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Sample records for acute experimental infection

  1. Placental thrombosis in acute phase abortions during experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    After oral administration of ewes during mid gestation with 2000 freshly prepared sporulated oocysts of T. gondii isolate M4, abortions occurred between days 7 and 11 in 91.6% of pregnant and infected ewes. Afterwards, a further infection was carried out at late gestation in another group of sheep with 500 sporulated oocysts. Abortions happened again between days 9 and 11 post infection (pi) in 58.3% of the infected ewes. Classically, abortions in natural and experimental ovine toxoplasmosis usually occur one month after infection. Few experimental studies have reported the so-called acute phase abortions as early as 7 to 14 days after oral inoculation of oocysts, and pyrexia was proposed to be responsible for abortion, although the underline mechanism was not elucidated. In the present study, all placentas analysed from ewes suffering acute phase abortions showed infarcts and thrombosis in the caruncullar villi of the placentomes and ischemic lesions (periventricular leukomalacia) in the brain of some foetuses. The parasite was identified by PCR in samples from some placentomes of only one sheep, and no antigen was detected by immunohistochemical labelling. These findings suggest that the vascular lesions found in the placenta, and the consequent hypoxic damage to the foetus, could be associated to the occurrence of acute phase abortions. Although the pathogenesis of these lesions remains to be determined, the infectious dose or virulence of the isolate may play a role in their development. PMID:24475786

  2. Placental thrombosis in acute phase abortions during experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Pablo; Fuertes, Miguel; Ferre, Ignacio; Fernández, Miguel; Ferreras, Maria del Carmen; Moreno-Gonzalo, Javier; González-Lanza, Camino; Katzer, Frank; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Pérez, Valentín; Benavides, Julio

    2014-01-29

    After oral administration of ewes during mid gestation with 2000 freshly prepared sporulated oocysts of T. gondii isolate M4, abortions occurred between days 7 and 11 in 91.6% of pregnant and infected ewes. Afterwards, a further infection was carried out at late gestation in another group of sheep with 500 sporulated oocysts. Abortions happened again between days 9 and 11 post infection (pi) in 58.3% of the infected ewes. Classically, abortions in natural and experimental ovine toxoplasmosis usually occur one month after infection. Few experimental studies have reported the so-called acute phase abortions as early as 7 to 14 days after oral inoculation of oocysts, and pyrexia was proposed to be responsible for abortion, although the underline mechanism was not elucidated. In the present study, all placentas analysed from ewes suffering acute phase abortions showed infarcts and thrombosis in the caruncullar villi of the placentomes and ischemic lesions (periventricular leukomalacia) in the brain of some foetuses. The parasite was identified by PCR in samples from some placentomes of only one sheep, and no antigen was detected by immunohistochemical labelling. These findings suggest that the vascular lesions found in the placenta, and the consequent hypoxic damage to the foetus, could be associated to the occurrence of acute phase abortions. Although the pathogenesis of these lesions remains to be determined, the infectious dose or virulence of the isolate may play a role in their development.

  3. Effect of inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production on pancreatic infection in experimental acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ana Maria M.; Sampietre, Sandra; Patzina, Rosely; Jukemura, Jose; Cunha, Jose Eduardo M.; Machado, Marcel C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Acute pancreatitis is one the important causes of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). SIRS results in gut barrier dysfunction that allows bacterial translocation and pancreatic infection to occur. Indomethacin has been used to reduce inflammatory process and bacterial translocation in experimental models. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production on pancreatic infection. Materials and methods. An experimental model of severe acute pancreatitis (AP) was utilized. The animals were divided into three groups: sham (surgical procedure without AP induction); pancreatitis (AP induction); and indomethacin (AP induction plus administration of 3 mg/kg of indomethacin). Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, PGE2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured 2 h after the induction of AP. We analyzed the occurrence of pancreatic infection with bacterial cultures performed 24 h after the induction of AP. The occurrence of pancreatic infection (considered positive when the CFU/g was >105), pancreatic histologic analysis, and mortality rate were studied. Results. In spite of the reduction of IL-6, IL-10, and PGE2 levels in the indomethacin group, TNF-α level, bacterial translocation, and pancreatic infection were not influenced by administration of indomethacin. The inhibition of PGE2 production did not reduce pancreatic infection, histologic score, or mortality rate. Conclusion. The inhibition of PGE2 production was not able to reduce the occurrence of pancreatic infection and does not have any beneficial effect in this experimental model. Further investigations will be necessary to discover a specific inhibitor that would make it possible to develop an anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:18345325

  4. Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Suojala, Leena; Orro, Toomas; Järvinen, Hanna; Saatsi, Johanna; Pyörälä, Satu

    2008-01-01

    Background Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model. Methods Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) were determined in serum and milk. Results In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli. Conclusion Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary induction of the same animals

  5. Use of Noninvasive Parameters to Evaluate Swiss Webster Mice During Trypanosoma cruzi Experimental Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jerônimo D S; Hoppe, Luanda Y; Duque, Thabata L A; de Castro, Solange Lisboa; Oliveira, Gabriel M

    2016-04-01

    Until now, there has been neither an agreed-upon experimental model nor descriptors of the clinical symptoms that occur over the course of acute murine infection. The aim of this work is to use noninvasive methods to evaluate clinical signs in Swiss Webster mice that were experimentally infected with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi during acute phase (Inf group). Infected mice showed evident clinical changes beginning in the second week of infection (wpi) when compared to the noninfected group (NI): (1) animals in hunched postures, closed eyes, lowered ears, peeling skin, increased piloerection, prostration, and social isolation; (2) significant decrease in body weight (Inf: 26.2 ± 2.6 g vs. NI: 34.2 ± 2.5 g) and in chow (1.5 ± 0.3 vs. 6.3 ± 0.5 mg) and water (2.4 ± 0.5 vs. 5.8 ± 0.7 ml) intake; (3) significant decrease of spontaneous activity as locomotor parameters: distance (0.64 ± 0.06 vs. 1.8 ± 0.13 m), velocity (1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 6.7 ± 1.5 cm/sec), and exploratory behavior by frequency (1.0 ± 0.5 vs. 5.7 ± 1.0 events) and duration (1.4 ± 0.3 vs. 5.1 ± 0.5 sec in central arena region); (4) significant increase in the PR (41.7 ± 8.7 vs. 27.6 ± 1.9 msec) and QT intervals (39.7 ± 2.0 vs. 27.5 ± 4.0 msec), and a decreased cardiac frequency (505 ± 52.8 vs. 774 ± 17.8 msec), showing a marked sinus bradycardia and an atrioventricular block. At 3 and 4 wpi, the surviving animals showed a tendency of recovery in body weight, food intake, locomotor activity, and exploratory interest. Through the use of noninvasive parameters, we were able to monitor the severity of the infection in individuals prior to death. Our perspective is the application of noninvasive methods to describe clinical signs over the course of acute infection complementing the preclinical evaluation of new agents, alone or in combination with benznidazole.

  6. Use of Noninvasive Parameters to Evaluate Swiss Webster Mice During Trypanosoma cruzi Experimental Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jerônimo D S; Hoppe, Luanda Y; Duque, Thabata L A; de Castro, Solange Lisboa; Oliveira, Gabriel M

    2016-04-01

    Until now, there has been neither an agreed-upon experimental model nor descriptors of the clinical symptoms that occur over the course of acute murine infection. The aim of this work is to use noninvasive methods to evaluate clinical signs in Swiss Webster mice that were experimentally infected with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi during acute phase (Inf group). Infected mice showed evident clinical changes beginning in the second week of infection (wpi) when compared to the noninfected group (NI): (1) animals in hunched postures, closed eyes, lowered ears, peeling skin, increased piloerection, prostration, and social isolation; (2) significant decrease in body weight (Inf: 26.2 ± 2.6 g vs. NI: 34.2 ± 2.5 g) and in chow (1.5 ± 0.3 vs. 6.3 ± 0.5 mg) and water (2.4 ± 0.5 vs. 5.8 ± 0.7 ml) intake; (3) significant decrease of spontaneous activity as locomotor parameters: distance (0.64 ± 0.06 vs. 1.8 ± 0.13 m), velocity (1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 6.7 ± 1.5 cm/sec), and exploratory behavior by frequency (1.0 ± 0.5 vs. 5.7 ± 1.0 events) and duration (1.4 ± 0.3 vs. 5.1 ± 0.5 sec in central arena region); (4) significant increase in the PR (41.7 ± 8.7 vs. 27.6 ± 1.9 msec) and QT intervals (39.7 ± 2.0 vs. 27.5 ± 4.0 msec), and a decreased cardiac frequency (505 ± 52.8 vs. 774 ± 17.8 msec), showing a marked sinus bradycardia and an atrioventricular block. At 3 and 4 wpi, the surviving animals showed a tendency of recovery in body weight, food intake, locomotor activity, and exploratory interest. Through the use of noninvasive parameters, we were able to monitor the severity of the infection in individuals prior to death. Our perspective is the application of noninvasive methods to describe clinical signs over the course of acute infection complementing the preclinical evaluation of new agents, alone or in combination with benznidazole. PMID:26741817

  7. Clomipramine and benznidazole association for the treatment of acute experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Mariana; Lo Presti, M Silvina; Bazán, Paula Carolina; Baez, Alejandra; Fauro, Romina; Esteves, Blanca; Sanchez Negrete, Olga; Cremonezzi, David; Paglini-Oliva, Patricia A; Rivarola, H Walter

    2013-06-01

    Alternative strategies are being designed to identify candidates among drugs already available on the market that could be used in combination to improve the efficacy of Chagas disease treatment. This work evaluates the effect of the association of clomipramine (CLO) with benznidazole (BZN) for the treatment of experimental Chagas disease in the acute stage, in Swiss albino mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Tulahuen strain. Infected mice were treated with CLO 5mg/kg/day and BZN 50 and 100mg/kg/day, each separately or together. Efficacy of the treatment was evaluated through parasitemia, survival, electrocardiography, histopathological studies, serological and PCR assays at 90 days post-infection (dpi). All treatments significantly (P<0.05) reduced mortality and decreased parasitemia. Histopathological analysis of liver and kidneys of mice treated with CLO and the drug combination showed less injury than mice treated only with BZN. The lower dose of BZN (50mg/kg/day) combined with CLO showed the same efficacy as the habitual dose of BZN (100mg/kg/day) combined with CLO. The therapeutic results from the combination of BZN with CLO presented lesser side effects than the treatment with BZN.

  8. Pathologic and ultrastructural changes of acute and chronic delta hepatitis in an experimentally infected chimpanzee.

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, S.; Fields, H. A.; Humphrey, C. D.; Margolis, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    A hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) chronic carrier chimpanzee experimentally superinfected with delta virus (DV) developed chronic DV infection. Over a period of 12 months, serologic and biochemical changes were correlated with morphologic abnormalities of the liver. Severe hepatic necrosis and inflammation accompanied the initial acute episode of hepatitis on Day 35 after inoculation, followed by complete resolution of these lesions over the next 3 months. A second episode of hepatitis occurred on Day 145, and severe necrosis and inflammation recurred along with the reappearance of delta antigen in the hepatocytes. Delta antigen persisted in the liver following the second episode of hepatitis and has remained positive throughout the observation period of 1 year. During the initial acute episode, the hepatocytes exhibited foamy cytoplasmic changes resembling microvesicular fat. However, ultrastructural studies of the same cells revealed only vacuolization of the cytoplasm without evidence of fat droplets. The inflammatory infiltrate during both episodes of hepatitis demonstrated a striking predominance of macrophages over lymphocytes. Hepatocyte abnormalities observed by electron microscopy included vacuoles, proliferated endoplasmic reticulum, and tubules similar to those seen in posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. However, the tubular and reticular abnormalities coincided with delta antigen expression in liver biopsies detected by direct immunoperoxidase staining and abnormal alanine aminotransferase levels in the serum, which suggests a possible causal relationship. Nuclear abnormalities were not seen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3511726

  9. Nitroheterocyclic drugs cure experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infections more effectively in the chronic stage than in the acute stage

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Amanda Fortes; Jayawardhana, Shiromani; Lewis, Michael D.; White, Karen L.; Shackleford, David M.; Chen, Gong; Saunders, Jessica; Osuna-Cabello, Maria; Read, Kevin D.; Charman, Susan A.; Chatelain, Eric; Kelly, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The insect-transmitted protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, and infects 5–8 million people in Latin America. Chagas disease is characterised by an acute phase, which is partially resolved by the immune system, but then develops as a chronic life-long infection. There is a consensus that the front-line drugs benznidazole and nifurtimox are more effective against the acute stage in both clinical and experimental settings. However, confirmative studies have been restricted by difficulties in demonstrating sterile parasitological cure. Here, we describe a systematic study of nitroheterocyclic drug efficacy using highly sensitive bioluminescence imaging of murine infections. Unexpectedly, we find both drugs are more effective at curing chronic infections, judged by treatment duration and therapeutic dose. This was not associated with factors that differentially influence plasma drug concentrations in the two disease stages. We also observed that fexinidazole and fexinidazole sulfone are more effective than benznidazole and nifurtimox as curative treatments, particularly for acute stage infections, most likely as a result of the higher and more prolonged exposure of the sulfone derivative. If these findings are translatable to human patients, they will have important implications for treatment strategies. PMID:27748443

  10. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  11. Immune and acute phase response in pigs experimentally infected with H1N2 swine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof

    2012-12-01

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) and immune responses in pigs after experimental infection with H1N2 swine influenza virus (SwH1N2) were studied. Eight piglets were infected intranasally with SwH1N2. Four served as controls. Antibodies against swine influenza virus (SIV)s were measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay. The proliferation assay was used to measure influenza-specific cell-mediated response. Hematological parameters were measured on a hematology analyzer. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major APP (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. Antibodies against SwH1N2 in the serum of infected pigs were detected from 7 dpi. SwH1N2-specific T-cell response was observed from 5 dpi. A significant drop in lymphocyte numbers and an increase in medium-sized cell (MID) counts with no accompanying leukopenia was observed in all infected pigs from 3 to 7 dpi. In infected pigs, concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA increased significantly when the greatest amounts of virus were shed (from 1 to 3 dpi). The level of Pig-MAP remained unchanged during study. The significant positive correlation found between maximum concentrations of SAA in serum and lung scores, makes SAA a potentially useful indicator in experimental infection studies (e.g. vaccine efficiency investigations) or as a marker for disease severity, but to confirm this hypothesis more studies are needed.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE GLOMERULITIS

    PubMed Central

    Lukens, Francis D. W.; Longcope, Warfield T.

    1931-01-01

    1. Both focal and diffuse glomerulitis has been produced in rabbits by the injection directly into the left renal artery of suspensions of heat killed hemolytic streptococci. 2. Similar lesions in the glomeruli could not be obtained by the injection of suspensions of bismuth oxychloride into the left renal artery of normal rabbits. 3. The acute glomerulitis occurred in only about one-half of the rabbits employed for the experiments. 4. Glomerulitis was observed much more frequently in rabbits in which an acute localized streptococcus infection had been produced by the intracutaneous injection of living hemolytic streptococci, than in normal rabbits. The occurrence of acute glomerulitis was usually associated with a well marked skin reaction to the filtrates of hemolytic streptococci. PMID:19869861

  13. Clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical detection of antigens in acute experimental Streptococcus agalactiae infection in red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.).

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Syuhaidah; Omar, Noraini; Yusoff, Sabri Mohd; Obukwho, Emikpe Benjamin; Nwunuji, Tanko Polycarp; Hanan, Latifah; Samad, Jamil

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the clinicopathological features of acute experimental streptococcosis in red tilapia using various routes of infection; intraperitoneal (IP), immersion (IM) and immersion cut (IC). Twenty four red tilapia in duplicates were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(9) CFU/ml of S. agalactiae while another sets: intact, one with sharp cut at the tail end were exposed to bacterial inoculums 10(9) CFU/ml diluted in water while two groups of control fish were similarly manipulated. Clinical signs were recorded; samples from the gills, brain, eyes and kidneys were also taken for bacterial isolation and histopathology. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed to detect the antigen. The diseased fish showed skin, fin haemorrhages and exophthalmia with obvious signs in IP at 2 hpc followed by IC and IM at 4 hpc. The lesions were noticed earlier in the kidney and most severe in IP. IHC detected antigen as early as PCR and isolation with intense staining in blood vessel lumen and wall, macrophages in choroid, focal haemorrhage in the renal interstitium and meninges especially in IP followed by IC and IM. The immunolocalisation of the antigen described for the first time further explain the pathogenesis of streptococcosis in red tilapia. PMID:23961386

  14. Acute upper airway infections.

    PubMed

    West, J V

    2002-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections are common and important. Although rarely fatal, they are a source of significant morbidity and carry a considerable economic burden. Numerous therapies for the common cold have no effect on symptoms or outcome. Complications such as cough are not improved by over-the-counter preparations, while labelling cough alone as a symptom of asthma may result in unnecessary use of inhaled steroid treatment. Clinical presentation of sore throat does not accurately predict whether the infection is viral or bacterial, while throat culture and rapid antigen tests do not significantly change prescribing practice. Antibiotics have only a limited place in the management of recurrent sore throat due to group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection. Routine use of antibiotics in upper respiratory infection enhances parent belief in their effectiveness and increases the likelihood of future consultation in primary care for minor self-limiting illness. Respiratory viruses play a major role in the aetiology of acute otitis media (AOM); prevention includes the use of influenza or RSV vaccination, in addition to reducing other risk factors such as early exposure to respiratory viruses in day-care settings and to environmental tobacco smoke. The use of ventilation tubes (grommets) in secretory otitis media (SOM) remains controversial with conflicting data on developmental outcome and quality of life in young children. New conjugate pneumococcal vaccines appear safe in young children and prevent 6-7% of clinically diagnosed AOM.

  15. C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and Pig-Major acute phase protein profiles of pigs infected experimentally by different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Saco, Y; Martínez-Lobo, F; Cortey, M; Pato, R; Peña, R; Segalés, J; Prieto, C; Bassols, A

    2016-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) is the etiologic agent of PRRS, one of the most important diseases in swine worldwide. In the present work, the effects of different PRRSV strains were tested on a piglet experimental model to study the induced acute phase response. For this purpose, pigs (n=15 for each group) were intranasally inoculated with one of five PRRSV strains (isolates EU10, 12, 17, 18 from genotype 1 and isolate JA-142 from genotype 2). The acute phase response was monitored by measuring acute phase proteins (APPs). Specifically, the serum concentration of haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP) and Pig-Major Acute Protein (Pig-MAP) was determined at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days p.i. Clinical signs and growth performance were also monitored during the experiment. All animals became viremic after inoculation during the study period. The APP response was heterogeneous and dependent on the strain, being strains EU10, EU 18 and JA-142 those that induced the highest response and the strongest clinical signs. In general, Hp was the most sensitive biomarker for PRRSV infection, CRP behaved as moderate and Pig-MAP was the less responsive during the course of PRRSV experimental infection. Hp and CRP were significantly discriminatory between infected and control pigs, but not Pig-MAP.

  16. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Castro, Tatiana Xavier; do Nascimento, Jussara Pereira; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group. PMID:27074255

  17. Immunopathologic changes in the thymus during the acute stage of experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection in juvenile cats.

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J C; Dean, G A; Pedersen, N C; Moore, P F

    1997-01-01

    The feline thymus is a target organ and site of viral replication during the acute stage of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection. This was demonstrated by histologic, immunohistologic, flow cytometric, and virologic tests. Thymic lesions developed after 28 days postinoculation (p.i.) and included thymitis, premature cortical involution, and medullary B-cell hyperplasia with germinal center formation and epithelial distortion. Alterations in thymocyte subsets also developed. Fewer CD4+ CD8- cells were detected at 28 days p.i., while an increase in CD4- CD8+ cells resulted in an inversion of the thymic CD4/CD8 ratio of single-positive cells, similar to events in peripheral blood. Provirus was present in all thymocyte subpopulations including cortical CD1(hi), CD1(lo), and B cells. The CD1(hi) thymocyte proviral burden increased markedly after 56 days p.i., coincident with the presence of infiltrating inflammatory cells. Increased levels of provirus in the CD1(lo) thymocyte subpopulation were detected prior to 56 days p.i. This was likely due to inclusion of infected infiltrating inflammatory cells which could not be differentiated from mature, medullary thymocytes. Proviral levels in B cells also increased from 70 days p.i. Morphologic alterations, productive viral infection, and altered thymocyte subpopulations suggest that thymic function is compromised, thus contributing to the inability of FIV-infected cats to replenish the peripheral T-cell pool. PMID:9343221

  18. Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

    MedlinePlus

    CMV mononucleosis; Cytomegalovirus (CMV) ... Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is very common. The infection is spread by: Blood transfusions Organ transplants Respiratory droplets Saliva Sexual contact ...

  19. During acute experimental infection with the reticulotropic Trypanosoma cruzi strain Tulahuen IL-22 is induced IL-23-dependently but is dispensable for protection.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Hanna; Behrends, Jochen; Hölscher, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, depends on the activation of macrophages by IFN-γ and IL-17A. In contrast, IL-10 prevents immunopathology. IL-22 belongs to the IL-10 cytokine family and has pleiotropic effects during host defense and immunopathology, however its role in protection and pathology during T. cruzi infection has not been analyzed yet. Therefore, we examined the role of IL-22 in experimental Chagas disease using the reticulotropic Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi. During infection, IL-22 is secreted by CD4-positive cells in an IL-23-dependent fashion. Infected IL-22(-/-) mice exhibited an increased production of IFN-γ and TNF and displayed enhanced numbers of activated IFN-γ-producing T cells in their spleens. Additionally, the production of IL-10 was increased in IL-22(-/-) mice upon infection. Macrophage activation and by association the parasitemia was not affected in the absence of IL-22. Apart from a transient increase in the body weight loss, infected IL-22(-/-) mice did not show any signs for an altered immunopathology during the first fourteen days of infection. Taken together, although IL-22 is expressed, it seems to play a minor role in protection and pathology during the acute systemic infection with the reticulotropic Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi. PMID:27650379

  20. During acute experimental infection with the reticulotropic Trypanosoma cruzi strain Tulahuen IL-22 is induced IL-23-dependently but is dispensable for protection

    PubMed Central

    Erdmann, Hanna; Behrends, Jochen; Hölscher, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, depends on the activation of macrophages by IFN-γ and IL-17A. In contrast, IL-10 prevents immunopathology. IL-22 belongs to the IL-10 cytokine family and has pleiotropic effects during host defense and immunopathology, however its role in protection and pathology during T. cruzi infection has not been analyzed yet. Therefore, we examined the role of IL-22 in experimental Chagas disease using the reticulotropic Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi. During infection, IL-22 is secreted by CD4-positive cells in an IL-23-dependent fashion. Infected IL-22−/− mice exhibited an increased production of IFN-γ and TNF and displayed enhanced numbers of activated IFN-γ-producing T cells in their spleens. Additionally, the production of IL-10 was increased in IL-22−/− mice upon infection. Macrophage activation and by association the parasitemia was not affected in the absence of IL-22. Apart from a transient increase in the body weight loss, infected IL-22−/− mice did not show any signs for an altered immunopathology during the first fourteen days of infection. Taken together, although IL-22 is expressed, it seems to play a minor role in protection and pathology during the acute systemic infection with the reticulotropic Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi. PMID:27650379

  1. During acute experimental infection with the reticulotropic Trypanosoma cruzi strain Tulahuen IL-22 is induced IL-23-dependently but is dispensable for protection.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Hanna; Behrends, Jochen; Hölscher, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, depends on the activation of macrophages by IFN-γ and IL-17A. In contrast, IL-10 prevents immunopathology. IL-22 belongs to the IL-10 cytokine family and has pleiotropic effects during host defense and immunopathology, however its role in protection and pathology during T. cruzi infection has not been analyzed yet. Therefore, we examined the role of IL-22 in experimental Chagas disease using the reticulotropic Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi. During infection, IL-22 is secreted by CD4-positive cells in an IL-23-dependent fashion. Infected IL-22(-/-) mice exhibited an increased production of IFN-γ and TNF and displayed enhanced numbers of activated IFN-γ-producing T cells in their spleens. Additionally, the production of IL-10 was increased in IL-22(-/-) mice upon infection. Macrophage activation and by association the parasitemia was not affected in the absence of IL-22. Apart from a transient increase in the body weight loss, infected IL-22(-/-) mice did not show any signs for an altered immunopathology during the first fourteen days of infection. Taken together, although IL-22 is expressed, it seems to play a minor role in protection and pathology during the acute systemic infection with the reticulotropic Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi.

  2. Altered thymocyte migration during experimental acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection: combined role of fibronectin and the chemokines CXCL12 and CCL4.

    PubMed

    Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Arêas; Silva, João Santana; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; Savino, Wilson

    2006-06-01

    We previously showed migration disturbances in the thymus during experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. These changes were related to the enhanced expression of extracellular matrix ligands and receptors, leading to the escape of immature cells to the periphery. Here, we analyzed the expression and role of selected chemokines (CXCL12 and CCL4) and their receptors (CXCR4 and CCR5) in regulating thymocyte migration in conjunction with extracellular matrix during acute T. cruzi infection. We found increased chemokine deposition in the thymus of infected mice when compared to controls, accompanied by enhanced co-localization with fibronectin as well as up-regulated surface expression of CXCR4 and CCR5 in thymocytes. We also noticed altered thymocyte migration towards the chemokines analyzed. Such an enhancement was even more prominent when fibronectin was added as a haptotatic stimulus in combination with a given chemokine. Our findings suggest that thymocyte migration results from a combined action of chemokines and extracellular matrix (ECM), which can be altered during pathological conditions such as T. cruzi infection, and may be at the origin of the changes in the T cell repertoire seen in this pathological process.

  3. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887

  4. Stress and acute respiratory infection

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, N.M.; Douglas, R.M.; Ryan, P.

    1986-09-01

    To examine the relationship between stress and upper respiratory tract infection, 235 adults aged 14-57 years, from 94 families affiliated with three suburban family physicians in Adelaide, South Australia, participated in a six-month prospective study. High and low stress groups were identified by median splits of data collected from the Life Events Inventory, the Daily Hassles Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire, which were administered both before and during the six months of respiratory diary data collection. Using intra-study stress data, the high stress group experienced significantly more episodes (mean of 2.71 vs. 1.56, p less than 0.0005) and symptom days (mean of 29.43 vs. 15.42, p = 0.005) of respiratory illness. The two groups were almost identical with respect to age, sex, occupational status, smoking, passive smoking, exposure to air pollution, family size, and proneness to acute respiratory infection in childhood. In a multivariate model with total respiratory episodes as the dependent variable, 21% of the variance was explained, and two stress variables accounted for 9% of the explained variance. Significant, but less strong relationships were also identified between intra-study stress variables and clinically definite episodes and symptom days in both clinically definite and total respiratory episodes. Pre-study measures of stress emphasized chronic stresses and were less strongly related to measures of respiratory illness than those collected during the study. However, significantly more episodes (mean of 2.50 vs. 1.75, p less than 0.02) and symptom days (mean of 28.00 vs. 17.06, p less than 0.03) were experienced in the high stress group. In the multivariate analyses, pre-study stress remained significantly associated with total respiratory episodes nd symptom days in total and ''definite'' respiratory episodes.

  5. Current Therapy in Acute Mouth Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, George; Burnstein, Irwin L.

    1970-01-01

    Until a dental department is added to a college health service, a physician or nurse can give treatment for acute oral infections. Treatment excludes the use of caustic, escharotic chemicals in favor of more benign agents. (Author)

  6. Tsutsugamushi infection-associated acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Young, Park Chi; Hae, Chung Choon; Lee, Kim Hyun; Hoon, Chung Jong

    2003-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication that emerges in a variety of infectious diseases, such as tsutsugamushi infection. In this study, we report a 71-year-old female patient with tsutsugamushi infection who exhibiting rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. On admission, an eschar, which is characteristic of tsutsugamushi infection, was found on her right flank area. Moreover, her tsutsugamushi antibody titer was 1:40960. The elevated values of serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aldolase, creatinine and dark brown urine secondary to myoglobinuria are consistent with indications of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure due to tsutsugamushi infection. Her health improved without any residual effects after treatment with doxycyclin and hydration with normal saline. PMID:14717236

  7. Acute otitis media and respiratory virus infections.

    PubMed

    Ruuskanen, O; Arola, M; Putto-Laurila, A; Mertsola, J; Meurman, O; Viljanen, M K; Halonen, P

    1989-02-01

    We studied the association of acute otitis media with different respiratory virus infections in a pediatric department on the basis of epidemics between 1980 and 1985. Altogether 4524 cases of acute otitis media were diagnosed. The diagnosis was confirmed by tympanocentesis in 3332 ears. Respiratory virus infection was diagnosed during the same period in 989 patients by detecting viral antigen in nasopharyngeal mucus. There was a significant correlation between acute otitis media and respiratory virus epidemics, especially respiratory syncytial virus epidemics. There was no significant correlation between outbreaks of other respiratory viruses and acute otitis media. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 57% of respiratory syncytial virus, 35% of influenza A virus, 33% of parainfluenza type 3 virus, 30% of adenovirus, 28% of parainfluenza type 1 virus, 18% of influenza B virus and 10% of parainfluenza type 2 virus infections. These observations show a clear association of respiratory virus infections with acute otitis media. In this study on hospitalized children Haemophilus influenzae strains were the most common bacteriologic pathogens in middle ear fluid, occurring in 19% of cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae was present in 16% and Branhamella catarrhalis in 7% of cases. There was no association between specific viruses and bacteria observed in this study.

  8. Role of dystrophin in acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Malvestio, Lygia M; Celes, Mara R N; Milanezi, Cristiane; Silva, João S; Jelicks, Linda A; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Rossi, Marcos A; Prado, Cibele M

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated loss/reduction of dystrophin in cardiomyocytes in both acute and chronic stages of experimental Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection in mice. The mechanisms responsible for dystrophin disruption in the hearts of mice acutely infected with T. cruzi are not completely understood. The present in vivo and in vitro studies were undertaken to evaluate the role of inflammation in dystrophin disruption and its correlation with the high mortality rate during acute infection. C57BL/6 mice were infected with T. cruzi and killed 14, 20 and 26 days post infection (dpi). The intensity of inflammation, cardiac expression of dystrophin, calpain-1, NF-κB, TNF-α, and sarcolemmal permeability were evaluated. Cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocytes were incubated with serum, collected at the peak of cytokine production and free of parasites, from T. cruzi-infected mice and dystrophin, calpain-1, and NF-κB expression analyzed. Dystrophin disruption occurs at the peak of mortality and inflammation and is associated with increased expression of calpain-1, TNF-α, NF-κB, and increased sarcolemmal permeability in the heart of T. cruzi-infected mice at 20 dpi confirmed by in vitro studies. The peak of mortality occurred only when significant loss of dystrophin in the hearts of infected animals occurred, highlighting the correlation between inflammation, dystrophin loss and mortality.

  9. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Maes, Michaël; Vinken, Mathieu; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure can be the consequence of various etiologies, with most cases arising from drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Western countries. Despite advances in this field, the management of acute liver failure continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. The availability of adequate experimental models is of crucial importance to provide a better understanding of this condition and to allow identification of novel drug targets, testing the efficacy of new therapeutic interventions and acting as models for assessing mechanisms of toxicity. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure rely on surgical procedures, chemical exposure or viral infection. Each of these models has a number of strengths and weaknesses. This paper specifically reviews commonly used chemical in vivo and in vitro models of hepatotoxicity associated with acute liver failure. PMID:26631581

  10. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Michaël; Vinken, Mathieu; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure can be the consequence of various etiologies, with most cases arising from drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Western countries. Despite advances in this field, the management of acute liver failure continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. The availability of adequate experimental models is of crucial importance to provide a better understanding of this condition and to allow identification of novel drug targets, testing the efficacy of new therapeutic interventions and acting as models for assessing mechanisms of toxicity. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure rely on surgical procedures, chemical exposure or viral infection. Each of these models has a number of strengths and weaknesses. This paper specifically reviews commonly used chemical in vivo and in vitro models of hepatotoxicity associated with acute liver failure. PMID:26631581

  11. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Maes, Michaël; Vinken, Mathieu; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure can be the consequence of various etiologies, with most cases arising from drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Western countries. Despite advances in this field, the management of acute liver failure continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. The availability of adequate experimental models is of crucial importance to provide a better understanding of this condition and to allow identification of novel drug targets, testing the efficacy of new therapeutic interventions and acting as models for assessing mechanisms of toxicity. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure rely on surgical procedures, chemical exposure or viral infection. Each of these models has a number of strengths and weaknesses. This paper specifically reviews commonly used chemical in vivo and in vitro models of hepatotoxicity associated with acute liver failure.

  12. Immunology of experimental and natural human hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Gaze, S; Bethony, J M; Periago, M V

    2014-08-01

    Human hookworm infection is one amongst the most prevalent of the neglected tropical diseases. An informative experimental animal model, that is, one that parallels a human infection, is not available for the study of human hookworm infection. Much of our current understanding of the human immune response during hookworm infection relies on the studies from experimental infection of hookworm-naïve individuals or the natural infections from individuals residing in hookworm-endemic areas. The experimental human infections tend to be acute, dose-controlled infections, often with a low larval inoculum so that they are well tolerated by human volunteers. Natural hookworm infections usually occur in areas where hookworm transmission is constant and infection is chronic. In cases where there has been drug administration in an endemic area, re-infection often occurs quickly even amongst those who were treated. Hence, although many of the characteristics of experimental and natural hookworm infection differ, both models have elements in common: mainly an intense Th2 response with the production of total and specific IgE as well as elevated levels of eosinophilia, IL-5, IL-10 and TNF. While hookworm infection affects millions of individuals worldwide, much of the human immunology of this infection still needs to be studied and understood.

  13. When to consider acute HIV infection in the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Richard M; Hardwicke, Robin L; Grimes, Deanna E; DeGarmo, D Sean

    2016-01-16

    Patients presenting with fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy are likely to have mononucleosis; however, patients with acute HIV infection may present with similar symptoms. Acute HIV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis if test results for mononucleosis are negative. This article describes when to order HIV testing and discusses the importance of early intervention for acute HIV infection. PMID:26678418

  14. Experimental evidence of hepatitis A virus infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kwak, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, with HAV infection being restricted to humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, HAV infection status was serologically determined in domestic pigs and experimental infections of HAV were attempted to verify HAV infectivity in pigs. Antibodies specific to HAV or HAV-like agents were detected in 3.5% of serum samples collected from pigs in swine farms. When the pigs were infected intravenously with 2 × 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ) of HAV, shedding of the virus in feces, viremia, and seroconversion were detected. In pigs orally infected with the same quantity of HAV, viral shedding was detected only in feces. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver and bile of intravenously infected pigs, but only in the bile of orally infected pigs. In further experiments, pigs were intravenously infected with 6 × 10(5) TCID50 of HAV. Shedding of HAV in feces, along with viremia and seroconversion, were confirmed in infected pigs but not in sentinel pigs. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver, bile, spleen, lymph node, and kidney of the infected pigs. HAV antigenomic RNA was detected in the spleen of one HAV-infected pig, suggesting HAV replication in splenic cells. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the livers of infected pigs but not in controls. This is the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that human HAV strains can infect pigs.

  15. Peritoneal infection in acute intermittent peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Raj Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra; Gupta, Amit; Gulati, Sanjeev

    2003-11-01

    A prospective study was done to evaluate the incidence and microbiological trend of peritoneal infection in patients undergoing acute intermittent peritoneal dialysis (PD). Complete sterile procedure was ensured and at the completion of the procedure PD fluid was sent for bacteriological culture, sensitivity, and total and differential cell count. During the period September 2000 to February 2001 a total of 100 patients were evaluated. Male female ratio was 72:28. Mean age was 43.17 +/- 17.2 years. In 26 patients cyclers were used. Bacterial culture was positive in total of 30 cases (30%). Gram positive, Gram negative and mixed infection was found in 10%, 15%, and 5% respectively. Number of exchanges (31.61 +/- 7.7 vs. 31.3 +/- 6, p = 0.8) were similar and number of repositioning was significantly more in the infected group (23.3% vs. 11.4%, p < 0.01). Total cell count was significantly higher in infected group (274.3 +/- 502 vs. 31.25 +/- 79.34, p < 0.01). Among Gram +ve organisms Staphylococcus was found in 7, Enterococcus faecalis in 4 and Coryne bacterium sps. in 2 cases. Among Gram -ve organisms, E. coli was found in 4, Enterobacter in 3, Klebsiella 1, Pseudomonas 1, Acinetobacter arinatus 5, Acinetobacter baumani 3, and Citrobacter freundii 3. Mixed flora comprised of Enterococcus faecalis 3, Enterobacter 1, Staphlococcus 1, E. coli 3, Citrobacter 1, Acinobacter baumani 1. Although with the cyclers using collapsible bags, staphylococcus was not isolated, the total incidence of infection (11/26 cases) was not decreased with the use of cyclers. We conclude that in acute intermittent peritoneal dialysis the incidence of bacterial infection is 30% with preponderance of Gram -ve over Gram +ve organisms and organism of fecal origin being commoner than those of skin origin. Use of cycler-assisted over manual PD do not improve the incidence of infection. Repositioning of the stiff catheter significantly increases the incidence of infection.

  16. [Experimental study on chemotherapy of acute glanders].

    PubMed

    Iliukhin, V I; Rotov, K A; Senina, T V; Snatenkov, E A; Tikhonov, S N; Plekhanova, N G; Kulikova, A S; Shubnikova, E V; Korol', E V; Nekhezina, M O

    2012-01-01

    Glanders is a zoonotic infection inducing acute forms of the disease (pneumonia, sepsis) in humans and animals under certain conditions, which even with the use of modern chemotherapy have unfavourable prognosis. Insufficient of efficacy of antibiotics with in vitro low MIC for planktonic bacterial suspension of Burkholderia mallei in chemotherapy of acute forms of glanders was due to the capacity of the pathogen for intracellular survival and formation of biofilms. Under such conditions the susceptibility of B. mallei to antibiotics lowered by several orders of magnitude. Chemotherapy of the glanders acute forms in animals usually provided only an increase of the lifespan, while among the survivors there was recorded a high relapse rate. More favourable outcomes were observed with the use of in vitro effective antibiotics in the form of clathrate compounds or especially liposomal forms. In the experiments with golden hamsters the survival rate reached 100% in 1000 Dlm infection even with the treatment onset by meropenem liposomal form 48 hours after the infection. Chemotherapeutics in the liposomal form significantly lowered resistance of B. mallei in both the experiments with a suspension of planktonic organisms and the use of bacteria interned in eukaryotic cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis).

  17. Modeling inoculum dose dependent patterns of acute virus infections.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Handel, Andreas

    2014-04-21

    Inoculum dose, i.e. the number of pathogens at the beginning of an infection, often affects key aspects of pathogen and immune response dynamics. These in turn determine clinically relevant outcomes, such as morbidity and mortality. Despite the general recognition that inoculum dose is an important component of infection outcomes, we currently do not understand its impact in much detail. This study is intended to start filling this knowledge gap by analyzing inoculum dependent patterns of viral load dynamics in acute infections. Using experimental data for adenovirus and infectious bronchitis virus infections as examples, we demonstrate inoculum dose dependent patterns of virus dynamics. We analyze the data with the help of mathematical models to investigate what mechanisms can reproduce the patterns observed in experimental data. We find that models including components of both the innate and adaptive immune response are needed to reproduce the patterns found in the data. We further analyze which types of innate or adaptive immune response models agree with observed data. One interesting finding is that only models for the adaptive immune response that contain growth terms partially independent of viral load can properly reproduce observed patterns. This agrees with the idea that an antigen-independent, programmed response is part of the adaptive response. Our analysis provides useful insights into the types of model structures that are required to properly reproduce observed virus dynamics for varying inoculum doses. We suggest that such models should be taken as basis for future models of acute viral infections.

  18. An experimental analysis of the curative action of penicillin in acute bacterial infections. II. The role of phagocytic cells in the process of recovery.

    PubMed

    SMITH, M R; WOOD, W B

    1956-04-01

    exudate. It is concluded from these findings that, in established pneumococcal myositis in mice, the curative effect of penicillin is due, not to the bactericidal action of the antibiotic alone, but rather to the combined effect of the drug and the cellular defenses of the host. The same conclusion also appears to be applicable to analogous acute infections in man, particularly when they are sufficiently advanced to be definitively diagnosed.

  19. Acute focal infections of dental origin.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses or phlegmon they can reach facial spaces that communicate with each other and then spread downwards to the mediastinum or upwards to the brain. In such cases dental infections can become, if not properly treated, life-threatening. It seems that early diagnosis and treatment are imperative, and potentially infectious foci should be traced and eliminated. Dental hygiene and prophylaxis to prevent dental biofilm formation are important measures to reduce the risk of these calamities. The more compromised the host defense is, the more importance should be put on these measures. Although commensal bacteria are often involved in these infections, attention should also be paid to specific periodontal pathogens, and a proper microbial diagnosis, obtained using molecular methods plus bacterial sensitivity testing, can provide the patient with optimal care. Drainage of pus must be established where possible so that the optimal effect of antibiotics can be achieved. Penicillin is still the drug of first choice in settings where suspicion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is low.

  20. Acute focal infections of dental origin.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses or phlegmon they can reach facial spaces that communicate with each other and then spread downwards to the mediastinum or upwards to the brain. In such cases dental infections can become, if not properly treated, life-threatening. It seems that early diagnosis and treatment are imperative, and potentially infectious foci should be traced and eliminated. Dental hygiene and prophylaxis to prevent dental biofilm formation are important measures to reduce the risk of these calamities. The more compromised the host defense is, the more importance should be put on these measures. Although commensal bacteria are often involved in these infections, attention should also be paid to specific periodontal pathogens, and a proper microbial diagnosis, obtained using molecular methods plus bacterial sensitivity testing, can provide the patient with optimal care. Drainage of pus must be established where possible so that the optimal effect of antibiotics can be achieved. Penicillin is still the drug of first choice in settings where suspicion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is low. PMID:24738592

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi Entrance through Systemic or Mucosal Infection Sites Differentially Modulates Regional Immune Response Following Acute Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Meis, Juliana; Barreto de Albuquerque, Juliana; Silva dos Santos, Danielle; Farias-de-Oliveira, Désio Aurélio; Berbert, Luiz Ricardo; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; Savino, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Acute Chagas disease is characterized by a systemic infection that leads to the strong activation of the adaptive immune response. Outbreaks of oral contamination by the infective protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi are frequent in Brazil and other Latin American countries, and an increased severity of clinical manifestations and mortality is observed in infected patients. These findings have elicited questions about the specific responses triggered after T. cruzi entry via mucosal sites, possibly modulating local immune mechanisms, and further impacting regional and systemic immunity. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of differential lymphoid organ responses in experimental models of acute T. cruzi infection. PMID:23898334

  2. Prevention of acute otitis media by prophylaxis and treatment of influenza virus infections.

    PubMed

    Glezen, W P

    2000-12-01

    Human experimental challenge studies with influenza virus infection and controlled intervention trials have demonstrated beyond doubt the role of influenza virus infection in the pathogenesis of acute otitis media. Influenza virus infections not only disrupt eustachian tube function, but also impair recovery from infection and facilitate attachment of bacterial pathogens to respiratory epithelial cells. Immunization of young children with either inactivated or live, attenuated influenza vaccine will significantly reduce the incidence of acute otitis media. Early treatment of influenza with antiviral medication will reduce eustachian tube dysfunction that results from influenza virus infection. Influenza produces high morbidity in children that could be averted by universal immunization with attenuated nasal spray vaccine.

  3. Acute phase protein and antioxidant responses in dogs with experimental acute monocytic ehrlichiosis treated with rifampicin.

    PubMed

    Karnezi, Dimitra; Ceron, Jose J; Theodorou, Konstantina; Leontides, Leonidas; Siarkou, Victoria I; Martinez, Silvia; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Harrus, Shimon; Koutinas, Christos K; Pardali, Dimitra; Mylonakis, Mathios E

    2016-02-29

    There is currently lack of information on the changes of acute phase proteins (APP) and antioxidant markers and their clinical relevance as treatment response indicators in canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). The objective of this study was to investigate the patterns of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), ferritin and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) during treatment of dogs with acute CME with rifampicin. Blood serum samples from ten Beagle dogs with experimental acute CME were retrospectively examined. Five dogs (Group A) were treated with rifampicin (10mg/Kg/24h), per os, for 3 weeks and 5 dogs (Group B) received no treatment (infected controls). Two Beagle dogs served as uninfected controls. Blood serum samples were serially examined prior to Ehrlichia canis inoculation and on post-inoculation days 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. Significant changes of CRP, Hp, ferritin and PON-1 values were found in the majority of infected dogs. However, their concentrations did not differ between the two groups during the treatment observation period. The results of this study indicate that although several APP and PON-1 tend to significantly change in the majority of dogs with acute CME, they were of limited clinical relevance as treatment response indicators in this experimental setting.

  4. Acute phase protein and antioxidant responses in dogs with experimental acute monocytic ehrlichiosis treated with rifampicin.

    PubMed

    Karnezi, Dimitra; Ceron, Jose J; Theodorou, Konstantina; Leontides, Leonidas; Siarkou, Victoria I; Martinez, Silvia; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Harrus, Shimon; Koutinas, Christos K; Pardali, Dimitra; Mylonakis, Mathios E

    2016-02-29

    There is currently lack of information on the changes of acute phase proteins (APP) and antioxidant markers and their clinical relevance as treatment response indicators in canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). The objective of this study was to investigate the patterns of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), ferritin and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) during treatment of dogs with acute CME with rifampicin. Blood serum samples from ten Beagle dogs with experimental acute CME were retrospectively examined. Five dogs (Group A) were treated with rifampicin (10mg/Kg/24h), per os, for 3 weeks and 5 dogs (Group B) received no treatment (infected controls). Two Beagle dogs served as uninfected controls. Blood serum samples were serially examined prior to Ehrlichia canis inoculation and on post-inoculation days 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. Significant changes of CRP, Hp, ferritin and PON-1 values were found in the majority of infected dogs. However, their concentrations did not differ between the two groups during the treatment observation period. The results of this study indicate that although several APP and PON-1 tend to significantly change in the majority of dogs with acute CME, they were of limited clinical relevance as treatment response indicators in this experimental setting. PMID:26854345

  5. Thrombosis associated with acute cytomegalovirus infection: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Shany; Eytan, Ori

    2014-01-01

    Thrombosis associated with acute cytomegalovirus infection has been reported many times in the literature since the mid 1980s – mainly in case reports and in small case series, but also in four controlled studies. Still, many physicians are unaware of this association although acute cytomegalovirus infection diagnosis in a thrombosis patient may warrant antiviral therapy and may affect anticoagulation therapy duration. Accordingly, the clinical characteristics of patients with thrombosis and acute cytomegalovirus infection are reviewed, and the current knowledge concerning this unique association is presented herein. We believe it is time to add acute cytomegalovirus infection to the list of thrombosis triggers. PMID:25624857

  6. Neuromuscular Functions on Experimental Acute Methanol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Moral, Ali Reşat; Çankayalı, İlkin; Sergin, Demet; Boyacılar, Özden

    2015-01-01

    Objective The incidence of accidental or suicidal ingestion of methyl alcohol is high and methyl alcohol intoxication has high mortality. Methyl alcohol intoxication causes severe neurological sequelae and appears to be a significant problem. Methyl alcohol causes acute metabolic acidosis, optic neuropathy leading to permanent blindness, respiratory failure, circulatory failure and death. It is metabolised in the liver, and its metabolite formic acid has direct toxic effects, causing oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and increased lipid peroxidation associated with the mechanism of neurotoxicity. Methanol is known to cause acute toxicity of the central nervous system; however, the effects on peripheral neuromuscular transmission are unknown. In our study, we aimed to investigate the electrophysiological effects of experimentally induced acute methanol intoxication on neuromuscular transmission in the early period (first 24 h). Methods After approval by the Animal Experiment Ethics Committee of Ege University, the study was carried out on 10 Wistar rats, each weighing about 200 g. During electrophysiological recordings and orogastric tube insertion, the rats were anaesthetised using intra-peritoneal (IP) injection of ketamine 100 mg kg−1 and IP injection of xylazine 10 mg kg−1. The rats were given 3 g kg−1 methyl alcohol by the orogastric tube. Electrophysiological measurements from the gastrocnemius muscle were compared with baseline. Results Latency measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 0.81±0.11 ms and 0.76±0.12 ms, respectively. CMAP amplitude measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.85±0.98 mV and 9.99±0.40 mV, respectively. CMAP duration measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.86±0.03 ms and 9.86±0.045 ms, respectively. Conclusion It was concluded that experimental methanol intoxication in the acute phase (first 24 h) did not affect neuromuscular function. PMID:27366524

  7. Acute neuromuscular weakness associated with dengue infection

    PubMed Central

    Hira, Harmanjit Singh; Kaur, Amandeep; Shukla, Anuj

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dengue infections may present with neurological complications. Whether these are due to neuromuscular disease or electrolyte imbalance is unclear. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients of dengue fever required hospitalization during epidemic in year 2010. Twelve of them presented with acute neuromuscular weakness. We enrolled them for study. Diagnosis of dengue infection based on clinical profile of patients, positive serum IgM ELISA, NS1 antigen, and sero-typing. Complete hemogram, kidney and liver functions, serum electrolytes, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were tested. In addition, two patients underwent nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test and electromyography. Results: Twelve patients were included in the present study. Their age was between 18 and 34 years. Fever, myalgia, and motor weakness of limbs were most common presenting symptoms. Motor weakness developed on 2nd to 4th day of illness in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient, it developed on 10th day of illness. Ten of 12 showed hypokalemia. One was of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other suffered from myositis; they underwent NCV and electromyography. Serum CPK and SGOT raised in 8 out of 12 patients. CPK of patient of myositis was 5098 IU. All of 12 patients had thrombocytopenia. WBC was in normal range. Dengue virus was isolated in three patients, and it was of serotype 1. CSF was normal in all. Within 24 hours, those with hypokalemia recovered by potassium correction. Conclusions: It was concluded that the dengue virus infection led to acute neuromuscular weakness because of hypokalemia, myositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. It was suggested to look for presence of hypokalemia in such patients. PMID:22346188

  8. Programmatic Implications of Acute and Early HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Amitabh B; Granich, Reuben M; Kato, Masaya; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Montaner, Julio S G; Williams, Brian G

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection includes acute, early, chronic, and late stages. Acute HIV infection lasts approximately 3 weeks and early HIV infection, which includes acute HIV infection, lasts approximately 7 weeks. Many testing and blood screening algorithms detect HIV antibodies about 3 weeks after HIV infection. Incidence estimates are based on results of modeling, cohort studies, surveillance, and/or assays. Viral load is the key modifiable risk factor for HIV transmission and peaks during acute and early HIV infection. Empirical evidence characterizing the impact of acute and early HIV infection on the spread of the HIV epidemic are limited. Time trends of HIV prevalence collected from concentrated and generalized epidemics suggest that acute and early HIV infection may have a limited role in population HIV transmission. Collectively, these data suggest that acute and early HIV infection is relatively short and does not currently require fundamentally different programmatic approaches to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic in most settings. Research and surveillance will inform which epidemic contexts and phases may require tailored strategies for these stages of HIV infection.

  9. Dose Determination for Acute Salmonella Infection in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Loynachan, A. T.; Harris, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Pigs were exposed to various levels of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium by either intranasal inoculation or by subjecting them to a contaminated environment. More than 103 salmonellae were required to induce acute Salmonella infection. These results indicate that intervention against acute Salmonella infection in lairage may be more readily achieved than previously thought. PMID:15870368

  10. Pancreatic blood flow in experimental acute pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, A.R.; Millar, A.M.; Taylor, T.V.

    1982-05-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of acute necrotizing hemorrhagic pancreatitis remain controversial. Recent work has suggested that an early fall in pancreatic blood flow, causing ischemia, may be the initiating factor. Using an established rat model of hemorrhagic pancreatitis and the fractional indicator distribution technique with /sup 86/RbCl, pancreatic blood flow and tissue perfusion have been measured at various times in the condition. Six groups of ten rats were studied: control sham operation and pancreatitis groups were sacrificed at 1, 6, and 24 hr. Pancreatic blood flow (% of cardiac output) and perfusion (blood flow/g tissue) were measured. Blood flow was increased by a maximum of 53% at 1 hr (P less than 0.001) and remained elevated for 24 hr, and perfusion was increased by a maximum of 70% (P less than 0.001) at 1 hr and remained elevated at 6 hr. Pancreatic perfusion declines after 6 hr due to increasing gland edema. The results demonstrate a significant increase in pancreatic blood flow and perfusion in experimentally induced acute pancreatitis, suggesting a primary inflammatory response, and refute the ischemic etiological theory.

  11. Acute tubular nephropathy in a patient with acute HIV infection: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ananworanich, Jintanat; Datta, Anandita A; Fletcher, James Lk; Townamchai, Natavudh; Chomchey, Nitiya; Kroon, Eugene; Sereti, Irini; Valcour, Victor; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    We report a 57-year old man with diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented with acute HIV infection. Routine blood tests showed an elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Renal biopsy showed acute tubular nephropathy, which has not been reported to occur during acute HIV infection, in the absence of rhabdomyolysis or multiple organ system failure. Antiretroviral therapy was initiated. His renal failure gradually resolved without further intervention. At one year of follow-up his HIV RNA was undetectable, and his renal function was normal. The case illustrates a rare manifestation of acute HIV infection - acute renal failure - in an older man with diabetes and hypertension. In this setting acute kidney injury might mistakenly have been attributed to his chronic comorbidities, and this case supports early HIV-1 testing in the setting of a high index of suspicion.

  12. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure in Plasmodium vivax malaria infection, a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Lakhotia, Manoj; Pahadiya, Hans Raj; Kumar, Harish; Singh, Jagdish; Sangappa, Jainapur Ravi; Choudhary, Prakash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with 6 days history of intermittent fever with chills, 2 days history of upper abdomen pain, distension of abdomen, and decreased urine output. He was diagnosed to have Plasmodium vivax malaria, acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure. These constellations of complications in P. vivax infection have never been reported in the past. The patient responded to intravenous chloroquine and supportive treatment. For renal failure, he required hemodialysis. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure form an unusual combination in P. vivax infection. PMID:26629455

  13. Acute hemiplegia with lacunar infarct after varicella infection in childhood.

    PubMed

    Eda, I; Takashima, S; Takeshita, K

    1983-01-01

    We report 4 cases of acute hemiplegia and a small low-density lesion on computerized tomography (CT) after varicella infection. In 3 of them, CT in the acute hemiplegic stage, and later, reveals the development of lacunar infarct around the internal capsule. Focal low density may be caused by occlusive vascular lesions of the penetrating arteries. Varicella infection may play an important role as one of the causes of acute hemiplegia in childhood producing lacunar infarct, as well as delayed hemiplegia, reported previously in herpes zoster ophthalmicus. PMID:6660422

  14. Levofloxacin in Preventing Infection in Young Patients With Acute Leukemia Receiving Chemotherapy or Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-14

    Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Bacterial Infection; Diarrhea; Fungal Infection; Musculoskeletal Complications; Neutropenia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  15. Acute Human Inkoo and Chatanga Virus Infections, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kantele, Anu; Levanov, Lev; Kivistö, Ilkka; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Markus; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-01-01

    Inkoo virus (INKV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV), which are circulating in Finland, are mosquitoborne California serogroup orthobunyaviruses that have a high seroprevalence among humans. Worldwide, INKV infection has been poorly described, and CHATV infection has been unknown. Using serum samples collected in Finland from 7,961 patients suspected of having viral neurologic disease or Puumala virus infection during the summers of 2001–2013, we analyzed the samples to detect California serogroup infections. IgM seropositivity revealed 17 acute infections, and cross-neutralization tests confirmed presence of INKV or CHATV infections. All children (<16 years of age) with INKV infection were hospitalized; adults were outpatients with mild disease, except for 1 who was hospitalized with CHATV infection. Symptoms included fever, influenza-like illness, nausea or vomiting, disorientation, nuchal rigidity, headache, drowsiness, and seizures. Although many INKV and CHATV infections appear to be subclinical, these viruses can cause more severe disease, especially in children. PMID:27088268

  16. Clinical role of respiratory virus infection in acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Arola, M; Ruuskanen, O; Ziegler, T; Mertsola, J; Näntö-Salonen, K; Putto-Laurila, A; Viljanen, M K; Halonen, P

    1990-12-01

    The clinical characteristics of acute otitis media in relation to coexisting respiratory virus infection were studied in a 1-year prospective study of 363 children with acute otitis media. Respiratory viruses were detected using virus isolation and virus antigen detection in nasopharyngeal specimens of 42% of the patients at the time of diagnosis. Rhinovirus (24%) and respiratory syncytial virus (13%) were the two most common viruses detected. Adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses, and coronavirus OC43 were found less frequently. The mean duration of preceding symptoms was 5.9 days before the diagnosis of acute otitis media. Ninety-four percent of the children had symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. Fever was reported in 55% and earache in 47% of cases. Patients with respiratory syncytial virus infection had fever, cough, and vomiting significantly more often than patients with rhinovirus infection or virus-negative patients. No significant differences were found in the appearance of the tympanic membrane and outcome of illness between virus-negative and virus-positive patients with acute otitis. Most patients respond well to antimicrobial therapy despite the coexisting viral infection. If the symptoms of infection persist, they can be due to the underlying viral infection, and viral diagnostics preferably with rapid methods may be clinically useful in these patients.

  17. Viral antibodies in the CSF after acute CNS infections.

    PubMed

    Cappel, R; Thiry, L; Clinet, G

    1975-09-01

    Viral antibodies were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from 25 patients having acute viral central nervous system (CNS) infections, and from 39 control patients. The results, collected two weeks after the clinical onset, revealed the presence of antibodies in nine of 13 (69%) CSF specimens from patients suffering from encephalitis of myelitis, and in only one of nine (11%) of the CSF samples of those presenting a viral meningitis infection. This difference was statistically significant and suggests that the titration of viral antibodies in the CSF can be helpful in establishing the diagnosis of viral CNS infection. Our data also suggest that localized production of antibodies occurs during the course of acute CNS infections, and that the respiratory syncytial virus can be associated with CNS infections in man.

  18. Acute Myopericarditis Likely Secondary to Disseminated Gonococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Daniel; Kerr, Leslie Dubin

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) is a rare complication of primary infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cardiac involvement in this condition is rare, and is usually limited to endocarditis. However, there are a number of older reports suggestive of direct myocardial involvement. We report a case of a 38-year-old male with HIV who presented with chest pain, pharyngitis, tenosynovitis, and purpuric skin lesions. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed acute biventricular dysfunction. Skin biopsy showed diplococci consistent with disseminated gonococcal infection, and treatment with ceftriaxone improved his symptoms and ejection fraction. Though gonococcal infection was never proven with culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, the clinical picture and histologic findings were highly suggestive of DGI. Clinicians should consider disseminated gonococcal infection when a patient presents with acute myocarditis, especially if there are concurrent skin and joint lesions. PMID:26246922

  19. Acute Myopericarditis Likely Secondary to Disseminated Gonococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Daniel; Kerr, Leslie Dubin

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) is a rare complication of primary infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cardiac involvement in this condition is rare, and is usually limited to endocarditis. However, there are a number of older reports suggestive of direct myocardial involvement. We report a case of a 38-year-old male with HIV who presented with chest pain, pharyngitis, tenosynovitis, and purpuric skin lesions. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed acute biventricular dysfunction. Skin biopsy showed diplococci consistent with disseminated gonococcal infection, and treatment with ceftriaxone improved his symptoms and ejection fraction. Though gonococcal infection was never proven with culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, the clinical picture and histologic findings were highly suggestive of DGI. Clinicians should consider disseminated gonococcal infection when a patient presents with acute myocarditis, especially if there are concurrent skin and joint lesions. PMID:26246922

  20. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Proposal for Acute Endodontic Infection.

    PubMed

    Keine, Kátia Cristina; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Kamila Figueiredo; Diniz, Ana Carolina Soares; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Galoza, Marina Oliveira Gonçalves; Magro, Miriam Graziele; de Barros, Yolanda Benedita Abadia Martins; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the main lesions that simulate clinically and propose a treatment protocol for acute endodontic infection. Signs and clinical symptoms of periodontal abscess, gingival abscess, odontoma, herpes simplex, pericoronitis, acute pulpitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (NUG/NUP) were described and compared with acute endodontic infections. A treatment protocol was described by optimizing the procedures in access cavity, microbial decontamination and detoxification of the root canal, apical debridement, intracanal and systemic medication and surgical drainage procedures. The convenience of the use of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, root canal instrumentation using a crown-down technique, intracanal medication with 2% chlorhexidine or triple antibiotic paste and the convenience of the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and surgical drainage to solve cases of acute dentoalveolar abscess was discussed.

  1. Screening for acute HIV infection in South Africa: finding acute and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Ingrid V.; Chetty, Senica; Giddy, Janet; Reddy, Shabashini; Bishop, Karen; Lu, Zhigang; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2010-01-01

    Background The yield of screening for acute HIV infection among general medical patients in resource-scarce settings remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate a strategy of pooled HIV plasma RNA to diagnose acute HIV infection in patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests in Durban, South Africa. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests from a routine HIV screening program in an outpatient department in Durban with an HIV prevalence of 48%. Study participants underwent venipuncture for pooled qualitative HIV RNA, and if positive, quantitative RNA, enzyme immunoassay and Western Blot (WB). Patients with negative or indeterminate WB and positive quantitative HIV RNA were considered acutely infected. Those with chronic infection (positive RNA and WB) despite negative or discordant rapid HIV tests were considered false negative rapid antibody tests. Results Nine hundred ninety-four participants were enrolled with either negative (N=976) or discordant (N=18) rapid test results. Eleven (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.6–2.0%) had acute HIV infection. Of the 994 patients, an additional 20 (2.0%, 95% CI: 1.3–.3.1%) had chronic HIV infection (false negative rapid test). Conclusions One percent of outpatients with negative or discordant rapid HIV tests in Durban, South Africa had acute HIV infection readily detectable through pooled serum HIV RNA screening. Pooled RNA testing also identified an additional 2% of patients with chronic HIV infection. HIV RNA screening has the potential to identify both acute and chronic HIV infections that are otherwise missed by standard HIV testing algorithms. PMID:20553336

  2. Imaging in acute renal infection in children

    SciTech Connect

    Sty, J.R.; Wells, R.G.; Starshak, R.J.; Schroeder, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    Infection is the most common disease of the urinary tract in children, and various imaging techniques have been used to verify its presence and location. On retrospective analysis, 50 consecutive children with documented upper urinary tract infection had abnormal findings on renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate. The infection involved the renal poles only in 38 and the poles plus other renal cortical areas in eight. Four had abnormalities that spared the poles. Renal sonograms were abnormal in 32 of 50 children. Excretory urograms were abnormal in six of 23 children in whom they were obtained. Vesicoureteral reflux was found in 34 of 40 children in whom voiding cystourethrography was performed. These data show the high sensitivity of renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate in documenting upper urinary tract infection. The location of the abnormalities detected suggests that renal infections spread via an ascending mode and implies that intrarenal reflux is a major contributing factor.

  3. Pathophysiology of Clinical Symptoms in Acute Viral Respiratory Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Kuchar, E; Miśkiewicz, K; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Szenborn, L

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the pathophysiology of common symptoms of acute viral respiratory infections (e.g., sneezing, nasal discharge, sore throat, cough, muscle pains, malaise, and mood changes). Since clinical symptoms are not sufficient to determine the etiology of viral respiratory tract infections, we believe that the host defense mechanisms are critical for the symptomatology. Consequently, this review of literature is focused on the pathophysiology of respiratory symptoms regardless of their etiology. We assume that despite a high prevalence of symptoms of respiratory infection, their pathogenesis is not widely known. A better understanding of the symptoms' pathogenesis could improve the quality of care for patients with respiratory tract infections.

  4. Pericardial Tamponade in an Adult Suffering from Acute Mumps Infection

    PubMed Central

    Flieger, Robert Rainer; Mankertz, Annette; Yilmaz, Kadir; Roepke, Torsten Kai

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensive vaccination regimens in western civilizations, our case highlights mumps as an important differential diagnosis also in adults, where the virus can induce life-threatening complications such as pericardial tamponade.

