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Sample records for acute fish test

  1. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish acute toxicity test. 797.1400 Section 797.1400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Aquatic Guidelines § 797.1400 Fish acute toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This...

  2. Use of fish embryo toxicity tests for the prediction of acute fish toxicity to chemicals.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Scott E; Rawlings, Jane M; Carr, Gregory J

    2013-08-01

    The fish embryo test (FET) is a potential animal alternative for the acute fish toxicity (AFT) test. A comprehensive validation program assessed 20 different chemicals to understand intra- and interlaboratory variability for the FET. The FET had sufficient reproducibility across a range of potencies and modes of action. In the present study, the suitability of the FET as an alternative model is reviewed by relating FET and AFT. In total, 985 FET studies and 1531 AFT studies were summarized. The authors performed FET-AFT regressions to understand potential relationships based on physical-chemical properties, species choices, duration of exposure, chemical classes, chemical functional uses, and modes of action. The FET-AFT relationships are very robust (slopes near 1.0, intercepts near 0) across 9 orders of magnitude in potency. A recommendation for the predictive regression relationship is based on 96-h FET and AFT data: log FET median lethal concentration (LC50) = (0.989 × log fish LC50) - 0.195; n = 72 chemicals, r = 0.95, p < 0.001, LC50 in mg/L. A similar, not statistically different regression was developed for the entire data set (n = 144 chemicals, unreliable studies deleted). The FET-AFT regressions were robust for major chemical classes with suitably large data sets. Furthermore, regressions were similar to those for large groups of functional chemical categories such as pesticides, surfactants, and industrial organics. Pharmaceutical regressions (n = 8 studies only) were directionally correct. The FET-AFT relationships were not quantitatively different from acute fish-acute fish toxicity relationships with the following species: fathead minnow, rainbow trout, bluegill sunfish, Japanese medaka, and zebrafish. The FET is scientifically supportable as a rational animal alternative model for ecotoxicological testing of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish. PMID:23606235

  3. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will use data from these tests in assessing the hazard of a chemical to... exposure over a specified period of time. (9) Loading means the ratio of fish biomass (grams, wet...

  4. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas... concentration below 20 µg/l. (ii) Dissolved oxygen concentration. (A) During static tests with rainbow trout the... minnow and 12 °C for rainbow trout. Excursions from the test temperature shall be no greater than ±2...

  5. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas... concentration below 20 µg/l. (ii) Dissolved oxygen concentration. (A) During static tests with rainbow trout the... minnow and 12 °C for rainbow trout. Excursions from the test temperature shall be no greater than ±2...

  6. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas... concentration below 20 µg/l. (ii) Dissolved oxygen concentration. (A) During static tests with rainbow trout the... minnow and 12 °C for rainbow trout. Excursions from the test temperature shall be no greater than ±2...

  7. Progress Towards the Development of a Fathead Minnow Embryo Test and Comparison to the Zebrafish Embryo Test for Assessing Acute Fish Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Zebrafish Embryo Test (ZFET) for acute fish toxicity is a well developed method nearing adoption as an OECD Test Guideline. Early drafts of the test guideline (TG) envisioned a suite of potential test species to be covered including zebrafish, fathead minnow, Japanese Medaka...

  8. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Schmidt, Stine N; Stinckens, Evelyn; Maho, Walid; Blust, Ronny; Mayer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Knapen, Dries

