the center of this quadrupolar AR, a highly sheared polarity inversion line (PIL) was formed through proper motions of the major magnetic elements, which built a sheared coronal arcade lying over the PIL. The observations lend support to the interpretation that the target flare was triggered by a localized magnetic region that had an intrusive structure, namely, a positive polarity penetrating into a negative counterpart. The geometrical relationship between the sheared coronal arcade and the triggering region is consistent with the theoretical flare model based on the previous numerical study. We found that the formation of the trigger region was due to the continuous accumulation of small-scale magnetic patches. A few hours before the flare occurred, the series of emerged/advected patches reconnected with a pre-existing field. Finally, the abrupt flare eruption of the M6.6 event started around 17:30 UT. Our analysis suggests that in the process of triggering flare activity, all magnetic systems on multiple scales are included, not only the entire AR evolution but also the fine magnetic elements.

  14. Combined UAVSAR and GPS Estimates of Fault Slip for the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Hawkins, B.; Hensley, S.; Jones, C. E.; Owen, S. E.; Moore, A. W.; Wang, J.; Pierce, M. E.; Rundle, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Combined UAVSAR and GPS Estimates of Fault Slip for the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake Andrea Donnellan, Jay Parker, Brian Hawkins, Scott Hensley, Cathleen Jones, Susan Owen, Angelyn Moore Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Marlon Pierce, Jun Wang Indiana University John Rundle University of California, Davis The South Napa to Santa Rosa area has been observed with NASA's UAVSAR since late 2009 as part of an experiment to monitor areas identified as having a high probability of an earthquake. The M 6.0 South Napa earthquake occurred on 24 August 2014. The area was flown 29 May 2014 preceeding the earthquake, and again on 29 August 2014, five days after the earthquake. The UAVSAR results show slip on a single fault at the south end of the rupture near the epicenter of the event. The rupture branches out into multiple faults further north near the Napa area. A combined inversion of rapid GPS results and the unwrapped UAVSAR interferogram indicate nearly pure strike slip motion. Using this assumption, the UAVSAR data show horizontal right-lateral slip across the fault of 19 cm at the south end of the rupture and increasing to 70 cm northward over a distance of 6.5 km. The joint inversion indicates slip of ~30 cm on a network of sub-parallel faults is concentrated in a zone about 17 km long. The lower depths of the faults are 5-8.5 km. The eastern two sub-parallel faults break the surface, while three faults to the west are buried at depths ranging from 2-6 km with deeper depths to the north and west. The geodetic moment release is equivalent to a M 6.1 event. Additional ruptures are observed in the interferogram, but the inversions suggest that they represent superficial slip that does not contribute to the overall moment release.

  15. Treatment for Relapsed/Refractory AML Based on a High Throughput Drug Sensitivity Assay

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-10

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts

  16. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or though physical contact (for example, on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Less often, bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute ...

  17. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... control. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  18. Elemental abundance analysis of the early-type members of the open cluster M6: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kııçoǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2014-11-01

    Differences in chemical composition among main sequence stars within a given cluster are probably due to differences in their masses and other effects such as radiative diffusion, magnetic field, rotation, mixing mechanisms, mass loss, accretion and multiplicity. The early type main-sequence members of open clusters of different ages support studies of the competition between radiative diffusion and mixing mechanisms. We have analysed low- and high-resolution spectra covering the spectral range λ 4500-5840 Å of late B-, A- and F-type members of the open cluster M6 (age ˜100 Myr). The spectra were obtained with the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph mounted at UT2, the 8-m VLT telescope. The effective temperatures, surface gravities and microturbulent velocities of the stars were derived from both photometric and spectral methods. We have also performed a chemical abundance analysis using synthetic spectra. Abundances were determined for the elements C, O, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba. The star-to-star variations in element abundances among the members of M6 are discussed.

  19. Perturbation of m6A writers reveals two distinct classes of mRNA methylation at internal and 5' sites.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Schraga; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Jovanovic, Marko; Wang, Tim; Maciag, Karolina; Bushkin, G Guy; Mertins, Philipp; Ter-Ovanesyan, Dmitry; Habib, Naomi; Cacchiarelli, Davide; Sanjana, Neville E; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Pacold, Michael E; Satija, Rahul; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S; Hacohen, Nir; Zhang, Feng; Carr, Steven A; Lander, Eric S; Regev, Aviv

    2014-07-10

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a common modification of mRNA with potential roles in fine-tuning the RNA life cycle. Here, we identify a dense network of proteins interacting with METTL3, a component of the methyltransferase complex, and show that three of them (WTAP, METTL14, and KIAA1429) are required for methylation. Monitoring m6A levels upon WTAP depletion allowed the definition of accurate and near single-nucleotide resolution methylation maps and their classification into WTAP-dependent and -independent sites. WTAP-dependent sites are located at internal positions in transcripts, topologically static across a variety of systems we surveyed, and inversely correlated with mRNA stability, consistent with a role in establishing "basal" degradation rates. WTAP-independent sites form at the first transcribed base as part of the cap structure and are present at thousands of sites, forming a previously unappreciated layer of transcriptome complexity. Our data shed light on the proteomic and transcriptional underpinnings of this RNA modification. PMID:24981863

  20. CPX-351 in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-25

    Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

  1. Spatial stress variations in the aftershock sequence following the 2008 M6 earthquake doublet in the South Iceland Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensch, M.; Árnadóttir, Th.; Lund, B.; Brandsdóttir, B.

    2012-04-01

    The South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) is an approximately 80 km wide E-W transform zone, bridging the offset between the Eastern Volcanic Zone and the Hengill triple junction to the west. The plate motion is accommodated in the brittle crust by faulting on many N-S trending right-lateral strike-slip faults of 2-5 km separation. Major sequences of large earthquakes (M>6) has occurred repeatedly in the SISZ since the settlement in Iceland more than thousand years ago. On 29th May 2008, two M6 earthquakes hit the western part of the SISZ on two adjacent N-S faults within a few seconds. The intense aftershock sequence was recorded by the permanent Icelandic SIL network and a promptly installed temporary network of 11 portable seismometers in the source region. The network located thousands of aftershocks during the following days, illuminating a 12-17 km long region along both major fault ruptures as well as several smaller parallel faults along a diffuse E-W trending region west of the mainshock area without any preceding main rupture. This episode is suggested to be the continuation of an earthquake sequence which started with two M6.5 and several M5-6 events in June 2000. The time delay between the 2000 and 2008 events could be due to an inflation episode in Hengill during 1993-1998, that potentially locked N-S strike slip faults in the western part of the SISZ. Around 300 focal solutions for aftershocks have been derived by analyzing P-wave polarities, showing predominantly strike-slip movements with occasional normal faulting components (unstable P-axis direction), which suggests an extensional stress regime as their driving force. A subsequent stress inversion of four different aftershock clusters reveals slight variations of the directions of the average σ3 axes. While for both southern clusters, including the E-W cluster, the σ3 axes are rather elongated perpendicular to the overall plate spreading axis, they are more northerly trending for shallower clusters

  2. Offline Performance of the Filter Bank EEW Algorithm in the 2014 M6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, M. A.; Heaton, T. H.; Clinton, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Medium size events like the M6.0 South Napa earthquake are very challenging for EEW: the damage such events produce can be severe, but it is generally confined to relatively small zones around the epicenter and the shaking duration is short. This leaves a very short window for timely EEW alerts. Algorithms that wait for several stations to trigger before sending out EEW alerts are typically not fast enough for these kind of events because their blind zone (the zone where strong ground motions start before the warnings arrive) typically covers all or most of the area that experiences strong ground motions. At the same time, single station algorithms are often too unreliable to provide useful alerts. The filter bank EEW algorithm is a new algorithm that is designed to provide maximally accurate and precise earthquake parameter estimates with minimum data input, with the goal of producing reliable EEW alerts when only a very small number of stations have been reached by the p-wave. It combines the strengths of single station and network based algorithms in that it starts parameter estimates as soon as 0.5 seconds of data are available from the first station, but then perpetually incorporates additional data from the same or from any number of other stations. The algorithm analyzes the time dependent frequency content of real time waveforms with a filter bank. It then uses an extensive training data set to find earthquake records from the past that have had similar frequency content at a given time since the p-wave onset. The source parameters of the most similar events are used to parameterize a likelihood function for the source parameters of the ongoing event, which can then be maximized to find the most likely parameter estimates. Our preliminary results show that the filter bank EEW algorithm correctly estimated the magnitude of the South Napa earthquake to be ~M6 with only 1 second worth of data at the nearest station to the epicenter. This estimate is then

  3. Vorinostat, Azacitidine, and Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin for Older Patients With Relapsed or Refractory AML

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-22

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  4. Acoustic Emission Precursors of M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Korneev, Valeri

    2005-02-01

    Two recent strike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault(SAF) in California, the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietaevents, revealed peaks in the acoustic emission (AE) activity in thesurrounding crust several months prior to the main events. Earthquakesdirectly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded from theanalysis. The observed increase in AE is assumed to be a signature of theincreasing stress level in the surrounding crust, while the peak andsubsequent decrease in AE starting several months prior to the mainevents is attributed to damage-induced softening processes as discussedherein. Further, distinctive zones of low seismic activity surroundingthe epicentral regions in the pre-event time period are present for thetwo studied events. Both AE increases in the crust surrounding apotential future event and the development of a low-seismicity epicentralzone can be regarded as promising precursory information that could helpsignal the arrival of large earthquakes.

  5. Seismo-Ionospheric Precursor in the GIM TEC of the 24 August 2014 M6 Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. Y.; Liu, T. J. Y.; Liu, J. Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines seismo-ionospheric precursors (SIPs) in the global ionosphere map (GIM) of the total electron content (TEC) associated with the 24 August 2014 M6 South Napa earthquake and statistical evidence of SIPs of the GPS TEC in western USA during 2000-2014. The temporal SIP in the GIM TEC around the epicenter significantly decreasing (negative anomaly) on 22 August. To discriminate the global effect, such as solar flares, magnetic storms, etc., and the local effect, such as earthquakes, 5183 lattices on the GIM are employed to conduct a global search of the SIP distribution. Anomalies of both GIM TEC and associated gradients specifically and continuously appearing over the epicenter suggest that the SIP relate to the 2014 South Napa earthquake. A simulation is further carried out to produce the SIP in GIM TEC before the earthquake. Results indicate that the eastward electric field generated over the epicenter area during the earthquake preparation period to be essential.

  6. a Fractal Analysis of Electroseismic Time Series Prior to the M 6.5,OCTOBER 24, 1993 Earthquake in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-De la Torre, F.

    2011-12-01

    In the current literature on seísmo electromagnetics has been reported many earthquakes which presented electromagnetic anomalies as probable precursors of their occurrences. Although this methodology remains yet order discussion, it is considered interesting the study of many particular cases. In this work we report a fractal analysis of electroseismic signals recorded in the Acapulco station during 1993. In October 24, 1993 occurred an earthquake (EQ) with M 6.5 an epicenter ( 16.54 N, 98.98 W ), 100 Km away the mentioned station. Here, we calculate the so called Higuchi's fractal dimension and the DFA exponent to signals during one month before the EQ. We discuss the dynamical meaning of this analysis and its possible relation with the mentioned EQ.

  7. Earthquake-triggered slumps (1935 Timiskaming M6.2) in Lake Kipawa, Western Quebec Seismic Zone, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, M.; Eyles, N.; Daurio, L.

    2010-07-01

    The Western Quebec Seismic Zone (WQSZ) of eastern North America is characterised by frequent moderate magnitude intracratonic earthquakes (e.g., 1732, M5.8; 1935, M6.2 and 1944, M5.2). The WQSZ is centered along the Timiskaming and Ottawa-Bonnechere grabens, which form part of a complex aulacogen (St.Lawrence Rift) within the Canadian Shield. The WQSZ includes the urban areas of Montreal and Ottawa but seismic risk analysis is challenged by short instrumental records and long recurrence intervals. The M6.2 1935 Timiskaming Earthquake is the largest recorded to date and was felt over some 1.3 million km 2 of eastern North America with many aftershocks of magnitude 4 to 5. Its epicenter lies below the western margin of Lake Kipawa, Quebec in the area where a major Proterozoic crustal boundary (the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone) crosses the Timiskaming Graben. A high-resolution 'chirp' seismic reflection survey of the lateglacial and postglacial sediment infill of Lake Kipawa reveals a clear record of recent ground shaking that is attributed to the 1935 earthquake. Widespread large slumps record down slope failure of the lateglacial and postglacial sediment fill indicating that the 1935 temblor was the largest in this area since deglaciation some 8000 years ago. Systematic mapping of landslides shows that they extend across an area of 600 km 2 around the earthquake's epicenter. Lakes cover a large area of eastern Canada; a regional-scale survey of lake floors could constrain historic epicenters and postglacial seismic history of the heavily populated WQSZ.

  8. YTHDF2 destabilizes m6A-containing RNA through direct recruitment of the CCR4–NOT deadenylase complex

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hao; Zhao, Ya; He, Jinqiu; Zhang, Yao; Xi, Hairui; Liu, Mofang; Ma, Jinbiao; Wu, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    Methylation at the N6 position of adenosine (m6A) is the most abundant RNA modification within protein-coding and long noncoding RNAs in eukaryotes and is a reversible process with important biological functions. YT521-B homology domain family (YTHDF) proteins are the readers of m6A, the binding of which results in the alteration of the translation efficiency and stability of m6A-containing RNAs. However, the mechanism by which YTHDF proteins cause the degradation of m6A-containing RNAs is poorly understood. Here we report that m6A-containing RNAs exhibit accelerated deadenylation that is mediated by the CCR4–NOT deadenylase complex. We further show that YTHDF2 recruits the CCR4–NOT complex through a direct interaction between the YTHDF2 N-terminal region and the SH domain of the CNOT1 subunit, and that this recruitment is essential for the deadenylation of m6A-containing RNAs by CAF1 and CCR4. Therefore, we have uncovered the mechanism of YTHDF2-mediated degradation of m6A-containing RNAs in mammalian cells. PMID:27558897

  9. Dynamically Triggered Earthquakes in the Geysers Region following the 2014 M6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X.; Peng, Z.; Aiken, C.; Kilb, D.

    2014-12-01

    The 08/24/2014 M6.0 South Napa earthquake is the largest seismic event to strike the San Francisco Bay Area since the 10/17/1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. The South Napa event caused severe damage near the epicenter. Based on the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) catalog, we find a clear increase of seismicity near the Geysers Geothermal Field following the South Napa event, which is located along its rupture directivity path ~50 km NNW from the hypocenter. Visually inspecting 10 Hz high-pass filtered waveforms at seismic stations near Geysers, we can identify many local earthquakes during the surface waves of the mainshock event that are missing from the NCSN catalog. To obtain a more complete catalog, we apply a recently developed matched filter technique to detect new events within continuous seismic recordings from 74 seismic stations near the Geysers. We use 4000 local earthquakes listed in the NCSN catalog from 06/01/2014 to 09/10/2014 as templates and systematically scan continuous data within ±7 days from the South Napa mainshock. As a result, we detect ~10 times more earthquakes than in the NCSN catalog, and the magnitude of completeness reduces from 0.75 to -0.6. Of the 8091 new events, 28 occurred within the mainshock wavetrain. Depending on the filter used, the first triggered event has an inferred magnitude in the range 3.6-4.0. The intensive seismic activity near the Geysers gradually decays with a p-value of ~0.7 and returns to pre-shock level in about one day. We fit the seismicity rate in the week prior to the South Napa event with the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model and extrapolate to obtain a post-mainshock rate. The observed post-mainshock seismicity rate clearly deviates from the ETAS prediction, which suggests that not all increased seismicity near the Geysers can be explained as aftershocks of the first triggered event. Instead these new events may be associated with stress transients (e.g. creep) or fluid

  10. Anomalies in VLF radio signals prior the Abruzzo earthquake (M=6.3) on 6 April 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhnoi, A.; Solovieva, M.; Molchanov, O.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Boudjada, M.; Biagi, P. F.; Maggipinto, T.; Castellana, L.; Ermini, A.; Hayakawa, M.

    2009-10-01

    The VLF/LF radio signals method for studying preseimic activity is applied to the Abruzzo earthquake (M=6.3, 6 April 2009). The data collected by three receivers located in Moscow (Russia), Graz (Austria) and Bari (Italy) at about 3000 km, 1000 km and 500 km from the epicenter were used. The signals received from the Sardinia (20.27 kHz) and the Sicily (45.9 kHz) transmitters, both located in Italy, were compared with those received from the Iceland (37.5 kHz), the Great Britain (19.58 kHz) and the Germany (23.4 kHz) transmitters. The propagation paths of the two Italian transmitters cross the epicentral area (seismic paths) unlike the paths of the other three signals (control paths). Using two different analyses, that are the study of the night-time signal and the research of shifts in the evening terminator times, clear anomalies were revealed 2-8 days before the occurrence of the Abruzzo earthquake in the seismic paths, while no anomalies have been found in the control paths.

  11. Seismicity Precursors of the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-03-09

    The M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietastrike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) were preceded byseismicity peaks occurring several months prior to the main events.Earthquakes directly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded fromthe analysis because they manifest stress-release processes rather thanstress accumulation. The observed increase in seismicity is interpretedas a signature of the increasing stress level in the surrounding crust,whereas the peaks and the subsequent decrease in seismicity areattributed to damage-induced softening processes. Furthermore, in bothcases there is a distinctive zone of low seismic activity that surroundsthe epicentral region in the pre-event period. The increase of seismicityin the crust surrounding a potential future event and the development ofa low-seismicity epicentral zone can be regarded as promising precursoryinformation that could help signal the arrival of large earthquakes. TheGutenberg-Richter relationship (GRR) should allow extrapolation ofseismicity changes down to seismic noise level magnitudes. Thishypothesis is verified by comparison of seismic noise at 80 Hz with theParkfield M4 1993-1994 series, where noise peaks 5 months before theseries to about twice the background level.

  12. Validation of a ground motion synthesis and prediction methodology for the 1988, M=6.0, Saguenay Earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.; Foxall, W.

    1998-01-01

    We model the 1988, M=6.0, Saguenay earthquake. We utilize an approach that has been developed to predict strong ground motion. this approach involves developing a set of rupture scenarios based upon bounds on rupture parameters. rupture parameters include rupture geometry, hypocenter, rupture roughness, rupture velocity, healing velocity (rise times), slip distribution, asperity size and location, and slip vector. Scenario here refers to specific values of these parameters for an hypothesized earthquake. Synthetic strong ground motion are then generated for each rupture scenario. A sufficient number of scenarios are run to span the variability in strong ground motion due to the source uncertainties. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to the site from the one standard deviation value of engineering parameters we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation, For this study we developed bounds on rupture scenarios from previous research on this earthquake. The time history closest to the observed ground motion was selected as a model for the Saguenay earthquake.

  13. Investigation of the M6.6 Niigata-Chuetsu Oki, Japan, earthquake of July 16, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert; Collins, Brian D.; Abrahamson, Norm; Ashford, Scott; Brandenberg, Scott J.; Cluff, Lloyd; Dickenson, Stephen; Johnson, Laurie; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tokimatsu, Kohji; Kabeyasawa, Toshimi; Kawamata, Yohsuke; Koumoto, Hidetaka; Marubashi, Nanako; Pujol, Santiago; Steele, Clint; Sun, Joseph I.; Tsai, Ben; Yanev, Peter; Yashinsky, Mark; Yousok, Kim

    2007-01-01

    The M6.6 mainshock of the Niigata Chuetsu Oki (offshore) earthquake occurred at 10:13 a.m. local time on July 16, 2007, and was followed by a sequence of aftershocks that were felt during the entire time of the reconnaissance effort. The mainshock had an estimated focal depth of 10 km and struck in the Japan Sea offshore Kariwa. Analysis of waveforms from source inversion studies indicates that the event occurred along a thrust fault with a NE trend. The fault plane is either a strike of 34 degrees with a dip of 51 degrees or a strike of 238 degrees with a dip of 41 degrees. Which of these two planes is associated with the mainshock rupture is unresolved, although attenuation relationship analysis indicates that the northwest-dipping fault is favored. The quake affected an approximately 100-km-wide area along the coastal areas of southwestern Niigata prefecture. The event triggered ground failures as far as the Unouma Hills, located in central Niigata approximately 50 km from the shore and the source area of the 2004 Niigata Chuetsu earthquake. The primary event produced tsunami run-ups that reached maximum runup heights of about 20 centimeters along the shoreline of southern Niigata Prrefecture.

  14. Apply ETAS in Earthquake Early Warning - A case study of M6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.; Heaton, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a trade-off between time and accuracy. We aim to increase the alerting time without loosing its reliability. This can be achieved by using prior information to classify a pick to be a true or false event, then issue alerts immediately after the first trigger. Since earthquakes cluster in time and location, potential aftershock occurrences can be predicted using the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence Model (ETAS). We show that by applying the prior information provided by ETAS in the Bayesian updating process of EEW, we can significantly improve the alerting time. As an example, the epicenter estimation for the aftershock events from the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake is performed using ETAS to illustrate the accuracy of aftershock prediction. For instance, in an aftershock sequence, the most triggers at the closest stations will turn out to be real earthquake. As a result, during the aftershock sequence of the South Napa earthquake, warnings can be issued after observations of only one or two stations.

  15. Preliminary simulation of a M6.5 earthquake on the Seattle Fault using 3D finite-difference modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, William J.; Frankel, Arthur D.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite-difference simulation of a moderate-sized (M 6.5) thrust-faulting earthquake on the Seattle fault demonstrates the effects of the Seattle Basin on strong ground motion in the Puget lowland. The model area includes the cities of Seattle, Bremerton and Bellevue. We use a recently developed detailed 3D-velocity model of the Seattle Basin in these simulations. The model extended to 20-km depth and assumed rupture on a finite fault with random slip distribution. Preliminary results from simulations of frequencies 0.5 Hz and lower suggest amplification can occur at the surface of the Seattle Basin by the trapping of energy in the Quaternary sediments. Surface waves generated within the basin appear to contribute to amplification throughout the modeled region. Several factors apparently contribute to large ground motions in downtown Seattle: (1) radiation pattern and directivity from the rupture; (2) amplification and energy trapping within the Quaternary sediments; and (3) basin geometry and variation in depth of both Quaternary and Tertiary sediments

  16. A Radioactivity-Based Assay for Screening Human m6A-RNA Methyltransferase, METTL3-METTL14 Complex, and Demethylase ALKBH5.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengling; Kennedy, Steven; Hajian, Taraneh; Gibson, Elisa; Seitova, Alma; Xu, Chao; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Vedadi, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most common reversible internal modification in mammalian RNA. Changes in m(6)A levels have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including nuclear RNA export, control of protein translation, and protein splicing, and they have been linked to obesity, cancer, and other human diseases. METTL3 and METTL14 are N(6)-adenosine methyltransferases that work more efficiently in a stable METTL3-METTL14 heterodimer complex (METTL3-14). ALKBH5 is an m(6)A-RNA demethylase that belongs to the AlkB family of dioxygenases. We report the development of radioactivity-based assays for kinetic characterization of m(6)A-RNA modifications by METTL3-14 complex and ALKBH5 and provide optimal assay conditions suitable for screening for ligands in a 384-well format with Z' factors of 0.78 and 0.77, respectively. PMID:26701100

  17. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  18. PRE SEISMIC ANOMALIES REVEALED IN THE AREA WHERE THE ABRUZZO EARTHQUAKE (M = 6.3) OCCURRED ON APRIL 6, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, P. F.; Castellana, L.; Maggipinto, T.; Ermini, A.

    2009-12-01

    Since 1996, the intensity of CLT (f=189 kHz, Sicily, Italy), MCO (f=216 kHz, France) and CZE (f=270 kHz, Czech Republic) broadcast signals has been collected with a ten minutes sampling rate by a receiver operating in a place located about 13 km far from the epicenter of the Abruzzo earthquake (M=6.3, April 6, 2009). During March 2009, the old receiver was substituted with a new one for measuring, with one minute sampling rate, the intensity of five VLF signals and five LF signals radiated by transmitters located in different zone of Europe. Two of the previous transmitters are included among them. In the period March 31-April 1 the intensity of the MCO radio signal dropped and this drop was observed only in this signal. The possibility that the drop was connected to problems in the transmitter or in the receiver was investigated and excluded. So, the drop indicates a defocusing of the radiated signal. Since none particular meteorological situation along the path transmitter-receiver happened, the defocusing must be related to other causes. The possibility that it is a precursor of the Abruzzo earthquake is presented. Beside, the flow rate of a natural spring located in the same place of the receiver is being sampled from 1992. During September-October 2008 the flow rate was abnormal with respect to all the previous periods. Also this anomaly takes the shape of a precursor of the Abruzzo earthquake. Probably, it is mainly related to the seismic sequence that started in the zone in the middle of January 2009 and that lasted up to the earthquake.

  19. Variations Of Velocity Contrast Along The Rupture Zone Of The 2004 M6 Parkfield Earthquake On The San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Peng, Z.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Lewis, M.; Shi, Z.

    2007-12-01

    We systematically investigate the velocity contrast along the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) that ruptured during the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake, using fault zone head waves (FZHW) that refract along the bimaterial interface. The analysis employs a total of 322 repeating earthquakes clusters identified from 8993 earthquakes in the relocated catalog of Thurber et al. (2006). The seismic data are recorded by 13 borehole stations in the High Resolution Seismic Network (HRSN) since 1987 and 23 surface stations in the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) since 1984, with normal distances to the fault less than 6 km. The study is part of a larger project on imaging bimaterial interfaces in the Parkfield region with multiple seismic networks. We stack waveforms of each repeating earthquake cluster, and align the peaks or troughs of the direct P waves assuming right-lateral strike-slip focal mechanisms. Clear FZHW are observed at surface and borehole stations that are within a few kms on the NE (slow) side of the SAF. The obtained velocity contrast is about 8% north of Middle Mountain, and decreases rapidly toward Gold Hill near the epicenter of the 2004 event. This implies an abrupt change of velocity contrast along the Parkfield section of SAF near Gold Hill. The observed variation of velocity contrast is consistent with 3-D tomography models of the Parkfield section, which include a high velocity body near Gold Hill on the NE side that produces a local reversal of the velocity contrast, and geological observations of a sliver of high-velocity rock immediately to the NE of the SAF associated with the Gold Hill fault.

  20. Heterogeneous stress field in the source area of the 2003 M6.4 Northern Miyagi Prefecture, NE Japan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira; Okada, Tomomi

    2016-07-01

    We investigated a detailed spatial distribution of principal stress axis orientations in the source area of the 2003 M6.4 Northern Miyagi Prefecture earthquake that occurred in the forearc of northeastern Japan. Aftershock hypocentres were precisely relocated by applying the double difference method to arrival time data obtained at temporary stations as well as at surrounding routine stations. We picked many P-wave polarity data from seismograms at these stations, which enabled us to obtain 312 well-determined focal mechanism solutions. Stress tensor inversions were performed by using these focal mechanism data. The results show that quite a lot of focal mechanisms are difficult to explain by the uniform stress field, especially near the large slip area of the main-shock rupture. Stress tensor inversions at the location of individual earthquakes show that σ1 axes are orientated mainly to WSW-ENE in the northern part of the source area, while they are oriented to NW-SE in the southern part. This spatial pattern is roughly similar to those of the static stress change by the main shock, which suggests that the observed spatially heterogeneous stress field was formed by the static stress change. If this is the case, the deviatoric stress magnitude before the main shock was very small. Another possibility is the heterogeneous stress field observed after the main shock had existed even before the main shock, although we do not know why it was formed. Unfavourable orientation of the main shock fault with respect to this stress field suggests that the fault is not strong in this case too.

  1. Solar wind ion density variations that preceded the M6+ earthquakes occurring on a global scale between 3 and 15 September 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2015-04-01

    Between 3 and 15 September 2013 on Earth were recorded nine M6+ earthquakes: Canada M6,1 earthquake occurred on 3 September at 20:19 UTC; Japan M6,5 earthquake occurred on 4 September at 00:18 UTC; Canada M6,0 earthquake occurred on 4 September at 00:23 UTC; Alaska M6,5 earthquake occurred on 4 September at 02:32 UTC; Alaska M6,0 earthquake occurred on 4 September at 06:27 UTC; Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge M6,0 earthquake occurred on 5 September at 04:01 UTC; Guatemala M6,4 earthquake occurred on 7 September at 00:13 UTC; Central East Pacific Rise M6,1 earthquake occurred on 11 September at 12:44 UTC; Alaska M6,1 earthquake occurred on 15 September at 16:21 UTC. The authors analyzed the modulation of solar wind ion density during the period from 1 to 18 September 2013 to determine whether the nine earthquakes were preceded by a variations of the solar wind ion density and for testing a method to be applied in the future also for the prediction of tsunami. The data on ion density used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density that have these characteristics: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV) and differential proton flux 115-195 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). This data set has been marked with the times (time markers) of M6+ earthquakes occurred on a global scale (the data on M6+ seismic activity are provided in real time by USGS, INGV and the CSEM) between

  2. Near-Field Deformation Associated with the South Napa Earthquake (M 6.0) Using Differential Airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Brooks, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.; Ericksen, T.; Boatwright, J.; Rosinski, A.; Dawson, T. E.; Mccrink, T. P.; Mardock, D. K.; Hoirup, D. F., Jr.; Bray, J.

    2014-12-01

    Pre-earthquake airborne LiDAR coverage exists for the area impacted by the M 6.0 South Napa earthquake. The Napa watershed data set was acquired in 2003, and data sets were acquired in other portions of the impacted area in 2007, 2010 and 2014. The pre-earthquake data are being assessed and are of variable quality and point density. Following the earthquake, a coalition was formed to enable rapid acquisition of post-earthquake LiDAR. Coordination of this coalition took place through the California Earthquake Clearinghouse; consequently, a commercial contract was organized by Department of Water Resources that allowed for the main fault rupture and damaged Browns Valley area to be covered 16 days after the earthquake at a density of 20 points per square meter over a 20 square kilometer area. Along with the airborne LiDAR, aerial imagery was acquired and will be processed to form an orthomosaic using the LiDAR-derived DEM. The 'Phase I' airborne data were acquired using an Optech Orion M300 scanner, an Applanix 200 GPS-IMU, and a DiMac ultralight medium format camera by Towill. These new data, once delivered, will be differenced against the pre-earthquake data sets using a newly developed algorithm for point cloud matching, which is improved over prior methods by accounting for scan geometry error sources. Proposed additional 'Phase II' coverage would allow repeat-pass, post-earthquake coverage of the same area of interest as in Phase I, as well as an addition of up to 4,150 square kilometers that would potentially allow for differential LiDAR assessment of levee and bridge impacts at a greater distance from the earthquake source. Levee damage was reported up to 30 km away from the epicenter, and proposed LiDAR coverage would extend up to 50 km away and cover important critical lifeline infrastructure in the western Sacramento River delta, as well as providing full post-earthquake repeat-pass coverage of the Napa watershed to study transient deformation.

  3. Modeling of the Coseismic Electromagnetic Field Observed during the 28 September 2004, M 6.0 Parkfield Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Harris, J. M.; Wen, J.; Chen, X.; Hu, H.

    2014-12-01

    On 28 September 2004, the M6.0 Parkfield earthquake took place on the San Andreas fault, California. A seismic station which is named PKD and located near the epicenter recorded both of the seismic and electromagnetic (EM) signals during this earthquake. This station is operated by Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and installed with broadband seismometer and EM sensors which are close to each other. Significant seismic signals as well as clear coseismic EM signals were recorded during this earthquake, providing a good opportunity to study the coseismic EM phenomenon. We modeled the coseismic EM signals from the viewpoint of the electrokinetic effect on the basis of Pride's equations. The earthquake source is taken as a finite fault with length of 40 km along the strike direction and width of 15 km along the dip direction. The source parameters that we use for calculation were inverted by Liu et al. [2006, BSSA] by utilizing the seismic data. While in their inversion the earth crust are treated as 7 horizontally-layered elastic solids, in our calculation these solid layers are regarded as porous media. Each porous layer has the same P-velocity, S-velocity and density to its counterpart solid layer. The salinity is set to be 0.1 mol/L for all the layers so that conductivity is uniformly distributed with the value of 0.036 S/m. To evaluate the electric and magnetic responses during the rupturing of the earthquake, we use the algorithm developed by Hu and Gao [2011, JGR] which calculates both the seismic and EM wavefields simultaneously. Since the inversion of source parameters was operated in the frequency band 0.16 Hz-1 Hz, we filter both of the synthetic seismoelectric wavefields and the real data before making comparison between them. Our preliminary result shows that in this frequency range, the amplitude of the simulated coseismic electric field is of the order of 1μV/m, which is the same to the real electric data. This supports the electrokinetic effect to be

  4. Time-Reversal Location of the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield Earthquake Using the Vertical Component of Seismic Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmat, C. S.; Johnson, P.; Huang, L.; Randall, G.; Patton, H.; Montagner, J.