  5. Primary experimental infection of riverine buffaloes with Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S C; Sharma, R L; Kalicharan, A; Mehra, U R; Dass, R S; Verma, A K

    1999-05-01

    The clinical course of the primary experimental Fasciola gigantica infection was investigated in riverine buffalo calves of the Murrah breed. Nine male calves aged 12-15 months were randomly assigned to two groups of five (Group I) and four (Group II) animals. Each animal in Group I, was orally infected with 1000 metacercariae (mc) of F. gigantica, whereas Group II animals did not receive any infection dose and served as uninfected controls. No clinical signs of fasciolosis were observed until the sixth week post-infection (PI). Group I animals, however, developed recognised symptoms of acute fasciolosis, comprising apyrexic inappetance, anemia, poor weight gain, diarrhoea and sub-mandibular and facial oedema, respectively, from 5, 6, 8, 16 and 17 weeks PI. The signs were intermittent in nature and of variable duration. The prepatent period was of 92-97 days (mean 95.2 +/- 3.1). One of the five infected animals died on Day 147 PI. At necropsy, 36.8 +/- 11.0% of the infection dose was recovered as adult fluke population. The gross lesions were primarily biliary in nature. Group II, the uninfected controls, throughout the study period of 165 days PI, did not show any symptom and were negative for F. gigantica. The study demonstrated that the onset of adverse effects of F. gigantica on the growth and health of the infected host was mainly noted during late prepatency much before coprological prediction and diagnosis. The significance of preventive therapy against fasciolosis during prepatency has been stressed in endemic areas. PMID:10384904

  6. Quantification of airborne African swine fever virus after experimental infection.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Ferreira, H C; Weesendorp, E; Quak, S; Stegeman, J A; Loeffen, W L A

    2013-08-30

    Knowledge on African Swine Fever (ASF) transmission routes can be useful when designing control measures against the spread of ASF virus (ASFV). Few studies have focused on the airborne transmission route, and until now no data has been available on quantities of ASF virus (ASFV) in the air. Our aim was to validate an air sampling technique for ASF virus (ASFV) that could be used to detect and quantify virus excreted in the air after experimental infection of pigs. In an animal experiment with the Brazil'78, the Malta'78 and Netherlands'86 isolates, air samples were collected at several time points. For validation of the air sampling technique, ASFV was aerosolised in an isolator, and air samples were obtained using the MD8 air scan device, which was shown to be suitable to detect ASFV. The half-life of ASFV in the air was on average 19 min when analysed by PCR, and on average 14 min when analysed by virus titration. In rooms with infected pigs, viral DNA with titres up to 10(3.2) median tissue culture infective dose equivalents (TCID50eq.)/m(3) could be detected in air samples from day 4 post-inoculation (dpi 4) until the end of the experiments, at dpi 70. In conclusion, this study shows that pigs infected with ASFV will excrete virus in the air, particularly during acute disease. This study provides the first available parameters to model airborne transmission of ASFV.

  7. Characterization of acute rat parvovirus infection by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, D J; Jacoby, R O; Johnson, E A; Paturzo, F X; Smith, A L; Brandsma, J L

    1993-04-01

    In situ hybridization and virus titration were used to characterize early stages of rat virus (RV) infection of rat pups after oronasal inoculation. Results suggest that virus enters through the lung and that early viremia leads rapidly to pantropic infection. Cells derived from all three germ layers were infected with RV, but those of endodermal and mesodermal origin were the predominant targets. Infection of vascular endothelium was widespread and was associated with hemorrhage and infarction in the brain. Convalescence from acute infection was accompanied by mononuclear cell infiltrates at sites containing RV DNA. Viral DNA was also detected in endothelium, fibroblasts and smooth muscle myofibers four weeks after inoculation. Further examination of these cells as potential sites of persistent infection is warranted.

  8. CD36 deficiency attenuates experimental mycobacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Members of the CD36 scavenger receptor family have been implicated as sensors of microbial products that mediate phagocytosis and inflammation in response to a broad range of pathogens. We investigated the role of CD36 in host response to mycobacterial infection. Methods Experimental Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection in Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/- mice, and in vitro co-cultivation of M. tuberculosis, BCG and M. marinum with Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/-murine macrophages. Results Using an in vivo model of BCG infection in Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/- mice, we found that mycobacterial burden in liver and spleen is reduced (83% lower peak splenic colony forming units, p < 0.001), as well as the density of granulomas, and circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels in Cd36-/- animals. Intracellular growth of all three mycobacterial species was reduced in Cd36-/- relative to wild type Cd36+/+ macrophages in vitro. This difference was not attributable to alterations in mycobacterial uptake, macrophage viability, rate of macrophage apoptosis, production of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species, TNF or interleukin-10. Using an in vitro model designed to recapitulate cellular events implicated in mycobacterial infection and dissemination in vivo (i.e., phagocytosis of apoptotic macrophages containing mycobacteria), we demonstrated reduced recovery of viable mycobacteria within Cd36-/- macrophages. Conclusions Together, these data indicate that CD36 deficiency confers resistance to mycobacterial infection. This observation is best explained by reduced intracellular survival of mycobacteria in the Cd36-/- macrophage and a role for CD36 in the cellular events involved in granuloma formation that promote early bacterial expansion and dissemination. PMID:20950462

  9. Emergency Department Management Of Acute Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Steven G; Pfaff, James A; Cuenca, Peter John

    2014-11-01

    Infective endocarditis has a high rate of mortality, and most patients suspected of having the disease will require hospital admission. This review examines the literature as it pertains specifically to emergency clinicians who must maintain vigilance for risk factors and obtain a thorough history, including use of intravenous drugs, in order to guide the workup and treatment. Properly obtained cultures are critical during the evaluation, as they direct the course of antibiotic therapy. Although transthoracic echocardiography is widely available in United States emergency departments, it is not sensitive or specific enough to rule out a diagnosis of infective endocarditis. In high-risk patients, transesophageal echocardiography should be considered.

  10. Neutrophil localization in acute and chronic experimental abscesses

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, D.M.; Bettin, K.M.; Gerding, D.N.

    1987-04-01

    Abdominal abscesses are associated with a high mortality, and usually require surgical drainage for cure. A potential mechanism explaining the inability of the host to clear this infection may be in part a result of the inability of the neutrophil to localize at the site of an established infection. To study this question, either acute (4 hours old) or chronic (2 weeks old) abscesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus were created in perforated capsules implanted in the peritoneal cavity of rabbits. Homologous neutrophils were obtained from donor rabbits 4 hours after peritoneal glycogen stimulation and labeled with indium 111 oxine. Only 0.71% of injected /sup 111/In-labeled neutrophils localized in the chronic abscesses, compared with 1.77% in acute abscesses (P less than or equal to 0.01). Animals with chronic infections had a lower intravascular recovery of injected neutrophils (P less than 0.002). Failure of neutrophil localization was not associated with less chemotactic activity within the abscess, as measured by a chemotaxis-under-agarose assay, or caused by a barrier surrounding the abscess as detected by radionuclide imaging. Only 0.07% of injected neutrophils localized into acute abdominal abscesses in animals with a concomitant chronic subcutaneous abscess. These chronically infected animals also demonstrated a low peak intravascular recovery of injected neutrophils when compared with animals with only an acute infection (P less than 0.002). These data reveal that neutrophils localize to abscesses poorly in animals with chronic infections. The mechanism is possibly related to a systemic factor(s) associated with a lower intravascular recovery of injected neutrophils in chronically infected animals.

  11. Predicting development of infected necrosis in acute necrotizing pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Dambrauskas, Zilvinas; Pundzius, Juozas; Barauskas, Giedrius

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of severe acute pancreatitis is about 30 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, and it carries an overall mortality rate of 10-15%. Infection of pancreatic necrosis occurs in 20-30% of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and triples the mortality rate. Therefore, early prediction and diagnosis of infection in necrotizing pancreatitis are extremely important. The aim of the studies included in this review was to investigate the potential of specific prognostic factors to predict the development of secondary pancreatic infection in severe acute pancreatitis. This is seen as an important tool allowing to perform a computed tomography- or ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for bacteriological sampling at the right moment, to confirm the diagnosis, and, finally, to select the subgroup of patients who would benefit from the antibiotic prophylaxis. Precise patients' selection could possibly result in more rational use of antibiotics in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis and reduction of multi-resistant bacteria. Recent studies show that C-reactive protein is an important prognostic marker of pancreatic necrosis with the highest sensitivity and negative prognostic value in this respect. Procalcitonin alone or in combination with interleukin-6 best identifies patients not at risk for infection. However, a review of the clinical studies suggests that we still do not have an optimal model, thus there is a need for new more reliable biochemical and/or clinical predictive systems.

  12. Acute Borrelia infection inducing an APMPPE-like picture.

    PubMed

    Al Mousa, Munjid; Koch, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology affecting the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium, and the choroid. Although several etiological factors have been suggested, none has been confirmed. We report a case of APMPPE associated with acute infection of Borreliosis. A 30-year-old man presented with a decrease in vision in the right eye of about 1-week duration. His visual acuity in the right eye was 6/36. Fundus exam revealed the presence of multiple placoid creamy retinal/subretinal lesions in the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography supported the diagnosis of APMPPE. Blood tests revealed the presence of concomitant acute Borreliosis infection, as confirmed by IgM. The patient received oral prednisone therapy and amoxicillin. Six weeks later, the visual acuity returned to 6/6, and the patient was symptom free. Borreliosis can have several manifestations in the eye. One of the less common presentations is an APMPPE-like picture. The clinician should suspect acute Borreliosis infection in patients presenting with APMPPE, especially when there is a history of a tick bite, when the patient has systemic symptoms, or when living in/visiting endemic areas. This may help in the prompt management of APMPPE, avoiding complications due to the condition itself, or systemic involvement secondary to the Borreliosis infection. PMID:27294731

  13. Immunochromatography-based Diagnosis of Rotavirus Infection in Acute Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, Vipin M; Thacker, Sandeep; Namjoshi, Gajanan Sudhir

    2016-07-01

    Documentation of rotavirus diarrhea in a rural, resource-poor setting is a difficult task. We analyzed stool samples of 103 children admitted for acute diarrhea in a pediatric hospital in Bijnor, UP, India, using a simple bedside immunochromatography kit. Rotavirus infection was detected in 47 out of total of 103 children (45.6%). PMID:27508549

  14. Acute phase proteins: a potential approach for diagnosing chronic infection by Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Katyane de Sousa; Costa, Alinny Ferreira; Silva, Paulo Cesar da; Fagliari, José Jurandir; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Nascimento, Adjair Antonio do

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess potential changes in acute phase proteins in sheep experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax. There were studied eight male sheep, four used as controls and four infected with 10(5) T. vivax trypomastigotes. Blood samples were collected at two points times before infection and then at 5,7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 days post-infection (dpi). Blood samples were centrifuged and allotted, and acute phase proteins were then separated by electrophoresis on acrylamide gel containing sodium dodecyl sulfate. Protein concentrations were determined by computer-assisted densitometry. Total protein was determined by colorimetric biuret method. Trypanosomes were counted daily using a 5 mL aliquot of blood smear on a glass slide under a 22 × 22 mm coverslip. Parasites were counted in 100 microscopic fields (40× magnification), and then multiplied by a correction factor. The results were expressed as parasites per mL of blood. For statistical analyses, we used the Wilcoxon test at 5% significance level. There was found a reduction in several acute phase proteins and increase in antitrypsin and transferrin. This finding can be used for the diagnosis of T. vivax infection, especially in chronic infection.

  15. Titration of hepatitis B virus infectivity in the sera of pre-acute and late acute phases of HBV infection: transmission experiments to chimeric mice with human liver repopulated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Ayako; Tanaka, Junko; Katayama, Keiko; Mizui, Masaaki; Matsukura, Harumichi; Yugi, Hisao; Shimada, Takashi; Miyakawa, Yuzo; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    Studies of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in non-human primates such as chimpanzees are no longer possible due to ethical considerations and the endangered status of chimpanzees since April 2007 in Japan. A human hepatocyte transplanted chimeric mouse was used to characterize HBV infectivity in serial stages of acute infection. Chimeric mice were inoculated intravenously with serum samples obtained from an experimentally infected chimpanzee with HBV. Sera from the pre-acute phases (i.e., rump-up viremia prior to anti-HBc) and late acute phases (i.e., declining phase of HBsAg and anti-HBcAb positive) were collected from the chimpanzees 57 and 244 days after inoculation. These sera contained 2.6 x 10(6) and 2.8 x 10(6) copies/ml of HBV DNA, respectively. Three chimeric mice inoculated intravenously with 100 microl of pre-acute serum (equivalent to 10(0) copy of HBV DNA) developed an HBV infection. The three chimeric mice that received 100 microl of pre-acute serum (equivalent to 10(1) copies of HBV DNA), developed high levels of serum HBV DNA. None of the three chimeric mice inoculated with 100 microl of 1:10(4) dilution (equivalent to 10(1) copies of HBV DNA) of late-acute serum was infected, while only one of three chimeric mice inoculated with 100 microl of 1:10(3) dilution (equivalent to 10(2) copies of HBV DNA) of late-acute serum developed an HBV infection. Based on these results, chimeric mice can be used as animal models for the study of HBV infectivity, pathogenesis and control. The results show that pre-acute phase HBV serum is about 100-times more infectious than late acute phase serum.

  16. Polyphasic innate immune responses to acute and chronic LCMV infection

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Brian A.; Uebelhoer, Luke S.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Price, Aryn A.; Grakoui, Arash; Pulendran, Bali

    2013-01-01

    Summary Resolution of acute and chronic viral infections requires activation of innate cells to initiate and maintain adaptive immune responses. Here we report that infection with acute Armstrong (ARM) or chronic Clone 13 (C13) strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) led to two distinct phases of innate immune response. During the first 72hr of infection, dendritic cells upregulated activation markers, and stimulated anti-viral CD8+ T cells, independent of viral strain. Seven days after infection, there was an increase in Ly6Chi monocytic and Gr-1hi neutrophilic cells in lymphoid organs and blood. This expansion in cell numbers was enhanced and sustained in C13 infection, whereas it occurred only transiently with ARM infection. These cells resembled myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and potently suppressed T cell proliferation. The reduction of monocytic cells in Ccr2−/− mice or after Gr-1 antibody depletion enhanced anti-viral T cell function. Thus, innate cells have an important immunomodulatory role throughout chronic infection. PMID:23438822

  17. Sentinel Surveillance of HIV-1 Transmitted Drug Resistance, Acute Infection and Recent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Hong-Ha M.; Kellogg, Timothy A.; McFarland, Willi; Louie, Brian; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Philip, Susan S.; Grant, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection. Methodology/Principal Findings A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868) were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA). HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36). Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%). Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001), unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001), sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02), and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03). Conclusions New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first

  18. Human bocavirus infection in young children with acute respiratory tract infection in Lanzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-shu; Yuan, Xin-hui; Xie, Zhi-ping; Jin, Yu; Gao, Han-chun; Song, Jing-rong; Zhang, Rong-fang; Xu, Zi-qian; Hou, Yun-de; Duan, Zhao-jun

    2010-02-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a recognized human parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract infection. However, HBoV has yet to be established as a causative agent of respiratory disease. In this study, the epidemiological and virological characteristics of HBoV infection were studied in children with acute respiratory tract infection in China. In total, 406 children younger than 14 years of age with acute respiratory tract infection were included in this prospective 1-year study. HBoV was detected in 29 (7.1%) of the 406 children. No clear seasonal fluctuation was observed in infection rates of HBoV. Of the 29 children infected with HBoV, 16 (55.2%) were coinfected with other respiratory viruses, most commonly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Viral coinfection with HBoV did not affect the severity of the respiratory disease (P = 0.291). The number of HBoV genome copies ranged from 5.80 x 10(2) to 9.72 x 10(8) copies/ml in nasopharyngeal aspirates among HBoV-positive specimens by real-time PCR, and neither coinfection nor the severity of disease correlated with the viral load (P = 0.148, P = 0.354, respectively). The most common clinical features were cough and acute upper respiratory infection, and acute bronchopneumonia. Additionally, the NP-1 gene of HBoV showed minimal sequence variation. These data suggest that HBoV is frequent in young children with acute respiratory tract infection in Lanzhou, China, and RSV is the most common coinfecting virus. There was no apparent association between the viral load of HBoV and coinfection or disease severity. The NP-1 gene was highly conserved in HBoV. PMID:20029808

  19. Nematode infection: A rare mimic of acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Hotchen, Andrew; Chin, Kian; Raja, Mahzar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute appendicitis is a common condition seen in all surgical units. One rare condition that can mimic acute appendicitis is a nematode infection of the bowel. There have been few reported cases of nematode infection within the appendix and none that have been accompanied by intra-operative pictures. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 16-year-old female presented with a 12 h history of right iliac fossa pain and mild pyrexia. Bloods showed a neutrophilia and normal C-reactive protein. Laparoscopy was performed which revealed a non-inflamed appendix. The appendix was dissected and a live nematode was visualised exiting the base of the appendix. Anti-helminthics were given and the infection resolved. DISCUSSION Nematode infection is most commonly seen in Africa, Asia and South America. When seen within the United Kingdom (UK), it is seen most commonly within high-risk populations. Testing for these infections is not routine within the UK and when they are performed, the results take a considerable amount of time to return. These tests should be considered within high-risk populations so that unnecessary surgery can be avoided. CONCLUSION This case highlights the importance of considering rare causes of right iliac fossa pain including nematode infection in a young patient. The case highlights this by giving intra-operative pictures of live nematodes upon dissection of the appendix. PMID:25024022

  20. Multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with atypical rubella virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Koji; Asahara, Hideaki; Uehara, Taira; Miyoshi, Katsue; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of an occurrence of multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with atypical rubella virus infection with no rash and long-term increased titers of serum anti-rubella IgM in a 17-year-old male who had no history of rubella vaccination. He suffered from at least six clinical exacerbations with disseminated hyperintense lesions on FLAIR MR images during the course of 18 months. Repeated methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy resolved the exacerbations. In patients with multiphasic ADEM of unknown etiology, clinicians should also consider the possibility of preceding infection with rubella virus.

  1. Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures

    PubMed Central

    Desmarets, Lowiese M. B.; Vermeulen, Ben L.; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Zeller, Mark; Roukaerts, Inge D. M.; Acar, Delphine D.; Olyslaegers, Dominique A. J.; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a highly neutralising antibody response from 9 dpi, and no major abnormalities in leukocyte numbers. Faecal shedding lasted for 28–56 days, but virus shed during this stage was less infectious in enterocyte cultures and affected by mutations. Remarkably, in the other cat neither clinical signs nor acute shedding were seen, but virus was detected in blood cells from 3 dpi, and shedding of non-enterotropic, mutated viruses suddenly occurred from 14 dpi onwards. Neutralising antibodies arose from 21 dpi. Leukocyte numbers were not different compared to the other cats, except for the CD8+ regulatory T cells. These data indicate that FECV can infect immune cells even in the absence of intestinal replication and raise the hypothesis that the gradual adaptation to these cells can allow non-enterotropic mutants to arise. PMID:26822958

  2. Detection of Acute HIV-1 Infection by RT-LAMP.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Donna L; Sullivan, Vickie; Owen, S Michele; Curtis, Kelly A

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, cost-effective diagnostic test for the detection of acute HIV-1 infection is highly desired. Isothermal amplification techniques, such as reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), exhibit characteristics that are ideal for the development of a rapid nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) because they are quick, easy to perform and do not require complex, dedicated equipment and laboratory space. In this study, we assessed the ability of the HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay to detect acute HIV infection as compared to a representative rapid antibody test and several FDA-approved laboratory-based assays. The HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay detected seroconverting individuals one to three weeks earlier than a rapid HIV antibody test and up to two weeks earlier than a lab-based antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combo enzyme immunoassay (EIA). RT-LAMP was not as sensitive as a lab-based qualitative RNA assay, which could be attributed to the significantly smaller nucleic acid input volume. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of detecting acute HIV infection using the RT-LAMP assay. The availability of a rapid NAAT, such as the HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay, at the point of care (POC) or in laboratories that do not have access to large platform NAAT could increase the percentage of individuals who receive an acute HIV infection status or confirmation of their HIV status, while immediately linking them to counseling and medical care. In addition, early knowledge of HIV status could lead to reduced high-risk behavior at a time when individuals are at a higher risk for transmitting the virus. PMID:25993381

  3. Pteropine orthoreovirus infection among out-patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Voon, Kenny; Tan, Yeh Fong; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Gunnasekaran, Rajasekaran; Ujang, Kamsiah; Chua, Kaw Bing; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to assess the incidence rate of Pteropine orthreovirus (PRV) infection in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in a suburban setting in Malaysia, where bats are known to be present in the neighborhood. Using molecular detection of PRVs directly from oropharyngeal swabs, our study demonstrates that PRV is among one of the common causative agents of acute URTI with cough and sore throat as the commonest presenting clinical features. Phylogenetic analysis on partial major outer and inner capsid proteins shows that these PRV strains are closely related to Melaka and Kampar viruses previously isolated in Malaysia. Further study is required to determine the public health significance of PRV infection in Southeast Asia, especially in cases where co-infection with other pathogens may potentially lead to different clinical outcomes.

  4. Effect of Dextran 40 and aprotinin on experimental acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Crocket, K V; Reising, J R; Wirman, J A; Gau, N; Joffe, S N

    1984-03-01

    This study examines and compares the prophylactic role of aprotinin and Dextran 40 in acute pancreatitis. Experimental acute pancreatitis was induced in 70 male Wistar rats using the closed-duodenal-loop technique. The rats were randomly divided into four groups; sham operation, untreated acute pancreatitis, and therapy with aprotinin or Dextran 40. Samples of blood and urine were collected at the beginning and at the end of the 24-hr period for measurement of amylase and creatinine which allowed calculation of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR). Mortality in the aprotinin group was the same as the untreated rats (20%). Dextran 40 therapy was associated with a lower mortality rate (6.7%). Light microscopic examination confirmed that the histologic changes of acute pancreatitis were less severe in both the aprotinin- and Dextran 40-treated rats. The ACCR was elevated after Dextran 40 therapy, which was due mainly to high urinary amylase levels. These results suggest that Dextran 40 may have a prophylactic role in acute experimental pancreatitis but again emphasizes the high false-positive rate of the ACCR determination. PMID:6199589

  5. Infection in acute leukemia patients receiving oral nonabsorable antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hahn, D M; Schimpff, S C; Fortner, C L; Smyth, A C; Young, V M; Wiernik, P H

    1978-06-01

    During a 20-month period all acute nonlymphocytic patients (87 patient trials) receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy were placed on an oral nonabsorbable antibiotic regimen consisting of gentamicin, vancomycin, and nystatin in addition to an intensive program of infection prevention aimed at reducing exogenously acquired and body-surface potential pathogens. Although side effects of anorexia, diarrhea, and nausea were common, gentamicin-vancomycin-nystatin was ingested 80% of the study time. Microbial growth in gingival and rectal cultures was substantially reduced. The incidence of bacteremias and other serious infections was low. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, other gram-negative bacilli, and Candida species caused few infections along the alimentary canal, whereas infections of the skin (especially Staphylococcus aureus) were not reduced compared with those occurring in former years. A total of the 104 acquired gram-negative bacilli were gentamicin resistant; 5 subsequently caused infection. Thus, despite certain definite drawbacks, the use of oral nonabsorbable antibiotics to suppress alimentary tract microbial flora in combination with other infection prevention techniques in granulocytopenic cancer patients has proven feasible and tolerable and has been associated with a low order of life-threatening infections. PMID:98107

  6. A Golden Hamster Model for Human Acute Nipah Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wong, K. Thong; Grosjean, Isabelle; Brisson, Christine; Blanquier, Barissa; Fevre-Montange, Michelle; Bernard, Arlette; Loth, Philippe; Georges-Courbot, Marie-Claude; Chevallier, Michelle; Akaoka, Hideo; Marianneau, Philippe; Lam, Sai Kit; Wild, T. Fabian; Deubel, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    A predominantly pig-to-human zoonotic infection caused by the novel Nipah virus emerged recently to cause severe morbidity and mortality in both animals and man. Human autopsy studies showed the pathogenesis to be related to systemic vasculitis that led to widespread thrombotic occlusion and microinfarction in most major organs especially in the central nervous system. There was also evidence of extravascular parenchymal infection, particularly near damaged vessels (Wong KT, Shieh WJ, Kumar S, Norain K, Abdullah W, Guarner J, Goldsmith CS, Chua KB, Lam SK, Tan CT, Goh KJ, Chong HT, Jusoh R, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Zaki SR, Nipah Virus Pathology Working Group: Nipah virus infection: Pathology and pathogenesis of an emerging paramyxoviral zoonosis. Am J Pathol 2002, 161:2153–2167). We describe here a golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) model that appears to reproduce the pathology and pathogenesis of acute human Nipah infection. Hamsters infected by intranasal or intraperitoneal routes died within 9 to 29 days or 5 to 9 days, respectively. Pathological lesions were most severe and extensive in the hamster brain. Vasculitis, thrombosis, and more rarely, multinucleated endothelial syncytia, were found in blood vessels of multiple organs. Viral antigen and RNA were localized in both vascular and extravascular tissues including neurons, lung, kidney, and spleen, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, respectively. Paramyxoviral-type nucleocapsids were identified in neurons and in vessel walls. At the terminal stage of infection, virus and/or viral RNA could be recovered from most solid organs and urine, but not from serum. The golden hamster is proposed as a suitable model for further studies including pathogenesis studies, anti-viral drug testing, and vaccine development against acute Nipah infection. PMID:14578210

  7. Effective treatment of experimental acute otitis media by application of volatile fluids into the ear canal.

    PubMed

    Kristinsson, Karl G; Magnusdottir, Anna B; Petersen, Hannes; Hermansson, Ann

    2005-06-01

    Essential oils are volatile and can have good antimicrobial activity. We compared the effects of oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum) and essential oil components (thymol, carvacrol, and salicylaldehyde) to those of a placebo when placed in the ear canal of rats with experimental acute otitis media caused by pneumococci or Haemophilus influenzae. Progress was monitored by otomicroscopic examination and middle ear cultures. The treatment with oil of basil or essential oil components cured or healed 56%-81% of rats infected with H. influenzae and 6%-75% of rats infected with pneumococci, compared with 5.6%-6% of rats in the placebo group. Essential oils or their components placed in the ear canal can provide effective treatment of acute otitis media. PMID:15871121

  8. Hosting Infection: Experimental Models to Assay Candida Virulence

    PubMed Central

    MacCallum, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Although normally commensals in humans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei are capable of causing opportunistic infections in individuals with altered physiological and/or immunological responses. These fungal species are linked with a variety of infections, including oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, and systemic infections, with C. albicans the major cause of infection. To assess the ability of different Candida species and strains to cause infection and disease requires the use of experimental infection models. This paper discusses the mucosal and systemic models of infection available to assay Candida virulence and gives examples of some of the knowledge that has been gained to date from these models. PMID:22235206

  9. Acute haematogenous infection of a closed vertebral fracture.

    PubMed

    Marshman, Laurence A G; Allison, Dale; Molloy, Cynthia J

    2009-12-01

    Acute haematogenous infection of a closed fractures is rare. A 68-year-old diabetic male sustained a burst fracture of a lumbar vertebra (L2) after a fall onto his back. After 5 days of conservative management, he developed a chest infection and amoxicillin was commenced empirically. However, after 6 days his previously moderate focal L2 back pain had become more severe. Pyrexia and systemic inflammatory markers continued to rise despite administration of antibiotics. Blood cultures and a CT-guided biopsy of L2 both revealed Staphylococcus aureus which was sensitive to flucloxacillin. The patient's symptoms and signs gradually normalised following administration of flucloxacillin for 6 weeks, and the use of a cast brace. We conclude that haematogenous infection can be successfully managed non-operatively.

  10. Telaprevir in the Treatment of Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection in HIV-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Fierer, Daniel S.; Dieterich, Douglas T.; Mullen, Michael P.; Branch, Andrea D.; Uriel, Alison J.; Carriero, Damaris C.; van Seggelen, Wouter O.; Hijdra, Rosanne M.; Cassagnol, David G.; Akil, Bisher; Bailey, Juan; Bellman, Paul; Bowers, Daniel; Bungay, Krisczar; Burger, Susanne; Carpenter, Ward; Chavez, Robert; Chow, Rita; Cohen, Robert; Dalton, Patrick; Dellosso, John; Demidont, Adrian; Dillon, Stephen; Donlon, Eileen; Farrow, Terry; Gardenier, Donald; Guadron, Rodolfo; Haber, Stuart; Higgins, Lawrence; Hitzeman, Lawrence; Hsu, Ricky; Huprikar, Shirish; Inada, Victor; Jacob, Sneha; Johnson, Livette; Johnston, Barbara; Kaminsky, Donald; Klein, Oscar; Kwong, Jeffrey; Lares-Guia, Jose; Leach, Eric; Levine, Randy; Linetskaya, Irina; Litvinova, Larisa; Malhotra, Amisha; Mandell, William; Markowitz, Martin; Mayer, Gal; Meraz, Eddie; Mortensen, Erik; Ng, Michel; Olivieri, Joseph; Paolino, Charles; Photangtham, Punyadech; Psevdos, George; Radix, Anita; Rapaport, Steven; Rodriguez-Caprio, Gabriela; Shay, William; Somasundaram, Nirupama; Sorra, Lembitu; Stivala, Alicia; Tran, Richie; Urbina, Antonio; Vail, Rona; Wallach, Francis; Wang, Wen; Weiss, Susan; Wiener, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Background. There is an international epidemic of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men. Sustained virologic response (SVR) rates with pegylated interferon and ribavirin treatment are higher in these men during acute HCV than during chronic HCV, but treatment is still lengthy and SVR rates are suboptimal. Methods. We performed a pilot study of combination therapy with telaprevir, pegylated interferon, and ribavirin in acute genotype 1 HCV infection in HIV-infected men. Men who were treated prior to the availability of, or ineligible for, telaprevir were the comparator group. The primary endpoint was SVR12, defined as an HCV viral load <5 IU/mL at least 12 weeks after completing treatment. Results. In the telaprevir group, 84% (16/19) of men achieved SVR12 vs 63% (30/48) in the comparator group. Among men with SVR, median time to undetectable viral load was week 2 in the telaprevir group vs week 4 in the comparator group, and 94% vs 53% had undetectable viral loads at week 4. Most patients (81%) who achieved SVR in the telaprevir group received ≤12 weeks of treatment and there were no relapses after treatment. The overall safety profile was similar to that known for telaprevir-based regimens. Conclusions. Incorporating telaprevir into treatment of acute genotype 1 HCV in HIV-infected men halved the treatment duration and increased the SVR rate. Larger studies should be done to confirm these findings. Clinicians should be alert to detect acute HCV infection of HIV-infected men to take advantage of this effective therapy and decrease further transmission in this epidemic. PMID:24336914

  11. ACUTE HEPATIC NECROSIS INDUCED BY BRUCELLA INFECTION IN HYPERTHYROID MICE

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G. Mary; Spink, Wesley W.

    1959-01-01

    When small numbers of Brucella melitensis were inoculated into ABC mice, occasional hepatic granulomas without necrosis were demonstrated. The greatest multiplication of brucellae was detected in the spleens. Because it had been previously observed that ACTH or cortisone markedly accelerated the multiplication of brucellae in the livers of infected mice with destruction of liver cells, it was considered that triiodothyronine might likewise exaggerate a brucella infection by stimulating endogenous adrenal secretion. Although adrenal hypertrophy was produced, infection of mice treated with triiodothyronine resulted in severe hepatic necrosis or infarcts without the multiplication of brucellae in either the livers or spleens. The lesions were not encountered in untreated infected mice or in control mice treated with triiodothyronine. The necrosis was associated with minimal inflammatory reaction. The necrosis was not induced in mice treated with triiodothyronine and given brucella endotoxin. The precise genesis of the acute hepatic necrosis cited in these experiments remains undefined. Triiodothyronine did not cause deaths in mice infected with Br. melitensis. The infection was neither enhanced nor suppressed. PMID:13803714

  12. Human Bocavirus: Passenger or Pathogen in Acute Respiratory Tract Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Schildgen, Oliver; Müller, Andreas; Allander, Tobias; Mackay, Ian M.; Völz, Sebastian; Kupfer, Bernd; Simon, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly identified virus tentatively assigned to the family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae, genus Bocavirus. HBoV was first described in 2005 and has since been detected in respiratory tract secretions worldwide. Herein we review the literature on HBoV and discuss the biology and potential clinical impact of this virus. Most studies have been PCR based and performed on patients with acute respiratory symptoms, from whom HBoV was detected in 2 to 19% of the samples. HBoV-positive samples have been derived mainly from infants and young children. HBoV DNA has also been detected in the blood of patients with respiratory tract infection and in fecal samples of patients with diarrhea with or without concomitant respiratory symptoms. A characteristic feature of HBoV studies is the high frequency of coinciding detections, or codetections, with other viruses. Available data nevertheless indicate a statistical association between HBoV and acute respiratory tract disease. We present a model incorporating these somewhat contradictory findings and suggest that primary HBoV infection causes respiratory tract symptoms which can be followed by prolonged low-level virus shedding in the respiratory tract. Detection of the virus in this phase will be facilitated by other infections, either simply via increased sample cell count or via reactivation of HBoV, leading to an increased detection frequency of HBoV during other virus infections. We conclude that the majority of available HBoV studies are limited by the sole use of PCR diagnostics on respiratory tract secretions, addressing virus prevalence but not disease association. The ability to detect primary infection through the development of improved diagnostic methods will be of great importance for future studies seeking to assign a role for HBoV in causing respiratory illnesses. PMID:18400798

  13. Actinomyces infection causing acute right iliac fossa pain

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajah, Narendranath; Hameed, Waseem; Middleton, Simon; Booth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This is a case of a 75-year-old man being admitted to the on-call surgical department with acute abdominal pain. On arrival he was clinically dehydrated and shocked with localised pain over McBurney's point and examination findings were suggestive of appendiceal or other colonic pathology. Full blood testing revealed a white cell count of 38×109/L and a C reactive protein (CRP) of 278 mg/L. A CT scan revealed a gallbladder empyema that extended into the right iliac fossa. This case highlights the potential for a hyperdistended gallbladder empyema to present as acute right iliac fossa pain with blood tests suggestive of complicated disease. Further analysis confirmed Actinomyces infection as the underlying aetiology prior to a laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy. This case serves to remind clinicians of this as a rare potential cause of atypical gallbladder pathology. PMID:24872493

  14. The Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of Acute and Recurrent Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Becknell, Brian; Schober, Megan; Korbel, Lindsey; Spencer, John David

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by pediatricians. Currently, the diagnosis and management of acute urinary tract infection and recurrent urinary tract infection in children remains controversial. Recently published guidelines and large clinical trials have attempted to clarify UTI diagnostic and management strategies. In this manuscript, we review the diagnosis and management of acute and recurrent urinary tract infection in the pediatric population. PMID:25421102

  15. Proteomic Profiling of Mouse Liver following Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Jun; Ma, Jun; Elsheikha, Hany M; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii remains a global public health problem. However, its pathophysiology is still not-completely understood particularly the impact of infection on host liver metabolism. We performed iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis to evaluate early liver protein responses in BALB/c mice following infection with T. gondii PYS strain (genotype ToxoDB#9) infection. Our data revealed modification of protein expression in key metabolic pathways, as indicated by the upregulation of immune response and downregulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain, and the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and xenobiotics. T. gondii seems to hijack host PPAR signaling pathway to downregulate the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and energy in the liver. The metabolism of over 400 substances was affected by the downregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. The top 10 transcription factors used by upregulated genes were Stat2, Stat1, Irf2, Irf1, Sp2, Egr1, Stat3, Klf4, Elf1 and Gabpa, while the top 10 transcription factors of downregulated genes were Hnf4A, Ewsr1, Fli1, Hnf4g, Nr2f1, Pparg, Rxra, Hnf1A, Foxa1 and Foxo1. These findings indicate global reprogramming of the metabolism of the mouse liver after acute T. gondii infection. Functional characterization of the altered proteins may enhance understanding of the host responses to T. gondii infection and lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets.

  16. Proteomic Profiling of Mouse Liver following Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun-Jun; Ma, Jun; Elsheikha, Hany M.; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii remains a global public health problem. However, its pathophysiology is still not-completely understood particularly the impact of infection on host liver metabolism. We performed iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis to evaluate early liver protein responses in BALB/c mice following infection with T. gondii PYS strain (genotype ToxoDB#9) infection. Our data revealed modification of protein expression in key metabolic pathways, as indicated by the upregulation of immune response and downregulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain, and the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and xenobiotics. T. gondii seems to hijack host PPAR signaling pathway to downregulate the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and energy in the liver. The metabolism of over 400 substances was affected by the downregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. The top 10 transcription factors used by upregulated genes were Stat2, Stat1, Irf2, Irf1, Sp2, Egr1, Stat3, Klf4, Elf1 and Gabpa, while the top 10 transcription factors of downregulated genes were Hnf4A, Ewsr1, Fli1, Hnf4g, Nr2f1, Pparg, Rxra, Hnf1A, Foxa1 and Foxo1. These findings indicate global reprogramming of the metabolism of the mouse liver after acute T. gondii infection. Functional characterization of the altered proteins may enhance understanding of the host responses to T. gondii infection and lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. PMID:27003162

  17. Effects of malaria (Plasmodium relicturm) on activity budgets of experimentally-infected juvenile Apapane (Himatione sanquinea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorinks, N.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    We used behavioral, physiological, and parasitological measures to document effects of acute malarial infections on activity budgets of experimentally infected juvenile Apapane (Himatione sanguinea). Five of eight birds died within 20 to 32 days after exposure to a single infective mosquito bite. Infected Apapane devoted less time to locomotory activities involving flight, walking or hopping, and stationary activities such as singing, preening, feeding, and probing. The amount of time spent sitting was positively correlated with parasitemia and increased dramatically after infection and between treatment and control groups. Birds that succumbed to infection experienced a significant loss of body mass and subcutaneous fat, whereas surviving Apapane were better able to maintain body condition and fat levels. When rechallenged with the parasite five months after initial infection, surviving birds experienced no increase in parasitemia, indicating that they had become immune to reinfection. Regardless of the outcome, infected birds experienced acute illness that would have left them unable to forage or to escape from predators in the wild.

  18. Inhibition of catecholamine degradation ameliorates while chemical sympathectomy aggravates the severity of acute Friend retrovirus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Bloemker, Dominique; Mollerus, Sina; Gibbert, Kathrin; Dittmer, Ulf; del Rey, Adriana; Schedlowski, Manfred; Engler, Harald

    2016-05-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) might be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of retroviral infections. However, experimental data are scarce and findings inconsistent. Here, we investigated the role of the SNS during acute infection with Friend virus (FV), a pathogenic murine retrovirus that causes polyclonal proliferation of erythroid precursor cells and splenomegaly in adult mice. Experimental animals were infected with FV complex, and viral load, spleen weight, and splenic noradrenaline (NA) concentration was analyzed until 25 days post infection. Results show that FV infection caused a massive but transient depletion in splenic NA during the acute phase of the disease. At the peak of the virus-induced splenomegaly, splenic NA concentration was reduced by about 90% compared to naïve uninfected mice. Concurrently, expression of the catecholamine degrading enzymes monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) was significantly upregulated in immune cells of the spleen. Pharmacological inhibition of MAO-A and COMT by the selective inhibitors clorgyline and 3,5-dinitrocatechol, respectively, efficiently blocked NA degradation and significantly reduced viral load and virus-induced splenomegaly. In contrast, chemical sympathectomy prior to FV inoculation aggravated the acute infection and extended the duration of the disease. Together these findings demonstrate that catecholamine availability at the site of viral replication is an important factor affecting the course of retroviral infections. PMID:26880342

  19. Serum amyloid A protein in acute viral infections.

    PubMed Central

    Miwata, H; Yamada, T; Okada, M; Kudo, T; Kimura, H; Morishima, T

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) were measured in 254 children with viral diseases, including measles, varicella, rubella, mumps, echo-30 meningitis, chronic hepatitis B and C, and in eight with Kawasaki disease. Latex agglutination nephelometric immunoassay was used for assaying SAA. In 191 out of 195 patients (98%), SAA concentrations became markedly raised in the acute phase of the viral disease: measles (97%), varicella (100%), mumps (95%), and echo-30 meningitis (99%) with mean titres of 82.4, 80.5, 60.2, 75.2, and 101.1 micrograms/ml respectively. This increase in SAA was followed by a rapid return to normal concentrations (< 5 micrograms/ml) during convalescence. Remarkably higher concentrations of SAA (mean 1630 micrograms/ml) were detected in the acute phase of patients with Kawasaki disease, but in most of the children with chronic hepatitis B or C, the titres of SAA remained normal. There was no close correlation between SAA and serum concentrations for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, beta 2-microglobulin, transferrin, and IgG. There was a clear correlation between SAA and C reactive protein concentrations, although SAA showed a greater incremental change than C reactive protein in the acute phase. In the acute phase of these viral diseases, 56% of the patients had raised SAA concentrations (> or = 5 micrograms/ml) with normal C reactive protein concentrations (< 5 micrograms/ml). These results indicate that SAA could be useful as an inflammatory marker in children with acute viral infections. PMID:8481043

  20. Central venous catheter infection in adults in acute hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Jones, Clare A

    As well as the human cost, central venous catheter (CVC)-related bloodstream infections significantly inflate hospital costs, mainly through increased length of stay in hospital, particularly in intensive care. This literature review appraises recent research on measures used to minimize CVC-related infection and compares it with current best practice. Randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews published on the subject between 2000 and 2005 were reviewed, concentrating on non-tunnelled, short-term CVCs in the acute hospital setting. The new evidence mainly backs up current best practice. However, skin disinfection could be improved by using alcoholic chlorhexidine followed by aqueous povidone-iodine before CVC insertion. Also, alcoholic chlorhexidine is the preferred solution for cleaning the hubs/connectors before accessing the CVC. Good hand hygiene and quality control and education programmes are vital to improve patient care. More research is needed to clarify the effectiveness of certain interventions and technologies, such as antimicrobial CVCs.

  1. Antibiotic use in acute upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Zoorob, Roger; Sidani, Mohamad A; Fremont, Richard D; Kihlberg, Courtney

    2012-11-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections account for millions of visits to family physicians each year in the United States. Although warranted in some cases, antibiotics are greatly overused. This article outlines the guidelines and indications for appropriate antibiotic use for common upper respiratory infections. Early antibiotic treatment may be indicated in patients with acute otitis media, group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis, epiglottitis, or bronchitis caused by pertussis. Persistent cases of rhinosinusitis may necessitate the use of antibiotics if symptoms persist beyond a period of observation. Antibiotics should not be considered in patients with the common cold or laryngitis. Judicious, evidence-based use of antibiotics will help contain costs and prevent adverse effects and drug resistance.

  2. Nutritional Predictors of Acute Respiratory Infections Among Children Born to HIV-Infected Women in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Duggan, Christopher; Msamanga, Gernard; Aboud, Said; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively determined the association between undernutrition and incidence of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) among 711 children born to HIV-infected women. Overall, underweight was associated with a 58% increased risk of ARI. Similarly, wasting (54%), very low birth weight (88%) and child HIV infection (62%) were significantly associated with increased risk of ARI during the first 2 years. Breastfeeding was associated with 52% reduction in risk of ARI only during the first 12 months of life. Among HIV-exposed, but uninfected, children, underweight, wasting and stunting were associated with 73%, 61% and 33% increased risk of ARI, respectively. Very low birthweight and advanced maternal disease stage were also associated with increased risk of ARI. Similar results were observed among HIV-infected children, except for stunting and very low birth weight. Prevention of child undernutrition could have major impact in reducing child ARI morbidity in settings of high HIV prevalence. PMID:23400399

  3. Laboratory findings in cows after experimental infection with Ehrlichia phagocytophila.

    PubMed Central

    Pusterla, N; Huder, J; Wolfensberger, C; Braun, U; Lutz, H

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess various hematological variables in 10 cows after experimental infection with Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals for examination of leukocytes for Ehrlichia organisms and for determination of hematological and biochemical variables. In addition, PCR amplification was performed throughout the disease period on blood and milk samples for the detection of E. phagocytophila organisms. The time of seroconversion and the duration of serum titers indicating positivity were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. For all cows, E. phagocytophila organisms were first detected microscopically in leukocytes 5 to 8 days postinfection and could be demonstrated for a period of 6 to 14 days. For all cows, the appearance of E. phagocytophila organisms in leukocytes coincided with transient erythropenia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia and a decrease in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration. For five lactating cows, E. phagocytophila organisms were identified in leukocytes of milk samples during the acute phase of the disease, which, we believe, has not previously been reported. E. phagocytophila DNA was detected in blood samples by nested PCR from 1 to 2 days before to 2 to 12 days after the organisms were identified microscopically. In milk samples, E. phagocytophila DNA was detected for an average of 11 days. PMID:9384282

  4. Distribution of bovine herpesvirus type 1 in the nervous system of experimentally infected calves.

    PubMed

    Marin, M S; Leunda, M R; Verna, A E; Morán, P E; Odeón, A C; Pérez, S E

    2016-03-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is responsible for respiratory and genital disease in cattle. BoHV-1 encephalitis is only occasionally reported. However, several cases of neurological disease have been recently attributed to BoHV-1. In this study, the distribution and pathological alterations caused by two BoHV-1 strains in the nervous system of experimentally infected calves during acute infection and reactivation are described. Calves were inoculated intranasally with BoHV-1 Los Angeles (BoHV-1.LA) or Cooper (BoHV-1.Cooper) strains. Acutely infected calves were euthanased at 6 days (BoHV-1.Cooper, n = 2) and 7 days post-inoculation (BoHV-1.LA, n = 2). Latently infected calves that were given dexamethasone to induce reactivation were euthanased at 2 days (BoHV-1.Cooper, n = 2) or 5 days (BoHV-1.LA, n = 2) after dexamethasone administration. Both BoHV-1 strains were isolated from the brains of acutely infected calves. Distribution of viral DNA in the neural tissues was similar for both strains. During reactivation, neither BoHV-1.LA nor BoHV-1.Cooper was isolated from any brain section or trigeminal ganglia in infected calves. Macroscopic lesions were not evident in any group. In BoHV-1.LA infected calves, microscopic lesions were found in the brain but not in the trigeminal ganglia. Microscopic lesions in the brain of BoHV-1.Cooper infected calves were not as evident as in BoHV-1.LA infected animals. However, mononuclear infiltrates and neuronophagia were present in trigeminal ganglia. The results of this study demonstrated that respiratory BoHV-1 strains are able to replicate and disseminate within the bovine nervous tissue and provide evidence of the neuroinvasiveness of BoHV-1 strains. PMID:26831158

  5. [MRI semiotics features of experimental acute intracerebral hematomas].

    PubMed

    Burenchev, D V; Skvortsova, V I; Tvorogova, T V; Guseva, O I; Gubskiĭ, L V; Kupriianov, D A; Pirogov, Iu A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of revealing intracerebral hematomas (ICH), using MRI, within the first hours after onset and to determine their MRI semiotics features. Thirty animals with experimental ICH were studied. A method of two-stage introduction of autologous blood was used to develop ICH as human spontaneous intracranial hematomas. Within 3-5h after blood introduction to the rat brain. The control MRI was performed in the 3rd and 7th days after blood injections. ICH were definitely identified in the first MRI scans. The MRI semiotics features of acute ICH and their transformations were assessed. The high sensitivity of MRI to ICH as well as the uniform manifestations in all animals were shown. In conclusion, the method has high specificity for acute ICH detection.

  6. Experimental Phage Therapy for Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leang-Chung, Choh; Vellasamy, Kumutha Malar; Mariappan, Vanitha; Li-Yen, Chang; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogen intrinsically resistant to a variety of antibiotics. Phages have been developed for use as an alternative treatment therapy, particularly for bacterial infections that do not respond to conventional antibiotics. In this study, we investigated the use of phages to treat cells infected with B. pseudomallei. Phage C34 isolated from seawater was purified and characterised on the basis of its host range and morphology using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Phage C34 was able to lyse 39.5% of B. pseudomallei clinical strains. Due to the presence of contractile tail, phage C34 is classified as a member of the family Myoviridae, a tailed double-stranded DNA virus. When 2 × 105 A549 cells were exposed to 2 × 107 PFU of phage C34, 24 hours prior to infection with 2 × 106 CFU of B. pseudomallei, it was found that the survivability of the cells increased to 41.6 ± 6.8% as compared to 22.8 ± 6.0% in untreated control. Additionally, application of phage successfully rescued 33.3% of mice infected with B. pseudomallei and significantly reduced the bacterial load in the spleen of the phage-treated mice. These findings indicate that phage can be a potential antimicrobial agent for B. pseudomallei infections. PMID:27387381

  7. Experimental Phage Therapy for Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection.

    PubMed

    Guang-Han, Ong; Leang-Chung, Choh; Vellasamy, Kumutha Malar; Mariappan, Vanitha; Li-Yen, Chang; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogen intrinsically resistant to a variety of antibiotics. Phages have been developed for use as an alternative treatment therapy, particularly for bacterial infections that do not respond to conventional antibiotics. In this study, we investigated the use of phages to treat cells infected with B. pseudomallei. Phage C34 isolated from seawater was purified and characterised on the basis of its host range and morphology using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Phage C34 was able to lyse 39.5% of B. pseudomallei clinical strains. Due to the presence of contractile tail, phage C34 is classified as a member of the family Myoviridae, a tailed double-stranded DNA virus. When 2 × 105 A549 cells were exposed to 2 × 107 PFU of phage C34, 24 hours prior to infection with 2 × 106 CFU of B. pseudomallei, it was found that the survivability of the cells increased to 41.6 ± 6.8% as compared to 22.8 ± 6.0% in untreated control. Additionally, application of phage successfully rescued 33.3% of mice infected with B. pseudomallei and significantly reduced the bacterial load in the spleen of the phage-treated mice. These findings indicate that phage can be a potential antimicrobial agent for B. pseudomallei infections. PMID:27387381

  8. Experimental Infections of Bluegill with the Trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae (Digenea: Cathaemasiidae): Histopathology and Hematological Response

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Dana M.; Schaffer, Paula A.; Gregory, Jacklyn R.; Hardy, Katherine M.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Infections by the digenetic trematode, Ribeiroia ondatrae, cause severe limb malformations in many North American amphibians. Ribeiroia ondatrae also infects fishes as second intermediate hosts, but less is known about the pathology and immune responses initiated in infected fish, even though reports of infected fish date back to early 1900s. To this end, we experimentally exposed juvenile Bluegills Lepomis macrochirus to three doses of R. ondatrae cercariae and monitored the pathology, parasite infection success, and humoral responses over 648 h. All exposed fish became infected with metacercariae, and the average infection load increased with exposure dose. Histologically, infection was associated with acute hemorrhages in the lateral line and local dermis at 36 h, followed by progressive granulomatous inflammation that led to the destruction of encysted metacercariae. Correspondingly, over the course of 648 h we observed an 85% decline in average infection load among hosts, reflecting the host’s clearance of the parasite. Infection was not associated with changes in fish growth or survival, but did correlate with leukocytosis and neutrophilia in circulating host blood. Understanding the physiological responses of R. ondatrae in Bluegill will help to clarify the ecological effects of this parasite and provide a foundation for subsequent comparisons into its effects on behavior, individual health, and population dynamics of Bluegill. PMID:26587684

  9. Influence of Parasite Load on Renal Function in Mice Acutely Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Parreira, Ricardo Cambraia; Miguel, Renata Botelho; de Paula Rogerio, Alexandre; Oliveira, Carlo Jose Freire; Chica, Javier Emilio Lazo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite the vast number of studies evaluating the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease, the influence of parasite burden on kidney lesions remains unclear. Thus, the main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of T. cruzi infection on renal function and determine whether there was a correlation between parasite load and renal injury using an acute experimental model of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Low, medium and high parasite loads were generated by infecting C57BL/6 mice with 300 (low), 3,000 (medium) or 30,000 (high) numbers of “Y” strain trypomastigotes. We found that mice infected with T. cruzi trypomastigotes show increased renal injury. The infection resulted in reduced urinary excretion and creatinine clearance. We also observed a marked elevation in the ratio of urine volume to kidney and body weight, blood urea nitrogen, chloride ion, nitric oxide, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the number of leukocytes in the blood and/or renal tissues of infected mice. Additionally, we observed the presence of the parasite in the cortical/medullary and peri-renal region, an increase of inflammatory infiltrate and of vascular permeability of the kidney. Overall, most renal changes occurred mainly in animals infected with high parasitic loads. Conclusions/Significance These data demonstrate that T. cruzi impairs kidney function, and this impairment is more evident in mice infected with high parasitic loads. Moreover, these data suggest that, in addition to the extensively studied cardiovascular effects, renal injury should be regarded as an important indicator for better understanding the pan-infectivity of the parasite and consequently for understanding the disease in experimental models. PMID:23951243

  10. Natural and experimental West Nile virus infection in five raptor species.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole; Gould, Daniel; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of natural and/or experimental infections of West Nile virus (WNV) in five raptor species from July 2002 to March 2004, including American kestrels (Falco sparverius), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), barn owls (Tyto alba), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Birds were infected per mosquito bite, per os, or percutaneously by needle. Many experimentally infected birds developed mosquito-infectious levels of viremia (>10(5) WNV plaque forming units per ml serum) within 5 days postinoculation (DPI), and/ or shed virus per os or per cloaca. Infection of organs 15-27 days postinoculation was infrequently detected by virus isolation from spleen, kidney, skin, heart, brain, and eye in convalescent birds. Histopathologic findings varied among species and by method of infection. The most common histopathologic lesions were subacute myocarditis and encephalitis. Several birds had a more acute, severe disease condition represented by arteritis and associated with tissue degeneration and necrosis. This study demonstrates that raptor species vary in their response to WNV infection and that several modes of exposure (e.g., oral) may result in infection. Wildlife managers should recognize that, although many WNV infections are sublethal to raptors, subacute lesions could potentially reduce viability of populations. We recommend that raptor handlers consider raptors as a potential source of WNV contamination due to oral and cloacal shedding. PMID:16699143

  11. Progress in Treatment of Viral Infections in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Moschovi, Maria; Adamaki, Maria; Vlahopoulos, Spiros A.

    2016-01-01

    In children, the most commonly encountered type of leukemia is acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). An important source of morbidity and mortality in ALL are viral infections. Even though allogeneic transplantations, which are often applied also in ALL, carry a recognized risk for viral infections, there are multiple factors that make ALL patients susceptible to viral infections. The presence of those factors has an influence in the type and severity of infections. Currently available treatment options do not guarantee a positive outcome for every case of viral infection in ALL, without significant side effects. Side effects can have very serious consequences for the ALL patients, which include nephrotoxicity. For this reason a number of strategies for personalized intervention have been already clinically tested, and experimental approaches are being developed. Adoptive immunotherapy, which entails administration of ex vivo grown immune cells to a patient, is a promising approach in general, and for transplant recipients in particular. The ex vivo grown cells are aimed to strengthen the immune response to the virus that has been identified in the patients’ blood and tissue samples. Even though many patients with weakened immune system can benefit from progress in novel approaches, a viral infection still poses a very significant risk for many patients. Therefore, preventive measures and supportive care are very important for ALL patients. PMID:27471584

  12. Acute Arboviral Infections in Guinea, West Africa, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Jentes, Emily S.; Robinson, Jaimie; Johnson, Barbara W.; Conde, Ibrahima; Sakouvougui, Yosse; Iverson, Jennifer; Beecher, Shanna; Bah, M. Alpha; Diakite, Fousseny; Coulibaly, Mamadi; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Acute febrile illnesses comprise the majority of the human disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that arboviruses comprised a considerable proportion of undiagnosed febrile illnesses in Guinea and sought to determine the frequency of arboviral disease in two hospitals there. Using a standard case definition, 47 suspected cases were detected in approximately 4 months. Immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and plaque-reduction neutralization assays revealed that 63% (30/47) of patients were infected with arboviruses, including 11 West Nile, 2 yellow fever, 1 dengue, 8 chikungunya, and 5 Tahyna infections. Except for yellow fever, these are the first reported cases of human disease from these viruses in Guinea and the first reported cases of symptomatic Tahyna infection in Africa. These results strongly suggest that arboviruses circulate and are common causes of disease in Guinea. Improving surveillance and laboratory capacity for arbovirus diagnoses will be integral to understanding the burden posed by these agents in the region. PMID:20682888

  13. Acute arboviral infections in Guinea, West Africa, 2006.

    PubMed

    Jentes, Emily S; Robinson, Jaimie; Johnson, Barbara W; Conde, Ibrahima; Sakouvougui, Yosse; Iverson, Jennifer; Beecher, Shanna; Bah, M Alpha; Diakite, Fousseny; Coulibaly, Mamadi; Bausch, Daniel G; Bryan, Juliet

    2010-08-01

    Acute febrile illnesses comprise the majority of the human disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that arboviruses comprised a considerable proportion of undiagnosed febrile illnesses in Guinea and sought to determine the frequency of arboviral disease in two hospitals there. Using a standard case definition, 47 suspected cases were detected in approximately 4 months. Immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and plaque-reduction neutralization assays revealed that 63% (30/47) of patients were infected with arboviruses, including 11 West Nile, 2 yellow fever, 1 dengue, 8 chikungunya, and 5 Tahyna infections. Except for yellow fever, these are the first reported cases of human disease from these viruses in Guinea and the first reported cases of symptomatic Tahyna infection in Africa. These results strongly suggest that arboviruses circulate and are common causes of disease in Guinea. Improving surveillance and laboratory capacity for arbovirus diagnoses will be integral to understanding the burden posed by these agents in the region.

  14. Experimental Borrelia burgdorferi infection in Peromyscus leucopus.

    PubMed

    Moody, K D; Terwilliger, G A; Hansen, G M; Barthold, S W

    1994-04-01

    We evaluated the susceptibility of laboratory-reared adult and infant white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to a known pathogenic isolate of Borrelia burgdorferi (N40). Two-month-old and 3-day-old Peromyscus were inoculated intradermally with 10(6) to 10(7) spirochetes. At 21 days for adults or 30 days for infants post inoculation, mice were killed, and tissues were cultured for spirochetes and examined microscopically. Based on serology and culture, adult mice became infected but did not have any gross or microscopic lesions. Mice inoculated as infants became infected, and also developed carditis and multifocal arthritis. Contact transmission between inoculated infants and their naive mothers was not observed. Age at inoculation appeared to be a critical factor in inducing Lyme borreliosis lesions in Peromyscus leucopus, as in other species.

  15. INFECTION-IMMUNITY IN EXPERIMENTAL SALMONELLOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Collins, F. M.; Mackaness, G. B.; Blanden, R. V.

    1966-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis is highly virulent for the mouse causing an infection resembling mouse typhoid. Survivors of the infection are completely resistant to reinfection and eliminate a large challenge dose of virulent organisms within 72 hr. The antigenically related Salmonella gallinarum was almost avirulent for the mouse but animals vaccinated with this organism were equally capable of eliminating a lethal dose of virulent S. enteritidis. Living Salmonella pullorum, on the other hand, was quickly eliminated from the tissues of normal mice. Vaccination with this organism failed to evoke an effective bactericidal mechanism. Alcohol-killed vaccines of these three Salmonellae all produced an increase in blood clearance rate, but gave only marginal protection against S. enteritidis. Liver and spleen counts on these mice revealed a 1 to 2 day delay before any net increase in the total bacterial population could be observed. Immunization of mice with increasing doses of living Salmonella montevideo resulted in progressively greater killing of a challenge dose of S. enteritidis despite the absence of common somatic antigens between the two strains. The degree of protection varied with the size of the residual population of S. montevideo in the vaccinated mice. The significance of these findings in assessing the importance of various factors involved in the development of acquired resistance to Salmonella infections is discussed. PMID:5922286

  16. Experimental Infection of Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks with Rickettsia rickettsii

    PubMed Central

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Soares, João F.; Martins, Thiago F.; Soares, Herbert S.; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A.; Almeida, Aliny P.; Pinter, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally infected Amblyomma aureolatum ticks with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). These ticks are a vector for RMSF in Brazil. R. rickettsii was efficiently conserved by both transstadial maintenance and vertical (transovarial) transmission to 100% of the ticks through 4 laboratory generations. However, lower reproductive performance and survival of infected females was attributed to R. rickettsii infection. Therefore, because of the high susceptibility of A. aureolatum ticks to R. rickettsii infection, the deleterious effect that the bacterium causes in these ticks may contribute to the low infection rates (<1%) usually reported among field populations of A. aureolatum ticks in RMSF-endemic areas of Brazil. Because the number of infected ticks would gradually decrease after each generation, it seems unlikely that A. aureolatum ticks could sustain R. rickettsii infection over multiple successive generations solely by vertical transmission. PMID:21529391

  17. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. Methods A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1–4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A—F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011–2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12–24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV—Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV—bocavirus / bocavirus—influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12–24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis. PMID:26332375

  18. Airway microbiota and acute respiratory infection in children

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Acute respiratory infection (ARI), such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, is the leading cause of hospitalization for U.S. infants. While the incidence and severity of ARI can vary widely among children, the reasons for these differences are not fully explained by traditional risk factors (e.g., prematurity, viral pathogens). The recent advent of molecular diagnostic techniques has revealed the presence of highly functional communities of microbes inhabiting the human body (i.e., microbiota) that appear to influence development of local and systemic immune response. We propose a “risk and resilience” model in which airway microbiota are associated with an increased (risk microbiota) or decreased (resilience microbiota) incidence and severity of ARI in children. We also propose that modulating airway microbiota (e.g., from risk to resilience microbiota) during early childhood will optimize airway immunity, and thereby decrease ARI incidence and severity in children. PMID:25961472

  19. Exposure to cold and acute upper respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed

    Eccles, R; Wilkinson, J E

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of acute upper respiratory tract viral infections (URTI) is directly correlated to air temperature with most URTI occurring seasonally in cold weather. This review looks at four types of cold exposure and examines the evidence and possible mechanisms for any relationship to URTI. The effects of cold are discussed as: 1) Chilling of the nose and upper respiratory tract by breathing cold air, 2) Chilling of the mouth and upper digestive tract by ingestion of cold drinks and food, 3) Acute chilling of the body surface, and, 4) Chilling of the body as a whole with a fall in body temperature, hypothermia. Some studies were found to support a relationship between breathing cold air and chilling the body surface with the development of URTI, although this area is controversial. No evidence was found in the literature to support any relationship between ingestion of cold drinks and food and URTI, and similarly no evidence was found to link hypothermia and URTI. PMID:26030031

  20. Experimental infection of Rio Mamore hantavirus in Sigmodontinae rodents

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, William Marciel; Machado, Alex Martins; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2016-01-01

    This study shows an experimental spillover infection ofSigmodontinae rodents with Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV).Necromys lasiurus and Akodon sp were infected with 103 RNA copies of RIOMV by intraperitoneal administration. The viral genome was detected in heart, lung, and kidney tissues 18 days after infection (ai), and viral excretion in urine and faeces began at four and six ai, respectively. These results reveal that urine and faeces of infected rodents contain the virus for at least 18 days. It is possible that inhaled aerosols of these excreta could transmit hantavirus to humans and other animals. PMID:27223653

  1. Experimental infection of Rio Mamore hantavirus in Sigmodontinae rodents.

    PubMed

    Souza, William Marciel de; Machado, Alex Martins; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2016-05-24

    This study shows an experimental spillover infection of Sigmodontinae rodents with Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV). Necromys lasiurus and Akodon sp were infected with 103 RNA copies of RIOMV by intraperitoneal administration. The viral genome was detected in heart, lung, and kidney tissues 18 days after infection (ai), and viral excretion in urine and faeces began at four and six ai, respectively. These results reveal that urine and faeces of infected rodents contain the virus for at least 18 days. It is possible that inhaled aerosols of these excreta could transmit hantavirus to humans and other animals. PMID:27223653

  2. Viral Infection in Adults with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Remolina, Yuly Andrea; Ulloa, María Mercedes; Vargas, Hernán; Díaz, Liliana; Gómez, Sandra Liliana; Saavedra, Alfredo; Sánchez, Edgar; Cortés, Jorge Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the viral aetiology in adult patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) admitted to sentinel surveillance institutions in Bogotá in 2012. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in which microarray molecular techniques for viral identification were used on nasopharyngeal samples of adult patients submitted to the surveillance system, and further descriptions of clinical features and relevant clinical outcomes, such as mortality, need for critical care, use of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay, were obtained. Setting Respiratory infections requiring hospital admission in surveillance centres in Bogotá, Colombia. Participants Ninety-one adult patients with acute respiratory infection (55% were female). Measurements Viral identification, intensive care unit admission, hospital stay, and mortality. Results Viral identification was achieved for 63 patients (69.2%). Comorbidity was frequently identified and mainly involved chronic pulmonary disease or pregnancy. Influenza, Bocavirus and Adenovirus were identified in 30.8%, 28.6% and 18.7% of the cases, respectively. Admission to the intensive care unit occurred in 42.9% of the cases, while mechanical ventilation was required for 36.3%. The average hospital stay was 9.9 days, and mortality was 15.4%. Antibiotics were empirically used in 90.1% of patients. Conclusions The prevalence of viral aetiology of SARI in this study was high, with adverse clinical outcomes, intensive care requirements and high mortality. PMID:26576054

  3. Pathogenesis of experimental rhesus cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Lockridge, K M; Sequar, G; Zhou, S S; Yue, Y; Mandell, C P; Barry, P A

    1999-11-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes and maintains a lifelong persistence following infection in an immunocompetent host. The determinants of a stable virus-host relationship are poorly defined. A nonhuman primate model for HCMV was used to investigate virological and host parameters of infection in a healthy host. Juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were inoculated with rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV), either orally or intravenously (i.v. ), and longitudinally necropsied. None of the animals displayed clinical signs of disease, although hematologic abnormalities were observed intermittently in i.v. inoculated animals. RhCMV DNA was detected transiently in the plasma of all animals at 1 to 2 weeks postinfection (wpi) and in multiple tissues beginning at 2 to 4 wpi. Splenic tissue was the only organ positive for RhCMV DNA in all animals. The location of splenic cells expressing RhCMV immediate-early protein 1 (IE1) in i.v. inoculated animals changed following inoculation. At 4 to 5 wpi, most IE1-positive cells were perifollicular, and at 25 wpi, the majority were located within the red pulp. All animals developed anti-RhCMV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies within 1 to 2 wpi and IgG antibodies within 2 to 4 wpi against a limited number of viral proteins. Host reactivity to RhCMV proteins increased in titer (total and neutralizing) and avidity with time. These results demonstrate that while antiviral immune responses were able to protect from disease, they were insufficient to eliminate reservoirs of persistent viral gene expression. PMID:10516066

  4. Primary Epstein-Barr-virus infections in acute neurologic diseases.

    PubMed

    Grose, C; Henle, W; Henle, G; Feorino, P M

    1975-02-20

    Infectious mononucleosis has been associated with Guillain--Barré syndrome, Bell's palsy, meningoencephalitis and transverse myelitis. Since it is not known that many children with infectious mononucleosis do not develop heterophil antibodies, we looked for evidence of current or recent Epstein-Barr virus infection in young patients with these neurologic diseases by using serodiagnostic procedures for detection and titration of antibodies to various antigens related to Epstein-Barr virus. Seven of 24 cases with Guillain-Barre syndrome and three of 16 with facial palsy were definitely associated with primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus as were two cases each of the other two neurologic diseases. Only one of these patients had obvious clinical infectious mononucleosis, and only a few demonstrated heterophil agglutinins. It is evident that the virus must be considered in the diagnosis of various acute neurologic diseases affecting children and young adults, even in the absence of heterophil-antibody response or other signs of infectious mononucleosis.