    2015-11-01

    High throughput testing according to the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test (OECD Testing Guideline 236) is usually conducted in well plates. In the case of hydrophobic test substances, sorptive and evaporative losses often result in declining and poorly controlled exposure conditions. Therefore, our objective was to improve exposure conditions in FET tests by evaluating a passive dosing format using silicone O-rings in standard 24-well polystyrene plates. We exposed zebrafish embryos to a series of phenanthrene concentrations until 120h post fertilization (hpf), and obtained a linear dilution series. We report effect values for both mortality and sublethal morphological effects based on (1) measured exposure concentrations, (2) (lipid normalized) body residues and (3) chemical activity. The LC50 for 120hpf was 310μg/L, CBR50 (critical body residue) was 2.72mmol/kg fresh wt and La50 (lethal chemical activity) was 0.047. All values were within ranges expected for baseline toxicity. Impaired swim bladder inflation was the most pronounced morphological effect and swimming activity was reduced in all exposure concentrations. Further analysis showed that the effect on swimming activity was not attributed to impaired swim bladder inflation, but rather to baseline toxicity. We conclude that silicone O-rings (1) produce a linear dilution series of phenanthrene in the 120hpf FET test, (2) generate and maintain aqueous concentrations for reliable determination of effect concentrations, and allow for obtaining mechanistic toxicity information, and (3) cause no toxicity, demonstrating its potential as an extension of the FET test when testing hydrophobic chemicals. PMID:26026258

  9. Fish embryo toxicity test: identification of compounds with weak toxicity and analysis of behavioral effects to improve prediction of acute toxicity for neurotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; König, Maria; Ortmann, Julia; Massei, Riccardo; Paschke, Albrecht; Kühne, Ralph; Scholz, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The fish embryo toxicity test has been proposed as an alternative for the acute fish toxicity test, but concerns have been raised for its predictivity given that a few compounds have been shown to exhibit a weak acute toxicity in the fish embryo. In order to better define the applicability domain and improve the predictive capacity of the fish embryo test, we performed a systematic analysis of existing fish embryo and acute fish toxicity data. A correlation analysis of a total of 153 compounds identified 28 compounds with a weaker or no toxicity in the fish embryo test. Eleven of these compounds exhibited a neurotoxic mode of action. We selected a subset of eight compounds with weaker or no embryo toxicity (cyanazine, picloram, aldicarb, azinphos-methyl, dieldrin, diquat dibromide, endosulfan, and esfenvalerate) to study toxicokinetics and a neurotoxic mode of action as potential reasons for the deviating fish embryo toxicity. Published fish embryo LC50 values were confirmed by experimental analysis of zebrafish embryo LC50 according to OECD guideline 236. Except for diquat dibromide, internal concentration analysis did not indicate a potential relation of the low sensitivity of fish embryos to a limited uptake of the compounds. Analysis of locomotor activity of diquat dibromide and the neurotoxic compounds in 98 hpf embryos (exposed for 96 h) indicated a specific effect on behavior (embryonic movement) for the neurotoxic compounds. The EC50s of behavior for neurotoxic compounds were close to the acute fish toxicity LC50. Our data provided the first evidence that the applicability domain of the fish embryo test (LC50s determination) may exclude neurotoxic compounds. However, neurotoxic compounds could be identified by changes in embryonic locomotion. Although a quantitative prediction of acute fish toxicity LC50 using behavioral assays in fish embryos may not yet be possible, the identification of neurotoxicity could trigger the conduction of a conventional fish

  10. SIMULTANEOUS MULTIPLE SPECIES TESTING: ACUTE TOXICITY OF 13 CHEMICALS TO 12 DIVERSE FRESHWATER AMPHIBIAN, FISH, AND INVERTEBRATE FAMILIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The test series developed methods for testing a compliment of aquatic organisms in a single test that satisfies the freshwater acute toxicity requirements for setting water quality criteria. Species tested included fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, rainbow trout Salmo gairdner...

  11. Electrophiles and acute toxicity to fish.

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, J L

    1990-01-01

    Effect concentrations in fish LC50 tests with directly acting electrophiles are lower than those of unreactive chemicals that act by narcosis. LC50 values of more hydrophobic reactive chemicals tend to approach those of unreactive chemicals. Quantitative studies to correlate fish LC50 data to physical-chemical properties indicate that LC50 values of reactive chemicals depend on hydrophobicity as well as chemical reactivity. In this paper, several examples will be given of chemical structures that are known as direct electrophiles. This classification might be useful to identify chemicals that are more effective at lower concentrations than unreactive compounds. Chemicals that require bioactivation are not included because almost no information is available on the influence of bioactivation on acute toxic effects in aquatic organisms. PMID:2269228