    2007-12-01

    In this work we describe Time Reversal experiments applying seismic waves recorded from the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield Earthquake. The reverse seismic wavefield is created by time-reversing recorded seismograms and then injecting them from the seismograph locations into a whole entire Earth velocity model. The concept is identical to acoustic Time-Reversal Mirror laboratory experiments except the seismic data are numerically backpropagated through a velocity model (Fink, 1996; Ulrich et al, 2007). Data are backpropagated using the finite element code SPECFEM3D (Komatitsch et al, 2002), employing the velocity model s20rts (Ritsema et al, 2000). In this paper, we backpropagate only the vertical component of seismic data from about 100 broadband surface stations located worldwide (FDSN), using the period band of 23-120s. We use those only waveforms that are highly correlated with forward-propagated synthetics. The focusing quality depends upon the type of waves back- propagated; for the vertical displacement component the possible types include body waves, Rayleigh waves, or their combination. We show that Rayleigh waves, both real and artifact, dominate the reverse movie in all cases. They are created during rebroadcast of the time reverse signals, including body wave phases, because we use point-like-force sources for injection. The artifact waves, termed "ghosts" manifest as surface waves, do not correspond to real wave phases during the forward propagation. The surface ghost waves can significantly blur the focusing at the source. We find that the ghosts cannot be easily eliminated in the manner described by Tsogka&Papanicolaou (2002). It is necessary to understand how they are created in order to remove them during TRM studies, particularly when using only the body waves. For this moderate magnitude of earthquake we demonstrate the robustness of the TRM as an alternative location method despite the restriction to vertical component phases. One advantage of TRM location

  5. Hard X-ray and Microwave Simulation of 2015-06-22 M6.6 flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Natsuha; Wang, Haimin; Gary, Dale E.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Nita, Gelu M.; Chen, Bin; Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that the time profiles of the hard X-ray (HXR) emission and the microwave (MW) emission during the impulsive phase of the solar flare are well correlated, and this has led to the expectation that these emissions come from a common population of flare-accelerated electrons. However, the energy ranges of the electrons producing two emissions are believed to be different (below and above several hundred keV for HXR-producing and MW-producing electrons, respectively), and some studies have shown that the indices of their energy spectra may differ as well. To better understand the energy distributions of the electrons producing these emissions, we present realistic forward-fit simulations of the HXR and the MW emissions of 2015 June 22, M6.6 flare using the newly developed, IDL-based platform GX simulator. We use the 3D magnetic field model extrapolated from magnetogram data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the images and the electron energy distribution parameters deduced from the photon spectrum from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), and the spatially integrated MW spectrum and the cross-correlated amplitude data from the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) to guide the modeling. We have observed a possible above the-loop-top HXR source in 20-25 keV image, well separated from the source seen in 6-12 keV that is typically interpreted as a thermal loop-top source. Therefore, we simulate the HXR emissions by combining two flux tubes at different heights: the lower loop dominated by thermal electrons and the higher loop dominated by nonthermal electrons. The MW and HXR emissions produced from the forward-fit model are compared with observations to investigate possible differences in the energy spectra of the HXR-producing and the MW-producing electrons and what they can tell us about particle acceleration.

  6. Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, unlike acute erythroid leukemia, predicts an unfavorable outcome after allogeneic HSCT.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Ken; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Eto, Tetsuya; Ohashi, Kazuteru; Uchida, Naoyuki; Kanamori, Heiwa; Fukuda, Takahiro; Miyamura, Koichi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Taguchi, Jun; Mori, Takehiko; Iwato, Koji; Morishima, Yasuo; Nagamura-Inoue, Tokiko; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Takami, Akiyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Acute erythroid leukemia (FAB-M6) and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (FAB-M7) exhibit closely related properties in cells regarding morphology and the gene expression profile. Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is considered the mainstay of the treatment for both subtypes of leukemia due to their refractoriness to chemotherapy and high rates of relapse, it remains unclear whether allo-HSCT is curative in such cases due to their scarcity. We retrospectively examined the impact of allo-HSCT in 382 patients with M6 and 108 patients with M7 using nationwide HSCT data and found the overall survival (OS) and relapse rates of the M6 patients to be significantly better than those of the M7 patients after adjusting for confounding factors and statistically comparable with those of the patients with M0/M1/M2/M4/M5 disease. Consequently, the factors of age, gender, performance status, karyotype, disease status at HSCT and development of graft-vs.-host disease predicted the OS for the M6 patients, while the performance status and disease status at HSCT were predictive of the OS for the M7 patients. These findings substantiate the importance of distinguishing between M6 and M7 in the HSCT setting and suggest that unknown mechanisms influence the HSCT outcomes of these closely related subtypes of leukemia. PMID:27244257

  7. Identification of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel-lining residues in and flanking the M6 membrane-spanning segment.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, M; Akabas, M H

    1996-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) forms a chloride channel that is regulated by phosphorylation and ATP binding. Work by others suggested that some residues in the sixth transmembrane segment (M6) might be exposed in the channel and play a role in ion conduction and selectivity. To identify the residues in M6 that are exposed in the channel and the secondary structure of M6, we used the substituted cysteine accessibility method. We mutated to cysteine, one at a time, 24 consecutive residues in and flanking the M6 segment and expressed these mutants in Xenopus oocytes. We determined the accessibility of the engineered cysteines to charged, lipophobic, sulfhydryl-specific methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents applied extracellularly. The cysteines substituted for Ile331, Leu333, Arg334, Lys335, Phe337, Ser341, Ile344, Arg347, Thr351, Arg352, and Gln353 reacted with the MTS reagents, and we infer that they are exposed on the water-accessible surface of the protein. From the pattern of the exposed residues we infer that the secondary structure of the M6 segment includes both alpha-helical and extended regions. The diameter of the channel from the extracellular end to the level of Gln353 must be at least 6 A to allow the MTS reagents to reach these residues. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:8744306

  8. Modeling Strong Ground Motion during the February 22 2011 M6.3 Christchurch, New Zealand, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benites, R. A.; Fry, B.; Kaiser, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    We present a simple, kinematic model of the rupture of the M6.3 February 22 2011 earthquake in the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, that provides insights into the factors influencing observed ground motions. The model is based on a rectangular 8 x 9 km fault dipping 75o, striking 64o and rupturing with a thrust mechanism. The fault is embedded in a velocity model consisting of one layer over a uniform half-space representing the stiffest soil deposit and the bedrock underneath, respectively (Brown, L.J.; Weeber, J.H. 1992). The free-surface of the soil layer is assumed to be flat, however, the bedrock interface (initially at 900 m depth) pinches out as a 3-D cosine shaped free-surface topography up to 250 m high, representing Bank's Peninsula. The base of the topography is elliptical, with principle axes of 9 km and 4.5 km. Numerical modeling of the rupture shows that the observed corresponding strong ground motion is mainly due to two factors: the coherent rupture of a section of the fault, of 25 km2 area, with 116o rake and 3.1 km/s rupture velocity, and the presence of the sediments immediately overlying the fault. The discretization of the whole fault into several subfaults each with prescribed values of slip in the range 0.4-3.0 m, and rise time, allows the parametric study of the ground motion using several rupture scenarios. The model with the coherent rupture described above best reproduces the high (1.2 g -1.8 g) accelerations observed at stations in the footwall of the fault. The incidence upon the topography appears to produce Rayleigh waves propagating away from it. This is in agreement with particle motion surface wave analysis of the measured seismograms that reveals the contribution of Rayleigh wave energy to the observed long-period ground motions. Furthermore, arrival times of the Rayleigh wave energy are consistent with predicted travel times from our basin velocity model. We reproduce prominent near-surface effects at many Christchurch strong

  9. Acute nephritic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Glomerulonephritis - acute; Acute glomerulonephritis; Nephritis syndrome - acute ... Acute nephritic syndrome is often caused by an immune response triggered by an infection or other disease. Common causes ...

  10. Insights from the Genome Sequence of Acidovorax citrulli M6, a Group I Strain of the Causal Agent of Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Cucurbits

    PubMed Central

    Eckshtain-Levi, Noam; Shkedy, Dafna; Gershovits, Michael; Da Silva, Gustavo M.; Tamir-Ariel, Dafna; Walcott, Ron; Pupko, Tal; Burdman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Acidovorax citrulli is a seedborne bacterium that causes bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbit plants including watermelon and melon. A. citrulli strains can be divided into two major groups based on DNA fingerprint analyses and biochemical properties. Group I strains have been generally isolated from non-watermelon cucurbits, while group II strains are closely associated with watermelon. In the present study, we report the genome sequence of M6, a group I model A. citrulli strain, isolated from melon. We used comparative genome analysis to investigate differences between the genome of strain M6 and the genome of the group II model strain AAC00-1. The draft genome sequence of A. citrulli M6 harbors 139 contigs, with an overall approximate size of 4.85 Mb. The genome of M6 is ∼500 Kb shorter than that of strain AAC00-1. Comparative analysis revealed that this size difference is mainly explained by eight fragments, ranging from ∼35–120 Kb and distributed throughout the AAC00-1 genome, which are absent in the M6 genome. In agreement with this finding, while AAC00-1 was found to possess 532 open reading frames (ORFs) that are absent in strain M6, only 123 ORFs in M6 were absent in AAC00-1. Most of these M6 ORFs are hypothetical proteins and most of them were also detected in two group I strains that were recently sequenced, tw6 and pslb65. Further analyses by PCR assays and coverage analyses with other A. citrulli strains support the notion that some of these fragments or significant portions of them are discriminative between groups I and II strains of A. citrulli. Moreover, GC content, effective number of codon values and cluster of orthologs’ analyses indicate that these fragments were introduced into group II strains by horizontal gene transfer events. Our study reports the genome sequence of a model group I strain of A. citrulli, one of the most important pathogens of cucurbits. It also provides the first comprehensive comparison at the genomic level between

  11. Insights from the Genome Sequence of Acidovorax citrulli M6, a Group I Strain of the Causal Agent of Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Eckshtain-Levi, Noam; Shkedy, Dafna; Gershovits, Michael; Da Silva, Gustavo M; Tamir-Ariel, Dafna; Walcott, Ron; Pupko, Tal; Burdman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Acidovorax citrulli is a seedborne bacterium that causes bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbit plants including watermelon and melon. A. citrulli strains can be divided into two major groups based on DNA fingerprint analyses and biochemical properties. Group I strains have been generally isolated from non-watermelon cucurbits, while group II strains are closely associated with watermelon. In the present study, we report the genome sequence of M6, a group I model A. citrulli strain, isolated from melon. We used comparative genome analysis to investigate differences between the genome of strain M6 and the genome of the group II model strain AAC00-1. The draft genome sequence of A. citrulli M6 harbors 139 contigs, with an overall approximate size of 4.85 Mb. The genome of M6 is ∼500 Kb shorter than that of strain AAC00-1. Comparative analysis revealed that this size difference is mainly explained by eight fragments, ranging from ∼35-120 Kb and distributed throughout the AAC00-1 genome, which are absent in the M6 genome. In agreement with this finding, while AAC00-1 was found to possess 532 open reading frames (ORFs) that are absent in strain M6, only 123 ORFs in M6 were absent in AAC00-1. Most of these M6 ORFs are hypothetical proteins and most of them were also detected in two group I strains that were recently sequenced, tw6 and pslb65. Further analyses by PCR assays and coverage analyses with other A. citrulli strains support the notion that some of these fragments or significant portions of them are discriminative between groups I and II strains of A. citrulli. Moreover, GC content, effective number of codon values and cluster of orthologs' analyses indicate that these fragments were introduced into group II strains by horizontal gene transfer events. Our study reports the genome sequence of a model group I strain of A. citrulli, one of the most important pathogens of cucurbits. It also provides the first comprehensive comparison at the genomic level between the

  12. Acute sacroiliitis.

    PubMed

    Slobodin, Gleb; Rimar, Doron; Boulman, Nina; Kaly, Lisa; Rozenbaum, Michael; Rosner, Itzhak; Odeh, Majed

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the data on the etiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, and diagnosis of acute sacroiliitis. A Pubmed search utilizing the indexing term "acute sacroiliitis" was conducted and the data pertinent to the aim of the review was extracted and organized in accordance with the preplanned structure of the manuscript. The diagnosis of acute sacroiliitis is often challenging because of both the relative rarity of this presentation and diverse character of acute sacroiliac pain, frequently mimicking other, more prevalent disorders. Technetium bone scintigraphy can localize the disease process to the sacroiliac joint, while computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used for the detailed characterization and the extent of the disease as well as the diagnosis of complications. Pyogenic sacroiliitis is by far the most common cause of acute sacroiliitis. Brucellosis, acute sacroiliitis in the course of reactive arthritis, and crystalline-induced sacroiliitis frequently imitate pyogenic sacroiliitis. Acute sacroiliitis can rarely be also related to hematological malignancies or treatment with isotretinoin. Awareness to the possibility of acute sacroiliitis and a thorough physical examination are the necessary prerequisites to its timely diagnosis, while the appropriate laboratory and imaging studies should confirm the precise diagnosis and direct the appropriate treatment strategy. PMID:26847855

  13. From the Macro to the Micro: Gel Mapping to Differentiate between Sporozoites of Two Immunologically Distinct Strains of Eimeria maxima (Strains M6 and Guelph)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbin; Al Nasr, Ibrahim; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun; Barta, John

    2015-01-01

    Two immunologically distinct strains of E. maxima were examined in this study: the M6 strain and the Guelph strain. The differential expression between the sporozoites of the two strains of E. maxima was determined by image analysis of 100 μg of protein from each strain separated by standard one- and conventional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition to differences in both molecular weight and the electrophoretic mobility, differences in the intensity of polypeptide bands for example, GS 136.4 and M6 169 were explored. Pooled gels were prepared from each strain. A representative 2D-PAGE gel spanning a non-linear pH range of 3–10 of E. maxima strain M6 consisted of approximately 694 polypeptide spots with about 67 (9.6%) of the polypeptide spots being unique relative to the other strain. E. maxima strain GS had about 696 discernable polypeptide spots with 69 spots (9.9%) that differed from those of the M6 strain. In-depth characterization of the variable polypeptide spots; unique polypeptide spots (absence or presence) and shared polypeptide spots with modifications may lead to novel vaccine target in the form of multi-component, multi-stage, multi-immunovariant strains, multi-species subunit vaccine, and diagnostic probe for E. maxima. PMID:26641262

  14. Mouse Maternal High-Fat Intake Dynamically Programmed mRNA m6A Modifications in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissues in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Youbo; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Xin’e; Yang, Gongshe

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms have an important role in the pre- and peri-conceptional programming by maternal nutrition. Yet, whether or not RNA m6A methylation—an old epigenetic marker receiving increased attention recently—is involved remains an unknown question. In this study, mouse high-fat feeding prior to conception was shown to induce overweight and glucose intolerant dams, which then continued to be exposed to a high-fat diet during gestation and lactation. The dams on a standard diet throughout the whole experiment were used as a control. Results showed that maternal high-fat intake impaired postnatal growth in male offspring, indicated by decreased body weight and Lee’s index at 3, 8 and 15 weeks old, but the percentages of visceral fat and tibialis anterior relative to the whole body weights were significantly increased at eight weeks of age. The maternal high-fat exposure significantly increased mRNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) levels in visceral fat at three weeks old, combined with downregulated Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and upregulated Methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3) transcription, and these changes were reversed at eight weeks of age. In the tibialis anterior muscle, the maternal high-fat diet significantly enhanced m6A modifications at three weeks, and lowered m6A levels at 15 weeks of age. Accordingly, FTO transcription was significantly inhibited at three weeks and stimulated at 15 weeks of age, and METTL3 transcripts were significantly improved at three weeks. Interestingly, both FTO and METTL3 transcription was significantly elevated at eight weeks of age, and yet the m6A modifications remained unchanged. Our study showed that maternal high-fat intake could affect mRNA m6A modifications and its related genes in offspring in a tissue-specific and development-dependent way, and provided an interesting indication of the working of the m6A system during the transmission from maternal nutrition to subsequent generations. PMID:27548155

  15. A novel algorithm for calling mRNA m6A peaks by modeling biological variances in MeRIP-seq data

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaodong; Meng, Jia; Zhang, Shaowu; Chen, Yidong; Huang, Yufei

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent mRNA methylation but precise prediction of its mRNA location is important for understanding its function. A recent sequencing technology, known as Methylated RNA Immunoprecipitation Sequencing technology (MeRIP-seq), has been developed for transcriptome-wide profiling of m6A. We previously developed a peak calling algorithm called exomePeak. However, exomePeak over-simplifies data characteristics and ignores the reads’ variances among replicates or reads dependency across a site region. To further improve the performance, new model is needed to address these important issues of MeRIP-seq data. Results: We propose a novel, graphical model-based peak calling method, MeTPeak, for transcriptome-wide detection of m6A sites from MeRIP-seq data. MeTPeak explicitly models read count of an m6A site and introduces a hierarchical layer of Beta variables to capture the variances and a Hidden Markov model to characterize the reads dependency across a site. In addition, we developed a constrained Newton’s method and designed a log-barrier function to compute analytically intractable, positively constrained Beta parameters. We applied our algorithm to simulated and real biological datasets and demonstrated significant improvement in detection performance and robustness over exomePeak. Prediction results on publicly available MeRIP-seq datasets are also validated and shown to be able to recapitulate the known patterns of m6A, further validating the improved performance of MeTPeak. Availability and implementation: The package ‘MeTPeak’ is implemented in R and C ++, and additional details are available at https://github.com/compgenomics/MeTPeak Contact: yufei.huang@utsa.edu or xdchoi@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307641

  16. Solar wind proton density variations that preceded the M6+ earthquakes occurring on a global scale between 17 and 20 April 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2015-04-01

    Between 17 and 20 April 2014 on Earth were recorded six M6+ earthquakes: Balleny Islands region M6,2 earthquake occurred on 17 April at 15:06 UTC; Solomon Islands M6,1 earthquake occurred on 18 April at 04:13 UTC; Mexico M7,2 earthquake occurred on 18 April at 14:27 UTC; Papua New Guinea M6,6 earthquake occurred on 19 April at 01:04 UTC; Papua New Guinea M7,5 earthquake occurred on 19 April at 13:28 UTC; Papua New Guinea M6,2 earthquake occurred on 20 April at 00:15 UTC. The authors analyzed the modulation of solar wind ion density during the period from 14 to 23 April 2014 to determine whether the six earthquakes were preceded by a variations of the solar wind ion density and for testing a method to be applied in the future also for the prediction of tsunami. The data on ion density used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density that have these characteristics: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV) and differential proton flux 115-195 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). This data set has been marked with the time data (time markers) of M6+ earthquakes occurred on a global scale between 17 and 20 April 2014 (the data on M6+ seismic activity are provided in real time by USGS, INGV and CSEM). The result of the analysis showed that the six M6+ earthquakes occurred on a global scale in the time period taken as a reference, were preceded by a significant variation of

  17. Acute malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Dupont, John S

    2006-01-01

    Acute malocclusion can result from disturbances in the maxillary/mandibular tooth relationship. These alterations in the occlusal position can result from high fillings, sinus problems, abscesses, periodontal disease, and moving or erupting teeth. Conditions seen less frequently include acute malocclusions secondary to an event (such as trauma) that make a stable dental relationship an unstable one. Patients can demonstrate any of a number of clinical conditions that interfere with their comfort and ability to function. This article provides information on some of the less familiar causes of acute malocclusion. PMID:16689064

  18. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  19. Acute Pericarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large pericardial effusions). Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen ) taken ... reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. ...

  20. Method for site-specific detection of m6A nucleoside presence in RNA based on high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Golovina, Anna Y; Dzama, Margarita M; Petriukov, Kirill S; Zatsepin, Timofei S; Sergiev, Petr V; Bogdanov, Alexey A; Dontsova, Olga A

    2014-02-01

    Chemical landscape of natural RNA species is decorated with the large number of modified nucleosides. Some of those could easily be detected by reverse transcription, while others permit only high-performance liquid chromatography or mass-spectrometry detection. Presence of m(6)A nucleoside at a particular position of long RNA molecule is challenging to observe. Here we report an easy and high-throughput method for detection of m(6)A nucleosides in RNA based on high-resolution melting analysis. The method relies on the previous knowledge of the modified nucleoside position at a particular place of RNA and allows rapid screening for conditions or genes necessary for formation of that modification. PMID:24265225

  1. A critical role for the cholesterol-associated proteolipids PLP and M6B in myelination of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Werner, Hauke B; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria; Strenzke, Nicola; Saher, Gesine; Tenzer, Stefan; Ohno-Iwashita, Yoshiko; De Monasterio-Schrader, Patricia; Möbius, Wiebke; Moser, Tobias; Griffiths, Ian R; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2013-04-01

    The formation of central nervous system myelin by oligodendrocytes requires sterol synthesis and is associated with a significant enrichment of cholesterol in the myelin membrane. However, it is unknown how oligodendrocytes concentrate cholesterol above the level found in nonmyelin membranes. Here, we demonstrate a critical role for proteolipids in cholesterol accumulation. Mice lacking the most abundant myelin protein, proteolipid protein (PLP), are fully myelinated, but PLP-deficient myelin exhibits a reduced cholesterol content. We therefore hypothesized that "high cholesterol" is not essential in the myelin sheath itself but is required for an earlier step of myelin biogenesis that is fully compensated for in the absence of PLP. We also found that a PLP-homolog, glycoprotein M6B, is a myelin component of low abundance. By targeting the Gpm6b-gene and crossbreeding, we found that single-mutant mice lacking either PLP or M6B are fully myelinated, while double mutants remain severely hypomyelinated, with enhanced neurodegeneration and premature death. As both PLP and M6B bind membrane cholesterol and associate with the same cholesterol-rich oligodendroglial membrane microdomains, we suggest a model in which proteolipids facilitate myelination by sequestering cholesterol. While either proteolipid can maintain a threshold level of cholesterol in the secretory pathway that allows myelin biogenesis, lack of both proteolipids results in a severe molecular imbalance of prospective myelin membrane. However, M6B is not efficiently sorted into mature myelin, in which it is 200-fold less abundant than PLP. Thus, only PLP contributes to the high cholesterol content of myelin by association and co-transport. PMID:23322581

  2. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) - children

    MedlinePlus

    Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children

  3. Laboratory Generated M -6 Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Kilgore, Brian D.; Lockner, David A.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2014-10-01

    We consider whether mm-scale earthquake-like seismic events generated in laboratory experiments are consistent with our understanding of the physics of larger earthquakes. This work focuses on a population of 48 very small shocks that are foreshocks and aftershocks of stick-slip events occurring on a 2.0 m by 0.4 m simulated strike-slip fault cut through a large granite sample. Unlike the larger stick-slip events that rupture the entirety of the simulated fault, the small foreshocks and aftershocks are contained events whose properties are controlled by the rigidity of the surrounding granite blocks rather than characteristics of the experimental apparatus. The large size of the experimental apparatus, high fidelity sensors, rigorous treatment of wave propagation effects, and in situ system calibration separates this study from traditional acoustic emission analyses and allows these sources to be studied with as much rigor as larger natural earthquakes. The tiny events have short (3-6 μs) rise times and are well modeled by simple double couple focal mechanisms that are consistent with left-lateral slip occurring on a mm-scale patch of the precut fault surface. The repeatability of the experiments indicates that they are the result of frictional processes on the simulated fault surface rather than grain crushing or fracture of fresh rock. Our waveform analysis shows no significant differences (other than size) between the M -7 to M -5.5 earthquakes reported here and larger natural earthquakes. Their source characteristics such as stress drop (1-10 MPa) appear to be entirely consistent with earthquake scaling laws derived for larger earthquakes.

  4. Experiment M-6: Bone Demineralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Pauline B.; Vose, George; Vogt, Fred B.; LaChance, Paul A.

    1966-01-01

    Densitometric evaluations of serial radiographs of "normal" subjects have often shown rather frequent changes in bone mass within relatively short periods of time. For this reason it was decided to make two pre-flight and two post flight radiographs of the Gemini V backup crew. In comparing the changes observed preflight and post flight as the conventional os calcis scanning site between the two crews, it was found that no changes greater than 4 percent were evident in either member of the backup crew. In comparing the changes observed preflight and postflight as the conventional o calcis scanning site between the two crews, it was found that no changes greater than 4 percent were evident in either member of the backup crew. This is in contract to the 15.1 and 8.9 percent losses observed in the prime crew. It has long been known that the skeletal system experiences a general loss of mineral under immobilization or extended bed rest. However, in both Gemini IV and Gemini V studies, bone mass losses were greater in both the os calcis and phalanx than were shown by the TWU bed-rest subjects during the same period of time. Although the bone mass losses in the 8-day Gemini V flight were generally greater than in the 4-day Gemini IV flight, the information to date is still insufficient to conclude that the losses tend to progress linearly with time, or whether a form of physiological adaptation may occur in longer space flights.

  5. Acute Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Hammad; Fasanya, Adebayo; Cheema, Tariq; Singh, Anil C

    2016-01-01

    Acute pneumonia is an active infection of the lungs that results when an individual at risk gets exposed to a particular microbiological pathogen. Acute pneumonia is the leading cause of death in the United States that is attributable to an infection. The risk factors, pathogenesis, and microbiological organisms involved differ if the pneumonia develops in the community versus health care-associated environment. The development of concise and comprehensive guidelines has led to an improvement in the management of the problem. However, the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms and the increase in the percentage of elderly population keep mortality risk very substantial. PMID:26919676

  6. Mutational analysis defines the roles of conserved amino acid residues in the predicted catalytic pocket of the rRNA:m6A methyltransferase ErmC'.

    PubMed

    Maravić, Gordana; Feder, Marcin; Pongor, Sándor; Flögel, Mirna; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2003-09-01

    Methyltransferases (MTases) from the Erm family catalyze S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent modification of a specific adenine residue in bacterial 23S rRNA, thereby conferring resistance to clinically important macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B antibiotics. Despite the available structural data and functional analyses on the level of the RNA substrate, still very little is known about the mechanism of rRNA:adenine-N(6) methylation. Only predictions regarding various aspects of this reaction have been made based on the analysis of the crystal structures of methyltransferase ErmC' (without the RNA) and their comparison with the crystallographic and biochemical data for better studied DNA:m(6)A MTases. To validate the structure-based predictions of presumably essential residues in the catalytic pocket of ErmC', we carried out the site-directed mutagenesis and studied the function of the mutants in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that the active site of rRNA:m(6)A MTases is much more tolerant to amino acid substitutions than the active site of DNA:m(6)A MTases. Only the Y104 residue implicated in stabilization of the target base was found to be indispensable. Remarkably, the N101 residue from the "catalytic" motif IV and two conserved residues that form the floor (F163) and one of the walls (N11) of the base-binding site are not essential for catalysis in ErmC'. This somewhat surprising result is discussed in the light of the available structural data and in the phylogenetic context of the Erm family. PMID:12946350

  7. Methylations of adenosine residues (m6A) in pre-mRNA are important for formation of late simian virus 40 mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Finkel, D; Groner, Y

    1983-12-01

    Cycloleucine, a competitive inhibitor of methionine transferase was used to generate in vivo partially methylated mRNA in SV40-infected BSC-1 cells. Cycloleucine at 0.5 mg/ml causes more than a 30% decrease in internal m6As of late SV40 mRNA with only minor effect on the dimethyladenosine of the 5' caps m7GpppmAm. After treatment with 2 and 5 mg/ml of cycloleucine, internal m6As were reduced by 10- and 100-fold, respectively. The inhibition of BSC-1 mRNA methylations paralleled that observed for late SV40 mRNAs. In cells exposed to 2 mg/ml cycloleucine production of late SV40 mRNA was inhibited by 80% whereas the amount of SV40 nuclear RNA was only slightly reduced. Size fractionation of SV40 nuclear RNA from cycloleucine-treated cells revealed a loss of SV40 19 S RNA with a corresponding increase of fragmented RNA sedimenting between 11 to 5 S, so that the total amount of SV40 RNA in the nucleus was almost unchanged. Analysis of viral transcription complexes from cells treated with cycloleucine indicated that SV40 transcription was not affected by cycloleucine. SV40-transformed cells, in contrast to BSC-1 cells, were able to process and transport undermethylated RNA. When transformed cells were treated with 2 mg/ml cycloleucine no changes in quantities or size of cytoplasmic and nuclear RNA were detected. The data argues for a role of internal m6A moieties in modulating the processing-linked transport of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of nontransformed cells. Transformed cells may escape these controls due to structural alterations in their perinuclear regions. PMID:6318439

  8. Predicted liquefaction in the greater Oakland area and northern Santa Clara Valley during a repeat of the 1868 Hayward Fault (M6.7-7.0) earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction due to a repeat of the 1868 (M6.7-7.0) earthquake on the southern segment of the Hayward Fault were calculated for two areas along the margin of San Francisco Bay, California: greater Oakland and the northern Santa Clara Valley. Liquefaction is predicted to be more common in the greater Oakland area than in the northern Santa Clara Valley owing to the presence of 57 km2 of susceptible sandy artificial fill. Most of the fills were placed into San Francisco Bay during the first half of the 20th century to build military bases, port facilities, and shoreline communities like Alameda and Bay Farm Island. Probabilities of liquefaction in the area underlain by this sandy artificial fill range from 0.2 to ~0.5 for a M7.0 earthquake, and decrease to 0.1 to ~0.4 for a M6.7 earthquake. In the greater Oakland area, liquefaction probabilities generally are less than 0.05 for Holocene alluvial fan deposits, which underlie most of the remaining flat-lying urban area. In the northern Santa Clara Valley for a M7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m (the historically shallowest water level), liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For a M6.7 earthquake, probabilities are greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. Areas with high probabilities in the Santa Clara Valley are underlain by young Holocene levee deposits along major drainages where liquefaction and lateral spreading occurred during large earthquakes in 1868 and 1906.

  9. Seismic evidence for rock damage and healing on the San Andreas fault associated with the 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Y.-G.; Chen, P.; Cochran, E.S.; Vidale, J.E.; Burdette, T.

    2006-01-01

    We deployed a dense linear array of 45 seismometers across and along the San Andreas fault near Parkfield a week after the M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake on 28 September 2004 to record fault-zone seismic waves generated by aftershocks and explosions. Seismic stations and explosions were co-sited with our previous experiment conducted in 2002. The data from repeated shots detonated in the fall of 2002 and 3 months after the 2004 M 6.0 mainshock show ???1.0%-1.5% decreases in seismic-wave velocity within an ???200-m-wide zone along the fault strike and smaller changes (0.2%-0.5%) beyond this zone, most likely due to the coseismic damage of rocks during dynamic rupture in the 2004 M 6.0 earthquake. The width of the damage zone characterized by larger velocity changes is consistent with the low-velocity waveguide model on the San Andreas fault, near Parkfield, that we derived from fault-zone trapped waves (Li et al., 2004). The damage zone is not symmetric but extends farther on the southwest side of the main fault trace. Waveform cross-correlations for repeated aftershocks in 21 clusters, with a total of ???130 events, located at different depths and distances from the array site show ???0.7%-1.1% increases in S-wave velocity within the fault zone in 3 months starting a week after the earthquake. The velocity recovery indicates that the damaged rock has been healing and regaining the strength through rigidity recovery with time, most likely . due to the closure of cracks opened during the mainshock. We estimate that the net decrease in seismic velocities within the fault zone was at least ???2.5%, caused by the 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake. The healing rate was largest in the earlier stage of the postmainshock healing process. The magnitude of fault healing varies along the rupture zone, being slightly larger for the healing beneath Middle Mountain, correlating well with an area of large mapped slip. The fault healing is most prominent at depths above ???7 km.

  10. A physical model for the precursory magnetic anomalies of the M5.4 Alum Rock and M6.0 Parkfield earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dologlou, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    Here, we propose an alternative physical model, based on the concept of criticality, for the explanation of the observed magnetic signals prior to the M6.0 Parkfield and the M5.4 Alum Rock earthquakes. Motivated by an analogous experience from major earthquakes in Greece, where both magnetic field variations and seismic electric signals were also recorded few weeks before the main shock, we suggest that in all these cases, similar dynamic processes characterized by critical behaviour should govern the corresponding pre-focal areas when the relevant precursory signals emerged.

  11. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  12. Salivaricin D, a novel intrinsically trypsin-resistant lantibiotic from Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c isolated from a healthy infant.