  5. Responsiveness of Experimental Surgical-Wound Infections to Topical Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    McRipley, R. J.; Whitney, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    Topical agents freshly formulated in a cream base vehicle as well as commercial topical preparations were used to evaluate in mice the responsiveness of experimental surgical wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa to chemotherapy. The responsiveness of the infections to therapy or the efficacy of a topical agent was assessed primarily by means of wound counts of the infecting organism before and after the employment of an immediate (prophylactic) or delayed (therapeutic) treatment regimen. From tests of several concentrations of an agent formulated in the vehicle, a median effective dose could be determined. In the case of the lethal P. aeruginosa infection, a median protective dose could be determined. Both infections were found to be quite susceptible to treatment with those topical agents that demonstrated good activity in vitro against the test organisms. The results of the investigation indicated that the model infections were suitable for the screening of potential topical agents in vivo. PMID:984757

  6. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2.

    PubMed

    Passler, Thomas; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Chamorro, Manuel F; Neill, John D; Brodersen, Bruce W; Walz, Heather L; Galik, Patricia K; Zhang, Yijing; Walz, Paul H

    2014-04-04

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25-35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam's acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats.

  7. Surveillance for hospitalized acute respiratory infection in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Verani, Jennifer R; McCracken, John; Arvelo, Wences; Estevez, Alejandra; Lopez, Maria Renee; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Gray, Jennifer; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4%) cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7%) among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6%) of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0%) had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9%) case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000), followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000). These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and death due to

  8. Surveillance for Hospitalized Acute Respiratory Infection in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Verani, Jennifer R.; McCracken, John; Arvelo, Wences; Estevez, Alejandra; Lopez, Maria Renee; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Gray, Jennifer; Olsen, Sonja J.; Lindblade, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4%) cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7%) among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6%) of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0%) had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9%) case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000), followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000). These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and death due to

  9. Experimental infection of domestic pigeons with pigeon circovirus.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Volker; Schlömer, Julian; Lüken, Caroline; Johne, Reimar; Biere, Barbara; Müller, Hermann; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2008-09-01

    Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection and young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS), associated with high morbidity and mortality, have been recognized in young racing pigeons from large portions of Central Europe. There exist a number of data indicating that YPDS is a consequence of PiCV infection and subsequent immunosuppression. In order to prove PiCV to be one of the crucial factors of YPDS, an experimental infection with PiCV was performed under controlled conditions. Twenty-four domestic pigeons (Columba livia forma domestica) were divided into two groups with 12 pigeons each; an infection group and a control group. All birds were between their fourth to eighth week of life. Pigeons in the infection group were infected both intramuscularly and orally with PiCV purified from naturally infected birds, while pigeons in the control group received a placebo. To test a possible influence of the PiCV infection on the immune system, the animals in both groups were vaccinated simultaneously, on the same day, against PMV-1 (Lasovac plus, IDT, Dessau-Tornau, Germany). Weekly virologic testing showed a viraemic period, and excretion of the infection virus, in pigeons in the infection group. Replication of PiCV could be proved on the basis of histologic findings of multiglobular inclusion bodies, mainly observed in macrophages of the bursa of Fabricius. A PiCV, genetically distinct from the experimental virus, was detected in the control group by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, but any histologic findings comparable to the infection group were absent. None of the pigeons revealed clinical signs of illness, or hints that immunosuppression had occurred, regardless of their group. The absence of stressful conditions, considered as a trigger for the development of YPDS, may be responsible for the failure of disease reproduction in our infection model.

  10. Experimental infections with the protozoan parasite Histomonas meleagridis: a review.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies about Histomonas meleagridis, and more specifically about experiments in vivo involving H. meleagridis to investigate the pathogenicity and efficacy of drugs or vaccines, have been published. Together with older publications, a considerable amount of information about experimental infections with H. meleagridis exist, which is helpful for planning future animal studies and can reduce the number of birds used in such studies toward better animal welfare. One hundred sixty-seven publications describing experimental infections with H. meleagridis were published in scientific journals between 1920 and 2012. One hundred forty-two of these publications describe infections of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and 52 infections of chickens (Gallus gallus). In 18 studies, experiments involving other species were done. The most popular routes of infection were the intracloacal application of histomonal trophozoites from culture material, from lesions or from feces of infected birds, or using larvae of the cecal worm Heterakis gallinarum (83 studies) and the oral application of eggs or other stages of the cecal worm containing histomonal stages (83 studies). During the last 10 years, intracloacal application of trophozoites has become the most popular way to experimentally infect birds with H. meleagridis due to its high reproducibility and reliability. In most studies, infection doses of several 10,000 or 100,000 histomonal trophozoites were used for infection, and the resulting mortality in turkeys was more than 70 %. First mortality can occur as early as 6 days p.i.; peak mortality usually is 13-15 days p.i. Lower infection doses may delay mortality about 2 days. In chickens infected by the intracloacal route, mortality and clinical signs are rare, but infection rates are similar. Cecal lesions can be observed from 3 to 4 days p.i., lesions up to 3 weeks p.i.; liver lesions may be lacking completely or be present only in a small

  11. Experimental St. Louis encephalitis virus infection of sloths and cormorants.

    PubMed

    Seymour, C; Kramer, L D; Peralta, P H

    1983-07-01

    Experimental infection of 11 Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths with St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus produced detectable viremias of seven to 27 (median 13) days duration and maximum titers of 2.7 to 6.5 (median 5.1) log10 median suckling mouse intracranial lethal doses (SMicLD50) per ml. Experimental SLE viremia onset was delayed and maximum titer depressed in two sloths concurrently infected with naturally acquired viruses. SLE viremias in four experimentally inoculated cormorants Phalacrocorax olivaceus were shorter, and of equal or lower titer, than in sloths. Colonized Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were infected by feeding on sloths circulating at least 4.8 log10 SMicLD50 of SLE virus per ml, and subsequently transmitted the infection to mice and chicks. An uninoculated baby Bradypus became infected by contact transmission from its mother. The antibody response of sloths to SLE virus was slow, being undetectable until several weeks post-inoculation. However, both sloth species developed high and long-lasting neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers. The complement-fixation antibody response in Bradypus was lower and slower to develop than in Choloepus. Sloths with naturally acquired SLE virus antibody did not become detectably viremic after experimental inoculation. Neither sloths nor cormorants become overly ill from SLE virus infection.

  12. Pathogenesis of experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, J K; Sparger, E; Ho, E W; Andersen, P R; O'Connor, T P; Mandell, C P; Lowenstine, L; Munn, R; Pedersen, N C

    1988-08-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV; formerly, feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus) is a typical lentivirus resembling human and simian immunodeficiency viruses in morphologic features, protein structure, and reverse transcriptase enzyme. It is antigenically dissimilar, however. The virus is tropic for primary and permanent feline T-lymphoblastoid cells and Crandell feline kidney cells. The virus did not grow in other permanent feline non-lymphoblastoid cells that were tested, or in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells from man, dogs, mice, and sheep. During short-term inoculation studies in cats, the feline immunodeficiency-like syndrome found in nature was not experimentally induced, but a distinct primary phase of infection was observed. Fever and neutropenia were observed 4 to 5 weeks after inoculation; fever lasted several days, and neutropenia persisted from 1 to 9 weeks. Generalized lymphadenopathy that persisted for 2 to 9 months appeared at the same time. Antibodies to FIV appeared 2 weeks after inoculation and then plateaued. Virus was reisolated from the blood of all infected cats within 4 to 5 weeks after inoculation and persisted indefinitely in the face of humoral antibody response. Virus was recovered from blood, plasma, CSF and saliva, but not from colostrum or milk. Contact transmission was achieved slowly in one colony of naturally infected cats, but not between experimentally infected and susceptible specific-pathogen-free cats kept together for periods as long as 4 to 14 months. The infection was transmitted readily, however, by parenteral inoculation with blood, plasma, or infective cell culture fluids. In utero and lactogenic transmission were not observed in kittens born to naturally or experimentally infected queens. Lymphadenopathy observed during the initial stage of FIV infection was ascribed to lymphoid hyperplasia and follicular dysplasia. A myeloproliferative disorder was observed in 1 cat with experimentally induced infection. PMID:2459996

  13. Which factors influence the outcome of experimental infection with Cystoisospora suis?

    PubMed

    Joachim, Anja; Schwarz, Lukas; Hinney, Barbara; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Vogl, Claus; Mundt, Hans-Christian

    2014-05-01

    For reliable predictions of clinical and parasitological outcome of experimental infections with parasites, different models must be evaluated for possible influences of infection time point, infection dose and host-specific parameters such as breed or litter size. To address these issues for Cystoisospora (syn. Isospora) suis, the causative agent of porcine neonatal coccidiosis, 181 piglets from 90 litters (hybrid crosses of different breeds) were included in a retrospective study to evaluate differences in time point and dose of infection in four different experimental models ((1) 1,500 oocysts on the 4th day of life, d.o.l.; (2) 1,000 oocysts, 4th d.o.l.; (3) 1,000 oocysts, 1st d.o.l.; (4) 5,000 oocysts, 4th d.o.l.). The target variables body weight gain, faecal consistency and oocyst excretion were evaluated during the acute phase of infection (5-10 days post infection), and the influences of the dependent variables breed or litter size were estimated. Despite differences in the time course of excretion and faecal consistency, neither the average amount of excretion nor the average faecal consistency differed among models, breeds or litters of different size. High individual variability was seen in all four models as described earlier for higher infection doses. When infections on the 1st vs. 4th day of life were compared, no differences in averages could be found, in contrast to previous observations on the influence of age. Other, not yet defined, variables appear to have a greater impact on the outcome of infection than doses and time points in the tested range, despite the reliable outcome of infection with high excretion rates and signs of clinical disease.

  14. Experimental infection of mule deer with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis.

    PubMed

    Tyler, G V; Hibler, C P; Prestwood, A K

    1980-10-01

    Six adult and three fawn mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were experimentally infected with a range of 75-100 infective larvae of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis. Five of the six adult deer developed clinical signs of neurologic disease that terminated in paralysis between 35 and 80 days. The sixth deer developed slight signs of neurologic disease for 10 days, but recovered. All three mule deer fawns developed neurologic disease. Adult meningeal worms were recovered from the subdural space of the spinal cord of two fawns. Eggs were observed on the cranial dura mater of one of these fawns, indicating that P. tenuis can complete its life cycle provided mule deer can survive the damage resulting from the infection. Neither eggs nor larvae of P. tenuis were recovered from the feces or lungs of infected mule deer. Clinical signs and histologic lesions observed in experimentally infected mule deer resembled those reported in infected moose (Alces alces americana). Two critical periods were apparent in mule deer infected with P. tenuis: nematode migration through the spinal neural parenchyma, and penetration of the adult nematodes into the cranial neural parenchyma. While most adult deer were unable to survive the first critical period, fawns survived the first but succumbed to infection during the second critical period.

  15. The transcendental meditation technique and acute experimental pain.

    PubMed

    Mills, W W; Farrow, J T

    1981-04-01

    The Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique decreases the distress associated with the experience of acute experimental pain. Fifteen advanced mediators and 15 controls were administered the cold pressor test before and after a 20 minute period of meditation (TM group) or relaxation (control group). Verbal reports of the intensity of pain sensation and pain distress were obtained at intervals during the cold pressor trials. Skin resistance and heart rate were measured throughout. The mean distress level for the TM group was significantly lower than controls during both trials; the mean pain sensation level for the TM group did not differ significantly from controls during either trial. Heart rate and skin resistant changed for both groups in the expected manner, with no significant differences between groups. The validity, implications, and possible causes of these results are discussed.

  16. Enterovirus D68 Infection in Children with Acute Flaccid Myelitis, Colorado, USA, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Messacar, Kevin; Pastula, Daniel M.; Robinson, Christine C.; Leshem, Eyal; Sejvar, James J.; Nix, W. Allan; Oberste, M. Steven; Feikin, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    During August 8, 2014–October 14, 2014, a total of 11 children with acute flaccid myelitis and distinctive neuroimaging changes were identified near Denver, Colorado, USA. A respiratory prodrome was experienced by 10, and nasopharyngeal specimens were positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) for 4. To determine whether an association exists between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis, we conducted a retrospective case–control study comparing these patients with 2 groups of outpatient control children (1 group tested for acute respiratory illness and 1 for Bordetella pertussis infection). Adjusted analyses indicated that, for children with acute flaccid myelitis, the odds of having EV-D68 infection were 10.3 times greater than for those tested for acute respiratory infection and 4.5 times greater than for those tested for B. pertussis infection. No statistical association was seen between acute flaccid myelitis and non–EV-D68 enterovirus or rhinovirus infection. These findings support an association between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis. PMID:27434186

  17. Enterovirus D68 Infection in Children with Acute Flaccid Myelitis, Colorado, USA, 2014.

    PubMed

    Aliabadi, Negar; Messacar, Kevin; Pastula, Daniel M; Robinson, Christine C; Leshem, Eyal; Sejvar, James J; Nix, W Allan; Oberste, M Steven; Feikin, Daniel R; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2016-08-01

    During August 8, 2014-October 14, 2014, a total of 11 children with acute flaccid myelitis and distinctive neuroimaging changes were identified near Denver, Colorado, USA. A respiratory prodrome was experienced by 10, and nasopharyngeal specimens were positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) for 4. To determine whether an association exists between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis, we conducted a retrospective case-control study comparing these patients with 2 groups of outpatient control children (1 group tested for acute respiratory illness and 1 for Bordetella pertussis infection). Adjusted analyses indicated that, for children with acute flaccid myelitis, the odds of having EV-D68 infection were 10.3 times greater than for those tested for acute respiratory infection and 4.5 times greater than for those tested for B. pertussis infection. No statistical association was seen between acute flaccid myelitis and non-EV-D68 enterovirus or rhinovirus infection. These findings support an association between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis. PMID:27434186

  18. Acute middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wernery, Ulrich; Corman, Victor M; Wong, Emily Y M; Tsang, Alan K L; Muth, Doreen; Lau, Susanna K P; Khazanehdari, Kamal; Zirkel, Florian; Ali, Mansoor; Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Jutka; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Sunitha; Syriac, Ginu; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Patteril, Nissy Annie Georgy; Woo, Patrick C Y; Drosten, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Camels carry Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, but little is known about infection age or prevalence. We studied >800 dromedaries of all ages and 15 mother-calf pairs. This syndrome constitutes an acute, epidemic, and time-limited infection in camels <4 years of age, particularly calves. Delayed social separation of calves might reduce human infection risk.

  19. Should teeth be extracted immediately in the presence of acute infection?

    PubMed

    Johri, Ankur; Piecuch, Joseph F

    2011-11-01

    Immediate extraction of teeth in the setting of an acute infection has shown to be beneficial for many reasons. It results in faster resolution of the infection, decreased pain, and earlier return of function and oral intake. The risk of seeding the infection into deeper spaces by performing immediate extraction is low.

  20. Experimental pestivirus infections in pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Løken, T; Bjerkås, I

    1991-08-01

    Fifty pregnant goats, inoculated intramuscularly at different gestational stages with a non-cytopathic ovine pestivirus or a cytopathic bovine pestivirus, all developed pestivirus-neutralizing antibodies within 5 weeks of inoculation. The incidence of reproductive failure was similar for the two agents. Parturition at term with only healthy kids occurred in 13 (26 per cent) of the goats. Viable kids were not born to any of the 17 goats inoculated at about day 40 of gestation. Three of the 17 delivered dead or weak kids, seven aborted and three of seven which were necropsied during pregnancy had markedly underdeveloped and autolysed or mummified fetuses in utero, while four were barren. When inoculated at around the 60th day of gestation, two of 18 animals gave birth to only healthy kids, 12 to dead and/or weak kids, two aborted and, at necropsy, a small, decomposed fetus was found in one goat while one other was barren. In this group, one kid was ataxic and seven others had body tremors characteristic of border disease. One of the latter kids was viable. Of 15 goats inoculated at around day 100 of gestation, 11 gave birth to healthy kids only, three to dead and/or weak kids and one aborted. In 23 progeny, histological changes in the central nervous system (CNS) consisted mainly of cerebral white matter necrosis, cerebellar dysplasia, hypercellular areas in white matter and lymphocytic perivascular cuffings. All seven weak-born kids with signs of border disease had CNS lesions, particularly cerebellar dysplasia and/or hypercellular areas. Non-cytopathic pestivirus was isolated from tissues from all eight progeny examined in the 40-day inoculation group, from tissues and/or serum from 10 of 23 progeny in the 60-day group, and from four of 24 in the 100-day group. Persistent infection was demonstrated in a healthy kid, in a viable shaker and in two other kids which appeared normal at birth. Examination of offspring before ingestion of colostrum revealed pestivirus

  1. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Zonneveld, Rens; Roosblad, Jimmy; Staveren, Jan Willem van; Wilschut, Jan C; Vreden, Stephen G S; Codrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks.

  2. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Zonneveld, Rens; Roosblad, Jimmy; Staveren, Jan Willem van; Wilschut, Jan C; Vreden, Stephen G S; Codrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks. PMID:27630820

  3. Experimental Infections of Wild Birds with West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3) facilities. This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas. PMID:24531334

  4. [Natural and experimental infections of lambs with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Bocklisch, H; Pfützner, H; Zepezauer, V

    1989-01-01

    Mycoplasma (M.) ovipneumoniae was isolated pure or mixed with bacteria from 47 lungs of lambs of 14 in 22 tested flocks. M. ovipneumoniae was obtained as pure culture in cases of mild bronchopneumonia. Experimental intratracheal or intranasal infection caused several days of rising body temperature above 39.7 degrees C. Nasal discharge, coughing, and dyspnea did not occur. M. ovipneumoniae was successfully re-isolated from nasal swabs, beginning 2 d from infection. Lobular catarrhal bronchopneumonia was established by postmortem examinations, 10-14 d from infection, and M. ovipneumoniae was re-isolated from the lungs. Histological patterns of lungs were characterised by interstitial cell reactions.

  5. Oxidative stress associated with pathological lesions in the liver of rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Mendes, Ricardo E; Lucca, Neuber J; Schwertz, Claiton I; Henker, Luan C; Olsson, Débora C; Piva, Manoela M; Sangoi, Manuela; Campos, Luízi P; Moresco, Rafael N; Jaques, Jeandre A; Da silva, Aleksandro S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the antioxidant status and oxidative profile in serum and liver of rats experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica and its relationship with pathological findings. Twenty-four rats were divided into two groups: group A consisted of 12 healthy rats and group B of 12 rats infected orally with 20 metacercaria of F. hepatica. At days 20 and 150 post-infection (PI), blood and liver samples of six animals from each group were collected. The protein oxidation (AOPP technique: advanced oxidation protein products) and antioxidants (FRAP technique: ferric reducing antioxidant power) levels were measured in serum and liver. Furthermore, nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels and lipid peroxidation (TBARS technique: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were measured in liver. AOPP and FRAP levels were increased (P < 0.05) in serum and liver of infected animals in acute and chronic infection when compared with healthy animals. The same occurred with TBARS and NOx levels in the liver (P < 0.05). Histopathology revealed periportal fibrous hepatitis, composed of an abundant inflammatory infiltrate in portal spaces on infected animals, as well as bile duct hyperplasia. The results found seem to be related to the host free radical production demonstrated in serum samples and liver due to the parasite infection.

  6. Clearance of experimental cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice

    PubMed Central

    Onunkwo, Charles C.; Hahn, Beth L.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcal skin infections are quite common in human patients. These infections often clear spontaneously, but may also progress locally and/or disseminate to cause serious and sometimes fatal deep infections. The present studies were undertaken to examine the clearance phase of experimental cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections in a mouse model system. Previous work in this system has shown that staphylococci applied to the skin rapidly disseminate to the spleen and kidney. In the present experiments the bacteria were found to persist at the skin infection site at a time (8 days after inoculation) when they had disappeared from the spleen and kidney. Examination of the infected skin at earlier times revealed rapid (within 6 h) invasion into the stratum corneum, stratum Malpighii, and dermis, but subsequent redistribution of bacteria (at 1–2 days) to more superficial sites, particularly crusts located just above the skin surface. The crusts seen in these infections were of two distinct types, which were termed type 1 and type 2. Type 1 crusts appeared first, consisted of bacteria, inflammatory cells, and debris, and developed over an intact epidermis. Type 2 crusts arose from the process of dermal necrosis previously reported to take place at 2 days in this model system. In the latter situation the bacteria were not really cleared from the epidermis and dermis; rather those layers were transformed into a superficial crust that contained the bacteria. Deep hair follicle infections in the dermis were found in these infections, but they did not persist and did not seem to be a reservoir for organisms in the dermis. Resolution of these experimental infections appeared to involve redistribution of invading bacteria to more superficial locations in crusts above the skin surface, marked proliferation of the epidermis, loss of the bacteria-laden crusts from the skin, and eventual healing of the cutaneous damage. PMID:20130894

  7. Fungal infection intensity and zoospore output of Atelopus zeteki, a potential acute chytrid supershedder.

    PubMed

    Direnzo, Graziella V; Langhammer, Penny F; Zamudio, Kelly R; Lips, Karen R

    2014-01-01

    Amphibians vary in their response to infection by the amphibian-killing chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Highly susceptible species are the first to decline and/or disappear once Bd arrives at a site. These competent hosts likely facilitate Bd proliferation because of ineffective innate and/or acquired immune defenses. We show that Atelopus zeteki, a highly susceptible species that has undergone substantial population declines throughout its range, rapidly and exponentially increases skin Bd infection intensity, achieving intensities that are several orders of magnitude greater than most other species reported. We experimentally infected individuals that were never exposed to Bd (n = 5) or previously exposed to an attenuated Bd strain (JEL427-P39; n = 3). Within seven days post-inoculation, the average Bd infection intensity was 18,213 zoospores (SE: 9,010; range: 0 to 66,928). Both average Bd infection intensity and zoospore output (i.e., the number of zoospores released per minute by an infected individual) increased exponentially until time of death (t50 = 7.018, p<0.001, t46 = 3.164, p = 0.001, respectively). Mean Bd infection intensity and zoospore output at death were 4,334,422 zoospores (SE: 1,236,431) and 23.55 zoospores per minute (SE: 22.78), respectively, with as many as 9,584,158 zoospores on a single individual. The daily percent increases in Bd infection intensity and zoospore output were 35.4% (SE: 0.05) and 13.1% (SE: 0.04), respectively. We also found that Bd infection intensity and zoospore output were positively correlated (t43 = 3.926, p<0.001). All animals died between 22 and 33 days post-inoculation (mean: 28.88; SE: 1.58). Prior Bd infection had no effect on survival, Bd infection intensity, or zoospore output. We conclude that A. zeteki, a highly susceptible amphibian species, may be an acute supershedder. Our results can inform epidemiological models to estimate Bd outbreak probability, especially as they relate to

  8. Fungal Infection Intensity and Zoospore Output of Atelopus zeteki, a Potential Acute Chytrid Supershedder

    PubMed Central

    DiRenzo, Graziella V.; Langhammer, Penny F.; Zamudio, Kelly R.; Lips, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    Amphibians vary in their response to infection by the amphibian-killing chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Highly susceptible species are the first to decline and/or disappear once Bd arrives at a site. These competent hosts likely facilitate Bd proliferation because of ineffective innate and/or acquired immune defenses. We show that Atelopus zeteki, a highly susceptible species that has undergone substantial population declines throughout its range, rapidly and exponentially increases skin Bd infection intensity, achieving intensities that are several orders of magnitude greater than most other species reported. We experimentally infected individuals that were never exposed to Bd (n = 5) or previously exposed to an attenuated Bd strain (JEL427-P39; n = 3). Within seven days post-inoculation, the average Bd infection intensity was 18,213 zoospores (SE: 9,010; range: 0 to 66,928). Both average Bd infection intensity and zoospore output (i.e., the number of zoospores released per minute by an infected individual) increased exponentially until time of death (t50 = 7.018, p<0.001, t46 = 3.164, p = 0.001, respectively). Mean Bd infection intensity and zoospore output at death were 4,334,422 zoospores (SE: 1,236,431) and 23.55 zoospores per minute (SE: 22.78), respectively, with as many as 9,584,158 zoospores on a single individual. The daily percent increases in Bd infection intensity and zoospore output were 35.4% (SE: 0.05) and 13.1% (SE: 0.04), respectively. We also found that Bd infection intensity and zoospore output were positively correlated (t43 = 3.926, p<0.001). All animals died between 22 and 33 days post-inoculation (mean: 28.88; SE: 1.58). Prior Bd infection had no effect on survival, Bd infection intensity, or zoospore output. We conclude that A. zeteki, a highly susceptible amphibian species, may be an acute supershedder. Our results can inform epidemiological models to estimate Bd outbreak probability, especially

  9. Morphological alterations in the kidney of rats with natural and experimental Leptospira infection.

    PubMed

    Tucunduva de Faria, M; Athanazio, D A; Gonçalves Ramos, E A; Silva, E F; Reis, M G; Ko, A I

    2007-11-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread anthropozoonosis, with a broad array of mammalian reservoirs, occurring as rural endemics, urban outbreaks related to floods, and emergent disease associated with water sports and recreational exposure in developed countries. Rats are the major source of human infection, particularly in urban areas; however few reports have focused on the pathology of leptospirosis in this host. This study reports pathological changes in 60 kidneys from captured wild rats and compares these with changes in the kidney of Wistar rats experimentally infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain FIOCRUZ L1-130. A broad range of morphological alterations were detected in the kidneys from captured rats but interstitial nephritis was the only feature reproduced under experimental conditions. The role of interstitial nephritis in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis is reviewed and it is suggested that rats may provide a potential tool for the study of colonization mechanisms and host resistance in acute leptospiral disease.

  10. Caspofungin Acetate or Fluconazole in Preventing Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-23

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Fungal Infection; Neutropenia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  11. Infection of Bergmann glia in the cerebellum of a skunk experimentally infected with street rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A C; Phelan, C C; Rossiter, J P

    2000-10-01

    Rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus and glial cell infection is not prominent in the central nervous system (CNS). Paraffin-embedded tissues from the cerebella of skunks experimentally infected with either a skunk salivary gland isolate of street rabies virus or the challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of fixed rabies virus were examined with immunoperoxidase staining for rabies virus antigen by using an anti-rabies virus nucleocapsid protein monoclonal antibody. A skunk infected with street rabies virus showed prominent infection of Bergmann glia. Although infected Purkinje cells were observed, they usually demonstrated a relatively small amount of antigen in their perikarya. A CVS-infected skunk showed many intensely labeled Purkinje cells and a relatively small number of infected Bergmann glia. These findings indicate that although rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus, street rabies virus strains do not always demonstrate strict neuronotropism in the central nervous system.

  12. Antibody and lymphoblastogenic responses of dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from North American mammals.

    PubMed

    Barr, S C; Dennis, V A; Klei, T R; Norcross, N L

    1991-09-01

    The humoral and cellular immune responses of dogs infected with either a non-pathogenic Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from a North American dog (Tc-D) or a pathogenic T. cruzi isolate from an opossum (Tc-O) were studied over a 240 day period. Antibody to T. cruzi epimastigote antigens prepared from Tc-O or Tc-D isolates were first detected by ELISA by Day 26 post infection (PI), peaked by day 175 PI and remained elevated throughout the experimental period in both Tc-O and Tc-D infected dogs. Differences in antibody levels between infected groups were not detected. Western blot analyses were performed using Tc-O and Tc-D epimastigote antigens probed with pooled sera and sera from individual Tc-O and Tc-D infected dogs prior to infection (Day 0), and during the acute (Day 16-35 PI), indeterminate (Day 50-135 PI) and chronic (Day 235 PI) stages of infection. Generally, the patterns, number of protein bands, and temporal appearance of the protein bands identified by pooled sera and sera from individual dogs within each antigen preparation were similar. However, similarities and differences were present in antibody responses between sera from Tc-O and Tc-D infected dogs. Blastogenic responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Tc-O and Tc-D infected dogs to mitogens (concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed) were not significantly different from controls at any time during the experimental period. The PBMC from both groups of dogs were unresponsive to epimastigote antigens during the acute stage of infection. Statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in PBMC responsiveness from controls were observed on Days 70 and 175 PI. Responses decreased to pre-infection levels by Day 240 PI. These studies demonstrate that although two North American T. cruzi isolates have markedly different virulence for dogs, some aspects of their cellular and humoral immune responses are similar while other responses, such as antibody recognition of specific T

  13. Acute respiratory infections in Pakistan: have we made any progress?

    PubMed

    Khan, Tauseef Ahmad; Madni, Syed Ali; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2004-07-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the leading cause of death in young children in Pakistan, responsible for 20-30% of all child deaths under age 5 years. This paper summarizes the research and technical development efforts over the last 15 years which have contributed to improving the effectiveness of the case management strategy to reduce mortality from pneumonia in children in Pakistan. Community intervention is viable, effective and practical. Rising antimicrobial resistance among commonly used and low-cost oral agents is of significant concern. Appropriate monitoring and evaluation of the impact of the ARI control programme is lacking. Lack of funding for programmatic activities, lack of coordination with other child survival programs, inadequate training for community health workers and general practitioners in the private sector, lack of public awareness about seeking timely and appropriate care, and insufficient planning and support for ARI programmatic activities at provincial and district levels are major hindrances in decreasing the burden of ARI in the country. The recent introduction of the community-based Lady Health Worker (LHW) Programme and WHO and UNICEF-sponsored integrated management of childhood illness initiative present ideal opportunities for re-emphasizing early case detection and appropriate case management of ARI. Ultimately, focusing on preventive strategies such as improving nutrition, reducing indoor pollution, improving mass vaccination, as well as introduction of new vaccines effective against important respiratory pathogens will likely have the most impact on reducing severe ARI and deaths from severe disease. PMID:15279753

  14. Ultrastructural immunohistochemical localization of virus in acute and chronic demyelinating Theiler's virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Dal Canto, M. C.; Lipton, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    Mice experimentally infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) develop a persistent infection of the central nervous system (CNS). The most striking feature of this infection is the occurrence of inflammatory primary demyelination in the spinal cord white matter. The pathogenesis of myelin degeneration in this model has not been clarified, but morphologic and immunologic data suggest that the host immune response plays a major role in the production of myelin injury. Because of low virus titers in infected adult mice and of the small size of TMEV, virus particles have never been observed in this demyelinating model. Yet elucidation of the types of cells in the CNS supporting virus replication would be important for a better understanding of both virus persistence and virus-induced demyelinating pathology. The present paper is a sequential study of the localization of TMEV in the spinal cord in infected mice by ultrastructural immunohistochemical techniques. Results indicate that virus replication is mainly in neurons during the acute phase of the disease, while in the chronic phase viral inclusions are mainly found in macrophages in and around demyelinating lesions. Other cells are also infected, but to a lesser degree. In the neuronal system both axoplasmic and dendritic flow appear to facilitate the spread of virus in the CNS. In macrophages, the presence of virus particles and the association of virus with altered components of the cytoskeleton support active virus production rather than simple internalization. The macrophage appears to play an important role in both the establishment of virus persistence and in the process of demyelination in this animal model. Images Figure 1 and 2 Figure 3 and 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10-12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 and 16 PMID:6275708

  15. Ultrastructural immunohistochemical localization of virus in acute and chronic demyelinating Theiler's virus infection.

    PubMed

    Dal Canto, M C; Lipton, H L

    1982-01-01

    Mice experimentally infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) develop a persistent infection of the central nervous system (CNS). The most striking feature of this infection is the occurrence of inflammatory primary demyelination in the spinal cord white matter. The pathogenesis of myelin degeneration in this model has not been clarified, but morphologic and immunologic data suggest that the host immune response plays a major role in the production of myelin injury. Because of low virus titers in infected adult mice and of the small size of TMEV, virus particles have never been observed in this demyelinating model. Yet elucidation of the types of cells in the CNS supporting virus replication would be important for a better understanding of both virus persistence and virus-induced demyelinating pathology. The present paper is a sequential study of the localization of TMEV in the spinal cord in infected mice by ultrastructural immunohistochemical techniques. Results indicate that virus replication is mainly in neurons during the acute phase of the disease, while in the chronic phase viral inclusions are mainly found in macrophages in and around demyelinating lesions. Other cells are also infected, but to a lesser degree. In the neuronal system both axoplasmic and dendritic flow appear to facilitate the spread of virus in the CNS. In macrophages, the presence of virus particles and the association of virus with altered components of the cytoskeleton support active virus production rather than simple internalization. The macrophage appears to play an important role in both the establishment of virus persistence and in the process of demyelination in this animal model.

  16. Distribution pattern of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 genome in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Karikalan, M; Rajukumar, K; Mishra, N; Kumar, M; Kalaiyarasu, S; Rajesh, K; Gavade, V; Behera, S P; Dubey, S C

    2016-06-01

    In this study, cellular localization and the distribution pattern of BVDV genome in lymphoid tissues during the course of experimental acute BVDV-1 infection of sheep was investigated. Tonsils, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were collected on 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days post infection (dpi) from twenty 4-month-old lambs, experimentally inoculated intra-nasally with 5 × 10(5) TCID50 of a non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV-1 isolate, Ind-17555. Tissues collected from ten mock-infected lambs served as controls. In situ hybridization (ISH) was carried out in paraformaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections using digoxigenin labelled riboprobe targeting 5'-UTR of BVDV-1. BVDV genome was detected at all the intervals from 3 dpi to 15 dpi in the lymphoid tissues with variations between the intervals and also amongst the infected sheep. During the early phase of acute infection, presence of viral genome was more in tonsils than MLN and spleen, whereas the distribution was higher in MLN during later stages. BVDV-1 genome positive cells included lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, reticular cells and sometimes crypt epithelial cells. Genome distribution was frequently observed in the lymphoid follicles of tonsils, MLN and spleen, besides the crypt epithelium in tonsils, paracortex and medullary sinus and cords of MLN. Most abundant and widespread distribution of BVDV-1 genome was observed on 6 dpi while there was a reduction in number and intensity of positive signals by 15 dpi in most of the infected animals. This is the first attempt made to study the localisation of BVDV-1 in lymphoid tissues of acutely infected sheep by in situ hybridization. The results show that the kinetics of BVDV-1 distribution in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected non-pregnant sheep follows almost a similar pattern to that demonstrated in BVDV infected cattle. PMID:26996785

  17. Efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate in eliminating Theileria equi from experimentally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Grause, Juanita F; Ueti, Massaro W; Nelson, Jeffrey T; Knowles, Donald P; Kappmeyer, Lowell S; Bunn, Thomas O

    2013-06-01

    Theileria equi, one of the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis, is endemic in many regions of the world but is considered a 'foreign' animal disease in the USA. In an effort to prevent the importation of T. equi, stringent serological screening of horses is practiced prior to entry to the USA. Current regulatory options available where horses are found to be infected include permanent quarantine with or without chemotherapy, repatriation, or euthanasia. Chemotherapeutics that eliminate infection and subsequently transmission risk are critical in the management of infected horses. In this study, the efficacy of the drug imidocarb dipropionate against experimental T. equi infection was assessed. Of nine horses experimentally inoculated with T. equi isolated from an animal previously imported from Peru, six were treated with imidocarb dipropionate after the resolution of the acute phase of the disease. Elimination of the parasite was demonstrated in 5/6 by nested PCR, blood transfusions to naïve horses, and reversion to seronegative status. The findings support the use of this drug as a potential treatment option in controlling outbreaks of T. equi, and also suggest that 'combination testing' using both serological and PCR detection methods are necessary to demonstrate clearance of infection. PMID:23199699

  18. Behçet's disease diagnosed after acute HIV infection: viral replication activating underlying autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Roscoe, Clay; Kinney, Rebecca; Gilles, Ryan; Blue, Sky

    2015-05-01

    Behçet's disease is an autoimmune systemic vasculitis that can occur after exposure to infectious agents. Behçet's disease also has been associated with HIV infection, including de novo development of this condition during chronic HIV infection and resolution of Behçet's disease symptoms following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. We describe a patient who presented with systemic vasculitis with skin and mucous membrane ulcerations in the setting of acute HIV infection, who was eventually diagnosed with Behçet's disease, demonstrating a possible link between acute HIV infection, immune activation and development of autoimmunity.

  19. Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in a Child.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aram; Kang, Ben; Choi, So Yoon; Cho, Joong Bum; Kim, Yae-Jean; Jeon, Tae Yeon; Choe, Yon Ho

    2015-09-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is responsible for approximately 20% to 30% of community-acquired pneumonia, and is well known for its diverse extrapulmonary manifestations. However, acute necrotizing pancreatits is an extremely rare extrapulmonary manifestation of M. pneumoniae infection. A 6-year-old girl was admitted due to abdominal pain, vomiting, fever, and confused mentality. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was diagnosed according to symptoms, laboratory test results, and abdominal computed tomography scans. M. pneumoniae infection was diagnosed by a 4-fold increase in antibodies to M. pneumoniae between acute and convalescent sera by particle agglutination antibody assay. No other etiologic factors or pathogens were detected. Despite the occurrence of a large infected pseudocyst during the course, the patient was able to discharge without morbidity by early aggressive supportive care. This is the first case in Korea of a child with acute necrotizing pancreatitis associated with M. pneumoniae infection. PMID:26473143

  20. Enhancing the detection and management of acute hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Martinello, Marianne; Matthews, Gail V

    2015-10-01

    Acute HCV infection refers to the 6-month period following infection acquisition, although this definition is somewhat arbitrary. While spontaneous clearance occurs in approximately 25%, the majority will develop chronic HCV infection with the potential for development of cirrhosis, end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Detection of acute HCV infection has been hampered by its asymptomatic or non-specific presentation, lack of specific diagnostic tests and the inherent difficulties in identifying and following individuals at highest risk of transmitting and acquiring HCV infection, such as people who inject drugs (PWID). However, recognition of those with acute infection may have individual and population level benefits and could represent an ideal opportunity for intervention. Despite demonstration that HCV treatment is feasible and successful in PWID, treatment uptake remains low with multiple barriers to care at an individual and systems level. Given the burden of HCV-related disease among PWID, strategies to enhance HCV assessment, treatment and prevention in this group are urgently needed. As the therapeutic landscape of chronic HCV management is revolutionised by the advent of simple, highly effective directly-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, similar opportunities may exist in acute infection. This review will discuss issues surrounding improving the detection and management of acute HCV infection, particularly in PWID. PMID:26254495

  1. Experimental Helicobacter pylori gastric infection in miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Koga, T; Shimada, Y; Sato, K; Takahashi, K; Kikuchi; Miura, T; Takenouchi, T; Narita, T; Iwata, M

    2002-03-01

    An experimental Helicobacter pylori infection in miniature pigs was developed and investigated. Eighteen miniature pigs were inoculated with an H. pylori strain that has high virulence in mice at c. 5 x 10(10) cfu. H. pylori infection in miniature pigs was achieved by the administration of agar 1% in brucella broth with fetal bovine serum 10% just before inoculation. The bacterial colonisation and distribution were analysed by mapping of viable cell counts in the stomach in pigs of three different ages. The mapping assay was achieved on post-infection day 3 for the 5-day-old and 2-week-old pigs, and between days 41 and 43 for 3-month-old pigs. The highest cell counts were observed in 5-day-old pigs, which averaged 4.9 x 10(6) cfu/g of mucosa (n = 4). The bacteria were colonised mainly in the cardiac and fundus gland region in the 5-day-old and 2-week-old pigs, whereas the colonisation sites did not depend on the region in the 3-month-old pigs. Biopsy assay of the antral mucosa of a 3-month-old pig after H. pylori infection showed that this infection persisted for >22 months. Serum antibody against H. pylori was detected in the infected pigs but not in the uninfected animal. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of bacteria on the epithelial surface of the infected pigs. A microscopic finding common to all the infected pigs, focal gastritis with infiltration of lymphocytes detected on the lesser curvature of the stomach, resembled the microscopic appearance in H. pylori-infected human patients. These results suggest that miniature pigs might be a suitable model for studying H. pylori infection.

  2. Experimental Toxoplasma gondii oocyst infections in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Bangoura, B; Zöller, B; Koethe, M; Ludewig, M; Pott, S; Fehlhaber, K; Straubinger, R K; Daugschies, A

    2013-09-23

    Toxoplasma (T.) gondii is a protozoan parasite with a broad range of intermediate hosts. Humans are often infected by ingestion of tissue cysts in raw or undercooked meat or meat products. Turkeys as food-producing animals can also serve as intermediate hosts. The aim of the present study was to investigate occurrence and predilection sites of T. gondii infection in turkeys after oral infection with oocysts. Experimental infections with different doses of T. gondii oocysts were performed in 36 turkeys to mimic natural infection. Systemic distribution of parasitic stages was investigated by screening 14 different tissues including the edible tissues heart, liver, thigh, breast and drumstick muscle. Parasite detection was based on a conventional nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Animals were sacrificed 6-12 weeks after infection. Results demonstrated parasite spreading over the whole organism after oral infection by oocysts. Most frequently affected tissues were brain (47.2% of all brains were positive for T. gondii) and thigh muscle (25.0% positive samples). Other muscles were regularly T. gondii-positive, all other sampled tissues were positive at least once. Thus, edible tissues are one of the predilection sites of T. gondii in turkeys which renders raw or undercooked turkey meat a potential risk for parasite transmission to humans. Data were compared to results from previous parenteral turkey infections with tachyzoites. With the exception of brain, liver and breast muscle affection, no significant differences were observed between both infection routes. Both infection models could be used for research purposes with certain advantages and disadvantages.

  3. Acute respiratory infections: the forgotten pandemic. Communiqué from the International Conference on Acute Respiratory Infections, held in Canberra, Australia, 7-10 July 1997.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections kill 4 million children every year in developing countries, and most of these deaths are caused by pneumonia. This huge loss of life goes virtually unnoticed, despite the fact that we have two very effective ways of preventing many of the deaths from pneumonia: Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, and standardised antibiotic treatment regimens. Although H. influenzae type b vaccine has virtually eliminated diseases caused by this organism in children in developed countries, failure to appreciate the importance of this organism and the high cost of the vaccine has meant that it has not been used in developing countries; urgent steps need to be taken to ensure that children in developing countries receive H. influenzae vaccine. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of fatal pneumonia in developing countries. Controlled trials are needed to define the role of unconjugated 23-valent S. pneumoniae vaccine, and the new conjugate vaccine must be made available to children in developing countries soon after it is licensed. The World Health Organization has developed simple and effective guidelines for the treatment of pneumonia which have been incorporated into its Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy, and this programme should be strongly supported. In developed countries, acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of morbidity. The cost of these infections is enormous, because of lost earnings and the cost of treatment. There is an urgent need for systematic evaluation of existing knowledge about acute respiratory infections in developed countries, so that this knowledge can be applied to prevention and treatment. Approximately 75% of antibiotics are prescribed for acute respiratory infections, and many of these prescriptions are unnecessary. Unnecessary use of antibiotics is very expensive, and it has contributed to the rapid increase in resistance which has already made some bacteria resistant to all antibiotics

  4. Disseminated fungal infection complicated with pulmonary haemorrhage in a case of acute myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Thulkar, S; Sharma, S; Das, P; Kumar, L

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary haemorrhage is a common necropsy finding in acute leukaemia, however, it is rarely diagnosed during life. A man with acute myeloid leukaemia is reported who presented with disseminated fungal infection, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and subconjuctival and petechial haemorrhages. During the course of the patient's illness, the chest infection was complicated with bilateral pulmonary haemorrhage. The diagnosis of pulmonary haemorrhage was based on characteristic clinical and radiological findings. The patient improved on treatment.


Keywords: leukaemia; pulmonary infiltrate; haemorrhage PMID:11060145

  5. Lipschütz acute vulval ulcers associated with primary cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Martín, José M; Godoy, Rosa; Calduch, Luis; Villalon, Guillermo; Jordá, Esperanza

    2008-01-01

    A previously healthy 16-year-old girl presented with painful acute genital ulcers that appeared in the context of a primary cytomegalovirus infection. Complementary examinations ruled out both venereal disease and other usual causes of genital ulcerations, and the lesions resolved in < 2 weeks with no sequelae or later recurrences. Cytomegalovirus disease should be considered in the screening of acute vulval ulcers.

  6. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure from Plasmodium ovale infection with fatal outcome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium ovale is one of the causative agents of human malaria. Plasmodium ovale infection has long been thought to be non-fatal. Due to its lower morbidity, P. ovale receives little attention in malaria research. Methods Two Malaysians went to Nigeria for two weeks. After returning to Malaysia, they fell sick and were admitted to different hospitals. Plasmodium ovale parasites were identified from blood smears of these patients. The species identification was further confirmed with nested PCR. One of them was successfully treated with no incident of relapse within 12-month medical follow-up. The other patient came down with malaria-induced respiratory complication during the course of treatment. Although parasites were cleared off the circulation, the patient’s condition worsened. He succumbed to multiple complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure. Results Sequencing of the malaria parasite DNA from both cases, followed by multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction suggested that the causative agent for both malaria cases was P. ovale curtisi. Discussion In this report, the differences between both cases were discussed, and the potential capability of P. ovale in causing severe complications and death as seen in this case report was highlighted. Conclusion Plasmodium ovale is potentially capable of causing severe complications, if not death. Complete travel and clinical history of malaria patient are vital for successful diagnoses and treatment. Monitoring of respiratory and renal function of malaria patients, regardless of the species of malaria parasites involved is crucial during the course of hospital admission. PMID:24180319

  7. A qualitative study of patients' perceptions of acute infective conjunctivitis.

    PubMed Central

    Everitt, Hazel; Kumar, Satinder; Little, Paul

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute infective conjunctivitis is a self-limiting condition that commonly presents to primary care. Patients' understanding of conjunctivitis, their reasons for attendance, and their responses to different management strategies, are unknown. AIM: To explore patients' understanding of conjunctivitis and its management. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative study using semi-structured one-to-one interviews. SETTING: Three general practices in Hampshire and Wiltshire. METHOD: Twenty-five patients presenting with conjunctivitis at their general practices were interviewed. Main outcome measures were patients' perceptions of conjunctivities, their experience and knowledge of the disease, beliefs regarding treatment, and their responses to different management strategies and a patient information leaflet. RESULTS: Patients regarded conjunctivitis as a minor illness, although some considered it might become more serious if not treated. Nearly all were confident at recognising conjunctivitis. They stated a preference for not taking medication, but believed that conjunctivitis would not clear up without treatment. However, they were open to alternative management approaches; for example, the delayed prescription approach, because they trusted their general practitioners' (GPs') judgement. Once they were aware of the self-limiting nature of conjunctivitis, patients felt they would prefer to wait a few days to see if the condition improved before seeking medical advice, even if this resulted in a few more days of symptoms. CONCLUSION: Patients who attend their general practices with conjunctivitis present for treatment because they are not aware of its self-limiting nature. Providing patients with this information may enable patients, enhance self-management, and reduce the use of topical antibiotics and the demand for urgent general practice appointments. PMID:12564275

  8. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection - Systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kottanattu, Lisa; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Helbling, Rossana; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis have been occasionally reported in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. We completed a review of the literature and retained 48 scientific reports published between 1966 and 2016 for the final analysis. Acute pancreatitis was recognized in 14 and acalculous cholecystitis in 37 patients with primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. In all patients, the features of acute pancreatitis or acalculous cholecystitis concurrently developed with those of primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis resolved following a hospital stay of 25days or less. Acalculous cholecystitis was associated with Gilbert-Meulengracht syndrome in two cases. In conclusion, this thorough analysis indicates that acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis are unusual but plausible complications of primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis deserve consideration in cases with severe abdominal pain. These complications are usually rather mild and resolve spontaneously without sequelae. PMID:27434148

  9. Pathogenicity of avian malaria in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Dusek, Robert J.; Woods, K.L.; Iko, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) to the Hawaiian Islands (USA) is believed to have played a major role in the decline and extinction of native Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). This introduced disease is thought to be one of the primary factors limiting recovery of honeycreepers at elevations below 1,200 m where native forest habitats are still relatively intact. One of the few remaining species of honeycreepers with a wide elevational distribution is the Hawaii Amakihi (Hernignathus virens). We measured morbidity and mortality in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi that were captured in a high elevation, xeric habitat that is above the current range of the mosquito vector. Mortality among amakihi exposed to a single infective mosquito bite was 65% (13/20). All infected birds had significant declines in food consumption and a corresponding loss in body weight over the 60 day course of the experiment. Gross and microscopic lesions in birds that succumbed to malaria included enlargement and discoloration of the spleen and liver and parasitemias as high as 50% of circulating erythrocytes. Mortality in experimentally-infected amakihi was similar to that observed in Apapane (Himnatione sanguinea) and lower than that observed in Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) infected under similar conditions with the same parasite isolate. We conclude that the current elevational and geographic distribution of Hawaiian honeycreepers is determined by relative susceptibility to avian malaria.

  10. Cryptosporidiosis in rhesus macaques challenged during acute and chronic phases of SIV infection.

    PubMed

    Singh, Inderpal; Carville, Angela; Tzipori, Saul

    2011-09-01

    The intestinal immune dysfunction due to loss of mucosal and peripheral CD4(+) T cells in individuals with HIV/AIDS is presumably responsible for the establishment of persistent cryptosporidiosis. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques were used to investigate the phase/timing in SIV infection, which permits a self-limiting Cryptosporidium parvum infection to become persistent in immunodeficient hosts because of significant mucosal immune defects. Two groups of SIV-infected macaques were challenged with C. parvum; one was challenged during the acute SIV infection phase (2 weeks post-SIV infection) and the second was challenged during the chronic SIV phase (CD4 counts 200-500 cells/μl of blood). Samples (fecal, blood, biopsy, and necropsy) were collected at different time points after infection to correlate the progression of disease with the immune status of the animals. All seven SIV-infected macaques challenged during the acute phase of SIV infection became persistently infected and excreted oocysts for 1-4 months. However, four of the six in the chronic SIV phase became infected with cryptosporidiosis, of which one survived 2 weeks and one became naturally infected. Sequential analysis of CD4(+) in blood and intestines of coinfected macaques exhibited pronounced losses of CD4 T cells during the first 2 weeks after SIV infection, followed by transient rebound of CD4 T cells in the gut after C. parvum infection, and then a gradual loss over subsequent months. Persistent cryptosporidiosis was more consistently induced during the acute SIV phase indicating that profound viral damage to gut lymphoid tissue during the acute phase was more conducive, compared with the chronic phase, to establishing persistent cryptosporidiosis than low circulating CD4 T cells.

  11. 78 FR 63220 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin... guidance for industry entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for... drugs to treat acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). This guidance finalizes...

  12. Larva migrans in squirrel monkeys experimentally infected with Baylisascaris potosis.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Tsugo, Kosuke; Nakamura, Shohei; Taira, Kensuke; Une, Yumi

    2015-10-01

    Roundworms of the genus Baylisascaris are natural parasites primarily of wild carnivores, and they can occasionally cause infection in humans and animals. Infection results in visceral larva migrans and/or neural larva migrans, which can be severe or fatal in some animals. Recently, Baylisascaris nematodes isolated from kinkajous (Potos flavus) and previously referred to as Baylisascaris procyonis were renamed as Baylisascaris potosis; however, data regarding the pathogenicity of B. potosis towards animals and humans are lacking. In the present study, we experimentally infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with B. potosis to determine the suitability of the monkey as a primate model. We used embryonated eggs of B. potosis at two different doses (10,000 eggs and 100,000 eggs) and examined the animals at 30 days post-infection. Histopathological examination showed the presence of B. potosis larvae and infiltration of inflammatory cells around a central B. potosis larvae in the brain, intestines, and liver. Nevertheless, the monkeys showed no clinical signs associated with infection. Parasitological examination revealed the presence of B. potosis larvae in the intestines, liver, lung, muscles, brain, kidney, and diaphragm. Our findings extend the range of species that are susceptible to B. potosis and provide evidence for the zoonotic potential of larva migrans in high dose infections.

  13. Evaluation of hemostaseological status of pigs experimentally infected with African swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Karalova, Elena; Voskanyan, Henrik; Ter-Pogossyan, Zarine; Nersisyan, Narek; Hakobyan, Astghik; Saroyan, David; Karalyan, Zaven

    2014-11-01

    African swine fever is a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease of pigs caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Hemorrhages are the most frequently reported lesions in acute and subacute forms of ASF. Hemorrhagic lesions are accompanied by impaired hemostasis, which includes thrombocytopenia and changes in the coagulation system. In the present study, experimental infection was conducted to elucidate whether a highly virulent ASFV genotype II circulating in the Trans-Caucasus and Eastern Europe affects the hemostasis of infected pigs. Platelet count changes and platelet size, as well as coagulation parameters were evaluated upon experimental infection. In contrast to other ASFV strains, ASFV genotype II showed a significant decrease in the number of platelets from 3rd dpi onwards. Furthermore, a decrease in platelet size was observed throughout the entire period of experiment. A significant increase in the number of platelet aggregates was observed from the beginning of infection. Unlike other ASFV strains, ASFV genotype II induced a slight shortening of an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) throughout the experiment. Thrombin time (TT) was prolonged from day 5 onwards, whereas no changes in prothrombin time (PT) were found upon infection. The level of d-dimers was permanently higher than in control with a peak on day 3 post-infection. ASFV induced a significant decrease in the level of fibrinogen from day 5 till the end of experiment. Thus, it can be concluded that ASFV genotype II isolated in Armenia affects the hemostasis of infected pigs and causes changes that differ from that of other ASFV strains described previously.

  14. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Taraphdar, D; Roy, B K; Chatterjee, S

    2015-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS) due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  15. Natural history of woodchuck hepatitis virus infections during the course of experimental viral infection: molecular virologic features of the liver and lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Korba, B E; Cote, P J; Wells, F V; Baldwin, B; Popper, H; Purcell, R H; Tennant, B C; Gerin, J L

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the kinetic patterns of woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infection were monitored in the liver and the five primary components of the lymphoid system (peripheral blood lymphocytes, lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, and thymus). Groups of woodchucks experimentally infected with a standardized inoculum of WHV were sacrificed at different times over a 65-week period beginning in the preacute phase of viral infection and continuing to the period of serologic recovery or the establishment of chronic infections and subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma. Infection by WHV was not limited to the liver but involved the major components of the lymphoid system during all stages of virus infection. A complex series of kinetic patterns was observed for the appearance of WHV DNA in the different lymphoid compartments and the liver during the entire course of viral infection. A progressive evolution of different WHV genomic forms related to the replicative state of WHV was also observed. Lymphoid cells of the bone marrow were the first cells in which WHV DNA was detected, followed in order by the liver, the spleen, peripheral blood lymphocytes, lymph nodes, and finally the thymus. Several differences were observed in the cellular WHV DNA patterns between woodchucks that developed chronic WHV infections and those that serologically recovered from acute WHV infections. The observations compiled in this study indicate that the host lymphoid system is intimately involved in the natural history of hepadnavirus infections from the earliest stages of virus entry. Images PMID:2915383

  16. The Role of Eugenol in the Prevention of Acute Pancreatitis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Markakis, Charalampos; Tsaroucha, Alexandra; Papalois, Apostolos E.; Lambropoulou, Maria; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Tsigalou, Christina; Romanidis, Konstantinos; Simopoulos, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory intra-abdominal disease, which takes a severe form in 15–20% of patients and can result in high mortality especially when complicated by acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to assess the possible reduction in the extent of acute kidney injury after administration of eugenol in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis. Materials and Methods. 106 male Wistar rats weighing 220–350 g were divided into 3 groups: (1) Sham, with sham surgery; (2) Control, with induction of acute pancreatitis, through ligation of the biliopancreatic duct; and (3) Eugenol, with induction of acute pancreatitis and eugenol administration at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Serum urea and creatinine, histopathological changes, TNF-α, IL-6, and MPO activity in the kidneys were evaluated at predetermined time intervals. Results. The group that was administered eugenol showed milder histopathological changes than the Control group, TNF-α activity was milder in the Eugenol group, and there was no difference in activity for MPO and IL-6. Serum urea and creatinine levels were lower in the Eugenol group than in the Control group. Conclusions. Eugenol administration was protective for the kidneys in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis in rats. PMID:26884642

  17. Experimental infection of Apis mellifera honeybees with Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia).

    PubMed

    Higes, Mariano; García-Palencia, Pilar; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Meana, Aránzazu

    2007-03-01

    In this report, an experimental infection of Apis mellifera by Nosema ceranae, a newly reported microsporidian in this host is described. Nosema free honeybees were inoculated with 125,000 N. ceranae spores, isolated from heavily infected bees. The parasite species was identified by amplification and sequencing the SSUrRNA gene of the administered spores. Three replicate cages of 20 honeybees each were prepared, along with one control cage (n=20) supplied with sugar syrup only. The infection rate was 100% at the dosage administered. The presence of Nosema inside ventricular cells was confirmed in the samples using ultrathin sectioning and transmission electron microscopy. By day 3 p.i. a few cells (4.4%+/-1.2) were observed to be parasitized, whereas by 6 days p.i. more than half of the counted cells (66.4%+/-6) showed different parasite stages, this value increasing on day 7 p.i. (81.5%+/-14.8). Only one control bee died on day 7 p.i. In the infected groups, mortality was not observed until day 6 p.i. (66.7%+/-5.6). Total mortality on day 7 p.i. was 94.1% in the three infected replicates and by day 8 p.i. no infected bee was alive. After the infection, the parasites invaded both the tip of folds and the basal cells of the epithelium and the autoinfective capacity of the spores seemed to spread the infection rapidly between epithelial cells. On day 3 p.i., mature spores could be seen inside host cell tissue implying that the developmental cycle had been completed. The large number of parasitized cells, even the regenerative ones, the presence of autoinfective spores and the high mortality rate demonstrate that N. ceranae is highly pathogenic to Apis mellifera. Possible relation with bee depopulation syndrome is discussed by authors.

  18. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis in 7 dogs from Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Kjaergaard, Astrid B; Carr, Anthony P; Gaunt, M Casey

    2016-09-01

    Seven dogs diagnosed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis are described. Disease severity ranged from mild in adults to fatal disease in young dogs. Enteropathogenic E. coli infection should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhea. PMID:27587889

  19. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  20. Genetic Vaccination against Experimental Infection with Myotropic Parasite Strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Adriano Fernando; de Oliveira, Gabriel; Vasconcelos, Juliana Fraga; Ersching, Jonatan; Dominguez, Mariana Ribeiro; Vasconcelos, José Ronnie; Machado, Alexandre Vieira; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Soares, Milena Botelho; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins

    2014-01-01

    In earlier studies, we reported that a heterologous prime-boost regimen using recombinant plasmid DNA followed by replication-defective adenovirus vector, both containing Trypanosoma cruzi genes encoding trans-sialidase (TS) and amastigote surface protein (ASP) 2, provided protective immunity against experimental infection with a reticulotropic strain of this human protozoan parasite. Herein, we tested the outcome of genetic vaccination of F1 (CB10XBALB/c) mice challenged with myotropic parasite strains (Brazil and Colombian). Initially, we determined that the coadministration during priming of a DNA plasmid containing the murine IL-12 gene improved the immune response and was essential for protective immunity elicited by the heterologous prime-boost regimen in susceptible male mice against acute lethal infections with these parasites. The prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination of resistant female mice led to a drastic reduction in the number of inflammatory infiltrates in cardiac and skeletal muscles during the chronic phase of infection with either strain. Analysis of the electrocardiographic parameters showed that prophylactic vaccination reduced the frequencies of sinus arrhythmia and atrioventricular block. Our results confirmed that prophylactic vaccination using the TS and ASP-2 genes benefits the host against acute and chronic pathologies caused by T. cruzi and should be further evaluated for the development of a veterinary or human vaccine against Chagas disease. PMID:25061263

  1. Anomaly Detection in Host Signaling Pathways for the Early Prognosis of Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    O’Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, Mark D.; Ogle, Serenity; Forero, Adriana; Morrison, Juliet; Slayden, Richard; Katze, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection. Connectivity pathway analysis comparing the viral and bacterial diagnostic signatures identified host cellular pathways that were unique to patients exposed to LPS endotoxin indicating this type of analysis could be used to identify host biomarkers that can differentiate clinical etiologies of acute infection. We applied the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) on two human influenza (H1N1 and H3N2) gene expression data sets to define host networks perturbed in the asymptomatic phase of infection. Our analysis identified pathways in the respiratory virus diagnostic signature as prognostic biomarkers that triggered prior to clinical presentation of acute symptoms. These early warning pathways correctly predicted that almost half of the subjects would become symptomatic in less than forty hours post-infection and that three of the 18 subjects would become symptomatic after only 8 hours. These results provide a proof-of-concept for utility of anomaly detection algorithms to classify host pathway signatures that can identify presymptomatic signatures of acute diseases and differentiate between etiologies of infection. On a global scale, acute respiratory infections cause a significant proportion of human co-morbidities and account for 4.25 million deaths annually. The development of clinical

  2. Anomaly Detection in Host Signaling Pathways for the Early Prognosis of Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Langevin, Stanley; O'Hern, Corey S; Shattuck, Mark D; Ogle, Serenity; Forero, Adriana; Morrison, Juliet; Slayden, Richard; Katze, Michael G; Kirby, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection. Connectivity pathway analysis comparing the viral and bacterial diagnostic signatures identified host cellular pathways that were unique to patients exposed to LPS endotoxin indicating this type of analysis could be used to identify host biomarkers that can differentiate clinical etiologies of acute infection. We applied the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) on two human influenza (H1N1 and H3N2) gene expression data sets to define host networks perturbed in the asymptomatic phase of infection. Our analysis identified pathways in the respiratory virus diagnostic signature as prognostic biomarkers that triggered prior to clinical presentation of acute symptoms. These early warning pathways correctly predicted that almost half of the subjects would become symptomatic in less than forty hours post-infection and that three of the 18 subjects would become symptomatic after only 8 hours. These results provide a proof-of-concept for utility of anomaly detection algorithms to classify host pathway signatures that can identify presymptomatic signatures of acute diseases and differentiate between etiologies of infection. On a global scale, acute respiratory infections cause a significant proportion of human co-morbidities and account for 4.25 million deaths annually. The development of clinical

  3. The effect of an experimentally induced acute mastitis on the test results of an Ostertagia ostertagi milk ELISA.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Johannes; Duchateau, Luc; Vangroenweghe, Frédéric; Claerebout, Edwin; Burvenich, Christian; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2006-03-15

    Antibody levels against Ostertagia ostertagi in the milk are a promising parameter to identify dairy cows or herds with production losses due to gastrointestinal nematodes. However, milk antibody levels can be influenced by udder-related factors. In this study, the effect of an experimentally induced mastitis on the test results (ODR) of a milk O. ostertagi ELISA was investigated. Twenty-five cows that were naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, were inoculated in their left udder quarters with Escherichia coli P4:O32 and quarter milk samples were collected at several intervals from 24 h before until 144 h after experimental infection. The effect of the contribution of milk from one or more infected quarters on the bulk tank milk ODR was estimated, based on a titration experiment. The mean O. ostertagi antibody levels of the infected udder quarters were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than those of the uninfected udder quarters at each sampling time post-infection. The largest difference was observed at 24 h post-infection with a mean difference of 0.251 ODR (95%CI: 0.172; 0.330). There was also a significant increase (P < 0.001) in total IgG levels with the largest difference being observed at 24 h post-infection. Highly significant (P < 0.005) correlation coefficients were observed between O. ostertagi ODR, total IgG ODR, Na+ and Cl- ion concentration and log transformed somatic cell counts at 24 h post-infection. The results demonstrate that an acute mastitis causes a flow of specific and non-specific antibodies from serum to milk with a subsequent increase in the O. ostertagi ODR values. The effect of the contribution of milk from infected quarters on the bulk tank milk O. ostertagi ODR was estimated to be minor if the relative number of infected quarters is small (< 3%).