  12. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos. PMID:24929227

  13. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison

    2015-03-13

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  14. Fish gall bladder consumption presenting as acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A; Karnik, ND; Gupta, VA; Hase, NK

    2015-01-01

    A forty two year old male was admitted with history of anuria and breathlessness following consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder. He had azotemia and required hemodialysis. His renal failure improved over a period of about four weeks. Incidences have been reported from South East Asian countries associating consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder with acute renal failure. PMID:26440398

  15. The OECD Fish Testing Framework Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    OECD Project 2.30 on a Fish Testing Framework was initiated in mid-2009, with the United States as the lead country. The objectives of the project are to review the regulatory needs and data requirements for fish testing and review the currency of existing OECD Test Guidelines. ...

  16. Effect of acute stresses on zebra fish (Danio rerio) metabolome measured by NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Mian Yahya; Marçal, Rosilene Moretti; Champagne, Danielle L; van der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2014-09-01

    We applied an acute stress model to zebra fish in order to measure the changes in the metabolome due to biological stress. This was done by submitting the fish to fifteen minutes of acute confinement (netting) stress, and then five minutes for the open field and light/dark field tests. A polar extract of the zebra fish was then subjected to (1)H nuclear magnetic spectroscopy. Multivariate data analysis of the spectra showed a clear separation associated to a wide range of metabolites between zebra fish that were submitted to open field and light/dark field tests. Alanine, taurine, adenosine, creatine, lactate, and histidine were high in zebra fish to which the light/dark field test was applied, regardless of stress, while acetate and isoleucine/lipids appeared to be higher in zebra fish exposed to the open field test. These results show that any change in the environment, even for a small period of time, has a noticeable physiological impact. This research provides an insight of how different mechanisms are activated under different environments to maintain the homeostasis of the body. It should also contribute to establish zebra fish as a model for metabolomics studies. PMID:25098933

  17. Comparative acute and chronic sensitivity of fish and amphibians: a critical review of data.

    PubMed

    Weltje, Lennart; Simpson, Peter; Gross, Melanie; Crane, Mark; Wheeler, James R

    2013-04-01

    The relative sensitivity of amphibians to chemicals in the environment, including plant protection product active substances, is the subject of ongoing scientific debate. The objective of this study was to compare systematically the relative sensitivity of amphibians and fish to chemicals. Acute and chronic toxicity data were obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) ECOTOX database and were supplemented with data from the scientific and regulatory literature. The overall outcome is that fish and amphibian toxicity data are highly correlated and that fish are more sensitive (both acute and chronic) than amphibians. In terms of acute sensitivity, amphibians were between 10- and 100-fold more sensitive than fish for only four of 55 chemicals and more than 100-fold more sensitive for only two chemicals. However, a detailed inspection of these cases showed a similar acute sensitivity of fish and amphibians. Chronic toxicity data for fish were available for 52 chemicals. Amphibians were between 10- and 100-fold more sensitive than fish for only two substances (carbaryl and dexamethasone) and greater than 100-fold more sensitive for only a single chemical (sodium perchlorate). The comparison for carbaryl was subsequently determined to be unreliable and that for sodium perchlorate is a potential artifact of the exposure medium. Only a substance such as dexamethasone, which interferes with a specific aspect of amphibian metamorphosis, might not be detected using fish tests. However, several other compounds known to influence amphibian metamorphosis were included in the analysis, and these did not affect amphibians disproportionately. These analyses suggest that additional amphibian testing is not necessary during chemical risk assessment. PMID:23381988

  18. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid to fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA; also called peroxyacetic acid) is a promising new therapeutant for parasites and fungus. It is registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an antimicrobial compound approved for indoor use on hard, non-porous surfaces. This study determined the acute toxi...

  19. EVALUATION OF THREE FISH SPECIES AS BIOASSAY ORGANISMS FOR DREDGED MATERIAL TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three fish species, Cyprinodon variegatus, Fundulus similis, and Menidia menidia, were evaluated to determine which is most suitable as a bioassay organism for solid phase testing of dredged material. Acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were mon...