    PubMed

    Birri, Dagim Jirata; Brede, Dag Anders; Nes, Ingolf F

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we purified and characterized a newly identified lantibiotic (salivaricin D) from Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c. Salivaricin D is a 34-amino-acid-residue peptide (3,467.55 Da); the locus of the gene encoding this peptide is a 16.5-kb DNA segment which contains genes encoding the precursor of two lantibiotics, two modification enzymes (dehydratase and cyclase), an ABC transporter, a serine-like protease, immunity proteins (lipoprotein and ABC transporters), a response regulator, and a sensor histidine kinase. The immunity gene (salI) was heterologously expressed in a sensitive indicator and provided significant protection against salivaricin D, confirming its immunity function. Salivaricin D is a naturally trypsin-resistant lantibiotic that is similar to nisin-like lantibiotics. It is a relatively broad-spectrum bacteriocin that inhibits members of many genera of Gram-positive bacteria, including the important human pathogens Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Thus, Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c may be a potential biological agent for the control of oronasopharynx-colonizing streptococcal pathogens or may be used as a probiotic bacterium. PMID:22101034

  13. Salivaricin D, a Novel Intrinsically Trypsin-Resistant Lantibiotic from Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c Isolated from a Healthy Infant

    PubMed Central

    Birri, Dagim Jirata; Brede, Dag Anders

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we purified and characterized a newly identified lantibiotic (salivaricin D) from Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c. Salivaricin D is a 34-amino-acid-residue peptide (3,467.55 Da); the locus of the gene encoding this peptide is a 16.5-kb DNA segment which contains genes encoding the precursor of two lantibiotics, two modification enzymes (dehydratase and cyclase), an ABC transporter, a serine-like protease, immunity proteins (lipoprotein and ABC transporters), a response regulator, and a sensor histidine kinase. The immunity gene (salI) was heterologously expressed in a sensitive indicator and provided significant protection against salivaricin D, confirming its immunity function. Salivaricin D is a naturally trypsin-resistant lantibiotic that is similar to nisin-like lantibiotics. It is a relatively broad-spectrum bacteriocin that inhibits members of many genera of Gram-positive bacteria, including the important human pathogens Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Thus, Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c may be a potential biological agent for the control of oronasopharynx-colonizing streptococcal pathogens or may be used as a probiotic bacterium. PMID:22101034

  14. Perturbation of m6A writers reveals two distinct classes of mRNA methylation at internal and 5’ sites

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Schraga; Mumbach, Maxwell R.; Jovanovic, Marko; Wang, Tim; Maciag, Karolina; Bushkin, G. Guy; Mertins, Philipp; Ter-Ovanesyan, Dmitry; Habib, Naomi; Cacchiarelli, Davide; Sanjana, Neville E.; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Pacold, Michael E.; Satija, Rahul; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Hacohen, Nir; Zhang, Feng; Carr, Steven A.; Lander, Eric S.; Regev, Aviv

    2014-01-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a common modification of mRNA, with potential roles in fine-tuning the RNA life-cycle. Here, we identify a dense network of proteins interacting with METTL3, a component of the methyltransferase complex, and show that three of them, WTAP, METTL14 and KIAA1429, are required for methylation. Monitoring m6A levels upon WTAP depletion allowed the definition of accurate and near single-nucleotide resolution methylation maps, and their classification into WTAP-dependent and independent sites. WTAP-dependent sites are located at internal positions in transcripts, are topologically static across a variety of systems we surveyed, and are inversely correlated with mRNA stability, consistent with a role in establishing ‘basal’ degradation rates. WTAP-independent sites form at the first transcribed base as part of the cap structure, and are present at thousands of sites, forming a previously unappreciated layer of transcriptome complexity. Our data sheds new light on proteomic and transcriptional underpinnings of this epitranscriptomic modification. PMID:24981863

  15. Acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Barr, Wendy; Smith, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Acute diarrhea in adults is a common problem encountered by family physicians. The most common etiology is viral gastroenteritis, a self-limited disease. Increases in travel, comorbidities, and foodborne illness lead to more bacteria-related cases of acute diarrhea. A history and physical examination evaluating for risk factors and signs of inflammatory diarrhea and/or severe dehydration can direct any needed testing and treatment. Most patients do not require laboratory workup, and routine stool cultures are not recommended. Treatment focuses on preventing and treating dehydration. Diagnostic investigation should be reserved for patients with severe dehydration or illness, persistent fever, bloody stool, or immunosuppression, and for cases of suspected nosocomial infection or outbreak. Oral rehydration therapy with early refeeding is the preferred treatment for dehydration. Antimotility agents should be avoided in patients with bloody diarrhea, but loperamide/simethicone may improve symptoms in patients with watery diarrhea. Probiotic use may shorten the duration of illness. When used appropriately, antibiotics are effective in the treatment of shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, Clostridium difficile, traveler's diarrhea, and protozoal infections. Prevention of acute diarrhea is promoted through adequate hand washing, safe food preparation, access to clean water, and vaccinations. PMID:24506120

  16. Sinusitis (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1−5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides, different doses [amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides], long-course regimens), antihistamines, cephalosporins or macrolides, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), doxycycline, saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intra-nasal). PMID:19450327

  17. Sinusitis (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1% to 5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and in people with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid [co-amoxiclav], doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides; different doses, long-course regimens), antihistamines, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intranasal). PMID:22189346

  18. Acute glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, N

    2000-09-01

    Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) is a representative disease of acute nephritic syndrome characterized by the sudden appearance of edema, hematuria, proteinuria, and hypertension. The prototype of AGN is acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN). "Nephritogenic streptococci" are defined as organisms that are cultured from a patient who develops AGN. Although only a limited number of M-types of streptococci have been recognized as "nephritogenic streptococci", all M-types of streptococci may have nephritogenic potential because the genes for major putative nephritogenic antigens such as SPEB and NAPIr are found to be present in all group A streptococci thus far examined. Pathogenic mechanisms for APSGN involving both humoral and cell-mediated immunity have been recently proposed. The role of humoral immunity is presumed to be mediated by the in situ formation of nephritogenic streptococcal antigen-antibody complexes and circulating immune complexes. While in the cellular immune component a role for delayed-type hypersensitivity has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of APSGN. PMID:10969898

  19. Solar wind proton density variations that preceded the M6,1 earthquake occurred in New Caledonia on November 10, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2015-04-01

    This work analyzed the modulation of the solar wind proton density variation that preceded the M6,1 earthquake occurred in New Caledonia on November 10, 2014 at 10:04:21 UTC. The purpose of the study has been to verify the existence of a correlation between solar activity and the earthquake and for testing a method to be applied in the future also for the prediction of tsunami. The ionic data used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density that have these characteristics: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV) and differential proton flux 115-195 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). The sample data used to conduct the study refers the period going from 7 to 10 November 2014. The data on the M6,1 earthquake are provided in real time by the USGS (United States Geological Survey). The data analysis revealed that the M6,1 earthquake occurred in New Caledonia on November 10, 2014 at 10:04:21 UTC, was preceded by a solar coronal mass ejection (CME) that reached Earth at 19:31:04 UTC (± 6 hours, ISWA data) on November 9, 2014. The CME event produced an increase of solar wind ion density that preceded the earthquakes of about 14.5 hours.

  20. Acute promyelocytic leukemia transformation in a patient with aplastic anemia: a case report with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoning; Yuan, Tingting; Wang, Wenjuan; Chen, Limei; Wang, Huaiyu; Liu, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    Aplastic anemia (AA) is a hematological disorder presenting with pancytopenia in peripheral blood and hypocellularity in bone marrow. AA patients with immunosuppressive therapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment have a risk of development of acute leukemia including acute myeloid leukemia (M0, M1, M2, M4, M5, M6) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, AA with transformation to acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has never been reported. Here, we reported a patient initially diagnosed with AA. while 19 years later, PML/RAR αfusion gene were detected and the patient was eventually diagnosed as APL. The diagnosis and management of this interesting case are discussed. PMID:26884990

  1. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Self-Potential Field Prior to the M 6.5, October 24, 1993 Earthquake in MÉXICO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, F.; González-Trejo, J. I.; Real-Ramírez, C. A.; Hoyos-Reyes, L. F.; Area de Sistemas Computacionales

    2013-05-01

    In the current literature on seismo electromagnetic, it has been reported many earthquakes which present electromagnetic anomalies as probable precursors of their occurrences. Although this methodology remains yet under discussion, is relevant to study many particular cases. In this work, we report a multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) of electroseismic signals recorded in the Acapulco station during 1993. In October 24, 1993, occurred and earthquake (EQ) with M 6.5, with epicenter at (16.54 N, 98.98 W), 100Km away from the mentioned station. The multifractal spectrum identifies the deviations in fractal structure within time periods with large and small fluctuations. We discuss the dynamical meaning of this analysis and its possible relation with the mentioned EQ.

  2. The 2003 M=6.9 Zemmouri, Algeria, Earthquake Brought Thrust and Strike-Slip Faults Near Algiers Closer to Coulomb Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.; Meghraoui, M.; Dorbath, C.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate key features of thrust earthquake triggering, inhibition, and clustering associated with the stress transferred by the 2003 M=6.9 Zemmouri quake on an offshore hidden thrust fault in coastal Algeria. A crucial question is whether the seismic hazard increased on the Boumerdes and Thenia faults, which lie just west of the Zemmouri rupture and only 10-20 km from the city of Algiers. The capital city suffered large damaging quakes in A.D. 1365 and 1716, and is today home to 3 million people. Slip on blind thrust faults tend to increase the stress above the source fault and in much of the surrounding crust, whereas slip on surface-cutting thrust faults drops the stress in most of the adjacent crust. We examined the sensitivity of the imparted stress to different published source models of the 2003 Zemmouri event inferred from geodetic and seismic inversions, and focus here on the robust results. We calculate that the 2003 M=6.9 Zemmouri quake brought the Coulomb stress 1.0 bars closer to failure on the reverse Boumerdes and 0.5 bars closer on the right-lateral Thenia faults that bound the populated Mitidja basin, although the Thenia fault may not be tectonically active. The calculated pattern of the stress increase appears consistent with aftershock distribution determined from double difference earthquake tomography by Ayadi et al. (submitted); both of these faults were illuminated by aftershocks during the first three months of the sequence. The East Sahel and Larbaa faults, which lie further to the west, are calculated to have sustained a weak 0.1-bar stress increase and show no associated aftershocks. We also calculate a 1.0-bar stress increase on the NNW-SSE trending vertical right-lateral Kabyle fault located south of the Zemmouri fault, although there is no evidence of recent Quaternary tectonic movement, no geomorphology typical of active zones, and little seismicity along the Kabyle fault.

  3. Ambient Tremor Triggered by the 24 August 2014, M6.0 South Napa Earthquake in the Parkfield-Cholame region of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The rate of ambient tremor activity in the Parkfield-Cholame area of California increased by a factor of ~10 beginning between 11 and 12 hours after August 24, 2014 M6.0 S. Napa earthquake and lasted for ~ 48 hours. Over the subsequent 26 days, rates diminished but remained elevated, and on Sept. 22, 2014, rates increased again to levels comparable to those immediately following the South Napa event. This second episode has continued through the end of the analysis period (Sept. 24). The proportion of tremors beneath Monarch Peak (NW of Parkfield-Cholame) also increased during this second episode, suggesting a migration of tremor deep slow-slip to the northwest. The rate of tremor since the Napa earthquake is the largest observed in the Parkfield-Cholame area since the ambient tremor triggered by the 2004 Parkfield M6 earthquake and is approximately as energetic. This is in spite of the fact that the South Napa earthquake was over 300 km further away from the Parkfield-Cholame tremor zone. This suggests a heightened sensitivity to stress change in the Parkfield-Cholame tremor zone and that significant changes in conditions within the deep SAF may have taken place. The increased rates of tremor and the general association of changing tremor rates with deformational transients and slow-slip also suggest that the South Napa event may have triggered a large, deep slow-slip episode at a great distance and along a critical section of the San Andreas Fault (i.e., where the 1857 Ft. Tejon M7.8 earthquake apparently nucleated). This presentation will include monitoring results tracking the ongoing unusual tremor activity up through the week prior to the Fall AGU meeting and will compare this tremor evolution with ongoing seismicity and another delayed ambient tremor episode in the Bitterwater area of the SAF that was apparently triggered by the 1998 San Juan Baustista M5.1 earthquake.

  4. [Acute myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Combes, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Myocarditis is defined as inflammation of the myocardium accompanied by myocellular necrosis. Acute myocarditis must be considered in patients who present with recent-onset of cardiac failure or arrhythmia. Fulminant myocarditis is a distinct entity characterized by sudden onset of severe congestive heart failure or cardiogenic shock, usually following a flu-like illness, parvovirus B19, human herpesvirus 6, coxsackievirus and adenovirus being the most frequently viruses responsible for the disease. Treatment of myocarditis remains largely supportive, since immunosuppression has not been proven to be beneficial for acute lymphocytic myocarditis. Trials of antiviral therapies, or immunostimulants such as interferons, suggest a potential therapeutic role but require further investigation. Lastly, early recognition of patients rapidly progressing to refractory cardiac failure and their immediate transfer to a medical-surgical center experienced in mechanical circulatory support is warranted. In this setting, ECMO should be the first-line mechanical assistance. For highly unstable patients, a Mobile Cardiac Assistance Unit, that rapidly travels to primary care hospitals with a portable ECMO system and hooks it up before refractory multiorgan failure takes hold, is the preferred option. PMID:22515999

  5. [Acute myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Combes, Alain

    2013-05-01

    Myocarditis is defined as inflammation of the myocardium accompanied by myocellular necrosis. Acute myocarditis must be considered in patients who present with recent onset of cardiac failure or arrhythmia. Fulminant myocarditis is a distinct entity characterized by sudden onset of severe congestive heart failure or cardiogenic shock, usually following a flu-like illness, parvovirus B19, human herpesvirus 6, coxsackievirus and adenovirus being the most frequently viruses responsible for the disease. Treatment of myocarditis remains largely supportive, since immunosuppression has not been proven to be beneficial for acute lymphocytic myocarditis. Trials of antiviral therapies, or immunostimulants such as interferons, suggest a potential therapeutic role but require further investigation. Lastly, early recognition of patients rapidly progressing to refractory cardiac failure and their immediate transfer to a medical-surgical center experienced in mechanical circulatory support is warranted. In this setting, ECMO should be the first-line mechanical assistance. For highly unstable patients, a Mobile Cardiac Assistance Unit, that rapidly travels to primary care hospitals with a portable ECMO system and hooks it up before refractory multiorgan failure takes hold, is the preferred option. PMID:23789482

  6. THE ROLE OF THE PROTO-ONCOGENE ETS2 IN ACUTE MEGAKARYOCYTIC LEUKEMIA BIOLOGY AND THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yubin; LaFiura, Katherine M.; Dombkowski, Alan A.; Chen, Qing; Payton, Scott G.; Buck, Steven A.; Salagrama, Sridevi; Diakiw, Amy E.; Matherly, Larry H.; Taub, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in Down syndrome (DS) children has several unique features including a predominance of the acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMkL) phenotype, higher event-free survivals compared to non-DS children using cytosine arabinoside (ara-C)/anthracycline-based protocols, and a uniform presence of somatic mutations in the X-linked transcription factor gene, GATA1. Several chromosome 21-localized transcription factor oncogenes including ETS2 may contribute to the unique features of DS AMkL. ETS2 transcripts measured by real-time RT-PCR were 1.8- and 4.1-fold, respectively, higher in DS and non-DS megakaryoblasts than those in non-DS myeloblasts. In a doxycycline-inducible erythroleukemia cell line, K562pTet-on/ETS2, induction of ETS2 resulted in an erythroid to megakaryocytic phenotypic switch independent of GATA1 levels. Microarray analysis of doxycycline induced and uninduced cells revealed an upregulation by ETS2 of cytokines (e.g. interleukin 1 and CSF2) and transcription factors (e.g. TAL1), which are key regulators of megakaryocytic differentiation. In the K562pTet-on/ETS2 cells, ETS2 induction conferred differences in sensitivities to ara-C and daunorubicin, depending on GATA1 levels. These results suggest that ETS2 expression is linked to the biology of AMkL in both DS and non-DS children, and acts by regulating expression of hematopoietic lineage and transcription factor genes involved in erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis, and in chemotherapy sensitivities. PMID:18094719

  7. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, especially younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  8. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Otitis media - acute; Infection - inner ear; Middle ear infection - acute ... Casselbrandt ML, Mandel EM. Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  9. Liquefaction Scenarios in the Northern Santa Clara Valley for a Repeat of the 1868 Hayward Fault (M6.7-7.0) Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    The spatial distribution of the probability of liquefaction in the northern Santa Clara Valley, California, was predicted for a repeat of an earthquake like the 1868 Hayward Fault (M6.7-7.0) earthquake. Probabilities were computed with the methodology for probabilistic liquefaction hazard mapping that was developed by Holzer and others (USGS OFR 02-296, 2006). The methodology relies on field-based plots of cumulative frequency of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) for spatially homogenous surficial geologic units. LPI, which is a scalar parameter that integrates the liquefaction potential of the entire soil column, was computed for 164 seismic cone penetration tests (SCPT) that were conducted in Holocene and Pleistocene geologic units. The plots of cumulative frequency were used to estimate the liquefaction probability distribution for each surficial geologic unit given peak ground acceleration (PGA) and earthquake magnitude. Scenario maps were produced with ArcGIS Model Builder. PGA at each node in a 50-m grid was estimated with the new attenuation relation proposed by Boore and Atkinson (2007, v. 3.04). Regional averages of VS30 values, which were based on the SCPT, were used to account for local site amplification. The probability of liquefaction was estimated at each node using the liquefaction probability distribution appropriate for the surficial geology at the node. For a M7 earthquake and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m in the central part of the valley, liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For an M6.7 earthquake, probabilities remain greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. For assumed water-table depths greater than 5 m, liquefaction probabilities are less than 0.05 throughout the valley. The probability of lateral spreading is less than 0.05 throughout the valley for both water table depths and both earthquakes

  10. Multi-sensor Integration of Space and Ground Observations of Pre-earthquake Anomalies Associated with M6.0, August 24, 2014 Napa, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Tramutoli, Valerio; Pulinets, Sergey; Liu, Tiger; Filizzola, Carolina; Genzano, Nicola; Lisi, Mariano; Petrov, Leonid; Kafatos, Menas

    2015-04-01

    We integrate multiple space-born and ground sensors for monitoring pre-earthquake geophysical anomalies that can provide significant early notification for earthquakes higher than M5.5 worldwide. The latest M6.0 event of August 24, 2014 in South Napa, California generated pre-earthquake signatures during our outgoing tests for California, and an experimental warning was documented about 17 days in advance. We process in controlled environment different satellite and ground data for California (and several other test areas) by using: a) data from the NPOES sensors recording OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) in the infrared; b) 2/GNSS, FORMOSAT (GPS/TEC); c) Earth Observing System assimilation models from NASA; d) ground-based gas observations and meteorological data; e) TIR (Thermal Infrared) data from geostationary satellite (GOES). On Aug 4th, we detected (prospectively) a large anomaly of OLR transient field at the TOA over Northern California. The location was shifted in the northeast direction about 150 km from the Aug 23rd epicentral area. Compared to the reference field of August 2004 to 2014 the hotspot anomaly was the largest energy flux anomaly over the entire continental United States at this time. Based on the temporal and spatial estimates of the anomaly, on August 4th we issued an internal warning for a M5.5+ earthquake in Northern California within the next 1-4 weeks. TIR retrospective analysis showed significant (spatially extended and temporally persistent) sequences of TIR anomalies starting August 1st just in the future epicenter area and approximately in the same area affected by OLR anomalies in the following days. GPS/TEC retrospective analysis based on GIM and TGIM products show anomalies TEC variations 1-3 days, over region north form the Napa earthquake epicenter. The calculated index of atmospheric chemical potential based on the NASA numerical Assimilation weather model GEOS5 indicates for abnormal variations near the epicentral area days

  11. Afterslip behavior following the M6.0, 2014 South Napa earthquake with implications for afterslip forecasting on other seismogenic faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, James J.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Domrose, Carolyn J; Rosa, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    The M6.0, 24 Aug. 2014 South Napa, California, earthquake exhibited unusually large slip for a California strike-slip event of its size with a maximum coseismic surface slip of 40-50 cm in the north section of the 15 km-long rupture. Although only minor (<10 cm) surface slip occurred coseismically in the southern 9-km section of the rupture, there was considerable postseismic slip, so that the maximum total slip one year after the event approached 40-50 cm, about equal to the coseismic maximum in the north. We measured the accumulation of postseismic surface slip on four, ~100-m-long alignment arrays for one year following the event. Because prolonged afterslip can delay reconstruction of fault-damaged buildings and infrastructure, we analyzed its gradual decay to estimate when significant afterslip would likely end. This forecasting of Napa afterslip suggests how we might approach the scientific and engineering challenges of afterslip from a much larger M~7 earthquake anticipated on the nearby, urban Hayward Fault. However, we expect its afterslip to last much longer than one year.The M6.0, 24 Aug. 2014 South Napa, California, earthquake exhibited unusually large slip for a California strike-slip event of its size with a maximum coseismic surface slip of 40-50 cm in the north section of the 15 km-long rupture. Although only minor (<10 cm) surface slip occurred coseismically in the southern 9-km section of the rupture, there was considerable postseismic slip, so that the maximum total slip one year after the event approached 40-50 cm, about equal to the coseismic maximum in the north. We measured the accumulation of postseismic surface slip on four, ~100-m-long alignment arrays for one year following the event. Because prolonged afterslip can delay reconstruction of fault-damaged buildings and infrastructure, we analyzed its gradual decay to estimate when significant afterslip would likely end. This forecasting of Napa afterslip suggests how we might approach the

  12. High-Dose Busulfan and High-Dose Cyclophosphamide Followed By Donor Bone Marrow Transplant in Treating Patients With Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Multiple Myeloma, or Recurrent Hodgkin or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-08-05

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; De Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent

  13. A stochastic estimate of ground motion at Oceano, California, for the M 6.5 22 December 2003 San Simeon earthquake, derived from aftershock recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di, Alessandro C.; Boatwright, J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey deployed a digital seismic station in Oceano, California, in February 2004, to investigate the cause of damage and liquefaction from the 22 December 2003 M 6.5 San Simeon earthquake. This station recorded 11 M > 2.8 aftershocks in almost 8 weeks. We analyze these recordings, together with recordings of the mainshock and the same aftershocks obtained from nearby stations in Park Hill and San Luis Obispo, to estimate the mainshock ground motion in Oceano. We estimate the Fourier amplitude spectrum using generalized spectral ratio analysis. We test a set of aftershocks as Green's functions by comparing simulated and recorded acceleration amplitude spectra for the mainshock at San Luis Obispo and Park Hill. We convolve the aftershock accelerograms with a stochastic operator to simulate the duration and phase of the mainshock accelerograms. This approximation allows us to extend the range of aftershocks that can be used as Green's functions to events nearly three magnitude units smaller than the mainshock. Our realizations for the mainshock accelerogram at Oceano yield peak ground accelerations distributed as 28% ?? 4%g. We interpret these realizations as upper bounds for the actual ground motion, because our analysis assumes a linear response, whereas the presence of liquefaction indicates that the ground behaved nonlinearly in Oceano.

  14. The 2014 M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake in the Context of the Earthquake Cycle in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaume, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 M 6.0 South Napa earthquake is the second M ≥ 5.5 earthquake to occur in the San Francisco Bay region since the 1989 M 7.0 Loma Prieta earthquake. This poster will examine how this earthquake fits into the earthquake history of the Bay region, which has shown considerable variation in the rate of moderate (M 5.5-6.5) earthquakes. A number of models have been developed to explain these changes in moderate earthquake rates, including the Accelerating Moment Release model (e.g., Sykes and Jaumé, Nature, 1990; Bufe and Varnes, J. Geophys. Res., 1993) and the Stress Shadow model (e.g., Harris and Simpson, J. Geophys. Res., 1998). In addition, various groups have made projections of future earthquake activity in the San Francisco Bay region, including the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (Field et al., USGS OFR, 2008) and Bebbington et al. (PAGEOPH, 2010), utilizing different physical models for earthquake occurrence. In my poster I will compare and contrast these different views of seismicity in the Bay region and where the 2014 South Napa earthquake fits into them. In particular, I will explore what these different models imply for future moderate earthquake occurrence and hazards thereof.

  15. On a report that the 2012 M 6.0 earthquake in Italy was predicted after seeing an unusual cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. N.; Masci, F.; Love, J. J.

    2015-05-01

    Several recently published reports have suggested that semi-stationary linear-cloud formations might be causally precursory to earthquakes. We examine the report of Guangmeng and Jie (2013), who claim to have predicted the 2012 M 6.0 earthquake in the Po Valley of northern Italy after seeing a satellite photograph (a digital image) showing a linear-cloud formation over the eastern Apennine Mountains of central Italy. From inspection of 4 years of satellite images we find numerous examples of linear-cloud formations over Italy. A simple test shows no obvious statistical relationship between the occurrence of these cloud formations and earthquakes that occurred in and around Italy. All of the linear-cloud formations we have identified in satellite images, including that which Guangmeng and Jie (2013) claim to have used to predict the 2012 earthquake, appear to be orographic - formed by the interaction of moisture-laden wind flowing over mountains. Guangmeng and Jie (2013) have not clearly stated how linear-cloud formations can be used to predict the size, location, and time of an earthquake, and they have not published an account of all of their predictions (including any unsuccessful predictions). We are skeptical of the validity of the claim by Guangmeng and Jie (2013) that they have managed to predict any earthquakes.

  16. [(Pb6I8){Mn(CO)5}6](2-): an octahedral (M6X8)-like cluster with inverted bonding.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Silke; Reiter, Kevin; Weigend, Florian; Klopper, Wim; Feldmann, Claus

    2015-04-20

    [BMIm]2[{PbMn(CO)5)}6I8] (BMIm: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) is obtained by ionic liquid mediated reaction of PbI2 and Mn2(CO)10. Central is a cubelike (Pb6I8) unit containing a nonfilled Pb6 octahedron. Each Pb of this (Pb6I8) unit is terminated on its outside by Mn(CO)5, exhibiting Pb-Mn metal-to-metal bonding (280 pm). Structurally, the (Pb6I8) unit is similar to the well-known octahedral (M6Xn) cluster-type family (M = Zr, Nb, Ta, Mo, W; X = Cl, Br, I). In contrast to most similar cluster compounds, such as W6Br12 ([W6Br8]Br2/1Br4/2, according to Niggli notation) or the carbonyl cluster [Sn6{Cr(CO5)6}](2-), however, the nonfilled central Pb6 octahedron in [{PbMn(CO)5)}6I8](2-) does not exhibit any metal-to-metal bonding. Structure and bonding of the title compound are validated by single-crystal structure analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Based on the isolobal principle, electronegativity considerations, bond lengths, and DFT calculations including Mulliken population analysis and natural population analysis (NPA), in sum, the charge distribution of Pb is best reflected by an oxidation state of +1. PMID:25830920

  17. Acute pain.

    PubMed

    Good, M

    1999-01-01

    The review of acute pain describes the problem of unresolved pain and its effects on the neural, autonomic, and immune systems. Conceptualizations and mechanisms of pain are reviewed as well as theories of pain management. Descriptive studies of patient and nurse factors that inhibit effective pain management are discussed, followed by studies of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. Critical analysis reveals that most studies were atheoretical, and therefore, this proliferation of information lacked conceptual coherence and organization. Furthermore, the nature and extent of barriers to pain management were described, but few intervention studies have been devised, as yet, to modify the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of nurses and patients that are barriers to pain management. Although some of the complementary therapies have sufficient research support to be used in clinical pain management, the physiological mechanisms and outcomes need to be studied. It is critical at this time to design studies of interventions to improve assessment, decision making, attentive care, and patient teaching. PMID:10418655

  18. XK469R in Treating Patients With Refractory Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-07

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  19. Estimating the probability of occurrence of earthquakes (M>6) in the Western part of the Corinth rift using fault-based and classical seismotectonic approaches.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiselet, Aurelien; Scotti, Oona; Lyon-Caen, Hélène

    2014-05-01

    -SISCOR Working Group. On the basis of this consensual logic tree, median probability of occurrences of M>=6 events were computed for the region of study. Time-dependent models (Brownian Passage time and Weibull probability distributions) were also explored. The probability of a M>=6.0 event is found to be greater in the western region compared to the eastern part of the Corinth rift, whether a fault-based or a classical seismotectonic approach is used. Percentile probability estimates are also provided to represent the range of uncertainties in the results. The percentile results show that, in general, probability estimates following the classical approach (based on the definition of seismotectonic source zones), cover the median values estimated following the fault-based approach. On the contrary, the fault-based approach in this region is still affected by a high degree of uncertainty, because of the poor constraints on the 3D geometries of the faults and the high uncertainties in their slip rates.

  20. Measurement of Along-track Displacements due to the M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake Using X-band Multiple-Aperture SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H. S.; Jo, M. J.; Yun, S. H.; Jung, H. I.; Koh, Y. C.; Webb, F.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple-aperture SAR interferometry (MAI) has been developed for measuring surface displacements in along-track direction as an alternative method of amplitude offset tracking method. Various studies on geological phenomena have been carried out using MAI technique with C-band and L-band SAR data, but application of MAI to X-band SAR is challenging due to its more severe temporal decorrelation compared to longer wavelength radar. The Italian Space Agency's (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) mission consisting of four identical radar satellites has a powerful capability to minimize temporal baselines maintaining high coherence. This offers a good chance for MAI application for precise measurement of along-track displacements. In this study, we demonstrate the MAI performance of X-band SAR for the M6.0, South Napa Earthquake occurred on August 24, 2014. A coseismic CSK pair data (July 26 and August 27, 2014) acquired from descending orbit was used to show the along-track displacements in the fault zone. In order to evaluate the precision for measuring MAI deformation on the Napa Earthquake using CSK data, we produced a coherence map of the interferogram because the MAI precision is a function of interferometric coherence. However, we found that standard deviation of MAI phase does not coincide with the theoretical variation. The measurement uncertainty of along-track displacements was estimated by using the predefined empirical equation which was established through the performance test using multi-path CSK dataset at Kilauea Volcano region. The uncertainty map of the along-track displacements in the South Napa Earthquake region provides a reliable metric to estimate the variance/covariance of the data, useful for 3-D displacement field construction and geophysical modeling.

  1. Fluid‐driven seismicity response of the Rinconada fault near Paso Robles, California, to the 2003 M 6.5 San Simeon earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2012-01-01

    The 2003 M 6.5 San Simeon, California, earthquake caused significant damage in the city of Paso Robles and a persistent cluster of aftershocks close to Paso Robles near the Rinconada fault. Given the importance of secondary aftershock triggering in sequences of large events, a concern is whether this cluster of events could trigger another damaging earthquake near Paso Robles. An epidemic‐type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model is fit to the Rinconada seismicity, and multiple realizations indicate a 0.36% probability of at least one M≥6.0 earthquake during the next 30 years. However, this probability estimate is only as good as the projection into the future of the ETAS model. There is evidence that the seismicity may be influenced by fluid pressure changes, which cannot be forecasted using ETAS. The strongest evidence for fluids is the delay between the San Simeon mainshock and a high rate of seismicity in mid to late 2004. This delay can be explained as having been caused by a pore pressure decrease due to an undrained response to the coseismic dilatation, followed by increased pore pressure during the return to equilibrium. Seismicity migration along the fault also suggests fluid involvement, although the migration is too slow to be consistent with pore pressure diffusion. All other evidence, including focal mechanisms and b‐value, is consistent with tectonic earthquakes. This suggests a model where the role of fluid pressure changes is limited to the first seven months, while the fluid pressure equilibrates. The ETAS modeling adequately fits the events after July 2004 when the pore pressure stabilizes. The ETAS models imply that while the probability of a damaging earthquake on the Rinconada fault has approximately doubled due to the San Simeon earthquake, the absolute probability remains low.

  2. Large-scale Contraction and Subsequent Disruption of Coronal Loops During Various Phases of the M6.2 Flare Associated with the Confined Flux Rope Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Upendra; Joshi, Bhuwan; Veronig, Astrid M.; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2015-07-01

    We investigate evolutionary phases of an M6.2 flare and the associated confined eruption of a prominence. The pre-flare phase exhibits spectacular large-scale contraction of overlying extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coronal loops during which the loop system was subjected to an altitude decrease of ∼20 Mm (40% of the initial height) for an extended span of ∼30 minutes. This contraction phase is accompanied by sequential EUV brightenings associated with hard X-ray (HXR; up to 25 keV) and microwave (MW) sources from low-lying loops in the core region which together with X-ray spectra indicate strong localized heating in the source region before the filament activation. With the onset of the flare’s impulsive phase, we detect HXR and MW sources that exhibit intricate temporal and spatial evolution in relation to the fast rise of the prominence. Following the flare maximum, the filament eruption slowed down and subsequently became confined within the large overlying active region loops. During the confinement process of the erupting prominence, we detect MW emission from the extended coronal region with multiple emission centroids, which likely represent emission from hot blobs of plasma formed after the collapse of the expanding flux rope and entailing prominence material. RHESSI spectroscopy reveals high plasma temperature (∼30 MK) and substantial non-thermal characteristics (δ ∼ 5) during the impulsive phase of the flare. The time evolution of thermal energy exhibits a good correspondence with the variations in cumulative non-thermal energy, which suggests that the energy of accelerated particles is efficiently converted to hot flare plasma, implying an effective validation of the Neupert effect.

  3. Space and Ground observations of Pre-earthquake Anomalies.Prospective/Retrospective Testing for M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, D.; Kafatos, M.; Petrov, L.; Pulinets, S. A.; Liu, J. Y.; Su, Y. C.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    We integrate multiple geo-space and ground sensors for monitoring pre-earthquake geophysical anomalies that can provide significant early notification for earthquakes higher than M5.5 in California. The latest M6.0 event of August 24 in South Napa, generated a pre-earthquake signature during our prospective tests for California, and an experimental warning was documented about 17 days in advance. We process in controlled environment different satellite and ground data for California and several other test areas by using: A.) TIR (thermal infrared) data from the NPOES recording long-wavelength radiation (OLR) and; B.) 2/GNSS, FORMOSAT (GPS/TEC); 3) Earth Observing System assimilation models from NASA and 4) ground-based gas observations and meteorological data. On Aug 4th, we detected (prospectively) a large anomaly of OLR transient field in the atmosphere over Northern California. The location was shifted in the northeast direction about 150 km from the Aug 23rd epicentral area. Compared to the reference field of August 2004 to 2014, a rapid change in the thermals anomalous flux rate, of >1.6 W/m2 at 7:00AM LT been observed on Aug 4. The hotspot anomaly was the largest energy flux anomaly over the entire continental United States at this time. Based on the temporal and spatial estimates of the anomaly, on August 4th we issued an internal warning for a M5.5+ earthquake in Northern California within the next 1-4 weeks. Our approach needs additional continuous validation. The results could be explained within the framework of a model of Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling between the crust and the atmosphere/ionosphere.

  4. Modelling macroseismic observations for historical earthquakes: the cases of the M = 7.0, 1954 Sofades and M = 6.8, 1957 Velestino events (central Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazachos, Giannis; Papazachos, Costas; Skarlatoudis, Andreas; Kkallas, Harris; Lekkas, Efthimios

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to model the spatial distribution of the strong ground motion for the large M = 7.0, 1954 Sofades and M = 6.8, 1957 Velestino events (southern Thessaly basin, central Greece), using the macroseismic intensities ( I M M up to 9+) observed within the broader Thessaly area. For this reason, we employ a modified stochastic method realised by the EXSIM algorithm for extended sources, in order to reproduce the damage distribution of these earthquakes, in an attempt to combine existing earthquake information and appropriate scaling relations with surface geology and to investigate the efficiency of the available macroseismic data. For site-effects assessment, we use a new digital geological map of the broader Thessaly basin, where geological formations are grouped by age and mapped on appropriate NEHRP soil classes. Using the previous approach, we estimate synthetic time series for different rupture scenarios and employ various calibrating relations between PGA/PGV and macroseismic intensity, allowing the generation of synthetic (stochastic) isoseismals. Also, different site amplification factors proposed for the broader Aegean area, according to local geology, are tested. Finally, we also perform a sensitivity analysis of the fault location, taking into account the available neotectonic data for the broader southern Thessaly fault zone. The finally determined fault locations are different than previously proposed, in agreement with the available neotectonic information. The observed macroseismic intensities are in good agreement with the ones derived from the synthetic waveforms, verifying both the usefulness of the approach, as well as of the macroseismic data used. Finally, site-effects show clear correlation with the geological classification employed, with constant amplification factors for each soil class generally providing better results than generic transfer functions.