  4. Experimental parasite infection reveals costs and benefits of paternal effects

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Joshka; Lenz, Tobias L; Milinski, Manfred; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Forces shaping an individual's phenotype are complex and include transgenerational effects. Despite low investment into reproduction, a father's environment and phenotype can shape its offspring's phenotype. Whether and when such paternal effects are adaptive, however, remains elusive. Using three-spined sticklebacks in controlled infection experiments, we show that sperm deficiencies in exposed males compared to their unexposed brothers functionally translated into reduced reproductive success in sperm competition trials. In non-competitive fertilisations, offspring of exposed males suffered significant costs of reduced hatching success and survival but they reached a higher body condition than their counterparts from unexposed fathers after experimental infection. Interestingly, those benefits of paternal infection did not result from increased resistance but from increased tolerance to the parasite. Altogether, these results demonstrate that parasite resistance and tolerance are shaped by processes involving both genetic and non-genetic inheritance and suggest a context-dependent adaptive value of paternal effects. PMID:25168056

  5. Experimental infections by Brucella suis type 4 in Alaskan rodents.

    PubMed

    Miller, L G; Neiland, K A

    1980-10-01

    The susceptibility of nine species of rodents and one species of lagomorph to Brucella suis type 4 was studied experimentally. The rodent species included: guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), Scandinavian lemming (Lemmus lemmus), brown lemming (L. sibiricus), northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilis), varying lemmings (Dicrostonyx stevensoni and D. rubricatus), yellow-cheeked vole (Microtus xanthognathus), flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) and ground squirrel (Citellus parryii). The lagomorph, Lepus americanus (varying hare), was also studied. All of these species were readily infected by intraperitoneal inoculations of brucellae. Pathologic responses were not marked in most of these species. However, both species of varying lemmings responded dramatically to infections initiated by about as few as two cfu. All individuals of both species that were not killed eventually died from the infection. PMID:7463596

  6. [2 aspects of immunity in experimental flavivirus infections].

    PubMed

    Semenov, B F; Khozinskiĭ, V V

    1978-01-01

    Experimentally, two aspects protective and damaging, of the immune response were demonstrated in the course of development of infection in mice inoculated with tickborne encephalitis (TBE) virus, Langat, yellow fever, dengue type 2 or West Nile viruses. The experiments were carried out in animals in which the functions of T- and B-lymphocytes, were temporarily inhibited with cyclophosphane (CP). It was demonstrated that the protective or damaging role of the immune response depended on the method of inoculation of the animals, the virus properties, and characteristics of the mouse strain. The conditions optimal for the development of immunopathological reactions in one infection (TBE) were not identical for those in another infection even when caused by an antigenically related virus (LANGAT). In mice of the AKR strain the possibility of producing a therapeutic effect upon treatment with CP of the animals inoculated with TBE virus was demonstrated.

  7. Effects of Montelukast in an Experimental Model of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Angı, Serkan; Eken, Hüseyin; Kılıc, Erol; Karaköse, Oktay; Balci, Gürhan; Somuncu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We evaluated the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of Montelukast on pancreatic damage in an experimental acute pancreatitis model created by cerulein in rats before and after the induction of pancreatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats each. The study groups were: the Cerulein (C) group, the Cerulein + early Montelukast (CMe) group, the Cerulein + late Montelukast (CMl) group, and the Control group. The pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, leukocyte, hematocrit, pancreatic amylase, and lipase values were measured in the arterial blood samples taken immediately before rats were killed. RESULTS There were statistically significant differences between the C group and the Control group in the values of pancreatic amylase, lipase, blood leukocyte, hematocrit, pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, and pancreatic water content, and also in each of the values of edema, inflammation, vacuolization, necrosis, and total histopathological score (P<0.05). When the CMl group and C group were compared, no statistically significant differences were found in any parameter analyzed. When the CMe group was compared with the C group, pancreatic amylase, lipase, pH, PO2, pCO2, HCO3, pancreatic water content, histopathological edema, inflammation, and total histopathological score values were significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). Finally, when the CMe group and the Control group were compared, significant differences were found in all except 2 (leukocyte and pO2) parameters (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Leukotriene receptor antagonists used in the late phases of pancreatitis might not result in any benefit; however, when they are given in the early phases or prophylactically, they may decrease pancreatic damage. PMID:27479458

  8. Effects of Montelukast in an Experimental Model of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Angı, Serkan; Eken, Hüseyin; Kılıç, Erol; Karaköse, Oktay; Balci, Gürhan; Somuncu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of Montelukast on pancreatic damage in an experimental acute pancreatitis model created by cerulein in rats before and after the induction of pancreatitis. Materials/Methods Forty rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats each. The study groups were: the Cerulein (C) group, the Cerulein + early Montelukast (CMe) group, the Cerulein + late Montelukast (CMl) group, and the Control group. The pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, leukocyte, hematocrit, pancreatic amylase, and lipase values were measured in the arterial blood samples taken immediately before rats were killed. Results There were statistically significant differences between the C group and the Control group in the values of pancreatic amylase, lipase, blood leukocyte, hematocrit, pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, and pancreatic water content, and also in each of the values of edema, inflammation, vacuolization, necrosis, and total histopathological score (P<0.05). When the CMl group and C group were compared, no statistically significant differences were found in any parameter analyzed. When the CMe group was compared with the C group, pancreatic amylase, lipase, pH, PO2, pCO2, HCO3, pancreatic water content, histopathological edema, inflammation, and total histopathological score values were significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). Finally, when the CMe group and the Control group were compared, significant differences were found in all except 2 (leukocyte and pO2) parameters (P<0.05). Conclusions Leukotriene receptor antagonists used in the late phases of pancreatitis might not result in any benefit; however, when they are given in the early phases or prophylactically, they may decrease pancreatic damage. PMID:27479458

  9. Acute hepatitis C virus infection related to capillary blood glucose meter

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Faisal; Rai, Aitzaz BinSultan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects an estimated 130-150 million people worldwide, becoming the major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation. There are various preventable modes of transmission of HCV infection, including needlestick and sharps injuries. However, HCV infection secondary to needlestick injury by a capillary blood glucose meter (CBGM) lancet has not been previously well reported. We describe an unusual case of a 25-year-old male medical student, acquiring acute HCV infection with a lancing device of CBGM. The source patient was a 54-year-old diabetic male with positive anti-HCV test results. In our patient, after 3 months of initial exposure, a standard set of investigations confirmed the diagnosis of acute HCV infection with the same genotype (3a) as the source. The CBGM, as in our case, may have a role in the transmission of HCV infection warranting radical advancements in diabetes screening and monitoring technology. PMID:26739982

  10. Impact of early cART in the gut during acute HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Deleage, Claire; Schuetz, Alexandra; Alvord, W. Gregory; Johnston, Leslie; Hao, Xing-Pei; Morcock, David R.; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Fletcher, James L.K.; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Dewar, Robin; McCune, Joseph M.; Robb, Merlin; Kim, Jerome H.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Hunt, Peter; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2016-01-01

    Early after HIV infection there is substantial depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract lamina propria (LP), with associated epithelial barrier damage, leading to microbial translocation and systemic inflammation and immune activation. In this study, we analyzed these early events in the GI tract in a cohort of Thai acute HIV-infected patients and determined the effect of early combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). HIV-uninfected and chronically and acutely HIV-infected patients at different Fiebig stages (I–V) underwent colonic biopsies and then received cART. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis were performed on cross-sectional and longitudinal colon biopsy specimens (day 0 to week 96) to measure GI tract damage (infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells), inflammation (Mx1, TNF-α), immune activation (Ki-67), and the CD4+ T cell population in the LP. The magnitude of GI tract damage, immune activation, and inflammation was significantly increased, with significantly depleted CD4+ T cells in the LP in all acutely infected groups prior to cART compared with HIV-uninfected control participants. While most patients treated during acute infection resolved GI tract inflammation and immune activation back to baseline levels after 24 weeks of cART, most acutely infected participants did not restore their CD4+ T cells after 96 weeks of cART. PMID:27446990

  11. Impact of early cART in the gut during acute HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Deleage, Claire; Schuetz, Alexandra; Alvord, W. Gregory; Johnston, Leslie; Hao, Xing-Pei; Morcock, David R.; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Fletcher, James L.K.; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Dewar, Robin; McCune, Joseph M.; Sereti, Irini; Robb, Merlin; Kim, Jerome H.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Hunt, Peter; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Estes, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Early after HIV infection there is substantial depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract lamina propria (LP), with associated epithelial barrier damage, leading to microbial translocation and systemic inflammation and immune activation. In this study, we analyzed these early events in the GI tract in a cohort of Thai acute HIV-infected patients and determined the effect of early combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). HIV-uninfected and chronically and acutely HIV-infected patients at different Fiebig stages (I–V) underwent colonic biopsies and then received cART. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis were performed on cross-sectional and longitudinal colon biopsy specimens (day 0 to week 96) to measure GI tract damage (infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells), inflammation (M×1, TNF-α), immune activation (Ki-67), and the CD4+ T cell population in the LP. The magnitude of GI tract damage, immune activation, and inflammation was significantly increased, with significantly depleted CD4+ T cells in the LP in all acutely infected groups prior to cART compared with HIV-uninfected control participants. While most patients treated during acute infection resolved GI tract inflammation and immune activation back to baseline levels after 24 weeks of cART, most acutely infected participants did not restore their CD4+ T cells after 96 weeks of cART. PMID:27446990

  12. Clinical findings in cows after experimental infection with Ehrlichia phagocytophila.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, N; Braun, U

    1997-09-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the clinical signs and course of disease in five lactating cows and in five dry cows after experimental infection with Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Ten clinically healthy Swiss Braunvieh cows, seronegative for E. phagocytophila, were injected with 50 ml of whole blood containing E. phagocytophila. The cows were examined daily for 21 days, and blood samples were collected for microscopic examination of leukocytes for the infective agent. All cows became ill with symptoms of tick-borne fever after an incubation period of 5 to 9 days. The most important clinical signs were pyrexia (40.2-41.7 degrees C), decreased milk production and mildly to moderately disturbed general condition. In addition, there were respiratory symptoms such as polypnea, nasal discharge, cough and abnormal lung sounds. Clinical signs returned to normal in all cows without treatment after an average of 8 days. E. phagocytophila bodies were seen in leukocytes 5-8 days after infection and were present for 6-14 days. The course of disease was more severe in dry cows than in lactating cows. It can be concluded that experimental infection of cows with E. phagocytophila generally has a mild course. However, the associated decrease in milk production may be of economic importance.

  13. Experimentally induced Fasciola hepatica infections in black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Kistner, T P; Koller, L D

    1975-04-01

    The susceptibility of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) to the common liver fluke (F. hepatica) was studied. Two deer and one sheep comprised each of three experimental groups. Animals in each group were inoculated individually with 250, 500, or 1000 F. hepatica metacercariae. One deer and one sheep given 1000 metacercariae died with lesions consistent with black disease 7 weeks after inoculation. At necropsy 6 or 15 weeks postinoculation, the mean percentage recovery of the inoculum was 38.9% from the deer and 51.9% from the sheep. Fluke eggs recovered from the deer were viable and metacercariae cultured from the eggs were fully infective for sheep. Pathologic changes associated with F. hepatica infection were more severe in the infected deer; consequently, the deer were less resistant to the lethal effects of the parasite than sheep. Considering the experimental results and the fact that naturally acquired common liver fluke infection has been reported infrequently from black-tailed deer, it was concluded that black-tailed deer do not constitute a significant reservoir for F. hepatica in domestic livestock.

  14. Proteins involved on TGF-β pathway are up-regulated during the acute phase of experimental Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Roberto Rodrigues; de Souza, Elen Mello; de Oliveira, Fabiane Loiola; Ferrão, Patrícia Mello; Gomes, Leonardo Henrique Ferreira; Mendonça-Lima, Leila; Meuser-Batista, Marcelo; Bailly, Sabine; Feige, Jean Jacques; de Araujo-Jorge, Tania Cremonini; Waghabi, Mariana Caldas

    2016-05-01

    Studies developed by our group in the last years have shown the involvement of TGF-β in acute and chronic Chagas heart disease, with elevated plasma levels and activated TGF-β cell signaling pathway as remarkable features of patients in the advanced stages of this disease, when high levels of cardiac fibrosis is present. Imbalance in synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix components is the basis of pathological fibrosis and TGF-β is considered as one of the key regulators of this process. In the present study, we investigated the activity of the TGF-β signaling pathway, including receptors and signaling proteins activation in the heart of animals experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi during the period that mimics the acute phase of Chagas disease. We observed that T. cruzi-infected animals presented increased expression of TGF-β receptors. Overexpression of receptors was followed by an increased phosphorylation of Smad2/3, p38 and ERK. Furthermore, we correlated these activities with cellular factors involved in the fibrotic process induced by TGF-β. We observed that the expression of collagen I, fibronectin and CTGF were increased in the heart of infected animals on day 15 post-infection. Correlated with the increased TGF-β activity in the heart, we found that serum levels of total TGF-β were significantly higher during acute infection. Taken together, our data suggest that the commitment of the heart associates with increased activity of TGF-β pathway and expression of its main components. Our results, confirm the importance of this cytokine in the development and maintenance of cardiac damage caused by T. cruzi infection.

  15. Routine Laboratory Screening for Acute and Recent HIV Infection in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jesse L.; Segura, Eddy R.; Montano, Silvia M.; Leon, Segundo R.; Kochel, Tadeusz; Salvatierra, Hector J.; Alcantara, Jorge; Cáceres, Carlos F.; Coates, Thomas J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Prior to implementing screening programs for acute HIV infection in developing countries, key issues including cost, feasibility, and public health impact must be determined. We compared fourth-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with pooled HIV-1 RNA assays for the detection of acute and early HIV infection in counseling and testing populations in Lima, Peru. Methods Adults presenting for HIV testing at designated clinics in Lima-Callao, Peru were offered additional screening for acute HIV infection. All serum samples were tested with fourth-generation Ag/Ab EIA and confirmed by line immunoassay (LIA). Negative specimens were combined into 50-sample pools for HIV-1 RNA screening by PCR analysis in standard pooling algorithms. RNA-positive samples were re-tested with a third-generation EIA to evaluate the relative sensitivity of standard testing procedures. Results Between 2007 and 2008 we recruited 1,191 participants. The prevalence of HIV infection was 3.2% (38/1191; 2.2-4.2%) overall and 10.6% (25/237; CI=6.6-14.5%) among men who reported sex with men (MSM). The prevalence of acute or recent HIV infection was 0.2% (CI=0-0.4%) overall and 0.8% (CI=0-2.0%) among MSM. Compared with third generation EIA testing, both fourth generation EIA and RNA PCR increased the rate of HIV case identification by 5.6% overall and by 8.0% within the subpopulation of MSM. Conclusions Screening for acute HIV infection within Peru's resource-limited public health system was acceptable and detected a high prevalence of acute and recent HIV infection among MSM. Additional efforts are needed to screen for and prevent transmission of HIV among MSM in Peru during the acute seroconversion stage. PMID:21113069

  16. Does chronic hepatitis B infection affect the clinical course of acute hepatitis A?

    PubMed

    Shin, Su Rin; Moh, In Ho; Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myung Kuk; Lee, Myung Seok

    2013-01-01

    The impact of chronic hepatitis B on the clinical outcome of acute hepatitis A remains controversial. The aim of present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A in cases with underlying chronic hepatitis B compared to cases of acute hepatitis A alone. Data on 758 patients with acute hepatitis A admitted at two university-affiliated hospitals were reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups: group A, patients with both acute hepatitis A and underlying chronic hepatitis B (n = 27); group B, patients infected by acute hepatitis A alone whose sexes and ages were matched with patients in group A (n  = 54); and group C, patients with acute hepatitis A alone (n = 731). None of the demographic features of group A were significantly different from those of group B or C, except for the proportion of males and body weight, which differed from group C. When comparing to group B, clinical symptoms were more frequent, and higher total bilirubin and lower albumin levels were observed in group A. When comparing to group C, the albumin levels were lower in group A. There were no differences in the duration of hospital stay, occurrence of acute kidney injury, acute liver failure, prolonged cholestasis, or relapsing hepatitis. This study revealed that clinical symptoms and laboratory findings were less favorable for patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B compared to those with acute hepatitis A alone. However, there were no differences in fatal outcomes or serious complications.

  17. Experimental Models of Ocular Infection with Toxoplasma Gondii

    PubMed Central

    Dukaczewska, Agata; Tedesco, Roberto; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis is a vision-threatening disease and the major cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. In spite of the continuing global burden of ocular toxoplasmosis, many critical aspects of disease including the therapeutic approach to ocular toxoplasmosis are still under debate. To assist in addressing many aspects of the disease, numerous experimental models of ocular toxoplasmosis have been established. In this article, we present an overview on in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of ocular toxoplasmosis available to date. Experimental studies on ocular toxoplasmosis have recently focused on mice. However, the majority of murine models established so far are based on intraperitoneal and intraocular infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We therefore also present results obtained in an in vivo model using peroral infection of C57BL/6 and NMRI mice that reflects the natural route of infection and mimics the disease course in humans. While advances have been made in ex vivo model systems or larger animals to investigate specific aspects of ocular toxoplasmosis, laboratory mice continue to be the experimental model of choice for the investigation of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:26716018

  18. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 ...

  19. Reassessment of HIV-1 Acute Phase Infectivity: Accounting for Heterogeneity and Study Design with Simulated Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Bellan, Steve E.; Dushoff, Jonathan; Galvani, Alison P.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2015-01-01

    Background The infectivity of the HIV-1 acute phase has been directly measured only once, from a retrospectively identified cohort of serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Rakai, Uganda. Analyses of this cohort underlie the widespread view that the acute phase is highly infectious, even more so than would be predicted from its elevated viral load, and that transmission occurring shortly after infection may therefore compromise interventions that rely on diagnosis and treatment, such as antiretroviral treatment as prevention (TasP). Here, we re-estimate the duration and relative infectivity of the acute phase, while accounting for several possible sources of bias in published estimates, including the retrospective cohort exclusion criteria and unmeasured heterogeneity in risk. Methods and Findings We estimated acute phase infectivity using two approaches. First, we combined viral load trajectories and viral load-infectivity relationships to estimate infectivity trajectories over the course of infection, under the assumption that elevated acute phase infectivity is caused by elevated viral load alone. Second, we estimated the relative hazard of transmission during the acute phase versus the chronic phase (RHacute) and the acute phase duration (dacute) by fitting a couples transmission model to the Rakai retrospective cohort using approximate Bayesian computation. Our model fit the data well and accounted for characteristics overlooked by previous analyses, including individual heterogeneity in infectiousness and susceptibility and the retrospective cohort's exclusion of couples that were recorded as serodiscordant only once before being censored by loss to follow-up, couple dissolution, or study termination. Finally, we replicated two highly cited analyses of the Rakai data on simulated data to identify biases underlying the discrepancies between previous estimates and our own. From the Rakai data, we estimated RHacute = 5.3 (95% credibility interval [95% CrI]: 0

  20. Blood viscosity changes in experimentally Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats.

    PubMed

    Berra, H H; Piaggio, E; Revelli, S S; Luquita, A

    2005-01-01

    Microcirculatory alterations would explain focal lesions found in Chagas' cardiomyopathy. Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection induces host blood properties modifications and defensive responses capable of producing blood hyperviscosity, an ischemic risk factor able to affect microvascular blood flow. We studied whole blood viscosity (eta(b)) and plasmatic and cellular factors influencing it in rats, 7 and 14 days after experimental infection with T. cruzi. Increased plasma viscosity (eta(p)) was found in infected versus control rats and it was correlated with high blood parasite levels at 7 days and enhanced gamma-globulin fraction concentration at 14 days. The hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and eta(b) were higher in 14 days infected rats vs. 7 days and control animals. Also, electron microscopy observation showed morphological changes in red blood cells (RBC) at 7 and 14 days post-infection, with increased proportion of echinocyte and stomatocyte shapes transformation. In our rat model of Chagas' disease, BPL, increased plasmatic protein concentration, enhanced MCV and RBC shapes transformation would determine blood hyperviscosity, cause of microvascular blood flow abnormalities. PMID:15851836

  1. Experimental infection of pigs with 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis'.

    PubMed

    Hellemans, A; Chiers, K; Decostere, A; De Bock, M; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R

    2007-05-01

    'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' is a spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes the stomach of more than 60% of slaughter pigs. The role of 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' in gastric disease of pigs is still unclear. Experimental studies in pigs are lacking because this bacterium is unculturable until now. An inoculation protocol using 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' infected mouse stomach homogenate was used to reproduce the infection in pigs. Control animals were inoculated using negative mouse stomach homogenate. Pigs were inoculated three times with one-week intervals and euthanized 6 weeks post inoculation. Tissue samples were taken from different mucosal stomach regions to detect 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' by PCR and urease test. Mucosal inflammation was evaluated on formalin-fixed tissue samples. Lesions in the pars oesophagea were scored macroscopically. Infection was successful in all challenged animals, with the antrum and the fundus being predominantly positive. Infection was associated with infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the antral mucosa, evolving to follicular gastritis. No apparent inflammation of the fundic stomach region was detected in the infected animals. A clear link between 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' and pars oesophageal lesions could not be found.

  2. Blood viscosity changes in experimentally Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats.

    PubMed

    Berra, H H; Piaggio, E; Revelli, S S; Luquita, A

    2005-01-01

    Microcirculatory alterations would explain focal lesions found in Chagas' cardiomyopathy. Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection induces host blood properties modifications and defensive responses capable of producing blood hyperviscosity, an ischemic risk factor able to affect microvascular blood flow. We studied whole blood viscosity (eta(b)) and plasmatic and cellular factors influencing it in rats, 7 and 14 days after experimental infection with T. cruzi. Increased plasma viscosity (eta(p)) was found in infected versus control rats and it was correlated with high blood parasite levels at 7 days and enhanced gamma-globulin fraction concentration at 14 days. The hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and eta(b) were higher in 14 days infected rats vs. 7 days and control animals. Also, electron microscopy observation showed morphological changes in red blood cells (RBC) at 7 and 14 days post-infection, with increased proportion of echinocyte and stomatocyte shapes transformation. In our rat model of Chagas' disease, BPL, increased plasmatic protein concentration, enhanced MCV and RBC shapes transformation would determine blood hyperviscosity, cause of microvascular blood flow abnormalities.

  3. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. PMID:26432777

  4. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread.

  5. Viral-bacterial interactions and risk of acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Gent, Janneane F; Pyles, Richard B; Miller, Aaron L; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2011-11-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common complication of upper respiratory tract infection whose pathogenesis involves both viruses and bacteria. We examined risks of acute otitis media associated with specific combinations of respiratory viruses and acute otitis media bacterial pathogens. Data were from a prospective study of children ages 6 to 36 months and included viral and bacterial culture and quantitative PCR for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus. Repeated-measure logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between specific viruses, bacteria, and the risk of acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection. In unadjusted analyses of data from 194 children, adenovirus, bocavirus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis were significantly associated with AOM (P < 0.05 by χ(2) test). Children with high respiratory syncytial virus loads (≥3.16 × 10(7) copies/ml) experienced increased acute otitis media risk. Higher viral loads of bocavirus and metapneumovirus were not significantly associated with acute otitis media. In adjusted models controlling for the presence of key viruses, bacteria, and acute otitis media risk factors, acute otitis media risk was independently associated with high RSV viral load with Streptococcus pneumoniae (odds ratio [OR], 4.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90 and 10.19) and Haemophilus influenzae (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.38 and 3.02). The risk was higher for the presence of bocavirus and H. influenzae together (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.90 and 6.86). Acute otitis media risk differs by the specific viruses and bacteria involved. Acute otitis media prevention efforts should consider methods for reducing infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus, bocavirus, and adenovirus in addition to acute otitis media bacterial pathogens.

  6. Sequential Bottlenecks Drive Viral Evolution in Early Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Kerensa; Gaudieri, Silvana; Pham, Son T.; Chopra, Abha; Cameron, Barbara; Maher, Lisa; Dore, Gregory J.; White, Peter A.; Lloyd, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a pandemic human RNA virus, which commonly causes chronic infection and liver disease. The characterization of viral populations that successfully initiate infection, and also those that drive progression to chronicity is instrumental for understanding pathogenesis and vaccine design. A comprehensive and longitudinal analysis of the viral population was conducted in four subjects followed from very early acute infection to resolution of disease outcome. By means of next generation sequencing (NGS) and standard cloning/Sanger sequencing, genetic diversity and viral variants were quantified over the course of the infection at frequencies as low as 0.1%. Phylogenetic analysis of reassembled viral variants revealed acute infection was dominated by two sequential bottleneck events, irrespective of subsequent chronicity or clearance. The first bottleneck was associated with transmission, with one to two viral variants successfully establishing infection. The second occurred approximately 100 days post-infection, and was characterized by a decline in viral diversity. In the two subjects who developed chronic infection, this second bottleneck was followed by the emergence of a new viral population, which evolved from the founder variants via a selective sweep with fixation in a small number of mutated sites. The diversity at sites with non-synonymous mutation was higher in predicted cytotoxic T cell epitopes, suggesting immune-driven evolution. These results provide the first detailed analysis of early within-host evolution of HCV, indicating strong selective forces limit viral evolution in the acute phase of infection. PMID:21912520

  7. Regulatory T cells are decreased in acute RHDV lethal infection of adult rabbits.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luzia; Marques, Raquel M; Aguas, Artur P; Ferreira, Paula G

    2012-08-15

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is the etiologic agent of rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD), an acute lethal infection that kills 90% of adult rabbits due to severe acute liver inflammation. Interestingly, young rabbits are naturally resistant to RHDV infection. Here, we have compared naturally occurring CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) between young and adult rabbits after infection by RHDV. The number and frequency of Tregs was decreased in the spleen of adult rabbits 24h after the RHDV infection; this was in contrast with the unchanged number and frequency of splenic Tregs found in young rabbits after the same infection. Also, serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-β were enhanced in the infected adult rabbits whereas no alteration was observed in infected young rabbits. However, this increase is accompanied by a burst of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but seems not able to prevent the death of the animals with severe acute liver inflammation in few days after infection. Since Tregs downregulate inflammation, we conclude that their decrease may contribute to the natural susceptibility of adult rabbits to RHDV infection.

  8. Tetherin/BST-2 promotes dendritic cell activation and function during acute retrovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sam X.; Barrett, Bradley S.; Guo, Kejun; Kassiotis, George; Hasenkrug, Kim J.; Dittmer, Ulf; Gibbert, Kathrin; Santiago, Mario L.

    2016-01-01

    Tetherin/BST-2 is a host restriction factor that inhibits retrovirus release from infected cells in vitro by tethering nascent virions to the plasma membrane. However, contradictory data exists on whether Tetherin inhibits acute retrovirus infection in vivo. Previously, we reported that Tetherin-mediated inhibition of Friend retrovirus (FV) replication at 2 weeks post-infection correlated with stronger natural killer, CD4+ T and CD8+ T cell responses. Here, we further investigated the role of Tetherin in counteracting retrovirus replication in vivo. FV infection levels were similar between wild-type (WT) and Tetherin KO mice at 3 to 7 days post-infection despite removal of a potent restriction factor, Apobec3/Rfv3. However, during this phase of acute infection, Tetherin enhanced myeloid dendritic cell (DC) function. DCs from infected, but not uninfected, WT mice expressed significantly higher MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecule CD80 compared to Tetherin KO DCs. Tetherin-associated DC activation during acute FV infection correlated with stronger NK cell responses. Furthermore, Tetherin+ DCs from FV-infected mice more strongly stimulated FV-specific CD4+ T cells ex vivo compared to Tetherin KO DCs. The results link the antiretroviral and immunomodulatory activity of Tetherin in vivo to improved DC activation and MHC class II antigen presentation. PMID:26846717

  9. Does Viral Co-Infection Influence the Severity of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. Objectives To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Methods We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011–2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value < 0.001) and longer hospital length of stay (OR: 1.468; P-value < 0.001). In addition, pneumococcal vaccination was found to be a protective factor in terms of degree of respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role. PMID:27096199

  10. A Nonpancreatic Source of the Proteolytic-enzyme Amidase and Bacteriology in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Keynes, W. Milo

    1980-01-01

    In previous studies of human and experimental acute pancreatitis, three main assumptions have been made. First, that the disease is due to activation of pancreatic proteolytic enzymes in the pancreas with resulting “autodigestion” of the gland. Second, that interstitial pancreatitis is a mild form of hemorrhagic pancreatitis into which it may progress, and third, that bacteria play little part, if any, in the initiation of the disease. These assumptions are now questioned. In the present study in dogs, levels of proteolytic enzymes in blood, thoracicduct lymph and peritoneal fluid were measured using benzoylarginine amide. Raised levels of amidase were found in hemorrhagic, but not with interstitial, pancreatitis, and biochemical examination of amidase suggested it was not a pancreatic protease, but with its broad specificity and stability derived from bacteria. Addition of antibiotic to the blind duodenal loop in hemorrhagic pancreatitis reduced the level of blood amidase, but Trasylol given intravenously did not, nor did it inhibit amidase in vitro. In all animals, histological examination was made of the pancreas at time of death. On bacteriology, it is concluded that experimental interstitial pancreatitis results from damage to the pancreatic duct system without infection, and haemorrhagic pancreatitis mainly from reflux of bacteria into the pancreatic ducts from the duodenum. Only bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Clostridium welchii that produce proteolytic enzymes and cytotoxins appear to be able to cause haemorrhagic pancreatitis, and these bacteria may explain the release of vasoactive polypeptides and the vascular effects. In hemorrhagic pancreatitis such bacteria were found in the pancreas, but none in interstitial pancreatitis. Evidence is given to suggest that pancreatic proteolytic enzymes are unlikely to cause the cell necrosis which is a pathological feature of hemorrhagic pancreatitis, and that “autodigestion” is likewise unlikely to be

  11. An immunological basis for the anaemia of acute Salmonella gallinarum infection of chicken. II. The relationship of the immune response to the development of haemolytic anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Assoku, R.; Penhale, W.

    1970-01-01

    The ability of chickens to respond immunologically during acute Salmonella galinarum infection has been examined in relation to the underlying mechanism of the associated haemolytic anaemia. In spite of the severity and acuteness of the experimental infection, the majority of the chickens showed a marked immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from the challenge organism. Peak antibody titres occurred 5–6 days after infection, coincidentally with in vivo erythrocyte modification and with maximum destruction of erythrocytes. However, those animals which died of the per-acute form of the disease (within 3 days of challenge) showed neither antibody response, nor in vivo erythrocyte modification, and did not develop anaemia. It was also observed that erythrocytes which were positive to the direct Coombs test persisted in the circulation of surviving chickens for comparatively long periods (on average 4 days). The evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that an immunologically-mediated mechanism may be responsible for the development of the anaemia. PMID:5493531

  12. Severe Plasmodium falciparum infection mimicking acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Helmi; Ismail, Muhammad Dzafir; Jalalonmuhali, Maisarah; Atiya, Nadia; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela

    2014-08-30

    This case report describes a case of presumed acute myocardial infarction in a returned traveler who was later diagnosed to have severe malaria. Emergency coronary angiography was normal and subsequent peripheral blood film was positive for Plasmodium falciparum.

  13. Experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection in striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Quirk, Travis; Dubey, J P

    2008-06-01

    Twenty-three striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) without demonstrable antibodies in 1:25 serum dilution in the modified agglutination test (MAT) were fed sporulated Toxoplasma gondii oocysts (9 skunks) or tissue cysts (10 skunks), and 4 skunks (controls) were not fed T. gondii. Skunks were bled before feeding T. gondii, 10 and 23- 25 days postinoculation (PI). All 9 seronegative skunks fed oocysts died of acute toxoplasmosis between 7 and 19 days PI; T. gondii tachyzoites were found in histological sections of many tissues. One of the 10 skunks fed tissue cysts and 1 of the 4 controls also died of acute toxoplasmosis days 19 and 20 PI; these animals probably became infected by ingestion of unexcysted oocysts passed in feces of skunks fed oocysts that were housed in the same room that skunks fed tissue cysts were housed. The remaining 9 skunks fed tissue cysts and the 3 controls developed only a mild illness and were killed in good health on days 23-25 PI. Antibodies to T. gondii were not found in 1:25 serum dilution of any of the 19 of 23 skunks that were alive on day 10 PI; 12 of 13 skunks had antibodies (MAT 1:80 or higher) on the day they were killed. Antibodies were not found in 1 skunk. Results indicate that skunks can develop IgG antibodies to T. gondii within 3 wk PI, and primary toxoplasmosis can be fatal in skunks.

  14. IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV infection

    PubMed Central

    Depla, Marion; Pelletier, Sandy; Bédard, Nathalie; Brunaud, Camille; Bruneau, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Polymorphisms in the type III interferon IFN‐λ3 and the killer cell immunoglobulin‐like receptor (KIR) genes controlling the activity of natural killer (NK) cells can predict spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We hypothesized that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism may modulate NK cell function during acute HCV. Methods We monitored the plasma levels of type III IFNs in relation to the phenotype and the function of NK cells in a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) during acute HCV infection with different outcomes. Results Early acute HCV was associated with high variability in type III IFNs plasma levels and the favorable IFN‐λ3 CC genotype was associated with higher viral loads. Reduced expression of Natural Killer Group Protein 2A (NKG2A) was associated with lower IFN‐λ3 plasma levels and the CC genotype. IFN‐γ production by NK cells was higher in individuals with the CC genotype during acute infection but this did not prevent viral persistence. IFN‐λ3 plasma levels did not correlate with function of NK cells and IFN‐λ3 prestimulation did not affect NK cell activation and function. Conclusions These results suggest that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV but other factors may act in concert to determine the outcome of the infection. PMID:27621819

  15. IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV infection

    PubMed Central

    Depla, Marion; Pelletier, Sandy; Bédard, Nathalie; Brunaud, Camille; Bruneau, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Polymorphisms in the type III interferon IFN‐λ3 and the killer cell immunoglobulin‐like receptor (KIR) genes controlling the activity of natural killer (NK) cells can predict spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We hypothesized that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism may modulate NK cell function during acute HCV. Methods We monitored the plasma levels of type III IFNs in relation to the phenotype and the function of NK cells in a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) during acute HCV infection with different outcomes. Results Early acute HCV was associated with high variability in type III IFNs plasma levels and the favorable IFN‐λ3 CC genotype was associated with higher viral loads. Reduced expression of Natural Killer Group Protein 2A (NKG2A) was associated with lower IFN‐λ3 plasma levels and the CC genotype. IFN‐γ production by NK cells was higher in individuals with the CC genotype during acute infection but this did not prevent viral persistence. IFN‐λ3 plasma levels did not correlate with function of NK cells and IFN‐λ3 prestimulation did not affect NK cell activation and function. Conclusions These results suggest that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV but other factors may act in concert to determine the outcome of the infection.

  16. Respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, and mixed acute lower respiratory infections in children in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Rodríguez, Diego Andrés; Nino, Gustavo

    2015-05-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting greater severity and worse outcomes in children with mixed as compared to single respiratory virus infections. However, studies that assess the risk factors that may predispose a child to a mixture of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenoviral infections, are scarce. In a retrospective cohort study, the study investigated the epidemiology of RSV and adenovirus infections and predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in young children hospitalized with acute lower respiratory infection in Bogota, Colombia, South America, over a 2-year period 2009-2011. Of a total of 5,539 children admitted with a diagnosis of acute lower respiratory infection, 2,267 (40.9%) who were positive for RSV and/or adenovirus were selected. Out the total number of cases, 1,416 (62.5%) infections occurred during the 3-month period from March to May, the first rainy season of Bogota, Colombia. After controlling for gender, month when the nasopharyngeal sample was taken, and other pre-existing conditions, it was found that an age greater than 6 months (OR:1.74; CI 95%:1.05-2.89; P = 0.030) and malnutrition as a comorbidity (OR:9.92; CI 95%:1.01-100.9; P = 0.049) were independent predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in the sample of patients. In conclusion, RSV and adenovirus are significant causes of acute lower respiratory infection in infants and young children in Bogota, Colombia, especially during the first rainy season. The identified predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections should be taken into account when planning intervention, in order to reduce the burden of acute lower respiratory infection in young children living in the country.

  17. Immune gene expression in the spleen of chickens experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, Tina S; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Norup, Liselotte R; Pleidrup, Janne; Permin, Anders; Schou, Torben W; Vadekær, Dorte F; Jungersen, Gregers; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2015-03-15

    Ascaridia galli is a gastrointestinal nematode infecting chickens. Chickens kept in alternative rearing systems or at free-range experience increased risk for infection with resulting high prevalences. A. galli infection causes reduced weight gain, decreased egg production and in severe cases increased mortality. More importantly, the parasitised chickens are more susceptible to secondary infections and their ability to develop vaccine-induced protective immunity against other diseases may be compromised. Detailed information about the immune response to the natural infection may be exploited to enable future vaccine development. In the present study, expression of immune genes in the chicken spleen during an experimental infection with A. galli was investigated using the Fluidigm(®) BioMark™ microfluidic qPCR platform which combines automatic high-throughput with attractive low sample and reagent consumption. Spleenic transcription of immunological genes was compared between infected chickens and non-infected controls at week 2, 6, and 9 p.i. corresponding to different stages of parasite development/maturation. At week 2 p.i. increased expression of IL-13 was observed in infected chickens. Increased expression of MBL, CRP, IFN-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12β and IL-18 followed at week 6 p.i. and at both week 6 and 9 p.i. expression of DEFβ1 was highly increased in infected chickens. In summary, apart from also earlier reported increased expression of the Th2 signature cytokine IL-13 we observed only few differentially expressed genes at week 2 p.i. which corresponds to the larvae histotrophic phase. In contrast, we observed increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins in infected chickens, by week 6 p.i. where the larvae re-enter the intestinal lumen. Increased expression of DEFβ1 was observed in infected chickens at week 6 p.i. but also at week 9 p.i. which corresponds to a matured stage where adult worms are present in the

  18. Feline leukaemia provirus load during the course of experimental infection and in naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Huder, J B; Gruber, S; Boretti, F; Sigrist, B; Lutz, H

    2001-07-01

    Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) infection in domestic cats can vary in its outcome (persistent, transient, no infection) for reasons that are not entirely known. It was hypothesized that the initial virus and provirus load could significantly influence the course of retrovirus infection. To determine the role of provirus loads, two methods of PCR, a nested PCR and a fluorogenic probe-based (TaqMan) real-time quantitative PCR, which were specific to the U3 region of FeLV-A were established. FeLV provirus in naturally and experimentally infected cats was then measured. Only 3 weeks after experimental FeLV-A infection, persistently infected cats demonstrated higher provirus loads and lower humoral immune responses than cats that had overcome antigenaemia. Lower initial provirus loads were associated with successful humoral immune responses. Unexpectedly, provirus in the buffy-coat cells of two cats that tested negative for the p27 antigen (a marker for viraemia) was also detected. In 597 Swiss cats, comparison of p27 antigen levels with PCR results revealed broad agreement. However, similar to the experimental situation, a significant number of animals (10%) was negative for the p27 antigen and FeLV-positive by PCR. These cats had a mean provirus load 300-fold lower than that of animals testing positive for the p27 antigen. In conclusion, an association between the provirus load and the outcome of FeLV infection was found. Detection of provirus carriers should contribute to further the control of FeLV. In addition, quantification of provirus loads will lead to a better understanding of FeLV pathogenesis and anti-retrovirus protective mechanisms.

  19. The acute phase response in parasite infection. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, L R; Gauldie, J; Befus, A D; McAdam, K P; Baltz, M L; Pepys, M B

    1984-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory reactions are a prominent feature of many parasitic infections and the cellular and humoral components of the acute phase reaction may have an impact on the host-parasite relationship. We examined serum changes of four acute phase reactants: alpha 1-proteinase inhibition (alpha 1Pi); complement C3; serum amyloid A protein (SAA); and serum amyloid P component (SAP), in mice undergoing a primary infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. SAA and SAP showed changes within the first 2 days of infection indicating the presence of an acute phase response associated with inflammation in the lung. Alpha 1Pi and C3 serum levels were not altered. However, all four acute phase reactants were synthesized in greater amounts by primary cultures of hepatocytes taken from infected animals at this time. Subsequently, as parasite-mediated inflammatory changes occur in the gut, both serum and hepatocyte cultures demonstrate an acute inflammatory response in all four reactants. It is proposed that the early reaction between parasites and macrophage/monocyte lead to the release of a mediator of inflammation which initiates the hepatocyte response. In this infection, at least one of the APR is shown to localize to the site of inflammation influencing the host-parasite relationship. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6204934

  20. Naturally occurring, nonregressing canine oral papillomavirus infection: host immunity, virus characterization, and experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, P K; Klaunberg, B A; Moore, R A; Santos, E B; Parry, N R; Gough, G W; Stanley, M A

    1999-12-20

    Papillomaviruses occasionally cause severe, nonregressing or recurrent infections in their human and animal hosts. The mechanisms underlying these atypical infections are not known. Canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) typically regresses spontaneously and is an important model of mucosal human papillomavirus infections. A severe, naturally occurring, nonregressing COPV infection provided an opportunity to investigate some aspects of viral pathogenicity and host immunity. In this case, the papillomas proved refractory to surgical and medical treatments, including autogenous vaccination and vaccination with capsid (L1) virus-like particles. High levels of induced anti-L1 antibodies appeared to have no effect on the infection. The papillomas spread to oesophageal mucosa, perioral haired skin, and remote cutaneous sites. Isolation of COPV from the animal and sequencing of several regions of the viral genome showed no differences to the COPV prototype. Experimental infection of beagle dogs with this viral isolate resulted in the uncomplicated development and regression of oral warts within the usual period, indicating that the virus was not an unusual pathogenic variant. These findings support the hypothesis that the recurrent lesions seen in some human papillomavirus infections, such as recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis, are associated with specific defects in host immunity rather than variations in viral pathogenicity. PMID:10600607

  1. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control in Acute-Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Sydnor, Emily R. M.; Perl, Trish M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) have become more common as medical care has grown more complex and patients have become more complicated. HAIs are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Growing rates of HAIs alongside evidence suggesting that active surveillance and infection control practices can prevent HAIs led to the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control programs. The role for infection control programs has grown and continues to grow as rates of antimicrobial resistance rise and HAIs lead to increasing risks to patients and expanding health care costs. In this review, we summarize the history of the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control, common HAIs and the pathogens causing them, and the structure and role of a hospital epidemiology and infection control program. PMID:21233510

  2. Prevalence of antibiotic use for pediatric acute upper respiratory tract infections in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun Mi; Shin, Ju-Young; Kim, Mi Hee; Lee, Shin Haeng; Choi, Sohyun; Park, Byung-Joo

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial prescribing for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URI) among pediatric outpatients and to identify the national patterns of its use from 2009 to 2011 in Korea. Using National Patients Sample database from 2009 to 2011, we estimated the frequency of antibiotics prescribing for URI in pediatric outpatients with diagnoses of acute nasopharyngitis (common cold), acute sinusitis, acute pharyngitis, acute tonsillitis, acute laryngitis/tracheitis, acute obstructive laryngitis/epiglottitis, and acute upper respiratory infections of multiple and unspecified sites. The proportions of each antibiotic class were calculated by year and absolute and relative differences were estimated. Also, we investigated daily amount of prescribed antibiotics per defined population according to the type of medical care institution, physician specialty, and geographic region. The overall antibiotic prescribing proportion was 58.7% and its annual proportion slightly decreased (55.4% in 2011 vs. 60.5% in 2009; adjusted odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.83). Variations by the type of medical care institution were observed. Tertiary hospitals (45.0%) were less likely to prescribe antibiotics than primary care clinics (59.4%), hospitals (59.0%), and general hospitals (61.2%); they showed different tendencies in choosing antibiotics. Variations by physician specialty and region were also observed. Prevalence of antimicrobial prescribing for pediatric URI is still considered higher than that of western countries and varies by the type of medical care institution, physician specialty, and geographic region.

  3. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently reported. Diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and is difficult to confirm. Case report We describe a 22 year-old female Caucasian who, three days after a mild pharingitis, developed an acute psychosis with exuberant symptoms interspersed with periods of lucidity, in a background of normal consciousness and orientation. Initial medical and imagiological workup were inconclusive. After 20 days of unsuccessful treatment with antipsychotics she developed a high fever and was re-evaluated medically. Lumbar puncture revealed an inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. MRI showed irregular thickening and nodularity of the lateral ventricles' lining. An anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgM antibody titter of 85 IU/ml was detected. All symptoms cleared after treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. Conclusion This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of acute CP-associated meningoencephalitis manifesting as an acute psychotic episode. It illustrates the principle that non-organic psychiatric syndromes must remain a diagnosis of exclusion in first-time acute psychosis. PMID:16164756

  4. Epidemiology of acute infections among patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Lorien S; Go, Alan S

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of this review were (1) to review recent literature on the rates, risk factors, and outcomes of infections in patients who had chronic kidney disease (CKD) and did or did not require renal replacement therapy; (2) to review literature on the efficacy and use of selected vaccines for patients with CKD; and (3) to outline a research framework for examining key issues regarding infections in patients with CKD. Infection-related hospitalizations contribute substantially to excess morbidity and mortality in patients with ESRD, and infection is the second leading cause of death in this population. Patients who have CKD and do not require renal replacement therapy seem to be at higher risk for infection compared with patients without CKD; however, data about patients who have CKD and do not require dialysis therapy are very limited. Numerous factors potentially predispose patients with CKD to infection: advanced age, presence of coexisting illnesses, vaccine hyporesponsiveness, immunosuppressive therapy, uremia, dialysis access, and the dialysis procedure. Targeted vaccination seems to have variable efficacy in the setting of CKD and is generally underused in this population. In conclusion, infection is a primary issue when caring for patients who receive maintenance dialysis. Very limited data exist about the rates, risk factors, and outcomes of infection in patients who have CKD and do not require dialysis. Future research is needed to delineate accurately the epidemiology of infections in these populations and to develop effective preventive strategies across the spectrum of CKD severity. PMID:18650409

  5. Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in experimentally infected conventional piglets.

    PubMed

    Poutahidis, T; Tsangaris, T; Kanakoudis, G; Vlemmas, I; Iliadis, N; Sofianou, D

    2001-11-01

    A conventional nonmutant animal that could be experimentally infected with Helicobacter pylori isolates would be a useful animal model for human H. pylori-associated gastritis. Gnotobiotic and barrier-born pigs are susceptible to H. pylori infection, but attempts to infect conventional pigs with this bacterium have been unsuccessful. In the present study, a litter of eight 20-day-old crossbreed piglets were purchased from a commercial farm. Six of them were orally challenged two to five times at different ages, between 29 and 49 days, with doses of H. pylori inoculum containing approximately 10(9) bacterial cells. Two animals served as controls. The inoculation program began 2 days postweaning when the piglets were 29 days of age. Prior to every inoculation, the piglets were fasted and pretreated with cimetidine, and prior to the first and second inoculation each piglet also was pretreated with dexamethasone. The challenged piglets were euthanasized between 36 and 76 days of age. H. pylori colonized all six inoculated piglets. The pathology of the experimentally induced gastritis was examined macroscopically and by light and electron microscopy. H. pylori induced a severe lymphocytic gastritis in the conventional piglets and reproduced the large majority of the pathologic features of the human disease. Therefore, the conventional piglet represents a promising new model for study of the various pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of lesions of the human H. pylori-associated gastritis.

  6. Neurological complications of acute and persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Häusler, Martin; Ramaekers, Vincent Thomas; Doenges, Martin; Schweizer, Klaus; Ritter, Klaus; Schaade, Lars

    2002-10-01

    Neurological complications of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been reported almost exclusively in the course of acute primary infections. The role of EBV in paediatric neurological disease was investigated prospectively over a 2-year period, searching for acute primary, chronic, and reactivated EBV infections. Active EBV infections were diagnosed in 10/48 patients, including two with acute primary EBV infections (cranial neuritis and cerebellitis), one with chronic active infection (T/NK cell lymphoma with cranial neuritis), and seven with reactivated infections. Among these seven patients, three showed "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome, one facial nerve palsy, one progressive macrocephaly, and two prolonged encephalitic illness. The prognosis was good except for the patient with lethal T/NK cell lymphoma and the two girls with encephalitic illness. Despite steroid treatment, these girls suffered prolonged cognitive impairment and epileptic seizures. Both developed left-sided hippocampal atrophy, and one of them hippocampal sclerosis. Like primary infections, reactivated EBV infections cause neurological complications in a considerable number of paediatric patients, lead to serious long-term complications, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of hippocampal lesions. PMID:12210416

  7. The effect of cytomegalovirus infection on acute rejection in kidney transplanted patients

    PubMed Central

    Hasanzamani, Boshra; Hami, Maryam; Zolfaghari, Vajihe; Torkamani, Mahtab; Ghorban Sabagh, Mahin; Ahmadi Simab, Saiideh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It is known that cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common problem among kidney transplant patients. This infection can be increased morbidity and decreased graft survival. This problem has been associated with acute rejection too. Patients and Methods: One hundred and thirty renal transplant patients were included in a prospective, case-control study. The renal transplant patients were divided into two groups; patients group with CMV infection and control group without CMV infection. Serum CMV-IgG in all patients was positive (donor and recipients). None of patients had received anti-thymocyte-globulin and thymoglobulin. CMV infection was diagnosed by quantitative CMV-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test (more than 500 copies/μg). Rejection episode was defined by kidney isotope scan or biopsy. Results: In the group of 66 CMV infection patients (41 male [62.1%] and 25 female [37.9%]) the incidence of graft rejection was 36%, however in the group of 64 control patients the incidence of graft rejection was 9.4 % (P < 0.005). Conclusion: CMV infection is important predisposing factor for acute allograft rejection after kidney transplantation. The results of this study suggests that the control of CMV infection could decrease episodes of acute kidney rejection. PMID:27471740

  8. Experimental infection of dogs with the nasal mite Pneumonyssoides caninum.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, L; Zakrisson, G; Lilliehook, I; Christensson, D; Rehbinder, C; Uggla, A

    1998-06-15

    A successful experimental transmission of the canine nasal mite, Pneumonyssoides caninum, is described. Some 11 weeks after repeated systemic ivermectin treatment, four Beagles were inoculated via the right nostril with 20 P. caninum mites of different sexes and life stages, obtained at the necropsy of an infected dog. The inoculated dogs and a matching uninoculated control were observed for clinical signs for 14 weeks and then euthanised. Vague upper respiratory signs and a transient minor increase in the number of eosinophils in peripheral blood were recorded in the inoculated dogs. At necropsy 4-12 P. caninum mites were found in the nasal cavities and sinuses of the inoculated dogs, but none in the control. In three out of the four infected dogs mites were found in both the right and left nasal cavities and sinuses of the skull. Since in no case more mites than the number used for inoculation were detected it is not clear if the mites managed to reproduce in the dogs. Inflammatory lesions were seen most consistently in the olfactory mucosa, respiratory mucosa and tonsils, and growth of opportunistic bacteria was observed in the tonsils of the infected dogs. The inflammatory lesions seen in the olfactory mucosa may explain why dogs infected with P. caninum sometimes appear to suffer from impaired scenting ability.

  9. Experimental infection of rainbow trout with Saprolegnia parasitica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, George E.; Stehly, Guy R.

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed to experimentally induce saprolegniasis in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The development of a reliable method to produce infected fish is essential to efforts to determine the efficacy of various antifungal treatments. Three methods for inducing saprolegniasis were evaluated in waters containing known concentrations of Saprolegnia parasitica zoospores. These methods included application of the following stressors to fish: (1) abrasion and dewatering, (2) water temperature increase, and (3) a combination of abrasion, dewatering, and temperature increase. Neither physical abrasion nor temperature increase stress alone was effective for inducing saprolegniasis. Only 25.9% of fish stressed by abrasion and dewatering alone became infected. Application of both abrasion and temperature stress, however, induced saprolegniasis in 77.8% of fish tested. Most of these fish became infected after 5 d of stress treatments. No fish became infected or died in the positive control group (not stressed but exposed to S. parasitica zoospores) or the negative control group (not stressed or challenged). This method should enable researchers to induce saprolegniasis in rainbow trout to study its pathogenesis or to test the efficacy of antifungal treatments. In conducting efficacy studies, it is important that therapeutic treatments begin promptly after the first signs of saprolegniasis are observed because the disease can progress very quickly and often results in mortality.

  10. Endovascular intervention for acute stroke due to infective endocarditis: case report.

    PubMed

    Dababneh, Haitham; Hedna, V Shushrutha; Ford, Jenna; Taimeh, Ziad; Peters, Keith; Mocco, J; Waters, Michael F

    2012-02-01

    The overall incidence of neurological complications due to infective endocarditis is as high as 40%, with embolic infarcts more common than hemorrhagic strokes. The standard of care for typical strokes does not apply to infective endocarditis because there is a substantial risk of hemorrhage with thrombolysis. In the last decade there have been multiple case reports of intravenous and intraarterial thrombolysis with successful outcomes for acute strokes with related infective endocarditis, but successful endovascular interventions for acute strokes associated with infective endocarditis are rarely reported. To the authors' knowledge, this report is the first case in the literature to use a mechanical retrieval device in successful vegetation retrieval in an infective endocarditis acute stroke. Although an interventional approach for treatment of acute stroke related to infective endocarditis is a promising option, it is controversial and a cautious clinical decision should be made on a case-by-case basis. The authors conclude that this approach can be tested in a case series with matched controls, because this condition is rare and a randomized clinical trial is not a realistic option.

  11. Whole-body protein kinetics in marasmus and kwashiorkor during acute infection.

    PubMed

    Manary, M J; Broadhead, R L; Yarasheski, K E

    1998-06-01

    Marasmus and kwashiorkor are clinically distinct manifestations of severe malnutrition. This study tested the hypothesis that rates of whole-body protein synthesis and breakdown are higher in marasmus than in kwashiorkor during acute infection. We measured whole-body protein kinetics using stable isotope tracers in eight children with marasmus and acute infection (pneumonia or malaria) to determine the rate of appearance of urea and leucine in plasma. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and C-reactive protein were also measured. These findings were compared with those reported previously for 13 children with kwashiorkor (including marasmic kwashiorkor) and acute infection who were studied with the same methods. HIV infection was present in 10 of 21 children. Rates of protein breakdown and synthesis were higher in marasmus than in kwashiorkor (227 +/- 59 compared with 103 +/- 30 micromol leucine x kg(-1) x h(-1) and 216 +/- 60 compared with 97 +/- 30 micromol leucine x kg(-1) x h(-1), P < 0.001). The concentration of globulin (total protein minus albumin) was higher in marasmus than kwashiorkor (40 +/- 17 compared with 25 +/- 7 g/L, P < or = 0.01), but C-reactive protein was not different (73 +/- 79 compared with 83 +/- 89 mg/L). HIV infection and body composition did not explain the differences between marasmus and kwashiorkor. The accelerated rate of protein turnover in children with marasmus and acute infection requires further investigation.

  12. Differentiation of Acute Q Fever from Other Infections in Patients Presenting to Hospitals, the Netherlands1

    PubMed Central

    Krijger, Elmer; Delsing, Corine E.; Sprong, Tom; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating acute Q fever from infections caused by other pathogens is essential. We conducted a retrospective case–control study to evaluate differences in clinical signs, symptoms, and outcomes for 82 patients with acute Q fever and 52 control patients who had pneumonia, fever and lower respiratory tract symptoms, or fever and hepatitis, but had negative serologic results for Q fever. Patients with acute Q fever were younger and had higher C-reactive protein levels but lower leukocyte counts. However, a large overlap was found. In patients with an indication for prophylaxis, chronic Q fever did not develop after patients received prophylaxis but did develop in 50% of patients who did not receive prophylaxis. Differentiating acute Q fever from other respiratory infections, fever, or hepatitis is not possible without serologic testing or PCR. If risk factors for chronic Q fever are present, prophylactic treatment is advised. PMID:26196955

  13. Antibiotic and Antiinflammatory Therapy Transiently Reduces Inflammation and Hypercoagulation in Acutely SIV-Infected Pigtailed Macaques.

    PubMed

    Pandrea, Ivona; Xu, Cuiling; Stock, Jennifer L; Frank, Daniel N; Ma, Dongzhu; Policicchio, Benjamin B; He, Tianyu; Kristoff, Jan; Cornell, Elaine; Haret-Richter, George S; Trichel, Anita; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Tracy, Russell; Wilson, Cara; Landay, Alan L; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Increased chronic immune activation and inflammation are hallmarks of HIV/SIV infection and are highly correlated with progression to AIDS and development of non-AIDS comorbidities, such as hypercoagulability and cardiovascular disease. Intestinal dysfunction resulting in microbial translocation has been proposed as a lead cause of systemic immune activation and hypercoagulability in HIV/SIV infection. Our goal was to assess the biological and clinical impact of a therapeutic strategy designed to reduce microbial translocation through reduction of the microbial content of the intestine (Rifaximin-RFX) and of gut inflammation (Sulfasalazine-SFZ). RFX is an intraluminal antibiotic that was successfully used in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SFZ is an antiinflammatory drug successfully used in patients with mild to moderate inflammatory bowel disease. Both these clinical conditions are associated with increased microbial translocation, similar to HIV-infected patients. Treatment was administered for 90 days to five acutely SIV-infected pigtailed macaques (PTMs) starting at the time of infection; seven untreated SIVsab-infected PTMs were used as controls. RFX+SFZ were also administered for 90 days to three chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs. RFX+SFZ administration during acute SIVsab infection of PTMs resulted in: significantly lower microbial translocation, lower systemic immune activation, lower viral replication, better preservation of mucosal CD4+ T cells and significantly lower levels of hypercoagulation biomarkers. This effect was clear during the first 40 days of treatment and was lost during the last stages of treatment. Administration of RFX+SFZ to chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs had no discernible effect on infection. Our data thus indicate that early RFX+SFZ administration transiently improves the natural history of acute and postacute SIV infection, but has no effect during chronic infection. PMID:26764484

  14. Antibiotic and Antiinflammatory Therapy Transiently Reduces Inflammation and Hypercoagulation in Acutely SIV-Infected Pigtailed Macaques.

    PubMed

    Pandrea, Ivona; Xu, Cuiling; Stock, Jennifer L; Frank, Daniel N; Ma, Dongzhu; Policicchio, Benjamin B; He, Tianyu; Kristoff, Jan; Cornell, Elaine; Haret-Richter, George S; Trichel, Anita; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Tracy, Russell; Wilson, Cara; Landay, Alan L; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Increased chronic immune activation and inflammation are hallmarks of HIV/SIV infection and are highly correlated with progression to AIDS and development of non-AIDS comorbidities, such as hypercoagulability and cardiovascular disease. Intestinal dysfunction resulting in microbial translocation has been proposed as a lead cause of systemic immune activation and hypercoagulability in HIV/SIV infection. Our goal was to assess the biological and clinical impact of a therapeutic strategy designed to reduce microbial translocation through reduction of the microbial content of the intestine (Rifaximin-RFX) and of gut inflammation (Sulfasalazine-SFZ). RFX is an intraluminal antibiotic that was successfully used in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SFZ is an antiinflammatory drug successfully used in patients with mild to moderate inflammatory bowel disease. Both these clinical conditions are associated with increased microbial translocation, similar to HIV-infected patients. Treatment was administered for 90 days to five acutely SIV-infected pigtailed macaques (PTMs) starting at the time of infection; seven untreated SIVsab-infected PTMs were used as controls. RFX+SFZ were also administered for 90 days to three chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs. RFX+SFZ administration during acute SIVsab infection of PTMs resulted in: significantly lower microbial translocation, lower systemic immune activation, lower viral replication, better preservation of mucosal CD4+ T cells and significantly lower levels of hypercoagulation biomarkers. This effect was clear during the first 40 days of treatment and was lost during the last stages of treatment. Administration of RFX+SFZ to chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs had no discernible effect on infection. Our data thus indicate that early RFX+SFZ administration transiently improves the natural history of acute and postacute SIV infection, but has no effect during chronic infection.

  15. Antibiotic and Antiinflammatory Therapy Transiently Reduces Inflammation and Hypercoagulation in Acutely SIV-Infected Pigtailed Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Pandrea, Ivona; Xu, Cuiling; Stock, Jennifer L.; Frank, Daniel N.; Ma, Dongzhu; Policicchio, Benjamin B.; He, Tianyu; Kristoff, Jan; Cornell, Elaine; Haret-Richter, George S.; Trichel, Anita; Ribeiro, Ruy M.; Tracy, Russell; Wilson, Cara; Landay, Alan L.; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Increased chronic immune activation and inflammation are hallmarks of HIV/SIV infection and are highly correlated with progression to AIDS and development of non-AIDS comorbidities, such as hypercoagulability and cardiovascular disease. Intestinal dysfunction resulting in microbial translocation has been proposed as a lead cause of systemic immune activation and hypercoagulability in HIV/SIV infection. Our goal was to assess the biological and clinical impact of a therapeutic strategy designed to reduce microbial translocation through reduction of the microbial content of the intestine (Rifaximin-RFX) and of gut inflammation (Sulfasalazine-SFZ). RFX is an intraluminal antibiotic that was successfully used in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SFZ is an antiinflammatory drug successfully used in patients with mild to moderate inflammatory bowel disease. Both these clinical conditions are associated with increased microbial translocation, similar to HIV-infected patients. Treatment was administered for 90 days to five acutely SIV-infected pigtailed macaques (PTMs) starting at the time of infection; seven untreated SIVsab-infected PTMs were used as controls. RFX+SFZ were also administered for 90 days to three chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs. RFX+SFZ administration during acute SIVsab infection of PTMs resulted in: significantly lower microbial translocation, lower systemic immune activation, lower viral replication, better preservation of mucosal CD4+ T cells and significantly lower levels of hypercoagulation biomarkers. This effect was clear during the first 40 days of treatment and was lost during the last stages of treatment. Administration of RFX+SFZ to chronically SIVsab–infected PTMs had no discernible effect on infection. Our data thus indicate that early RFX+SFZ administration transiently improves the natural history of acute and postacute SIV infection, but has no effect during chronic infection. PMID:26764484

  16. Experimental Sarcocystis hominis infection in a water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chen, X W; Zuo, Y X; Hu, J J

    2003-04-01

    A water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was fed 5.0 x 10(5) Sarcocystis hominis sporocysts from a human volunteer who had ingested S. hominis cysts from naturally infected cattle. A necropsy was performed on the buffalo 119 days after inoculation, and a large number of microscopic sarcocysts (approximately 5,000/g) were found in skeletal muscles. Ultrastructurally, the sarcocyst wall from buffalo muscles has upright villar protrusions measuring about 5.6 x 0.8 microm with numerous microtubules that run from the base to the apex. Sarcocysts from this buffalo were infective to 2 human volunteers, confirming their identity as S. hominis. Therefore, we believe that buffaloes can act experimentally as the intermediate host for S. hominis.