  20. The fish embryo test (FET): origin, applications, and future.

    PubMed

    Braunbeck, Thomas; Kais, Britta; Lammer, Eva; Otte, Jens; Schneider, Katharina; Stengel, Daniel; Strecker, Ruben

    2015-11-01

    Originally designed as an alternative for the acute fish toxicity test according to, e.g., OECD TG 203, the fish embryo test (FET) with the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been optimized, standardized, and validated during an OECD validation study and adopted as OECD TG 236 as a test to assess toxicity of embryonic forms of fish. Given its excellent correlation with the acute fish toxicity test and the fact that non-feeding developmental stages of fish are not categorized as protected stages according to the new European Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, the FET is ready for use not only for range-finding but also as a true alternative for the acute fish toxicity test, as required for a multitude of national and international regulations. If-for ethical reasons-not accepted as a full alternative, the FET represents at least a refinement in the sense of the 3Rs principle. Objections to the use of the FET have mainly been based on the putative lack of biotransformation capacity and the assumption that highly lipophilic and/or high molecular weight substances might not have access to the embryo due to the protective role of the chorion. With respect to bioactivation, the only substance identified so far as not being activated in the zebrafish embryo is allyl alcohol; all other biotransformation processes that have been studied in more detail so far were found to be present, albeit, in some cases, at lower levels than in adult fish. With respect to larger molecules, the extension of the test duration to 96 h (i.e., beyond hatch) has-at least for the substances tested so far-compensated for the reduced access to the embryo; however, more research is necessary to fully explore the applicability of the FET to substances with a molecular weight >3 kDa as well as substances with a neurotoxic mode of action. An extension of the endpoints to also cover sublethal endpoints makes the FET a powerful tool for the detection of

  1. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota. PMID:27448754

  2. Acute toxicities to larval rainbow trout of representative compounds detected in Great Lakes fish

    SciTech Connect

    Edsall, C.C. )

    1991-02-01

    In recent years the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes has ranked the potential hazard to fish and invertebrates of various chemical compounds detected in two Great Lakes fishes - lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, and walleye. Stizostedion vitreum vitreum. This hazard assessment has included the identification of the potential sources of the compound, determination of the occurrence and abundance of the compounds in Great Lakes fish, and the determination of acute toxicities of representative compounds of 19 chemical classes. The author focuses on four of the classes. The PAHs are products of fuel combustion and components of fossil fuels. The other three classes principally originate from industrial applications (alkyl halides), as fossil fuels, insecticides, solvents, and in perfumes (cyclic alkanes); and as herbicides and insecticides (heterocyclic nitrogen compounds). The authors purpose is to report results of static acute toxicity tests in which larval rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used as the test fish and to compare results of acute toxicity tests with previous studies.

  3. Blood tests for acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Basnayake, Chamara; Ratnam, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    Summary The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis requires the presence of at least two of the three diagnostic criteria – characteristic abdominal pain, elevated serum amylase or lipase, and radiological evidence of pancreatitis. Serum concentrations of amylase and lipase rise within hours of the pancreatic injury. A threshold concentration 2–4 times the upper limit of normal is recommended for diagnosis. Serum lipase is now the preferred test due to its improved sensitivity, particularly in alcohol-induced pancreatitis. Its prolonged elevation creates a wider diagnostic window than amylase. Neither enzyme is useful in monitoring or predicting the severity of an episode of pancreatitis in adults. New biomarkers including trypsinogen and elastase have no significant advantage over amylase or lipase. PMID:26648641

  4. Acute toxicities to larval rainbow trout of representative compounds detected in Great Lakes fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes has ranked the potential hazard to fish and invertebrates of various chemical compounds detected in two Great Lakes fishes-- lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, and walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Hesselberg and Seelye 1982). This hazard assessment has included the identification of the potential sources of the compounds, determination of the occurrence and abundance of the compounds in Great Lakes fish, and the determination of acute toxicities of representative compounds of 19 chemical classes (Passino and Smith 1987a). In further studies Smith et al. (1988) focused on 6 of the 19 classes of compounds using the zooplankter Daphnia pulex as the test organism. They ranked the six classes as follows (in decreasing order of toxicity): polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, and silicon-containing compounds.