  5. Dosimetric and radiobiological comparison of CyberKnife M6™ InCise multileaf collimator over IRIS™ variable collimator in prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kathriarachchi, Vindu; Shang, Charles; Evans, Grant; Leventouri, Theodora; Kalantzis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    The impetus behind our study was to establish a quantitative comparison between the IRIS collimator and the InCise multileaf collimator (MLC) (Accuray Inc. Synnyvale, CA) for prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Treatment plans for ten prostate cancer patients were performed on MultiPlan™ 5.1.2 treatment planning system utilizing MLC and IRIS for 36.25 Gy in five fractions. To reduce the magnitude of variations between cases, the planning tumor volume (PTV) was defined and outlined for treating prostate gland only, assuming no seminal vesicle or ex-capsule involvement. Evaluation indices of each plan include PTV coverage, conformity index (CI), Paddick's new CI, homogeneity index, and gradient index. Organ at risk (OAR) dose sparing was analyzed by the bladder wall Dmax and V37Gy, rectum Dmax and V36Gy. The radiobiological response was evaluated by tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability based on equivalent uniform dose. The dose delivery efficiency was evaluated on the basis of planned monitor units (MUs) and the reported treatment time per fraction. Statistical significance was tested using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The studies indicated that CyberKnife M6™ IRIS and InCise™ MLC produce equivalent SBRT prostate treatment plans in terms of dosimetry, radiobiology, and OAR sparing, except that the MLC plans offer improvement of the dose fall-off gradient by 29% over IRIS. The main advantage of replacing the IRIS collimator with MLC is the improved efficiency, determined from the reduction of MUs by 42%, and a 36% faster delivery time. PMID:27217626

  6. Dosimetric and radiobiological comparison of CyberKnife M6™ InCise multileaf collimator over IRIS™ variable collimator in prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Kathriarachchi, Vindu; Shang, Charles; Evans, Grant; Leventouri, Theodora; Kalantzis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    The impetus behind our study was to establish a quantitative comparison between the IRIS collimator and the InCise multileaf collimator (MLC) (Accuray Inc. Synnyvale, CA) for prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Treatment plans for ten prostate cancer patients were performed on MultiPlan™ 5.1.2 treatment planning system utilizing MLC and IRIS for 36.25 Gy in five fractions. To reduce the magnitude of variations between cases, the planning tumor volume (PTV) was defined and outlined for treating prostate gland only, assuming no seminal vesicle or ex-capsule involvement. Evaluation indices of each plan include PTV coverage, conformity index (CI), Paddick's new CI, homogeneity index, and gradient index. Organ at risk (OAR) dose sparing was analyzed by the bladder wall Dmax and V37Gy, rectum Dmax and V36Gy. The radiobiological response was evaluated by tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability based on equivalent uniform dose. The dose delivery efficiency was evaluated on the basis of planned monitor units (MUs) and the reported treatment time per fraction. Statistical significance was tested using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The studies indicated that CyberKnife M6™ IRIS and InCise™ MLC produce equivalent SBRT prostate treatment plans in terms of dosimetry, radiobiology, and OAR sparing, except that the MLC plans offer improvement of the dose fall-off gradient by 29% over IRIS. The main advantage of replacing the IRIS collimator with MLC is the improved efficiency, determined from the reduction of MUs by 42%, and a 36% faster delivery time. PMID:27217626

  7. Numerical earthquake model of the 20 April 2015 southern Ryukyu subduction zone M6.4 event and its impact on seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shiann-Jong

    2015-10-01

    The M6.4 earthquake that took place on the 20 April 2015 off the shore of eastern Taiwan was the largest event in the vicinity of Taiwan during 2015. The mainshock was located in the southern Ryukyu subduction zone, which is the interface between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. People in Taipei experienced strong ground shaking for more than 40 s, even though the epicenter was located more than 150 km away. In order to understand the origin of ground motions from this earthquake and how it caused such strong shaking in Taipei, a numerical earthquake model is analyzed, including models of source rupture and wave propagation. First, a joint source inversion was performed using teleseismic body wave and local ground motion data. Source inversion results show that a large slip occurred near the hypocenter, which rapidly released seismic energy in the first 2 s. Then, the rupture propagated toward the shallow fault plane. A large amount of seismic energy was released during this rupture stage that slipped for more than 8 s before the end of the rupture. The estimated stress drop is 2.48 MPa, which is consistent with values for subduction zone earthquakes. Forward simulation using this inverted source rupture model and a 3D seismic velocity model based on the spectral-element method was then performed. Results indicate that the strong ground motion in Taipei resulted from two factors: (1) the Taipei basin amplification effect and (2) the specific source radiation pattern. The results of this numerical earthquake model imply that future subduction zone events that occur in offshore eastern Taiwan are likely to cause relatively strong ground shaking in northern Taiwan, especially in the Taipei metropolitan area.

  8. a Goes-W Satellite Thermal Infrared Survey (2006-2014) Over South Western us Earthquake Prone Area: Preliminary Results on 24 August 2014 Napa Earthquake (M=6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, V.; Genzano, N.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Satriano, V.

    2014-12-01

    The RST (Robust Satellite Technique) methodology has been widely applied to tens of earthquakes occurred in different continents (Europe, Asia, America and Africa), in various geo-tectonic settings (compressive, extensional and transcurrent) and with a wide range of magnitudes (from 4.0 to 7.9) trying to identify anomalous fluctuations of the Earth's emitted TIR (Thermal InfraRed) radiation in possible relation with earthquake occurrence discriminating them from those variations due to other causes. An extended study is presented in the AGU2014 NH008 session by Tramutoli et al. which is devoted to verify to which extent Significant (space-time persistent, non-spurious) Sequences of TIR Anomalies (SSTAs) appear within prefixed space-time windows around earthquakes of magnitude M>4 occurred on 6 years (2006-2011) over South Western US seismic area. Results of such a study (with a rate of false positive of 35%) give an idea on the possible relevance of RST based TIR surveys in the framework of an operational, multi-parametric system for time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH). In this paper all the data available from the new GOES-W satellite (in orbit in between 2010 and 2014) have been analysed by the same way in the case of the earthquake occurred on 24 August 2014 (M=6) over Napa valley (California). The results presented in this paper, even if still preliminary, seem to confirm the significance of RST based TIR survey in a t-DASH perspective. It should however mentioned, that such an approach (even if not devoted to be used for short-term Earthquake Forecast outside a multiparametric t-DASH system), when compared with whatever traditional OEF (Operational Earthquake Forecast) method (like the one abandoned ten years ago in US but recently re-proposed for Italy) seems already to gives forecast reliabilities of orders of magnitude greater.

  9. A Teachable Moment in Earth Deformation: An Undergraduate Strain Module Incorporating GPS Measurement of the August 24, 2014 M6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resor, P. G.; Cronin, V. S.; Hammond, W. C.; Pratt-Sitaula, B.; Olds, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The August 24, 2014 M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake was the largest earthquake to occur in the San Francisco Bay Area, home to more than 7 million people, in almost 25 years. The event occurred within an area of dense GPS instrumentation including continuous stations from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, Bay Area Regional Deformation Network and other networks. Coseismic displacements of up to 3 cm were rapidly estimated within one day after the event, providing a map of Earth shape change at over one hundred stations around the epicenter. The earthquake thus presets as an excellent "teachable moment" to introduce students to basic geoscience concepts, modern geophysical methods, and the state of knowledge in earthquake science. We have developed an example exercise that uses GPS-derived interseismic velocities and coseismic offsets to explore deformation in the vicinity of the earthquake rupture. This exercise builds on the UNAVCO education resource "Infinitesimal Strain Analysis Using GPS Data" (http://www.unavco.org/education/resources/educational-resources/lesson/majors-gps-strain/majors-gps-strain.html), a module designed to introduce undergraduate geoscience majors to concepts of crustal deformation using GPS velocity data. In the module students build their intuition about infinitesimal strain through manipulation of physical models, apply this intuition to interpret maps of GPS velocity vectors, and ultimately calculate the instantaneous deformation rate of triangles on the Earth's surface defined by three GPS sites. The South Napa data sets provide an example with clear societal relevance that can be used to explore the basic concepts of deformation, but may also be extended to explore topics such as strain accumulation, release, and transfer associated with the earthquake cycle. The UNAVCO module could be similarly extended to create additional exercises in response to future events with clear geodetic signals.

  10. 17-N-Allylamino-17-Demethoxygeldanamycin and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  11. Donor Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-18

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult

  12. Along-Arc and Back-Arc Attenuation, Site Response, and Source Spectrum for the Intermediate-Depth 8 January 2006 M 6.7 Kythera, Greece, Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Skarlatoudis, A.A.; Margaris, B.N.; Costas, B.P.; Ventouzi, C.

    2009-01-01

    An M 6.7 intermediate-depth (66 km), in-slab earthquake occurring near the island of Kythera in Greece on 8 January 2006 was well recorded on networks of stations equipped with acceleration sensors and with broadband velocity sensors. All data were recorded digitally using recording instruments with resolutions ranging from almost 11 to 24 bits. We use data from these networks to study the distance dependence of the horizontal-component Fourier acceleration spectra (FAS) and horizontal-component pseudoabsolute response spectral acceleration (PSA). For purposes of simulating motions in the future, we parameterize the distance decay using several forms of the geometrical-spreading function, for each of which we derive Q as a function of frequency. By extrapolating the distance decay back to 1 km, we obtain a reference spectrum that can be used in future simulations. This spectrum requires a more complicated spectral shape than the classic single-corner-frequency model; in particular, there appears to be an enhancement of motion around 0.2-0.3 Hz that may be due to the radiation of a 3-5 sec pulse from the source. We infer a ??0 value of about 0.055 sec for rock stations and a stress parameter in the range of 400-600 bars. We also find distinctive differences in the site response of stations on soft soil and soil; both the FAS and the 5% damped PSA amplifications have similar peak amplitudes (about 2 and 4 for soil and soft-soil sites, respectively, relative to the rock sites) at similar frequencies (between about 0.4 and 2.0 Hz, with the soft-soil amplifications peaking at somewhat lower frequencies than the soil amplifications). One of the most distinctive features of the data is the clear difference in the motions for along-arc and back-arc stations, with the former being significantly higher than the latter over a broad range of frequencies at distances beyond about 250 km. The motions from the Kythera earthquake are roughly comparable to those from intermediate

  13. GPS Constraints on Eastern Nevada Basin and Range Crustal Deformation Before and During the February 21, 2008 M6.0 Wells, NV Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.

    2008-12-01

    The 21 February 2008 Wells, Nevada earthquake occurred in an area of pervasive Quaternary-age Basin and Range-style normal faulting. To characterize the far-field co-seismic displacement field and secular crustal strain rates preceding the event, we have analyzed data from continuously recording GPS sites that span 300 km of eastern Nevada. Four sites within ~90 km of the epicenter recorded significant coseismic southeast displacement southeast of the epicenter, grading into west displacement west of the epicenter. For example, the site GOSH recorded horizontal displacements of 0.7±0.2 mm south and 1.1±0.4 mm east. The signal is consistent with that predicted from seismic and InSAR data, suggesting that both far-field and near-field data provide similar estimates of the earthquake source. The occurrence of an M6.0 in eastern Nevada was somewhat surprising, because some past geodetic studies have concluded that the background secular crustal strain rates in the central Nevada Basin and Range are not significantly different than zero (to within the uncertainty of a few nanostrains/yr). Hence this part of Nevada was termed by some to be a "geodetic microplate" to recognize its apparent rigidity. However, since then several continuous sites of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory have been installed, and the average length of time series on BARGEN continuous GPS sites has increased to nearly 11 years so uncertainties in rates are now substantially less than in previous studies. For the longest recording sites within 300 km west of the Nevada/Utah border (BARGEN sites ELKO, RUBY, GOSH, MINE, MONI, EGAN, and FOOT) we estimated rates of secular motion. We found that westward and northward velocities increase with distance west of the border by ~1 mm/yr and ~0.8 mm/yr respectively, in a North America reference frame. We used these rates to simultaneously solve for rigid body rotation and uniform strain rate. We found extension rates of 4.6±0.8 nanostrains per year

  14. Afterslip-dominated surface rupture in the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake as constrained by structure-from-motion analysis and terrestrial laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLong, S. B.; Pickering, A.; Scharer, K. M.; Hudnut, K. W.; Lienkaemper, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Near-fault surface deformation associated with the August 24, 2014 M6.0 South Napa earthquake included both coseismic and post-seismic slip. Initial synthesis of field observations and initial measurement and modeling of afterslip from traditional survey methods indicate that coseismic slip was minimal (<10 cm) within 8 km northward from the epicenter but post-seismic slip, in places, approached 40 cm. We collected reconnaissance photographs using professional-grade SLR cameras from a helicopter within 12 hours after the earthquake, and a more systematic collection of air photos the day after the earthquake. We also collected terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) data two days (on August 26) and twenty-two days (on September 22) after the earthquake along a 0.5 km length of the main fault trace, just south of State Highway 12. This study site is 6 km north of the southern end of the 15 km long surface rupture and 5 km south of the highest measured co-seismic slip. We used structure-from-motion (SfM) methods to mosaic, orthorectify, and generate dense point clouds from the photos. SfM data corroborates survey-based ground observations of limited (~5 cm or less) coseismic slip along the fault trace between CA State Highway 12 and Withers Road, on discontinuous left-stepping en echelon ruptures. By August 26, the surface rupture became nearly continuous, and cultural features extracted from the TLS point clouds indicate horizontal slip magnitudes between 15 and 27 cm, increasing northward. By September 22, slip magnitudes had increased to between 26 and 46 cm. The lower slip magnitudes are to the south at Withers Road, and the general trend is increased slip to the north, but there is more slip variability along the fault trace in the September 15 data. From August 26 to September 15, the west side of the fault trace uplifted between 0.5 and 5 cm relative to east side. Increased relief on the surface rupture itself indicated a slight compressional component of the

  15. Tectonic Seasonal Loading Inferred from cGPS Measurements as a Potential Trigger for the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraner, M.; Holt, W. E.; Borsa, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements from continuous global positioning system (cGPS) networks continue to unfold details about transient strain signals [Mavrommatis et al., 2014; Heki, 2003]. Linking these transient strain signals to seismic events remains elusive, as it requires detailed information about the steady-state tectonic loading sources, faulting geometries, and strain distribution with depth. Here we use cGPS measurements to uncover a regional strain transient peaking just prior to the M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa earthquake. This signal appears to have produced a coulomb stress increase, favoring slip on the West Napa faulting system. Analysis of cGPS time series during the interseismic period from 2006 to 2014 shows a stacked summer dilatational lobe of +142 ± 64 x 10-9 in the 100 km2 earthquake region. The Napa region is part of a broad, long wavelength, zone of positive dilatational strain and coulomb stress increase peaking each summer season. Summer transients are associated with horizontal displacements of 3-5 mm directed eastward toward the Sacramento Basin and of 1-3 mm directed southwest toward the San Francisco Bay and Pacific Ocean. Winter transients involve the opposite of these motions, causing negative dilatational strains and negative coulomb stress changes in the Napa region. We observe a significant increase in summer seismicity rates (greater than 95% confidence for a Chi-square test) within regions of positive coulomb stress change in Northern California. Large scale models of vertical hydrologic loading predict some components of the long-wavelength horizontal signal in Northern California, but this loading accounts for only 20 - 30% of the total anomalous signal. We hypothesize that the remaining signal is associated with smaller-scale seasonal groundwater fluctuations in local basins (e.g., the Sonoma and Napa sub-basins) along with thermoelastic effects. We provide details regarding the amount of thermoelastic strain from the elastic portion of the

  16. Stress triggering in en echelon thrust ruptures and related tear faults: The 2003 M=6.9 Zemmouri, Algeria, earthquake and fault interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Stein, R. S.; Meghraoui, M.; Toda, S.; Ayadi, A.; Dorbath, C.; Belabbes, S.

    2009-12-01

    The contractional tectonics of northern Algeria is characterized by a series of en echelon thrust faults of moderate lengths (Meghraoui et al., 2000). This tectonic deformation pattern is similar in geometry to other continental thrust fault systems, such as the Coalinga-Kettleman Hills faults in central California, but differs significantly from that of subduction zones, where thrust segments are often more geometrically continuous along the strike of subduction zones. In this study we first illustrate the essential features of stress interaction between earthquakes occurring on en echelon thrust faults and adjacent tear faults. Our model results reveal that earthquakes on en echelon thrust segments could significantly promote strike-slip motion on the intervening tear faults. Furthermore, if the source earthquake has mixed thrust and strike-slip components, the resultant stress increases on the tear faults are even greater. Thus, tear faults may play an important role in stress transfer between adjacent thrust segments. We next examine the stress transferred by the 2003 M=6.9 Zemmouri quake to nearby thrust and strike-slip faults in northern Algeria. Mahsas et al. (2008) illustrated that the observed afterslip in 2003-2005 appears to be concentrated at the upper parts of the 2003 Zemmouri rupture surface. Our calculations support the hypothesis that a significant portion (more than 75%) of the observed afterslip area might have experienced Coulomb stress increases during the Zemmouri main shock. Calculations further reveal that the majority (more than 90%) of the 30 best-relocated aftershocks as determined by Ayadi et al. (2008) also sustained Coulomb stress increases on at least one of their nodal planes. Finally, we calculated that the Zemmouri main shock brought the Coulomb stress 1 bar closer to failure on the adjacent Boumerdes reverse fault and 0.5 bars closer on the right-lateral Thenia faults that bound the Mitidja basin. Both of these faults experienced

  17. Shallow reflection imaging by PSDM of dense, wide-aperture data: application to the causative fault of the 1980, M6.9, southern Italy earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiello, Antonio; Bruno, Pier Paolo; Improta, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    Shallow reflection imaging of active faults in unconsolidated deposits is a challenging task. Main factors hindering seismic imaging are the presence of steep-dipping reflectors and strong lateral velocity changes across the fault-zone, which often make standard CDP processing inappropriate. This drawback can be in principle overcome by Prestack Depth Migration (PSDM). However, performance of PSDM strongly relies on the availability of an accurate background velocity model, which is critical to account properly for the seismic wave propagation and ray-path bending in the depth domain. Such a velocity model cannot be obtained by standard seismic reflection acquisition geometries due to the small-aperture of the receiver/shot array and to the difficulty in collecting good-quality near-vertical reflection data in the very near-surface. Consequently, PSDM of shallow reflection data is very rare in the scientific literature. Recent applications of PSDM to very complex crustal structures have revealed that the use of non-conventional, dense wide-aperture acquisition geometries allows to successfully face the problem of the background velocity estimation. In this study, we investigate if the PSDM of dense, wide-aperture data can be an effective strategy for shallow imaging of complex structures, such as fault zone. We target the Irpinia Fault (IF), source of the 1980, M6.9, southern Italy normal-faulting earthquake. A 256 m long, ultrahigh resolution wide-aperture profile has been collected across the 1980 fault scarp in a small intermountain basin in the Southern Apennines range (Pantano di San Gregorio Magno). The source and receiver spacing is 3 m and 1.5 m, respectively, and the source is provided by a Buffalo gun. The survey aims at imaging the first 100 m of subsurface and at providing valuable information on the fault zone architecture below a collocated paleoseismic trench. The presence of unconsolidated deposits above a limestone basin substratum translates into

  18. Study of Geomagnetic Anomalies Related to Earthquakes at Pisco Peru 2007 (M=8.0) and at Taiwan 2009 (M= 6.4) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, K.; Takla, E.; Ishitsuka, J.; Rosales, D.; Dutra, S. L.; Liu, J. G.; Kakinami, Y.; Uozumi, T.; Abe, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Space Environment Research Center (SERC), Kyushu University deployed the MAGnetic Data Acqusition System (MAGDAS) at 53 stations along the 210- and 96-degree magnetic meridians (MM) and the magnetic Dip equator, and three FM-CW radars along the 210-degree MM during the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) period of 2005-2009 (see http://magdas.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/ and http://magdas2.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/). By analyzing these new MAGDAS data, we can perform a real-time monitoring for understanding the plasma and electromagnetic environment changes in geospace and lithosphere. In the present paper, we will introduce geomagnetic anomalies associated with larger earthquakes (EQs), observed at the MAGDAS stations. The first event is the Pisco earthquake (M=8.0) on August 15, 2007, which was the largest shallow earthquake and affected the coastal area south of Lima for 250 years. This occurred at the boundary between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. Geomagnetic data from the MAGDAS Ancon (ANC; about 180 km from the epicenter), the INTERMAGNET Huancayo (HUA;about 190 km from the epicenter) and the MAGDAS Eusebio (EUS; about 39°east from ANC) stations were analyzed to clarify if there is a relation between the geomagnetic variations and the tectonic activities at Peru during 2007. Our results indicate both long- (several months) and short-term (daily) anomalous geomagnetic variations (H and Z components) in relation with these seismic activities. In addition, there were anomalous signals of Pc 3 polarization (Z/H) a few months before the onset of seismic activities. The second event is the Taiwan earthquake of M=6.4 on the Richter scale, which occurred at depth ≈ 45 km, on 19th of December 2009. The epicenter was located about 20 Km away from our MAGDAS Hualien (HLN) station. The MAGDAS Amami-ohshima (AMA) station in Japan was used as a remote reference station. The geomagnetic components (H, D and Z) at the HLN station showed baseline fluctuations

  19. The Deep Electrical Structure of West Qinling Orogenic Belt and the Deep Seismogenic Environment of 7.22 Minxian Zhangxian M6.6 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L. Q.; Zhan, Y.

    2013-12-01

    the Qinling orogenic belt and Yangtze block gently inclined from the south to the long-distance subduction(along the AmneMachin suture) under the Qinling orogenic belt. This north-south compression subduction is Minxian Zhangxian M6.6 earthquake dynamical background. The depth of interface of middle and low resistivity coincides with Minxian Zhangxian 6.6 earthquake source (20km). The middle crust allow resistivity has a direct impact on earthquakes occurring. This low resistivity layer continues to absorb the energy from the two-way hedge extrusion effect of Songpan-Ganzi block and the North China block on the West Qinling block compression. When the stress accumulates beyond the critical value of rocks lead to fracture or interlayer sliding, which causes many earthquakes in the region. The north-south compressional effect makes the Qinling orogenic belt showing the extrusion and escape trend of eastward, westward. Lintan-Tangchang faults, locating in the north and south Qinling boundaries, have the strike slip properties in ichnography.

  20. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  1. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  2. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  3. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  4. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist. PMID:26526433

  5. Acute loss of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness. PMID:25702218

  6. Single-chain antibody-fragment M6P-1 possesses a mannose 6-phosphate monosaccharide-specific binding pocket that distinguishes N-glycan phosphorylation in a branch-specific manner†.

    PubMed

    Blackler, Ryan J; Evans, Dylan W; Smith, David F; Cummings, Richard D; Brooks, Cory L; Braulke, Thomas; Liu, Xinyu; Evans, Stephen V; Müller-Loennies, Sven

    2016-02-01

    The acquisition of mannose 6-phosphate (Man6P) on N-linked glycans of lysosomal enzymes is a structural requirement for their transport from the Golgi apparatus to lysosomes mediated by the mannose 6-phosphate receptors, 300 kDa cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR300) and 46 kDa cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR46). Here we report that the single-chain variable domain (scFv) M6P-1 is a unique antibody fragment with specificity for Man6P monosaccharide that, through an array-screening approach against a number of phosphorylated N-glycans, is shown to bind mono- and diphosphorylated Man6 and Man7 glycans that contain terminal αMan6P(1 → 2)αMan(1 → 3)αMan. In contrast to MPR300, scFv M6P-1 does not bind phosphodiesters, monophosphorylated Man8 or mono- or diphosphorylated Man9 structures. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to 2.7 Å resolution of Fv M6P-1 in complex with Man6P reveals that specificity and affinity is achieved via multiple hydrogen bonds to the mannose ring and two salt bridges to the phosphate moiety. In common with both MPRs, loss of binding was observed for scFv M6P-1 at pH values below the second pKa of Man6P (pKa = 6.1). The structures of Fv M6P-1 and the MPRs suggest that the change of the ionization state of Man6P is the main driving force for the loss of binding at acidic lysosomal pH (e.g. lysosome pH ∼ 4.6), which provides justification for the evolution of a lysosomal enzyme transport pathway based on Man6P recognition. PMID:26503547

  7. Decitabine in Treating Children With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-22

    Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  8. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  9. Acute Arterial Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Dagnone, L. E.; Brown, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    The response of the primary care physician in the initial assessment and management of acute arterial injuries will often be the deciding factor in survival of life, limb or organ system. Most arterial emergencies occur as a result of trauma, disruption of vessel wall and/or occlusion of flow. The common clinical syndromes of acute arterial emergencies are injuries to and beyond the aorta, acute aortic dissection, ruptured aortic aneurysm, and thromboembolic occlusive arterial disease. The role of arteriography and the urgency of definitive surgical repair in acute arterial emergencies is summarized. PMID:21283323

  10. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Niewold, T.A.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes, negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants, they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached. Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need; and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations. PMID:16252337

  11. Knockdown of p54nrb inhibits migration, invasion and TNF-α release of human acute monocytic leukemia THP1 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiujuan; Wu, Changli; Xiong, Wei; Chen, Chunling; Li, Rong; Zhou, Guangji

    2016-06-01

    54 kDa nuclear RNA- and DNA-binding protein (p54nrb) which is also called non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO) is known to be multifunctional involved in many nuclear processes. It was shown that p54nrb/NONO was closely related to the occurrence of erythroleukemia. Whether p54nrb/NONO plays a role in progress of human acute monocytic leukemia remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of p54nrb/NONO silencing on the biological characteristics of human acute monocytic leukemia THP1 cells. The results showed that p54nrb was strongly expressed in THP1 cells, and knockdown of p54nrb slightly promoted proliferation and strongly inhibited motility and invasion of THP1 cells. Moreover, knockdown of p54nrb strongly decreased the release of TNF-α from THP1 cells by inhibiting certain process of TNF-α secretion, specially for the release of TNF-α induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Notably, the infection of negative control shRNA-containing lentiviruses promoted the migration and the release of TNF-α induced by LPS in THP1 cells. All the above results demonstrated that p54nrb slightly inhibited THP1 cell proliferation, but significantly promoted migration, invasion and release of TNF-α induced by LPS in THP1 cells. The present study indicates that p54nrb is a powerful molecule involved in the regulation of cell motility and promotes the migration and invasion of THP1 cells, and it is more likely to be involved in the release of inflammatory mediators and the motility of inflammatory cells. PMID:27108701

  12. Acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Lang, Joanna; Zuber, Kim; Davis, Jane

    2016-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicates up to 20% of all hospital admissions. Responding to the increase in admissions, complications, mortality, morbidity, and cost of AKI, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes convened an expert panel to study the issue, review the literature, and publish guidelines to evaluate and treat patients with AKI in the acute setting. This article reviews those guidelines. PMID:27023656

  13. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew Philip; Gorelick, Marc H

    2016-06-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a primarily pediatric, immune-mediated disease characterized by demyelination and polyfocal neurologic symptoms that typically occur after a preceding viral infection or recent immunization. This article presents the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We also present evaluation and management strategies. PMID:27253358

  14. Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    This Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory is a unit of the Adam Mickiewicz University, located in Poznan acute, Poland. From its foundation in 1919, it has specialized in astrometry and celestial mechanics (reference frames, dynamics of satellites and small solar system bodies). Recently, research activities have also included planetary and stellar astrophysics (asteroid photometry, catalysmic b...

  15. Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, D. Montgomery; Wang, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a set of diseases, each representing an individual defect in one of the eight enzymes mediating the pathway of heme synthesis. The diseases are genetically distinct but have in common the overproduction of heme precursors. In the case of the acute (neurologic) porphyrias, the cause of symptoms appears to be overproduction of a neurotoxic precursor. For the cutaneous porphyrias, it is photosensitizing porphyrins. Some types have both acute and cutaneous manifestations. The clinical presentation of acute porphyria consists of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasionally seizures. Only a small minority of those who carry a mutation for acute porphyria have pain attacks. The triggers for an acute attack encompass certain medications and severely decreased caloric intake. The propensity of females to acute attacks has been linked to internal changes in ovarian physiology. Symptoms are accompanied by large increases in delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in plasma and urine. Treatment of an acute attack centers initially on pain relief and elimination of inducing factors such as medications; glucose is administered to reverse the fasting state. The only specific treatment is administration of intravenous hemin. An important goal of treatment is preventing progression of the symptoms to a neurological crisis. Patients who progress despite hemin administration have undergone liver transplantation with complete resolution of symptoms. A current issue is the unavailability of a rapid test for urine porphobilinogen in the urgent-care setting. PMID:26357631

  16. Acute Lung Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mac Sweeney, Rob; McAuley, Daniel F.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Lung failure is the most common organ failure seen in the intensive care unit. The pathogenesis of acute respiratory failure (ARF) can be classified as (1) neuromuscular in origin, (2) secondary to acute and chronic obstructive airway diseases, (3) alveolar processes such as cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and pneumonia, and (4) vascular diseases such as acute or chronic pulmonary embolism. This article reviews the more common causes of ARF from each group, including the pathological mechanisms and the principles of critical care management, focusing on the supportive, specific, and adjunctive therapies for each condition. PMID:21989697

  17. Acute porphyric disorders.

    PubMed

    Moore, A W; Coke, J M

    2000-09-01

    Acute porphyrias are classified into 3 distinct groups of rare genetic disorders of metabolic enzyme biosynthesis. Acute porphyrias can significantly impact multiple organ systems, which often provides a challenge to the dentist presented with such a patient. A case of hereditary coproporphyria is reported in a patient with many of the classical signs and symptoms. The patient also had complex dental needs that required special medical and pharmacotherapeutic modifications. The acute porphyrias are reviewed by the authors with presentation of this challenging case. Recommendations for other dental health care professionals encountering these patients are then presented. PMID:10982942

  18. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  19. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  20. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  1. Acute coronary syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Heart attack-ACS; Myocardial infarction-ACS; MI-ACS; Acute MI-ACS; ST-elevation myocardial infarction-ACS; Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction-ACS; Unstable angina-ACS; Accelerating angina-ACS; New- ...

  2. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  3. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sudden inflammation of the pancreas manifested clinically by abdominal pain, nausea and dehydration that is usually self-limiting ... room for evaluation should they develop any abnormal abdominal pain symptoms. Conclusions While a rare event, acute pancreatitis ...

  4. Acute Flaccid Myelitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a condition that affects the nervous system, ... from a variety of causes including viral infections. AFM is characterized by a sudden weakness in one ...

  5. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  6. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary Radiation Emergencies & Your Health Possible Health Effects Contamination and Exposure Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) Cutaneous Radiation ... Decision Making in Radiation Emergencies Protective Actions Internal Contamination Clinical Reference (ICCR) Application Psychological First Aid in ...

  7. Feigning Acute Intermittent Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Elkhatib, Rania; Idowu, Modupe; Brown, Gregory S.; Jaber, Yasmeen M.; Reid, Matthew B.; Person, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant genetic defect in heme synthesis. Patients with this illness can have episodic life-threatening attacks characterized by abdominal pain, neurological deficits, and psychiatric symptoms. Feigning this illness has not been reported in the English language literature to date. Here, we report on a patient who presented to the hospital with an acute attack of porphyria requesting opiates. Diligent assessment of extensive prior treatment records revealed thirteen negative tests for AIP. PMID:25525547

  8. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children. PMID:27613655

  9. Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. Acute bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  11. Acute Appendicitis Secondary to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Lopez, Marvin A.; Valluri, Kartik; Wang, Danlu; Fischer, Andrew; Perdomo, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 43 Final Diagnosis: Myeloid sarcoma appendicitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chills • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic appendectomy, bone marrow biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for extramedullary involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Case Report: A 43-year-old female with no past medical history presented complaining of mild abdominal pain, fever, and chills for the past day. On examination, she was tachycardic and febrile, with mild tenderness of her right lower quadrant and without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia and DIC, with a fibrinogen level of 290 mg/dL. CT of the abdomen showed a thickened and hyperemic appendix without perforation or abscess, compatible with acute appendicitis. The patient was given IV broad-spectrum antibiotics and was transfused with packed red blood cells and platelets. She underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy and bone marrow biopsy, which revealed neo-plastic cells of 90% of the total bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometry indicated presence of 92.4% of immature myeloid cells with t (15: 17) and q (22: 12) mutations, and FISH analysis for PML-RARA demonstrated a long-form fusion transcript, positive for APL. Appendix pathology described leukemic infiltration with co-expression of myeloperoxidase and CD68, consistent with myeloid sarcoma of the appendix. The patient completed a course of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and all trans-retinoic acid. Repeat bone marrow biopsy demonstrated complete remission. She will follow up with her primary care physician and hematologist/oncologist. Conclusions: Myeloid sarcoma of the appendix in the setting of APL is very rare and it might play a role in the development of acute appendicitis. Urgent management, including bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention

  12. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-12-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  13. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Ned; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  14. [Acute pancreatitis in children].