  17. Combined intranasal ipratropium bromide and oxymetazoline in experimental rhinovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Pitkäranta, A; Wecker, M T; Korts, D C; Hayden, F G

    1998-01-01

    The topical anticholinergic ipratropium bromide and topical decongestant oxymetazoline were tested to determine whether oxymetazoline alone and the combination were well tolerated and reduced rhinorrhea and middle ear pressure abnormalities during experimental rhinovirus infection. The study was double-bind, placebo-controlled, and double dummy in design. Healthy volunteers (n = 109) with low serum neutralizing antibody titer (< or = 1:2) were. Treatments inoculated with rhinovirus (type 39 or Hank's strain) and randomized to treatment with ipra-tropium bromide 0.06% two sprays per nostril (84 micrograms per treatment) and oxymetazoline 0.05% two sprays per nostril, oxymetazoline alone, or placebo. Treatments were self administered twice daily for 5 days beginning 1 day after rhinovirus inoculation. The overall infection rate was 83% and of those infected, 88% felt that they had a cold. During the 3-hour period after dosing, the increase in nasal discharge was significantly lower in the combined ipratropium and oxymetazoline (0.13 +/- 0.17 gm/3 hr, mean +/- SE) than after oxymetazoline alone (0.60 +/- 0.18 gm/3 hr) or vehicle (0.73 +/- 0.18 gm/3 hr). Over the 5-day observation period, total daily nasal discharge also tended to be lower in the ipratropium plus oxymetazoline group (3.67 +/- 0.70 gm/24 hr, mean +/- SE) compared to oxymetazoline (5.61 +/- 0.73: 35% reduction) or the vehicle (5.04 +/- 0.73; 27% reduction) recipients, but the differences were not statistically significant. Subjective assessments of rhinorrhea indicated that the severity of rhinorrhea was significantly better among patients receiving oxymetazoline alone or with ipratropium compared to the vehicle. No significant difference in the cumulative frequencies of middle ear pressure abnormalities (27-31%) were found among the treatment groups. Oxymetazoline does not consistently stimulate or decrease nasal mucus production, and ipratropium added to oxymetazoline is well tolerated and reduces

  18. Experimental infection with Trichinella T12 in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Ribicich, M; Krivokapich, S; Pasqualetti, M; Gonzalez Prous, C L; Gatti, G M; Falzoni, E; Aronowicz, T; Arbusti, P; Fariña, F; Rosa, A

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella spiralis has been documented in wild animals in Argentina, including puma, armadillos, rats and wild boars. In 2008, molecular analysis identified Trichinella T12 from a naturally infected puma (Puma concolor) from Patagonia. The aim of the present work was to study the relationship between the infectivity and pathology of Trichinella T12 in the puma and in domestic cats, and the possible risks that may be present for transmission among these animals. Two cats (A and B) were orally-infected with 3300 and 1850 Trichinella T12 muscle larvae, respectively; one additional cat was used as a control. During the 54 days post-infection, a daily examination was performed which included monitoring body temperature, and cardiac and respiration rates; the animals were then euthanized. Hematological studies included hematocrit (%), hemoglobin (g/dl), and white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. Blood biochemistry included urea, creatinine, AST, ALT, CK, LDH and ALP. An ELISA assay was also performed. At necropsy, organs (liver, spleen, brain, cerebellum and kidney), nails and muscle samples were obtained for histopathology studies and artificial digestion. The muscles that were studied included the diaphragm, massetter, cutaneous, temporal, intercostals, lumbar, tongue, limbs, neck and tail. Clinical signs, such as anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting, shaggy hair, decay and muscle pain, were observed in both cats. The eosinophil counts were elevated in both cats A and B. Trichinella larvae were recovered from all of the muscles analyzed where the histopathology showed larvae in several muscles without degenerative reaction. Neither larvae nor lesions were observed in non-muscular organs. Cat A had a maximum of 246 larvae per gram (lpg) in the temporal muscle and a minimum of 80 lpg in the tongue, while cat B had a maximum of 65 lpg in muscles of the leg and a minimum of 10 lpg in tail muscles. This study represents the first record of experimental

  19. Experimental infection with Trichinella T12 in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Ribicich, M; Krivokapich, S; Pasqualetti, M; Gonzalez Prous, C L; Gatti, G M; Falzoni, E; Aronowicz, T; Arbusti, P; Fariña, F; Rosa, A

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella spiralis has been documented in wild animals in Argentina, including puma, armadillos, rats and wild boars. In 2008, molecular analysis identified Trichinella T12 from a naturally infected puma (Puma concolor) from Patagonia. The aim of the present work was to study the relationship between the infectivity and pathology of Trichinella T12 in the puma and in domestic cats, and the possible risks that may be present for transmission among these animals. Two cats (A and B) were orally-infected with 3300 and 1850 Trichinella T12 muscle larvae, respectively; one additional cat was used as a control. During the 54 days post-infection, a daily examination was performed which included monitoring body temperature, and cardiac and respiration rates; the animals were then euthanized. Hematological studies included hematocrit (%), hemoglobin (g/dl), and white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. Blood biochemistry included urea, creatinine, AST, ALT, CK, LDH and ALP. An ELISA assay was also performed. At necropsy, organs (liver, spleen, brain, cerebellum and kidney), nails and muscle samples were obtained for histopathology studies and artificial digestion. The muscles that were studied included the diaphragm, massetter, cutaneous, temporal, intercostals, lumbar, tongue, limbs, neck and tail. Clinical signs, such as anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting, shaggy hair, decay and muscle pain, were observed in both cats. The eosinophil counts were elevated in both cats A and B. Trichinella larvae were recovered from all of the muscles analyzed where the histopathology showed larvae in several muscles without degenerative reaction. Neither larvae nor lesions were observed in non-muscular organs. Cat A had a maximum of 246 larvae per gram (lpg) in the temporal muscle and a minimum of 80 lpg in the tongue, while cat B had a maximum of 65 lpg in muscles of the leg and a minimum of 10 lpg in tail muscles. This study represents the first record of experimental

  20. Experimental infections of Anaplasma ovis in pronghorn antelope.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, J L

    1987-04-01

    Anaplasma ovis was experimentally transmitted from sheep to pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) and back to sheep. Anaplasma ovis was recovered in splenectomized sheep, from two of three spleen-intact pronghorns following their inoculation with blood from known A. ovis carrier sheep. These two pronghorns exhibited a 0.5% or higher A. ovis parasitemia within 48 days after exposure, and an anaplasmosis-positive serological response 91 days after exposure. Clinical signs of illness were not observed. Blood from the infected pronghorns produced disease in four splenectomized sheep. PMID:3586197

  1. [Clinical analysis of acute invasive fungal sinusitis with orbital infection].

    PubMed

    Chen, Feifei; Hu, Haiwen; Li, Jin

    2014-10-01

    The clinical manifestation of acute invasive fungal sinusitis was associated with facial pain,altered sense of smell, blindness and headache. Physical examinations show that dark brown nasal secretions with bone resorption in paranasal sinus. Radiographi parameters showed uneven density in paranasal sinus and intraorbital extension. Fungus smears and pathological examination can make a definitive diagnosis.

  2. Platelets from thrombocytopenic ponies acutely infected with equine infectious anemia virus are activated in vivo and hypofunctional.

    PubMed

    Russell, K E; Perkins, P C; Hoffman, M R; Miller, R T; Walker, K M; Fuller, F J; Sellon, D C

    1999-06-20

    Thrombocytopenia is a consistent finding and one of the earliest hematological abnormalities in horses acutely infected with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a lentivirus closely related to human immunodeficiency virus. Multifactorial mechanisms, including immune-mediated platelet destruction and impaired platelet production, are implicated in the pathogenesis of EIAV-associated thrombocytopenia. This study was undertaken to investigate whether regenerative thrombopoiesis and platelet destruction occurred in ponies acutely infected with EIAV. Circulating large, immature platelets were increased in ponies acutely infected with EIAV late in the infection when platelet count was at a nadir. Morphometric analysis of bone marrow from acutely infected ponies revealed significant increased in megakaryocyte area and megakaryocyte nuclear area. A trend toward increased numbers of megakaryocytes was also observed. Platelets from acutely infected ponies had increased surface-bound fibrinogen and ultrastructural changes consistent with in vivo platelet activation. Platelets also had hypofunctional aggregation responses to three agonists in vitro. We conclude that thrombocytopenia in ponies acutely infected with EIAV is regenerative and suggest that bone marrow platelet production is not severely compromised in these ponies. Our findings reveal that in vivo platelet activation occurs in ponies acutely infected with EIAV, and as a result platelets are hypofunctional in vitro. Activation of platelets in vivo may cause platelet degranulation or formation of platelet aggregates, which would result in removal of these damages platelets from circulation. This may represent a form of nonimmune-mediated platelet destruction in ponies acutely infected with EIAV.

  3. Multi-Agent Simulations of the Immune Response to Hiv during the Acute Stage of Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walshe, R.; Ruskin, H. J.; Callaghan, A.

    Results of multi-agent based simulations of the immune response to HIV during the acute phase of infection are presented here. The model successfully recreates the viral dynamics associated with the acute phase of infection, i.e., a rapid rise in viral load followed by a sharp decline to what is often referred to as a "set point", a result of T-cell response and emergence of HIV neutralizing antibodies. The results indicate that sufficient T Killer cell response is the key factor in controlling viral growth during this phase with antibody levels of critical importance only in the absence of a sufficient T Killer response.

  4. Viral load and acute otitis media development after human metapneumovirus upper respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed

    Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Pyles, Richard B; Miller, Aaron L; Patel, Janak A; Loeffelholz, Michael; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2012-07-01

    The role of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection (URI) was studied. Nasopharyngeal specimens from 700 URI episodes in 200 children were evaluated; 47 (7%) were positive for hMPV, 25 (3.6%) with hMPV as the only virus. Overall, 24% of URI episodes with hMPV only were complicated by acute otitis media, which was the lowest rate compared with other respiratory viruses. hMPV viral load was significantly higher in children with fever, but there was no difference in viral load in children with hMPV-positive URI with or without acute otitis media complication.

  5. Buparvaquone is active against Neospora caninum in vitro and in experimentally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martinez, Adriana; Manser, Vera; Balmer, Vreni; Winzer, Pablo; Ritler, Dominic; Hostettler, Isabel; Arranz-Solís, David; Ortega-Mora, Luis; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The naphthoquinone buparvaquone is currently the only drug used against theileriosis. Here, the effects of buparvaquone were investigated in vitro and in an experimental mouse model for Neospora caninum infection. In 4-day proliferation assays, buparvaquone efficiently inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite replication (IC50 = 4.9 nM; IC100 = 100 nM). However, in the long term tachyzoites adapted and resumed proliferation in the presence of 100 nM buparvaquone after 20 days of cultivation. Parasiticidal activity was noted after 9 days of culture in 0.5 µM or 6 days in 1 µM buparvaquone. TEM of N. caninum infected fibroblasts treated with 1 µM buparvaquone showed that the drug acted rather slowly, and ultrastructural changes were evident only after 3-5 days of treatment, including severe alterations in the parasite cytoplasm, changes in the composition of the parasitophorous vacuole matrix and a diminished integrity of the vacuole membrane. Treatment of N. caninum infected mice with buparvaquone (100 mg/kg) either by intraperitoneal injection or gavage prevented neosporosis symptoms in 4 out of 6 mice in the intraperitoneally treated group, and in 6 out of 7 mice in the group receiving oral treatment. In the corresponding controls, all 6 mice injected intraperitoneally with corn oil alone died of acute neosporosis, and 4 out of 6 mice died in the orally treated control group. Assessment of infection intensities in the treatment groups showed that, compared to the drug treated groups, the controls showed a significantly higher parasite load in the lungs while cerebral parasite load was higher in the buparvaquone-treated groups. Thus, although buparvaquone did not eliminate the parasites infecting the CNS, the drug represents an interesting lead with the potential to eliminate, or at least diminish, fetal infection during pregnancy. PMID:25941626

  6. Buparvaquone is active against Neospora caninum in vitro and in experimentally infected mice

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martinez, Adriana; Manser, Vera; Balmer, Vreni; Winzer, Pablo; Ritler, Dominic; Hostettler, Isabel; Arranz-Solís, David; Ortega-Mora, Luis; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The naphthoquinone buparvaquone is currently the only drug used against theileriosis. Here, the effects of buparvaquone were investigated in vitro and in an experimental mouse model for Neospora caninum infection. In 4-day proliferation assays, buparvaquone efficiently inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite replication (IC50 = 4.9 nM; IC100 = 100 nM). However, in the long term tachyzoites adapted and resumed proliferation in the presence of 100 nM buparvaquone after 20 days of cultivation. Parasiticidal activity was noted after 9 days of culture in 0.5 µM or 6 days in 1 µM buparvaquone. TEM of N. caninum infected fibroblasts treated with 1 µM buparvaquone showed that the drug acted rather slowly, and ultrastructural changes were evident only after 3–5 days of treatment, including severe alterations in the parasite cytoplasm, changes in the composition of the parasitophorous vacuole matrix and a diminished integrity of the vacuole membrane. Treatment of N. caninum infected mice with buparvaquone (100 mg/kg) either by intraperitoneal injection or gavage prevented neosporosis symptoms in 4 out of 6 mice in the intraperitoneally treated group, and in 6 out of 7 mice in the group receiving oral treatment. In the corresponding controls, all 6 mice injected intraperitoneally with corn oil alone died of acute neosporosis, and 4 out of 6 mice died in the orally treated control group. Assessment of infection intensities in the treatment groups showed that, compared to the drug treated groups, the controls showed a significantly higher parasite load in the lungs while cerebral parasite load was higher in the buparvaquone-treated groups. Thus, although buparvaquone did not eliminate the parasites infecting the CNS, the drug represents an interesting lead with the potential to eliminate, or at least diminish, fetal infection during pregnancy. PMID:25941626

  7. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection. PMID:22490115

  8. Hippocampal protection in mice with an attenuated inflammatory monocyte response to acute CNS picornavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Charles L.; LaFrance-Corey, Reghann G.; Sundsbak, Rhianna S.; Sauer, Brian M.; LaFrance, Stephanie J.; Buenz, Eric J.; Schmalstieg, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal injury during acute viral infection of the brain is associated with the development of persistent cognitive deficits and seizures in humans. In C57BL/6 mice acutely infected with the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, hippocampal CA1 neurons are injured by a rapid innate immune response, resulting in profound memory deficits. In contrast, infected SJL and B6xSJL F1 hybrid mice exhibit essentially complete hippocampal and memory preservation. Analysis of brain-infiltrating leukocytes revealed that SJL mice mount a sharply attenuated inflammatory monocyte response as compared to B6 mice. Bone marrow transplantation experiments isolated the attenuation to the SJL immune system. Adoptive transfer of B6 inflammatory monocytes into acutely infected B6xSJL hosts converted these mice to a hippocampal damage phenotype and induced a cognitive deficit marked by failure to recognize a novel object. These findings show that inflammatory monocytes are the critical cellular mediator of hippocampal injury during acute picornavirus infection of the brain. PMID:22848791

  9. Iron metabolism and oxidative profile of dogs naturally infected by Ehrlichia canis: Acute and subclinical disease.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Crivellenti, Leandro Z; Borin-Crivellenti, Sofia; Oliveira, Jéssica R; Coelho, Stefanie B; Contin, Catarina M; Tatsch, Etiane; Moresco, Rafael N; Santana, Aureo E; Tonin, Alexandre A; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidant profile and iron metabolism in serum of dogs infected by Ehrlichia canis. Banked sera samples of dogs were divided into two groups: negative control (n = 17) and infected by E. canis on acute (n = 24), and subclinical (n = 18) phases of the disease. The eritrogram, leucogram, and platelet counts were evaluate as well as iron, ferritin, and transferrin levels, latent iron binding capacity (LIBC), and transferrin saturation index (TSI) concentration. In addition, the advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in sera were also analyzed. Blood samples were examined for the presence of E. canis by PCR techniques. History and clinical signals were recorded for each dog. During the acute phase of the disease, infected animals showed thrombocytopenia and anemia when compared to healthy animals (P < 0.05) as a consequence of lower iron levels. Ferritin and transferrin levels were higher in both phases (acute and subclinical) of the disease. The AOPP and FRAP levels increased in infected animals on the acute phase; however, the opposite occurred in the subclinical phase. We concluded that dogs naturally infected by E. canis showed changes in the iron metabolism and developed an oxidant status in consequence of disease pathophysiology. PMID:26724737

  10. Experimental infection of duck origin virulent Newcastle disease virus strain in ducks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an acute, highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting most species of birds. Ducks are generally considered to be natural reservoirs or carriers of NDV while being resistant to NDV strains, even those most virulent for chickens; however, natural ND cases in ducks have been gradually increasing in recent years. In the present study, ducks of different breeds and ages were experimentally infected with duck origin virulent NDV strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) by various routes to investigate the pathogenicity of NDV in ducks. Results Six breeds (mallard, Gaoyou, Shaoxing, Jinding, Shanma, and Pekin ducks) were infected intramuscularly (IM) with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50. Susceptibility to NDV infection among breeds varied, per morbidity and mortality. Mallard ducks were the most susceptible, and Pekin ducks the most resistant. Fifteen-, 30-, 45-, 60-, and 110-day-old Gaoyou ducks were infected with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50 either IM or intranasally (IN) and intraocularly (IO), and their disease development, viral shedding, and virus tissue distribution were determined. The susceptibility of ducks to NDV infection decreased with age. Most deaths occurred in 15- and 30-day-old ducklings infected IM. Ducks infected IN and IO sometimes exhibited clinical signs, but seldom died. Clinical signs were primarily neurologic. Infected ducks could excrete infectious virus from the pharynx and/or cloaca for a short period, which varied with bird age or inoculation route; the longest period was about 7 days. The rate of virus isolation in tissues from infected ducks was generally low, even in those from dead birds, and it appeared to be unrelated to bird age and infection route. Conclusions The results confirmed that some of the naturally occurring NDV virulent strains can cause the disease in ducks, and that ducks play an important

  11. [Epidemiologic features of acute viral respiratory infections in familial foci].

    PubMed

    Lidina, P V; Mironovskaia, A V

    1977-03-01

    A study was made of the epidemiological peculiarities of viral respiratory infections of various etiology in the familial foci with the use of a methodical approach permitting to detect the true spread of infection in the familial foci, with consideration to the subclinical forme fruste of the disease and "carrier state". It appeared that in the familial foci the infectiousness of the majority of respiratory viral infections was greater than in the closed collective bodies uniting persons of the same age. The age composition of the family influences the manifestness (particularly in parainfluenza infection) and the intensity of the epidemic process characterized by the coefficient of the secondary affections. The type of the apartment, the floor on which it is located, and the number of persons residing in it had no significant influence on the spread of the viral infections in the familial foci. A definite role in this process is played by the level of specific serum antibodies in the members of the family surrounding the patient. The association of morbidity level with the antibody level proved to be the most distinct in children with influenza and adenoviral infection; this association was less significant in adults. PMID:193325

  12. Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Update

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Deverick J.; Podgorny, Kelly; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I.; Bratzler, Dale W.; Dellinger, E. Patchen; Greene, Linda; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Saiman, Lisa; Yokoe, Deborah S.; Maragakis, Lisa L.; Kaye, Keith S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their surgical site infection (SSI) prevention efforts. This document updates “Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals,”1 published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.2 PMID:24799638

  13. Susceptibility of avian hosts to experimental Gymnophalloides seoi infection.

    PubMed

    Ryang, Y S; Yoo, J C; Lee, S H; Chai, J Y

    2001-04-01

    To determine whether avian species are susceptible to infection with Gymnophalloides seoi (a human-infecting intestinal trematode), we exposed 7 species of birds with metacercariae obtained from oysters. The birds were necropsied at days 2, 4, and 6 postinfection (PI). The highest worm recovery at day 6 PI was obtained from the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus; mean = 56.0%), followed by the Mongolian plover (C. mongolus; 49.3%), and the grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola; 32.3%). In contrast, no mature worms were recovered from the great knot (Calidris tenuirostris), dunlin (C. alpina), black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Among the plovers, the worms attained the greatest size at day 6 PI (254.1 x 190.4 microm) in the Kentish plover, with a significantly higher number of eggs in the uterus. The 3 species of plovers are highly susceptible to experimental G. seoi infection, suggesting that they could play a role as definitive hosts for these worms in nature.

  14. Experimental phage therapy of burn wound infection: difficult first steps

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Thomas; Verbeken, Gilbert; Vos, Daniel De; Merabishvili, Maya; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Lavigne, Rob; Jennes, Serge; Zizi, Martin; Pirnay, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem and the antibiotics pipeline is running dry. Bacteriophages (phages) may offer an ‘innovative’ means of infection treatment, which can be combined or alternated with antibiotic therapy and may enhance our abilities to treat bacterial infections successfully. Today, in the Queen Astrid Military Hospital, phage therapy is increasingly considered as part of a salvage therapy for patients in therapeutic dead end, particularly those with multidrug resistant infections. We describe the application of a well-defined and quality controlled phage cocktail, active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, on colonized burn wounds within a modest clinical trial (nine patients, 10 applications), which was approved by a leading Belgian Medical Ethical Committee. No adverse events, clinical abnormalities or changes in laboratory test results that could be related to the application of phages were observed. Unfortunately, this very prudent ‘clinical trial’ did not allow for an adequate evaluation of the efficacy of the phage cocktail. Nevertheless, this first ‘baby step’ revealed several pitfalls and lessons for future experimental phage therapy and helped overcome the psychological hurdles that existed to the use of viruses in the treatment of patients in our burn unit. PMID:25356373

  15. Influence of bile flow interruption on acute experimental pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sarli, L; Gafà, M; Lupi, M; Peracchia, A

    1984-01-01

    The influence of bile flow interruption on the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis has been evaluated in the rat. The pancreatitis was induced by Pfeffer's technique and the severity of the disease was assessed by a macroscopic examination of the pancreatic damage and the calculation of amylase-to-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) as well. The results showed that the bile reflux into the pancreas made the pancreatic lesions caused by stasis in the gland associated with hyperstimulation of exocrine secretion more severe. On the other hand the bile reflux had no influence when the pancreatitis was due to flowing back of duodenal contents into the pancreas (closed duodenal loop). It was concluded that the bile effect is probably consistent with a pressure mechanism. In addition the reliability of ACCR in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was confirmed, and the test was effective in detecting even milder pancreatic damages. PMID:6206023

  16. Oropouche virus experimental infection in the golden hamster (Mesocrisetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Alcir Humberto; Santos, Rodrigo Ivo; Arisi, Gabriel Maisonnave; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Silva, Maria Lúcia; Rossi, Marcos Antônio; Lopes, Maria Beatriz Sampaio; Arruda, Eurico

    2011-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), of the family Bunyaviridae, is the second most frequent arbovirus causing febrile disease in Brazil. In spite of this, little is known about pathogenesis of OROV infection. This report describes an experimental model of OROV in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Following subcutaneous inoculation of OROV, over 50% of the animals developed disease characterized by lethargy, ruffled fur, shivering, paralysis, and approximately one third died. Animals were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 post-inoculation to collect tissue samples from brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, muscle and blood for virus titration, histology and OROV immunohistochemistry. OROV was detected in high titers in blood, liver and brain, but not in the other organs. Histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis and hepatitis, with abundant OROV antigen detected in liver and brain. Diffuse galectin-3 immunostaining in brain and liver supports microglial and Kupfer cells activation. This is the first description of an experimental model for OROV infection and should be helpful to study pathogenesis and possibly to test antiviral interventions such as drugs and vaccine candidates.

  17. Low-level Circulation of Enterovirus D68–Associated Acute Respiratory Infections, Germany, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Reiche, Janine; Böttcher, Sindy; Diedrich, Sabine; Buchholz, Udo; Buda, Silke; Haas, Walter; Schweiger, Brunhilde

    2015-01-01

    We used physician sentinel surveillance to identify 25 (7.7%) mild to severe infections with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in children and adults among 325 outpatients with acute respiratory infections in Germany during August–October 2014. Results suggested low-level circulation of enterovirus D68 in Germany. Viruses were characterized by sequencing viral protein (VP) 1 and VP4/VP2 genomic regions. PMID:25898320

  18. The association between obesity and outpatient visits for acute respiratory infections in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Campitelli, Michael A.; Rosella, Laura C.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Recent evidence suggests that obesity increases the risk of severe outcomes following respiratory infection. It is less clear whether obesity is associated with the risk of being infected with influenza or other respiratory pathogens. Therefore, we examined the association between obesity and outpatient visits for acute respiratory infections. Design We conducted a retrospective cohort study over 13 years on 104,665 individuals in Ontario, Canada who responded to population health surveys and agreed to linkage with health administrative data. Individuals aged 18–64 years who responded to a survey within 5 years prior to the start of an influenza season were included. Poisson regression, with adjustment for relevant confounders, was used to measure the association between self-reported BMI and outpatient visits coded as acute respiratory infection. We conducted numerous sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of our findings. Results We observed higher rates of outpatient visits for ARI during influenza season periods compared with normal weight individuals for those who were overweight (BMI 25–29.9) (Rate Ratio [RR] 1.10; 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.07–1.13), obese class I (BMI 30–34.9) (RR 1.17; 95% CI 1.13–1.22), and obese class II or III (BMI ≥35) (RR 1.19; 95% CI 1.12–1.25) Associations of a similar magnitude were observed during non-influenza season periods. Obesity was a greater risk factor for acute respiratory infections managed in emergency departments than physician offices. Conclusions Obese individuals are at an increased risk of outpatient visits for acute respiratory infection during both influenza and non-influenza season periods, suggesting that the effect of obesity on the risk of respiratory infections is not limited to influenza. Interventions designed to reduce the prevalence of obesity may have the added benefit reducing the population burden of respiratory infections. PMID:23670219

  19. West Nile virus infection in a teenage boy with acute lymphocytic leukemia in remission.

    PubMed

    Hindo, Heather; Buescher, E Stephen; Frank, L Matthew; Pettit, Dee; Dory, Christopher; Byrd, Rebecca

    2005-12-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) infection is an important cause of encephalitis. Although the medical literature contains examples of WNV encephalitis in susceptible, mainly elderly, immunocompromised hosts, few case reports have described pediatric cases. The authors describe an adolescent with acute lymphocytic leukemia and WNV encephalitis. Surveillance studies indicate an increase in WNV activity. Physicians need to be aware of WNV activity in their community and consider WNV as a potential source of infection.

  20. Differential Expression of microRNAs in Thymic Epithelial Cells from Trypanosoma cruzi Acutely Infected Mice: Putative Role in Thymic Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Linhares-Lacerda, Leandra; Palu, Cintia Cristina; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Paredes, Bruno Diaz; Morrot, Alexandre; Garcia-Silva, Maria Rosa; Cayota, Alfonso; Savino, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    A common feature seen in acute infections is a severe atrophy of the thymus. This occurs in the murine model of acute Chagas disease. Moreover, in thymuses from Trypanosoma cruzi acutely infected mice, thymocytes exhibit an increase in the density of fibronectin and laminin integrin-type receptors, with an increase in migratory response ex vivo. Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) play a major role in the intrathymic T cell differentiation. To date, the consequences of molecular changes promoted by parasite infection upon thymus have not been elucidated. Considering the importance of microRNA for gene expression regulation, 85 microRNAs (mRNAs) were analyzed in TEC from T. cruzi acutely infected mice. The infection significantly modulated 29 miRNAs and modulation of 9 was also dependent whether TEC sorted out from the thymus exhibited cortical or medullary phenotype. In silico analysis revealed that these miRNAs may control target mRNAs known to be responsible for chemotaxis, cell adhesion, and cell death. Considering that we sorted TEC in the initial phase of thymocyte loss, it is conceivable that changes in TEC miRNA expression profile are functionally related to thymic atrophy, providing new clues to better understanding the mechanisms of the thymic involution seen in experimental Chagas disease. PMID:26347748

  1. [Gemifloxacin for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary infections (acute cystitis)].

    PubMed

    Blondeau, Joseph M; Tillotson, Glenn S

    2009-12-01

    Uncomplicated urinary infections are a significant and growing cause of morbidity amongst young women. Commonly these infections are caused by Escherichia coil or Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Escherichia coil is resistant to several empirical antibiotics: amoxicilin, trimetoprima-sulfametozaxol and, more recently, to some more old flouroquinolons. Gemifloxacin is a flouroquinolon with an excellent in vitro activity against many community acquired bacteria which cause respiratory or urinary infections. This antibiotic has a very unique and dual action mechanism directed against girasa and topoisomerasa II DNA, which grants minimum low inhibitory concentrations against Escherichia coil, Klebsiella and S. saprophyticus species and others attacking respiratory system. Young women with uncomplicated urinary infections were evaluated in two random clinical studies; they were treated with 320 mg gemifloxacin once a day for three days. Gemifloxacin was compared to ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin in approved doses and durations and it proved to be useful with clinical success rates of 95% or more in both studies. Gemifloxacin showed to be safe and well tolerated. A dose a day is a safe and useful alternative amongst current empirical options to treat patients with uncomplicated urinary infections.

  2. Aetiology of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Hospitalised Children in Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Jan; Panayiotou, Christakis; Tryfonos, Christina; Koptides, Dana; Koliou, Maria; Kalogirou, Nikolas; Georgiou, Eleni; Christodoulou, Christina

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve clinical management and prevention of viral infections in hospitalised children improved etiological insight is needed. The aim of the present study was to assess the spectrum of respiratory viral pathogens in children admitted to hospital with acute respiratory tract infections in Cyprus. For this purpose nasopharyngeal swab samples from 424 children less than 12 years of age with acute respiratory tract infections were collected over three epidemic seasons and were analysed for the presence of the most common 15 respiratory viruses. A viral pathogen was identified in 86% of the samples, with multiple infections being observed in almost 20% of the samples. The most frequently detected viruses were RSV (30.4%) and Rhinovirus (27.4%). RSV exhibited a clear seasonality with marked peaks in January/February, while rhinovirus infections did not exhibit a pronounced seasonality being detected almost throughout the year. While RSV and PIV3 incidence decreased significantly with age, the opposite was observed for influenza A and B as well as adenovirus infections. The data presented expand our understanding of the epidemiology of viral respiratory tract infections in Cypriot children and will be helpful to the clinicians and researchers interested in the treatment and control of viral respiratory tract infections. PMID:26761647

  3. Aetiology of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Hospitalised Children in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jan; Panayiotou, Christakis; Tryfonos, Christina; Koptides, Dana; Koliou, Maria; Kalogirou, Nikolas; Georgiou, Eleni; Christodoulou, Christina

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve clinical management and prevention of viral infections in hospitalised children improved etiological insight is needed. The aim of the present study was to assess the spectrum of respiratory viral pathogens in children admitted to hospital with acute respiratory tract infections in Cyprus. For this purpose nasopharyngeal swab samples from 424 children less than 12 years of age with acute respiratory tract infections were collected over three epidemic seasons and were analysed for the presence of the most common 15 respiratory viruses. A viral pathogen was identified in 86% of the samples, with multiple infections being observed in almost 20% of the samples. The most frequently detected viruses were RSV (30.4%) and Rhinovirus (27.4%). RSV exhibited a clear seasonality with marked peaks in January/February, while rhinovirus infections did not exhibit a pronounced seasonality being detected almost throughout the year. While RSV and PIV3 incidence decreased significantly with age, the opposite was observed for influenza A and B as well as adenovirus infections. The data presented expand our understanding of the epidemiology of viral respiratory tract infections in Cypriot children and will be helpful to the clinicians and researchers interested in the treatment and control of viral respiratory tract infections. PMID:26761647

  4. Risk Factors for the Development of Intra-Abdominal Fungal Infections in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Schwender, Brian J.; Gordon, Stuart R.; Gardner, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intra-abdominal fungal infections (AFI) complicating acute pancreatitis arise in the context of pancreatic necrosis. Our goal was to determine which risk factors contribute to AFI in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods Records were reviewed from 479 non-transfer patients admitted to our medical center with acute pancreatitis from 1985–2009. Using multivariable regression models, risk factors for AFI were identified. Results Out of 479 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis, 17 patients were subsequently found to have an AFI and 3 of these patients expired. The mean length of stay for patients with an AFI was 24 days and 76% were admitted to the intensive care unit. Patients with AFI were more likely to have received prophylactic antibiotics on admission (OR 1.7, 95% C.I. 1.2–2.3), TPN within 7 days of admission (OR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1–1.7) or to have necrosis on CT scan within 7 days of admission (OR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1–1.7). Multivariable regression models identified admission antibiotic use (OR 1.6, 95% C.I. 1.4–1.8) as the strongest predictor of AFI. Conclusion Admission antibiotics are the biggest risk factor for the development of intra-abdominal fungal infections in acute pancreatitis. Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent infected necrosis should therefore be discouraged. PMID:25872170

  5. Acute Neurological Illness in a Kidney Transplant Recipient Following Infection With Enterovirus-D68: An Emerging Infection?

    PubMed

    Wali, R K; Lee, A H; Kam, J C; Jonsson, J; Thatcher, A; Poretz, D; Ambardar, S; Piper, J; Lynch, C; Kulkarni, S; Cochran, J; Djurkovic, S

    2015-12-01

    We report the first case of enterovirus-D68 infection in an adult living-donor kidney transplant recipient who developed rapidly progressive bulbar weakness and acute flaccid limb paralysis following an upper respiratory infection. We present a 45-year-old gentleman who underwent pre-emptive living-donor kidney transplantation for IgA nephropathy. Eight weeks following transplantation, he developed an acute respiratory illness from enterovirus/rhinovirus that was detectable in nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs. Within 24 h of onset of respiratory symptoms, the patient developed binocular diplopia which rapidly progressed to multiple cranial nerve dysfunctions (acute bulbar syndrome) over the next 24 h. Within the next 48 h, asymmetric flaccid paralysis of the left arm and urinary retention developed. While his neurological symptoms were evolving, the Centers for Disease Control reported that the enterovirus strain from the NP swabs was, in fact, Enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68). Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated unique gray matter and anterior horn cell changes in the midbrain and spinal cord, respectively. Constellation of these neurological symptoms and signs was suggestive for postinfectious encephalomyelitis (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis [ADEM]) from EV-D68. Treatment based on the principles of ADEM included intensive physical therapy and other supportive measures, which resulted in a steady albeit slow improvement in his left arm and bulbar weakness, while maintaining stable allograft function. PMID:26228743

  6. Comparison of four lung scoring systems for the assessment of the pathological outcomes derived from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae experimental infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, four lung lesion scoring methods (Slaughterhouse Pleurisy Evaluation System [SPES], Consolidation Lung Lesion Score [LLS], Image analyses [IA] and Ratio of lung weight/body weight [LW/BW]) were compared for the assessment of the different pathological outcomes derived from an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) experimental infection model. Moreover, pathological data was coupled with clinical (fever, inappetence and clinical score), production (average daily weigh gain [ADWG]) and diagnostic (PCR, ELISA and bacterial isolation) parameters within the four infection outcomes (peracute, acute, subclinically infected and non-infected). Results From the 61 inoculated animals, 9 were classified as peracute (presence of severe App-like clinical signs and lesions and sudden death or euthanasia shortly after inoculation), 31 as acutely affected (presence of App-like clinical signs and lesions and survival until the end of the experiment), 12 as subclinically infected (very mild or no clinical signs but App infection confirmed) and 9 as non-infected animals (lack of App-like clinical signs and lack of evidence of App infection). A significant correlation between all lung lesion scoring systems was found with the exception of SPES score versus LW/BW. SPES showed a statistically significant association with all clinical, production and diagnostic (with the exception of PCR detection of App in the tonsil) variables assessed. LLS and IA showed similar statistically significant associations as SPES, with the exception of seroconversion against App at necropsy. In contrast, LW/BW was statistically associated only with App isolation in lungs, presence of App-like lesions and ELISA OD values at necropsy. Conclusions In conclusion, SPES, LLS and IA are economic, fast and easy-to-perform lung scoring methods that, in combination with different clinical and diagnostic parameters, allow the characterization of different outcomes after App infection. PMID

  7. Characterisation of acid-base abnormalities in pigs experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Petra; Hartmann, Helmut; Constable, Peter D

    2010-05-01

    This study characterises the acid-base abnormalities in pigs experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis (Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and Constable's simplified strong ion equation). Eight pigs were challenged with the respiratory pathogen C. suis and four pigs served as non-infected controls. Pigs were monitored from 7 days before challenge to 8 days post-inoculation. Clinical examination was performed twice daily and venous blood samples were collected every two days. Blood-gas analysis, haemoxymetry, serum biochemical analysis and electrophoresis were performed in order to characterise the acid-base derangement. Aerosol challenge with C. suis resulted in severe acid-base disturbance characterised by acute respiratory acidosis and strong ion (metabolic) acidosis secondary to anaerobic metabolism and hyper L-lactataemia. Maximal changes were seen at day 3 post-inoculation when severe clinical signs of respiratory dysfunction were evident. The results of the study provide new information regarding the pathophysiology of respiratory infection caused by C. suis and the applicability and diagnostic utility of different approaches for assessing acid-base status in pigs.

  8. Knowledge of Acute Human Immnuodeficiency Virus Infection among Gay and Bisexual Male College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grin, Benjamin; Chan, Philip A.; Operario, Don

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in at-risk college men who have sex with men (MSM), focusing on knowledge about acute HIV infection (AHI). Participants and Methods: A one-time anonymous survey was administered to college students attending a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  9. Acute hepatitis associated with autochthonous hepatitis E virus infection--San Antonio, Texas, 2009.

    PubMed

    Tohme, Rania A; Drobeniuc, Jan; Sanchez, Roger; Heseltine, Gary; Alsip, Bryan; Kamili, Saleem; Hu, Dale J; Guerra, Fernando; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2011-10-01

    Locally acquired hepatitis E infection is increasingly being observed in industrialized countries. We report 2 cases of autochthonous acute hepatitis E in the United States. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3a related to US-2 and swine hepatitis E virus strains was isolated from one of the patients, indicating potential food-borne or zoonotic transmission. PMID:21896699

  10. Cutaneous Infection Caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in a Child with Acute Myeloid Leukemia▿

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ashok; Wickes, Brian L.; Romanelli, Anna M.; Debelenko, Larisa; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Hayden, Randall T.; Shenep, Jerry L.

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of Macrophomina phaseolina skin infection in an immunocompromised child with acute myeloid leukemia, which was treated successfully with posaconazole without recurrence after a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The fungus was identified by DNA sequencing using both the internal transcribed spacer and D1/D2 region of the 28S ribosomal DNA gene. PMID:19386841

  11. Disseminated Infection Caused by Scedosporium prolificans in a Patient with Acute Multilineal Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    de Batlle, J.; Motjé, M.; Balanzà, R.; Guardia, R.; Ortiz, R.

    2000-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of disseminated infection caused by Scedosporium prolificans (S. inflatum) in a patient affected by chemotherapy-induced acute multilineal leukemia and neutropenia. For the fungus isolated in four blood cultures, high MICs of currently available antifungal agents were found. Postmortem examination revealed multiorgan involvement. PMID:10747173

  12. Development of Hamster Models for Acute and Chronic Infections with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Golden Syrian hamster is frequently used as a small animal model to study acute leptospirosis. However, use of this small animal model to study Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo infections has not been well documented. Cattle are the normal maintenance hosts of L. borgpetersenii serovar...

  13. Signs or Symptoms of Acute HIV Infection in a Cohort Undergoing Community-Based Screening.

    PubMed

    Hoenigl, Martin; Green, Nella; Camacho, Martha; Gianella, Sara; Mehta, Sanjay R; Smith, Davey M; Little, Susan J

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed signs and symptoms in 90 patients diagnosed with acute HIV infection in a community-based program that offered universal HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification testing. Forty-seven (52%) patients reported ongoing signs or symptoms at the time of testing. Another 25 (28%) reported signs or symptoms that had occurred during the 14 days before testing.

  14. Comparative analysis of the acute response of zebrafish Danio rerio skin to two different bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Lü, Aijun; Hu, Xiucai; Wang, Yi; Shen, Xiaojing; Zhu, Aihua; Shen, Lulu; Ming, Qinglei; Feng, Zhaojun

    2013-12-01

    Skin is an important innate immune organ in fish; however, little is known about the skin's immune response to infectious pathogens. We conducted a comparative analysis of the acute immune response of Zebrafish Danio rerio skin against gram-positive (Staphylococcus chromogenes) and gram-negative (Citrobacter freundii) bacterial infections. Gene expression profiles induced from the two different infections were identified by microarray hybridization, with many genes demonstrating an acute immune response in the skin. Differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in response to stress and stimulus, complement activation, acute-phase response, and defense and immune response. Compared with transcription patterns of skin from the two infections, a similar innate immunity (e.g., transferrin, coagulation factor, complements, and lectins) was observed but with different acute-phase genes (e.g., ceruloplasmin, alpha-1-microglobulin, vitellogenin, and heat shock protein). These results suggest that the skin of fish plays an important role in the innate immune responses to bacterial infection. PMID:24341765

  15. Experimental alveolitis in rats: microbiological, acute phase response and histometric characterization of delayed alveolar healing

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUES, Moacyr Tadeu Vicente; CARDOSO, Camila Lopes; de CARVALHO, Paulo Sérgio Perri; CESTARI, Tânia Mary; FERES, Magda; GARLET, Gustavo Pompermaier; FERREIRA JÚNIOR, Osny

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alveolitis is not well known and therefore experimental situations that mimic some features of this disease should be developed. Objective In this study, the evolution of the experimentally induced infection in rat sockets is characterized, which leads to clinical signs of suppurative alveolitis with remarkable wound healing disturbs. Material and methods Non-infected (Group I) and experimentally infected sockets in Rattus novergicus (Group II) were histometrically evaluated regarding the kinetics of alveolar healing. In addition, the characterization of the present bacteria in inoculation material and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were performed. The detected species were Capnocytophaga ochracea, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss nucleatum, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus anginosus, Treponema socranskii and Streptococcus sanguis. Results All experimentally infected rats developed suppurative alveolitis, showing higher levels of CRP in comparison to those non-infected ones. Furthermore, infected rats presented a significant delayed wound healing as measured by the histometric analysis (higher persistent polymorphonuclear infiltrate and lower density of newly formed bone). Conclusion These findings indicate that rat sockets with experimentally induced infection produced higher levels of serum CRP, showing the potential of disseminated infection and a disturb in the alveolar repair process in an interesting experimental model for alveolitis studies. PMID:21625744

  16. Capgras-like syndrome in a patient with an acute urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Salviati, Massimo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Macrì, Francesco; Fojanesi, Marta; Minichino, Amedeo; Gallo, Mariana; De Michele, Francesco; Chiaie, Roberto Delle; Biondi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Delusional misidentification syndromes are a group of delusional phenomena in which patients misidentify familiar persons, objects, or themselves, believing that they have been replaced or transformed. In 25%–40% of cases, misidentification syndromes have been reported in association with organic illness. We report an acute episode of Capgras-like delusion lasting 8 days, focused on the idea that people were robots with human bodies, in association with an acute urinary infection. To our knowledge, this is the first case report associating urinary tract infection with Capgras-like syndrome. Awareness of the prevalence of delusional misidentification syndromes associated with acute medical illness should promote diligence on the part of clinicians in recognizing this disorder. PMID:23355784

  17. Experimental infection of pregnant Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) with border disease virus subtype 4.

    PubMed

    Martin, Claire; Duquesne, Véronique; Guibert, Jean-Michel; Pulido, Coralie; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Gibert, Philippe; Velarde, Roser; Thiéry, Richard; Marco, Ignasi; Dubois, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Border disease virus (BDV) causes high mortality in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) on the French and Spanish sides of the Pyrenees Mountains. We investigated the pathology induced by BDV in pregnant chamois via experimental infection. Three females were inoculated during the second third of pregnancy with a BDV-4 subgroup strain isolated from a wild Pyrenean chamois during an acute epizootic. A fourth pregnant chamois and one nonpregnant ewe were kept as negative controls. Animals were monitored to assess clinical signs, hematology, viremia, and serology. Postmortem examinations included necropsy, histopathology, and quantification of viral RNA in organs. Pregnancy was unsuccessful in all inoculated animals. One died 24 days postinoculation (dpi) without showing any precursory clinical signs. The second animal had profuse diarrhea from 13 dpi to its death at 51 dpi. The third aborted at 46 dpi and was euthanized at 51 dpi. All animals were viremic from 4 dpi until death. Neutralizing antibodies against BDV-4 were detected from 12 dpi. Necropsies showed generalized lymphadenomegaly, associated in one case with disseminated petechial hemorrhages in the digestive tract. Seventy-eight of 79 organs from inoculated adults and their fetuses had detectable viral RNA. The main histologic lesions in adults were mild lymphohistiocytic encephalitis associated with moderate or moderately severe lymphoid depletion. Control animals remained negative for virus (in blood and organs), antibody, and lesions upon postmortem examination. BDV infection during pregnancy in Pyrenean chamois causes severe disease leading to abortion, then death. Despite 100% fetal death following inoculation, viral RNA was recovered from all organs of infected fetuses, suggesting that persistently infected offspring could be born. Our results may help explain the reported decrease in chamois populations in several areas and suggest that great care must be taken when interpreting infection status

  18. Mycoplasma suis antigens recognized during humoral immune response in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Hoelzle, L E; Hoelzle, K; Ritzmann, M; Heinritzi, K; Wittenbrink, M M

    2006-01-01

    Today, serodiagnostic tests for Mycoplasma suis infections in pigs have low accuracies. The development of novel serodiagnostic strategies requires a detailed analysis of the humoral immune response elicited by M. suis and, in particular, the identification of antigenic proteins of the agent. For this study, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analyses were performed using pre- and sequential postinoculation sera from M. suis-infected and mock-infected control pigs. M. suis purified from porcine blood served as the antigen. Eight M. suis-specific antigens (p33, p40, p45, p57, p61, p70, p73, and p83) were identified as targets of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response during experimental infection, with p40, p45, and p70 being the preferentially recognized M. suis antigens. Besides the M. suis-specific antigens, porcine immunoglobulins were identified in blood-derived M. suis preparations. By immunoglobulin depletion, the specificity of the M. suis antigen for use in indirect ELISA was significantly improved. M. suis-specific Western blot and ELISA reactions were observed in all infected pigs by 14 days postinfection at the latest and until week 14, the end of the experiments. During acute clinical attacks of eperythrozoonosis, a derailment of the antibody response, determined by decreases in both the M. suis net ELISA values and the numbers of M. suis-specific immunoblot bands, was accompanied by peaking levels of autoreactive IgG antibodies. In conclusion, the M. suis-specific antigens found to stimulate specific IgG antibodies are potentially useful for the development of novel serodiagnostic tests.

  19. Infective endocarditis caused by Scedosporium prolificans infection in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing induction chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Yotaro; Hiramoto, Nobuhiro; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Yonetani, Noboru; Doi, Asako; Ichikawa, Chihiro; Imai, Yukihiro; Ishikawa, Takayuki

    2015-06-01

    Disseminated Scedosporium prolificans infection occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. The mortality rate is high, as the fungus is resistant to most antifungal agents. Here, we present the case of a 66-year-old female with acute myeloid leukemia who developed infective endocarditis caused by S. prolificans infection during induction chemotherapy. Her 1,3-β-D-glucan levels were elevated and computed tomography revealed bilateral sinusitis and disseminated small nodular masses within the lungs and spleen; it nonetheless took 6 days to identify S. prolificans by blood culture. The patient died of multi-organ failure despite the combined use of voriconazole and terbinafine. Autopsy revealed numerous mycotic emboli within multiple organs (caused by mitral valve vegetation) and endocarditis (caused by S. prolificans). The geographic distribution of this infection is limited to Australia, the United States, and southern Europe, particularly Spain. The first Japanese case was reported in 2011, and four cases have been reported to date, including this one. Recently, the incidence of S. prolificans-disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients has increased in Japan. Therefore, clinicians should consider S. prolificans infection as a differential diagnosis when immunocompromised patients suffer disseminated infections with elevated 1,3-β-D-glucan levels.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Head and Neck Infections.

    PubMed

    Thayil, Neil; Chapman, Margaret N; Saito, Naoko; Fujita, Akifumi; Sakai, Osamu

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses the use of MR imaging in various acute infectious diseases of the head and neck, with particular emphasis on situations where MR imaging provides additional information that can significantly impact treatment decisions and outcomes. MR imaging findings of various disease processes are discussed, based on the head and neck compartments from which they originate. Specifically, infectious entities of the orbit, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, oral cavity (including periodontal disease), salivary glands, temporal bone, and lymph nodes are described in detail. PMID:27150323

  1. Experimental Models in Syrian Golden Hamster Replicate Human Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunan; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Lu, Guotao; Xu, Pengfei; Qiu, Xu; Chen, Liye; Qi, Rong; Huang, Shouxiong; Li, Weiqin; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George

    2016-01-01

    The hamster has been shown to share a variety of metabolic similarities with humans. To replicate human acute pancreatitis with hamsters, we comparatively studied the efficacy of common methods, such as the peritoneal injections of caerulein, L-arginine, the retrograde infusion of sodium taurocholate, and another novel model with concomitant administration of ethanol and fatty acid. The severity of pancreatitis was evaluated by serum amylase activity, pathological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and the expression of inflammation factors in pancreas. The results support that the severity of pathological injury is consistent with the pancreatitis induced in mice and rat using the same methods. Specifically, caerulein induced mild edematous pancreatitis accompanied by minimal lung injury, while L-arginine induced extremely severe pancreatic injury including necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. Infusion of Na-taurocholate into the pancreatic duct induced necrotizing pancreatitis in the head of pancreas and lighter inflammation in the distal region. The severity of acute pancreatitis induced by combination of ethanol and fatty acids was between the extent of caerulein and L-arginine induction, with obvious inflammatory cells infiltration. In view of the advantages in lipid metabolism features, hamster models are ideally suited for the studies of pancreatitis associated with altered metabolism in humans. PMID:27302647

  2. Acute phase proteins in experimentally induced pregnancy toxemia in goats.

    PubMed

    González, Félix H D; Hernández, Fuensanta; Madrid, Josefa; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J; Tecles, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the behavior of acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, acid soluble glycoprotein, fibrinogen, and albumin) in fasting-induced pregnancy toxemia in goats and their relationship with classical indicators of this disorder such as beta-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids in the blood and decreased urine pH and ketonuria. Twelve adult Murciano-Granadina goats at the final stage of gestation were used in this experiment. Pregnancy toxemia was induced in 6 goats by fasting for 72 hr. The other 6 animals were used as control group. Ketonuria was present in 4 out of 5 fasting animals at 24 hr and in all fasting animals at 48 hr of fasting. Serum nonesterified fatty acids were significantly increased at 24, 48, and 72 hr of fasting. Beta-hydroxybutyrate and haptoglobin achieved significantly increased concentrations at 48 hr and 72 hr, respectively, remaining increased during the entire study. Serum amyloid A, acid soluble glycoprotein, fibrinogen, and albumin were not affected by fasting. In conclusion, acute phase proteins (including haptoglobin) seemed not to have an advantage over traditional markers in diagnosis of fasting-induced pregnancy toxemia in goats. PMID:21217028

  3. Experimental Models in Syrian Golden Hamster Replicate Human Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunan; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Lu, Guotao; Xu, Pengfei; Qiu, Xu; Chen, Liye; Qi, Rong; Huang, Shouxiong; Li, Weiqin; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George

    2016-01-01

    The hamster has been shown to share a variety of metabolic similarities with humans. To replicate human acute pancreatitis with hamsters, we comparatively studied the efficacy of common methods, such as the peritoneal injections of caerulein, L-arginine, the retrograde infusion of sodium taurocholate, and another novel model with concomitant administration of ethanol and fatty acid. The severity of pancreatitis was evaluated by serum amylase activity, pathological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and the expression of inflammation factors in pancreas. The results support that the severity of pathological injury is consistent with the pancreatitis induced in mice and rat using the same methods. Specifically, caerulein induced mild edematous pancreatitis accompanied by minimal lung injury, while L-arginine induced extremely severe pancreatic injury including necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. Infusion of Na-taurocholate into the pancreatic duct induced necrotizing pancreatitis in the head of pancreas and lighter inflammation in the distal region. The severity of acute pancreatitis induced by combination of ethanol and fatty acids was between the extent of caerulein and L-arginine induction, with obvious inflammatory cells infiltration. In view of the advantages in lipid metabolism features, hamster models are ideally suited for the studies of pancreatitis associated with altered metabolism in humans. PMID:27302647

  4. Apoptosis of Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons Is Virus Independent in a Mouse Model of Acute Neurovirulent Picornavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Buenz, Eric J.; Sauer, Brian M.; LaFrance-Corey, Reghann G.; Deb, Chandra; Denic, Aleksandar; German, Christopher L.; Howe, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Many viruses, including picornaviruses, have the potential to infect the central nervous system (CNS) and stimulate a neuroinflammatory immune response, especially in infants and young children. Cognitive deficits associated with CNS picornavirus infection result from injury and death of neurons that may occur due to direct viral infection or during the immune responses to virus in the brain. Previous studies have concluded that apoptosis of hippocampal neurons during picornavirus infection is a cell-autonomous event triggered by direct neuronal infection. However, these studies assessed neuron death at time points late in infection and during infections that lead to either death of the host or persistent viral infection. In contrast, many neurovirulent picornavirus infections are acute and transient, with rapid clearance of virus from the host. We provide evidence of hippocampal pathology in mice acutely infected with the Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis picornavirus. We found that CA1 pyramidal neurons exhibited several hallmarks of apoptotic death, including caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and chromatin condensation within 72 hours of infection. Critically, we also found that many of the CA1 pyramidal neurons undergoing apoptosis were not infected with virus, indicating that neuronal cell death during acute picornavirus infection of the CNS occurs in a non–cell-autonomous manner. These observations suggest that therapeutic strategies other than antiviral interventions may be useful for neuroprotection during acute CNS picornavirus infection. PMID:19608874

  5. Apoptosis of hippocampal pyramidal neurons is virus independent in a mouse model of acute neurovirulent picornavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Buenz, Eric J; Sauer, Brian M; Lafrance-Corey, Reghann G; Deb, Chandra; Denic, Aleksandar; German, Christopher L; Howe, Charles L

    2009-08-01

    Many viruses, including picornaviruses, have the potential to infect the central nervous system (CNS) and stimulate a neuroinflammatory immune response, especially in infants and young children. Cognitive deficits associated with CNS picornavirus infection result from injury and death of neurons that may occur due to direct viral infection or during the immune responses to virus in the brain. Previous studies have concluded that apoptosis of hippocampal neurons during picornavirus infection is a cell-autonomous event triggered by direct neuronal infection. However, these studies assessed neuron death at time points late in infection and during infections that lead to either death of the host or persistent viral infection. In contrast, many neurovirulent picornavirus infections are acute and transient, with rapid clearance of virus from the host. We provide evidence of hippocampal pathology in mice acutely infected with the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis picornavirus. We found that CA1 pyramidal neurons exhibited several hallmarks of apoptotic death, including caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and chromatin condensation within 72 hours of infection. Critically, we also found that many of the CA1 pyramidal neurons undergoing apoptosis were not infected with virus, indicating that neuronal cell death during acute picornavirus infection of the CNS occurs in a non-cell-autonomous manner. These observations suggest that therapeutic strategies other than antiviral interventions may be useful for neuroprotection during acute CNS picornavirus infection. PMID:19608874

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms Biofilms in Acute InfectionIndependent of Cell-to-Cell Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Schaber, J. Andy; Triffo, W.J.; Suh, Sang J.; Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Hastert, Mary C.; Griswold, John A.; Auer, Manfred; Hamood, Abdul N.; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.

    2006-09-20

    Biofilms are bacterial communities residing within a polysaccharide matrix that are associated with persistence and antibiotic resistance in chronic infections. We show that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms within 8 hours of infection in thermally-injured mice, demonstrating that biofilms contribute to bacterial colonization in acute infections. P. aeruginosa biofilms were visualized within burned tissue surrounding blood vessels and adipose cells. Although quorum sensing (QS), a bacterial signaling mechanism, coordinates differentiation of biofilms in vitro, wild type and QS-deficient P. aeruginosa formed similar biofilms in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that P. aeruginosa forms biofilms on specific host tissues independent of QS.

  7. Influence of body condition on influenza a virus infection in mallard ducks: Experimental infection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arsnoe, D.M.; Ip, H.S.; Owen, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ??5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl. ?? 2011 Arsnoe et al.

  8. Influence of body condition on influenza A virus infection in mallard ducks: Experimental infection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arsnoe, Dustin M.; Ip, Hon S.; Owen, Jennifer C.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ±5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl.

  9. Serious Infection Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: Incidence, Clinical Features, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Truffa, Adriano A. M.; Granger, Christopher B.; White, Kyle R.; Newby, L. Kristin; Mehta, Rajendra H.; Hochman, Judith S.; Patel, Manesh R.; Pieper, Karen S.; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R.; Armstrong, Paul W.; Lopes, Renato D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the incidence, location, etiologic organisms, and outcomes of infection in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Objectives To address this knowledge gap using the database of the Assessment of Pexelizumab in Acute Myocardial Infarction (APEX-AMI) trial. We also assessed the association between serious infections and 90-day death or death/MI. Methods We analyzed data from 5745 STEMI patients enrolled in the APEX-AMI trial. Detailed information on infection was collected on all patients. We describe characteristics of patients according to infection and details of infection. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess 90-day outcomes among patients with and without infections after adjusting for associated clinical variables and using infection as a time-dependent covariate. Results Overall, 138 patients developed a serious infection (2.4%), most of whom presented with a single-site infection. The median (25th, 75th percentile) time until diagnosis of infection was 3 (1, 6) days. The most commonly identified organism was Staphylococcus aureus, and the main location of infection was the bloodstream. These patients had more comorbidities and lower procedural success at index PCI than those without infections. Serious infection was associated with significantly higher rates of 90-day death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 5.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8-8.4) and death or MI (adjusted HR 4.9; 95% CI 3.4-7.1). Conclusion Infections complicating the course of patients with STEMI are uncommon but associated with markedly worse 90-day clinical outcomes. Mechanisms for early identification of these high-risk patients, as well as design of strategies to reduce their risk of infection, are warranted. PMID:22814783

  10. An examination of co-infection in acute gastroenteritis and histo-blood group antigens leading to viral infection susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    FURUYA, KENTA; NAKAJIMA, HITOSHI; SASAKI, YOUSUKE; URITA, YOSHIHISA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate co-infection in the gastrointestinal tract in terms of viruses, bacteria and the ABO blood group. We hypothesized that a combination of norovirus (NV) and bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract could affect the likelihood of an individual to contracting NV. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are considered to act as receptors that can lead to NV susceptibility. In addition to genetics, co-infection in the gastrointestinal tract may be associated with this mechanism. A total of 370 patients with acute gastroenteritis presenting with diarrhea (14–89 years) were recruited. The male/female ratio was 20/17. Single infection (bacteria or virus), co-infection with two viruses, and co-infection with one virus and one bacterium were statistically analyzed. In total, 88 of the 376 subjects (23.4%) were positive for one virus, and 50 (13.3%) were positive for one bacterium. Co-transfection with bacteria and a virus were detected in 46 (47.9%) of the 96 bacterial gastroenteritis cases. Statistical analysis revealed that co-infection of bacteria and NV was not significant in all viral infections (P=0.768). In terms of the ABO histo-blood group type and NV infection, the frequency in the O type was not significantly increased (P=0.052). Co-infection of bacteria and a virus occurred frequently in the gastrointestinal tract. The ABO blood phenotype expression was not a significant factor in NV infection in the present case series and the results did not suggest an affinity of NV for specific bacteria. PMID:26998270

  11. Urinary tract infections in patients admitted to rehabilitation from acute care settings: a descriptive research study.

    PubMed

    Romito, Diane; Beaudoin, JoAnn M; Stein, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The use of an indwelling urinary catheter comes with associated risks. At a hospital in southern California, nurses on the acute rehabilitation unit suspected their patients were arriving from acute care with undiagnosed urinary tract infections (UTIs). This descriptive research study quantified the incidence of UTI on admission to a rehabilitation unit and correlations with catheter use. During the study period, 132 patients were admitted to acute rehabilitation from an acute care setting, and 123 met criteria to participate in the study. Among participants, 12% had a UTI upon admission. Questionnaires examined nursing attitudes toward appropriate urinary catheter use and proactive catheter removal. The data revealed that nurses want to be involved in decisions about urinary catheter use and that medical/surgical and rehabilitation nurses agree strongly about advocating for patients with indwelling urinary catheters.

  12. Change in Brain Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy after Treatment during Acute HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sailasuta, Napapon; Ross, William; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chalermchai, Thep; DeGruttola, Victor; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Pothisri, Mantana; Busovaca, Edgar; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Jagodzinski, Linda; Spudich, Serena; Michael, Nelson; Kim, Jerome H.; Valcour, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Objective Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to monitor changes in brain inflammation and neuronal integrity associated with HIV infection and its treatments. We used MRS to measure brain changes during the first weeks following HIV infection and in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods Brain metabolite levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (tCHO), creatine (CR), myoinositol (MI), and glutamate and glutamine (GLX) were measured in acute HIV subjects (n = 31) and compared to chronic HIV+individuals (n = 26) and HIV negative control subjects (n = 10) from Bangkok, Thailand. Metabolites were measured in frontal gray matter (FGM), frontal white matter (FWM), occipital gray matter (OGM), and basal ganglia (BG). Repeat measures were obtained in 17 acute subjects 1, 3 and 6 months following initiation of ART. Results After adjustment for age we identified elevated BG tCHO/CR in acute HIV cases at baseline (median 14 days after HIV infection) compared to control (p = 0.0014), as well as chronic subjects (p = 0.0023). A similar tCHO/CR elevation was noted in OGM; no other metabolite abnormalities were seen between acute and control subjects. Mixed longitudinal models revealed resolution of BG tCHO/CR elevation after ART (p = 0.022) with tCHO/CR similar to control subjects at 6 months. Interpretation We detected cellular inflammation in the absence of measurable neuronal injury within the first month of HIV infection, and normalization of this inflammation following acutely administered ART. Our findings suggest that early ART may be neuroprotective in HIV infection by mitigating processes leading to CNS injury. PMID:23229129

  13. Does virus-bacteria coinfection increase the clinical severity of acute respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Damasio, Guilherme A C; Pereira, Luciane A; Moreira, Suzana D R; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Dalla-Costa, Libera M; Raboni, Sonia M

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective cohort study investigated the presence of bacteria in respiratory secretions of patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections and analyzed the impact of viral and bacterial coinfection on severity and the mortality rate. A total of 169 patients with acute respiratory infections were included, viruses and bacteria in respiratory samples were detected using molecular methods. Among all samples, 73.3% and 59.7% were positive for viruses and bacteria, respectively; 45% contained both virus and bacteria. Bacterial coinfection was more frequent in patients infected by community respiratory viruses than influenza A H1N1pdm (83.3% vs. 40.6%). The most frequently bacteria detected were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Both species were co-detected in 54 patients and identified alone in 22 and 21 patients, respectively. Overall, there were no significant differences in the period of hospitalization, severity, or mortality rate between patients infected with respiratory viruses alone and those coinfected by viruses and bacteria. The detection of mixed respiratory pathogens is frequent in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory infections, but its impact on the clinical outcome does not appear substantial. However, it should be noted that most of the patients received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, which may have contributed to this favorable outcome.

  14. A cluster of acute hepatitis E infection in United Nations Bangladeshi peacekeepers in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Drabick, J J; Gambel, J M; Gouvea, V S; Caudill, J D; Sun, W; Hoke, C H; Innis, B L

    1997-10-01

    In the fall of 1995, within a month of deployment to Haiti for peacekeeping duty, four Bangladeshi soldiers developed acute icteric hepatitis in rapid succession. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) was found to be the etiology by demonstrating HEV genomic sequences in serum samples by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serologically by the detection of elevated IgM titers to HEV. No case had serologic evidence of acute hepatitis A or C infection. The soldiers had probably acquired their infection while living in a cantonment area outside Dhaka, Bangladesh for one month prior to deployment. Cloning and sequencing of amplified PCR products demonstrated a single strain suggestive of a common source of infection. Furthermore, high genomic identity with Asian strains of HEV and dissimilarity with the Mexican strain was demonstrated, verifying that the strain had indeed been imported. Human waste management from the Bangladesh camp in Haiti was strictly controlled and no secondary cases were observed. A convenience sample of 105 (12%) soldiers from the Bangladesh battalion (850 men) revealed anicteric or asymptomatic HEV infection in seven (7%) of 105. This report contains the first demonstration of acute hepatitis E in natives of Bangladesh and demonstrates the power of the PCR in the rapid diagnosis and epidemiologic analysis of HEV infection. More importantly, this cluster demonstrates the importation of an important infectious disease by multinational peacekeepers to a potentially susceptible host country.

  15. Viral respiratory tract infections among patients with acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phuong, Hoang Lan; Nga, Tran T T; van Doornum, Gerard J; Groen, Jan; Binh, Tran Q; Giao, Phan T; Hung, Le Q; Nams, Nguyen V; Kager, P A; de Vries, Peter J

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the proportion of viral respiratory tract infections among acute undifferentiated fevers (AUFs) at primary health facilities in southern Vietnam during 2001-2005, patients with AUF not caused by malaria were enrolled at twelve primary health facilities and a clinic for malaria control program. Serum was collected on first presentation (t0) and after 3 weeks (t3) for serology. After exclusion of acute dengue infection, acute and convalescent serum samples from 606 patients were using enzyme-linked immunoassays to detect IgA, as well as IgM and IgG antibodies against common respiratory viruses. Paired sera showed the following infections: human parainfluenza virus (HPIV, 4.7%), influenza B virus (FLUBV, 2.2%), influenza A virus (FLUAV, 1.9%) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, 0.6%). There was no association between type of infection and age, sex or seasonality; some inter-annual differences were observed for influenza. Antibody prevalence, indicative of previous infections, was relatively low: HPV, 56.8%, FLUBV, 12.1%; FLUAV, 5.9% and HRSV, 6.8%.