  5. Promoting the 3Rs to enhance the OECD fish toxicity testing framework.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Wheeler, James R; Gourmelon, Anne; Burden, Natalie

    2016-04-01

    Fish toxicity testing has been conducted since the 1860's in order to help define safe levels of chemical contaminants in lakes, rivers and coastal waters. The historical emphasis on acute lethality testing of chemicals has more recently focussed on long term sublethal effects of chemicals on fish and their prey species. Fish toxicity testing is now embedded in much environment legislation on chemical safety while it is recognized that animal use should be Replaced, Reduced and Refined (the 3Rs) where possible. The OECD Fish Toxicity Testing Framework provides a useful structure with which to address the needs of environmental safety assessment whilst implementing the 3Rs. This commentary aims to promote the implementation of the recommendations of the OECD Fish Toxicity Testing Framework. PMID:26873775

  6. Acute toxicity value extrapolation with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Asfaw, A.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of risk posed by an environmental contaminant to an aquatic community requires estimation of both its magnitude of occurrence (exposure) and its ability to cause harm (effects). Our ability to estimate effects is often hindered by limited toxicological information. As a result, resource managers and environmental regulators are often faced with the need to extrapolate across taxonomic groups in order to protect the more sensitive members of the aquatic community. The goals of this effort were to 1) compile and organize an extensive body of acute toxicity data, 2) characterize the distribution of toxicant sensitivity across taxa and species, and 3) evaluate the utility of toxicity extrapolation methods based upon sensitivity relations among species and chemicals. Although the analysis encompassed a wide range of toxicants and species, pesticides and freshwater fish and invertebrates were emphasized as a reflection of available data. Although it is obviously desirable to have high-quality acute toxicity values for as many species as possible, the results of this effort allow for better use of available information for predicting the sensitivity of untested species to environmental contaminants. A software program entitled "Ecological Risk Analysis" (ERA) was developed that predicts toxicity values for sensitive members of the aquatic community using species sensitivity distributions. Of several methods evaluated, the ERA program used with minimum data sets comprising acute toxicity values for rainbow trout, bluegill, daphnia, and mysids provided the most satisfactory predictions with the least amount of data. However, if predictions must be made using data for a single species, the most satisfactory results were obtained with extrapolation factors developed for rainbow trout (0.412), bluegill (0.331), or scud (0.041). Although many specific exceptions occur, our results also support the conventional wisdom that invertebrates are generally more sensitive to

  7. Are acute and chronic saltwater fish studies required for plant protection and biocidal product active substance risk assessment?

    PubMed

    Wheeler, James R; Maynard, Samuel K; Crane, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of chemicals to fish is routinely assessed using fish acute and early life stage (ELS) test results, usually with freshwater species. Under some regulations with certain substances, however, data on saltwater species may also be required. Evidence from earlier studies suggests that saltwater fish species are generally no more sensitive than freshwater species and that when they are more sensitive to a substance the difference in sensitivity is usually less than a factor of 10. However, most of these studies concentrated on acute lethal toxicity results for a wide range of substances and across a range of taxonomic groups. In the present study, the authors compare freshwater and saltwater acute median lethal concentration (LC50) and chronic ELS no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) results from standardized regulatory studies specifically for fish species exposed to the same plant protection or biocidal product active substances to determine the value of testing in both freshwater and saltwater fish. The results suggest that, in most cases, use of a freshwater fish 96-h LC50 or longer-term ELS NOEC should be sufficient to protect saltwater species. In a small number of cases (12%), saltwater ELS NOECs were more sensitive by a factor >10, although differences in sensitivity were not consistent for this small number of substances when 96-h LC50 and longer-term ELS NOECs were compared. It is debatable whether such a low probability merits the additional animal use required to run saltwater fish tests, especially when onshore contaminants released to estuaries and coastal environments are likely to be diluted many-fold when compared with concentrations found in freshwaters. PMID:24288251