    PubMed

    Rottier, B L; Holl, R A; Draaisma, J M

    1998-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is probably commoner in children than was previously thought. In children it is most commonly associated with trauma or viral infection. The presentation may be subtler than in adults, requiring a high index of suspicion in the clinician. In three children, two boys aged 4 and 10 and a girl of 15 years, acute pancreatitis was suspected because of the findings at ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed when the disease recurred (the boy aged 4), apathy and immobility without dehydration or other obvious causes (the boy aged 10), and severe abdominal pain in combination with vomiting (the girl). All three patients had severely increased (urinary) amylase levels. Most often, acute pancreatitis in children tends to be a self-limiting disease which responds well to conservative treatment. PMID:9562770

  15. Cyclophosphamide for Prevention of Graft-Versus-Host Disease After Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Hematological Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-04

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell

  16. Acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Barie, Philip S; Eachempati, Soumitra R

    2003-08-01

    Acute cholecystitis can develop without gallstones in critically ill or injured patients. However, the development of acute acalculous cholecystitis is not limited to surgical or injured patients, or even to the intensive care unit. Diabetes, malignant disease, abdominal vasculitis, congestive heart failure, cholesterol embolization, and shock or cardiac arrest have been associated with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Children may also be affected, especially after a viral illness. The pathogenesis of acute acalculous cholecystitis is a paradigm of complexity. Ischemia and reperfusion injury, or the effects of eicosanoid proinflammatory mediators, appear to be the central mechanisms, but bile stasis, opioid therapy, positive-pressure ventilation, and total parenteral nutrition have all been implicated. Ultrasound of the gallbladder is the most accurate diagnostic modality in the critically ill patient, with gallbladder wall thickness of 3.5 mm or greater and pericholecystic fluid being the two most reliable criteria. The historical treatment of choice for acute acalculous cholecystitis has been cholecystectomy, but percutaneous cholecystostomy is now the mainstay of therapy, controlling the disease in about 85% of patients. Rapid improvement can be expected when the procedure is performed properly. The mortality rates (historically about 30%) for percutaneous and open cholecystostomy appear to be similar, reflecting the severity of illness, but improved resuscitation and critical care may portend a decreased risk of death. Interval cholecystectomy is usually not indicated after acute acalculous cholecystitis in survivors; if the absence of gallstones is confirmed and the precipitating disorder has been controlled, the cholecystostomy tube can be pulled out after the patient has recovered. PMID:12864960

  17. Acute Prevertebral Calcific Tendinitis

    PubMed Central

    Tamm, Alexander; Jeffery, Caroline C; Ansari, Khalid; Naik, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of neck pain in a middle-aged woman, initially attributed to a retropharyngeal infection and treated with urgent intubation. With the help of computed tomography, the diagnosis was later revised to acute prevertebral calcific tendinitis, a self-limiting condition caused by abnormal calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the longus colli muscles. It is critical to differentiate between these two disease entities due to dramatic differences in management. A discussion of acute prevertebral calcific tendinitis and its imaging findings is provided below. PMID:27252789

  18. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  19. Acute acalculous cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.S.; Wilk, P.J.; Weissmann, H.S.; Freeman, L.M.; Gliedman, M.L.

    1984-07-01

    Sixty-eight patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis were reviewed. The results of history and physical examinations were usually nondiagnostic. IDA cholescintigraphy (93 per cent accuracy rate) was the only reliable diagnostic modality. The results of oral cholecystography, intravenous cholangiography and ultrasonography were considerably less reliable. One-half of the patients had gangrenous cholecystitis. Cholecystectomy was the preferred operation with an over-all mortality of 9 per cent. IDA cholescintigraphy is an important new modality for the diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis which, in the past, has often been difficult to diagnose.

  20. Acute Gynecologic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Carolyn K

    2015-11-01

    Premenopausal women with acute pelvic pain comprise a significant percentage of patients who present to the emergency room. Etiologies can be gynecologic, urologic, gastrointestinal, or vascular. Signs and symptoms are often nonspecific and overlapping. The choice of imaging modality is determined by the clinically suspected differential diagnosis. Ultrasound (US) is the preferred imaging modality for suspected obstetric or gynecologic disorders. CT is more useful when gastrointestinal or urinary tract pathology is likely. MR imaging is rarely used in the emergent setting, except to exclude appendicitis in pregnant women. This article presents a comprehensive review of imaging of acute gynecologic disorders. PMID:26526439

  1. Acute oral ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Julia S; Rogers, Roy S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acute oral ulcers can be challenging. Important historic details include the pattern of recurrence, anatomic areas of involvement within the mouth and elsewhere on the mucocutaneous surface, associated medical symptoms or comorbidities, and symptomology. Careful mucocutaneous examination is essential. When necessary, biopsy at an active site without ulceration is generally optimal. Depending on the clinical scenario, supplemental studies that may be useful include cultures; perilesional biopsy for direct immunofluorescence testing; and evaluation for infectious diseases, gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, connective tissue diseases, or hematinic deficiencies. Clinicians should maintain a broad differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with acute oral ulcers. PMID:27343961

  2. What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about acute myeloid leukemia? What is acute myeloid leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in a part of ... the body from doing their jobs. Types of leukemia Not all leukemias are the same. There are ...

  3. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  4. Acute Septic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shirtliff, Mark E.; Mader, Jon T.

    2002-01-01

    Acute septic arthritis may develop as a result of hematogenous seeding, direct introduction, or extension from a contiguous focus of infection. The pathogenesis of acute septic arthritis is multifactorial and depends on the interaction of the host immune response and the adherence factors, toxins, and immunoavoidance strategies of the invading pathogen. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus are used in discussing the host-pathogen interaction in the pathogenesis of acute septic arthritis. While diagnosis rests on isolation of the bacterial species from synovial fluid samples, patient history, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and imaging studies are also important. Acute nongonococcal septic arthritis is a medical emergency that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prompt recognition, rapid and aggressive antimicrobial therapy, and surgical treatment are critical to ensuring a good prognosis. Even with prompt diagnosis and treatment, high mortality and morbidity rates still occur. In contrast, gonococcal arthritis is often successfully treated with antimicrobial therapy alone and demonstrates a very low rate of complications and an excellent prognosis for full return of normal joint function. In the case of prosthetic joint infections, the hardware must be eventually removed by a two-stage revision in order to cure the infection. PMID:12364368

  5. Acute coronary care 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the titles are: The measurement of acute myocardial infarct size by CT; Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of myocardial ischemia and infarction; Poistron imaging in the evaluation of ischemia and myocardial infarction; and New inotropic agents.

  6. Acute radiation risk models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Olga

    Biologically motivated mathematical models, which describe the dynamics of the major hematopoietic lineages (the thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems) in acutely/chronically irradiated humans are developed. These models are implemented as systems of nonlinear differential equations, which variables and constant parameters have clear biological meaning. It is shown that the developed models are capable of reproducing clinical data on the dynamics of these systems in humans exposed to acute radiation in the result of incidents and accidents, as well as in humans exposed to low-level chronic radiation. Moreover, the averaged value of the "lethal" dose rates of chronic irradiation evaluated within models of these four major hematopoietic lineages coincides with the real minimal dose rate of lethal chronic irradiation. The demonstrated ability of the models of the human thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems to predict the dynamical response of these systems to acute/chronic irradiation in wide ranges of doses and dose rates implies that these mathematical models form an universal tool for the investigation and prediction of the dynamics of the major human hematopoietic lineages for a vast pattern of irradiation scenarios. In particular, these models could be applied for the radiation risk assessment for health of astronauts exposed to space radiation during long-term space missions, such as voyages to Mars or Lunar colonies, as well as for health of people exposed to acute/chronic irradiation due to environmental radiological events.

  7. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery. PMID:8139793

  8. [Acute blood pressure elevations].

    PubMed

    Chamontin, B; Amar, J; Chollet, F; Rouge, P; Bonetti-d'Esteve, L; Guittard, J; Salvador, M

    2000-11-01

    Blood pressure (BP) elevations may correspond to different clinical situations. Hypertensives emergencies are situations that require immediate reduction in BP because of acute or rapidly progressing target organ damage: accelerated malignant hypertension, hypertensive encephalopathy, acute myocardial infarction, acute aortic dissection, acute left ventricular failure, and eclampsia. Hypertensive urgencies are those with marked elevated BP in which it is desirable to reduce BP progressively within few hours, such as severe hypertension, progressive target organ damage, perioperative hypertension. Cerebrovascular accidents have to be individualized. In most patients in the immediate post-stroke period, BP should not be lowered. Caution is advised in lowering BP in these patients because excessive falls may precipitate cerebral ischemia. In situations without symptoms or progressive target organ it is necessary to exclude proximate causes of elevated BP such as pain and elevated BP alone rarely requires antihypertensive treatment. Among parenteral antihypertensive (AH) drugs labetalol, nicardipine, urapidil, and nitroprussiate are generally used, and the choice of AH drug depends on the clinical situation. It is not required to normalize BP immediately but to reduce mean BP no more than 25%, then toward 160/100 mmHg as recommended by JNC VI, in order to avoid an impairment of renal, cerebral or coronary ischemia. Oral long-acting dihydropyridines are often subsequently administrated, except in myocardial ischemia. Therapeutic attitudes vary considerably according to the clinical situation: abstention, immediate decrease or progressive decrease in BP have to be decided. PMID:11190294

  9. Gadolinium induced recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Blasco-Perrin, H; Glaser, B; Pienkowski, M; Peron, J M; Payen, J L

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a sudden swelling and inflammation of the pancreas. The two most common causes are alcohol use and biliary stones. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis are rare (1.4-2%). In this present study, we present a case of recurrent acute pancreatitis induced by a specific magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) contrast agent called gadobenate dimeglumine. PMID:23395575

  10. Acute hepatitis E complicated by acute pancreatitis and multiorgan dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Karanth, Suman S; Khan, Zohaib; Rau, Nileshwar Radhakrishna; Rao, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    We report this rare case of a 27-year-old man who presented with acute hepatitis E and went on to develop acute epigastric pain. He was diagnosed to have acute severe pancreatitis with shock and acute renal failure due to hepatitis E. Such a phenomenon has rarely been reported in the literature, with patients following a benign course and complete recovery after conservative management and analgesia. Awareness of this potentially life-threatening complication, especially in young men from endemic areas with acute hepatitis E presenting with abdomen pain has been highlighted. PMID:24899005

  11. Neuronal filopodium formation induced by the membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) is facilitated by coronin-1a, Rac1, and p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1).

    PubMed

    Alvarez Juliá, Anabel; Frasch, Alberto C; Fuchsova, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Stress-responsive neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) functions in neurite extension, filopodium and spine formation and synaptogenesis. The mechanisms of Gpm6a action in these processes are incompletely understood. Previously, we identified the actin regulator coronin-1a (Coro1a) as a putative Gpm6a interacting partner. Here, we used co-immunoprecipitation assays with the anti-Coro1a antibody to show that Coro1a associates with Gpm6a in rat hippocampal neurons. By immunofluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated that in hippocampal neurons Coro1a localizes in F-actin-enriched regions and some of Coro1a spots co-localize with Gpm6a labeling. Notably, the over-expression of a dominant-negative form of Coro1a as well as its down-regulation by siRNA interfered with Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Coro1a is known to regulate the plasma membrane translocation and activation of small GTPase Rac1. We show that Coro1a co-immunoprecipitates with Rac1 together with Gpm6a. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 resulted in a significant decrease in filopodium formation by Gpm6a. The same was observed upon the co-expression of Gpm6a with the inactive GDP-bound form of Rac1. In this case, the elevated membrane recruitment of GDP-bound Rac1 was detected as well. Moreover, the kinase activity of the p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), a main downstream effector of Rac1 that acts downstream of Coro1a, was required for Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Taken together, our results provide evidence that a signaling pathway including Coro1a, Rac1, and Pak1 facilitates Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Formation of filopodia by membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) requires actin regulator coronin-1a (Coro1a), known to regulate plasma membrane localization and activation of Rac1 and its downstream effector Pak1. Coro1a associates with Gpm6a. Blockage of Coro1a, Rac1, or Pak1 interferes with Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Moreover, Gpm6a facilitates Rac1 membrane recruitment

  12. Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

  13. Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Bahiyah; Kathiresan Pillai, Thanikasalam; Cheen, Lim Huay; Ryan, Ray Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This is a case of a pregnant lady at 8 weeks of gestation, who presented with acute abdomen. She was initially diagnosed with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and ruptured corpus luteal cyst as the differential diagnosis. However she then, was finally diagnosed as acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with spontaneous complete miscarriage. This is followed by review of literature on this topic. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is not uncommon. The emphasis on high index of suspicion of acute pancreatitis in women who presented with acute abdomen in pregnancy is highlighted. Early diagnosis and good supportive care by multidisciplinary team are crucial to ensure good maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:25628906

  14. Acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in a patient with pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emily K; Ek, Edmund; Croagh, Daniel; Spain, Lavinia A; Farrell, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous peritonitis mimicking acute appendicitis in a man with acute on chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatitis, both acute and chronic, causing the development of acute chylous ascites and peritonitis has rarely been reported in the English literature. This is the fourth published case of acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in the literature. PMID:19824123

  15. Acute Heart Failure Treatment.

    PubMed

    Levy, Phillip D; Bellou, Abdel

    2013-06-01

    Dyspnea is the predominant symptom for patients with acute heart failure and initial treatment is largely directed towards the alleviation of this. Contrary to conventional belief, not all patients present with fluid overload and the approach to management is rapidly evolving from a solitary focus on diuresis to one that more accurately reflects the complex interplay of underlying cardiac dysfunction and acute precipitant. Effective treatment thus requires an understanding of divergent patient profiles and an appreciation of various therapeutic options for targeted patient stabilization. The key principle within this paradigm is directed management that aims to diminish the work of breathing through situation appropriate ventillatory support, volume reduction and hemodynamic improvement. With such an approach, clinicians can more efficiently address respiratory discomfort while reducing the likelihood of avoidable harm. PMID:24223323

  16. Acute Biliary Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Forty-seven cases of biliary tract infection with septic shock are presented. The sepsis was caused by empyema of the gallbladder in 23 cases and by cholangitis in the remainder. Gallstones were most frequently the cause of the sepsis. An appropriate diagnostic description of the syndrome of biliary tract infection and septic shock should therefore include a description of the underlying biliary disease as well as the term acute biliary shock. In this series, emergency surgical management by removal of gallstones and drainage of suppuration was felt to be the most appropriate treatment. There was a high incidence of gallbladder rupture (10.6%) and intrahepatic stones (53.2%). Of the 13 patients who died, 8 might have survived if early operation had been performed after the diagnosis of acute biliary septic shock was established. PMID:2278914

  17. Acute aortic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  18. [Acute aortic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nienaber, Christoph A

    2016-06-01

    Acute aortic syndrome is the common denominator for acute events to the aortic wall and encompasses dissection of the aorta, intramural hematoma, formation of aortic ulcers and trauma to the aorta with an annual incidence of up to 35 cases/100.000 between 65 and 75 years of age. Both, inflammation and/or microtrauma at the level of the aortic media layer, and a genetic disposition are promoting elements of AAS, while the extent and anatomic involvement of the ascending aorta call for either surgical resection/repair in the proximal part of the aorta, or an endovascular solution for pathologies in the distal aorta; in all cases of dissection (regardless of location) reconstruction/realignment has been proven to portend better long-term outcomes (in addition to medical management of blood pressure). PMID:27254622

  19. Acute aortic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corvera, Joel S

    2016-05-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  20. Acute Ischemic Stroke Intervention.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Priyank; Yavagal, Dileep R; Sacco, Ralph L

    2016-06-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the leading cause of disability worldwide and among the leading causes of mortality. Although intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-rtPA) was approved nearly 2 decades ago for treatment of AIS, only a minority of patients receive it due to a narrow time window for administration and several contraindications to its use. Endovascular approaches to recanalization in AIS developed in the 1980s, and recently, 5 major randomized trials showed an overwhelming superior benefit of combining endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with IV-rtPA over IV-rtPA alone. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of catheter-based treatment from first-generation thrombectomy devices to the game-changing stent retrievers, results from recent trials, and the evolving stroke systems of care to provide timely access to acute stroke intervention to patients in the United States. PMID:27256835

  1. [Acute Chest Pain].

    PubMed

    Gmür, Christian

    2016-02-17

    Acute chest pain is a frequent consultation reason in general practice as well as in emergency departments. With the help of history, physical examination, ECG, laboratory and newly developed risk scores, potentially life-threatening diseases and high-risk patients may be detected and treated early, quickly and cost-effectively. New biomarkers and their combination with risk scores can increase the negative predictive value to exclude certain diseases. PMID:26886697

  2. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4000 million cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 1996, resulting in 2.5 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries traveling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, and oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution). PMID:19450323

  3. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4.6 billion cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 2004, resulting in 2.2 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries travelling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 72 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution), vitamin A supplementation, and zinc supplementation. PMID:21718555

  4. Acupuncture for acute hordeolum

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ke; Wang, Xue; Guo, Menghu; Wieland, L. Susan; Shen, Xueyong; Lao, Lixing

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The objective of this review is to determine the effects and, when possible, the safety of acupuncture for the treatment of acute hordeola, in comparison to no specific treatment (e.g., observation), sham acupuncture, or other active treatments. Acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment also will be compared to that treatment alone. PMID:25214814

  5. IMMUNOTHERAPY IN ACUTE LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Wing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in immunotherapy of cancer may represent a successful example in translational research, in which progress in knowledge and technology in immunology has lead to new strategies of immunotherapy, and even past failure in many clinical trials have led to a better understanding of basic cancer immunobiology. This article reviews the latest concepts in antitumor immunology and its application in the treatment of cancer, with particular focus on acute leukemia. PMID:19100371

  6. Streptococcal acute pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Lais Martins Moreira; Marcondes, Mariana Barros; Lima, Mariana Ferreira; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Okoshi, Marina Politi

    2014-07-01

    Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci) is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Symptom onset in streptococcal infection is usually abrupt and includes intense sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, headache, tender enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes, and pharyngeal or tonsillar exudate. Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea are uncommon, and their presence suggests a viral cause. A diagnosis of pharyngitis is supported by the patient's history and by the physical examination. Throat culture is the gold standard for diagnosing streptococcus pharyngitis. However, it has been underused in public health services because of its low availability and because of the 1- to 2-day delay in obtaining results. Rapid antigen detection tests have been used to detect S. pyogenes directly from throat swabs within minutes. Clinical scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of S. pyogenes infection. The most commonly used scoring system is the modified Centor score. Acute S. pyogenes pharyngitis is often a self-limiting disease. Penicillins are the first-choice treatment. For patients with penicillin allergy, cephalosporins can be an acceptable alternative, although primary hypersensitivity to cephalosporins can occur. Another drug option is the macrolides. Future perspectives to prevent streptococcal pharyngitis and post-infection systemic complications include the development of an anti-Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine. PMID:25229278

  7. [Acute coronary syndromes: epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Alev Arat

    2013-04-01

    Coronary heart disease is the main cause of death in the world as well as in Turkey. It's not only a health issue but also a social problem with a high economic burden and negative impact on quality of life. The majority of deaths are attributable to acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and their complications.This review summarizes some important facts regarding ACS epidemiology in the world and in Turkey. PMID:27323430

  8. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Ulinski, Tim; Sellier-Leclerc, Anne-Laure; Tudorache, Elena; Bensman, Albert; Aoun, Bilal

    2012-07-01

    Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is a frequent cause of acute renal failure, characterised by the presence of inflammatory cell infiltrate in the interstitium of the kidney. Immuno-allergic reaction to certain medications, mainly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics are by far the most important etiology for TIN today, but other situations such as infections, toxins, and vasculitis are known to induce TIN. Incidence of TIN is increasing, probably due to prescription habits and NSAID overuse, representing 3-7% of acute kidney injury in biopsies in children. Avoidance of the causal substance and rapid steroid therapy are hallmarks for patient care, but spontaneous initial recovery is very frequent and the general prognosis seems satisfactory. However, development of chronic TIN, without response to steroid or other immunosuppressive treatment, is possible. As the largest part of TIN is secondary to certain drugs, clear indications in particular for NSAID or antibiotics should be respected to reduce the number of TIN cases. PMID:21638156

  9. Acute lung injury review.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Kenji; King, Landon S; Aggarwal, Neil R; De Gorordo, Antonio; D'Alessio, Franco R; Kubo, Keishi

    2009-01-01

    The first report of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was published in 1967, and even now acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS are severe forms of diffuse lung disease that impose a substantial health burden all over the world. Recent estimates indicate approximately 190,000 cases per year of ALI in the United States each year, with an associated 74,500 deaths per year. Common causes of ALI/ARDS are sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, aspiration pneumonia, pancreatitis, and so on. Several pathologic stages of ALI/ARDS have been described: acute inflammation with neutrophil infiltration, fibroproliferative phase with hyaline membranes, with varying degrees of interstitial fibrosis, and resolution phase. There has been intense investigation into the pathophysiologic events relevant to each stage of ALI/ARDS, and much has been learned in the alveolar epithelial, endobronchial homeostasis, and alveolar cell immune responses, especially neutrophils and alveolar macrophages in an animal model. However, these effective results in the animal models are not equally adoptive to those in randomized, controlled trials. The clinical course of ALI/ARDS is variable with the likely pathophysiologic complexity of human ALI/ARDS. In 1994, the definition was recommended by the American-European Consensus Conference Committee, which facilitated easy nomination of patients with ALI/ARDS for a randomized, clinical trial. Here, we review the recent randomized, clinical trials of ALI/ARDS. PMID:19420806

  10. Acute Cardiac Tamponade: An Unusual Cause of Acute Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Gautam; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Markley, John; Rich, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We are reporting a case of acute renal failure after cardiac surgery due to acute pericardial effusion. The patient had normal baseline renal function but developed acute oliguric renal failure with a significant increase in serum creatinine postoperatively. Pericardiotomy led to an improvement in blood pressure, immediate diuresis and quick recovery of renal function back to baseline. Pericardial tamponade should be included in the consideration of causes of the cardiorenal syndrome. PMID:22619656

  11. Continuous borehole strain and pore pressure in the near field of the 28 September 2004 M 6.0 parkfield, California, earthquake: Implications for nucleation, fault response, earthquake prediction and tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Linde, A.T.; Gladwin, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Near-field observations of high-precision borehole strain and pore pressure, show no indication of coherent accelerating strain or pore pressure during the weeks to seconds before the 28 September 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake. Minor changes in strain rate did occur at a few sites during the last 24 hr before the earthquake but these changes are neither significant nor have the form expected for strain during slip coalescence initiating fault failure. Seconds before the event, strain is stable at the 10-11 level. Final prerupture nucleation slip in the hypocentral region is constrained to have a moment less than 2 ?? 1012 N m (M 2.2) and a source size less than 30 m. Ground displacement data indicate similar constraints. Localized rupture nucleation and runaway precludes useful prediction of damaging earthquakes. Coseismic dynamic strains of about 10 microstrain peak-to-peak were superimposed on volumetric strain offsets of about 0.5 microstrain to the northwest of the epicenter and about 0.2 microstrain to the southeast of the epicenter, consistent with right lateral slip. Observed strain and Global Positioning System (GPS) offsets can be simply fit with 20 cm of slip between 4 and 10 km on a 20-km segment of the fault north of Gold Hill (M0 = 7 ?? 1017 N m). Variable slip inversion models using GPS data and seismic data indicate similar moments. Observed postseismic strain is 60% to 300% of the coseismic strain, indicating incomplete release of accumulated strain. No measurable change in fault zone compliance preceding or following the earthquake is indicated by stable earth tidal response. No indications of strain change accompany nonvolcanic tremor events reported prior to and following the earthquake.

  12. SU-E-T-604: Penumbra Characteristics of a New InCiseâ„¢ Multileaf Collimator of CyberKnife M6â„¢ System

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, M; Jang, S; Ozhasoglu, C; Lalonde, R; Heron, D; Huq, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The InCise™ Multileaf Collimator (MLC) of CyberKnife M6™ System has been released recently. The purpose of this study was to explore the dosimetric characteristics of the new MLC. In particular, the penumbra characteristics of MLC fields at varying locations are evaluated. Methods: EBT3-based film measurements were performed with varying MLC fields ranging from 7.5 mm to 27.5 mm. Seventeen regions of interests (ROIs) were identified for irradiation. These are regions located at the central area (denoted as reference field), at the left/right edge areas of reference open field, at an intermediate location between central and edge area. Single beam treatment plans were designed by using the MultiPlan and was delivered using the Blue Phantom. Gafchromic films were irradiated at 1.5 cm depth in the Blue Phantom and analyzed using the Film Pro software. Variation of maximum dose, penumbra of MLC-defined fields, and symmetry/flatness were calculated as a function of locations of MLC fields. Results: The InCise™ MLC System showed relatively consistent dose distribution and penumbra size with varying locations of MLC fields. The measured maximum dose varied within 5 % at different locations compared to that at the central location and agreed with the calculated data well within 2%. The measured penumbrae were in the range of 2.9 mm and 3.7 mm and were relatively consistent regardless of locations. However, dose profiles in the out-of-field and in-field regions varied with locations and field sizes. Strong variation was seen for all fields located at 55 mm away from the central field. The MLC leakage map showed that the leakage is dependent on position. Conclusion: The size of penumbra and normalized maximum dose for MLC-defined fields were consistent in different regions of MLC. However, dose profiles in the out-field region varied with locations and field sizes.

  13. Seismological evidence of an active footwall shortcut thrust in the Northern Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line derived by the aftershock sequence of the 2014 M 6.7 Northern Nagano earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayotopoulos, Yannis; Hirata, Naoshi; Hashima, Akinori; Iwasaki, Takaya; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    A destructive M 6.7 earthquake struck Northern Nagano prefecture on November 22, 2014. The main shock occurred on the Kamishiro fault segment of the northern Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL). We used data recorded at 41 stations of the local seismographic network in order to locate 2118 earthquakes that occurred between November 18 and November 30, 2014. To estimate hypocenters, we assigned low Vp models to stations within the Northern Fossa Magna (NFM) basin thus accounting for large lateral crustal heterogeneities across the Kamishiro fault. In order to further improve accuracy, the final hypocenter locations were recalculated inside a 3D velocity model using the double-difference method. We used the aftershock activity distribution and focal mechanism solutions of major events in order to estimate the source fault area of the main shock. Our analysis suggests that the shallow part of the source fault corresponds to the surface trace of the Kamishiro fault and dips 30°-45° SE, while the deeper part of the source fault corresponds to the downdip portion of the Otari-Nakayama fault, a high angle fault dipping 50°-65° SE that formed during the opening of the NFM basin in the Miocene. Along its surface trace the Otari-Nakayama fault has been inactive during the late Quaternary. We verified the validity of our model by calculating surface deformation using a simple homogeneous elastic half-space model and comparing it to observed surface deformation from satellite interferometry, assuming large coseismic slip in the areas of low seismicity and small coseismic slip in the areas of high seismicity. Shallowing of the source fault from 50°-65° to 30°-45° in the upper 4 km, in the areas where both surface fault traces are visible, is a result of footwall shortcut thrusting by the Kamishiro fault off the Otari-Nakayama fault.

  14. Targeted Therapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-28

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Myelodysplasia-Related Changes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  15. Cholescintigraphy in acute acalculous cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanna, L.; Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Berman, D.S.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-08-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a relatively rare but potentially lethal condition if not treated promptly. Since stones are not present, diagnostic procedures such as ultrasound or other radiological procedures are frequently not helpful. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid scan results were analyzed in 11 proven cases of acute acalculous cholecystitis. All had positive tests with nonvisualization of the gallbladder giving a sensitivity of 100%. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy is a highly reliable test and is easily performed even in acutely ill patients and should be the test of choice in all patients predisposed to and suspected of acute acalculous cholecystitis.

  16. [Acute abdomen in gynecology].

    PubMed

    von Hugo, R; Meyer, B; Loos, W; Dirmeier, H

    1988-09-01

    The aim of the present study is, to describe the morbidity and mortality of 196 patients with an acute abdominal condition who underwent surgery at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the TU Munich between 1982 and 1986. This is a percentage of 2.7 of all 7,167 operations carried out during this period. 118 of these patients had an extrauterine pregnancy and were therefore excluded from the study. The second group of 79 patients, mostly with inflammatory diseases, were analyzed. In most of these cases the acute abdominal condition was caused by a tuboovarian abscess (48.1%), followed by peritonitis because of a bowel-disease (11.4%). 6 patients suffered from an abscessing endometritis due to a caesarean section with sepsis in 5 cases. A generalized peritonitis occurred in 5 cases and was treated with a planned relaparatomy with lavage. 63% of the patients had no complications within 28 days after operation, 13% developed a subileus; in 7% a relaparatomy was necessary. 6% of the patients had problems of wound-healing. One patient with stomach-cancer died 3 weeks after the operation because of a fulminant lung-embolism. Thus the mortality rate was 1.5%. A further 27% were treated at the intensive care-unit and 18% needed artificial respiration. The average postoperative period of hospitalisation was 15 days. In comparison, patients with elective operations remained 13 days. The morbidity and mortality of patients due to surgery of an acute abdominal condition was relatively small; postoperative complications could be well treated in all cases and is probably the result of a positive and early indication for surgical intervention. PMID:3181709

  17. [Acute toxic pneumopathies].

    PubMed

    Garnier, R

    1998-06-15

    The nature and extent of the acute injury due to toxic inhalants depend on the inhalant's solubility in water pH and chemical reactivity, on the aerodynamic diameter of particles (when the inhalant is an aerosol), and on the degree of exposure. Initial signs and symptoms indicate upper airways and bronchial irritation. Laryngeal oedema and (or) severe bronchospasm may be rapidly lethal. After cessation of exposure a transient improvement is generally observed; however a delayed pulmonary oedema may occur within the first 48 hours. On the following days, bacterial surinfection is a common complication. Possible long-term sequelae are reactive airways dysfunction syndrome and bronchiolitis obliterans. PMID:9781191

  18. Acute Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Andrew H

    2016-07-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a well-known pathophysiologic complication of trauma or tissue ischemia. ACS affects the appearance, function, and even the viability of the involved limb, and demands immediate diagnosis and treatment. However, ACS is difficult to diagnose and the only effective treatment is decompressive surgical fasciotomy. The clinical signs and symptoms may easily be attributed to other aspects of the injury, which further complicates the diagnosis. This article highlights the latest information regarding the diagnosis of ACS, how to perform fasciotomies, how to manage fasciotomy wounds, and also reviews complications and outcomes of ACS. PMID:27241376

  19. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP. PMID:26253266

  20. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Therapy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. PMID:27373613

  1. C1 Inhibitor in Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection Nonresponsive to Conventional Therapy in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Viglietti, D; Gosset, C; Loupy, A; Deville, L; Verine, J; Zeevi, A; Glotz, D; Lefaucheur, C

    2016-05-01

    Complement inhibitors have not been thoroughly evaluated in the treatment of acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). We performed a prospective, single-arm pilot study to investigate the potential effects and safety of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) Berinert added to high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for the treatment of acute ABMR that is nonresponsive to conventional therapy. Kidney recipients with nonresponsive active ABMR and acute allograft dysfunction were enrolled between April 2013 and July 2014 and received C1-INH and IVIG for 6 months (six patients). The primary end point was the change in eGFR at 6 months after inclusion (M+6). Secondary end points included the changes in histology and DSA characteristics and adverse events as evaluated at M+6. All patients showed an improvement in eGFR between inclusion and M+6: from 38.7 ± 17.9 to 45.2 ± 21.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.0277). There was no change in histological features, except a decrease in the C4d deposition rate from 5/6 to 1/6 (p = 0.0455). There was a change in DSA C1q status from 6/6 to 1/6 positive (p = 0.0253). One deep venous thrombosis was observed. In a secondary analysis, C1-INH patients were compared with a similar historical control group (21 patients). C1-INH added to IVIG is safe and may improve allograft function in kidney recipients with nonresponsive acute ABMR. PMID:26693703

  2. Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Anna; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a global public health concern associated with high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Other than dialysis, no therapeutic interventions reliably improve survival, limit injury, or speed recovery. Despite recognized shortcomings of in vivo animal models, the underlying pathophysiology of AKI and its consequence, chronic kidney disease (CKD), is rich with biological targets. We review recent findings relating to the renal vasculature and cellular stress responses, primarily the intersection of the unfolded protein response, mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy, and the innate immune response. Maladaptive repair mechanisms that persist following the acute phase promote inflammation and fibrosis in the chronic phase. Here macrophages, growth-arrested tubular epithelial cells, the endothelium, and surrounding pericytes are key players in the progression to chronic disease. Better understanding of these complex interacting pathophysiological mechanisms, their relative importance in humans, and the utility of biomarkers will lead to therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat AKI or impede progression to CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). PMID:26768243

  3. Acute traumatic patellar dislocation.

    PubMed

    Duthon, V B

    2015-02-01

    Inaugural traumatic patellar dislocation is most often due to trauma sustained during physical or sports activity. Two-thirds of acute patellar dislocations occur in young active patients (less than 20 years old). Non-contact knee sprain in flexion and valgus is the leading mechanism in patellar dislocation, accounting for as many as 93% of all cases. The strong displacement of the patella tears the medial stabilizing structures, and notably the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), which is almost always injured in acute patellar dislocation, most frequently at its femoral attachment. Lateral patellar glide can be assessed with the knee in extension or 20° flexion. Displacement by more than 50% of the patellar width is considered abnormal and may induce apprehension. Plain X-ray and CT are mandatory to diagnose bony risk factors for patellar dislocation, such as trochlear dysplasia or increased tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance (TT-TG), and plan correction. MRI gives information on cartilage and capsulo-ligamentous status for treatment planning: free bodies or osteochondral fracture have to be treated surgically. If patellar dislocation occurs in an anatomically normal knee and osteochondral fracture is ruled out on MRI, non-operative treatment is usually recommended. PMID:25592052

  4. Acute Bacterial Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Vincent; Lammert, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute bacterial cholangitis for the most part owing to common bile duct stones is common in gastroenterology practice and represents a potentially life-threatening condition often characterized by fever, abdominal pain, and jaundice (Charcot's triad) as well as confusion and septic shock (Reynolds' pentad). Methods This review is based on a systematic literature review in PubMed with the search items ‘cholangitis’, ‘choledocholithiasis’, ‘gallstone disease’, ‘biliary infection’, and ‘biliary sepsis’. Results Although most patients respond to empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, timely endoscopic biliary drainage depending on the severity of the disease is required to eliminate the underlying obstruction. Specific recommendations have been derived from the Tokyo guideline working group consensus 2006 and its update in 2013, albeit poorly evidence-based, providing a comprehensive overview of diagnosis, classification, risk stratification, and treatment algorithms in acute bacterial cholangitis. Conclusion Prompt clinical recognition and accurate diagnostic workup including adequate laboratory assessment and (aetiology-oriented) imaging are critical steps in the management of cholangitis. Treatment is directed at the two major interrelated pathophysiologic components, i.e. bacterial infection (immediate antimicrobial therapy) and bile duct obstruction (biliary drainage). As for the latter, transpapillary endoscopic drainage by stent or nasobiliary drain and/or same-session bile duct clearance, depending on individual disease severity, represent first-line treatment approaches. PMID:26468310

  5. Imaging acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    González, R Gilberto; Schwamm, Lee H

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is common and often treatable, but treatment requires reliable information on the state of the brain that may be provided by modern neuroimaging. Critical information includes: the presence of hemorrhage; the site of arterial occlusion; the size of the early infarct "core"; and the size of underperfused, potentially threatened brain parenchyma, commonly referred to as the "penumbra." In this chapter we review the major determinants of outcomes in ischemic stroke patients, and the clinical value of various advanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging methods that may provide key physiologic information in these patients. The focus is on major strokes due to occlusions of large arteries of the anterior circulation, the most common cause of a severe stroke syndrome. The current evidence-based approach to imaging the acute stroke patient at the Massachusetts General Hospital is presented, which is applicable for all stroke types. We conclude with new information on time and stroke evolution that imaging has revealed, and how it may open the possibilities of treating many more patients. PMID:27432672

  6. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Edwin C.; Durie, Brian G. M.; Garewal, Harinder S.