  16. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii: relationship between hepatic lesions, cytological and biochemical analysis of the cavitary liquid during the acute phase of the diseases in experimental models.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Tonin, Alexandre A; Fighera, Rafael; Flores, Mariana M; França, Raqueli T; Camillo, Giovana; Toscan, Gustavo; Vogel, Fernanda S F; Sangoi, Manuela B; Bochi, Guilherme V; Moresco, Rafael N; Lopes, Sonia T A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenesis of ascites in mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii and gerbils infected with Neospora caninum during the acute phase disease. For that, 12 gerbils [Experiment I: not infected/control (n=6) and infected (n=6)] and 12 mice [Experiment II: control (n=6) and infected (n=6)] were used. Infected gerbils and mice showed marked ascites on days 5-7 post-infection (PI), while the not-infected animals had not ascites. Peritoneal liquid was collected from the all mice with uninfected animals receiving 1.5mL of saline solution into their abdominal cavity, allowing the recovery of cavity liquid. As a result, it was possible to observe differences in physics, chemistry and cytological analysis of the fluid cavity of animals infected with N. caninum and T. gondii, when they were compared with uninfected animals, as well as between animals experimentally infected. Additionally both, N. caninum and T gondii, caused an increase in the levels of nitric oxide (NOx-nitrate/nitrite), protein oxidation (AOPP) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS), while serum total protein and albumin were reduced in infected gerbils and mice. Gerbils infected with N. caninum showed multiple large cells with multilobulated nucleus, lytic necrosis and abundant amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm into the hepatic parenchyma. By the other hand, mice infected with T. gondii developed myriad foci of lytic necrosis combined with tachyzoites and cysts containing bradyzoites in liver. Both experimental models for N. caninum and T. gondii showed inflammatory foci and tachyzoites the peritoneum, which could be a major cause of ascites. Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis were able to cause clinical signs in experimental models with similar alterations in peritoneal fluid; however the toxoplasmosis histological changes were much more evident. Therefore, the pathogenesis of ascites appears to be directly related to liver damage, which strongly suggests alteration in the

  17. Fatal systemic adenoviral infection superimposed on pulmonary mucormycosis in a child with acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yu Mi; Hwang-Bo, Seok; Kim, Seong koo; Han, Seung Beom; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Kang, Jin Han

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Although adenovirus (ADV) infection usually causes self-limiting respiratory disorders in immune competent children; severe and systemic ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy for leukemia has been continuously reported. Nevertheless, there has been no consensus on risk factors and treatment strategies for severe ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy. Case summary: We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with a fatal systemic ADV infection. He had received reinduction chemotherapy for relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia under continuing antifungal therapy for previously diagnosed fungal pneumonia. He complained of fever and right shoulder pain 4 days after completing the reinduction chemotherapy. In spite of appropriate antibiotic and antifungal therapy, pneumonia was aggravated and gross hematuria was accompanied. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction test for respiratory viruses was positive for ADV in a blood sample, and a urine culture was positive for ADV. He received oral ribavirin, intravenous immunoglobulin, and intravenous cidofovir therapy; however, he eventually died. Relapsed leukemia, concurrent fungal pneumonia, and delayed cidofovir administration were considered the cause of the grave outcome in this patient. Conclusion: ADV may cause severe infections not only in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, but also in patients undergoing chemotherapy for acute leukemia. The risk factors for severe ADV infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy should be determined in the future studies, and early antiviral therapy should be administered to immune compromised patients with systemic ADV infection. PMID:27749571

  18. New Pneumococcal Carriage Acquired in Association with Acute Respiratory Infection Is Prone to Cause Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Leino, Tuija; Kilpi, Terhi

    2016-01-01

    For considering vaccine-prevention of pneumococcal acute otitis media (PncAOM), relationships between pneumococcal carriage, respiratory infection and PncAOM need to be understood. We analyzed nasopharyngeal samples collected from 329 unvaccinated Finnish children aged 2–24 months at scheduled visits and at visits during respiratory infection in 1994–97. We assessed temporal associations of respiratory infection with pneumococcal acquisition and whether PncAOM hazard depends on the relative timing of acquisition and the infection onset. The data comprised 607 person-years of risk-time for acquisition, 245 person-months of concurrent respiratory infection and carriage, and 119 episodes of PncAOM. The acquisition hazard was 3-fold in the month preceding respiratory sickness (hazard ratio, HR 3.5, 90% credible interval CI 2.9, 4.1) as compared to acquisition in healthy children. Moreover, the PncAOM hazard was markedly higher (HR 3.7, 90% CI 2.4, 5.3) during the first month of carriage acquired around the acute phase of respiratory infection (between 1 month before and 1 week after the sickness onset), as compared to carriage acquired later during sickness. The high proportion (76%) of PncAOM events occurring within 1 month of acquisition was due to frequent acquisition being associated with respiratory infection as well as the susceptibility of such acquisition to cause otitis media. PMID:27257789

  19. Experimental infection of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with Rocio virus.

    PubMed

    Monath, T P; Kemp, G E; Cropp, C B; Bowen, G S

    1978-11-01

    Rocio encephalitis is a new epidemic flaviviral infection of man, first described in São Paulo State, Brazil in 1975. The ecology of the viral transmission cycle remains largely unknown. Experimental studies were undertaken to assess the role of a wild avian species, the House Sparrow, as a maintenance or amplifying host. Approximately two-thirds of nesting and adult sparrows developed 2- to 3-day viremias of low to moderate magnitude (2.0--4.3 log/ml). Rocio-immune birds were not protected against challenge with St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus, but prior SLE viral infection prevented detectable viremia in birds challenged with Rocio virus. These studies provide some support for the hypothesis that birds are hosts for Rocio virus, but the House Sparrow probably plays a relatively minor role in viral transmission. Because sparrows are relatively inefficient viremic hosts, they would be expected to play a minor role in transmission should Rocio virus be introduced into the United States.

  20. Development and evaluation of quantitative-competitive PCR for quantitation of coxsackievirus B3 RNA in experimentally infected murine tissues.

    PubMed

    Reetoo, K N; Osman, S A; Illavia, S J; Banatvala, J E; Muir, P

    1999-10-01

    A method is described for quantitation of enterovirus RNA in experimentally infected murine tissues. Viral RNA was extracted from tissue samples and amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR in the presence of an internal standard RNA. The ratio of PCR product derived from viral RNA and internal standard RNA was then determined using specific probes in a post-PCR electrochemiluminescent hybridization assay. This provided an estimate of the viral RNA copy number in the original sample, and detection of PCR product derived from internal standard RNA validated sample processing and amplification procedures. RNA copy number correlated with viral infectivity of cell culture-derived virus, and one tissue culture infective dose was found to contain approximately 10(3) genome equivalents. The ratio of RNA copy number to infectivity in myocardial tissue taken from mice during the acute phase of coxsackievirus B3 myocarditis was more variable ranging from 10(4)-10(7), and was dependent on the stage of infection, reflecting differential rates of clearance for viral RNA and viral infectivity. The assay is rapid, and could facilitate investigations which currently rely upon enterovirus quantitation by titration in cell culture. This would be useful for experimental studies of viral pathogenesis, prophylaxis and antiviral therapy.

  1. Is accounting for acute care beds enough? A proposal for measuring infection prevention personnel resources.

    PubMed

    Gase, Kathleen A; Babcock, Hilary M

    2015-02-01

    There is still little known about how infection prevention (IP) staffing affects patient outcomes across the country. Current evaluations mainly focus on the ratio of IP resources to acute care beds (ACBs) and have not strongly correlated with patient outcomes. The scope of IP and the role of the infection preventionist in health care have expanded and changed dramatically since the Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control (SENIC Project) recommended a 1 IP resource to 250 ACB ration in the 1980s. Without a universally accepted model for accounting for additional IP responsibilities, it is difficult to truly assess IP staffing needs. A previously suggested alternative staffing model was applied to acute care hospitals in our organization to determine its utility.

  2. Pathogenesis of acute murine cytomegalovirus infection in resistant and susceptible strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Mercer, J A; Spector, D H

    1986-02-01

    We have characterized the progress of acute murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in the spleen, liver, and salivary gland of susceptible (BALB/c) and resistant (C3H) strains of mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Viral replication was analyzed by virus titration, infectious-center assays, and in situ cytohybridization with cloned subgenomic fragments of the MCMV genome. The most striking differences between strains were observed in the spleen. At 24 h postinfection (p.i.), both strains had a similar number of infected spleen cells. At 48 h p.i., BALB/c mice showed marked dissemination of the splenic infection which continued until 96 h p.i. In contrast, the number of infected C3H spleen cells did not increase from the 24-h level but declined later on. This early block in dissemination of MCMV infection in C3H mouse spleens was not a result of the H-2k haplotype, as BALB.K (H-2k) mice, which show an intermediate level of resistance to MCMV infection, exhibited dissemination of the infection between 24 and 48 h p.i., albeit at a reduced level. However, between 72 and 96 h p.i., we observed a decline in the number of infected spleen cells in BALB.K mice similar to that observed in C3H mice. We also demonstrated by Southern blot analysis of DNA from the infected spleen cells that the termini of the MCMV genome fuse after in vivo infection.

  3. Prevalence of Astrovirus Infection among Chilean Children with Acute Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Gaggero, Aldo; O’Ryan, Miguel; Noel, Jacqueline S.; Glass, Roger I.; Monroe, Stephan S.; Mamani, Nora; Prado, Valeria; Avendaño, Luis F.

    1998-01-01

    The frequency of astrovirus infection in 456 Chilean children with diarrhea was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcriptase PCR, and cell culture. Astrovirus was detected in 16.5% of rotavirus-negative and 7% of rotavirus-positive samples obtained from emergency rooms or hospitals and in 11% of samples from day care centers. HAst-1 was the predominant serotype identified. PMID:9817899

  4. Host Transcriptional Response to Influenza and Other Acute Respiratory Viral Infections – A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yijie; Franco, Luis M.; Atmar, Robert L.; Quarles, John M.; Arden, Nancy; Bucasas, Kristine L.; Wells, Janet M.; Niño, Diane; Wang, Xueqing; Zapata, Gladys E.; Shaw, Chad A.; Belmont, John W.; Couch, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the systemic response to naturally acquired acute respiratory viral infections, we prospectively enrolled 1610 healthy adults in 2009 and 2010. Of these, 142 subjects were followed for detailed evaluation of acute viral respiratory illness. We examined peripheral blood gene expression at 7 timepoints: enrollment, 5 illness visits and the end of each year of the study. 133 completed all study visits and yielded technically adequate peripheral blood microarray gene expression data. Seventy-three (55%) had an influenza virus infection, 64 influenza A and 9 influenza B. The remaining subjects had a rhinovirus infection (N = 32), other viral infections (N = 4), or no viral agent identified (N = 24). The results, which were replicated between two seasons, showed a dramatic upregulation of interferon pathway and innate immunity genes. This persisted for 2-4 days. The data show a recovery phase at days 4 and 6 with differentially expressed transcripts implicated in cell proliferation and repair. By day 21 the gene expression pattern was indistinguishable from baseline (enrollment). Influenza virus infection induced a higher magnitude and longer duration of the shared expression signature of illness compared to the other viral infections. Using lineage and activation state-specific transcripts to produce cell composition scores, patterns of B and T lymphocyte depressions accompanied by a major activation of NK cells were detected in the acute phase of illness. The data also demonstrate multiple dynamic gene modules that are reorganized and strengthened following infection. Finally, we examined pre- and post-infection anti-influenza antibody titers defining novel gene expression correlates. PMID:26070066

  5. Knowledge and Awareness of Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Mobile App-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Missed Public Health Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Aaron J.; Sanchez, Travis; Sineath, R. Craig; Grey, Jeremy; Kahle, Erin; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    In a national online survey, we assessed awareness and knowledge of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection manifestation among 1748 men who have sex with men (MSM). Only 39% of respondents were aware that acute HIV infection may be accompanied by symptoms. Education and increased access to acute HIV testing may facilitate MSM to appropriately seek acute HIV testing. PMID:26034766

  6. Acute effects of cigarette smoke exposure on experimental skin flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.; Jenkins, R.A.; Kurihara, K.; Schultz, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    Random vascular patterned caudally based McFarlane-type skin flaps were elevated in groups of Fischer 344 rats. Groups of rats were then acutely exposed on an intermittent basis to smoke generated from well-characterized research filter cigarettes. Previously developed smoke inhalation exposure protocols were employed using a Maddox-ORNL inhalation exposure system. Rats that continued smoke exposure following surgery showed a significantly greater mean percent area of flap necrosis compared with sham-exposed groups or control groups not exposed. The possible pathogenesis of this observation as well as considerations and correlations with chronic human smokers are discussed. Increased risks of flap necrosis by smoking in the perioperative period are suggested by this study.

  7. Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections in internal medicine wards: old and new drugs.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Marco; Concia, Ercole; Giusti, Massimo; Mazzone, Antonino; Santini, Claudio; Stefani, Stefania; Violi, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common cause of hospital admission among elderly patients, and traditionally have been divided into complicated and uncomplicated SSTIs. In 2010, the FDA provided a new classification of these infections, and a new category of disease, named acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), has been proposed as an independent clinical entity. ABSSSIs include three entities: cellulitis and erysipelas, wound infections, and major cutaneous abscesses This paper revises the epidemiology of SSTIs and ABSSSIs with regard to etiologies, diagnostic techniques, and clinical presentation in the hospital settings. Particular attention is owed to frail patients with multiple comorbidities and underlying significant disease states, hospitalized on internal medicine wards or residing in nursing homes, who appear to be at increased risk of infection due to multi-drug resistant pathogens and treatment failures. Management of ABSSSIs and SSTIs, including evaluation of the hemodynamic state, surgical intervention and treatment with appropriate antibiotic therapy are extensively discussed. PMID:27084183

  8. Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm secondary to infection within the space of Parona.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Wiqqas; Khan, Irfan; Robinson, Paul; Thalava, Ramesh

    2011-09-01

    The deep midpalmar space of the hand communicates with the space of Parona in the forearm. Infection of these deep spaces can be difficult to diagnose. This article presents the first reported case of acute compartment syndrome of the forearm secondary to infection within the space of Parona. This article discusses the anatomy of the space of Parona, highlighting its communicating spaces and the importance of recognizing a deep-space infection of the hand as a possible cause of compartment syndrome of the forearm. This article also suggests a method of clinical examination to aid in the diagnosis of infection within the space of Parona to allow more specific planning of surgical intervention through early decompressive surgery, with surgical exploration to exclude and drain infection when no other clear cause for the rise in pressure within the osteofascial compartment is apparent. PMID:21902163

  9. Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm secondary to infection within the space of Parona.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Wiqqas; Khan, Irfan; Robinson, Paul; Thalava, Ramesh

    2011-09-09

    The deep midpalmar space of the hand communicates with the space of Parona in the forearm. Infection of these deep spaces can be difficult to diagnose. This article presents the first reported case of acute compartment syndrome of the forearm secondary to infection within the space of Parona. This article discusses the anatomy of the space of Parona, highlighting its communicating spaces and the importance of recognizing a deep-space infection of the hand as a possible cause of compartment syndrome of the forearm. This article also suggests a method of clinical examination to aid in the diagnosis of infection within the space of Parona to allow more specific planning of surgical intervention through early decompressive surgery, with surgical exploration to exclude and drain infection when no other clear cause for the rise in pressure within the osteofascial compartment is apparent.

  10. Imported Case of Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Associated with a Member of Species Nelson Bay Orthoreovirus

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Kouji; Singh, Harpal; Himeji, Daisuke; Kikuchi, Ikuo; Ueda, Akira; Yamamoto, Seigo; Miura, Miho; Shioyama, Yoko; Kawano, Kimiko; Nagaishi, Tokiko; Saito, Minako; Minomo, Masumi; Iwamoto, Naoyasu; Hidaka, Yoshio; Sohma, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kanai, Yuta; Kawagishi, Takehiro; Nagata, Noriyo; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Tani, Hideki; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fukuma, Aiko; Shimojima, Masayuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Odagiri, Takato; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    A Japanese man suffered from acute respiratory tract infection after returning to Japan from Bali, Indonesia in 2007. Miyazaki-Bali/2007, a strain of the species of Nelson Bay orthoreovirus, was isolated from the patient's throat swab using Vero cells, in which syncytium formation was observed. This is the sixth report describing a patient with respiratory tract infection caused by an orthoreovirus classified to the species of Nelson Bay orthoreovirus. Given the possibility that all of the patients were infected in Malaysia and Indonesia, prospective surveillance on orthoreovirus infections should be carried out in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, contact surveillance study suggests that the risk of human-to-human infection of the species of Nelson Bay orthoreovirus would seem to be low. PMID:24667794

  11. Viral upper respiratory tract infections in young children with emphasis on acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Hovi, Tapani; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2006-08-01

    Viral upper respiratory infection is the most common reason for seeking medical care for children. Recurrent viral respiratory infections and subsequent complications (e.g. acute otitis media (AOM)) are a burden for children, their families and society. Over the past decade, our knowledge on the significance of respiratory viruses has broadened remarkably. Viruses cause large variety of respiratory diseases and cause alone diseases, which previously have been assumed to be bacterial only (e.g. AOM and pneumonia). Methods for detection analysis of respiratory viruses are developing making both the diagnosis and epidemiological investigations of respiratory infections easier. Accurate diagnosis of respiratory infections and awareness of possible viral etiology could reduce the use of antibiotics. Etiologic studies of viral infections are becoming increasingly important, with the emergence of new antiviral drugs and vaccines.

  12. Establishment of a Persistent Escherichia coli Reservoir during the Acute Phase of a Bladder Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, Matthew A.; Schilling, Joel D.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2001-01-01

    The vast majority of urinary tract infections are caused by strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli that encode filamentous adhesive organelles called type 1 pili. These structures mediate both bacterial attachment to and invasion of bladder epithelial cells. However, the mechanism by which type 1 pilus-mediated bacterial invasion contributes to the pathogenesis of a urinary tract infection is unknown. Here we show that type 1-piliated uropathogens can invade the superficial epithelial cells that line the lumenal surface of the bladder and subsequently replicate, forming massive foci of intracellular E. coli termed bacterial factories. In response to infection, superficial bladder cells exfoliate and are removed with the flow of urine. To avoid clearance by exfoliation, intracellular uropathogens can reemerge and eventually establish a persistent, quiescent bacterial reservoir within the bladder mucosa that may serve as a source for recurrent acute infections. These observations suggest that urinary tract infections are more chronic and invasive than generally assumed. PMID:11402001

  13. Semen characteristics and reaction time of Yankasa rams experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi infection.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Francis Abidemi; Okubanjo, Oluyinka Oluseyi; Ajanusi, Olagunju Joseph; Fadason, Samuel Tanko

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosomosis is a serious, often fatal disease of domestic animals and humans, and a major constraint to livestock productivity and agricultural development in areas of Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, and Asia. It is caused by hemoflagelate protozoan of the genus Trypanosoma. Several species of Trypanosoma such as Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma evansi are known to infect domestic animals. Trypanosoma evansi is one of the most widespread pathogenic trypanosomes in the world causing disease known as "Surra" in animals. The effects of experimental T evansi infection on some aspects of reproduction in Yankasa rams were investigated over a 108-day period. Rams in the infected group A (n = 7) were each inoculated with 1 × 10(6) trypanosomes in 1 mL of donor blood via the jugular vein, whereas the control group B (n = 5) were administered 1 mL of normal saline. Semen volume, gross motility, live and/or dead sperm ratio, sperm morphologic abnormalities, and concentration as well as reaction time of infected and control rams were evaluated on a weekly basis. The results showed a nonsignificant (P > 0.05) decrease in semen volume and a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in concentration compared to the control rams. Reaction time showed considerable significant (P < 0.05) increase from preinfection values 26.7 ± 4.54 to 94.7 ± 7.54 seconds compared to control 32.9 ± 2.64 to 33.4 ± 4.78 seconds. Furthermore, semen gross motility for infected rams differed significantly (P < 0.05) from those of the control. There was a significant surge (P < 0.05) in the total sperm morphologic abnormalities in the infected rams to 90.75 ± 2.73% by week 20 (14 weeks after infection), compared to preinfection value of 20.9 ± 0.52%. The outcome of this study suggests that infection with T evansi in Yankasa rams has far reaching severe effects on their reproductive performance.

  14. Semen characteristics and reaction time of Yankasa rams experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi infection.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Francis Abidemi; Okubanjo, Oluyinka Oluseyi; Ajanusi, Olagunju Joseph; Fadason, Samuel Tanko

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosomosis is a serious, often fatal disease of domestic animals and humans, and a major constraint to livestock productivity and agricultural development in areas of Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, and Asia. It is caused by hemoflagelate protozoan of the genus Trypanosoma. Several species of Trypanosoma such as Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma evansi are known to infect domestic animals. Trypanosoma evansi is one of the most widespread pathogenic trypanosomes in the world causing disease known as "Surra" in animals. The effects of experimental T evansi infection on some aspects of reproduction in Yankasa rams were investigated over a 108-day period. Rams in the infected group A (n = 7) were each inoculated with 1 × 10(6) trypanosomes in 1 mL of donor blood via the jugular vein, whereas the control group B (n = 5) were administered 1 mL of normal saline. Semen volume, gross motility, live and/or dead sperm ratio, sperm morphologic abnormalities, and concentration as well as reaction time of infected and control rams were evaluated on a weekly basis. The results showed a nonsignificant (P > 0.05) decrease in semen volume and a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in concentration compared to the control rams. Reaction time showed considerable significant (P < 0.05) increase from preinfection values 26.7 ± 4.54 to 94.7 ± 7.54 seconds compared to control 32.9 ± 2.64 to 33.4 ± 4.78 seconds. Furthermore, semen gross motility for infected rams differed significantly (P < 0.05) from those of the control. There was a significant surge (P < 0.05) in the total sperm morphologic abnormalities in the infected rams to 90.75 ± 2.73% by week 20 (14 weeks after infection), compared to preinfection value of 20.9 ± 0.52%. The outcome of this study suggests that infection with T evansi in Yankasa rams has far reaching severe effects on their reproductive performance. PMID:27188633

  15. Expansion of Inefficient HIV-Specific CD8 T Cells during Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Michael A.; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Tassaneetrithep, Boonrat; Eller, Leigh Anne; Costanzo, Margaret C.; Johnson, Susan; Betts, Michael R.; Krebs, Shelly J.; Slike, Bonnie M.; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Rono, Kathleen; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Maganga, Lucas; Kibuuka, Hannah; Jagodzinski, Linda; Peel, Sheila; Rolland, Morgane; Marovich, Mary A.; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Robb, Merlin L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Attrition within the CD4+ T cell compartment, high viremia, and a cytokine storm characterize the early days after HIV infection. When the first emerging HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses gain control over viral replication it is incomplete, and clearance of HIV infection is not achieved even in the rare cases of individuals who spontaneously control viral replication to nearly immeasurably low levels. Thus, despite their partial ability to control viremia, HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses are insufficient to clear HIV infection. Studying individuals in the first few days of acute HIV infection, we detected the emergence of a unique population of CD38+ CD27− CD8+ T cells characterized by the low expression of the CD8 receptor (CD8dim). Interestingly, while high frequencies of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses occur within the CD38+ CD27− CD8dim T cell population, the minority populations of CD8bright T cells are significantly more effective in inhibiting HIV replication. Furthermore, the frequency of CD8dim T cells directly correlates with viral load and clinical predictors of more rapid disease progression. We found that a canonical burst of proliferative cytokines coincides with the emergence of CD8dim T cells, and the size of this population inversely correlates with the acute loss of CD4+ T cells. These data indicate, for the first time, that early CD4+ T cell loss coincides with the expansion of a functionally impaired HIV-specific CD8dim T cell population less efficient in controlling HIV viremia. IMPORTANCE A distinct population of activated CD8+ T cells appears during acute HIV infection with diminished capacity to inhibit HIV replication and is predictive of viral set point, offering the first immunologic evidence of CD8+ T cell dysfunction during acute infection. PMID:26842474

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding acute respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, S K; Reddaiah, V P; Murthy, G V

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and six mothers in a rural area were interviewed to determine as to how they recognise pneumonia in children, what therapies they practice with mild acute respiratory illnesses and pneumonias and the feeding practices they adopt. Most mothers recognised pneumonia by noticing fast respiratory rate and difficulty in breathing. More severe cases were recognised by these signs among a higher percentage of mothers. As regards management of mild ARI episodes, more than half the mothers preferred not to give any treatment or use only home remedies. In pneumonias, a majority of them preferred to consult a qualified doctor. Nearly a third of them were of the opinion that they would take the child to hospital if the disease was severe. Regarding feeding practices, most of them stated that they would continue feeding, fluids and breast feeds. Only 10% desired to stop and another 15% would decrease the amounts.

  17. Relation between iron metabolism and antioxidants enzymes and δ-ALA-D activity in rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Mendes, Ricardo E; Baldissera, Matheus D; Bochi, Guilherme V; Moresco, Rafael N; Leal, Marta L R; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria R C; Christ, Ricardo; Gheller, Larissa; Marques, Éder J; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the iron metabolism in serum, as well as antioxidant enzymes, in addition to the Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity in the liver of rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica. Thirty male adult rats (Wistar) specific pathogen free were divided into four groups: two uninfected group (CTRL 1 and CTRL 2) with five animals each and two infected groups (INF 1 and INF 2) with 10 animals each. Infection was performed orally with 20 metacercariae at day 1. On day 15 (CTRL 1 and INF 1 groups) and 87 PI (CTRL 2 and INF 2 groups) blood and bone marrow were collected and the animals were subsequently euthanized for liver sampling. Blood was allocated in tubes without anticoagulant for serum acquisition to measure iron, transferrin and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC). δ-ALA-D, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in the liver. A decrease in iron, transferrin and UIBC levels was observed in all infected animals compared to control groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, iron accumulation was observed in bone marrow of infected mice. Infected animals showed an increase in δ-ALA-D activity at 87 post-infection (PI) (INF 2) as well as in SOD activity at days 15 (INF 1) and 87 PI (INF 2). On the other hand, CAT activity was reduced in rats infected by F. hepatica during acute and chronic phase of fasciolosis (INF 1 and INF 2 groups), when moderate (acute) and severe necrosis in the liver histopathology were observed. These results may suggest that oxidative damage to tissues along with antioxidant mechanisms might have taken part in fasciolosis pathogenesis and are also involved in iron deficiency associated to changes in δ-ALA-D activity during chronic phase of disease.

  18. Estimating the impact of vaccination in acute SHIV-SIV infection

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, Ruy

    2008-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infects approxmately 0.5% of the world population, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A vaccine for HIV is urgently required, and a variety of vaccine modalities have been tested in animal models of infection. A number of these studies have shown protection in monkey models of infection, although the ability of the vaccine to protect appears to vary with the viral strain and animal model used. The recent failure of a large vaccine study in humans suggests that further understanding of the basic dynamics of infection and impact of vaccination are required, in order to understand the variable efficacy of vaccination in different infections. The dynamics of HIV infection have been studied in humans and in a variety of animal models. The standard model of infection has been used to estimate the basic reproductive ratio (R{sub 0}) of the virus, calculated from the growth rate of virus in acute infection. This method has not been useful in studying the effects of vaccination, since, in the vaccines developed so far, early growth rates of virus do not differ between control and vaccinated animals. Here, we use the standard model of viral dynamics to derive the reproductive ratio from the peak viral load and nadir of target cell numbers in acute infection. We apply this method to data from studies of vaccination in Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) infection and demonstrate that vaccination can reduce the reproductive ratio by 2.3 and 2 fold respectively. This method allows the comparison of vaccination efficacy amongst different viral strains and animal models in vivo.

  19. β-Lactamase-Producing Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Fails To Protect Streptococcus pneumoniae from Amoxicillin during Experimental Acute Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Eva; Lundin, Susanne; Hermansson, Ann; Melhus, Åsa

    2004-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common reason for outpatient antimicrobial therapy. Mixed infections pose a potential problem, since the first-line drug used for the treatment of AOM, amoxicillin, can be neutralized by β-lactamase-producing pathogens of the upper respiratory tract. To study the effects of a 5-day course of amoxicillin on a mixed middle ear infection, rats were challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae alone or in combination with β-lactamase-producing nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Amoxicillin was introduced at the clinical peak of the infection. Local and systemic changes were monitored by otomicroscopy, bacterial culture, and analysis of histological changes and the expression of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) gene. β-Lactamase-producing H. influenzae did not demonstrate an ability to protect S. pneumoniae. Amoxicillin eradicated the pneumococci in all treated animals but increased to some degree the ability of H. influenzae to persist at the site of infection. Thus, only an insignificant acceleration of the resolution of the AOM caused by a mixture of pathogens was observed during treatment. Moderate to major morphological changes could not be avoided by treatment of the mixed infections, but a slight downregulation of TGF-β expression was observed. In contrast to infections caused by a single pathogen, the mixed infections induced white plaques in the tympanic membrane at a remarkably high frequency independent of treatment. These experimental findings constitute support for further studies of antimicrobial drugs and AOM caused by bacteria with and without mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. PMID:15328122

  20. Innate Lymphoid Cells Are Depleted Irreversibly during Acute HIV-1 Infection in the Absence of Viral Suppression.

    PubMed

    Kløverpris, Henrik N; Kazer, Samuel W; Mjösberg, Jenny; Mabuka, Jenniffer M; Wellmann, Amanda; Ndhlovu, Zaza; Yadon, Marisa C; Nhamoyebonde, Shepherd; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Simoni, Yannick; Andersson, Frank; Kuhn, Warren; Garrett, Nigel; Burgers, Wendy A; Kamya, Philomena; Pretorius, Karyn; Dong, Krista; Moodley, Amber; Newell, Evan W; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Goulder, Philip; Shalek, Alex K; Walker, Bruce D; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Leslie, Alasdair

    2016-02-16

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role in the response to infection by secreting cytokines crucial for immune regulation, tissue homeostasis, and repair. Although dysregulation of these systems is central to pathology, the impact of HIV-1 on ILCs remains unknown. We found that human blood ILCs were severely depleted during acute viremic HIV-1 infection and that ILC numbers did not recover after resolution of peak viremia. ILC numbers were preserved by antiretroviral therapy (ART), but only if initiated during acute infection. Transcriptional profiling during the acute phase revealed upregulation of genes associated with cell death, temporally linked with a strong IFN acute-phase response and evidence of gut barrier breakdown. We found no evidence of tissue redistribution in chronic disease and remaining circulating ILCs were activated but not apoptotic. These data provide a potential mechanistic link between acute HIV-1 infection, lymphoid tissue breakdown, and persistent immune dysfunction. PMID:26850658

  1. Positive selection of cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape variants during acute hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Guglietta, Silvia; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Pacciani, Valentina; Scottà, Cristiano; Perrone, Maria Paola; Laurenti, Luca; Spada, Enea; Mele, Alfonso; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Taliani, Gloria; Folgori, Antonella; Vitelli, Alessandra; Ruggeri, Lionello; Nicosia, Alfredo; Piccolella, Enza; Del Porto, Paola

    2005-09-01

    Cellular immune responses are induced during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and acute-phase CD8+ T cells are supposed to play an important role in controlling viral replication. In chimpanzees, failure of CD8+ T cells to control HCV replication has been associated with acquisition of mutations in MHC class I-restricted epitopes. In humans, although selection of escape mutations in an immunodominant CTL epitope has been recently described, the overall impact of immune escape during acute HCV infection is unclear. Here, by performing an in depth analysis of the relationship between early cellular immune responses and viral evolution in a chronically evolving HCV acutely infected individual, we demonstrate: (i) the presence of a potent and focused CD8(+ T cell response against a novel epitope in the NS3 protein, (ii) the elimination of the quasi-species harboring the original amino acid sequence within this epitope, and (iii) the selection for a virus population bearing amino acid changes at a single residue within the cytotoxic T cell epitope that strongly diminished T cell recognition. These results support the view that acute-phase CD8+ T cell responses exert a biologically relevant pressure on HCV replication and that viruses escaping this host response could have a significant survival advantage. PMID:16114108

  2. An unusual case of infective endocarditis presenting as acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Ng, Francesca; Nageh, Thuraia

    2007-06-01

    A 39-year-old Zimbabwean man presented with a 1 week history of fever, general malaise and acute-onset chest pain. He had a urethral stricture, which had been managed with an indwelling supra-pubic catheter. The electrocardiography on admission showed inferior ST-T segments elevation. His chest pain and electrocardiography changes resolved subsequent to thrombolysis, and he remained haemodynamically stable. The 12-h troponin I was increased at 10.5 microg/l (NR <0.04 microg/l). Echocardiography confirmed severe mitral regurgitation and a flail anterior mitral valve leaflet with an independently oscillating mobile vegetation. Enterococci faecalis were grown on blood cultures. A diagnosis of enterococci infective endocarditis with concomitant acute myocardial infarction due to possible septic emboli was made. Despite the successful outcome from thrombolysis in the setting of acute myocardial infarction with infective endocarditis, the case highlights the current lack of definitive data on the optimal acute management of such an unusual clinical scenario. Although there is serious concern that thrombolytic treatment for myocardial infarction in the setting of infective endocarditis may be associated with higher risk of cerebral haemorrhage, there is little documented evidence supporting the safety of primary percutaneous coronary intervention with these patients. PMID:17513553

  3. Acute transverse myelitis and subacute thyroiditis associated with dengue viral infection: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Zhiming; Dong, Yaxian; Chen, Xiaolian; Yao, Huiyan; Zhang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Acute transverse myelitis is a rare manifestation of dengue infection. To the best of our knowledge, only 6 cases of acute transverse myelitis as a manifestation of dengue infection have been reported thus far. The present study described a case of acute transverse myelitis complicated with subacute thyroiditis 6 days after the onset of dengue viral infection. In addition, the available literature was searched to identify similar previous cases. Treatment with intravenous pulse methylprednisolone immunoglobulin plasmapheresis and physiotherapy resulted in partial recovery at 3 months post-infection. In conclusion, the involvement of dengue infection should be considered in patients who develop central nervous system manifestations during or after the recovery period of dengue infection. Furthermore, since methylprednisolone and immunoglobulin are effective during the active phase of the infection, prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment are crucial. PMID:27703498

  4. Cytokine response and outcome of infection depends on the infective dose of parasites in experimental infection by Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Dematteis, Sylvia; Rottenberg, Martin; Baz, Adriana

    2003-04-01

    We here analysed whether the cytokine responses in early and late experimental infection with Echinococcus granulosus depend on the dose of parasites to which the host is exposed. To this purpose Balb/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with either 500 or 2000 protoscoleces. Splenocytes of mice were obtained at days 3, 7, 14 and 21 and also on week 37 post-infection and cultured in vitro with protoscolex antigens. Type-1 and type-2 cytokines were analysed in supernatants by ELISA. Results showed that the inoculation of 500 protoscoleces induced an early type-0 and a late type-2 cytokine response, whereas the inoculation of 2000 protoscoleces induced an early type-2 and a late type-0 cytokine response. Parasite growth was lower in the group inoculated with the low infective dose. These results indicate that the cytokine response during the infection by the helminth E. granulosus depends on the dose of parasites to which the host has been exposed.

  5. Undernutrition, the Acute Phase Response to Infection, and Its Effects on Micronutrient Status Indicators12

    PubMed Central

    Bresnahan, Kara A.; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Infection and undernutrition are prevalent in developing countries and demonstrate a synergistic relation. Undernutrition increases infection-related morbidity and mortality. The acute phase response (APR) is an innate, systemic inflammatory reaction to a wide array of disruptions in a host’s homeostasis, including infection. Released from immune cells in response to deleterious stimuli, proinflammatory cytokines act on distant tissues to induce behavioral (e.g., anorexia, weakness, and fatigue) and systemic effects of the APR. Cytokines act to increase energy and protein requirements to manifest fever and support hepatic acute phase protein (APP) production. Blood concentrations of glucose and lipid are augmented to provide energy to immune cells in response to cytokines. Additionally, infection decreases intestinal absorption of nutrients and can cause direct loss of micronutrients. Traditional indicators of iron, zinc, and vitamin A status are altered during the APR, leading to inaccurate estimations of deficiency in populations with a high or unknown prevalence of infection. Blood concentrations of APPs can be measured in nutrition interventions to assess the time stage and severity of infection and correct for the APR; however, standardized cutoffs for nutrition applications are needed. Protein-energy malnutrition leads to increased gut permeability to pathogens, abnormal immune cell populations, and impaired APP response. Micronutrient deficiencies cause specific immune impairments that affect both innate and adaptive responses. This review describes the antagonistic interaction between the APR and nutritional status and emphasizes the need for integrated interventions to address undernutrition and to reduce disease burden in developing countries. PMID:25398733

  6. Microorganisms Causing Community-Acquired Acute Bronchitis: The Role of Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Young; Park, Sunghoon; Lee, Sun Hwa; Lee, Myung Goo; Park, Yong Bum; Oh, Kil Chan; Lee, Jae-Myung; Kim, Do Il; Seo, Ki-Hyun; Shin, Kyeong-Cheol; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Ko, Yongchun; Jang, Seung Hun; Jung, Ki-Suck; Hwang, Yong Il

    2016-01-01

    Background Although acute bronchitis is quite common, there is relatively limited information regarding the microorganisms that are involved in this illness. Methods We performed a prospective study of acute bronchitis at 31 hospitals and clinics in Korea from July 2011 to June 2012. Sputum specimens were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture of microorganisms. Results Of the 811 enrolled patients, 291 had acceptable sputum specimens that were included for analysis of the etiologic distribution. With multiplex PCR testing, viruses were identified in 36.1% (105/291), most commonly rhinovirus (25.8%) and coronavirus (3.8%). Typical bacteria were isolated in 126/291 (43.3%) patients. Among these patients Haemophilus influenzae (n = 39) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 30) were isolated most commonly; atypical bacteria were identified in 44 (15.1%) patients. Bacteria-only, virus-only, and mixed infections (bacteria plus virus) accounted for 36.7% (98/291), 17.2% (50/291), and 18.9% (55/291) of infections, respectively. In particular, 52.4% of patients with viral infection had a concurrent bacterial infection, and rhinovirus was the most common virus in mixed infections (40/55). Additionally, infections with typical bacteria were more common in patients with chronic lung disease (p = 0.029), and typical bacterial infections showed a trend towards a higher prevalence with older age (p = 0.001). Conclusions Bacteria were associated with almost half of community-acquired acute bronchitis cases. Additional studies are required to further illuminate the role of bacteria and to identify patient groups most likely to benefit from antibiotic treatment. PMID:27788254

  7. Experimental primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: timing and fetal outcome.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M L; Prokay, S L

    1983-01-01

    In contrast to intrauterine rubella infection, the relationship between timing of maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and fetal outcome has not been clearly defined. In order to investigate this relationship, a guinea pig model was utilized to assess the fetal consequences of maternal CMV infection during the first, second, or third trimester of pregnancy. Congenital infection occurred in 24 of 35 newborn guinea pigs (69%) delivered to mothers infected during the third trimester, with localization of virus to salivary gland in 17 of the 24 infected newborn guinea pigs. In contrast, only one of 28 (5%) progeny sacrificed following first-trimester maternal infection was congenitally infected (p less than 0.01). Second-trimester maternal infection was associated with an intermediate risk of intrauterine infection with transmission of virus to 17 of 54 progeny (33%) (p less than 0.01). Eight of the 10 fetuses delivered after second-trimester infection had virus in multiple organs including the brain. These data suggest that timing of maternal CMV infection is an important variable affecting fetal outcome, with increased risk of intrauterine infection when maternal infection occurs late in pregnancy. However, if fetal infection occurs earlier in pregnancy, it appears to present a greater threat to the fetus, with the potential for dissemination of virus in multiple fetal tissues, including the brain. PMID:6295164

  8. Dasatinib Reduces Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis in Acute Experimental Silicosis

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Fernanda Ferreira; Horta, Lucas Felipe Bastos; Maia, Lígia de Albuquerque; Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias; da Silva, André Benedito; Morales, Marcelo Marco; Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano Felippe; Takiya, Christina Maeda; de Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is an occupational lung disease with no effective treatment. We hypothesized that dasatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, might exhibit therapeutic efficacy in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Silicosis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by a single intratracheal administration of silica particles, whereas the control group received saline. After 14 days, when the disease was already established, animals were randomly assigned to receive DMSO or dasatinib (1 mg/kg) by oral gavage, twice daily, for 14 days. On day 28, lung morphofunction, inflammation, and remodeling were investigated. RAW 264.7 cells (a macrophage cell line) were incubated with silica particles, followed by treatment or not with dasatinib, and evaluated for macrophage polarization. On day 28, dasatinib improved lung mechanics, increased M2 macrophage counts in lung parenchyma and granuloma, and was associated with reduction of fraction area of granuloma, fraction area of collapsed alveoli, protein levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, transforming growth factor-β, and reduced neutrophils, M1 macrophages, and collagen fiber content in lung tissue and granuloma in silicotic animals. Additionally, dasatinib reduced expression of iNOS and increased expression of arginase and metalloproteinase-9 in silicotic macrophages. Dasatinib was effective at inducing macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype and reducing lung inflammation and fibrosis, thus improving lung mechanics in a murine model of acute silicosis. PMID:26789403

  9. A Pediatric Case of Acute Generalized Pustular Eruption without Streptococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Nobuko; Yoshizawa, Hideka

    2016-01-01

    Generalized pustular lesions characterized by acute onset with fever occur in pustulosis acuta generalisata, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and generalized pustular psoriasis. In the present report, we describe a pediatric case of generalized pustular eruption that was not completely consistent with clinical features. Our patient had no evidence of a post-streptococcal infection. We observed scattered symmetric eruption of discrete pustules with an inflammatory halo on normal skin. The eruption was absent on her palms and soles of the feet. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports in the English literature of cases with clinical features similar to those of our patient. PMID:27462226

  10. Patterns of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Levels during Acute Infection: The InC3 Study

    PubMed Central

    Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Grady, Bart; Page, Kimberly; Kim, Arthur Y.; McGovern, Barbara H.; Cox, Andrea L.; Rice, Thomas M.; Sacks-Davis, Rachel; Bruneau, Julie; Morris, Meghan; Amin, Janaki; Schinkel, Janke; Applegate, Tanya; Maher, Lisa; Hellard, Margaret; Lloyd, Andrew R.; Prins, Maria; Dore, Gregory J.; Grebely, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the patterns of HCV RNA levels during acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection provides insights into immunopathogenesis and is important for vaccine design. This study evaluated patterns of HCV RNA levels and associated factors among individuals with acute infection. Methods Data were from an international collaboration of nine prospective cohorts of acute HCV (InC3 Study). Participants with well-characterized acute HCV infection (detected within three months post-infection and interval between the peak and subsequent HCV RNA levels≤120 days) were categorised by a priori-defined patterns of HCV RNA levels: i) spontaneous clearance, ii) partial viral control with persistence (≥1 log IU/mL decline in HCV RNA levels following peak) and iii) viral plateau with persistence (increase or <1 log IU/mL decline in HCV RNA levels following peak). Factors associated with HCV RNA patterns were assessed using multinomial logistic regression. Results Among 643 individuals with acute HCV, 162 with well-characterized acute HCV were identified: spontaneous clearance (32%), partial viral control with persistence (27%), and viral plateau with persistence (41%). HCV RNA levels reached a high viraemic phase within two months following infection, with higher levels in the spontaneous clearance and partial viral control groups, compared to the viral plateau group (median: 6.0, 6.2, 5.3 log IU/mL, respectively; P=0.018). In the two groups with persistence, Interferon lambda 3 (IFNL3) CC genotype was independently associated with partial viral control compared to viral plateau (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.75; 95%CI: 1.08, 7.02). In the two groups with viral control, female sex was independently associated with spontaneous clearance compared to partial viral control (AOR: 2.86; 95%CI: 1.04, 7.83). Conclusions Among individuals with acute HCV, a spectrum of HCV RNA patterns is evident. IFNL3 CC genotype is associated with initial viral control, while female sex

  11. Distinct surveillance pathway for immunopathology during acute infection via autophagy and SR-BI

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiler, Susanne; Khandagale, Avinash B.; Magenau, Astrid; Nichols, Maryana; Heijnen, Harry F. G.; Rinninger, Franz; Ziegler, Tilman; Seveau, Stephanie; Schubert, Sören; Zahler, Stefan; Verschoor, Admar; Latz, Eicke; Massberg, Steffen; Gaus, Katharina; Engelmann, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms protecting from immunopathology during acute bacterial infections are incompletely known. We found that in response to apoptotic immune cells and live or dead Listeria monocytogenes scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), an anti-atherogenic lipid exchange mediator, activated internalization mechanisms with characteristics of macropinocytosis and, assisted by Golgi fragmentation, initiated autophagic responses. This was supported by scavenger receptor-induced local increases in membrane cholesterol concentrations which generated lipid domains particularly in cell extensions and the Golgi. SR-BI was a key driver of beclin-1-dependent autophagy during acute bacterial infection of the liver and spleen. Autophagy regulated tissue infiltration of neutrophils, suppressed accumulation of Ly6C+ (inflammatory) macrophages, and prevented hepatocyte necrosis in the core of infectious foci. Perifocal levels of Ly6C+ macrophages and Ly6C− macrophages were unaffected, indicating predominant regulation of the focus core. SR-BI-triggered autophagy promoted co-elimination of apoptotic immune cells and dead bacteria but barely influenced bacterial sequestration and survival or inflammasome activation, thus exclusively counteracting damage inflicted by immune responses. Hence, SR-BI- and autophagy promote a surveillance pathway that partially responds to products of antimicrobial defenses and selectively prevents immunity-induced damage during acute infection. Our findings suggest that control of infection-associated immunopathology can be based on a unified defense operation. PMID:27694929

  12. Increased frequencies of CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells in acute dengue infection

    PubMed Central

    Lühn, Kerstin; Simmons, Cameron P.; Moran, Edward; Dung, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Chau, Tran Nguyen Bich; Quyen, Nguyen Than Ha; Thao, Le Thi Thu; Van Ngoc, Tran; Dung, Nguyen Minh; Wills, Bridget; Farrar, Jeremy; McMichael, Andrew J.; Dong, Tao; Rowland-Jones, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is an increasingly important tropical disease, causing 100 million cases each year. Symptoms range from mild febrile illness to severe hemorrhagic fever. The pathogenesis is incompletely understood, but immunopathology is thought to play a part, with antibody-dependent enhancement and massive immune activation of T cells and monocytes/macrophages leading to a disproportionate production of proinflammatory cytokines. We sought to investigate whether a defective population of regulatory T cells (T reg cells) could be contributing to immunopathology in severe dengue disease. CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ T reg cells of patients with acute dengue infection of different severities showed a conventional phenotype. Unexpectedly, their capacity to suppress T cell proliferation and to secrete interleukin-10 was not altered. Moreover, T reg cells suppressed the production of vasoactive cytokines after dengue-specific stimulation. Furthermore, T reg cell frequencies and also T reg cell/effector T cell ratios were increased in patients with acute infection. A strong indication that a relative rise of T reg cell/effector T cell ratios is beneficial for disease outcome comes from patients with mild disease in which this ratio is significantly increased (P < 0.0001) in contrast to severe cases (P = 0.2145). We conclude that although T reg cells expand and function normally in acute dengue infection, their relative frequencies are insufficient to control the immunopathology of severe disease. PMID:17452519

  13. HIV-1-Specific CD8 T Cells Exhibit Limited Cross-Reactivity during Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Du, Victor Y; Bansal, Anju; Carlson, Jonathan; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F; Salazar, Maria G; Ladell, Kristin; Gras, Stephanie; Josephs, Tracy M; Heath, Sonya L; Price, David A; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hunter, Eric; Goepfert, Paul A

    2016-04-15

    Prior work has demonstrated that HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells can cross-recognize variant epitopes. However, most of these studies were performed in the context of chronic infection, where the presence of viral quasispecies makes it difficult to ascertain the true nature of the original antigenic stimulus. To overcome this limitation, we evaluated the extent of CD8 T cell cross-reactivity in patients with acute HIV-1 clade B infection. In each case, we determined the transmitted founder virus sequence to identify the autologous epitopes restricted by individual HLA class I molecules. Our data show that cross-reactive CD8 T cells are infrequent during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. Moreover, in the uncommon instances where cross-reactive responses were detected, the variant epitopes were poorly recognized in cytotoxicity assays. Molecular analysis revealed that similar antigenic structures could be cross-recognized by identical CD8 T cell clonotypes mobilized in vivo, yet even subtle differences in a single TCR-accessible peptide residue were sufficient to disrupt variant-specific reactivity. These findings demonstrate that CD8 T cells are highly specific for autologous epitopes during acute HIV-1 infection. Polyvalent vaccines may therefore be required to provide optimal immune cover against this genetically labile pathogen. PMID:26983786

  14. HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells exhibit limited cross-reactivity during acute infection

    PubMed Central

    Du, Victor Y.; Bansal, Anju; Carlson, Jonathan; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Salazar, Maria G.; Ladell, Kristin; Gras, Stephanie; Josephs, Tracy M.; Heath, Sonya; Price, David A.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hunter, Eric; Goepfert, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells can cross-recognize variant epitopes. However, the majority of these studies were performed in the context of chronic infection, where the presence of viral quasispecies makes it difficult to ascertain the true nature of the original antigenic stimulus. To overcome this limitation, we evaluated the extent of CD8 T-cell cross-reactivity in patients with acute HIV-1 clade B infection. In each case, we determined the transmitted founder virus sequence to identify the autologous epitopes restricted by individual HLA class I molecules. Our data show that cross-reactive CD8 T cells are infrequent during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. Moreover, in the uncommon instances where cross-reactive responses were detected, the variant epitopes were poorly recognized in cytotoxicity assays. Molecular analysis revealed that similar antigenic structures could be cross-recognized by identical CD8 T-cell clonotypes mobilized in vivo, yet even subtle differences in a single TCR-accessible peptide residue were sufficient to disrupt variant-specific reactivity. These findings demonstrate that CD8 T cells are highly specific for autologous epitopes during acute HIV-1 infection. Polyvalent vaccines may therefore be required to provide optimal immune cover against this genetically labile pathogen. PMID:26983786

  15. Electromyographic response of shoulder muscles to acute experimental subacromial pain.

    PubMed

    Sole, Gisela; Osborne, Hamish; Wassinger, Craig

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated effects of experimentally-induced subacromial pain, induced via hypertonic saline injection, on shoulder muscles activity. Electromyographic activity of 20 healthy participants was assessed for humeral elevation and descent for the control and experimental pain conditions, using fine wire electrodes for subscapularis and supraspinatus and surface electrodes for middle deltoid, upper trapezius, lower trapezius, infraspinatus, and serratus anterior. Normalized mean amplitudes were analyzed for each muscle for four phases for elevation and descent, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variances (ANOVAs) were used to determine differences between muscle activity in the control and experimental condition for the four phases of elevation and descent. Differences for mean normalized amplitudes were not significant during humeral elevation. Increased activity was found for the pain condition for serratus anterior and middle deltoid during the first (120-90°) and third (60-30°) parts and decreased activity for infraspinatus in the second half of descent (60-0°). No significant differences were found during descent for upper and lower trapezius, subscapularis and supraspinatus. While increased serratus anterior activity during 60-30° of descent may be protective, increased middle deltoid and decreased infraspinatus activity during the same range may threaten subacromial tissues in that range. Overall the changes in muscle activation were individual specific, particularly during the concentric elevation phase. PMID:24685367

  16. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for acute adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Roggendorf, M; Wigand, R; Deinhardt, F; Frösner, G G

    1982-02-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described for demonstrating antibodies to the hexone antigen of adenoviruses. The antigen-coated, flat-bottomed microtiter plates are incubated sequentially with dilutions of patients' sera (2 h at 37 degrees C) and peroxidase-coupled anti-human IgG (2 h at 37 degrees C). After a final washing, orthophenylenediamine is added to the plates, and the absorbance (A) measured 30 min later. The ELISA was found to be a hundred-fold more sensitive than complement fixation. An evaluation methods for determining antibody concentration is described which correlates the absorbance of sera diluted 10(-3) to the absorbance of a reference serum containing an arbitrary value (100) of antibody. This methods avoids titration of sera and day-to-day assay variations by different background reactions. A significant increase in antibody concentration of acute-phase serum over that of convalescent phase serum is observed. The ability to test sera in a single dilution and the automatic reading of results and their evaluation by computer make this assay suitable for diagnostic laboratories.

  17. Viruses as Sole Causative Agents of Severe Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Children

    PubMed Central

    Moesker, Fleur M.; van Kampen, Jeroen J. A.; van Rossum, Annemarie M. C.; de Hoog, Matthijs; Koopmans, Marion P. G.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Fraaij, Pieter L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A viruses are known to cause severe acute respiratory tract infections (SARIs) in children. For other viruses like human rhinoviruses (HRVs) this is less well established. Viral or bacterial co-infections are often considered essential for severe manifestations of these virus infections. Objective The study aims at identifying viruses that may cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections, at identifying disease characteristics associated with these single virus infections, and at identifying a possible correlation between viral loads and disease severities. Study Design Between April 2007 and March 2012, we identified children (<18 year) with or without a medical history, admitted to our paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with SARI or to the medium care (MC) with an acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) (controls). Data were extracted from the clinical and laboratory databases of our tertiary care paediatric hospital. Patient specimens were tested for fifteen respiratory viruses with real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays and we selected patients with a single virus infection only. Typical bacterial co-infections were considered unlikely to have contributed to the PICU or MC admission based on C-reactive protein-levels or bacteriological test results if performed. Results We identified 44 patients admitted to PICU with SARI and 40 patients admitted to MC with ARTI. Twelve viruses were associated with SARI, ten of which were also associated with ARTI in the absence of typical bacterial and viral co-infections, with RSV and HRV being the most frequent causes. Viral loads were not different between PICU-SARI patients and MC-ARTI patients. Conclusion Both SARI and ARTI may be caused by single viral pathogens in previously healthy children as well as in children with a medical history. No relationship between viral load and disease severity was identified. PMID:26964038

  18. Bone marrow is a major site of long-term antibody production after acute viral infection.

    PubMed Central

    Slifka, M K; Matloubian, M; Ahmed, R

    1995-01-01

    Antiviral antibody production is often sustained for long periods after resolution of an acute viral infection. Despite extensive documentation of this phenomenon, the mechanisms involved in maintaining long-term antibody production remain poorly defined. As a first step towards understanding the nature of long-term humoral immunity, we examined the anatomical location of antibody-producing cells during acute viral infection. Using the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) model, we found that after resolution of the acute infection, when antiviral plasma cells in the spleen decline, a population of virus-specific plasma cells appears in the bone marrow and constitutes the major source of long-term antibody production. Following infection of adult mice, LCMV-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) peaked in the spleen at 8 days postinfection but were undetectable in the bone marrow at that time. The infection was essentially cleared by 15 days, and the ASC numbers in the spleen rapidly declined while an increasing population of LCMV-specific ASC began to appear in the bone marrow. Compared with the peak response at 8 days postinfection, time points from 30 days to more than 1 year later demonstrated greater-than-10-fold reductions in splenic ASC. In contrast, LCMV-specific plasma cell numbers in the bone marrow remained high and correlated with the high levels of antiviral serum antibody. The presence of LCMV-specific plasma cells in the bone marrow was not due to persistent infection at this site, since the virus was cleared from both the spleen and bone marrow with similar kinetics as determined by infectivity and PCR assays. The immunoglobulin G subclass profile of antibody-secreting cells derived from bone marrow and the spleen correlated with the immunoglobulin G subclass distribution of LCMV-specific antibody in the serum. Upon rechallenge with LCMV, the spleen exhibited a substantial increase in virus-specific plasma cell numbers during the early phase

  19. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao-xin; Han, Bing; Hou, Li-Min; An, Ting-Ting; Jia, Guang; Cheng, Zhuo-Xin; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Yi-Nan; Kong, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Jia; Wang, Yong-Wei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Pan, Shang-Ha; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight). Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP. PMID:27115738

  20. Role of inflammation and infection in the pathogenesis of human acute liver failure: Clinical implications for monitoring and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Mhairi C; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure is a rare and devastating clinical condition. At present, emergency liver transplantation is the only life-saving therapy in advanced cases, yet the feasibility of transplantation is affected by the presence of systemic inflammation, infection and resultant multi-organ failure. The importance of immune dysregulation and acquisition of infection in the pathogenesis of acute liver failure and its associated complications is now recognised. In this review we discuss current thinking regarding the role of infection and inflammation in the pathogenesis of and outcome in human acute liver failure, the implications for the management of such patients and suggest directions for future research. PMID:27468190

  1. Impact of benznidazole on infection course in mice experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi I, II, and IV.

    PubMed

    Gruendling, Ana Paula; Massago, Miyoko; Teston, Ana Paula M; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Kaneshima, Edilson N; Araújo, Silvana M; Gomes, Mônica L; Barbosa, Maria das Graças V; Toledo, Max Jean O

    2015-06-01

    American trypanosomiasis is an emerging zoonosis in the Brazilian Amazon. Studies on benznidazole (BZ) chemotherapy with Trypanosoma cruzi from this region have great relevance, given the different discrete typing units (DTUs) that infect humans in the Amazon and other regions of Brazil. We performed a parasitological, histopathological, and molecular analysis of mice inoculated with strains of T. cruzi I, II, and IV that were BZ-treated during the acute phase of infection. Groups of Swiss mice were inoculated; 13 received oral BZ, whereas the other 13 comprised the untreated controls. Unlike parasitemia, the infectivity and mortality did not vary among the DTUs. Trypanosoma cruzi DNA was detected in all tissues analyzed and the proportion of organs parasitized varied with the parasite DTU. The BZ treatment reduced the most parasitological parameters, tissue parasitism and the inflammatory processes at all infection stages and for all DTUs. However, the number of significant reductions varied according to the DTU and infection phase.

  2. Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Host Factors Modulated during Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection in the Swine Model

    PubMed Central

    Rogée, Sophie; Le Gall, Morgane; Chafey, Philippe; Bouquet, Jérôme; Cordonnier, Nathalie; Frederici, Christian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute enterically transmitted hepatitis. In industrialized countries, it is a zoonotic disease, with swine being the major reservoir of human HEV contamination. The occurrence and severity of the disease are variable, with clinical symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute hepatitis, chronic infection, or fulminant hepatitis. In the absence of a robust cell culture system or small-animal models, the HEV life cycle and pathological process remain unclear. To characterize HEV pathogenesis and virulence mechanisms, a quantitative proteomic analysis was carried out to identify cellular factors and pathways modulated during acute infection of swine. Three groups of pigs were inoculated with three different strains of swine HEV to evaluate the possible role of viral determinants in pathogenesis. Liver samples were analyzed by a differential proteomic approach, two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis, and 61 modulated proteins were identified by mass spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the three HEV strains replicate similarly in swine and that they modulate several cellular pathways, suggesting that HEV impairs several cellular processes, which can account for the various types of disease expression. Several proteins, such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, apolipoprotein E, and prohibitin, known to be involved in other viral life cycles, were upregulated in HEV-infected livers. Some differences were observed between the three strains, suggesting that HEV's genetic variability may induce variations in pathogenesis. This comparative analysis of the liver proteome modulated during infection with three different strains of HEV genotype 3 provides an important basis for further investigations on the factors involved in HEV replication and the mechanism of HEV pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for acute hepatitis, with clinical symptoms ranging from asymptomatic

  3. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves

    PubMed Central

    Koteneva, Svetlana V.; Semenova, Olga V.; Sergeev, Alexander A.; Titova, Ksenya A.; Morozova, Anastasia A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3–5 days postinfection (p.i.), refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm3), and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4–1 : 16). Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines. PMID:27190687

  4. Performance of commercially available serological diagnostic tests to detect Leishmania infantum infection on experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Ojeda, Ana; Todolí, Felicitat; Alberola, Jordi

    2013-01-31

    Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) is the etiological agent of a widespread serious zoonotic disease that affects both humans and dogs. Prevalence and incidence of the canine infection are important parameters to determine the risk and the ways to control this reemergent zoonosis. Unfortunately, there is not a gold standard test for Leishmania infection. Our aim was to assess the operative validity of commercial tests used to detect antibodies to Leishmania in serum samples from experimental infections. Three ELISA tests (LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test, INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA, and INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET), three immunochromatographic tests (INGEZIM(®) LEISHMACROM, SNAP(®) Leishmania, and WITNESS(®) Leishmania), and one IFAT were evaluated. LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA test achieved the highest sensitivity and accuracy (both 0.98). Specificity was 1 for all tests except for IFAT. All tests but IFAT obtained a positive predictive value of 1, while the maximum negative predictive value was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.93). The best positive likelihood ratio was obtained by INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET (30.26), while the best negative likelihood ratio was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.02). The highest diagnostic odds ratio was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (729.00). The largest area under the ROC curve was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.981). Quantitative ELISA based tests performmed better than qualitative tests ("Rapid Tests"), and the test best suited to detect Leishmania in infected dogs and to provide clinically useful information was LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test. This and other results point also to the need of revising the status of IFAT as a gold standard for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.

  5. Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection Induces Consistent Changes in Circulating MicroRNAs That Are Associated with Nonlytic Hepatocyte Release

    PubMed Central

    El-Diwany, Ramy; Wasilewski, Lisa N.; Witwer, Kenneth W.; Bailey, Justin R.; Page, Kimberly; Ray, Stuart C.; Cox, Andrea L.; Thomas, David L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plasma microRNAs (miRNAs) change in abundance in response to disease and have been associated with liver fibrosis severity in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the early dynamics of miRNA release during acute HCV infection are poorly understood. In addition, circulating miRNA signatures have been difficult to reproduce among separate populations. We studied plasma miRNA abundance during acute HCV infection to identify an miRNA signature of early infection. We measured 754 plasma miRNAs by quantitative PCR array in a discovery cohort of 22 individuals before and during acute HCV infection and after spontaneous resolution (n = 11) or persistence (n = 11) to identify a plasma miRNA signature. The discovery cohort derived from the Baltimore Before and After Acute Study of Hepatitis. During acute HCV infection, increases in miR-122 (P < 0.01) and miR-885-5p (Pcorrected < 0.05) and a decrease in miR-494 (Pcorrected < 0.05) were observed at the earliest time points after virus detection. Changes in miR-122 and miR-885-5p were sustained in persistent (P < 0.001) but not resolved HCV infection. The circulating miRNA signature of acute HCV infection was confirmed in a separate validation cohort that was derived from the San Francisco-based You Find Out (UFO) Study (n = 28). As further confirmation, cellular changes of signature miRNAs were examined in a tissue culture model of HCV in hepatoma cells: HCV infection induced extracellular release of miR-122 and miR-885-5p despite unperturbed intracellular levels. In contrast, miR-494 accumulated intracellularly (P < 0.05). Collectively, these data are inconsistent with necrolytic release of hepatocyte miRNAs into the plasma during acute HCV infection of humans. IMPORTANCE MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that emerging research shows can transmit regulatory signals between cells in health and disease. HCV infects 2% of humans worldwide, and chronic HCV infection is a major cause of severe

  6. Invasive fungal infection of the central nervous system in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Janik-Moszant, Anna; Matyl, Aleksander; Rurańska, Iwona; Machowska-Majchrzak, Agnieszka; Kluczewska, Ewa; Szczepański, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Although the new intensive chemotherapeutic programs introduced recently into hematooncological therapies have led to a higher number of recoveries, persistent neutropenia favours the spread of severe infections, frequently fungal infections. Systemic fungal infections in patients treated for proliferative diseases of the hematopoietic system are characterised by a severe, progressing course and high morbidity. Case Reports: We present a case report that demonstrates the diagnostic problem of lesions in the central nervous system which developed following the fourth block of chemotherapy in an eight-year-old boy treated for acute myeloid leukaemia. The risk factors, high values of the inflammatory parameters and imaging results enabled us to diagnose a fungal infection of the central nervous system. Results: A fast improvement in the clinical condition of the patient after the applied antifungal therapy and the regression of lesions in the central nervous system shown in the imaging studies confirmed our final diagnosis. PMID:22802867

  7. Depletion of alveolar macrophages prolongs survival in response to acute pneumovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Rigaux, Peter; Killoran, Kristin E.; Qiu, Zhijun; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are immunoregulatory effector cells that interact directly with respiratory virus pathogens in vivo. We examined the role of alveolar macrophages in acute infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a rodent pneumovirus that replicates the clinical sequelae of severe human respiratory syncytial virus disease. We show that PVM replicates in primary mouse macrophage culture, releasing infectious virions and proinflammatory cytokines. Alveolar macrophages isolated from PVM-infected mice express activation markers Clec43 and CD86, cytokines TNFα, IL-1, IL-6, and numerous CC and CXC chemokines. Alveolar macrophage depletion prior to PVM infection results in small but statistically significant increases in virus recovery but paradoxically prolonged survival. In parallel, macrophage depleted PVM-infected mice exhibit enhanced NK cell recruitment and increased production of IFNγ by NK, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These results suggest a protective, immunomodulatory role for IFNγ, as overproduction secondary to macrophage depletion may promote survival despite increased virus recovery. PMID:22129848

  8. Analysis of reference gene stability after Israeli acute paralysis virus infection in bumblebees Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jinzhi; Cappelle, Kaat; de Miranda, Joachim R; Smagghe, Guy; Meeus, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    To date, there are no validated internal reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data from virus infection experiments with pollinating insects. In this study we evaluated the stability of five candidate internal reference genes: elongation factor-1-alpha (ELF1α), peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA), 60S ribosomal protein L23 (RPL23), TATA-binding protein (TBP) and polyubiquitin (UBI), in relation to Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) infection of Bombus terrestris. We investigated the stability of these genes: in whole bodies and individual body parts, as well as in whole bodies collected at different time intervals after infection with IAPV. Our data identified PPIA as the single, most-optimal internal reference gene and the combination of PPAI-RPL23-UBI as a fully-sufficient multiple internal reference genes set for IAPV infection experiments in B. terrestris.