  8. Comparison of acute toxicity of process chemicals used in the oil refinery industry, tested with the diatom Chaetoceros gracilis, the flagellate Isochrysis galbana, and the zebra fish, Brachydanio rerio

    SciTech Connect

    Roseth, S.; Edvardsson, T.; Botten, T.M.; Fuglestad, J.; Fonnum, F.; Stenersen, J.

    1996-07-01

    Chemicals under the trade names Nalco 537-DA, Nalco 625, Nalco 7607, Nalco 5165, Ivamin, and technical monoethanolamine are used extensively in the oil refinery industry. Aquatic toxicity tests were conducted using zebra fish fry (Brachydanio rerio) and the unicellular algae Isochrysis galbana (a flagellate) and Chaetoceros gracilis (a diatom). Inhibition of cell division, chlorophyll content, and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} uptake in the algae were sensitive end points. The effective concentrations (EC50s) of growth inhibition were 0.1 mg/L (Ivamin; I. galbana), 0.8 mg/L (Nalco 7607; I. galbana), 6 mg/L (Nalco 625; I. galbana), 10 mg/L (Nalco 5165; C. gracilis), and 15 mg/L (Nalco 537-DA; C. gracilis). The lethal concentrations (LC50s) (96 h) toward zebra fish fry was 1 mg/L for Nalco 7607, 6.5 mg/L for Nalco 537-DA, 7.1 mg/L for Nalco 625, and 20 mg/L for Ivamin 803. Monoethanolamine had an LC50 higher than 5,000 mg/L. Nalco 5165 was not tested on fish fry. The heartbeat frequency of fish embryos was reduced by 2.5 mg/L Nalco 537-DA, but this was an insensitive end point for the other chemicals.

  9. Acute Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Chloroform to Four Species of Freshwater Fish

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    1980-08-01

    Acute toxicity of chloroform to four species of freshwater fish was studied in flow-through 96-hr toxicity tests. Chloroform is toxic to fish in the tens of parts per million, a concentration well above that which would be expected to be produced under normal power plant chlorination conditions. Investigations of acute toxicity of chloroform and the bioaccumulation of chlorinated compounds in tissues of fish revealed differences in tolerance levels and tissue accumulations. Mean 96-hr LC{sub 50}s for chloroform were 18 ppm for rainbow trout and bluegill, 51 ppm for largemouth bass and 75 ppm for channel catfish. Mortalities of bluegill and largemouth bass occurred during the first 4 hr of exposure while rainbow trout and channel catfish showed initial tolerance and mortalities occurred during the latter half of the 96-hr exposure. Rainbow trout had the highest level of chloroform tissue accumulation, 7 {micro}g/g tissue, catfish the second highest, 4 {micro}g/g tissue, followed by bluegill and largemouth bass which each accumulated about 3 {micro}g/g tissue. Accumulation of chloroform was less than one order of magnitude above water concentrations for all species.

  10. Effects of acute cooling on fish electroretinogram: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gačić, Zoran; Milošević, Milena; Mićković, Branislav; Nikčević, Miroslav; Damjanović, Ilija