    1987-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia frequently associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Data on 11 patients with APL treated at our institution were analyzed and compared with those of 147 published cases. Most had a bleeding diathesis at presentation and evidence of DIC eventually developed in all. Seven patients (64%) showed the t(15;17)(q22;q21) karyotype or a similar translocation. Using a chemotherapy induction regimen containing an anthracycline, complete remission, requiring a total of 14 courses of treatment, was achieved in six patients (55%). The median duration of response and median survival for complete responders were 10 and 15 months, respectively. Three patients (27%) died of bleeding complications during induction therapy. The tritiated-thymidine labeling index of leukemia cells predicted which patients would achieve a complete remission. Review of six studies of 147 patients with APL from the past 12 years supports the use of a chemotherapy induction regimen containing anthracycline or amsacrine and heparin for the treatment of DIC. PMID:3472414

  7. Acute pyelonephritis in children.

    PubMed

    Morello, William; La Scola, Claudio; Alberici, Irene; Montini, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    Acute pyelonephritis is one of the most serious bacterial illnesses during childhood. Escherichia coli is responsible in most cases, however other organisms including Klebsiella, Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Proteus, and Pseudomonas species are being more frequently isolated. In infants, who are at major risk of complications such as sepsis and meningitis, symptoms are ambiguous and fever is not always useful in identifying those at high risk. A diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis is initially made on the basis of urinalysis; dipstick tests for nitrites and/or leukocyte esterase are the most accurate indicators of infection. Collecting a viable urine sample for urine culture using clean voided methods is feasible, even in young children. No gold standard antibiotic treatment exists. In children appearing well, oral therapy and outpatient care is possible. New guidelines suggest less aggressive imaging strategies after a first infection, reducing radiation exposure and costs. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing recurrence is still a matter of debate and the risk of antibiotic resistance is a warning against its widespread use. Well-performed randomized controlled trials are required in order to better define both the imaging strategies and medical options aimed at preserving long-term renal function. PMID:26238274

  8. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... key statistics about acute lymphocytic leukemia? What is acute lymphocytic leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... leukemias). The rest of this document focuses on acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in adults. For information on ALL in ...

  9. Acute diabetic abdomen in childhood.

    PubMed

    Valerio, D

    1976-01-10

    Three children presented as acute surgical emergencies due to undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Where diabetic ketoacidosis mimicks the acute abdomen three clinical features are important in reaching the right diagnosis-namely, a history of polydipsia, polyuria, and anorexia preceding the abdominal pain, the deep sighing and rapid respirations, and severe dehydration. PMID:54584

  10. Acute recurrent appendicitis with appendicolith.

    PubMed

    Hollerman, J J; Bernstein, M A; Kottamasu, S R; Sirr, S A

    1988-11-01

    Appendiceal disease can be acute, acute recurrent, or chronic. Acute appendicitis is the most common form. Acute recurrent appendicitis is more common than chronic appendicitis. In children the clinical manifestations of appendicitis are variable. Patients who have an appendicolith usually develop appendicitis, often with perforation. A case is presented of 3-year follow-up of a patient with an appendicolith and acute recurrent appendicitis. The literature about appendicoliths is reviewed. In the appropriate clinical setting, a history of prior episodes of similar right lower quadrant pain does not preclude the diagnosis of appendiceal disease. Awareness of the less common forms of appendicitis is important so that appropriate treatment is not delayed. PMID:3052484

  11. Cytokines in Acute Chikungunya

    PubMed Central

    Venugopalan, Anuradha; Ghorpade, Ravi P.; Chopra, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute chikungunya (CHIKV) is predominantly an acute onset of excruciatingly painful, self-limiting musculoskeletal (MSK) arbovirus illness and this was further reported by us during the 2006 Indian epidemic [Chopra et al. Epidemiol Infect 2012]. Selected serum cytokines profile in subjects within one month of onset of illness is being presented. Methods Out of 509 clinical CHIKV cases (43% population) identified during a rural population survey, 225 subjects consented blood investigations. 132 examined within 30 days of febrile onset are the study cohort. Anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies tested by immunochromatography and indirect immunofluorescence respectively. Interferons (IFN)-α, -β and -γ, Interferon Gamma-Induced Protein-10 (CXCL-10/IP-10), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-13 (IL-13), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1), Interleukin–4 (IL-4) and Interleukin–10 (IL-10) performed by ELISA. Samples collected from neighboring community a year prior to the epidemic used as healthy controls. Results Seropositivity for anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG was 65% and 52% respectively. IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, CXCL10/IP-10 and IL-1β showed intense response in early acute phase. Cytokines (particularly TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) was maximum in extended symptomatic phase and remained elevated in recovered subjects. Higher (p<0.05) IFN and IL-4 seen in patients seropositive for anti-CHIKV IgG. Elderly cases (≥65 years) showed elevated cytokines (except IFN) and anti-CHIKV antibodies near similar to younger subjects. Significant correlations (p<0.05) found between cytokines and clinical features (fatigue, low back ache, myalgia) and anti-CHIKV antibodies. Conclusion An intense cytokine milieu was evident in the early and immediate persistent symptomatic phase and in recovered subjects. Early persistent IgM and lower IgG to anti-CHKV and intense Th2 cytokine phenotype seem to be

  12. Acute epiploic appendagitis and its mimics.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay K; Gervais, Debra A; Hahn, Peter F; Sagar, Pallavi; Mueller, Peter R; Novelline, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Acute epiploic appendagitis most commonly manifests with acute lower quadrant pain. Its clinical features are similar to those of acute diverticulitis or, less commonly, acute appendicitis. The conditions that may mimic acute epiploic appendagitis at computed tomography (CT) include acute omental infarction, mesenteric panniculitis, fat-containing tumor, and primary and secondary acute inflammatory processes in the large bowel (eg, diverticulitis and appendicitis). Whereas the location of acute epiploic appendagitis is most commonly adjacent to the sigmoid colon, acute omental infarction is typically located in the right lower quadrant and often is mistaken for acute appendicitis. It is important to correctly diagnose acute epiploic appendagitis and acute omental infarction on CT images because these conditions may be mistaken for acute abdomen, and the mistake may lead to unnecessary surgery. The CT features of acute epiploic appendagitis include an oval lesion 1.5-3.5 cm in diameter, with attenuation similar to that of fat and with surrounding inflammatory changes, that abuts the anterior sigmoid colon wall. The CT features of acute omental infarction include a well-circumscribed triangular or oval heterogeneous fatty mass with a whorled pattern of concentric linear fat stranding between the anterior abdominal wall and the transverse or ascending colon. As CT increasingly is used for the evaluation of acute abdomen, radiologists are likely to see acute epiploic appendagitis and its mimics more often. Recognition of these conditions on CT images will allow appropriate management of acute abdominal pain and may help to prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:16284132

  13. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  14. Acute and persistent diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Grimwood, Keith; Forbes, David A

    2009-12-01

    Socially disadvantaged Indigenous infants and children living in western industrialized countries experience high rates of infectious diarrhea, no more so than Aboriginal children from remote and rural regions of Northern Australia. Diarrheal disease, poor nutrition, and intestinal enteropathy reflect household crowding, inadequate water and poor sanitation and hygiene. Acute episodes of watery diarrhea are often best managed by oral glucose-electrolyte solutions with continuation of breastfeeding and early reintroduction of feeding. Selective use of lactose-free milk formula, short-term zinc supplementation and antibiotics may be necessary for ill children with poor nutrition, persistent symptoms, or dysentery. Education, high standards of environmental hygiene, breastfeeding, and immunization with newly licensed rotavirus vaccines are all needed to reduce the unacceptably high burden of diarrheal disease encountered in young children from Indigenous communities. PMID:19962025

  15. [Acute intermittent porphyria].

    PubMed

    Catania, A; Caimi, G

    1983-11-10

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a congenital disease which as its name suggests, runs intermittently. Biochemically it is characterised by over-production of hepatic ALA synthetase (ALA-s), inducible mitochondrial enzyme and an increase in prophyrinic precursors (PBG, ac S-ALA). Clinically it is characterised by an abdominal nervous symptomatology. The primary metabolic error has been identified as a deficiency in enzyme activity which partially blocks haem biosynthesis. During the appearance of clinical manifestations, certain factors are present which have the capacity of inducing hepatic ALA-s production in vitro. Apart from some preventive measures treatment is mainly of symptomatology and complications. More recently the use of ALA-s inhibitors has been introduced. PMID:6657112

  16. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Hiroto; Greaves, Mel; Mullighan, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is seen in both children and adults, but its incidence peaks between ages 2 and 5 years. The causation of ALL is considered to be multi-factorial, including exogenous or endogenous exposures, genetic susceptibility, and chance. The survival rate of paediatric ALL has improved to approximately 90% in recent trials with risk stratification by biologic features of leukaemic cells and response to therapy, therapy modification based on patient pharmacodynamics and pharmacogenomics, and improved supportive care. However, innovative approaches are needed to further improve survival while reducing adverse effects. While most children can be cured, the prognosis of infants and adults with ALL remains poor. Recent genome-wide profiling of germline and leukaemic cell DNA has identified novel submicroscopic structural genetic alterations and sequence mutations that contribute to leukaemogenesis, define new ALL subtypes, influence responsiveness to treatment, and may provide novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for personalized medicine. PMID:23523389

  17. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  18. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    PubMed

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  19. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Matthew; Lobo, Alan J

    2015-10-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) is a frequently encountered medical emergency with an incidence of 84-160/100000 and associated with mortality of approximately 10%. Guidelines from the National Institute for Care and Care Excellence outline key features in the management of AUGIB. Patients require prompt resuscitation and risk assessment using validated tools. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy provides accurate diagnosis, aids in estimating prognosis and allows therapeutic intervention. Endoscopy should be undertaken immediately after resuscitation in unstable patients and within 24 hours in all other patients. Interventional radiology may be required for bleeding unresponsive to endoscopic intervention. Drug therapy depends on the cause of bleeding. Intravenous proton pump inhibitors should be used in patients with high-risk ulcers. Terlipressin and broad-spectrum antibiotics should be used following variceal haemorrhage. Hospitals admitting patients with AUGIB need to provide well organised services and ensure access to relevant services for all patients, and particularly to out of hours endoscopy. PMID:26430191

  20. [Acute retinal necrosis].

    PubMed

    Lucke, K; Reinking, U; el-Hifnawi, E; Dennin, R H; Laqua, H

    1988-12-01

    The authors report on three patients with acute retinal necrosis who were treated with the virostatic agent Acyclovir and who underwent vitreoretinal surgery with silicone oil filling for total retinal detachment. In two eyes the retina was reattached, but useful vision was only preserved in one patient. Titers from blood and the vitreous, as well as microscopic findings in retinal biopsies, support the view that the necrosis is caused by a herpes simplex virus infection. After therapy with Acyclovir was instituted no further progression on the necrosis was observed. However, the development of retinal detachment could not be prevented. Early diagnosis and antiviral therapy are essential to improve the otherwise poor prognosis in this rare syndrome. PMID:3221657

  1. [Acute epiglottitis in adults].

    PubMed

    Castillo, A

    1992-09-01

    The author presents the clinical history of 14 patients, from 21 to 48 years of age, 10 men and 4 women, with a final diagnosis of acute epiglottitis who were hospitalized at Gorgas Army Hospital or at the San Fernando Clinic. All the patients had pharyngitis and dysphagia, a few with nasal voice, stridor and difficulty breathing, as the chief complaint. All the patients were initially intubated orally for diagnostic purposes and immediately after nasotracheal intubation was done until the patient improved in 2 or 3 days (one patient remained intubated for 5 days). All patients were kept in the Intensive Care Unit and were treated with Ampicillin and Chloramphenicol IV and lately with a second generation cephalosporin (Cefamandole). The patients allergic to Penicillin were treated with Clindamycin and Chloramphenicol. Corticosteroids were not used in any of the patients. There were no sequelae and none of the patients expired. PMID:1439005

  2. Acute Methylenedioxypyrovalerone Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Froberg, Blake A; Levine, Michael; Beuhler, Michael C; Judge, Bryan S; Moore, Philip W; Engebretsen, Kristin M; Mckeown, Nathanael J; Rosenbaum, Christopher D; Young, Amy C; Rusyniak, Daniel E

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the acute clinical effects, laboratory findings, complications, and disposition of patients presenting to the hospital after abusing synthetic cathinone. We conducted a retrospective multicenter case series of patients with synthetic cathinone abuse by searching for the terms bath salts, MDPV, methylenedioxypyrovalerone, mephedrone, methcathinone, methylone, methedrone, and cathinone within the "agent" field of a national clinical toxicology database (ToxIC). The medical records of these patients were obtained and abstracted by investigators at each study site. Patients with confirmatory testing that identified a synthetic cathinone in either blood or urine were included in the series. Patients who had either an undetectable synthetic cathinone test or no confirmatory testing were excluded. A data abstraction sheet was used to obtain information on each patient. We entered data into an Excel spreadsheet and calculated descriptive statistics. We identified 23 patients with confirmed synthetic cathinone exposure--all were positive for methylenedioxyprovalerone (MDPV). Eighty-three percent were male and 74 % had recreational intent. The most common reported clinical effects were tachycardia (74 %), agitation (65 %), and sympathomimetic syndrome (65 %). Acidosis was the most common laboratory abnormality (43 %). Seventy-eight percent of patients were treated with benzodiazepines and 30 % were intubated. Ninety-six percent of patients were hospitalized and 87 % were admitted to the ICU. The majority (61 %) of patients was discharged home but 30 % required inpatient psychiatric care. There was one death in our series. The majority of patients presenting to the hospital after abusing MDPV have severe sympathomimetic findings requiring hospitalization. A number of these patients require inpatient psychiatric care after their acute presentation. PMID:25468313

  3. Asthma in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction About 10% of adults have suffered an attack of asthma, and up to 5% of these have severe disease that responds poorly to treatment. Patients with severe disease have an increased risk of death, but patients with mild to moderate disease are also at risk of exacerbations. Most guidelines about the management of asthma follow stepwise protocols. This review does not endorse or follow any particular protocol, but presents the evidence about specific interventions. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute asthma? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 100 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: beta2 agonists (plus ipratropium bromide, pressured metered-dose inhalers, short-acting continuous nebulised, short-acting intermittent nebulised, short-acting iv, and inhaled formoterol); corticosteroids (inhaled); corticosteroids (single oral, combined inhaled, and short courses); education about acute asthma; generalist care; helium–oxygen mixture (heliox); magnesium sulphate (iv and adding isotonic nebulised magnesium to inhaled beta2 agonists); mechanical ventilation; oxygen supplementation (controlled 28% oxygen and controlled 100% oxygen); and specialist care. PMID:21463536

  4. [Acute acromioclavicular dislocations].

    PubMed

    Riand, N; Sadowski, C; Hoffmeyer, P

    1999-12-01

    Acromioclavicular dislocations represent over 10% of acute traumatic injuries to the shoulder girdle. The mechanism is usually a direct impact on the shoulder with the arm in adduction, producing rupture of the acromioclavicular (AC) ligaments, then of the coracoclavicular (CC) ligament, with displacement of the lateral end of the clavicle. Rockwood described 6 grades of injury. Physical examination usually provides the diagnosis, which is confirmed by radiological examination. X-rays centered on the AC joint, if necessary with forceful adduction of both shoulders or under traction, are useful to evaluate the severity of the lesion. Grade I and II lesions are usually treated conservatively by simply immobilizing the arm for 3 to 4 weeks. Surgical treatment is usually advocated for grade IV, V and VI lesions: AC or CC fixation, sometimes associated with ligament repair, depending on the surgeons. AC pinning or C-C screw fixation are the techniques most often used. Management of grade III lesions remains controversial. Some authors advocate immediate surgical treatment in young, active patients, in heavy laborers and even in slender individuals. The choice of the operative technique is controversial, as no single technique has clearly proved to be superior to others. Other authors advocate conservative treatment, which gives functional results which patients consider quite acceptable, with faster recovery; patients should be informed that results are essentially similar, whatever the treatment. The possibility of performing secondary operations with good results in cases with failure of conservative management is a further argument in favor of applying conservative therapy first in acute injuries. PMID:10675933

  5. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Estenssoro, Elisa; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute respiratory failure produced by an inflammatory edema secondary to increased lung capillary permeability. This causes alveolar flooding and subsequently deep hypoxemia, with intrapulmonary shunt as its most important underlying mechanism. Characteristically, this alteration is unresponsive to high FIO2 and only reverses with end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP). Pulmonary infiltrates on CXR and CT are the hallmark, together with decreased lung compliance. ARDS always occurs within a week of exposition to a precipitating factor; most frequently pneumonia, shock, aspiration of gastric contents, sepsis, and trauma. In CT scan, the disease is frequently inhomogeneous, with gravitational infiltrates coexisting with normal-density areas and also with hyperaerated parenchyma. Mortality is high (30-60%) especially in ARDS associated with septic shock and neurocritical diseases. The cornerstone of therapy lies in the treatment of the underlying cause and in the use mechanical ventilation which, if inappropriately administered, can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. Tidal volume = 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight to maintain an end-inspiratory (plateau) pressure = 30 cm H2O ("protective ventilation") is the only variable consistently associated with decreased mortality. Moderate-to-high PEEP levels are frequently required to treat hypoxemia, yet no specific level or titration strategy has improved outcomes. Recently, the use of early prone positioning in patients with PaO2/FIO2 = 150 was associated with increased survival. In severely hypoxemic patients, it may be necessary to use adjuvants of mechanical ventilation as recruitment maneuvers, pressure-controlled modes, neuromuscular blocking agents, and extracorporeal-membrane oxygenation. Fluid restriction appears beneficial. PMID:27576283

  6. Acute management of migraine.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2010-04-01

    Migraine is a brain disease whose principal symptom is episodic intense throbbing pain in the head which is often accompanied by photophobia, phonophobia, nausea and vomiting. Primary objectives of migraine treatment are to abort the acute attacks, treat associated symptoms and prevent future attacks. With a majority of migraine patients being young, they will need a treatment plan to suit their professional work, leisure and reproductive concerns. Non specific anti-migraine drugs like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-emetics, narcotics, and sympathomimetics are usually helpful in mild to moderate attacks. Specific drugs like triptans and ergots are useful for moderate to severe attacks. In step care approach, the patients are started with the simplest options like simple analgesics first followed by non-steroidal agents, then ergot preparations and eventually triptans if they do not respond. In stratified care approach, the attacks and the patients are stratified according to the severity and therapeutic response. Those with severe disabling episodes are given specific anti-migraine medications like triptans whereas patients with mild or low disability are treated with simple analgesics. Currently, the most favored acute anti-migraine medication is a triptan. At marketed doses all triptans are effective as compared to placebos and generally well tolerated. Amongst them however, rizatriptan 10 mg, eletriptan 80 mg and almotriptan 12.5 mg provide the highest likelihood of consistent success. Triptan related adverse events are usually short lived, mild and clinically insignificant. Ergots are slowly being replaced by triptans. This is because of their adverse side-effects, low bioavailability and high potential for abuse that can lead to overuse headache. PMID:21049703

  7. Damage Proxy Map from InSAR Coherence Applied to February 2011 M6.3 Christchurch Earthquake, 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-oki Earthquake, and 2011 Kirishima Volcano Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, S.; Agram, P. S.; Fielding, E. J.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Tanaka, A.; Lundgren, P.; Owen, S. E.; Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.

    2011-12-01

    Under ARIA (Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis) project at JPL and Caltech, we developed a prototype algorithm to detect surface property change caused by natural or man-made damage using InSAR coherence change. The algorithm was tested on building demolition and construction sites in downtown Pasadena, California. The developed algorithm performed significantly better, producing 150 % higher signal-to-noise ratio, than a standard coherence change detection method. We applied the algorithm to February 2011 M6.3 Christchurch earthquake in New Zealand, 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake in Japan, and 2011 Kirishima volcano eruption in Kyushu, Japan, using ALOS PALSAR data. In Christchurch area we detected three different types of damage: liquefaction, building collapse, and landslide. The detected liquefaction damage is extensive in the eastern suburbs of Christchurch, showing Bexley as one of the most significantly affected areas as was reported in the media. Some places show sharp boundaries of liquefaction damage, indicating different type of ground materials that might have been formed by the meandering Avon River in the past. Well reported damaged buildings such as Christchurch Cathedral, Canterbury TV building, Pyne Gould building, and Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament were detected by the algorithm. A landslide in Redcliffs was also clearly detected. These detected damage sites were confirmed with Google earth images provided by GeoEye. Larger-scale damage pattern also agrees well with the ground truth damage assessment map indicated with polygonal zones of 3 different damage levels, compiled by the government of New Zealand. The damage proxy map of Sendai area in Japan shows man-made structure damage due to the tsunami caused by the M9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake. Long temporal baseline (~2.7 years) and volume scattering caused significant decorrelation in the farmlands and bush forest along the coastline. The 2011 Kirishima volcano eruption caused a lot of ash

  8. Molecular magnetism of M6 hexagon ring in D(3d) symmetric [(MCl)6(XW9O33)2](12-) (M = Cu(II) and Mn(II), X = Sb(III) and As(III)).

    PubMed

    Yamase, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Hirofumi; Abe, Hiroko; Fukaya, Keisuke; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Hideo

    2012-04-16

    ) cylindrical geometry, is demonstrated by the polarization mechanism based on the point-dipole approximation, which provides a decrease of the ferromagnetic interaction due to the out-of-cylinder deviation of the Cu atoms for 1. The different nature of the magnetic exchange interaction in 3 and 4 is understood by the combined effect of the out-of plane deviation (the largest for 4) of the Mn atoms from the Mn(μ(3)-O)(2)Mn least-squares plane and the antiferromagnetic contribution arising from the large Mn-O-Mn bond angle. The primary contribution to D is discussed in terms of the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction between the electrons located on the magnetic sites in the M(6) hexagon. PMID:22468944

  9. Acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure complicating doxylamine succinate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yang Deok; Lee, Soo Teik

    2002-06-01

    Doxylamine succinate is an antihistaminic drugwith additional hypnotic, anticholinergic and local anesthetic effects first described in 1948. In Korea and many other countries, it is a common-over-the counter medication frequently involved in overdoses. Clinical symtomatology of doxylamine succinate overdose includes somnolence, coma, seizures, mydriasis, tachycardia, psychosis, and rhabdomyolysis. A serious complication may be rhabdomyolysis with subsequent impairment of renal function and acute renal failure. We report a case of acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis complicating a doxylamine succinate intoxication. PMID:12046971

  10. [Latest advances in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The present article analyses the main presentations on acute pancreatitis at Digestive Disease Week 2015. Arterial pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon complication of acute pancreatitis (incidence 0.7%) and mortality from this cause is currently anecdotal. Diabetes mellitus has little impact on the clinical course of acute pancreatitis, unlike cirrhosis, which doubles the risk of mortality. Intake of unsaturated fat could be associated with an increased severity of acute pancreatitis and is a confounding factor in studies evaluating the relationship between obesity and morbidity and mortality. PET-CT (positron emission tomography-computed tomography) could be a non-invasive tool to detect infection of collections in acute pancreatitis. Peripancreatic fat necrosis is less frequent than pancreatic fat necrosis and is associated with a better clinical course. If the clinical course is poor, increasing the calibre of the percutaneous drains used in the treatment of infected necrosis can avoid surgery in 20% of patients. The use of low molecular-weight heparin in moderate or severe pancreatitis could be associated with a better clinical course, specifically with a lower incidence of necrosis. In acute recurrent pancreatitis, simvastatin is a promising drug for prophylaxis of new episodes of acute pancreatitis. Nutritional support through a nasogastric tube does not improve clinical course compared with oral nutrition. PMID:26520203

  11. Biomarkers in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Aditi; Januzzi, James L

    2015-06-01

    The care of patients with acutely decompensated heart failure is being reshaped by the availability and understanding of several novel and emerging heart failure biomarkers. The gold standard biomarkers in heart failure are B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, which play an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Novel biomarkers that are increasingly involved in the processes of myocardial injury, neurohormonal activation, and ventricular remodeling are showing promise in improving diagnosis and prognosis among patients with acute decompensated heart failure. These include midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide, soluble ST2, galectin-3, highly-sensitive troponin, and midregional proadrenomedullin. There has also been an emergence of biomarkers for evaluation of acute decompensated heart failure that assist in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea, such as procalcitonin (for identification of acute pneumonia), as well as markers that predict complications of acute decompensated heart failure, such as renal injury markers. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology and usefulness of established and emerging biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. PMID:25911167

  12. [Cerebrolysin for acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    iganshina, L E; Abakumova, T R

    2013-01-01

    The review discusses existing evidence of benefits and risks of cerebrolysin--a mixture of low-molecular-weight peptides and amino acids derived from pigs' brain tissue with proposed neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties, for acute ischemic stroke. The review presents results of systematic search and analysis of randomised clinical trials comparing cerebrolysin with placebo in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Only one trial was selected as meeting quality criteria. No difference in death and adverse events between cerebrolysin and placebo was established. The authors conclude about insufficiency of evidence to evaluate the effect of cerebrolysin on survival and dependency in people with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:23805635

  13. Acute Legionella pneumophila infection masquerading as acute alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jonathan Michael; Chan, Julian; Reid, Angeline Louise; Tan, Chistopher

    2013-01-01

    A middle-aged man had deteriorated rapidly in hospital after being misdiagnosed with acute alcoholic hepatitis. Acute Legionnaires disease (Legionellosis) was subsequently diagnosed on rapid antigen urinary testing and further confirmed serologically. This led to appropriate antibiotic treatment and complete clinical resolution. Physicians caring for patients with alcohol-related liver disease should consider Legionella pneumophila in their differential diagnosis even with a paucity of respiratory symptoms. PMID:23355576

  14. [Acute heart failure: acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Marteles, Marta; Urrutia, Agustín

    2014-03-01

    Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock are two of the main forms of presentation of acute heart failure. Both entities are serious, with high mortality, and require early diagnosis and prompt and aggressive management. Acute pulmonary edema is due to the passage of fluid through the alveolarcapillary membrane and is usually the result of an acute cardiac episode. Correct evaluation and clinical identification of the process is essential in the management of acute pulmonary edema. The initial aim of treatment is to ensure hemodynamic stability and to correct hypoxemia. Other measures that can be used are vasodilators such as nitroglycerin, loop diuretics and, in specific instances, opioids. Cardiogenic shock is characterized by sustained hypoperfusion, pulmonary wedge pressure > 18 mmHg and a cardiac index < 2.2l/min/m(2). The process typically presents with hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg or a decrease in mean arterial pressure > 30 mmHg) and absent or reduced diuresis (< 0.5 ml/kg/h). The most common cause is left ventricular failure due to acute myocardial infarction. Treatment consists of general measures to reverse acidosis and hypoxemia, as well as the use of vasopressors and inotropic drugs. Early coronary revascularization has been demonstrated to improve survival in shock associated with ischaemic heart disease. PMID:24930078

  15. Acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Domes, Trustin; Szafran, Olga; Bilous, Cheryl; Olson, Odell; Spooner, G. Richard

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the quality of care of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a rural health region. DESIGN Clinical audit employing multiple explicit criteria of care elements for emergency department and in-hospital AMI management. The audit was conducted using retrospective chart review. SETTING Twelve acute care health centres and hospitals in the East Central Health Region, a rural health region in Alberta, where medical and surgical services are provided almost entirely by family physicians. PARTICIPANTS Hospital inpatients with a confirmed discharge diagnosis of AMI (ICD-9-CM codes 410.xx) during the period April 1, 2001, to March 31, 2002, were included (177 confirmed cases). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Quality of AMI care was assessed using guidelines from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association and the Canadian Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Team and Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Quality of care indicators at three stages of patient care were assessed: at initial recognition and AMI management in the emergency department, during in-hospital AMI management, and at preparation for discharge from hospital. RESULTS In the emergency department, the quality of care was high for most procedural and therapeutic audit elements, with the exception of rapid electrocardiography, urinalysis, and provision of nitroglycerin and morphine. Average door-to-needle time for thrombolysis was 102.5 minutes. The quality of in-hospital care was high for most elements, but low for nitroglycerin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, daily electrocardiography, and counseling regarding smoking cessation and diet. Few patients received counseling for lifestyle changes at hospital discharge. Male and younger patients were treated more aggressively than female and older patients. Sites that used care protocols achieved better results in initial AMI management than sites that did not. Stress testing was not readily available in the rural

  16. Pipazethate--acute childhood poisoning.

    PubMed

    da Silva, O A; Lopez, M

    1977-01-01

    A previously healthy child who who had accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of 20-mg tablets of pipazethate developed severe acute poisoning with neurologic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disturbances. She recovered with symptomatic and supportive therapy. PMID:589958

  17. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) -- children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leung WH, Pounds S, Cao X, e t al. Definition of cure in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer . 2014 Aug ... MD, Medical Oncologist, Fresno, CA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by ...

  18. Ultrasonography in acute gallbladder perforation.

    PubMed

    Soiva, M; Pamilo, M; Päivänsalo, M; Taavitsainen, M; Suramo, I

    1988-01-01

    The files of patients with acute cholecystitis from two large university hospitals from the years 1978-1985 were employed to find the cases with acute gallbladder perforation for this study. Only those patients (n = 9) were selected for the analysis of sonographic signs of acute gallbladder perforation who had less than 48 hours of symptoms before sonography, and were operated upon within 24 hours of the sonography. Patients (n = 10) with non-complicated acute cholecystitis and identical in regard to the duration of the symptoms and the timing of the sonography and the operation formed a control group. The sonographic findings in patients with gallbladder perforation were pericholecystic fluid collections, free peritoneal fluid, disappearance of the gallbladder wall echoes, focal highly echogenic areas with acoustic shadows in the gallbladder, and an inhomogeneous, generally echo-poor gallbladder wall. PMID:2964842

  19. Causes of acute bronchitis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the bronchial tubes, the part of the respiratory system that leads into the lungs. Acute bronchitis has a sudden onset and usually appears after a respiratory infection, such as a cold, and can be ...

  20. Commonly Used Acute Migraine Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... that make headaches worse (or lead to decreased responsiveness to other drug therapies) Patient preference Goals of ... Reduce frequency, severity, and duration of attacks Improve responsiveness to treatment of acute attacks Reduce level of ...

  1. [Ascites and acute kidney injury].

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. Ascites develops as a consequence of an abnormal splanchnic vasodilation with reduction of effecting circulating volume and activation of endogenous vasoconstrictors system causing salt and water retention. Patients with ascites have a high risk to develop further complications of cirrhosis such as hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and acute kidney injury resulting in a poor survival. In recent years, new studies helped a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ascites and acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Furthermore, new diagnostic criteria have been proposed for acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome and a new algorithm for their management has been recommended with the aim of an early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we will review the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of ascites and acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and we will identify the unmet needs that should be clarified in the next years. PMID:27571467

  2. ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. What Is ARDS? ARDS, or acute respiratory distress syndrome, is a lung condition that leads to low oxygen levels in the blood. ARDS can be life threatening because your body's organs need oxygen-rich ...