  9. Anemia and mechanism of erythrocyte destruction in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon infections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.

    1968-01-01

    In the anemia which accompanies infection by Leucocytozoon simondi in Pekin ducks there was a far greater loss of erythrocytes than could be accounted for as a result of direct physical rupture by the parasite. Erythrocyte loss began at the same time the 1st parasites appeared in the blood and was severest just prior to maximum parasitemia. Blood replacement and parasite loss occurred simultaneously. Examination of the spleen and bone marrow revealed that erythrophagocytosis was not the cause of anemia as reported for infections of Plasmodium, Babesia and Anaplasma. An anti-erythrocyte (A-E) factor was found in the serum of acutely infected ducks which agglutinated and hemolyzed normal untreated duck erythrocytes as well as infected cells. This A-E factor appeared when the 1st red cell loss was detected and reached its maximum titer just prior to the greatest red cell loss. Titers of the A-E factor were determined using normal uninfected erythrocytes at temperatures between 4 and 42 C. Cells agglutinated below 25 C and hemolyzed at 37 and 42 C. These results indicated that the A-E factor could be responsible for loss of cells other than those which were infected and could thus produce an excess loss of red cells. Attempts to implicate the A-E factor as an autoantibody were all negative. The A-E factor was present in the gamma fraction of acute serum but no anamnestic response could be detected when recovered ducks were reinfected. Anemia was never as severe in reinfections as in primary infections. The A-E factor also never reached as high a titer and was removed from the circulation very rapidly in reinfected ducks. It is concluded that red cell loss in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon disease results from intravascular hemolysis rather than erythrophagocytosis. The A-E factor responsible for hemolysis is more likely a parasite product rather than autoantibody.

  10. D-Galactosamine Intoxication in Experimental Animals: Is it Only an Experimental Model of Acute Liver Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Saracyn, Marek; Zdanowski, Robert; Brytan, Marek; Kade, Grzegorz; Nowak, Zbigniew; Patera, Janusz; Dyrla, Przemysław; Gil, Jerzy; Wańkowicz, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term administration of Galactosamine to experimental animals causes liver damage and acute liver failure (ALF), as well as acute renal failure in some cases. The aim of our study was to describe kidney disorders that developed in the course of galactosamine-induced liver failure. Material/Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: a study group administered galactosamine intraperitoneally and a control group administered saline. Results All the animals in the study group developed liver damage and failure within 48 h, with significant increase of alanine (p<0.001), aspartate aminotransferases (p<0.0001), bilirubin (p<0.004), and ammonia (p<0.005) and decrease of albumin (p<0.001) concentrations. Acute renal failure was observed in all test animals, with a significant increase in creatinine (p<0.001) and urea (p<0.001) concentrations and a decrease in creatinine clearance (p<0.0012). Moreover, osmotic clearance (p<0.001), daily natriuresis (p<0.003), and fractional sodium excretion (p<0.016) decreased significantly in this group of animals. The ratio of urine osmolality to serum osmolality did not change. Histopathology of the liver revealed massive necrosis of hepatocytes, whereas renal histopathology showed no changes. Conclusions Acute renal failure that developed in the course of galactosamine-induced ALF was of a functional nature, with the kidneys retaining the ability to concentrate urine and retain sodium, and there were no renal changes in the histopathological examination. It seems that the experimental model of ALF induced by galactosamine can be viewed as a model of hepatorenal syndrome that occurs in the course of acute damage and liver failure. PMID:26009004

  11. [Acute encephalitis. Neuropsychiatric manifestations as expression of influenza virus infection].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Flagge, Noris; Bayard, Vicente; Quirós, Evelia; Alonso, Tomás

    2009-01-01

    The aim is to review the encephalitis in infants and adolescents as well as its etiology, clinical manifestation, epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnostic methods and treatment, and the neuropsyquiatric signs appearing an influenza epidemy. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) which involves the brain. The clinical manifestations usually are: headache, fever and confusional stage. It could also be manifested as seizures, personality changes, or psiqyiatric symptoms. The clinical manifestations are related to the virus and the cell type affected in the brain. A meningitis or encephalopathy need to be ruled out. It could be present as an epidemic or isolated form, beeing this the most frequent form. It could be produced by a great variety of infections agents including virus, bacterias, fungal and parasitic. Viral causes are herpesvirus, arbovirus, rabies and enterovirus. Bacterias such as Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia and Mycoplasma neumoniae. Some fungal causes are: Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum. More than 100 agents are related to encephalitis. The diagnosis of encephalitis is a challenge for the clinician and its infectious etiology is clear in only 40 to 70% of all cases. The diagnosis of encephalitis can be established with absolute certainty only by the microscopic examination of brain tissue. Epidemiology is related to age of the patients, geographic area, season, weather or the host immune system. Early intervention can reduce the mortality rate and sequels. We describe four patients with encephalitis and neuropsychiatric symptoms during an influenza epidemic.

  12. Experimental infection of animals with influenzavirus types A and B.

    PubMed

    Paniker, C K; Nair, C M

    1972-01-01

    The knowledge that domestic cats were susceptible to infection with freshly isolated A/Hong Kong/68 influenzavirus led to studies on the susceptibility of some other animal species to this virus, as well as to studies on the ability of egg-passaged Hong Kong virus and an Asian virus to infect cats. The ability of a recent isolate of influenzavirus B to infect these animals was also studied. Macaca radiata monkeys could be infected with fresh isolates of A/Hong Kong virus by intranasal instillation or by contact with infected animals. They could also be infected with influenzavirus B by intranasal challenge, but contact transmission was not demonstrated. Mongrel dogs were found to be susceptible to A/Hong Kong/68 virus by intranasal instillation, but not to type B virus. Domestic cats could be infected with A/Hong Kong/68 virus passaged 6 times in eggs. They were also susceptible to infection with an established laboratory strain of Asian virus. Cats could be infected with influenzavirus B either by intranasal challenge or by contact with infected animals. In no case was clinical illness found following infection, but the infected animals shed virus from the throat and developed haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies.

  13. Experimental infection of animals with influenzavirus types A and B*

    PubMed Central

    Paniker, C. K. J.; Nair, C. M. G.

    1972-01-01

    The knowledge that domestic cats were susceptible to infection with freshly isolated A/Hong Kong/68 influenzavirus led to studies on the susceptibility of some other animal species to this virus, as well as to studies on the ability of egg-passaged Hong Kong virus and an Asian virus to infect cats. The ability of a recent isolate of influenzavirus B to infect these animals was also studied. Macaca radiata monkeys could be infected with fresh isolates of A/Hong Kong virus by intranasal instillation or by contact with infected animals. They could also be infected with influenzavirus B by intranasal challenge, but contact transmission was not demonstrated. Mongrel dogs were found to be susceptible to A/Hong Kong/68 virus by intranasal instillation, but not to type B virus. Domestic cats could be infected with A/Hong Kong/68 virus passaged 6 times in eggs. They were also susceptible to infection with an established laboratory strain of Asian virus. Cats could be infected with influenzavirus B either by intranasal challenge or by contact with infected animals. In no case was clinical illness found following infection, but the infected animals shed virus from the throat and developed haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies. PMID:4196340

  14. Saving the limb in diabetic patients with ischemic foot lesions complicated by acute infection.

    PubMed

    Clerici, Giacomo; Faglia, Ezio

    2014-12-01

    Ischemia and infection are the most important factors affecting the prognosis of foot ulcerations in diabetic patients. To improve the outcome of these patients, it is necessary to aggressively treat 2 important pathologies--namely, occlusive arterial disease affecting the tibial and femoral arteries and infection of the ischemic diabetic foot. Each of these 2 conditions may lead to major limb amputation, and the presence of both critical limb ischemia (CLI) and acute deep infection is a major risk factor for lower-extremity amputation. Thus, the management of diabetic foot ulcers requires specific therapeutic approaches that vary significantly depending on whether foot lesions are complicated by infection and/or ischemia. A multidisciplinary team approach is the key to successful treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer: ischemic diabetic foot ulcers complicated by acute deep infection pose serious treatment challenges because high levels of skill, organization, accuracy, and timing of intervention are required to maximize the chances of limb salvage: these complex issues are better managed by a multidisciplinary clinical group.

  15. Perceived social support among adults seeking care for acute respiratory tract infections in US EDs.

    PubMed

    Levin, Sara K; Metlay, Joshua P; Maselli, Judith H; Kersey, Ayanna S; Camargo, Carlos A; Gonzales, Ralph

    2009-06-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) provide a disproportionate amount of care to disenfranchised and vulnerable populations. We examined social support levels among a diverse population of adults seeking ED care for acute respiratory tract infections. A convenience sample of adults seeking care in 1 of 15 US EDs was telephone interviewed 1 to 6 weeks postvisit. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (7-point Likert) assessed social support across 3 domains: friends, family, and significant others. Higher scores indicate higher support. Of 1104 subjects enrolled, 704 (64%) completed the follow-up interview. Factor analysis yielded 3 factors. Mean social support score was 5.54 (SD 1.04). Female sex, greater household income, and better health status were independently associated with higher levels of social support. Social support levels among adults seeking care in the ED for acute respiratory tract infections are similar to general population cohorts, suggesting that social support is not a strong determinant of health care seeking in EDs.

  16. Influenza Virus-Associated Fatal Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy: Role of Nonpermissive Viral Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Mungaomklang, Anek; Chomcheoy, Jiraruj; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Joyjinda, Yutthana; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Rodpan, Apaporn; Ghai, Siriporn; Saraya, Abhinbhen; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, two unusual peaks of H1N1 influenza outbreak occurred in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, in Thailand. Among 2,406 cases, one of the 22 deaths in the province included a 6-year-old boy, who initially presented with acute necrotizing encephalopathy. On the other hand, his sibling was mildly affected by the same influenza virus strain, confirmed by whole-genome sequencing, with one silent mutation. Absence of acute necrotizing encephalopathy and other neurological illnesses in the family and the whole province, with near identical whole viral genomic sequences from the two siblings, and an absence of concomitant severe lung infection (cytokine storm) at onset suggest nonpermissive infection as an alternative pathogenetic mechanism of influenza virus. PMID:27812294

  17. Management of acute respiratory infections by community health volunteers: experience of Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC).

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Abdullahel

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of management practices for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in improving the competency of community health volunteers in diagnosing and treating acute respiratory infections among children. METHODS: Data were collected by a group of research physicians who observed the performance of a sample of 120 health volunteers in 10 sub-districts in Bangladesh in which Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) had run a community-based ARI control programme since mid-1992. Standardized tests were conducted until the 95% interphysician reliability on the observation of clinical examination was achieved. FINDINGS:The sensitivity, specificity, and overall agreement rates in diagnosing and treating ARIs were significantly higher among the health volunteers who had basic training and were supervised routinely than among those who had not. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis and treatment of ARIs at the household level in developing countries are possible if intensive basic training and the close supervision of service providers are ensured. PMID:12764514

  18. Capacity of a natural strain of woodchuck hepatitis virus, WHVNY, to induce acute infection in naive adult woodchucks.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Natalia; Lukash, Tetyana; Dudek, Megan; Litwin, Sam; Menne, Stephan; Gudima, Severin O

    2015-07-01

    Woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) is often used as surrogate to study mechanism of HBV infection. Currently, most infections are conducted using strains WHV7 or WHV8 that have very high sequence identity. This study focused on natural strain WHVNY that is more genetically distant from WHV7. Three naive adult woodchucks inoculated with WHVNY developed productive acute infection with long lasting viremia. However, only one of two woodchucks infected with WHV7 at the same multiplicity demonstrated productive liver infection. Quantification of intracellular WHV RNA and DNA replication intermediates; percentages of core antigen-positive hepatocytes; and serum relaxed circular DNA showed that strains WHVNY and WHV7 displayed comparable replication levels and capacities to induce acute infection in naive adult woodchucks. Strain WHVNY was therefore validated as valuable reagent to analyze the mechanism of hepadnavirus infection, especially in co- and super-infection settings, which required discrimination between two related virus genomes replicating in the same liver. PMID:25979221

  19. Acute Shunt Malfunction Caused by Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy without Shunt Infection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jingyu; Ki, Seung Seog

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement is often performed in patients with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and it has been accepted as a safe procedure. The authors report a case of a 50-year-old male who developed acute exacerbation of the hydrocephalus immediately after the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement without any signs of shunt infection, which has not been reported until now. After revision of the intraperitoneal shunt catheter, the sizes of the intracranial ventricles were normalized. PMID:25371790

  20. Adenovirus type 7 associated with severe and fatal acute lower respiratory infections in Argentine children

    PubMed Central

    Carballal, Guadalupe; Videla, Cristina; Misirlian, Alicia; Requeijo, Paula V; Aguilar, María del Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Background Adenoviruses are the second most prevalent cause of acute lower respiratory infection of viral origin in children under four years of age in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical features and outcome of acute lower respiratory infection associated with different adenovirus genotypes in children. Methods Twenty-four cases of acute lower respiratory infection and adenovirus diagnosis reported in a pediatric unit during a two-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Adenovirus was detected by antigen detection and isolation in HEp-2 cells. Adenovirus DNA from 17 isolates was studied by restriction enzyme analysis with Bam HI and Sma I. Results Subgenus b was found in 82.3% of the cases, and subgenus c in 17.7%. Within subgenus b, only genotype 7 was detected, with genomic variant 7h in 85.7% (12/14) and genomic variant 7i in 14.3% (2/14). Mean age was 8.8 ±; 6 months, and male to female ratio was 3.8: 1. At admission, pneumonia was observed in 71% of the cases and bronchiolitis in 29%. Malnutrition occurred in 37% of the cases; tachypnea in 79%; chest indrawing in 66%; wheezing in 58%; apneas in 16%; and conjunctivitis in 29%. Blood cultures for bacteria and antigen detection of other respiratory viruses were negative. During hospitalization, fatality rate was 16.7% (4 /24). Of the patients who died, three had Ad 7h and one Ad 7i. Thus, fatality rate for adenovirus type 7 reached 28.6% (4/14). Conclusions These results show the predominance of adenovirus 7 and high lethality associated with the genomic variants 7h and 7i in children hospitalized with acute lower respiratory infection. PMID:12184818

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Human WU Polyomavirus Isolate Associated with Acute Respiratory Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dehority, Walter N.; Schwalm, Kurt C.; Young, Jesse M.; Gross, Stephen M.; Schroth, Gary P.; Young, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) isolate, NM040708, collected from a patient with an acute respiratory infection in New Mexico. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome of NM040708 is 5,229 bp in length and differs from the WUPyV reference with accession no. NC_009539 by 6 nucleotides and 2 amino acids. PMID:27151782

  2. The plaque-antiserum method: an assay of virus infectivity and an experimental model of virus infection.

    PubMed

    De Flora, S

    1974-05-01

    Areas of cytopathic effect can be circumscribed in cell monolayers by adding antiserum to the liquid nutrient medium after adsorption of virus. This procedure represents a simple and reliable tool for the titration of virus infectivity and provides an experimental model for studying some aspects of virus infection.

  3. HEV infection as an aetiologic factor for acute hepatitis: experience from a tertiary hospital in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mamun-Al-Mahtab; Rahman, Salimur; Khan, Mobin; Karim, Fazal

    2009-02-01

    Acute hepatitis is seen sporadically round the year in Bangladesh. The incidence of acute viral hepatitis E increases after floods as this allows sewerage contamination of piped and groundwater. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the burden of hepatitis E virus (HEV infection) in Bangladesh. Patients attending the Hepatology Unit III of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, during June 2004-December 2006, were included in the study. All viral markers were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study population was divided in four groups. Group 1 included 144 patients with acute viral hepatitis. The inclusion criteria were: nausea and/or vomiting, loss of appetite, serum bilirubin >200 micromol/L, raised serum transaminases, and prothrombin time >3 seconds prolonged beyond control value. In Group 2, there were 31 pregnant women with acute viral hepatitis. All the patients had prodrome, icterus, raised serum bilirubin and raised serum transaminase levels. Group 3 included 23 patients presenting with fulminant hepatic failure. In Group 4, 69 patients with cirrhosis of liver were included. They presented with features of decompensation for the first time. The inclusion criteria were: patients with established cirrhosis with jaundice and/or ascites and/or hepatic encephalopathy. In Group 1, 58.33% of the 144 patients had acute viral hepatitis E. In Group 2, 45.16% of the pregnant women also had acute viral hepatitis E. HEV was responsible for 56.52% cases of fulminant hepatic failure in Group 3. In 21.7% cases in Group 4, decompensation of cirrhosis was due to HEV. Acute viral hepatitis E in the third trimester of pregnancy and HEV-induced fulminant hepatic failure were associated with 80% of mortality despite the best possible care. In this clinical context, acute viral hepatitis E is the leading cause of wide spectrum of liver disease ranging from severe acute viral hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, to decompensation of liver in

  4. Respiratory virus infection as a cause of prolonged symptoms in acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Arola, M; Ziegler, T; Ruuskanen, O

    1990-05-01

    We studied respiratory viruses in 22 children with acute otitis media who had failed to improve after at least 48 hours of antimicrobial therapy. The mean duration of preenrollment antimicrobial therapy was 4.8 days. For comparison we studied 66 children with newly diagnosed acute otitis media. Respiratory viruses were isolated from middle ear fluid or from the nasopharynx, or both, significantly more often in the patients unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy than in the comparison patients (68% vs 41%, p less than 0.05). Viruses were recovered from the middle ear fluid in 32% of the study patients and from 15% of the comparison group. Bacteria were isolated from the middle ear fluid of four (18%) children in the study group; one child had an isolate resistant to initial antimicrobial therapy. All four children with bacteria in the middle ear fluid had evidence of concomitant respiratory virus infection. Our results indicate that respiratory virus infection is often present in patients with acute otitis media unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy, and may explain the prolongation of symptoms of infection. Resistant bacteria seem to be a less common cause of failure of the initial treatment.

  5. Levofloxacin in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Jessina C; Allen, George P; Bearden, David T

    2008-01-01

    Levofloxacin is a widely used fluoroquinolone approved for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis. A comprehensive review of the medical literature identified five publications evaluating levofloxacin for the treatment of either complicated urinary tract infections or acute pyelonephritis. All trials, although variable in their inclusion criteria and levofloxacin dosing strategies, reported microbiologic, clinical, and safety-related outcomes. High microbiologic eradication rates, ranging from 79.8% to 95.3%, were observed in all studies. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated uropathogen. Data on levofloxacin resistance, both at baseline and after therapy, were limited. Clinical success was observed to range from 82.6% to 93% when measured after the completion of therapy. These clinical and microbiologic results were comparable to the fluoroquinolone comparators in all trials. Insufficient data are available to evaluate the outcomes in any meaningful patient subgroups, including catheterized patients, and those with other specific complicating factors. Levofloxacin was well tolerated in these studies, with headache, gastrointenstinal effects, and dizziness being the most commonly reported adverse events. The published data support the use of levofloxacin in complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis. Further trials are necessary to evaluate levofloxacin within specific patient sub-populations. PMID:19209267

  6. Profile of oritavancin and its potential in the treatment of acute bacterial skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Subhashis; Saeed, Usman; Havlichek, Daniel H; Stein, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    Oritavancin, a semisynthetic derivative of the glycopeptide antibiotic chloroeremomycin, received the US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria in adults in August 2014. This novel second-generation semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide antibiotic has activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Oritavancin inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and is rapidly bactericidal against many Gram-positive pathogens. The long half-life of this drug enables a single-dose administration. Oritavancin is not metabolized in the body, and the unchanged drug is slowly excreted by the kidneys. In two large Phase III randomized, double-blind, clinical trials, oritavancin was found to be non-inferior to vancomycin in achieving the primary composite end point in the treatment of acute Gram-positive skin and skin structure infections. Adverse effects noted were mostly mild with nausea, headache, and vomiting being the most common reported side effects. Oritavancin has emerged as another useful antimicrobial agent for treatment of acute Gram-positive skin and skin structure infections, including those caused by MRSA and VISA. PMID:26185459

  7. Rapid Development of gp120-Focused Neutralizing B Cell Responses during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Amos, Joshua D.; Himes, Jonathon E.; Armand, Lawrence; Gurley, Thaddeus C.; Martinez, David R.; Colvin, Lisa; Beck, Krista; Overman, R. Glenn; Liao, Hua-Xin; Moody, M. Anthony

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The initial phases of acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection may be critical for development of effective envelope (Env)-specific antibodies capable of impeding the establishment of the latent pool of HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells, preventing virus-induced immune hyperactivation to limit disease progression and blocking vertical virus transmission. However, the initial systemic HIV-1 Env-specific antibody response targets gp41 epitopes and fails to control acute-phase viremia. African-origin, natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) hosts do not typically progress to AIDS and rarely postnatally transmit virus to their infants, despite high milk viral loads. Conversely, SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs), Asian-origin nonnatural SIV hosts, sustain pathogenic SIV infections and exhibit higher rates of postnatal virus transmission. In this study, of acute SIV infection, we compared the initial systemic Env-specific B cell responses of AGMs and RMs in order to probe potential factors influencing the lack of disease progression observed in AGMs. AGMs developed higher-magnitude plasma gp120-specific IgA and IgG responses than RMs, whereas RMs developed more robust gp140-directed IgG responses. These gp120-focused antibody responses were accompanied by rapid autologous neutralizing responses during acute SIV infection in AGMs compared to RMs. Moreover, acute SIV infection elicited a higher number of circulating Env-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood of AGMs than in the blood of RMs. These findings indicate that AGMs have initial systemic Env-specific B cell responses to SIV infection distinct from those of a nonnatural SIV host, resulting in more functional SIV-specific humoral responses, which may be involved in impairing pathogenic disease progression and minimizing postnatal transmission. IMPORTANCE Due to the worldwide prevalence of HIV-1 infections, development of a vaccine to prevent infection or limit the viral reservoir

  8. Immunoglobulin G antibody response in children and adults with acute dengue 3 infection.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Susana; Acosta, Nadia; Ruiz, Didye; Calzada, Naifi; Alvarez, Angel M; Guzman, Maria G

    2009-07-01

    Using a serological test, different criteria have been established for classifying a case as primary or secondary dengue virus infection. Considering the dengue epidemiological situation in Cuba, IgG antibody response to dengue virus infection in serum samples from children and adults with a dengue 3 infection, in Havana city during the 2001-2002 epidemic was evaluated. Samples were collected on days 5-7 of fever onset and tested by an ELISA inhibition. A total of 713 serum samples positive for IgM antibody, 93 from children and 620 from adult patients were studied. Serum samples collected from healthy blood donors and patients not infected with dengue were included as controls. An IgG primary infection pattern was observed in sera collected from children, with titers of < or =20 in the 89.3% of the patients, while both, a primary and secondary patterns were observed in sera collected from adult patients with titers of < or =20 (13.4%) and > or =1280 (83.9%), respectively. These results permitted the definition of a primary or secondary case of dengue virus infection in serum samples collected during the acute phase of dengue virus infection.

  9. Induction of alternatively activated macrophages enhances pathogenesis during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Page, Carly; Goicochea, Lindsay; Matthews, Krystal; Zhang, Yong; Klover, Peter; Holtzman, Michael J; Hennighausen, Lothar; Frieman, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes acute lung injury (ALI) that often leads to severe lung disease. A mouse model of acute SARS-CoV infection has been helpful in understanding the host response to infection; however, there are still unanswered questions concerning SARS-CoV pathogenesis. We have shown that STAT1 plays an important role in the severity of SARS-CoV pathogenesis and that it is independent of the role of STAT1 in interferon signaling. Mice lacking STAT1 have greater weight loss, severe lung pathology with pre-pulmonary-fibrosis-like lesions, and an altered immune response following infection with SARS-CoV. We hypothesized that STAT1 plays a role in the polarization of the immune response, specifically in macrophages, resulting in a worsened outcome. To test this, we created bone marrow chimeras and cell-type-specific knockouts of STAT1 to identify which cell type(s) is critical to protection from severe lung disease after SARS-CoV infection. Bone marrow chimera experiments demonstrated that hematopoietic cells are responsible for the pathogenesis in STAT1(-/-) mice, and because of an induction of alternatively activated (AA) macrophages after infection, we hypothesized that the AA macrophages were critical for disease severity. Mice with STAT1 in either monocytes and macrophages (LysM/STAT1) or ciliated lung epithelial cells (FoxJ1/STAT1) deleted were created. Following infection, LysM/STAT1 mice display severe lung pathology, while FoxJ1/STAT1 mice display normal lung pathology. We hypothesized that AA macrophages were responsible for this STAT1-dependent pathology and therefore created STAT1/STAT6(-/-) double-knockout mice. STAT6 is essential for the development of AA macrophages. Infection of the double-knockout mice displayed a lack of lung disease and prefibrotic lesions, suggesting that AA macrophage production may be the cause of STAT1-dependent lung disease. We propose that the control of AA

  10. Default in plasma and intestinal IgA responses during acute infection by simian immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Conflicting results regarding changes in mucosal IgA production or in the proportions of IgA plasma cells in the small and large intestines during HIV-infection have been previously reported. Except in individuals repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 but yet remaining uninfected, HIV-specific IgAs are frequently absent in mucosal secretions from HIV-infected patients. However, little is known about the organization and functionality of mucosal B-cell follicles in acute HIV/SIV infection during which a T-dependent IgA response should have been initiated. In the present study, we evaluated changes in B-cell and T-cell subsets as well as the extent of apoptosis and class-specific plasma cells in Peyer’s Patches, isolated lymphoid follicles, and lamina propria. Plasma levels of IgA, BAFF and APRIL were also determined. Results Plasma IgA level was reduced by 46% by 28 days post infection (dpi), and no IgA plasma cells were found within germinal centers of Peyer’s Patches and isolated lymphoid follicles. This lack of a T-dependent IgA response occurs although germinal centers remained functional with no sign of follicular damage, while a prolonged survival of follicular CD4+ T-cells and normal generation of IgG plasma cells is observed. Whereas the average plasma BAFF level was increased by 4.5-fold and total plasma cells were 1.7 to 1.9-fold more numerous in the lamina propria, the relative proportion of IgA plasma cells in this effector site was reduced by 19% (duodemun) to 35% (ileum) at 28 dpi. Conclusion Our data provide evidence that SIV is unable to initiate a T-dependent IgA response during the acute phase of infection and favors the production of IgG (ileum) or IgM (duodenum) plasma cells at the expense of IgA plasma cells. Therefore, an early and generalized default in IgA production takes place during the acute of phase of HIV/SIV infection, which might impair not only the virus-specific antibody response but also IgA responses to other pathogens and

  11. Validating a decision tree for serious infection: diagnostic accuracy in acutely ill children in ambulatory care

    PubMed Central

    Verbakel, Jan Y; Lemiengre, Marieke B; De Burghgraeve, Tine; De Sutter, An; Aertgeerts, Bert; Bullens, Dominique M A; Shinkins, Bethany; Van den Bruel, Ann; Buntinx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute infection is the most common presentation of children in primary care with only few having a serious infection (eg, sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia). To avoid complications or death, early recognition and adequate referral are essential. Clinical prediction rules have the potential to improve diagnostic decision-making for rare but serious conditions. In this study, we aimed to validate a recently developed decision tree in a new but similar population. Design Diagnostic accuracy study validating a clinical prediction rule. Setting and participants Acutely ill children presenting to ambulatory care in Flanders, Belgium, consisting of general practice and paediatric assessment in outpatient clinics or the emergency department. Intervention Physicians were asked to score the decision tree in every child. Primary outcome measures The outcome of interest was hospital admission for at least 24 h with a serious infection within 5 days after initial presentation. We report the diagnostic accuracy of the decision tree in sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and predictive values. Results In total, 8962 acute illness episodes were included, of which 283 lead to admission to hospital with a serious infection. Sensitivity of the decision tree was 100% (95% CI 71.5% to 100%) at a specificity of 83.6% (95% CI 82.3% to 84.9%) in the general practitioner setting with 17% of children testing positive. In the paediatric outpatient and emergency department setting, sensitivities were below 92%, with specificities below 44.8%. Conclusions In an independent validation cohort, this clinical prediction rule has shown to be extremely sensitive to identify children at risk of hospital admission for a serious infection in general practice, making it suitable for ruling out. Trial registration number NCT02024282. PMID:26254472

  12. Gamma interferon expression during acute and latent nervous system infection by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Cantin, E M; Hinton, D R; Chen, J; Openshaw, H

    1995-01-01

    This study was initiated to evaluate a role for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. At the acute stage of infection in mice, HSV-1 replication in trigeminal ganglia and brain stem tissue was modestly but consistently enhanced in mice from which IFN-gamma was by ablated monoclonal antibody treatment and in mice genetically lacking the IFN-gamma receptor (Rgko mice). As determined by reverse transcriptase PCR, IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha transcripts were present in trigeminal ganglia during both acute and latent HSV-1 infection. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were detected initially in trigeminal ganglia at day 5 after HSV-1 inoculation, and these cells persisted for 6 months into latency. The T cells were focused around morphologically normal neurons that showed no signs of active infection, but many of which expressed HSV-1 latency-associated transcripts. Secreted IFN-gamma was present up to 6 months into latency in areas of the T-cell infiltration. By 9 months into latency, both the T-cell infiltrate and IFN-gamma expression had cleared, although there remained a slight increase in macrophage levels in trigeminal ganglia. In HSV-1-infected brain stem tissue, T cells and IFN-gamma expression were present at 1 month but were gone by 6 months after infection. Our hypothesis is that the persistence of T cells and the sustained IFN-gamma expression occur in response to an HSV-1 antigen(s) in the nervous system. This hypothesis is consistent with a new model of HSV-1 latency which suggests that limited HSV-1 antigen expression occurs during latency (M. Kosz-Vnenchak, J. Jacobson, D.M. Coen, and D.M. Knipe, J. Virol. 67:5383-5393, 1993). We speculate that prolonged secretion of IFN-gamma during latency may modulate a reactivated HSV-1 infection. PMID:7609058

  13. Respiratory and neurological disease in rabbits experimentally infected with equid herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed

    Kanitz, Fábio A; Cargnelutti, Juliana F; Anziliero, Deniz; Gonçalves, Kelley V; Masuda, Eduardo K; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F

    2015-10-01

    Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is an important pathogen of horses worldwide, associated with respiratory, reproductive and/or neurological disease. A mouse model for EHV-1 infection has been established but fails to reproduce some important aspects of the viral pathogenesis. Then, we investigated the susceptibility of rabbits to EHV-1 aiming at proposing this species as an alternative model for EHV-1 infection. Weanling rabbits inoculated intranasal with EHV-1 Kentucky D (10(7) TCID50/animal) shed virus in nasal secretions up to day 8-10 post-inoculation (pi), presented viremia up to day 14 pi and seroconverted to EHV-1 (virus neutralizing titers 4 to 64). Most rabbits (75%) developed respiratory disease, characterized by serous to hemorrhagic nasal discharge and mild to severe dyspnea. Some animals (20%) presented neurological signs as circling, bruxism and opisthotonus. Six animals died during acute disease (days 3-6); infectious virus and/or viral DNA were detected in the lungs, trigeminal ganglia (TG), olfactory bulbs (OBs) and cerebral cortex/brain (CC). Histological examination showed necrohemorrhagic, multifocal to coalescent bronchointerstitial pneumonia and diffuse alveolar edema. In two rabbits euthanized at day 50 pi, latent EHV-1 DNA was detected in the OBs. Dexamethasone administration at day 50 pi resulted in virus reactivation, demonstrated by virus shedding, viremia, clinical signs, and increase in VN titers and/or by detection of virus DNA in lungs, OBs, TGs and/or CC. These results demonstrate that rabbits are susceptible to EHV-1 infection and develop respiratory and neurological signs upon experimental inoculation. Thus, rabbits may be used to study selected aspects of EHV-1 biology and pathogenesis, extending and complementing the mouse model. PMID:26187161

  14. Respiratory and neurological disease in rabbits experimentally infected with equid herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed

    Kanitz, Fábio A; Cargnelutti, Juliana F; Anziliero, Deniz; Gonçalves, Kelley V; Masuda, Eduardo K; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F

    2015-10-01

    Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is an important pathogen of horses worldwide, associated with respiratory, reproductive and/or neurological disease. A mouse model for EHV-1 infection has been established but fails to reproduce some important aspects of the viral pathogenesis. Then, we investigated the susceptibility of rabbits to EHV-1 aiming at proposing this species as an alternative model for EHV-1 infection. Weanling rabbits inoculated intranasal with EHV-1 Kentucky D (10(7) TCID50/animal) shed virus in nasal secretions up to day 8-10 post-inoculation (pi), presented viremia up to day 14 pi and seroconverted to EHV-1 (virus neutralizing titers 4 to 64). Most rabbits (75%) developed respiratory disease, characterized by serous to hemorrhagic nasal discharge and mild to severe dyspnea. Some animals (20%) presented neurological signs as circling, bruxism and opisthotonus. Six animals died during acute disease (days 3-6); infectious virus and/or viral DNA were detected in the lungs, trigeminal ganglia (TG), olfactory bulbs (OBs) and cerebral cortex/brain (CC). Histological examination showed necrohemorrhagic, multifocal to coalescent bronchointerstitial pneumonia and diffuse alveolar edema. In two rabbits euthanized at day 50 pi, latent EHV-1 DNA was detected in the OBs. Dexamethasone administration at day 50 pi resulted in virus reactivation, demonstrated by virus shedding, viremia, clinical signs, and increase in VN titers and/or by detection of virus DNA in lungs, OBs, TGs and/or CC. These results demonstrate that rabbits are susceptible to EHV-1 infection and develop respiratory and neurological signs upon experimental inoculation. Thus, rabbits may be used to study selected aspects of EHV-1 biology and pathogenesis, extending and complementing the mouse model.

  15. The Effect of Statins Use on the Risk and Outcome of Acute Bacterial Infections in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Raheb; Afshar, Reza Kiaee

    2015-01-01

    Background Beyond their lipid-lowering abilities, statins have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. In view of these effects, a growing interest has emerged in the possible role of statins, in preventing or decreasing morbidity and mortality from infection. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether previous statin use is associated with reduced risk of acute bacterial infections and better outcome of these infections. Materials and Methods In this historical cohort study, consecutive adult patients admitted with acute bacterial infection were enrolled. Control group were selected from adult outpatient and without history of acute bacterial infections. Acute bacterial infections included in this study were; pneumonia, acute pyelonephritis, cellulitis and sepsis with unknown origin. Data about baseline characteristics, co-morbidities and statins use of two groups was obtained. Results Finally 144 patients met inclusion criteria and were enrolled. Same numbers of controls were selected. Two groups were matched based on most baseline characteristics and co-morbidities. The patients’ categories were as follows: pneumonia 42.3%, acute pyelonephritis 23.6%, cellulitis 16% and sepsis 18%. From all participants 29.9% of patients and 45.8% controls were statin users. There was significant association between previous statin use and reduced risk of acute bacterial infections (Mantel Haenszel Weighted Odds Ratio=0.51, 95% CI: 0.30-0.85, p=0.009). Duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter in statin users (p=0.002). Hospital mortality rate was lower (14.6%) in statins users when compared with non-users (18.8%) with significant difference (p=0.028). Conclusion Prior therapy with statins is associated with considerably reduced onset of acute bacterial infections and better outcome in adult patients. PMID:26676277

  16. Virological Characteristics of Acute Hepatitis B in Eastern India: Critical Differences with Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Neelakshi; Pal, Ananya; Das, Dipanwita; Saha, Debraj; Biswas, Avik; Bandopadhayay, Bhaswati; Chakraborti, Mandira; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Chakravarty, Runu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) manifests high genetic variability and is classifiable into ten genotypes (A-J). HBV infection can lead to variable clinical outcomes, ranging from self-limiting acute hepatitis to active chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study characterizes HBV strains circulating among patients with acute (AHB) and chronic HBV infection (CHB). Among a total of 653 HBsAg positive cases, 40 manifested acute infection. After sequencing the surface(S), basal core promoter/pre-core(BCP/PC) and the X gene regions, phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA4 by neighbor-joining method. Statistical robustness was established with bootstrap analysis. Nucleotide diversity was determined by Shannon entropy per site using the Entropy program of the Los Alamos National Laboratories. Analyses of acute patients revealed that HBV/D2 is the major circulating sub-genotype and commonly associated with sexual promiscuity and the age group between15-30 years. Comparison of AHB and CHB patients revealed that HBeAg positivity, ALT levels and genotype D were significantly high in AHB, whereas CHB patients were predominantly male, had a high viral load, and were commonly associated with genotype C. The frequencies of mutations in the S, BCP/PC, and X gene were low in AHB as compared to CHB. Drug resistant mutations were not detectable in the polymerase gene of AHB. Average nucleotide diversity in AHB was considerably low as compared to CHB. Further, the highest average ΔH (average difference in entropy between chronic and acute infection) was observed in the BCP/PC region implying that this region was most vulnerable to mutations upon HBV persistence, especially in case of genotype C. Additionally, among all substitutions, the A1762T and G1764A BCP mutations were the strongest indicators of chronicity. In conclusion, the study exhibits a general portrait of HBV strains circulating among acute hepatitis B patients in Eastern India and their

  17. The Bama miniature swine is susceptible to experimental HEV infection

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zi-Min; Wang, Si-Ling; Ying, Dong; Wen, Gui-Ping; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Ji, Wen-Fang; Yang, Ming; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of enterically transmitted hepatitis worldwide. Although the mortality rates associated with HEV are generally low, they can be up to 28% in HEV-infected pregnant women, and the elderly are more susceptible. The reasons for this selective severity are unclear, partially because there is no suitable, easy-to-use model in which to study HEV infection. Non-human primates and standard swine have been identified as being sensitive to infection with HEV and have been used for HEV infection studies. However, studies in these animals have been limited by high housing costs and the difficulty of manipulating these animals. In the current study, we established a model of HEV infection using Bama miniature swine. The model is easy to use and is sensitive to infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4, which are classified as zoonotic HEVs. In this model, infection of Bama miniature swine with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 caused the typical features. All Bama miniature swine that were infected with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 exhibited significant HEV viremia, shedding, anti-HEV antibody responses and partial liver inflammation. Bama miniature swine may serve as an alternative to standard swine models for the study of zoonotic HEV infection and HEV genotype specificity research. PMID:27534702

  18. The Bama miniature swine is susceptible to experimental HEV infection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zi-Min; Wang, Si-Ling; Ying, Dong; Wen, Gui-Ping; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Ji, Wen-Fang; Yang, Ming; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of enterically transmitted hepatitis worldwide. Although the mortality rates associated with HEV are generally low, they can be up to 28% in HEV-infected pregnant women, and the elderly are more susceptible. The reasons for this selective severity are unclear, partially because there is no suitable, easy-to-use model in which to study HEV infection. Non-human primates and standard swine have been identified as being sensitive to infection with HEV and have been used for HEV infection studies. However, studies in these animals have been limited by high housing costs and the difficulty of manipulating these animals. In the current study, we established a model of HEV infection using Bama miniature swine. The model is easy to use and is sensitive to infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4, which are classified as zoonotic HEVs. In this model, infection of Bama miniature swine with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 caused the typical features. All Bama miniature swine that were infected with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 exhibited significant HEV viremia, shedding, anti-HEV antibody responses and partial liver inflammation. Bama miniature swine may serve as an alternative to standard swine models for the study of zoonotic HEV infection and HEV genotype specificity research. PMID:27534702

  19. [Interaction of the Siberian and Far Eastern subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus in mammals with mixed infection. Competition of the subtypes in acute and inapparent infection].

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, S G; Pogodina, V V; Koliasnikova, N M; Karan', L S; Malenko, G V; Levina, L S

    2011-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of natural tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) populations could reveal the change of TBEV subtypes, the displacement of the Far Eastern (FE) subtype, and its substitution for the Siberian (Sib) subtype. Acute and inapparent mixed infections were studied in Syrian hamsters to understand this phenomenon. The animals were inoculated with the Sib subtype and then with the FE one of TBEV (JQ845440-YaroslavI-Aver-08 and Fj214132-Kemerovo-Phateev-1954 strains). The inapparent form developed more frequently in mixed infection. Viral progeny was genotyped by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and hybridization fluorescence detection using genotype-specific probes. Independent reproduction of strains in the brain gave way to competition. The FE subtype dominated in hamster youngsters with acute infection. The Sib subtype had selective benefits in asymptomatic infection (adult hamsters infected intracerebrally and subcutaneously and youngsters infected subcutaneously). The competition of the subtypes was imperfect.

  20. In vivo infection of IgG-containing cells by Jembrana disease virus during acute infection

    SciTech Connect

    Desport, Moira; Tenaya, I.W. Masa; McLachlan, Alexander; McNab, Tegan J.; Rachmat, Judhi; Hartaningsih, Nining; Wilcox, Graham E.

    2009-10-25

    Jembrana disease virus (JDV) is an unusual bovine lentivirus which causes a non-follicular proliferation of lymphocytes, a transient immunosuppression and a delayed humoral response in infected Bali cattle in Indonesia. A double-immunofluorescent labeling method was developed to identify the subset of mononuclear cells in which the viral capsid protein could be detected. Viral antigen was present in pleomorphic centroblast-like cells which were identified as IgG-containing cells, including plasma cells, in lymphoid tissues. There was no evidence of infection of CD3{sup +} T-cells or MAC387{sup +} monocytes in tissues but large vacuolated cells with a macrophage-like morphology in the lung were found to contain viral antigen although they could not be shown conclusively to be infected. The tropism of JDV for mature IgG-containing cells may be relevant to understanding the pathogenesis of Jembrana disease, the delayed antibody responses and the genetic composition of this atypical lentivirus.

  1. Norovirus Antagonism of B cell Antigen Presentation Results in Impaired Control of Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu; Jones, Melissa K.; Hickman, Danielle; Han, Shuhong; Reeves, Westley; Karst, Stephanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis so vaccine development is desperately needed. Elucidating viral mechanisms of immune antagonism can provide key insight into designing effective immunization platforms. We recently revealed that B cells are targets of norovirus infection. Because noroviruses can regulate antigen presentation by infected macrophages and B cells can function as antigen presenting cells, we tested whether noroviruses regulate B cell-mediated antigen presentation and the biological consequence of such regulation. Indeed, murine noroviruses could prevent B cell expression of antigen presentation molecules and this directly correlated with impaired control of acute infection. In addition to B cells, acute control required MHC class I molecules, CD8+ T cells, and granzymes, supporting a model whereby B cells act as antigen presenting cells to activate cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. This immune pathway was active prior to the induction of antiviral antibody responses. As in macrophages, the minor structural protein VP2 regulated B cell antigen presentation in a virus-specific manner. Commensal bacteria were not required for activation of this pathway and ultimately only B cells were required for clearance of viral infection. These findings provide new insight into the role of B cells in stimulating antiviral CD8+ T cell responses. PMID:27007673

  2. A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Updates

    PubMed Central

    Yokoe, Deborah S.; Anderson, Deverick J.; Berenholtz, Sean M.; Calfee, David P.; Dubberke, Erik R.; Ellingson, Katherine D.; Gerding, Dale N.; Haas, Janet P.; Kaye, Keith S.; Klompas, Michael; Lo, Evelyn; Marschall, Jonas; Mermel, Leonard A.; Nicolle, Lindsay E.; Salgado, Cassandra D.; Bryant, Kristina; Classen, David; Crist, Katrina; Deloney, Valerie M.; Fishman, Neil O.; Foster, Nancy; Goldmann, Donald A.; Humphreys, Eve; Jernigan, John A.; Padberg, Jennifer; Perl, Trish M.; Podgorny, Kelly; Septimus, Edward J.; VanAmringe, Margaret; Weaver, Tom; Weinstein, Robert A.; Wise, Robert; Maragakis, Lisa L.

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of “A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals” in 2008, prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) has become a national priority. Despite improvements, preventable HAIs continue to occur. The 2014 updates to the Compendium were created to provide acute care hospitals with up-to-date, practical, expert guidance to assist in prioritizing and implementing their HAI prevention efforts. They are the product of a highly collaborative effort led by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), the Society for Hospital Medicine (SHM), and the Surgical Infection Society (SIS). PMID:25026611

  3. A novel association of acquired ADAMTS13 inhibitor and acute dengue virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Fernanda C.; Angerami, Rodrigo N.; de Paula, Erich V.; Orsi, Fernanda L.; Shang, Dezhi; del Guercio, Vânia M.; Resende, Mariângela R.; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M.; da Silva, Luiz J.; Zheng, X. Long; Castro, Vagner

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease with an increasing incidence worldwide. Thrombocytopenia is a common finding in dengue virus (DV) infection; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. CASE REPORT Here we provide the first evidence of a case of antibody formation against ADAMTS13 (ADAMTS13 inhibitor) in the course of a severe acute DV infection resulting in thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). The patient presented with classical dengue symptoms (positive epidemiology, high fever, myalgia, predominantly in the lower limbs and lumbar region for 1 week) and, after 11 days of initial symptoms, developed TMA. Clinical and laboratorial investigation of dengue and TMA was performed. RESULTS The patient presented with ADAMTS13 inhibitor (IgG) during the acute phase of the disease, without anti-platelet antibodies detectable. Dengue infection had laboratorial confirmation. There were excellent clinical and laboratory responses to 11 serial plasma exchanges. Anti-ADAMTS13 inhibitor disappeared after remission of TMA and dengue resolution. No recurrence of TMA symptoms was observed after 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Although the real incidence of dengue-related TMA is unknown, this case provides the basis for future epidemiologic studies on acquired ADAMTS13 deficiency in DV infection. The prompt clinical recognition of this complication and early installment of specific therapy with plasma exchange are likely to improve the outcome of severe cases of dengue. PMID:19788513

  4. A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Updates.

    PubMed

    Yokoe, Deborah S; Anderson, Deverick J; Berenholtz, Sean M; Calfee, David P; Dubberke, Erik R; Ellingson, Katherine D; Gerding, Dale N; Haas, Janet P; Kaye, Keith S; Klompas, Michael; Lo, Evelyn; Marschall, Jonas; Mermel, Leonard A; Nicolle, Lindsay E; Salgado, Cassandra D; Bryant, Kristina; Classen, David; Crist, Katrina; Deloney, Valerie M; Fishman, Neil O; Foster, Nancy; Goldmann, Donald A; Humphreys, Eve; Jernigan, John A; Padberg, Jennifer; Perl, Trish M; Podgorny, Kelly; Septimus, Edward J; VanAmringe, Margaret; Weaver, Tom; Weinstein, Robert A; Wise, Robert; Maragakis, Lisa L

    2014-08-01

    Since the publication of "A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals" in 2008, prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) has become a national priority. Despite improvements, preventable HAIs continue to occur. The 2014 updates to the Compendium were created to provide acute care hospitals with up-to-date, practical, expert guidance to assist in prioritizing and implementing their HAI prevention efforts. They are the product of a highly collaborative effort led by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), the Society for Hospital Medicine (SHM), and the Surgical Infection Society (SIS).

  5. Genomic and functional analysis of the host response to acute simian varicella infection in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Nicole; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Rais, Maham; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is the causative agent of varicella and herpes zoster. Although it is well established that VZV is transmitted via the respiratory route, the host-pathogen interactions during acute VZV infection in the lungs remain poorly understood due to limited access to clinical samples. To address these gaps in our knowledge, we leveraged a nonhuman primate model of VZV infection where rhesus macaques are intrabronchially challenged with the closely related Simian Varicella Virus (SVV). Acute infection is characterized by immune infiltration of the lung airways, a significant up-regulation of genes involved in antiviral-immunity, and a down-regulation of genes involved in lung development. This is followed by a decrease in viral loads and increased expression of genes associated with cell cycle and tissue repair. These data provide the first characterization of the host response required to control varicella virus replication in the lung and provide insight into mechanisms by which VZV infection can cause lung injury in an immune competent host. PMID:27677639

  6. A compendium of strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections in acute care hospitals: 2014 updates.

    PubMed

    Yokoe, Deborah S; Anderson, Deverick J; Berenholtz, Sean M; Calfee, David P; Dubberke, Erik R; Ellingson, Katherine D; Gerding, Dale N; Haas, Janet P; Kaye, Keith S; Klompas, Michael; Lo, Evelyn; Marschall, Jonas; Mermel, Leonard A; Nicolle, Lindsay E; Salgado, Cassandra D; Bryant, Kristina; Classen, David; Crist, Katrina; Deloney, Valerie M; Fishman, Neil O; Foster, Nancy; Goldmann, Donald A; Humphreys, Eve; Jernigan, John A; Padberg, Jennifer; Perl, Trish M; Podgorny, Kelly; Septimus, Edward J; VanAmringe, Margaret; Weaver, Tom; Weinstein, Robert A; Wise, Robert; Maragakis, Lisa L

    2014-08-01

    Since the publication of "A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals" in 2008, prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) has become a national priority. Despite improvements, preventable HAIs continue to occur. The 2014 updates to the Compendium were created to provide acute care hospitals with up-to-date, practical, expert guidance to assist in prioritizing and implementing their HAI prevention efforts. They are the product of a highly collaborative effort led by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), the Society for Hospital Medicine (SHM), and the Surgical Infection Society (SIS).

  7. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lager, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. We report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions. PMID:27315363

  8. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A

    DOE PAGES

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lager, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. Here we report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions.

  9. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. We report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions. PMID:27315363

  10. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lager, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. We report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions.

  11. [Experimental infection caused by Machupo virus in intact and immunosuppressed albino mice].

    PubMed

    Orlova, S V; Votiakov, V I

    1989-01-01

    Features of the course of experimental infection in white mice caused by Machupo virus in relation to their age, route of virus inoculation, and under conditions of normal and suppressed immune response created by antithymocyte globulin (ATG) were studied. The effect of different ATG doses and intervals of its administration on the experimental infection were demonstrated.

  12. Cost-effective Screening for Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Linas, Benjamin P.; Wong, Angela Y.; Schackman, Bruce R.; Kim, Arthur Y.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. We used a Monte Carlo computer simulation to estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men. Methods. One-time screening for prevalent HCV infection was performed at the time of enrollment in care, followed by either symptom-based screening, screening with liver function tests (LFTs), HCV antibody (Ab) screening, or HCV RNA screening in various combinations and intervals. We considered both treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PEG/RBV) alone and with an HCV protease inhibitor. Outcome measures were life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy, direct medical costs, and cost-effectiveness, assuming a societal willingness to pay $100 000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Results. All strategies increased life expectancy (from 0.49 to 0.94 life-months), quality-adjusted life expectancy (from 0.47 to 1.00 quality-adjusted life-months), and costs (from $1900 to $7600), compared with symptom-based screening. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of screening with 6-month LFTs and a 12-month HCV Ab test, compared with symptom-based screening, was $43 700/QALY (for PEG/RBV alone) and $57 800/QALY (for PEG/RBV plus HCV protease inhibitor). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of screening with 3-month LFTs, compared with 6-month LFTs plus a 12-month HCV Ab test, was $129 700/QALY (for PEG/RBV alone) and $229 900/QALY (for PEG/RBV plus HCV protease inhibitor). With HCV protease inhibitor–based therapy, screening with 6-month LFTs and a 12-month HCV Ab test was the optimal strategy when the HCV infection incidence was ≤1.25 cases/100 person-years. The 3-month LFT strategy was optimal when the incidence was >1.25 cases/100 person-years. Conclusions. Screening for acute HCV infection in HIV-infected MSM prolongs life expectancy and is cost-effective. Depending on incidence

  13. Pathology of experimental aerosol Zaire ebolavirus infection in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Twenhafel, N A; Mattix, M E; Johnson, J C; Robinson, C G; Pratt, W D; Cashman, K A; Wahl-Jensen, V; Terry, C; Olinger, G G; Hensley, L E; Honko, A N

    2013-05-01

    There is limited knowledge of the pathogenesis of human ebolavirus infections and no reported human cases acquired by the aerosol route. There is a threat of ebolavirus as an aerosolized biological weapon, and this study evaluated the pathogenesis of aerosol infection in 18 rhesus macaques. Important and unique findings include early infection of the respiratory lymphoid tissues, early fibrin deposition in the splenic white pulp, and perivasculitis and vasculitis in superficial dermal blood vessels of haired skin with rash. Initial infection occurred in the respiratory lymphoid tissues, fibroblastic reticular cells, dendritic cells, alveolar macrophages, and blood monocytes. Virus spread to regional lymph nodes, where significant viral replication occurred. Virus secondarily infected many additional blood monocytes and spread from the respiratory tissues to multiple organs, including the liver and spleen. Viremia, increased temperature, lymphocytopenia, neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia, and increased alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, total bilirubin, serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, and hypoalbuminemia were measurable mid to late infection. Infection progressed rapidly with whole-body destruction of lymphoid tissues, hepatic necrosis, vasculitis, hemorrhage, and extravascular fibrin accumulation. Hypothermia and thrombocytopenia were noted in late stages with the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation and shock. This study provides unprecedented insight into pathogenesis of human aerosol Zaire ebolavirus infection and suggests development of a medical countermeasure to aerosol infection will be a great challenge due to massive early infection of respiratory lymphoid tissues. Rhesus macaques may be used as a model of aerosol infection that will allow the development of lifesaving medical countermeasures under the Food and Drug Administration's animal rule.

  14. Experimental infection of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas spat by ostreid herpesvirus 1: demonstration of oyster spat susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 and 2009, acute mortalities occurred in France among Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, spat. Different hypothesis including the implication of environmental factors, toxic algae and/or pathogens have been explored. Diagnostic tests indicated that OsHV-1 including a particular genotype, termed OsHV-1 μVar, was detected in most of samples and especially in moribund oysters with the highlighting of virus particles looking like herpes viruses by TEM examination. In this study, an experimental protocol to reproduce OsHV-1 infection in laboratory conditions was developed. This protocol was based on the intramuscular injection of filtered (0.22 μm) tissue homogenates prepared from naturally OsHV-1 infected spat collected on French coasts during mortality outbreaks in 2008. Results of the experimental trials showed that mortalities were induced after injection. Moreover, filtered tissue homogenates induced mortalities whereas the same tissue homogenates exposed to an ultraviolet (UV) treatment did not induce any mortality suggesting that oyster spat mortalities require the presence of a UV sensitive agent. Furthermore, analysis of injected oyster spat revealed the detection of high amounts of OsHV-1 DNA by real-time quantitative PCR. Finally, TEM analysis demonstrated the presence of herpes virus particles. The developed protocol allowed to maintain sources of infective virus which can be useful for the development of further studies concerning the transmission and the development of OsHV-1 infection. PMID:21314910

  15. Altered Memory Circulating T Follicular Helper-B Cell Interaction in Early Acute HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Roshell; Metcalf, Talibah; Tardif, Virginie; Takata, Hiroshi; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Kroon, Eugene; Colby, Donn J.; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Valcour, Victor; Robb, Merlin L.; Michael, Nelson L.; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Trautmann, Lydie; Haddad, Elias K.

    2016-01-01

    The RV254 cohort of HIV-infected very early acute (4thG stage 1 and 2) (stage 1/2) and late acute (4thG stage 3) (stage 3) individuals was used to study T helper- B cell responses in acute HIV infection and the impact of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) on T and B cell function. To investigate this, the function of circulating T follicular helper cells (cTfh) from this cohort was examined, and cTfh and memory B cell populations were phenotyped. Impaired cTfh cell function was observed in individuals treated in stage 3 when compared to stage 1/2. The cTfh/B cell cocultures showed lower B cell survival and IgG secretion at stage 3 compared to stage 1/2. This coincided with lower IL-10 and increased RANTES and TNF-α suggesting a role for inflammation in altering cTfh and B cell responses. Elevated plasma viral load in stage 3 was found to correlate with decreased cTfh-mediated B cell IgG production indicating a role for increased viremia in cTfh impairment and dysfunctional humoral response. Phenotypic perturbations were also evident in the mature B cell compartment, most notably a decrease in resting memory B cells in stage 3 compared to stage 1/2, coinciding with higher viremia. Our coculture assay also suggested that intrinsic memory B cell defects could contribute to the impaired response despite at a lower level. Overall, cTfh-mediated B cell responses are significantly altered in stage 3 compared to stage 1/2, coinciding with increased inflammation and a reduction in memory B cells. These data suggest that early ART for acutely HIV infected individuals could prevent immune dysregulation while preserving cTfh function and B cell memory. PMID:27463374

  16. Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis by Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Maria; Couto, Cristiana; Coelho, Maria D.; Laranjeira, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is a rare complication of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection, with only a few cases reported among pediatric population. This clinical condition is frequently associated with a favorable outcome and, usually, a surgical intervention is not required. We report a 16-year-old girl who presented with AAC following primary EBV infection. The diagnosis of AAC was documented by clinical and ultrasonographic examination, whereas EBV infection was confirmed serologically. A conservative treatment was performed, with a careful monitoring and serial ultrasonographic examinations, which led to the clinical improvement of the patient. Pediatricians should be aware of the possible association between EBV and AAC, in order to offer the patients an appropriate management strategy. PMID:26753086

  17. Cutaneous Infection Caused by Cylindrocarpon lichenicola in a Patient with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Iwen, Peter C.; Tarantolo, Stefano R.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Hinrichs, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Cylindrocarpon lichenicola is a saprophytic soil fungus which has rarely been associated with human disease. We report the first case of localized invasive cutaneous infection caused by this fungus in a 53-year-old male from the rural midwestern United States with relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia. On admission for induction chemotherapy, the patient was noted to have an abrasive laceration between the fourth and fifth metacarpophalangeal joints and on the dorsum of the right hand, which progressed to frank ulceration following chemotherapy. A biopsy provided an initial diagnosis of an invasive fungal infection consistent with aspergillosis based on the histopathological appearance of the mold in tissue. Multiple positive fungal cultures which were obtained from the biopsied tissue were subsequently identified by microscopic and macroscopic characteristics to be C. lichenicola. The infection resolved following marrow regeneration, aggressive debridement of the affected tissue, and treatment with amphotericin B. This case extends the conditions associated with invasive disease caused by C. lichenicola. PMID:10970386

  18. Mixed Pulmonary Infection with Penicillium notatum and Pneumocystis jiroveci in a Patient with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Shabnam; Hemmatian, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium notatum is a fungus that widely exists in the environment and is often non-pathogenic to humans. However, in immunocompromised hosts it may be recognized as a cause of systemic mycosis. A 44-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was admitted to our hospital with fever and neutropenia. Due to no improvement after initial treatment, he underwent bronchoscopy. The patient was found to have P. notatum and Pneumocystis jiroveci infection, and therefore was given voriconazole, primaquine and clindamycin. The patient was successfully treated and suffered no complications. Conclusion: This case highlights P. notatum as a cause of infection in immunocompromised patients. To the best of our knowledge, mixed lung infection with P. notatum and P. jiroveci in a patient with AML has not been previously reported. PMID:27403180

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms in acute infection independent of cell-to-cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Schaber, J Andy; Triffo, W Jeffrey; Suh, Sang Jin; Oliver, Jeffrey W; Hastert, Mary Catherine; Griswold, John A; Auer, Manfred; Hamood, Abdul N; Rumbaugh, Kendra P

    2007-08-01

    Biofilms are bacterial communities residing within a polysaccharide matrix that are associated with persistence and antibiotic resistance in chronic infections. We show that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms within 8 h of infection in thermally injured mice, demonstrating that biofilms contribute to bacterial colonization in acute infections as well. Using light, electron, and confocal scanning laser microscopy, P. aeruginosa biofilms were visualized within burned tissue surrounding blood vessels and adipose cells. Although quorum sensing (QS), a bacterial signaling mechanism, coordinates differentiation of biofilms in vitro, wild-type and QS-deficient P. aeruginosa strains formed similar biofilms in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that P. aeruginosa forms biofilms on specific host tissues independently of QS.

  20. Outdoor air pollution and acute respiratory infections among children in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Samet, Jonathan M; Smith, Kirk R; Bruce, Nigel

    2002-07-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the most common cause of illness and death in children in the developing world. This review focuses on outdoor air pollutants associated with pediatric ARI mortality and morbidity. Studies were identified using MEDLINE and other electronic databases. Four studies showed an increase in infant mortality in relation to outdoor air pollution. Short-term follow-up and time-series studies suggest that air pollutants act as risk factors for respiratory infection. Air pollution exposure increases the incidence of upper- and lower-respiratory infections in children. Because complex pollution mixtures are present in the studied urban areas, pollutant levels at which ARI risk would be expected to increase cannot be determined. Children may be at greater risk, given the poor environmental and nutritional conditions prevalent in developing countries.

  1. Inhibiting platelets aggregation could aggravate the acute infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yu; Gao, Yaping; Dong, Jie; Mu, Chunhua; Lu, Qiang; Shao, Ningsheng; Yang, Guang

    2011-01-01

    Several fibrinogen binding proteins (Fibs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Most Fibs can promote the aggregation of platelets during infection, but the extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) is an exception. It is reported that Efb can specifically bind fibrinogen and inhibit the aggregation of platelet with its N terminal. However, the biological significance of platelet aggregation inhibition in the infection caused by S. aureus is unclear until now. Here, we demonstrated that the persistence and aggregation of platelets were important for killing S. aureus in whole blood. It was found that the N terminal of Efb (EfbN) and platelets inhibitors could increase the survival of S. aureus in whole blood. The study in vivo also showed that EfbN and platelets inhibitors could reduce the killing of S. aureus and increase the lethality rate of S. aureus in the acute infection mouse model.

  2. Triclosan and triclosan-loaded liposomal nanoparticles in the treatment of acute experimental toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    El-Zawawy, Lobna A; El-Said, Doaa; Mossallam, Shereen F; Ramadan, Heba S; Younis, Salwa S

    2015-02-01

    Efficacy of triclosan (TS) and TS-loaded liposomes against the virulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) was evaluated. Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally infected with 10(4) tachyzoites of RH HXGPRT(-) strain of T. gondii, then were orally treated with 150 mg/kg TS or 100 mg/kg TS liposomes twice daily for 4 days. Mice mortality, peritoneal and liver parasite burdens, viability, infectivity and ultrastructural changes of peritoneal tachyzoites of infected treated mice were studied, in comparison with those of infected non-treated controls. Drug safety was biochemically assessed by measuring liver enzymes and thyroxin. Both TS and TS liposomes induced significant reduction in mice mortality, parasite burden, viability and infectivity of tachyzoites harvested from infected treated mice. Scanning electron microscopy of treated tachyzoites showed distorted shapes, reduced sizes, irregularities, surface protrusions, erosions and peeling besides apical region distortion. Transmission electron microscopy showed that treated tachyzoites were intracellularly distorted, had cytoplasmic vacuolation, discontinuous plasma membranes, nuclear abnormalities and disrupted internal structures. Besides, in TS liposomes-treated subgroup, most tachyzoites were seen intracellularly with complete disintegration of the parasite plasma and nuclear membranes, with complete destruction of the internal structures. Biochemical safety of TS and TS liposomes was proven. Accordingly, TS can be considered as a promising alternative to the standard therapy for treating acute murine toxoplasmosis. Liposomal formulation of TS enhanced its efficacy and allowed its use in a lower dose.

  3. Analysis of Serum Th1/Th2 Cytokine Levels in Patients with Acute Mumps Infection

    PubMed Central

    Malaiyan, Jeevan; Ramanan, Padmasani Venkat; Subramaniam, Dinesh; Menon, Thangam

    2016-01-01

    Background: The mumps virus is frequently the causative agent of parotitis. There has been no study on serum cytokine levels of acute mumps parotitis except for a few which document cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid of mumps meningitis. It is with this notion, our study aimed to find Th1/Th2 cytokine levels from patients with acute mumps parotitis. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of mumps-specific IgM, mumps, measles, rubella-specific IgG antibody, and Th1/Th2 cytokines, namely interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, and IL-10 were measured simultaneously in serum from 74 patients (42 pediatric and 32 adult cases), 40 healthy subjects (20 pediatric and 20 adults) and in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with mumps virus genotype C which served as the positive control. Statistical significance was analyzed between each group by means of Mann–Whitney U-test, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test. Results: IgM positivity confirmed acute infection in all 74 patients and of these 67 were vaccinated cases; however, very few of them (10/67) were positive for mumps IgG. We found that IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-10 showed a statistically significant increase in both pediatric and adult patients with acute mumps infection when compared to healthy controls and values were comparable to the positive control. Conclusion: The Th1 cells play important roles during the acute phase of mumps parotitis. PMID:27293364

  4. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  5. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys.