  3. [Acute gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Baumbach, Robert; Faiss, Siegbert; Cordruwisch, Wolfgang; Schrader, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a common major emergency (Internal medical or gastroenterological or medical), approximately 85 % of which occur in the upper GI tract. It is estimated that about a half of upper GI bleeds are caused by peptic ulcers. Upper GI bleeds are associated with more severe bleeding and poorer outcomes when compared to middle or lower GI bleeds. Prognostic determinants include bleeding intensity, patient age, comorbid conditions and the concomitant use of anticoagulants. A focused medical history can offer insight into the bleeding intensity, location and potential cause (along with early risk stratification). Initial measures should focus on rapid assessment and resuscitation of unstable patients. The oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) is the gold standard method for localizing the source of bleeding and for interventional therapy. Bleeding as a result of peptic ulcers is treated endoscopically with mechanical and / or thermal techniques in combination with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. When variceal bleeding is suspected, pre-interventional use of vasopressin analogues and antibiotic therapies are recommended. Endoscopically, the first line treatment of esophageal varices is endoscopic ligature therapy, whereas that for gastric varices is the use of Histoacryl injection sclerotherapy. When persistent and continued massive hemorrhage occurs in a patient with known or suspected aortic disease the possibility of an aorto-enteric fistula must be considered. PMID:27078246

  4. Acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Asim; Bjorkholm, Magnus; Gale, Rosemary E; Levine, Ross L; Jordan, Craig T; Ehninger, Gerhard; Bloomfield, Clara D; Estey, Eli; Burnett, Alan; Cornelissen, Jan J; Scheinberg, David A; Bouscary, Didier; Linch, David C

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a disorder characterized by a clonal proliferation derived from primitive haematopoietic stem cells or progenitor cells. Abnormal differentiation of myeloid cells results in a high level of immature malignant cells and fewer differentiated red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells. The disease occurs at all ages, but predominantly occurs in older people (>60 years of age). AML typically presents with a rapid onset of symptoms that are attributable to bone marrow failure and may be fatal within weeks or months when left untreated. The genomic landscape of AML has been determined and genetic instability is infrequent with a relatively small number of driver mutations. Mutations in genes involved in epigenetic regulation are common and are early events in leukaemogenesis. The subclassification of AML has been dependent on the morphology and cytogenetics of blood and bone marrow cells, but specific mutational analysis is now being incorporated. Improvements in treatment in younger patients over the past 35 years has largely been due to dose escalation and better supportive care. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be used to consolidate remission in those patients who are deemed to be at high risk of relapse. A plethora of new agents - including those targeted at specific biochemical pathways and immunotherapeutic approaches - are now in trial based on improved understanding of disease pathophysiology. These advances provide good grounds for optimism, although mortality remains high especially in older patients. PMID:27159408

  5. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yadam, Suman; Bihler, Eric; Balaan, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious inflammatory disorder with high mortality. Its main pathologic mechanism seems to result from increased alveolar permeability. Its definition has also changed since first being described according to the Berlin definition, which now classifies ARDS on a severity scale based on PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen, arterial)/FIO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen) ratio. The cornerstone of therapy was found to be a low tidal volume strategy featuring volumes of 6 to 8 mL per kg of ideal body weight that has been shown to have decreased mortality as proven by the ARDSnet trials. There are other areas of treatment right now that include extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, as well for severe refractory hypoxemia. Other methods that include prone positioning for ventilation have also shown improvements in oxygenation. Positive end-expiratory pressure with lung recruitment maneuvers has also been found to be helpful. Other therapies that include vasodilators and neuromuscular agents are still being explored and need further studies to define their role in ARDS. PMID:26919679

  6. Acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Patschan, Daniel; Müller, Gerhard Anton

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is a frequent and serious complication in hospitalized patients. Mortality rates have not substantially been decreased during the last 20 years. In most patients AKI results from transient renal hypoperfusion or ischemia. The consequences include tubular cell dysfunction/damage, inflammation of the organ, and post-ischemic microvasculopathy. The two latter events perpetuate kidney damage in AKI. Clinical manifestations result from diminished excretion of water, electrolytes, and endogenous / exogenous waste products. Patients are endangered by cardiovascular complications such as hypertension, heart failure, and arrhythmia. In addition, the whole organism may be affected by systemic toxification (uremia). The diagnostic approach in AKI involves several steps with renal biopsy inevitable in some patients. The current therapy focuses on preventing further kidney damage and on treatment of complications. Different pharmacological strategies have failed to significantly improve prognosis in AKI. If dialysis treatment becomes mandatory, intermittent and continuous renal replacement therapies are equally effective. Thus, new therapies are urgently needed in order to reduce short- and long-term outcome in AKI. In this respect, stem cell-based regimens may offer promising perspectives. PMID:25618438

  7. Acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Gerhard Anton

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Acute kidney injury is a frequent and serious complication in hospitalized patients. Mortality rates have not substantially been decreased during the last 20 years. In most patients AKI results from transient renal hypoperfusion or ischemia. The consequences include tubular cell dysfunction/damage, inflammation of the organ, and post-ischemic microvasculopathy. The two latter events perpetuate kidney damage in AKI. Clinical manifestations result from diminished excretion of water, electrolytes, and endogenous / exogenous waste products. Patients are endangered by cardiovascular complications such as hypertension, heart failure, and arrhythmia. In addition, the whole organism may be affected by systemic toxification (uremia). The diagnostic approach in AKI involves several steps with renal biopsy inevitable in some patients. The current therapy focuses on preventing further kidney damage and on treatment of complications. Different pharmacological strategies have failed to significantly improve prognosis in AKI. If dialysis treatment becomes mandatory, intermittent and continuous renal replacement therapies are equally effective. Thus, new therapies are urgently needed in order to reduce short- and long-term outcome in AKI. In this respect, stem cell-based regimens may offer promising perspectives. PMID:25618438

  8. Acute pain transfusion reaction.

    PubMed

    Hardwick, Jody; Osswald, Michael; Walker, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    A 34-year-old woman with a diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH) received a double umbilical cord blood transplantation following a myeloablative chemotherapy preparative regimen with busulfan and cyclophosphamide. HLH is a rare, potentially fatal hematologic disorder characterized by the overactivation of histocytes and T lymphocytes, leading to organ infiltration and acute illness. On day 25 post-transplantation, the patient required a platelet transfusion for a platelet count of 6,000 per ml (normal range = 150,000-450,000 per ml). The patient's blood type prior to the cord blood transplantation was B positive and, although both umbilical cord blood donors were O positive, the patient was still B positive per blood bank testing on that day. Although the recipient of an allogenic stem cell transplantation will eventually become the blood type of the donor, the time for this process to occur varies for each person. That process must be monitored by the blood bank for the purpose of cross-matching blood products to decrease hemolysis as much as possible. The patient was premedicated with the facility's standard for platelet transfusions: acetaminophen 650 mg and diphenhydramine 25 mg about 30 minutes prior to the platelet transfusion. PMID:24161631

  9. Acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jawaid, Saad; Chaudary, Adeel

    2014-01-01

    The paramedics brought a 60-year-old man to the emergency department after a sudden onset of shortness of breath with a subsequent drop in the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). On arrival the patient looked peri-arrest. His O2 saturations were 84% on 15 L of oxygen. He had gasping breathing with a completely silent chest and the GCS was 6/15 (E=1, V=1, M=4). The blood gas revealed type-2 respiratory failure. The chest X-ray was unremarkable and ECG was not indicative for cardiac catheterisation lab activation. Bedside shock scan was done which showed global hypokinesia of the left ventricle. In spite of unconvincing ECG and chest X-ray, an acute cardiac event was diagnosed in view of an abnormal bedside echo. The patient was transferred to the cardiac catheterisation lab for urgent percutaneous coronary intervention which revealed critical stenosis of the left main stem coronary artery, which was successfully stented. The patient had a good recovery from the life-threatening event. PMID:24913081

  10. Acute Diarrhea in Children.

    PubMed

    Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Vuletić, Biljana; Radlović, Vladimir; Simić, Dušica

    2015-01-01

    Acute diarrhea (AD) is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child's treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea.The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD. PMID:26946776

  11. Uveitis (acute anterior)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Anterior uveitis is rare, with an annual incidence of 12/100,000 population, although it is more common in Finland (annual incidence of 23/100,000), probably because of genetic factors, such as high frequency of HLA–B27 in the population. It is often self-limiting, but can, in some cases, lead to complications such as posterior synechiae, cataract, glaucoma, and chronic uveitis. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of anti-inflammatory eye drops on acute anterior uveitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found six systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: corticosteroids, mydriatics, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug eye drops. PMID:21736765

  12. Acute optic neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Galetta, Steven L.; Villoslada, Pablo; Levin, Netta; Shindler, Kenneth; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Parr, Edward; Cadavid, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic demyelinating optic neuritis (ON) most commonly presents as acute unilateral vision loss and eye pain and is frequently associated with multiple sclerosis. Although emphasis is often placed on the good recovery of high-contrast visual acuity, persistent deficits are frequently observed in other aspects of vision, including contrast sensitivity, visual field testing, color vision, motion perception, and vision-related quality of life. Persistent and profound structural and functional changes are often revealed by imaging and electrophysiologic techniques, including optical coherence tomography, visual-evoked potentials, and nonconventional MRI. These abnormalities can impair patients' abilities to perform daily activities (e.g., driving, working) so they have important implications for patients' quality of life. In this article, we review the sequelae from ON, including clinical, structural, and functional changes and their interrelationships. The unmet needs in each of these areas are considered and the progress made toward meeting those needs is examined. Finally, we provide an overview of past and present investigational approaches for disease modification in ON. PMID:26236761

  13. Canagliflozin-Associated Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajanshu

    2016-01-01

    Canagliflozin is a new drug in class of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors used for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We describe a patient who developed moderately severe acute pancreatitis as an untoward consequence after being initiated on this drug. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of canagliflozin-associated acute pancreatitis in clinical literature. PMID:25187092

  14. Acute Scorpion Pancreatitis in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomew, Courtenay

    1970-01-01

    Over a two-month period 30 patients were admitted to hospital following stings of the scorpion of Trinidad, the Tityus trinitatis. In 24 cases acute pancreatitis developed soon after the sting, but in nine of these no abdominal pain occurred. All the patients made an uneventful recovery. Although such complications have been reported no pseudocyst formations or acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis occurred in this series. PMID:5443968

  15. Amebiasis presenting as acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Javier E; Mederos, Raul; Rivero, Haidy; Sendzischew, Morgan A; Soaita, Mauela; Robinson, Morton J; Sendzischew, Harry; Danielpour, Payman

    2007-11-01

    Amebiasis presenting as acute appendicitis is extremely rare. The case of a 38-year-old Hispanic man who presented to the hospital with symptoms and signs suggestive of acute appendicitis is reported. He underwent laparoscopic appendectomy and the pathologic examination of the appendix revealed multiple trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica. The patient was treated postoperatively with metronidazole for amebiasis, and follow-up stool studies showed no sign of residual infection. The patient has remained asymptomatic. PMID:17984748

  16. Acute Acquired Concomitant Esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingchang; Deng, Daming; Sun, Yuan; Shen, Tao; Cao, Guobin; Yan, Jianhua; Chen, Qiwen; Ye, Xuelian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute acquired concomitant esotropia (AACE) is a rare, distinct subtype of esotropia. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical characteristics and discuss the classification and etiology of AACE. Charts from 47 patients with AACE referred to our institute between October 2010 and November 2014 were reviewed. All participants underwent a complete medical history, ophthalmologic and orthoptic examinations, and brain and orbital imaging. Mean age at onset was 26.6 ± 12.2 years. Of the 18 cases with deviations ≤ 20 PD, 16 presented with diplopia at distance and fusion at near vision at the onset of deviation; differences between distance and near deviations were < 8 PD; all cases except one were treated with prism and diplopia resolved. Of the 29 cases with deviations > 20 PD, 5 were mild hypermetropic with age at onset between 5 and 19 years, 16 were myopic, and 8 were emmetropic with age at onset > 12 years; 24 were surgically treated and 5 cases remained under observation; all 24 cases achieved normal retinal correspondence or fusion or stereopsis on postoperative day 1 in synoptophore; in 23 cases diplopia or visual confusion resolved postoperatively. Of the 47 cases, brain and orbital imaging in 2 cases revealed a tumor in the cerebellopontine angle and 1 case involved spinocerebellar ataxia as revealed by genetic testing. AACE in this study was characterized by a sudden onset of concomitant nonaccommodative esotropia with diplopia or visual confusion at 5 years of age or older and the potential for normal binocular vision. We suggest that AACE can be divided into 2 subgroups consisting of patients with relatively small versus large angle deviations. Coexisting or underlying neurological diseases were infrequent in AACE. PMID:26705210

  17. Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kallet, Richard H; Matthay, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged breathing of very high FIO2 (FIO2 ≥ 0.9) uniformly causes severe hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) and, without a reduction of FIO2, is usually fatal. The severity of HALI is directly proportional to PO2 (particularly above 450 mm Hg, or an FIO2 of 0.6) and exposure duration. Hyperoxia produces extraordinary amounts of reactive O2 species that overwhelms natural antioxidant defenses and destroys cellular structures through several pathways. Genetic predisposition has been shown to play an important role in HALI among animals, and some genetics-based epidemiologic research suggests that this may be true for humans as well. Clinically, the risk of HALI likely occurs when FIO2exceeds 0.7, and may become problematic when FIO2 exceeds 0.8 for an extended period of time. Both high-stretch mechanical ventilation and hyperoxia potentiate lung injury and may promote pulmonary infection. During the 1960s, confusion regarding the incidence and relevance of HALI largely reflected such issues as the primitive control of FIO2, the absence of PEEP, and the fact that at the time both ALI and ventilator-induced lung injury were unknown. The advent of PEEP and precise control over FIO2, as well as lung-protective ventilation, and other adjunctive therapies for severe hypoxemia, has greatly reduced the risk of HALI for the vast majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the 21st century. However, a subset of patients with very severe ARDS requiring hyperoxic therapy is at substantial risk for developing HALI, therefore justifying the use of such adjunctive therapies. PMID:23271823

  18. Acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, F R; Rowe, J M; Radich, J; Dick, J E

    2001-01-01

    Through the hard work of a large number of investigators, the biology of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is becoming increasingly well understood, and as a consequence, new therapeutic targets have been identified and new model systems have been developed for testing novel therapies. How these new therapies can be most effectively studied in the clinic and whether they will ultimately improve cure rates are questions of enormous importance. In this article, Dr. Jacob Rowe presents a summary of the current state-of-the-art therapy for adult AML. His contribution emphasizes the fact that AML is not a single disease, but a number of related diseases each distinguished by unique cytogenetic markers which in turn help determine the most appropriate treatment. Dr. Jerald Radich continues on this theme, emphasizing how these cytogenetic abnormalities, as well as other mutations, give rise to abnormal signal transduction and how these abnormal pathways may represent ideal targets for the development of new therapeutics. A third contribution by Dr. Frederick Appelbaum describes how AML might be made the target of immunologic attack. Specifically, strategies using antibody-based or cell-based immunotherapies are described including the use of unmodified antibodies, drug conjugates, radioimmunoconjugates, non-ablative allogeneic transplantation, T cell adoptive immunotherapy and AML vaccines. Finally, Dr. John Dick provides a review of the development of the NOD/SCID mouse model of human AML emphasizing both what it has taught us about the biology of the disease as well as how it can be used to test new therapies. Taken together, these reviews are meant to help us understand more about where we are in the treatment of AML, where we can go and how we might get there. PMID:11722979

  19. Acute Migraine Treatment in Adults.

    PubMed

    Becker, Werner J

    2015-06-01

    There are many options for acute migraine attack treatment, but none is ideal for all patients. This study aims to review current medical office-based acute migraine therapy in adults and provides readers with an organized approach to this important facet of migraine treatment. A general literature review includes a review of several recent published guidelines. Acetaminophen, 4 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid [ASA], naproxen sodium, and diclofenac potassium), and 7 triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, and zolmitriptan) have good evidence for efficacy and form the core of acute migraine treatment. NSAID-triptan combinations, dihydroergotamine, non-opioid combination analgesics (acetaminophen, ASA, and caffeine), and several anti-emetics (metoclopramide, domperidone, and prochlorperazine) are additional evidence-based options. Opioid containing combination analgesics may be helpful in specific patients, but should not be used routinely. Clinical features to be considered when choosing an acute migraine medication include usual headache intensity, usual rapidity of pain intensity increase, nausea, vomiting, degree of disability, patient response to previously used medications, history of headache recurrence with previous attacks, and the presence of contraindications to specific acute medications. Available acute medications can be organized into 4 treatment strategies, including a strategy for attacks of mild to moderate severity (strategy one: acetaminophen and/or NSAIDs), a triptan strategy for patients with severe attacks and for attacks not responding to strategy one, a refractory attack strategy, and a strategy for patients with contraindications to vasoconstricting drugs. Acute treatment of migraine attacks during pregnancy, lactation, and for patients with chronic migraine is also discussed. In chronic migraine, it is particularly important that medication

  20. Genetically Modified T-cell Immunotherapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-10

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Donor; Early Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Late Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  1. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of paralleled Aza resveratrol-chalcone compounds as potential anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbo; Ge, Xiangting; Xu, Fengli; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Zhiguo; Pan, Jialing; Song, Jiao; Dai, Yuanrong; Zhou, Jianmin; Feng, Jianpeng; Liang, Guang

    2015-08-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of acute respiratory failure in critically-ill patients. It has been reported that both resveratrol and chalcone derivatives could ameliorate lung injury induced by inflammation. A series of paralleled Aza resveratrol-chalcone compounds (5a-5m, 6a-6i) were designed, synthesized and screened for anti-inflammatory activity. A majority showed potent inhibition on the IL-6 and TNF-α expression-stimulated by LPS in macrophages, of which compound 6b is the most potent analog by inhibition of LPS-induced IL-6 release in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, 6b exhibited protection against LPS-induced acute lung injury in vivo. These results offer further insight into the use of Aza resveratrol-chalcone compounds for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, and the use of compound 6b as a lead compound for the development of anti-ALI agents. PMID:26048788

  2. [Acute and subacute chemical pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Andujar, P; Nemery, B

    2009-10-01

    Acute or subacute chemical-induced lung injury is rarely compound specific and is most often caused by an accidental occupational, domestic or environmental exposure to an inhaled chemical agent. The industrial disaster that happened in Bhopal in 1984, accidental poisoning with chlorine and petroleum hydrocarbons and also vesicant gases used during conflicts, are specific examples. Rarely, a chemical agent can cause lung damage by being ingested and reaching the lung through the systemic circulation (for example accidental or deliberate paraquat ingestion). Household accidents should not be underestimated. An important cause of household accidents is chlorine inhalation resulting from mixing bleach with acids such as the scale removers used to clean toilets. Chemical agents can provoke direct and/or indirect damage to the respiratory tract. The acute or subacute clinical manifestations resulting from inhalation of chemical agents are very varied and include inhalation fevers, acute non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, adult respiratory distress syndrome, reactive airways dysfunction syndrome and acute or subacute pneumonitis. The site and the severity of chemical-induced respiratory damage caused by inhaled chemical agents depend mainly on the nature and the amount of the agent inhaled. The immediate and long-term prognosis and possible sequelae are also variable. This review excludes infectious or immunologically induced acute respiratory diseases. PMID:19953031

  3. Decitabine, Cytarabine, and Daunorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  4. Unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy. 1991.

    PubMed

    Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Jampol, Lee M; Rabb, Maurice F; Sorenson, John A; Beyrer, Charles; Wilcox, Lloyd M

    2012-02-01

    This is a report of nine patients who experienced sudden, severe, unilateral central vision loss following a flulike illness. Each patient had an exudative detachment of the macula. All patients experienced a spontaneous resolution of the acute macular manifestations with near-complete recovery of vision. A characteristic "bull's-eye" appearance in the macula persisted. The acute manifestations of the disorder did not recur in any of the patients during the period of follow-up. The constellation of findings was suggestive of an inflammatory disease of the retinal pigment epithelium, but a specific causative agent could not be identified. The acute clinical and angiographic features, the natural course, and the residual pigment epithelial derangement were not consistent with any previously described disorder. PMID:22451959

  5. Autophagy in acute brain injury.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Blomgren, Klas; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-08-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism that ensures the lysosomal degradation of old, supernumerary or ectopic cytoplasmic entities. Most eukaryotic cells, including neurons, rely on proficient autophagic responses for the maintenance of homeostasis in response to stress. Accordingly, autophagy mediates neuroprotective effects following some forms of acute brain damage, including methamphetamine intoxication, spinal cord injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage. In some other circumstances, however, the autophagic machinery precipitates a peculiar form of cell death (known as autosis) that contributes to the aetiology of other types of acute brain damage, such as neonatal asphyxia. Here, we dissect the context-specific impact of autophagy on non-infectious acute brain injury, emphasizing the possible therapeutic application of pharmacological activators and inhibitors of this catabolic process for neuroprotection. PMID:27256553

  6. Acute hepatitis after amiodarone infusion

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Paulo; Dias, Adelaide; Gonçalves, Helena; Albuquerque, Aníbal; Gama, Vasco

    2015-01-01

    Acute hepatitis is a very rare, but potentially fatal, adverse effect of intravenous amiodarone. We present a case of an 88-year-old man with history of ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and severely depressed left ventricular function that was admitted to our coronary care unit with diagnosis of decompensated heart failure and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. A few hours after the beginning of intravenous amiodarone he developed an acute hepatitis. There was a completely recovery within the next days after amiodarone withdrawn and other causes of acute hepatitis have been ruled out. This case highlights the need for close monitoring of hepatic function during amiodarone infusion in order to identify any potential hepatotoxicity and prevent a fatal outcome. Oral amiodarone is, apparently, a safe option in these patients. PMID:26488027

  7. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, G N; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of acute silicosis as bilateral pneumothorax. PMID:24862410

  8. The acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of acute respiratory failure. Its development leads to high rates of mortality, as well as short- and long-term complications, such as physical and cognitive impairment. Therefore, early recognition of this syndrome and application of demonstrated therapeutic interventions are essential to change the natural course of this devastating entity. In this review article, we describe updated concepts in ARDS. Specifically, we discuss the new definition of ARDS, its risk factors and pathophysiology, and current evidence regarding ventilation management, adjunctive therapies, and intervention required in refractory hypoxemia. PMID:25829644

  9. Acute Kidney Injury in Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Karvellas, Constantine J; Durand, Francois; Nadim, Mitra K

    2015-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of end-stage liver disease, especially in those with acute-on-chronic liver failure, occurring in up to 50% of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. There is no specific blood or urine biomarker that can reliably identify the cause of AKI in cirrhotic patients. This review examines studies used to assess renal dysfunction in cirrhotic patients including new diagnostic criteria and potential novel biomarkers. Although biomarker development to differentiate the cause of AKI in cirrhosis has promise, the utility of biomarkers to determine irreversible renal dysfunction with liver transplant remains lacking, warranting further investigation. PMID:26410141

  10. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, G N; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of acute silicosis as bilateral pneumothorax. PMID:24862410

  11. Acute kidney injury in children.

    PubMed

    Merouani, A; Flechelles, O; Jouvet, P

    2012-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 5% of critically ill hospitalized children and is a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. The current review focuses on new definitions of acute kidney injury, standardized to reflect the entire spectrum of the disease, as well as on ongoing research to identify early biomarkers of kidney injury. Its also provides an overview of current practice and available therapies, with emphasis on new strategies for the prevention and pharmacological treatment of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Furthermore, a decision-making algorithm is presented for the use of renal replacement therapies in critically ill children with AKI. PMID:22495187

  12. 3-Methoxynaltrexone is not a selective antagonist for the acute psychomotor stimulating effects of heroin and 6-monoacetylmorphine in mice.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Guro Søe; Andersen, Jannike Mørch; Boix, Fernando; Mørland, Jørg

    2014-07-01

    The opioid receptor antagonist 3-methoxynaltrexone (3-MeONtx) has previously been shown in rodents to selectively reverse the analgesic actions of heroin and its metabolites 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), but not that of morphine. Based on these and other results, a heroin/6-MAM/M6G μ-opioid receptor binding site or subreceptor mediating their analgesic activity has been proposed. It is however unknown whether this also accounts for the acute psychomotor stimulating properties of these opioids. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore if the acute psychomotor stimulating effects of heroin, 6-MAM, and morphine are mediated by distinct μ-opioid receptor binding sites or subreceptors. To address this aim, we examined how pretreatment with 3-MeONtx or naltrexone (NTX) affected the acute increase in locomotor activity induced by heroin, 6-MAM, or morphine in mice. The pharmacokinetic profiles of 3-MeONtx and NTX were also assessed in mouse brain. We found that 3-MeONtx similarly antagonized the acute increase in locomotor activity induced by equipotent doses of heroin, 6-MAM, or morphine. This antagonistic effect was comparable to the one observed following administration of NTX, and both antagonists gave similar pharmacokinetic profiles in mouse brain. Our findings do not support that different μ-opioid receptor subtypes or a distinct binding site at the μ-opioid receptor is involved in morphine-induced versus heroin/6-MAM-induced psychomotor activation. This might suggest that the opioid-induced psychomotor stimulation is mediated by different μ-opioid subreceptors than those responsible for their analgesic effects. PMID:24699386

  13. Prevalence of acute mountain sickness in the Eastern Alps.

    PubMed

    Mairer, Klemens; Wille, Maria; Bucher, Thomas; Burtscher, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Little information is available on the prevalence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) in the Eastern Alps compared with the Western Alps. Because of differences regarding the populations of mountaineers, we hypothesized that the prevalence differs between the Eastern and Western Alps. Thus, we determined the prevalence and risk factors of AMS at four different altitudes in the Eastern Alps of Austria. Four hundred and thirty-one recreational hikers were studied using questionnaires on the morning of their first night at high altitude. A diagnosis of AMS was based on a Lake Louise Score > or =4, the presence of headache, and at least one additional symptom. Overall 16.2% of the subjects met the criteria for AMS, and the prevalence of AMS increased significantly with altitude (2200 m: 6.9%; 2500 m: 9.1%; 2800 m: 17.4%; 3500 m: 38.0%). Heavy perceived exertion, a history of migraine, the absolute altitude reached, little mountaineering experience, and inadequate water intake (< or =2 L) were independent AMS risk factors. The reported altitude-related AMS prevalence in the Western Alps is 4% to 8% lower compared with that found in this study for the Eastern Alps. In conclusion, the prevalence of AMS is higher in the tourist population of the Eastern Alps compared to the more experienced mountaineers of the Western Alps. Consideration of easily modifiable risk factors such as individual exertion and water intake could markedly reduce AMS and contribute to the enjoyment of mountaineering. PMID:19775213

  14. Acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvesh Pal

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication after pediatric cardiac surgery. The definition, staging, risk factors, biomarkers and management of acute kidney injury in children is detailed in the following review article. PMID:27052074

  15. How Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Classified?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How is acute lymphocytic leukemia treated? How is acute lymphocytic leukemia classified? Most types of cancers are assigned numbered ... ALL are now named as follows: B-cell ALL Early pre-B ALL (also called pro-B ...

  16. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home Diet and Nutrition The glucose effect in acute porphyrias The disorders Acute Intermittent ... are treated initially with the administration of carbohydrate/glucose. This therapy has its basis in the ability ...

  17. General Information about Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  18. General Information about Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  19. General Information about Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Go to Health ... the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: acute promyelocytic leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... acute myeloid leukemia, a cancer of the blood-forming tissue ( bone marrow ). In normal bone marrow, hematopoietic ... 7186-203. Review. Citation on PubMed de Thé H, Chen Z. Acute promyelocytic leukaemia: novel insights into ...

  1. Targeted Therapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monoclonal antibodies to treat acute lymphocytic leukemia Targeted therapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia In recent years, new ... These drugs are often referred to as targeted therapy. Some of these drugs can be useful in ...

  2. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mountain Sickness, and Headache Print Email Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness, and Headache ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... entering your e-mail address below. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness, and Headache David W. Dodick, MD, FAHS, ...

  3. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  4. Stages of Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  6. Optical diagnosis of acute scrotum in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn; Nigro, Mark; Afshar, Kourosh; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    Acute scrotum is a urologic condition defined by scrotal pain, swelling, and redness of acute onset. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are necessary to preserve testicular viability. The history and clinical symptoms reported are key to diagnosis and proper treatment, but are not always readily obtained in children, in whom common causes of acute scrotum include testicular torsion, torsion of the appendix testis, and epididymitis. These acute conditions have different causal pathology that mandate specific treatment, hence the importance of early and accurate diagnosis.

  7. Acute treatment of migraine headaches.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2010-04-01

    Optimum acute treatment of migraine requires prevention of headache as a top priority. Recognition of the multitude of migraine presentations, the frequency of total headache attacks, and number of days of headache disability are critical. Successful treatment requires excellent patient-clinician communication enhancing confidence and mutual trust based on patient needs and preferences. Optimum management of acute migraine nearly always requires pharmacologic treatment for rapid resolution. Migraine-specific triptans, dihydroergotamine, and several antiinflammatories have substantial empirical clinical efficacy. Older nonspecific drugs, particularly butalbital and opioids, contribute to medication overuse headache and are to be avoided. Clinicians should utilize evidence-based acute migraine-specific therapy stressing the imperative acute treatment goal of early intervention, but not too often with the correct drug, formulation, and dose. This therapy needs to provide cost-effective fast results, meaningful to the patient while minimizing the need for additional drugs. Migraine-ACT evaluates 2-hour pain freedom with return to normal function, comfort with treatment, and consistency of response. Employ a thoroughly educated patient, formulary, testimonials, stratification, and rational cotherapy against the race to central sensitization for optimum outcomes. PMID:20352584

  8. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  9. [Acute and transient psychotic disorders].

    PubMed

    Marneros, A; Pillmann, F; Haring, A; Balzuweit, S

    2000-04-01

    Psychotic disorders with acute onset, a dramatic and polymorphous symptomatology and rapid resolution have been described in different countries and by different psychiatric schools. They have been called cycloid psychosis, bouffée délirante, psychogenic psychosis or good prognosis schizophrenia. ICD-10 has given an operational definition under the name "acute and transient psychotic disorders" (F23). Their nosological status is unclear. The Halle-Study of acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPD) has investigated in a prospective manner clinical, para-clinical features and course of illness in 42 patients with ATPD and matched controls with positive schizophrenia, bipolar schizoaffective disorders as well as mentally healthy patients with acute surgical conditions. First results of our study show that ATPD amount to 4% of psychotic in-patients, prefer female sex, show short prodromi, marked affective disturbances within the episode and much better outcome as schizophrenic psychoses according to psychopathological, social, psychological and biographical criteria. Though ATPD may still be an inhomogeneous group, their clinical delineation from schizophrenia seems justified. PMID:10907609

  10. Hypocalcemia in acute pancreatitis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is a frequent finding in acute pancreatitis. Severe hypocalcemia can present with neurological as well as cardiovascular manifestations. Correction of hypocalcemia by parenteral calcium infusion remains a controversial topic as intracellular calcium overload is the central mechanism of acinar cell injury in pancreatitis. The current article deals with the art and science of calcium correction in pancreatitis patients. PMID:27076730

  11. Sildenafil Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Ryan; Shah, Nina; Lewin, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is characterized by inflammation of the renal interstitium and usually occurs in a temporal relationship with the medication. We present a case of an Asian male who had nephrotic range proteinuria and presented with acute kidney injury. The patient reported an acute change in physical appearance and symptomatology after the ingestion of a single dose of sildenafil. Renal biopsy was notable for minimal change disease (MCD) with acute and chronic interstitial nephritis. Renal replacement and glucocorticoid therapy were initiated. Renal recovery within six weeks permitted discontinuation of dialysis. AIN superimposed on MCD is a known association of NSAID induced nephropathy. The temporal association and the absence of any new drugs suggest that the AIN was most likely due to the sildenafil. NSAIDs are less likely to have caused the AIN given their remote use. The ease of steroid responsiveness would also suggest another cause as NSAID induced AIN is often steroid resistant. The MCD was most likely idiopathic given the lack of temporal association with a secondary cause. As the number of sildenafil prescriptions increases, more cases of AIN may be identified and physician awareness for this potential drug disease association is necessary. PMID:26491581

  12. Chest physiotherapy in acute bronchiolitis.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, M S; Martin, J A; Cartlidge, P H; Ng, Y K; Wright, N A

    1985-01-01

    Forty four children with acute bronchiolitis were given twice daily chest physiotherapy in addition to standard supportive measures and were compared with 46 controls who were not given physiotherapy. There was no clinically discernable benefit on the course of their illness. PMID:3907510

  13. Acute and dramatic saxophone penis.

    PubMed

    García-Rodrigo, Carlota Gutiérrez; Maroñas-Jiménez, Lidia; Menis, Diana; Larráin, Hugo; Martínez, Lara Angulo

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of intense genital swelling because of a hereditary angioedema. This rare disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute and asymptomatic genital edema, because it may prevent future potentially life-threatening episodes of visceral angioedema. PMID:26752411

  14. Acute calcium pyrophosphate deposition arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Thomas; Furman, Janet

    2016-06-01

    Acute calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) arthropathy, also called pseudogout, is common, and becomes more prevalent as patients age. The presenting symptoms are similar to both gout and septic arthritis but may be treated differently. This article describes a typical patient presentation and management from an emergency medicine and orthopedic surgery standpoint. PMID:27228038

  15. Acute calcific tendinitis in children.

    PubMed

    Lassoued, S; Billey, T; Millet, J P; Henia, A O

    1999-01-01

    Acute calcific tendinitis is uncommon in children. Clinical manifestations are similar to those in adults. The abrupt onset, functional impairment, and frequent presence of fever suggest an infection. Radiographic findings establish the diagnosis, obviating the need for further investigations. PMID:10526384

  16. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF–VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis. PMID:25778551

  17. [Radionuclide diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Mil'ko, V I; Moskalenko, N I; Tikhonenko, E P

    1986-01-01

    Nephroscintigraphy using a 67Ga-citrate complex and 99mTc-pyrophosphate was performed in 88 patients with acute pyelonephritis. Nuclide hyperfixation was revealed in 97.8% of the cases. Three groups of patients were singled out on the basis of the intensity of incorporation and nature of the distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals (RP) in the kidneys. In the 1st group the RP incorporation was insignificant but higher than normal values; the RP distribution in the affected kidney was diffuse-inhomogenous. These changes were considered to be typical of acute serous pyelonephritis. In the 2nd and 3rd groups a sharp rise of the RP accumulation was noted, being typical of acute purulent pyelonephritis. One could distinguish between diffuse and focal lesions by the picture of the RP distribution in the renal parenchyma. Diuresis stimulation made it possible to differentiate an actual nuclide fixation during inflammation from nuclide mechanical retention as a result of urine outflow disorder. According to the authors, both radiopharmaceuticals could be applied for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis as well as for differential diagnosis of various forms of the disease. PMID:3001474

  18. Acute treatment of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Kowey, P R; Marinchak, R A; Rials, S J; Filart, R A

    1998-03-12

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is a common clinical entity, responsible for significant morbidity and mortality, but it also accounts for a large percentage of healthcare dollar expenditures. Efforts to treat this arrhythmia in the past have focused on subacute antithrombotic therapy and eventually use of antiarrhythmic drugs for maintenance of sinus rhythm. However, there has been a growing interest in the concept of acute electrical and pharmacologic conversion. This treatment strategy has a number of benefits, including immediate alleviation of patient symptoms, avoidance of antithrombotic therapy, and prevention of electrophysiologic remodeling, which is thought to contribute to the perpetuation of the arrhythmia. There is also increasing evidence that this is a cost-effective strategy in that it may obviate admission to the hospital and the cost of long-term therapy. This article represents a summary of the treatments that may be used acutely to control the ventricular response to AFib, prevent thromboembolic events, and provide for acute conversion either pharmacologically or electrically. It includes information on modalities that are currently available and those that are under active development. We anticipate that an active, acute treatment approach to AFib and atrial flutter will become the therapeutic norm in the next few years, especially as the benefits of these interventions are demonstrated in clinical trials. PMID:9525568

  19. ACUTE HYDRONEPHROSIS MIMICKING RENAL COLIC

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Donald C.; Kaufman, Joseph J.

    1964-01-01

    Hydronephrosis may be acute, recurrent and related to ingestion of fluid. Frequently a lower polar vessel is an etiological factor. The condition is amenable to corrective operation by a variety of surgical techniques, as in the six cases here reported. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:14154288

  20. Olanzapine use in acute porphyria.

    PubMed

    Horgan, Patrick; Jones, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the use of olanzapine in the treatment of a patient with hereditary coproporphyria. This patient suffered from paranoid delusions, poor self-care and anxiety symptoms. The patient was commenced on olanzapine with a good clinical response, and without significant adverse effects. This suggests that olanzapine is a safe and effective treatment of psychotic symptoms in acute porphyrias. PMID:24937245

  1. Thrombolysis for Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Webb, John; Thompson, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Thrombolysis has an important role in the management of acute myocardial infarction. Early treatment can markedly reduce mortality and morbidity. This new standard of care requires knowledge of accepted indications and contraindications for thrombolysis as well as familiarity with available agents and regimens. ImagesFigure 3 PMID:21221398

  2. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-23

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  3. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  4. Acute coronary care: Principles and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 58 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radionuclide Techniques for Diagnosing and Sizing of Myocardial Infarction; The Use of Serial Radionuclide Angiography for Monitoring Function during Acute Myocardial Infarction; Hemodynamic Monitoring in Acute Myocardial Infarction; and The Valve of Radionuclide Angiography for Risk Assessment of Patients following Acute Myocardial Infarction.

  5. Cannabis-induced recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Howaizi, Mehran; Chahine, Mouhamad; Haydar, Fadi; Jemaa, Yassine; Lapoile, Emmanuel

    2012-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis has a large number of causes. Major causes are alcohol and gallstones. Toxic causes, mainly represented by medication-induced pancreatitis account for less than 2% of the cases. Cannabis is an anecdotally reported cause of acute pancreatitis. Six cases have previously been reported. Herein we report a new case of cannabis-induced recurrent acute pancreatitis. PMID:23402090

  6. Towards Prevention of Acute Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A.; Thongprayoon, C.; Pickering, B.W.; Akhoundi, A.; Wilson, G.; Pieczkiewicz, D.; Herasevich, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Identifying patients at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) before their admission to intensive care is crucial to prevention and treatment. The objective of this study is to determine the performance of an automated algorithm for identifying selected ARDS predisposing conditions at the time of hospital admission. Methods This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study included 3,005 patients admitted to hospital between January 1 and December 31, 2010. The automated algorithm for five ARDS predisposing conditions (sepsis, pneumonia, aspiration, acute pancreatitis, and shock) was developed through a series of queries applied to institutional electronic medical record databases. The automated algorithm was derived and refined in a derivation cohort of 1,562 patients and subsequently validated in an independent cohort of 1,443 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of an automated algorithm to identify ARDS risk factors were compared with another two independent data extraction strategies, including manual data extraction and ICD-9 code search. The reference standard was defined as the agreement between the ICD-9 code, automated and manual data extraction. Results Compared to the reference standard, the automated algorithm had higher sensitivity than manual data extraction for identifying a case of sepsis (95% vs. 56%), aspiration (63% vs. 42%), acute pancreatitis (100% vs. 70%), pneumonia (93% vs. 62%) and shock (77% vs. 41%) with similar specificity except for sepsis and pneumonia (90% vs. 98% for sepsis and 95% vs. 99% for pneumonia). The PPV for identifying these five acute conditions using the automated algorithm ranged from 65% for pneumonia to 91 % for acute pancreatitis, whereas the NPV for the automated algorithm ranged from 99% to 100%. Conclusion A rule-based electronic data extraction can reliably and accurately identify patients at risk of ARDS at the time of hospital

  7. [Acute respiratory failure in neuromuscular disease].

    PubMed

    Damak, H; Décosterd, D

    2015-09-30

    Neuromuscular diseases can affect all respiratory muscles, leading to acute respiratory failure, which is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in those patients. Two situations must be distinguished. 1) Acute respiratory failure as part of a neuromuscular disorder of acute onset and possibly reversible (Guillain-Barre syndrome, myasthenic crisis...). 2) Acute respiratory failure occurring in a patient with an already advanced neuromuscular disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy...). This article describes the neuromuscular acute respiratory failure in these different aspects, discusses its initial management in the emergency department and identifies the parameters that have to be monitored. PMID:26619704

  8. Acute kidney injury in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Cosentino, Nicola; Bartorelli, Antonio L

    2015-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly being seen in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs). This condition has a complex pathogenesis, an incidence that can reach 30% and it is associated with higher short-term and long-term morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, AKI is still characterised by lack of a single accepted definition, unclear pathophysiology understanding and insensitive diagnostic tools that make its detection difficult, particularly in the setting of ACS. Recent data suggested that patients with AKI during ACS, even those in whom renal function seems to fully recover, face an increased, persisting risk of future AKI and may develop chronic kidney disease. Thus, in these patients, nephrology follow-up, after hospital discharge, and secondary preventive measures should possibly be implemented. In this review, we aim at providing a framework of knowledge to increase cardiologists' awareness of AKI, with the goal of improving the outcome of patients with ACS. PMID:26243789

  9. Tsutsugamushi infection-associated acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Young, Park Chi; Hae, Chung Choon; Lee, Kim Hyun; Hoon, Chung Jong

    2003-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication that emerges in a variety of infectious diseases, such as tsutsugamushi infection. In this study, we report a 71-year-old female patient with tsutsugamushi infection who exhibiting rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. On admission, an eschar, which is characteristic of tsutsugamushi infection, was found on her right flank area. Moreover, her tsutsugamushi antibody titer was 1:40960. The elevated values of serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aldolase, creatinine and dark brown urine secondary to myoglobinuria are consistent with indications of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure due to tsutsugamushi infection. Her health improved without any residual effects after treatment with doxycyclin and hydration with normal saline. PMID:14717236

  10. Glucocorticoids improve acute dizziness symptoms following acute unilateral vestibulopathy.

    PubMed

    Batuecas-Caletrío, Angel; Yañez-Gonzalez, Raquel; Sanchez-Blanco, Carmen; Pérez, Pedro Blanco; González-Sanchez, Enrique; Sanchez, Luis Alberto Guardado; Kaski, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Acute unilateral vestibulopathy (AUV) is characterized by acute vertigo, nausea, and imbalance without neurological deficits or auditory symptomatology. Here, we explore the effect of glucocorticoid treatment on the degree of canal paresis in patients with AUV, and critically, establish its relationship with dizziness symptom recovery. We recruited consecutive patients who were retrospectively assigned to one of the two groups according to whether they received glucocorticoid treatment (n = 32) or not (n = 44). All patients underwent pure-tone audiometry, bithermal caloric testing, MRI brain imaging, and were asked to complete a dizziness handicap inventory on admission to hospital and just prior to hospital discharge. In the treatment group, the canal paresis at discharge was significantly lower than in the control group (mean ± SD % 38.04 ± 21.57 versus 82.79 ± 21.51, p < 0.001). We also observed a significant reduction in the intensity of nystagmus in patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment compared to the non-treatment group (p = 0.03). DHI test score was significantly lower at discharge in the treatment group (mean ± SD % 23.15 ± 12.40 versus 64.07 ± 12.87, p < 0.001), as was the length of hospital stay (2.18 ± 1.5 days versus 3.6 ± 1.7 days, p = 0.002). Glucocorticoid treatment leads to acute symptomatic improvement, with a reduced hospital stay and reduction in the intensity of acute nystagmus. Our findings suggest that glucocorticoids may accelerate vestibular compensation via a restoration of peripheral vestibular function, and therefore has important clinical implications for the treatment of AUV. PMID:26459091

  11. Acute pyelonephritis can have serious complications.

    PubMed

    Shields, Joanne; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2010-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) may predominantly involve the lower urinary tract, i.e. acute cystitis, or upper urinary tract consisting of the renal pelvis and kidney,, i.e. acute pyelonephritis The incidence of acute pyelonephritis is higher in young women than in men but the incidence in men over 65 is similar to that in older women. Women have up to a 10% risk of recurrent acute pyelonephritis in the year following a first acute episode. The equivalent risk in men is 6%. Acute pyelonephritis may be uncomplicated and resolve without serious sequelae. A minority of episodes may be complicated by acute kidney injury, papillary necrosis, renal or perinephric abscess or the development of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Acute pyelonephritis is generally caused by microorganisms ascending from the urethra via the bladder into the upper urinary tract. Rarely the kidney may be seeded by blood-borne infection. Ecoli is the most common uropathogen causing pyelonephritis accounting for 70-90% of infections. Species of Enterococci, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Staphylococci are responsible for the remaining infections. There is a rising incidence in the community of UTI with bacteria that produce extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes. These ESBL bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporins and increasingly to quinolones. Risk factors for uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis include recent sexual intercourse, acute cystitis, stress incontinence and diabetes and for complicated acute pyelonephritis include pregnancy, diabetes, anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract and renal calculi. PMID:20486480

  12. Acute Respiratory Distress in Children: Croup and Acute Asthma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B S; Shekhawat, Dhananjay S; Sharma, Prity; Meena, Chetan; Mohan, Hari

    2015-07-01

    Acute respiratory distress is one of the most common reason for emergency visits in children under 5 y of age. An accurate understanding of the epidemiology of these diseases, identification of risk factors and etiology is critical for successful treatment and prevention of related mortality. The cause of acute respiratory distress varies in etiology, and hence is amenable to different treatment modalities. Depending on the predominant symptoms and signs, a child presenting to the clinician can be divided into six groups, viz., stridor; cough, fever and difficulty in breathing or fast breathing; wheezing; mediastinal shift with severe respiratory distress; slow or irregular breathing in absence of any pulmonary sign; and respiratory distress with cardiac findings. A detailed history followed by a thorough clinical examination and laboratory evaluation assisted by imaging modalities if indicated, helps to establish the exact cause of respiratory distress in the child. Early recognition and prompt institution of appropriate management or referral can significantly improve the outcome of this illness. This article offers clinicians a brief update on the general management guidelines of respiratory distress in pediatric patients. Specific treatment depends on the exact cause, however croup and acute severe asthma have been discussed in this article. PMID:25257964

  13. Acute reference doses: theory and practical approaches.

    PubMed

    Moretto, A

    2000-07-01

    The approach of the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues to the establishment of the acute reference dose for pesticides is presented and related issues are discussed. Three main points seem relevant when discussing the acute reference dose: (1) what compounds should have an acute reference dose, (2) what toxicological database is required for the establishment of an acute reference dose; (3) what safety factors are to be used. It is concluded that (1) groups of compounds that need an acute reference dose can be identified, whereas general rules for identifying groups not requiring an acute reference dose cannot be easily given; (2) studies from the standard toxicological database can often be used to allocate an acute reference dose and the usefulness of refinements (by requesting specific studies) should be evaluated after intake assessment; general rules on study requirements cannot be easily given; (3) more thought should be given to what safety factors apply in certain circumstances. PMID:10983586

  14. Advances in predicting acute GVHD

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Andrew C.; Ferrara, James L.M.; Levine, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a leading cause of non-relapse mortality following allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation. Attempts to improve treatment response in clinically-established GVHD have not improved overall survival, often due to the increased risk of infectious complications. Alternative approaches to decrease GVHD-related morbidity and mortality have focused on the ability to predict GVHD prior to clinical manifestation in an effort to provide an opportunity to abort GVHD development, and to gain new insights into GVHD pathophysiology. This review outlines the research efforts to date that have identified clinical and laboratory-based factors that are predictive of acute GVHD and describes future directions in developing algorithms that will improve the ability to predict the development of clinically relevant GVHD. PMID:23205489

  15. Exenatide induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M; Zuberi, Beyla J; Elhassan, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Exenatide is an incretin mimetic. It was approved by the federal drug authority in 2005 for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. Since it is a relatively new medicine clinicians have limited experience with regards to its side effects and safety profile. We report a 47 year old lady who presented with exenatide associated acute kidney injury. She had type-2 diabetes for 10 years with mild micro albuminuria and normal renal functions. She was also taking a stable dose of metformin, gliclazide, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and diuretic for over a year and there was no history of any recent use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory medications. One week after starting exenatide, she developed severe vomiting, followed by hypotension. She presented with acute renal insufficiency and severe lactic acidosis and had to be dialyzed on emergency basis. To our knowledge this is probably the first case reported in the local United Arab Emirate (U.A.E) population. PMID:25672206

  16. Acute exposure to rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Dire, D J; Wilkinson, J A

    1987-01-01

    Rhodamine B is a red colored dye that is used in cosmetic products. We report a case of 17 patients who were exposed to aerosolized Rhodamine B inside a maintenance shop. The mean duration of exposure was 26 minutes (range 2-65). Sixteen of the patients (94%) complained of acute symptoms including: burning of the eyes (82%), excessive tearing (47%), nasal burning (41%), nasal itching (35%), chest pain/tightness (35%), rhinorhea (29%), cough (29%), dyspnea (29%), burning of the throat (24%), burning/pruritic skin (24%), chest burning (12%), headache (6%), and nausea (6%). All of the patients had resolution of their symptoms within 24 hours (less than 4 hours in 63%). Acute exposure to Rhodamine B resulted in transient mucous membrane and skin irritation without evidence of serious sequellae. PMID:3446824

  17. Acute Werdnig-Hoffmann disease

    PubMed Central

    Pearn, J. H.; Wilson, J.

    1973-01-01

    76 cases of acute Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (acute infantile spinal muscular atrophy) have been reviewed. The cases comprise an unselected consecutive series in which rigid diagnostic criteria have been applied. The natural history of the disease has been investigated. In at least one-third of cases the disease is manifest before or at delivery. All cases have shown delayed milestones by 5 months of age: 95% are dead by 18 months. Cumulative frequency curves for age at onset and age at death figures are presented for use both as prognostic guidelines and as aids in the management of sibs of index cases. Diagnosis, management, and genetic implications are discussed. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4712772

  18. Acute onset of postoperative syringohydromyelia.

    PubMed

    Rao, K Santosh Mohan; Balasubramaniam, Chidambaram; Subramaniam, K

    2015-01-01

    Syringohydromyelia is a frequent finding in cases of tethered cord syndrome. The classical teaching is that the development and progression of a syrinx is a chronic process. We present a case report of an acute onset syringomyelia in an infant, who underwent an excision of a lumbosacral transitional lipoma and detethering of the cord. Immediately after recovery, the infant was found to have flaccid paraplegia. An emergency magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large acute onset syringomyelia for which he underwent an emergency midline myelotomy and release of fluid from the syrinx. Though the eventual recovery was good, this made us re-visit our understanding of the concept of syringohydromyelia. The case details and a plausible hypothesis for the rapid development of the syrinx are presented. PMID:26557165

  19. Clinical cases in acute intoxication.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sean B; Maguire, Jennifer; Mauck, Karen F

    2009-12-01

    Over 2.5 million accidental and intentional drug-related poisonings are reported annually in the United States. Early diagnosis and management of patients who present with acute intoxication can significantly reduce both morbidity and mortality. The initial evaluation of patients with suspected or proven intoxications should focus on hemodynamic stability, mental status, and respiratory function. However, early recognition of toxic ingestion is paramount to implementing life-saving treatments. Important historical clues are often found in a social history that considers intravenous drug use, alcohol use, and any access or exposure to illicit substances. A patient's medication list should also be scrutinized for psychoactive or sedative medications, such as tricyclic antidepressants or opioids. In this article we present case-based discussions of the specific diagnosis and management of 5 commonly occurring acute intoxication syndromes. PMID:20877175

  20. Recognising and managing acute hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Keane, Matthew

    2014-02-01

    A significant amount of clinicians' time is spent managing patients with complications arising from the use of sympatheticomimetic drugs such as cocaine and ecstasy, or MDMA. This article examines one of these complications, namely acute hyponatraemia, which can have life-threatening neurological consequences. Although there are few signs or symptoms of this condition, emergency clinicians should be able to recognise when it may have occurred, and should have a basic understanding of the role of sodium in autoregulation of cellular function, the different fluid compartments in the human body and the pathology of cerebral oedema. The article describes the importance of early recognition and swift treatment of acute hyponatraemia, as well as the methods for calculating fluid replacement to optimise chances of full recovery. PMID:24494770

  1. Acute onset of postoperative syringohydromyelia

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Santosh Mohan; Balasubramaniam, Chidambaram; Subramaniam, K.

    2015-01-01

    Syringohydromyelia is a frequent finding in cases of tethered cord syndrome. The classical teaching is that the development and progression of a syrinx is a chronic process. We present a case report of an acute onset syringomyelia in an infant, who underwent an excision of a lumbosacral transitional lipoma and detethering of the cord. Immediately after recovery, the infant was found to have flaccid paraplegia. An emergency magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large acute onset syringomyelia for which he underwent an emergency midline myelotomy and release of fluid from the syrinx. Though the eventual recovery was good, this made us re-visit our understanding of the concept of syringohydromyelia. The case details and a plausible hypothesis for the rapid development of the syrinx are presented. PMID:26557165

  2. Acute oesophageal necrosis (black oesophagus).

    PubMed

    Galtés, Ignasi; Gallego, María Ángeles; Esgueva, Raquel; Martin-Fumadó, Carles

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital after being found unconscious in his home. He had a history of alcoholism, multiple drug addictions, and type I diabetes mellitus. At admission, he had hyperglycaemia (550 mg/dL) with glucosuria and ketone bodies in the urine, along with septic shock refractory to bilateral alveolar infiltrates and severe respiratory failure. The patient died 24 hours post admission due to multiple organ failure, with diabetic ketoacidosis decompensated by possible respiratory infection in a patient with polytoxicomania. The autopsy confirmed the presence of acute bilateral bronchopneumonia, chronic pancreatitis, severe hepatic steatosis, and generalized congestive changes. At the oesophagus, acute oesophageal necrosis was evident. PMID:26949146

  3. Acute care of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Gutman, M. B.; Lee, T. F.; Gin, K.; Ho, K.

    1996-01-01

    Patients with acute myocardial infarct (AMI) need rapid diagnosis and prompt initiation of thrombolytic therapy. Patients with suspected cardiac ischemia must receive a coordinated team response by the emergency room staff including rapid electrocardiographic analysis and a quick but thorough history and physical examination to diagnose AMI. Thrombolysis and adjunct therapies should be administered promptly when indicated. The choice of thrombolytics is predicated by the location of the infarct. PMID:8754702

  4. Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) or “black esophagus” is a rare clinical entity with an unclear etiology. It is diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. The treatment is primarily medical, but the prognosis is generally poor due to advanced age and comorbid illnesses in patients who develop AEN. Herein, we discussed the implications of poor glycemic control in regards with AEN and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:27583242

  5. Management of acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Fry, A C; Farrington, K

    2006-01-01

    Acute renal failure is a common condition, frequently encountered in both community practice and hospital inpatients. While it remains a heterologous condition, following basic principles makes investigation straightforward, and initial management follows a standard pathway in most patients. This article shows this, advises on therapeutic strategies, including those in special situations, and should help the clinician in deciding when to refer to a nephrologist, and when to consider renal replacement therapy. PMID:16461473

  6. Acute hepatic failure in children.

    PubMed Central

    Riely, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Many diseases may present as acute hepatic failure in the pediatric age group, including viral hepatitis A and B, adverse drug reactions, both toxic and "hepatitic," and inherited metabolic disorders such as tyrosinemia, alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Management is primarily supportive, with care taken to anticipate the known complications of hepatic failure. Few "curative" therapies are known, although attempts at stimulating hepatic regeneration may be helpful. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:6433587

  7. Acute suprachoroidal hemorrhage during phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, A K; Fox, P D

    2000-06-01

    We present a case of acute suprachoroidal hemorrhage that developed during routine phacoemulsification in an 85-year-old patient after uneventful administration of periocular anesthesia. Pre-existing risk factors included advanced age, glaucoma, myopia, and hypertension. The scleral tunnel prevented major expulsion of intraocular contents; however, raised intraocular pressure prevented intraocular lens implantation. The rarity of this condition raises questions regarding the further management and precautions related to it. PMID:10889443

  8. [Imaging in acute toxic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Dietemann, J-L; Botelho, C; Nogueira, T; Vargas, M I; Audibert, C; Abu Eid, M; Bogorin, A; Bernardo, R; Jacques, C; Kremer, S; Zöllner, G

    2004-09-01

    Neuroimaging, particularly MR imaging, plays a major role for the diagnosis of many acute toxic encephalopathies. Toxic disorders are related to drugs (immunosuppressive agents, chemotherapeutic agents, anti-epileptic drugs, heroin...), to metals (lead, manganese, mercury...), and to industrial and environmental chemicals (solvent, carbon monoxide...). MR imaging with diffusion and perfusion imaging provides information regarding brain lesions induced by the toxic agents (vasogenic edema, cytotoxic edema, infarction, hemorrhage, demyelination...). PMID:15545943

  9. Preparation of particle-dispersion alloys (M-6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muramatsu, Yuji

    1993-01-01

    A particle dispersion alloy is one type of metal-ceramic composite material, and is used as heat resistance material, wear resistance material, and electrical material. This material consists of a metal matrix and dispersed particles, and for its unique structure it has both tenacity as a metal and hardness as a ceramic. Its properties improve when the particles become finer and disperse more uniformly. Most of the particle dispersion alloys are produced by the powder metallurgical process. This process is favorable for uniform dispersion of particles, but it consists of complicated techniques such as mechanical alloying and hot extrusion, and has the following drawbacks: (1) it is difficult to fabricate large-sized products; (2) the amount of particles is limited to a few percent; and (3) the process is complicated and expensive. To overcome these drawbacks, recently special attention has been paid to conventional melting process. However, under terrestrial conditions, dispersions separate immediately due to the different specific gravities of the metal matrix and the particles and thermal convection effects. The microgravity environment is, therefore, considered to be an attractive place for fabricating the dispersion alloy. This space experiment is carried out to clarify the influence of microgravity on the properties of the particle dispersion alloy and to obtain a deeper understanding of the experiment under the microgravity environment.

  10. Acute poisoning with Tricholoma equestre.

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Chwaluk, Paweł; Sut, Michał

    2009-01-01

    Four cases, including three adults and one child, suffering from acute poisoning with Tricholoma equestre were described. The patients had eaten from 100 to 400 grams of the mushroom within a few consecutive meals. After consuming about 1000 grams of Tricholoma equestre for 3-4 days, the subjects developed fatigue, muscle weakness, myalgia, and in two cases acute respiratory failure with the need of respiratorotherapy. Maximal serum CK was 48136 U/L in the adults and 306 U/L in children. Maximal serum levels of AST and ALT were 802 U/L and 446 U/L in adults and 39 U/L, and 56 U/L in a child. All routine biochemical tests were within normal range. No other causes of rhabdomyolysis such as parasitic or viral infections, immune diseases, trauma or exposure to medications were found. Patient, aged 72 yrs., who developed acute respiratory failure, died in the second day of hospitalization. In other patients all the above mentioned symptoms and biochemical abnormalities disappeared from 2 to 3 weeks of hospitalization. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of appearance of rhabdo-myolysis after repeated consumption of large quantities of Tricholoma equestre. PMID:19788144

  11. Management of Acute Variceal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Acute variceal bleeding could be a fatal complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. In patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis accompanied by ascites or hepatic encephalopathy, acute variceal bleeding is associated with a high mortality rate. Therefore, timely endoscopic hemostasis and prevention of relapse of bleeding are most important. The treatment goals for acute variceal bleeding are to correct hypovolemia; achieve rapid hemostasis; and prevent early rebleeding, complications related to bleeding, and deterioration of liver function. If variceal bleeding is suspected, treatment with vasopressors and antibiotics should be initiated immediately on arrival to the hospital. Furthermore, to obtain hemodynamic stability, the hemoglobin level should be maintained at >8 g/dL, systolic blood pressure >90 to 100 mm Hg, heart rate <100/min, and the central venous pressure from 1 to 5 mm Hg. When the patient becomes hemodynamically stable, hemostasis should be achieved by performing endoscopy as soon as possible. For esophageal variceal bleeding, endoscopic variceal ligation is usually performed, and for gastric variceal bleeding, endoscopic variceal obturation is performed primarily. If it is considered difficult to achieve hemostasis through endoscopy, salvage therapy may be carried out while keeping the patient hemodynamically stable. PMID:25133116

  12. Nutrition support in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Orestis; Lavrentieva, Athina; Botsios, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    In the majority (80%) of patients with acute pancreatitis, the disease is self limiting and, after a few days of withholding feeding and intravenous administration of fluids, patients can again be normally fed orally. In a small percentage of patients, the disease progresses to severe necrotic pancreatitis, with an intense systemic inflammatory response and often with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. As mortality is high in patients with severe disease and as mortality and morbidity rates are directly related to the failure of establishing a positive nitrogen balance, it is assumed that feeding will improve survival in patients with severe disease. The aim of nutritional support is to cover the elevated metabolic demands as much as possible, without stimulating pancreatic secretion and maximizing self-digestion. The administration of either total parenteral nutrition or jejunal nutrition does not stimulate pancreatic secretion. Recently, a series of controlled clinical studies has been conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of enteral nutrition with jejunal administration of the nutritional solution. The results have shown that enteral nutrition, as compared to total parenteral nutrition, was cheaper, safer and more effective as regards the suppression of the immunoinflammatory response, the decrease of septic complications, the need for surgery for the management of the complications of acute pancreatitis and the reduction of the total hospitalization period. It did not seem to affect mortality or the rate of non-septic complications. In conclusion, enteral nutrition should be the preferred route of nutritional support in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:18648127

  13. Ecallantide: in acute hereditary angioedema.

    PubMed

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2010-07-30

    Ecallantide, a recombinant protein that is a selective, highly potent and reversible inhibitor of human plasma kallikrein, is indicated for the treatment of acute attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE) in patients aged >or=16 years. In the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase III trial EDEMA3, mean symptom response to treatment at 4 hours (assessed using the Treatment Outcome Score [TOS]; primary endpoint) was significantly greater with a single subcutaneous dose of ecallantide 30 mg than with placebo in patients with acute, moderate to severe attacks of HAE. In addition, the mean change from baseline in symptom severity at 4 hours (assessed using the Mean Symptom Complex Severity [MSCS] scale) was significantly greater with ecallantide than with placebo. At 4 hours in the similarly designed EDEMA4 trial, the mean change from baseline in MSCS score (primary endpoint) and mean TOS were both significantly greater in recipients of a single subcutaneous dose of ecallantide 30 mg than in placebo recipients. Subcutaneous ecallantide 30 mg was generally well tolerated in patients with acute attacks of HAE in the EDEMA3 and EDEMA4 trials. Adverse events were mostly of mild to moderate severity, and no event that was more common in ecallantide than placebo recipients occurred in >10% of patients. PMID:20614949

  14. Imaging following acute knee trauma.

    PubMed

    Kijowski, R; Roemer, F; Englund, M; Tiderius, C J; Swärd, P; Frobell, R B

    2014-10-01

    Joint injury has been recognized as a potent risk factor for the onset of osteoarthritis. The vast majority of studies using imaging technology for longitudinal assessment of patients following joint injury have focused on the injured knee joint, specifically in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury and meniscus tears where a high risk for rapid onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis is well known. Although there are many imaging modalities under constant development, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most important instrument for longitudinal monitoring after joint injury. MR imaging is sensitive for detecting early cartilage degeneration and can evaluate other joint structures including the menisci, bone marrow, tendons, and ligaments which can be sources of pain following acute injury. In this review, focusing on imaging following acute knee trauma, several studies were identified with promising short-term results of osseous and soft tissue changes after joint injury. However, studies connecting these promising short-term results to the development of osteoarthritis were limited which is likely due to the long follow-up periods needed to document the radiographic and clinical onset of the disease. Thus, it is recommended that additional high quality longitudinal studies with extended follow-up periods be performed to further investigate the long-term consequences of the early osseous and soft tissue changes identified on MR imaging after acute knee trauma. PMID:25278054

  15. Management of severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Doctor, Nilesh; Agarwal, Pravin; Gandhi, Vidhyachandra

    2012-02-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) develops in about 25% of patients with acute pancreatitis. Severity of acute pancreatitis is linked to the presence of systemic organ dysfunctions and/or necrotizing pancreatitis. Risk factors independently determining the outcome of SAP are early multiorgan failure (MOF), infection of necrosis, and extended necrosis (>50%). Morbidity of SAP is biphasic, in the first week it is strongly related to systemic inflammatory response syndrome while, sepsis due to infected pancreatic necrosis leading to MOF syndrome occurs in the later course after the first week. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography provides the highest diagnostic accuracy for necrotizing pancreatitis when performed after the first week of disease. Patients who suffer early organ dysfunctions or are at risk for developing a severe disease require early intensive care treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis has not been shown as an effective preventive treatment. Early enteral feeding is based on a high level of evidence, resulting in a reduction of local and systemic infection. Patients suffering infected necrosis causing clinical sepsis are candidates for intervention. Hospital mortality of SAP after interventional or surgical debridement has decreased to below 20% in high-volume centers. PMID:23372306

  16. [Acute myocardial infarction during sport].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, M; Asakuma, S; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, T; Yasutomi, N; Iwasaki, T

    1995-10-01

    Thirty patients with acute myocardial infarction which occurred during sport were investigated to identify the type of sport, prodromata, situations at the onset of disease, habit of exercise, preceding medical evaluation, coronary risk factors, and coronary angiographic findings. Infarction occurred during golf in 12 patients, bowling in 4, gateball in 4, jogging or running in 5, baseball in 2, and tennis or table tennis in 3. The majority of the patients were playing ball games. Twenty-seven patients were men (90%) and 3 were women (10%). All patients had played the same kind of sport for several years. Twenty-four patients had one or more coronary risk factors, and especially 18 patients smoked cigarettes. Nine patients had experienced anterior chest pain but only two patients had received medical evaluation. Coronary angiography was performed in 25 patients (83.3%), revealing single-vessel disease in 14, two-vessel disease in 6, three-vessel disease in 4, and disease of all left main coronary trunks in 1. The acute episode of infarction occurred mainly in spring or fall. Many patients with acute myocardial infarction occurring during sport participate in sports of low or moderate dynamic and low static exercises which are generally regarded safe. Many patients had enjoyed their sports regularly for a long time. Though many patients had coronary risk factors, only a few had received a medical check before their heart attack. PMID:7500263

  17. Risk-Based Classification System of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-07

    Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  18. [Perioperative acute kidney injury and failure].

    PubMed

    Chhor, Vibol; Journois, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Perioperative period is very likely to lead to acute renal failure because of anesthesia (general or perimedullary) and/or surgery which can cause acute kidney injury. Characterization of acute renal failure is based on serum creatinine level which is imprecise during and following surgery. Studies are based on various definitions of acute renal failure with different thresholds which skewed their comparisons. The RIFLE classification (risk, injury, failure, loss, end stage kidney disease) allows clinicians to distinguish in a similar manner between different stages of acute kidney injury rather than using a unique definition of acute renal failure. Acute renal failure during the perioperative period can mainly be explained by iatrogenic, hemodynamic or surgical causes and can result in an increased morbi-mortality. Prevention of this complication requires hemodynamic optimization (venous return, cardiac output, vascular resistance), discontinuation of nephrotoxic drugs but also knowledge of the different steps of the surgery to avoid further degradation of renal perfusion. Diuretics do not prevent acute renal failure and may even push it forward especially during the perioperative period when venous retourn is already reduced. Edema or weight gain following surgery are not correlated with the vascular compartment volume, much less with renal perfusion. Treatment of perioperative acute renal failure is similar to other acute renal failure. Renal replacement therapy must be mastered to prevent any additional risk of hemodynamic instability or hydro-electrolytic imbalance. PMID:24656890

  19. Interventions for acute internal hordeolum

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Kristina; Nichols, Jason J; Dickersin, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Background Hordeolum is a common, painful inflammation of the eyelid margin that is usually caused by bacterial infection. The infection affects oil glands of the eyelid and can be internal or external. In many cases, the lesion drains spontaneously and resolves untreated; however, the inflammation can spread to other ocular glands or tissues, and recurrences are common. If unresolved, acute internal hordeolum can become chronic or can develop into a chalazion. External hordeola, also known as styes, were not included in the scope of this review. Objectives The objective of this review was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of nonsurgical treatments for acute internal hordeolum compared with observation or placebo. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to July 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 26 July 2012. Selection criteria The selection criteria for this review included randomized or quasi-randomized clinical trials of participants diagnosed with acute internal hordeolum. Studies of participants with external hordeolum (stye), chronic hordeolum, or chalazion were excluded. Nonsurgical interventions of interest included the use of hot or warm compresses, lid scrubs, antibiotics, or steroids compared with observation, placebo, or other active interventions. Data collection and analysis

  20. Acute Exacerbations of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Collard, Harold R.; Moore, Bethany B.; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Brown, Kevin K.; Kaner, Robert J.; King, Talmadge E.; Lasky, Joseph A.; Loyd, James E.; Noth, Imre; Olman, Mitchell A.; Raghu, Ganesh; Roman, Jesse; Ryu, Jay H.; Zisman, David A.; Hunninghake, Gary W.; Colby, Thomas V.; Egan, Jim J.; Hansell, David M.; Johkoh, Takeshi; Kaminski, Naftali; Kim, Dong Soon; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Lynch, David A.; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Myers, Jeffrey L.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Selman, Moisés; Toews, Galen B.; Wells, Athol U.; Martinez, Fernando J.

    2007-01-01

    The natural history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been characterized as a steady, predictable decline in lung function over time. Recent evidence suggests that some patients may experience a more precipitous course, with periods of relative stability followed by acute deteriorations in respiratory status. Many of these acute deteriorations are of unknown etiology and have been termed acute exacerbations of IPF. This perspective is the result of an international effort to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding acute exacerbations of IPF. Acute exacerbations of IPF are defined as acute, clinically significant deteriorations of unidentifiable cause in patients with underlying IPF. Proposed diagnostic criteria include subjective worsening over 30 days or less, new bilateral radiographic opacities, and the absence of infection or another identifiable etiology. The potential pathobiological roles of infection, disordered cell biology, coagulation, and genetics are discussed, and future research directions are proposed. PMID:17585107