    PubMed

    Rocke, T E; Yuill, T M; Amundson, T E

    1988-07-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The percentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  6. Infection Rates among Acute Leukemia Patients Receiving Alternative Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Karen; Woo Ahn, Kwang; Chen, Min; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Ahmed, Ibrahim; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Antin, Joseph; Bhatt, Ami S; Boeckh, Michael; Chen, George; Dandoy, Christopher; George, Biju; Laughlin, Mary J; Lazarus, Hillard M; MacMillan, Margaret L; Margolis, David A; Marks, David I; Norkin, Maxim; Rosenthal, Joseph; Saad, Ayman; Savani, Bipin; Schouten, Harry C; Storek, Jan; Szabolcs, Paul; Ustun, Celalettin; Verneris, Michael R; Waller, Edmund K; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Williams, Kirsten M; Wingard, John R; Wirk, Baldeep; Wolfs, Tom; Young, Jo-Anne H; Auletta, Jeffrey; Komanduri, Krishna V; Lindemans, Caroline; Riches, Marcie L

    2016-09-01

    Alternative graft sources (umbilical cord blood [UCB], matched unrelated donors [MUD], or mismatched unrelated donors [MMUD]) enable patients without a matched sibling donor to receive potentially curative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Retrospective studies demonstrate comparable outcomes among different graft sources. However, the risk and types of infections have not been compared among graft sources. Such information may influence the choice of a particular graft source. We compared the incidence of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections in 1781 adults with acute leukemia who received alternative donor HCT (UCB, n= 568; MUD, n = 930; MMUD, n = 283) between 2008 and 2011. The incidences of bacterial infection at 1 year were 72%, 59%, and 65% (P < .0001) for UCB, MUD, and MMUD, respectively. Incidences of viral infection at 1 year were 68%, 45%, and 53% (P < .0001) for UCB, MUD, and MMUD, respectively. In multivariable analysis, bacterial, fungal, and viral infections were more common after either UCB or MMUD than after MUD (P < .0001). Bacterial and viral but not fungal infections were more common after UCB than MMUD (P = .0009 and <.0001, respectively). The presence of viral infection was not associated with an increased mortality. Overall survival (OS) was comparable among UCB and MMUD patients with Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥ 90% but was inferior for UCB for patients with KPS < 90%. Bacterial and fungal infections were associated with poorer OS. Future strategies focusing on infection prevention and treatment are indicated to improve HCT outcomes.

  7. Global reemergence of enterovirus D68 as an important pathogen for acute respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Tadatsugu; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    We previously detected enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in children with severe acute respiratory infections in the Philippines in 2008-2009. Since then, the detection frequency of EV-D68 has increased in different parts of the world, and EV-D68 is now recognized as a reemerging pathogen. However, the epidemiological profile and clinical significance of EV-D68 is yet to be defined, and the virological characteristics of EV-D68 are not fully understood. Recent studies have revealed that EV-D68 is detected among patients with acute respiratory infections of differing severities ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infections to severe pneumonia including fatal cases in pediatric and adult patients. In some study sites, the EV-D68 detection rate was higher among patients with lower respiratory tract infections than among those with upper respiratory tract infections, suggesting that EV-D68 infections are more likely to be associated with severe respiratory illnesses. EV-D68 strains circulating in recent years have been divided into three distinct genetic lineages with different antigenicity. However, the association between genetic differences and disease severity, as well as the occurrence of large-scale outbreaks, remains elusive. Previous studies have revealed that EV-D68 is acid sensitive and has an optimal growth temperature of 33 °C. EV-D68 binds to α2,6-linked sialic acids; hence, it is assumed that it has an affinity for the upper respiratory track where these glycans are present. However, the lack of suitable animal model constrains comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of EV-D68.

  8. Gene Expression Profiles Link Respiratory Viral Infection, Platelet Response to Aspirin, and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cyr, Derek D.; Lucas, Joseph E.; Zaas, Aimee K.; Woods, Christopher W.; Newby, L. Kristin; Kraus, William E.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Influenza infection is associated with myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that respiratory viral infection may induce biologic pathways that contribute to MI. We tested the hypotheses that 1) a validated blood gene expression signature of respiratory viral infection (viral GES) was associated with MI and 2) respiratory viral exposure changes levels of a validated platelet gene expression signature (platelet GES) of platelet function in response to aspirin that is associated with MI. Methods A previously defined viral GES was projected into blood RNA data from 594 patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization and used to classify patients as having evidence of viral infection or not and tested for association with acute MI using logistic regression. A previously defined platelet GES was projected into blood RNA data from 81 healthy subjects before and after exposure to four respiratory viruses: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) (n=20), Human Rhinovirus (HRV) (n=20), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (H1N1) (n=24), Influenza A Virus subtype H3N2 (H3N2) (n=17). We tested for the change in platelet GES with viral exposure using linear mixed-effects regression and by symptom status. Results In the catheterization cohort, 32 patients had evidence of viral infection based upon the viral GES, of which 25% (8/32) had MI versus 12.2% (69/567) among those without evidence of viral infection (OR 2.3; CI [1.03-5.5], p=0.04). In the infection cohorts, only H1N1 exposure increased platelet GES over time (time course p-value = 1e-04). Conclusions A viral GES of non-specific, respiratory viral infection was associated with acute MI; 18% of the top 49 genes in the viral GES are involved with hemostasis and/or platelet aggregation. Separately, H1N1 exposure, but not exposure to other respiratory viruses, increased a platelet GES previously shown to be associated with MI. Together, these results highlight specific genes and pathways that link viral infection

  9. Simian immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ lymphocyte response in acutely infected rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Yasutomi, Y; Reimann, K A; Lord, C I; Miller, M D; Letvin, N L

    1993-01-01

    To assess the possible role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in containing the spread of human immunodeficiency virus in acutely infected individuals, the temporal evolution of the virus-specific CD8+ lymphocyte response was defined in simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIVmac)-infected rhesus monkeys. A brief period of SIVmac plasma antigenemia was seen 9 to 16 days following intravenous infection with SIVmac, ending as the absolute number of CD8+ peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) increased. In a prospective assessment of the ability of CD8+ lymphocytes of these monkeys to suppress SIVmac replication in autologous PBLs, inhibitory activity was detected as early as 4 days, with a more pronounced effect 12 to 16 days following infection. SIVmac Gag- and Nef-specific CD8+ effector cell activities were demonstrable in PBLs of animals by 2 weeks following virus inoculation. In fact, SIVmac-specific CTL precursors were documented in the PBLs of rhesus monkeys 4 to 6 days after SIVmac infection. These studies indicate that AIDS virus-specific CD8+ CTLs are present in PBLs within days of infection and may play an important role in containing the early spread of virus. PMID:8437240

  10. Highly (H5N1) and Low (H7N2) Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Falcons Via Nasochoanal Route and Ingestion of Experimentally Infected Prey

    PubMed Central

    Bertran, Kateri; Busquets, Núria; Abad, Francesc Xavier; García de la Fuente, Jorge; Solanes, David; Cordón, Iván; Costa, Taiana; Dolz, Roser; Majó, Natàlia

    2012-01-01

    An experimental infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses was carried out on falcons in order to examine the effects of these viruses in terms of pathogenesis, viral distribution in tissues and viral shedding. The distribution pattern of influenza virus receptors was also assessed. Captive-reared gyr-saker (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug) hybrid falcons were challenged with a HPAI H5N1 virus (A/Great crested grebe/Basque Country/06.03249/2006) or a LPAI H7N2 virus (A/Anas plathyrhynchos/Spain/1877/2009), both via the nasochoanal route and by ingestion of previously infected specific pathogen free chicks. Infected falcons exhibited similar infection dynamics despite the different routes of exposure, demonstrating the effectiveness of in vivo feeding route. H5N1 infected falcons died, or were euthanized, between 5–7 days post-infection (dpi) after showing acute severe neurological signs. Presence of viral antigen in several tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR), which were generally associated with significant microscopical lesions, mostly in the brain. Neither clinical signs, nor histopathological findings were observed in any of the H7N2 LPAI infected falcons, although all of them had seroconverted by 11 dpi. Avian receptors were strongly present in the upper respiratory tract of the falcons, in accordance with the consistent oral viral shedding detected by RRT-PCR in both H5N1 HPAI and H7N2 LPAI infected falcons. The present study demonstrates that gyr-saker hybrid falcons are highly susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection, as previously observed, and that they may play a major role in the spreading of both HPAI and LPAI viruses. For the first time in raptors, natural infection by feeding on infected prey was successfully reproduced. The use of avian prey species in falconry husbandry and wildlife rehabilitation facilities could put valuable birds of prey

  11. Highly (H5N1) and low (H7N2) pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in falcons via nasochoanal route and ingestion of experimentally infected prey.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Kateri; Busquets, Núria; Abad, Francesc Xavier; García de la Fuente, Jorge; Solanes, David; Cordón, Iván; Costa, Taiana; Dolz, Roser; Majó, Natàlia

    2012-01-01

    An experimental infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses was carried out on falcons in order to examine the effects of these viruses in terms of pathogenesis, viral distribution in tissues and viral shedding. The distribution pattern of influenza virus receptors was also assessed. Captive-reared gyr-saker (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug) hybrid falcons were challenged with a HPAI H5N1 virus (A/Great crested grebe/Basque Country/06.03249/2006) or a LPAI H7N2 virus (A/Anas plathyrhynchos/Spain/1877/2009), both via the nasochoanal route and by ingestion of previously infected specific pathogen free chicks. Infected falcons exhibited similar infection dynamics despite the different routes of exposure, demonstrating the effectiveness of in vivo feeding route. H5N1 infected falcons died, or were euthanized, between 5-7 days post-infection (dpi) after showing acute severe neurological signs. Presence of viral antigen in several tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR), which were generally associated with significant microscopical lesions, mostly in the brain. Neither clinical signs, nor histopathological findings were observed in any of the H7N2 LPAI infected falcons, although all of them had seroconverted by 11 dpi. Avian receptors were strongly present in the upper respiratory tract of the falcons, in accordance with the consistent oral viral shedding detected by RRT-PCR in both H5N1 HPAI and H7N2 LPAI infected falcons. The present study demonstrates that gyr-saker hybrid falcons are highly susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection, as previously observed, and that they may play a major role in the spreading of both HPAI and LPAI viruses. For the first time in raptors, natural infection by feeding on infected prey was successfully reproduced. The use of avian prey species in falconry husbandry and wildlife rehabilitation facilities could put valuable birds of prey and

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of the Initial Stage of Acute WSSV Infection Caused by Temperature Change

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yumiao; Li, Fuhua; Sun, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Shihao; Zhang, Chengsong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most devastating virosis threatening the shrimp culture industry worldwide. Variations of environmental factors in shrimp culture ponds usually lead to the outbreak of white spot syndrome (WSS). In order to know the molecular mechanisms of WSS outbreak induced by temperature variation and the biological changes of the host at the initial stage of WSSV acute infection, RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in shrimp with a certain amount of WSSV cultured at 18°C and shrimp whose culture temperature were raised to 25°C. To analyze whether the expression changes of the DEGs were due to temperature rising or WSSV proliferation, the expression of selected DEGs was analyzed by real-time PCR with another shrimp group, namely Group T, as control. Group T didn’t suffer WSSV infection but was subjected to temperature rising in parallel. At the initial stage of WSSV acute infection, DEGs related to energy production were up-regulated, whereas most DEGs related to cell cycle and positive regulation of cell death and were down-regulated. Triose phosphate isomerase, enolase and alcohol dehydrogenase involved in glycosis were up-regulated, while pyruvate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase with NAD as the coenzyme involved in TCA pathway were down-regulated. Also genes involved in host DNA replication, including DNA primase, DNA topoisomerase and DNA polymerase showed down-regulated expression. Several interesting genes including crustin genes, acting binding or inhibiting protein genes, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 9 (ADAM9) gene and a GRP 78 gene were also analyzed. Understanding the interactions between hosts and WSSV at the initial stage of acute infection will not only help to get a deep insight into the pathogenesis of WSSV but also provide clues for therapies. PMID:24595043

  13. Evidence of Recombination and Genetic Diversity in Human Rhinoviruses in Children with Acute Respiratory Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Peijun; Sheng, Jun; Yan, Huajie; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Xin; Wang, Yongjin; Delpeyroux, Francis; Deubel, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are a highly prevalent cause of acute respiratory infection in children. They are classified into at least three species, HRV-A, HRV-B and HRV-C, which are characterized by sequencing the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) or the VP4/VP2 region of the genome. Given the increased interest for novel HRV strain identification and their worldwide distribution, we have carried out clinical and molecular diagnosis of HRV strains in a 2-year study of children with acute respiratory infection visiting one district hospital in Shanghai. Methodology/Findings We cloned and sequenced a 924-nt fragment that covered part of the 5′UTR and the VP4/VP2 capsid genes. Sixty-four HRV-infected outpatients were diagnosed amongst 827 children with acute low respiratory tract infection. Two samples were co-infected with HRV-A and HRV-B or HRV-C. By comparative analysis of the VP4/VP2 sequences of the 66 HRVs, we showed a high diversity of strains in HRV-A and HRV-B species, and a prevalence of 51.5% of strains that belonged to the recently identified HRV-C species. When analyzing a fragment of the 5′ UTR, we characterized at least two subspecies of HRV-C: HRV-Cc, which clustered differently from HRV-A and HRV-B, and HRV-Ca, which resulted from previous recombination in this region with sequences related to HRV-A. The full-length sequence of one strain of each HRV-Ca and HRV-Cc subspecies was obtained for comparative analysis. We confirmed the close relationship of their structural proteins but showed apparent additional recombination events in the 2A gene and 3′UTR of the HRV-Ca strain. Double or triple infections with HRV-C and respiratory syncytial virus and/or bocavirus were diagnosed in 33.3% of the HRV-infected patients, but no correlation with severity of clinical outcome was observed. Conclusion Our study showed a high diversity of HRV strains that cause bronchitis and pneumonia in children. A predominance of HRV-C over HRV-A and HRV-B was

  14. Taenia crassiceps infection does not influence the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Flores, Aaxin M; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Calleja, Elsa A; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Juárez, Imelda; Terrazas, Luis I

    2013-01-01

    It was previously reported by our group that infection with Taenia crassiceps reduces incidence and severity of inflammatory and autoimmune experimental diseases like type 1 diabetes and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this research, we set out to study whether infection with T. crassiceps would affect the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that mice infected with the parasite and induced with experimental RA showed similar clinical scores as the noninfected experimental RA group; systemic cytokines were not affected while anti-CII Abs were higher in the infected group. Histological evaluation showed damage in both infected and noninfected experimental RA-induced groups and although some surface molecules such as PDL-2 and MR which are associated with immunomodulatory mechanisms were upregulated in the infected and RA-induced group as compared to the noninfected RA group, they did not exert any changes in the outcome of experimental RA. Thus, we determined that infection with T. crassiceps does not influence the outcome of experimental RA.

  15. Diagnostic challenge: bilateral infected lumbar facet cysts - a rare cause of acute lumbar spinal stenosis and back pain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Symptomatic synovial lumbar facet cysts are a relatively rare cause of radiculopathy and spinal stenosis. This case and brief review of the literature, details a patient who presented with acutely symptomatic bilateral spontaneously infected synovial facet (L4/5) cysts. This report highlights diagnostic clues for identifying infection of a facet cyst. PMID:20205727

  16. The effect of feeding endophyte-infected fescue on the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus heifers (n = 22; 292 ± 9.0 kg body weight) were paired by body weight and randomly placed on either an endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) diet for 10 days to determine the influence of feeding endophyte-infected fescue on the physiological and acute phase responses of beef heifers ...

  17. Transient elevation of triiodothyronine caused by triiodothyronine autoantibody associated with acute Epstein-Barr-virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shimon, Ilan; Pariente, Clara; Shlomo-David, Jaffa; Grossman, Zehava; Sack, Joseph

    2003-02-01

    A unique 16-year old female patient presented after acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection with severe primary hypothyroidism. Her thyroid test results were thyrotropin level (TSH) of 198 mU/L (normal, 0.4-4 mU/L), free thyroxine [FT(4)], 2.5 pmol/L (normal, 10-25 pmol/L), total triiodothyronine (TT(3)) > 19.5 nmol/L (normal, 1.3-2.7 nmol/L), and free triiodothyronine (FT(3)), 0.77 pmol/L (normal, 3.3-6.3 pmol/L). She had high titers of thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies. In vitro triiodothyronine (T(3))-binding measured by radioimmunoprecipitation was 86% (normal, up to 8.5%) and thyroxine (T(4))-binding 8.2% (normal, 6.4%). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) absorption, achieved by protein-G Sepharose beads, decreased TT(3) toward normal. Levothyroxine treatment normalized the low baseline FT(4) and FT(3) values, and suppressed TSH to normal. However, TT(3) remained highly elevated and returned to normal after 20 months, while T(3 )binding gradually decreased. Thus, her severe hypothyroidism was masked by this unusual phenomenon. Thirty-four patients with EBV infection (15 with acute disease and 19 with previous infection) were tested for thyroid hormone levels. EBV antibodies (early antigen immunoglobulin M [IgM] and IgG and anti-Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen [EBNA] IgG) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In 15 patients with acute EBV the mean TT(3) level was 2.47 +/- 0.39 nmol/L (5 had TT(3) values above normal) compared to a mean TT(3) of 1.70 +/- 0.53 nmol/L in 19 subjects with previous infection (p < 0.0005; only 1 had a TT(3) result above normal), with no differences in FT(4) and TSH concentrations between the two groups. Acute EBV infection may be associated with transient mild to severe TT(3) elevation as a result of assay interference by anti-T(3) autoantibodies.

  18. Acute Infections, Cost per Infection and Turnaround Time in Three United States Hospital Laboratories Using Fourth-Generation Antigen-Antibody Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Coombs, Robert W; Rosenberg, Eric; Ethridge, Steven F; Hutchinson, Angela B; Dragavon, Joan; Rychert, Jennifer; Nolte, Frederick S; Madory, James E; Werner, Barbara G

    2016-01-01

    Background.  To improve clinical and public health outcomes through early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection, fourth-generation antigen/antibody immunoassay (4IA) and supplemental testing results must be returned rapidly. Methods.  We examined HIV testing data at Harborview Medical Center (HMC), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), which used 4IA and supplemental antibody and nucleic acid tests (NATs). At MGH and MUSC, HIV-1 Western blot (WB) and HIV-2 testing were conducted at a reference laboratory. We compared time from specimen collection to laboratory result for established (positive WB) and acute infections (reactive 4IA, negative/indeterminate WB, detectable NAT), and we calculated testing cost per positive-test result. Results.  From 3731 (MUSC) to 19 774 (MGH) tests were conducted; 0.01% (MGH) to 0.05% (HMC) were acute infections. Each laboratory had reactive 4IA, WB-negative, or indeterminate specimens without NAT (ie, potential acute infections). Time to result was 1.5 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for acute and 1.0 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for established infections. Costs were $1054 (MGH) to $1521 (MUSC). Conclusions.  Conducting supplemental testing in-house lowered turnaround times, which may be further reduced with rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation tests. Hospitals may benefit from quantitative NATs not requiring physician orders, so all potential acute infections receive NAT.

  19. Acute Infections, Cost per Infection and Turnaround Time in Three United States Hospital Laboratories Using Fourth-Generation Antigen-Antibody Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Coombs, Robert W; Rosenberg, Eric; Ethridge, Steven F; Hutchinson, Angela B; Dragavon, Joan; Rychert, Jennifer; Nolte, Frederick S; Madory, James E; Werner, Barbara G

    2016-01-01

    Background.  To improve clinical and public health outcomes through early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection, fourth-generation antigen/antibody immunoassay (4IA) and supplemental testing results must be returned rapidly. Methods.  We examined HIV testing data at Harborview Medical Center (HMC), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), which used 4IA and supplemental antibody and nucleic acid tests (NATs). At MGH and MUSC, HIV-1 Western blot (WB) and HIV-2 testing were conducted at a reference laboratory. We compared time from specimen collection to laboratory result for established (positive WB) and acute infections (reactive 4IA, negative/indeterminate WB, detectable NAT), and we calculated testing cost per positive-test result. Results.  From 3731 (MUSC) to 19 774 (MGH) tests were conducted; 0.01% (MGH) to 0.05% (HMC) were acute infections. Each laboratory had reactive 4IA, WB-negative, or indeterminate specimens without NAT (ie, potential acute infections). Time to result was 1.5 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for acute and 1.0 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for established infections. Costs were $1054 (MGH) to $1521 (MUSC). Conclusions.  Conducting supplemental testing in-house lowered turnaround times, which may be further reduced with rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation tests. Hospitals may benefit from quantitative NATs not requiring physician orders, so all potential acute infections receive NAT. PMID:26798766

  20. Current and future trends in antibiotic therapy of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections.

    PubMed

    Russo, A; Concia, E; Cristini, F; De Rosa, F G; Esposito, S; Menichetti, F; Petrosillo, N; Tumbarello, M; Venditti, M; Viale, P; Viscoli, C; Bassetti, M

    2016-04-01

    In 2013 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued recommendations and guidance on developing drugs for treatment of skin infection using a new definition of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infection (ABSSSI). The new classification includes cellulitis, erysipelas, major skin abscesses and wound infection with a considerable extension of skin involvement, clearly referring to a severe subset of skin infections. The main goal of the FDA was to better identify specific infections where the advantages of a new antibiotic could be precisely estimated through quantifiable parameters, such as improvement of the lesion size and of systemic signs of infection. Before the spread and diffusion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in skin infections, antibiotic therapy was relatively straightforward. Using an empiric approach, a β-lactam was the preferred therapy and cultures from patients were rarely obtained. With the emergence of MRSA in the community setting, initial ABSSSI management has been changed and readdressed. Dalbavancin, oritavancin and tedizolid are new drugs, approved or in development for ABSSSI treatment, that also proved to be efficient against MRSA. Dalbavancin and oritavancin have a long half-life and can be dosed less frequently. This in turn makes it possible to treat patients with ABSSSI in an outpatient setting, avoiding hospitalization or potentially allowing earlier discharge, without compromising efficacy. In conclusion, characteristics of long-acting antibiotics could represent an opportunity for the management of ABSSSI and could profoundly modify the management of these infections by reducing or in some cases eliminating both costs and risks of hospitalization.

  1. Current and future trends in antibiotic therapy of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections.

    PubMed

    Russo, A; Concia, E; Cristini, F; De Rosa, F G; Esposito, S; Menichetti, F; Petrosillo, N; Tumbarello, M; Venditti, M; Viale, P; Viscoli, C; Bassetti, M

    2016-04-01

    In 2013 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued recommendations and guidance on developing drugs for treatment of skin infection using a new definition of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infection (ABSSSI). The new classification includes cellulitis, erysipelas, major skin abscesses and wound infection with a considerable extension of skin involvement, clearly referring to a severe subset of skin infections. The main goal of the FDA was to better identify specific infections where the advantages of a new antibiotic could be precisely estimated through quantifiable parameters, such as improvement of the lesion size and of systemic signs of infection. Before the spread and diffusion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in skin infections, antibiotic therapy was relatively straightforward. Using an empiric approach, a β-lactam was the preferred therapy and cultures from patients were rarely obtained. With the emergence of MRSA in the community setting, initial ABSSSI management has been changed and readdressed. Dalbavancin, oritavancin and tedizolid are new drugs, approved or in development for ABSSSI treatment, that also proved to be efficient against MRSA. Dalbavancin and oritavancin have a long half-life and can be dosed less frequently. This in turn makes it possible to treat patients with ABSSSI in an outpatient setting, avoiding hospitalization or potentially allowing earlier discharge, without compromising efficacy. In conclusion, characteristics of long-acting antibiotics could represent an opportunity for the management of ABSSSI and could profoundly modify the management of these infections by reducing or in some cases eliminating both costs and risks of hospitalization. PMID:27125562

  2. Acute Glomerulonephritis in a Child with Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Falsaperla, Raffaele; Giunta, Leandra; Spataro, Giuseppina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Velardita, Mario; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Pavone, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease. PMID:23970901

  3. Acute Glomerulonephritis in a Child with Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Giunta, Leandra; Spataro, Giuseppina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Velardita, Mario; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Pavone, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease. PMID:23970901

  4. Serum Galectin-9 and Galectin-3-Binding Protein in Acute Dengue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuan-Ting; Liu, Yao-Hua; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lin, Chun-Yu; Huang, Chung-Hao; Yen, Meng-Chi; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is a serious threat for public health and induces various inflammatory cytokines and mediators, including galectins and glycoproteins. Diverse immune responses and immunological pathways are induced in different phases of dengue fever progression. However, the status of serum galectins and glycoproteins is not fully determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum concentration and potential interaction of soluble galectin-1, galectin-3, galectin-9, galectin-3 binding protein (galectin-3BP), glycoprotein 130 (gp130), and E-, L-, and P-selectin in patients with dengue fever in acute febrile phase. In this study, 317 febrile patients (187 dengue patients, 150 non-dengue patients that included 48 patients with bacterial infection and 102 patients with other febrile illness) who presented to the emergency department and 20 healthy controls were enrolled. Our results showed the levels of galectin-9 and galectin-3BP were significantly higher in dengue patients than those in healthy controls. Lower serum levels of galectin-1, galectin-3, and E-, L-, and P-selectin in dengue patients were detected compared to bacteria-infected patients, but not to healthy controls. In addition, strong correlation between galectin-9 and galectin-3BP was observed in dengue patients. In summary, our study suggested galectin-9 and galectin-3BP might be critical inflammatory mediators in acute dengue virus infection. PMID:27240351

  5. [Bocavirus in infants under 5 years with acute respiratory infection. Chaco Province, Argentina, 2014].

    PubMed

    Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community.

  6. [Bocavirus in infants under 5 years with acute respiratory infection. Chaco Province, Argentina, 2014].

    PubMed

    Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community. PMID:27295701

  7. Serum Galectin-9 and Galectin-3-Binding Protein in Acute Dengue Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuan-Ting; Liu, Yao-Hua; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lin, Chun-Yu; Huang, Chung-Hao; Yen, Meng-Chi; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is a serious threat for public health and induces various inflammatory cytokines and mediators, including galectins and glycoproteins. Diverse immune responses and immunological pathways are induced in different phases of dengue fever progression. However, the status of serum galectins and glycoproteins is not fully determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum concentration and potential interaction of soluble galectin-1, galectin-3, galectin-9, galectin-3 binding protein (galectin-3BP), glycoprotein 130 (gp130), and E-, L-, and P-selectin in patients with dengue fever in acute febrile phase. In this study, 317 febrile patients (187 dengue patients, 150 non-dengue patients that included 48 patients with bacterial infection and 102 patients with other febrile illness) who presented to the emergency department and 20 healthy controls were enrolled. Our results showed the levels of galectin-9 and galectin-3BP were significantly higher in dengue patients than those in healthy controls. Lower serum levels of galectin-1, galectin-3, and E-, L-, and P-selectin in dengue patients were detected compared to bacteria-infected patients, but not to healthy controls. In addition, strong correlation between galectin-9 and galectin-3BP was observed in dengue patients. In summary, our study suggested galectin-9 and galectin-3BP might be critical inflammatory mediators in acute dengue virus infection. PMID:27240351

  8. Experimental herpes-like viral infections in marine bivalves: demonstration of interspecies transmission.

    PubMed

    Arzul, I; Renault, T; Lipart, C

    2001-08-22

    Since 1972, herpes-like virus infections have been reported in several marine bivalve species around the world. Viral detection was often associated with high mortality rates in larvae and spat. To determine whether a single virus is able to infect different bivalve host species, we carried out experimental transmission assays. As a first step, 8 assays were performed to infect axenic Crassostrea gigas larvae with virus from infected C. gigas larvae using a previously described protocol. The protocol appeared reliable and PCR was confirmed as a powerful technique for detecting viral DNA in experimentally infected oysters. The defined protocol was then applied to infect different bivalve species. Interspecies viral transmission was demonstrated under laboratory conditions. The same phenomenon may occur in private hatcheries and may be promoted by intensive rearing conditions. This hypothesis is reinforced by reports of concomitant mortalities in the larvae of several bivalve species and by the first molecular analysis of infected larval samples.

  9. [Evaluation of an immunochromatographic fourth generation test for the rapid diagnosis of acute HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Kawahata, Takuya; Nagashima, Mami; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kojima, Yoko; Mori, Haruyo

    2013-07-01

    The early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is important to provide effective antiviral treatment and to prevent transmission of HIV. One of the key issues to achieve this goal is to shorten the so-called "diagnostic window period" when the humoral immune response toward the virus is not fully developed during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. In 2008, the Espline HIV Ag/Ab test kit (E4G, Fujirebio Inc. Japan) was marketed in Japan belonging to the fourth generation of HIV test kits characterized by its ability to detect both viral antigens (Ag) and anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies (Ab). E4G is the first and only fourth generation immunochromatographic HIV test kit approved in Japan at present. To evaluate its performance to diagnose acute HIV infection (AHI), E4G was compared with fourth generation Ag/Ab ELISA test kits, a third generation PA test kit, WB and real-time PCR for the testing of 25 AHI clinical specimens. E4G detected HIV infection in 18/25 specimens (sensitivity : 72.0%), of which the viral Ag was detected in only 2 specimens (8.0%) bearing a viral load > 10 million copies/mL. No spesimens were simultaneously reactive to both Ag and Ab against HIV. The third generation PA achieved a positive score of 17/ 25 specimens (68.0%), which was almost the same as the E4G figure. In contrast the fourth generation Ag/ Ab ELISA scored all the 25 AHI specimens positive (sensitivity : 100%). Overall, although having the merit of offering a rapid diagnostic test for HIV infection, E4G does not provide a sensitivity in AHI diagnosis superior to test kits currently available.

  10. Two Ocular Infections during Conventional Chemotherapy in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Ruba; Al Hijji, Ibrahim; El Omri, Halima; Al-Laftah, Fareed; Negm, Riham; Yassin, Mohammed; El Ayoubi, Hanadi

    2010-01-01

    Viral retinitis due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is rare in patients with acute leukemia who did not receive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We report a case of CMV retinitis that developed in a 49-year-old patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient was treated with salvage chemotherapy using a hyper-CVAD regimen and did not receive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The incidence of CMV retinitis in this subgroup of patients is not described in literature. He had a very complicated course during chemotherapy but was successfully treated, with preservation of visual acuity, and to date he is in complete remission. Interestingly, prior to CMV retinitis, the patient had been diagnosed with and treated for candida retinitis. This case shows the importance of eye examination and care in patients diagnosed with hematological malignancies. PMID:20740203

  11. [Autochthonous acute viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system (meningitis and encephalitis)].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Vicente, Diego; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2008-07-01

    Rapid diagnosis of acute viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system (meningitis and encephalitis) is highly important for the clinical management of the patient and helps to establish early therapy that may solve life-threatening situations, to avoid unnecessary empirical treatments, to reduce hospital stay, and to facilitate appropriate interventions in the context of public health. Molecular techniques, especially real-time polymerase chain reaction, have become the fastest and most sensitive diagnostic procedures for autochthonous viral meningitis and encephalitis, and their role is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and control of most frequent acute bacterial meningitides. Automatic and closed systems may encourage the widespread and systematic use of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of these neurological syndromes in most laboratories.

  12. Acute Hendra virus infection: Analysis of the pathogenesis and passive antibody protection in the hamster model

    SciTech Connect

    Guillaume, Vanessa; Wong, K. Thong; Looi, R.Y.; Georges-Courbot, Marie-Claude; Barrot, Laura; Buckland, Robin; Wild, T. Fabian; Horvat, Branka

    2009-05-10

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are recently-emerged, closely related and highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses. We have analysed here the pathogenesis of the acute HeV infection using the new animal model, golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), which is highly susceptible to HeV infection. HeV-specific RNA and viral antigens were found in multiple organs and virus was isolated from different tissues. Dual pathogenic mechanism was observed: parenchymal infection in various organs, including the brain, with vasculitis and multinucleated syncytia in many blood vessels. Furthermore, monoclonal antibodies specific for the NiV fusion protein neutralized HeV in vitro and efficiently protected hamsters from HeV if given before infection. These results reveal the similarities between HeV and NiV pathogenesis, particularly in affecting both respiratory and neuronal system. They demonstrate that hamster presents a convenient novel animal model to study HeV infection, opening new perspectives to evaluate vaccine and therapeutic approaches against this emergent infectious disease.

  13. Bacterial lysate in the prevention of acute exacerbation of COPD and in respiratory recurrent infections

    PubMed Central

    Braido, F; Tarantini, F; Ghiglione, V; Melioli, G; Canonica, G W

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) represent a serious problem because they are one of the most common cause of human death by infection. The search for the treatment of those diseases has therefore a great importance. In this study we provide an overview of the currently available treatments for RTIs with particular attention to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases exacerbations and recurrent respiratory infections therapy and a description of bacterial lysate action, in particular making reference to the medical literature dealing with its clinical efficacy. Those studies are based on a very large number of clinical trials aimed to evaluate the effects of this drug in maintaining the immune system in a state of alert, and in increasing the defences against microbial infections. From this analysis it comes out that bacterial lysates have a protective effect, which induce a significant reduction of the symptoms related to respiratory infections. Those results could be very interesting also from an economic point of view, because they envisage a reduction in the number of acute exacerbations and a shorter duration of hospitalization. The use of bacterial lysate could therefore represent an important means to achieve an extension of life duration in patients affected by respiratory diseases. PMID:18229572

  14. Variability in susceptibility of voles (Arvicolinae) to experimental infection with Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium andersoni.

    PubMed

    Modrý, David; Hofmannová, Lada; Antalová, Zuzana; Sak, Bohumil; Kváč, Martin

    2012-07-01

    The infectivity of Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium andersoni in various species of voles was studied using experimental infections. None of the experimental voles inoculated with 1 × 10(5) oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. shed any oocysts during 40 DPI, except Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii), which was susceptible to C. muris infection. Experiments confirmed the resistance of voles of the genus Microtus sensu stricto to infection with mammalian gastric cryptosporidia, which provides a new study model with prospects to more fully understand the processes involved in the phenomenon of host specificity of this group of protists.

  15. Prevalence of adenovirus and rotavirus infection in immunocompromised patients with acute gastroenteritis in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Joana; Ferreira, Delfim; Arrabalde, Célia; Almeida, Sandra; Baldaque, Inês; Sousa, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the prevalence of rotavirus (RV) and adenovirus (AdV) infections in immunocompromised patients with acute gastroenteritis. METHODS: The presence of RV and AdV (serotypes 40 and 41) was evaluated in 509 stool samples obtained between January 2009 and December 2010 from 200 immunocompromised patients (83 females and 117 males; median age 21 years old, range 0-72. The diagnosis of infection was performed as a routine procedure and the presence of RV and AdV (serotypes 40 and 41) was determined by immunochromatography using the RIDA® Quick Rota-Adeno-Kombi kit (r-Biopharm, Darmstadt, Germany). The data analysis and description of seasonal frequencies were performed using computer software IBM® SPSS® (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Statistics version 20.0 for Mac. The frequencies of infection were compared into different age and gender groups by χ2 test. RESULTS: The study revealed 12.4% AdV positive samples and 0.8% RV positive samples, which correspond to a prevalence of 6.5% and 1.5%, respectively. AdV was more frequent between October 2009 and April 2010, while RV was identified in April 2010 and July 2010. The stool analysis revealed that from the 509 samples, 63 (12.4%) were positive for AdV and 4 (0.8%) positive for RV, which by resuming the information of each patient, lead to an overall prevalence of AdV and RV of 6.5% (13/200 patients) and 1.5% (3/200 patients), respectively. The stratification of the analysis regarding age groups showed a tendency to an increased prevalence of infection in paediatric patients between 0-10 years old. Considering the seasonal distribution of these infections, our study revealed that AdV infection was more frequent between October 2009 and April 2010, while RV infection was characterized by two distinct peaks (April 2010 and July 2010). CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of AdV and RV infection in immunocompromised patients with acute gastroenteritis was 8% and AdV was the most prevalent agent

  16. Burkholderia pseudomallei Colony Morphotypes Show a Synchronized Metabolic Pattern after Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Ivo; Lalk, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is a water and soil bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. A characteristic feature of this bacterium is the formation of different colony morphologies which can be isolated from environmental samples as well as from clinical samples, but can also be induced in vitro. Previous studies indicate that morphotypes can differ in a number of characteristics such as resistance to oxidative stress, cellular adhesion and intracellular replication. Yet the metabolic features of B. pseudomallei and its different morphotypes have not been examined in detail so far. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the exometabolome of B. pseudomallei morphotypes and the impact of acute infection on their metabolic characteristics. Methods and Principal Findings We applied nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) in a metabolic footprint approach to compare nutrition uptake and metabolite secretion of starvation induced morphotypes of the B. pseudomallei strains K96243 and E8. We observed gluconate production and uptake in all morphotype cultures. Our study also revealed that among all morphotypes amino acids could be classified with regard to their fast and slow consumption. In addition to these shared metabolic features, the morphotypes varied highly in amino acid uptake profiles, secretion of branched chain amino acid metabolites and carbon utilization. After intracellular passage in vitro or murine acute infection in vivo, we observed a switch of the various morphotypes towards a single morphotype and a synchronization of nutrient uptake and metabolite secretion. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides first insights into the basic metabolism of B. pseudomallei and its colony morphotypes. Furthermore, our data suggest, that acute infection leads to the synchronization of B. pseudomallei colony morphology and metabolism through yet unknown host signals and bacterial mechanisms. PMID:26943908

  17. Infection related renal impairment: a major cause of acute allograft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nampoory, Mangalathillam R N; Johny, Kaivilayil V; Costandy, Jamal N; Nair, Madhavan P; Said, Tarek; Homoud, Hani; Al-Muzairai, Ibrahim; Samhan, Mohmoud; Al-Moussawi, Mustafa

    2003-06-01

    We prospectively analyzed the impact of post-transplant infections on the renal function in 532 stable renal transplant recipients (M=340; F=192) over a period of 5 years. Their age ranged from 3-75 years (40+14 years). During the follow-up period, 52 patients expired and 64 lost on followup. We defined renal impairment (RI) as a persistent rise in serum creatinine above 20% from baseline value. 495 episodes of RI occurred in 269 recipients. This included 180-36% episodes of acute rejection, 53-10.7% Cyclosporine toxicity, 236-47.7% infection related renal impairment [IRRI] and 26-5.3% others. The severity of renal failure is less in IRRI (100+90.2) than that of acute rejection (166+127.1), but was more than that in cyclosporine toxicity (50+42.2). Sites of infection in IRRI were urinary (33%), respiratory (26.3%), septicemia (15.7%) and others (25.4%). Episode of IRRI occurred more frequently in LURD (159-67.4%) compared to LRD-RTR (50-21.2%). Occurrence of IRRI is more significantly higher in patients on triple drug immunosuppression (IS) (34.3%) than those on two drug IS (13.2%) (P=or<0.01). Ecoli (23.1%), Pseudomonas (11.1%), Salmonella (8.8%), Klebsiella (8.8%) and Staphylococai (8.3%) were the major organisms producing IRRI. IRRI is frequent (27.8%) during the first six months. Present study denotes that IRRI is a major cause of acute failure in RTR. PMID:15859909

  18. A prospective case-control study to investigate retinal microvascular changes in acute dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Petrina; Lye, David C; Yeo, Tun Kuan; Cheung, Carol Y; Thein, Tun-Linn; Wong, Joshua G; Agrawal, Rupesh; Li, Ling-Jun; Wong, Tien-Yin; Gan, Victor C; Leo, Yee-Sin; Teoh, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Dengue infection can affect the microcirculation by direct viral infection or activation of inflammation. We aimed to determine whether measured retinal vascular parameters were associated with acute dengue infection. Patients with acute dengue were recruited from Communicable Diseases Center, Singapore and age-gender-ethnicity matched healthy controls were selected from a population-based study. Retinal photographs were taken on recruitment and convalescence. A spectrum of quantitative retinal microvascular parameters (retinal vascular caliber, fractal dimension, tortuosity and branching angle) was measured using a semi-automated computer-based program. (Singapore I Vessel Assessment, version 3.0). We included 62 dengue patients and 127 controls. Dengue cases were more likely to have wider retinal arteriolar and venular calibers (158.3 μm vs 144.3 μm, p < 0.001; 227.7 μm vs 212.8 μm, p < 0.001; respectively), higher arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions (1.271 vs 1.249, p = 0.002; 1.268 vs. 1.230, p < 0.001, respectively), higher arteriolar and venular tortuosity (0.730 vs 0.546 [x10(4)], p < 0.001; 0.849 vs 0.658 [x10(4)], p < 0.001; respectively), compared to controls. Resolution of acute dengue coincided with decrease in retinal vascular calibers and venular fractal dimension. Dengue patients have altered microvascular network in the retina; these changes may reflect pathophysiological processes in the immune system.

  19. Volatile Organic Compound Gamma-Butyrolactone Released upon Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 Acute Infection Modulated Membrane Potential and Repressed Viral Infection in Human Neuron-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Rochford, Kevin; Chen, Feng; Waguespack, Yan; Figliozzi, Robert W; Kharel, Madan K; Zhang, Qiaojuan; Martin-Caraballo, Miguel; Hsia, S Victor

    2016-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 (HSV-1) infections can cause serious complications such as keratitis and encephalitis. The goal of this study was to identify any changes in the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells that could potentially be used as an indicator of a response to stress. An additional objective was to study if any VOCs released from acute epithelial infection may influence subsequent neuronal infection to facilitate latency. To investigate these hypotheses, Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 and the emission of VOCs was analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (2D GC/MS). It was observed that the concentrations of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in particular changed significantly after a 24-hour infection. Since HSV-1 may establish latency in neurons after the acute infection, GBL was tested to determine if it exerts neuronal regulation of infection. The results indicated that GBL altered the resting membrane potential of differentiated LNCaP cells and promoted a non-permissive state of HSV-1 infection by repressing viral replication. These observations may provide useful clues towards understanding the complex signaling pathways that occur during the HSV-1 primary infection and establishment of viral latency. PMID:27537375

  20. Volatile Organic Compound Gamma-Butyrolactone Released upon Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 Acute Infection Modulated Membrane Potential and Repressed Viral Infection in Human Neuron-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Waguespack, Yan; Figliozzi, Robert W.; Kharel, Madan K.; Zhang, Qiaojuan; Martin-Caraballo, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 (HSV-1) infections can cause serious complications such as keratitis and encephalitis. The goal of this study was to identify any changes in the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells that could potentially be used as an indicator of a response to stress. An additional objective was to study if any VOCs released from acute epithelial infection may influence subsequent neuronal infection to facilitate latency. To investigate these hypotheses, Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 and the emission of VOCs was analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (2D GC/MS). It was observed that the concentrations of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in particular changed significantly after a 24-hour infection. Since HSV-1 may establish latency in neurons after the acute infection, GBL was tested to determine if it exerts neuronal regulation of infection. The results indicated that GBL altered the resting membrane potential of differentiated LNCaP cells and promoted a non-permissive state of HSV-1 infection by repressing viral replication. These observations may provide useful clues towards understanding the complex signaling pathways that occur during the HSV-1 primary infection and establishment of viral latency. PMID:27537375

  1. Experimental Fascioloides magna infections of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1992-04-01

    Six mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and one white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), approximately 5-mo-old, each were inoculated orally with 500 metacercariae of Fascioloides magna. All mule deer died from liver fluke infection between 69 and 134 days (mean = 114, SE = 9.9) after inoculation. Between 38 and 326 immature F. magna (mean = 102, SE = 45.5) were recovered from each deer at necropsy. Flukes were present in livers, lungs, and free in pleural and peritoneal spaces. Infection was characterized by necrotizing hepatitis, fibrosing peritonitis and pleuritis, and hematin pigment accumulation in liver, lung, and many other internal organs. Eggs of F. magna first were detected in feces of the white-tailed deer 28 wk after inoculation, and weekly thereafter until the healthy deer was euthanized at 31 wk. At necropsy, 205 F. magna, including 12 encapsulated mature and 193 nonencapsulated immature flukes were recovered from liver, lungs, and free in abdominal and thoracic spaces of the white-tailed deer. Based on these results, F. magna may be fatal to mule deer within 5 mo of infection. Like domestic sheep and goats, mule deer may be highly susceptible to infection, and it is unlikely mule deer can survive infection with large numbers of F. magna.

  2. Acute poststreptococcal glomerulo-nephritis in general practice: the contribution of infection to its onset and course.

    PubMed

    Higgins, P M

    1996-04-01

    Twenty-one patients considered to have acute poststreptococcal glumerulo-nephritis were encountered during 35 years of general practice. In ten of them good evidence of active streptococcal infection at the time of discovery of nephritis was recorded. The more complete the data the more convincing was the evidence of active infection. In over half of those whose urine were routinely cultured pathogens were isolated and over a third were treated for infection of the urinary tract. Such infections were associated with adverse effects and prolonged illness. As compared with children, adults in general had a longer history of ill-health, were less likely to present with acute infections and more likely to have urinary tract infections and prolonged illness. Vigorous antistreptococcal treatment was followed by rapid recovery in those patients so treated whose illnesses were not complicated by urinary tract infections. Concurrent streptococcal infection and secondary infection of the urinary tract may contribute more to the onset of acute poststreptococcal glomerulo-nephritis and to its course than is currently believed.

  3. An Intradermal Inoculation Mouse Model for Immunological Investigations of Acute Scrub Typhus and Persistent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rockx-Brouwer, Dedeke; Xu, Guang; Goez-Rivillas, Yenny; Drom, Claire; Shelite, Thomas R.; Valbuena, Gustavo; Walker, David H.; Bouyer, Donald H.

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a neglected tropical disease, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, a Gram-negative bacterium that is transmitted to mammalian hosts during feeding by Leptotrombidium mites and replicates predominantly within endothelial cells. Most studies of scrub typhus in animal models have utilized either intraperitoneal or intravenous inoculation; however, there is limited information on infection by the natural route in murine model skin or its related early host responses. Here, we developed an intradermal (i.d.) inoculation model of scrub typhus and focused on the kinetics of the host responses in the blood and major infected organs. Following ear inoculation with 6 x 104 O. tsutsugamushi, mice developed fever at 11–12 days post-infection (dpi), followed by marked hypothermia and body weight loss at 14–19 dpi. Bacteria in blood and tissues and histopathological changes were detected around 9 dpi and peaked around 14 dpi. Serum cytokine analyses revealed a mixed Th1/Th2 response, with marked elevations of MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and IL-10 at 9 dpi, followed by increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, G-CSF, RANTES/CCL5, KC/CCL11, IL-1α/β, IL-2, TNF-α, GM-CSF), as well as modulatory cytokines (IL-9, IL-13). Cytokine levels in lungs had similar elevation patterns, except for a marked reduction of IL-9. The Orientia 47-kDa gene and infectious bacteria were detected in several organs for up to 84 dpi, indicating persistent infection. This is the first comprehensive report of acute scrub typhus and persistent infection in i.d.-inoculated C57BL/6 mice. This is a significant improvement over current murine models for Orientia infection and will permit detailed studies of host immune responses and infection control interventions. PMID:27479584

  4. Identification of an acute-phase reactant in murine infections with Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, S Z; Black, S J

    1992-01-01

    A 42-kDa protein appeared at a much higher concentration in plasma from Trypanosoma brucei-resistant (C57BL/6) mice after infection than in plasma from trypanosome-susceptible (C3H/He) mice. This protein was purified by sequential steps of gel filtration, protein A-Sepharose affinity chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and ammonium sulfate precipitation. The purified protein was identified as a subunit of the acute-phase reactant haptoglobin. Causes of elevated plasma haptoglobin and its implications for resistance to trypanosomiasis are discussed. Images PMID:1500201

  5. Transverse Myelitis in Acute Hepatitis A Infection: The Rare Co-Occurrence of Hepatology and Neurology

    PubMed Central

    Chonmaitree, Piyanant; Methawasin, Kulthida

    2016-01-01

    Transverse myelitis refers to the inflammatory process involving the spinal cord. Clinical features can be either acute or subacute onset that results in neurological deficits such as weakness and/or numbness of extremities as well as autonomic dysfunctions. While there are some etiologies related, a viral infection is common. However, the hepatitis A virus rarely causes myelitis. This report provides details of a hepatitis A infectious patient who developed myelitis as comorbidity. Although, the disability was initially severe, the patient successfully recovered with corticosteroid treatment. PMID:27403101

  6. Resolution of primary severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection requires Stat1.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Robert J; Gao, Guangping; Rowe, Thomas; Bell, Peter; Flieder, Douglas; Paragas, Jason; Kobinger, Gary P; Wivel, Nelson A; Crystal, Ronald G; Boyer, Julie; Feldmann, Heinz; Voss, Thomas G; Wilson, James M

    2004-10-01

    Intranasal inhalation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV) in the immunocompetent mouse strain 129SvEv resulted in infection of conducting airway epithelial cells followed by rapid clearance of virus from the lungs and the development of self-limited bronchiolitis. Animals resistant to the effects of interferons by virtue of a deficiency in Stat1 demonstrated a markedly different course following intranasal inhalation of SARS CoV, one characterized by replication of virus in lungs and progressively worsening pulmonary disease with inflammation of small airways and alveoli and systemic spread of the virus to livers and spleens.

  7. Transverse Myelitis in Acute Hepatitis A Infection: The Rare Co-Occurrence of Hepatology and Neurology.

    PubMed

    Chonmaitree, Piyanant; Methawasin, Kulthida

    2016-01-01

    Transverse myelitis refers to the inflammatory process involving the spinal cord. Clinical features can be either acute or subacute onset that results in neurological deficits such as weakness and/or numbness of extremities as well as autonomic dysfunctions. While there are some etiologies related, a viral infection is common. However, the hepatitis A virus rarely causes myelitis. This report provides details of a hepatitis A infectious patient who developed myelitis as comorbidity. Although, the disability was initially severe, the patient successfully recovered with corticosteroid treatment. PMID:27403101

  8. Acute respiratory infections among under-5 children in India: A situational analysis.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Kalaiselvi; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Majumdar, Anindo; Krishnan, Iswarya Santhana

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the leading cause of death among children less than 5 years in India. Emergence of newer pathogenic organisms, reemergence of disease previously controlled, wide spread antibiotic resistance, and suboptimal immunization coverage even after many innovative efforts are major factors responsible for high incidence of ARI. Drastic reduction in the burden of ARI by low-cost interventions such as hand washing, breast feeding, availability of rapid and feasible array of diagnostics, and introduction of pentavalent vaccine under National Immunization Schedule which are ongoing are necessary for reduction of ARI.

  9. Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 Improves Both Acute and Late Experimental Radiation Enteritis in the Rat

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Sandra

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: Acute and/or chronic radiation enteritis can develop after radiotherapy for pelvic cancers. Experimental and clinical observations have provided evidence of a role played by acute mucosal disruption in the appearance of late effects. The therapeutic potential of acute administration of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) against acute and chronic intestinal injury was investigated in this study. Methods and Materials: Intestinal segments were surgically exteriorized and exposed to 16.7 or 19 Gy X-rays. The rats were treated once daily with vehicle or a protease-resistant GLP-2 derivative for 14 days before irradiation, with or without 7 days of GLP-2 after treatment. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were made 2 and 15 weeks after radiation exposure. Results: In the control animals, GLP-2 induced an increase in intestinal mucosal mass, along with an increase in villus height and crypt depth. GLP-2 administration before and after irradiation completely prevented the acute radiation-induced mucosal ulcerations observed after exposure to 16.7 Gy. GLP-2 treatment strikingly reduced the late radiation damage observed after 19 Gy irradiation. Microscopic observations revealed an improved organization of the intestinal wall and an efficient wound healing process, especially in the smooth muscle layers. Conclusion: GLP-2 has a clear therapeutic potential against both acute and chronic radiation enteritis. This therapeutic effect is mediated through an increased mucosal mass before tissue injury and the stimulation of still unknown mechanisms of tissue response to radiation damage. Although these preliminary results still need to be confirmed, GLP-2 might be a way to limit patient discomfort during radiotherapy and reduce the risk of consequential late effects.

  10. Asymptomatic encephalitis in calves experimentally infected with bovine herpesvirus-5

    PubMed Central

    Isernhagen, Allan Jürgen; Cosenza, Mariana; da Costa, Marcio Carvalho; Médici, Kerlei Cristina; Balarin, Mara Regina Stipp; Bracarense, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Lisbôa, Júlio Augusto Naylor

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated that bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV)-5 infected calves can develop encephalitis and remain asymptomatic. Seven calves were infected intranasally and monitored for 30 days. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was performed from the onset of neurological signs. Multiple sections of brain and the trigeminal ganglion were submitted to histopathology. Virus detection (PCR and isolation) was performed on CSF and tissues. Four calves developed signs of neurologic disease and died. Three calves remained asymptomatic and were euthanized 30 days post-infection. Cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear pleocytosis occurred in symptomatic and asymptomatic calves. BoHV-5 was isolated and viral DNA was detected in multiple areas of the encephalon of all calves. The viral DNA was detected in the CSF of 2 calves showing neurological signs. Histologically, inflammation was noted in the brain of all calves and confirmed that the encephalitis caused by BoHV-5 may be mild and asymptomatic. PMID:22654135

  11. Effect of Thioridazine on Experimental Cutaneous Staphylococcal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Beth L.; Sohnle, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Some non-antibiotic drugs, such as the phenothiazine antipsychotic agents, may have antimicrobial activity. Materials and Methods We sought to determine the in vivo antimicrobial effects of the phenothiazine thioridazine in two mouse models of Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. Results Thioridazine significantly suppressed dissemination from skin to spleen and kidney after inoculation of the skin surface. However, the drug did not affect infection parameters in the skin itself. Thioridazine did suppress the size of abscesses produced when the bacteria were injected intradermally. On the other hand, using the cutaneous abscess model we were not able to demonstrate synergistic activity between thioridazine and the β-lactam drug cefazolin against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, as previously demonstrated in vitro. Conclusion The phenothiazine drug thioridazine has in vivo antimicrobial activity against certain S. aureus skin infections, although the previously-demonstrated reversal of methicillin resistance by this agent may not be readily evident in vivo. PMID:24425833

  12. Experimental infection of birds with epidemic Venezuelan encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Bowen, G S; McLean, R G

    1977-07-01

    Sixty-three birds representing 13 species were inoculated with a strain of epidemic Venezuelan encephalitis (VE) virus from the 1971 Texas outbreak. More than 95% of the birds became infected. Mortality which could be attributed to infection with VE virus was very low. Viremia persisted 2-6 days. Peak viremia levels ranged from 10(3.2) to 10(8.2) suckling mouse intracranial 50% lethal doses per milliliter (SMICLD50/ml). Blood virus levels were highest in juvenile Louisiana Herones, adult Robins and adult Mockingbirds and were lowest in juvenile Common Egrets. Most bird species had blood virus levels about 10(5) SMICLD50/ml (high vector infection potential) for 2-3 days. Neutralizing antibody response was more uniform and frequent in herons (95%) than in passerines (56%). The role of birds in the epidemiology of Venezuelan is discussed.

  13. Characterization of alpha-defensins plasma levels in Macaca fascicularis and correlations with virological parameters during SHIV89.6Pcy11 experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Baroncelli, Silvia; Negri, Donatella R M; Rovetto, Claudia; Belli, Roberto; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Catone, Stefania; Michelini, Zuleika; Borghi, Martina; Leone, Pasqualina; Fagrouch, Zahra; Heeney, Jonathan; Cara, Andrea

    2007-02-01

    Alpha-defensins have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro and may contribute to the overall control of viral replication in vivo. In the present work, we quantitatively measured the levels of alpha-defensins in the plasma of healthy and experimentally SHIV-infected Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus monkeys), an animal model of AIDS pathogenesis and vaccine development. Characterization of physiological plasma alpha-defensins levels was performed in 12 healthy monkeys following longitudinal analysis using an alpha-defensins ELISA kit currently validated for macaque use. Subsequently, alpha-defensins levels were quantitatively measured in 23 cynomolgus monkeys during titration protocols following both the mucosal and systemic routes of infection with the pathogenic SHIV89.6P(cy11). A significant increase in plasma alpha-defensins levels was consistently observed at early time points in all infected animals, regardless of the infection route. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between viral replication and levels of alpha-defensins during the acute phase of infection. Interestingly, in the animals infected through the mucosal route, alpha-defensins levels remained significantly higher at later time points, up to 19 weeks from the infection, while in cynomolgus infected intravenously, alpha-defensins levels returned to baseline levels by 4 weeks from infection, suggesting that the different route of infection may differently activate the innate immune response.

  14. Using experimental human influenza infections to validate a viral dynamic model and the implications for prediction.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; You, S H; Liu, C Y; Chio, C P; Liao, C M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to use experimental infection data of human influenza to assess a simple viral dynamics model in epithelial cells and better understand the underlying complex factors governing the infection process. The developed study model expands on previous reports of a target cell-limited model with delayed virus production. Data from 10 published experimental infection studies of human influenza was used to validate the model. Our results elucidate, mechanistically, the associations between epithelial cells, human immune responses, and viral titres and were supported by the experimental infection data. We report that the maximum total number of free virions following infection is 10(3)-fold higher than the initial introduced titre. Our results indicated that the infection rates of unprotected epithelial cells probably play an important role in affecting viral dynamics. By simulating an advanced model of viral dynamics and applying it to experimental infection data of human influenza, we obtained important estimates of the infection rate. This work provides epidemiologically meaningful results, meriting further efforts to understand the causes and consequences of influenza A infection.

  15. The influence of T. evansi infection on the immuno-responsiveness of experimentally infected water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Holland, W G; My, L N; Dung, T V; Thanh, N G; Tam, P T; Vercruysse, J; Goddeeris, B M

    2001-12-13

    In order to define the immuno-suppressive capacity of Trypanosoma evansi infections in buffaloes on the induction of immune responses against heterologous antigens, infected and non-infected buffaloes were vaccinated against Pasteurella multocida (haemorrhagic septicemia) and were simultaneously immunised with a control antigen, human serum albumin (HSA). Antibody responses against HSA were significantly reduced in T. evansi-infected animals, but no conclusive data were obtained on the antibody responses against P. multocida. Conversely, the local inflammatory response at the site of Pasteurella vaccination, as measured by increase in size, was significantly reduced in T. evansi-infected animals. These results indicate that the inductive capacity to mount humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against heterologous antigens is suppressed in T. evansi-infected animals. Consequently, T. evansi infection might interfere with the development of protective immunity upon heterologous vaccinations and could explain the poor protection of Pasteurella-vaccinated buffaloes in T. evansi-endemic areas of Vietnam.

  16. [Experimental and natural infection with the enzootic leukosis virus of cattle].

    PubMed

    Hofírek, B; Horín, P; Granátová, M; Machatková, M; Franz, J; Svoboda, I; Blecha, J

    1986-03-01

    A trial was performed with heifers at the age of six to seven months. The animals were experimentally infected with the lymphocytes of a virus-productive donor. Infection was produced in all the nine cases, as demonstrated by means of the positive syncytial test. As indicated by the results of the trial, the antibodies to the enzootic bovine leucosis virus (BLV) were produced soon after experimental infection. A high sensitivity of the serum-neutralization test and the ELISA method was demonstrated in this connection: by these methods, the antibodies were identified already two to three weeks after experimental infection whereas by the immunodiffusion test they could be detected only after five weeks. Twenty-four animals were exposed to natural contact infection. Within 270 days of the trial, the disease after contact was recorded only in one heifer out of the four that were in close contact with the experimentally infected animals. In this case, as compared with experimental infection, the antibodies were produced much later--after 85 to 93 days. Leucosis was recorded in none of the remaining animals. The reasons why such a favourable result was obtained were the thorough disinfection of the stables after blood collections and the strict observance of the aseptic conditions. The results of experimental infection in three cows were identical with those obtained in young cattle. In the experimentally infected dairy cows, antibodies in milk were determined by the ELISA method. As found, in milk the antibodies to BLV appear two to three weeks later than they do in serum. The ELISA method of BLV antibody detection can be used for the identification of infected animals in herds where enzootic bovine leucosis occurs. PMID:3010532

  17. Acute labyrinthitis associated with systemic Candida albicans infection in ageing mice.

    PubMed

    Ashman, R B; Papadimitriou, J M; Fulurija, A

    1996-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is an important opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with disease of the inner ear. This study describes the histopathology of acute labyrinthitis caused by systemic infection with C. albicans in aging inbred mice. Within four days after infection, yeast and hyphal forms of C.albicans were found in the membranous labyrinth. The utricle and the adjacent parts of the ampullary regions of the semicircular canals were most severely affected, but damage was also seen in the scala media, the scala tympani, the saccule, and the scala vestibuli. In the utricle, the lining epithelium of the membranous labyrinth was disrupted, and the lining cells of the vestibular membrane showed foci in which the membrane was disrupted. The data suggest that age may represent a risk factor for fungal labyrinthitis.

  18. Metagenomic analysis of bloodstream infections in patients with acute leukemia and therapy-induced neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmati, P.; Kjellander, C.; Aust, C.; Song, Y.; Öhrmalm, L.; Giske, C. G.

    2016-01-01

    Leukemic patients are often immunocompromised due to underlying conditions, comorbidities and the effects of chemotherapy, and thus at risk for developing systemic infections. Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a severe complication in neutropenic patients, and is associated with increased mortality. BSI is routinely diagnosed with blood culture, which only detects culturable pathogens. We analyzed 27 blood samples from 9 patients with acute leukemia and suspected BSI at different time points of their antimicrobial treatment using shotgun metagenomics sequencing in order to detect unculturable and non-bacterial pathogens. Our findings confirm the presence of bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens alongside antimicrobial resistance genes. Decreased white blood cell (WBC) counts were associated with the presence of microbial DNA, and was inversely proportional to the number of sequencing reads. This study could indicate the use of high-throughput sequencing for personalized antimicrobial treatments in BSIs. PMID:26996149

  19. An accurate two-phase approximate solution to the acute viral infection model

    SciTech Connect

    Perelson, Alan S

    2009-01-01

    During an acute viral infection, virus levels rise, reach a peak and then decline. Data and numerical solutions suggest the growth and decay phases are linear on a log scale. While viral dynamic models are typically nonlinear with analytical solutions difficult to obtain, the exponential nature of the solutions suggests approximations can be found. We derive a two-phase approximate solution to the target cell limited influenza model and illustrate the accuracy using data and previously established parameter values of six patients infected with influenza A. For one patient, the subsequent fall in virus concentration was not consistent with our predictions during the decay phase and an alternate approximation is derived. We find expressions for the rate and length of initial viral growth in terms of the parameters, the extent each parameter is involved in viral peaks, and the single parameter responsible for virus decay. We discuss applications of this analysis in antiviral treatments and investigating host and virus heterogeneities.

  20. Value of serological tests in the diagnosis of viral acute respiratory infections in adults.

    PubMed

    Căruntu, F; Dogaru, D; Stefan, D; Căruntu, V; Angelescu, C; Streinu-Cercel, A; Colţan, G; Petrescu, A L; Tarţă, D; Bârnaure, F

    1986-01-01

    The dynamics of the antibody response to influenza viruses A (H1N1), A (H3N2) and B, to parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, to adenoviruses and respiratory syncytial virus was studied in paired serum samples collected from 110 patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections (ARI) and in 40 patients suffering from other diseases. Rises in serum antibody titers to 1--5 of the above mentioned antigens were detected in many of the patients of both groups. The fact is most likely due to the presence of some epidemiologically and clinically uncharacteristic viral ARI (influenza included); simultaneous or successive infections with influenza virus and different other viruses were very frequent. A greater efficiency of the etiological diagnosis of viral ARI can be achieved only by the association of epidemiological and clinical criteria with serological data, the visualization of viral antigens and virus isolation. PMID:3727398

  1. A Quasi-Experimental Study Analyzing the Effectiveness of Portable High-Efficiency Particulate Absorption Filters in Preventing Infections in Hematology Patients during Construction

    PubMed Central

    Özen, Mehmet; Yılmaz, Gülden; Coşkun, Belgin; Topçuoğlu, Pervin; Öztürk, Bengi; Gündüz, Mehmet; Atilla, Erden; Arslan, Önder; Özcan, Muhit; Demirer, Taner; İlhan, Osman; Konuk, Nahide; Balık, İsmail; Gürman, Günhan; Akan, Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The increased risk of infection for patients caused by construction and renovation near hematology inpatient clinics is a major concern. The use of high-efficiency particulate absorption (HEPA) filters can reduce the risk of infection. However, there is no standard protocol indicating the use of HEPA filters for patients with hematological malignancies, except for those who have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This quasi-experimental study was designed to measure the efficacy of HEPA filters in preventing infections during construction. Materials and Methods: Portable HEPA filters were placed in the rooms of patients undergoing treatment for hematological malignancies because of large-scale construction taking place near the hematology clinic. The rates of infection during the 6 months before and after the installation of the portable HEPA filters were compared. A total of 413 patients were treated during this 1-year period. Results: There were no significant differences in the antifungal prophylaxis and treatment regimens between the groups. The rates of infections, clinically documented infections, and invasive fungal infections decreased in all of the patients following the installation of the HEPA filters. When analyzed separately, the rates of invasive fungal infections were similar before and after the installation of HEPA filters in patients who had no neutropenia or long neutropenia duration. HEPA filters were significantly protective against infection when installed in the rooms of patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia, patients who were undergoing consolidation treatment, and patients who were neutropenic for 1-14 days. Conclusion: Despite the advent of construction and the summer season, during which environmental Aspergillus contamination is more prevalent, no patient or patient subgroup experienced an increase in fungal infections following the installation of HEPA filters. The protective effect of HEPA