    2015-06-01

    Temperature dependence of electroretinogram (ERG) was investigated in 3 fish species occupying different habitats--dogfish shark (Scyliorhinus canicula), Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Acute cooling of the shark isolated eyecup from 23°C down to 6°C induced suppression of the electroretinographic b-wave--a complete degradation of this component was observed at 6°C. On the other hand, photoreceptor component of the ERG, the negative late receptor potential was not affected by cooling. The fact that the suppression of the dogfish shark b-wave at low temperatures was as a rule irreversible testifies about breakdown of neural retinal function at cold temperature extremes. Although in vivo experiments on immobilized Prussian carps have never resulted in complete deterioration of the b-wave at low temperatures, significant suppression of this ERG component by cooling was detected. Suppressing the effect of low temperatures on Prussian carp ERG might be due to the fact that C. gibelio, as well as other cyprinids, can be characterized as a warmwater species preferring temperatures well above cold extremes. The ERG of the eel, the third examined species, exhibited the strongest resistance to extremely low temperatures. During acute cooling of in situ eyecup preparations of migrating silver eels from 30°C down to 2°C the form of ERG became wider, but the amplitude of the b-wave only slightly decreased. High tolerance of eel b-wave to cold extremes shown in our study complies with ecological data confirming eurythermia in migrating silver eels remarkably adapted to cold-water environment as well. PMID:25759261

  11. FISH ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MECHANISM-SPECIFIC QSARS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The focus of this report is to summarize the development and status of the fish acute toxicity syndrome (FATS) research effort. hus far, FATS associated with nonpolar narcotics, oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers, respiratory membrane irritants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhi...

  12. The OECD Fish Testing Framework Project: Summary of Workshop Recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated Fish Testing Framework was initiated in mid-2009 as OECD Project 2.30 with the United States as the lead country. The objectives of the project were to review the regulatory needs and data requirements for fish testing and review the currency of existing OECD Test ...

  13. Assessing chronic fish health: An application to a case of an acute exposure to chemically treated crude oil.

    PubMed

    Mauduit, F; Domenici, P; Farrell, A P; Lacroix, C; Le Floch, S; Lemaire, P; Nicolas-Kopec, A; Whittington, M; Zambonino-Infante, J L; Claireaux, G

    2016-09-01

    Human alteration of marine ecosystems is substantial and growing. Yet, no adequate methodology exists that provides reliable predictions of how environmental degradation will affect these ecosystems at a relevant level of biological organization. The primary objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate a fish's capacity to face a well-established environmental challenge, an exposure to chemically dispersed oil, and characterize the long-term consequences. Therefore, we applied high-throughput, non-lethal challenge tests to assess hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed as proxies for a fish's functional integrity. These whole animal challenge tests were implemented before (1 month) and after (1 month) juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) had been acutely exposed (48h) to a mixture containing 0.08gL(-1) of weathered Arabian light crude oil plus 4% dispersant (Corexit© EC9500A), a realistic exposure concentration during an oil spill. In addition, experimental populations were then transferred into semi-natural tidal mesocosm ponds and correlates of Darwinian fitness (growth and survival) were monitored over a period of 4 months. Our results revealed that fish acutely exposed to chemically dispersed oil remained impaired in terms of their hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance, but not in temperature susceptibility for 1 month post-exposure. Nevertheless, these functional impairments had no subsequent ecological consequences under mildly selective environmental conditions since growth and survival were not impacted during the mesocosm pond study. Furthermore, the earlier effects on fish performance were presumably temporary because re-testing the fish 10 months post-exposure revealed no significant residual effects on hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed. We propose that the functional proxies and correlates of Darwinian fitness used here provide a useful

  14. ACUTE AND CHRONIC PARATHION TOXICITY TO FISH AND INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute and chronic aquatic bioassays were conducted with a variety of organisms using parathion (0,0-diethyl 0-(p-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate) as the challenge compound. Acute LC50 values ranged from a low of 0.38 micrograms/l in invertebrates to a high of 2.0 mg/l in freshwater...

  15. Acute effects of copper and mercury on the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps: linking biomarkers to behaviour.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L R; Gravato, C; Soares, A M V M; Morgado, F; Guilhermino, L

    2009-09-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate possible links between biomarkers and swimming performance in the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps acutely exposed to metals (copper and mercury). In independent bioassays, P. microps juveniles were individually exposed for 96 h to sub-lethal concentrations of copper or mercury. At the end of the assays, swimming performance of fish was measured using a device specially developed for epibenthic fish (SPEDE). Furthermore, the following biomarkers were measured: lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione S-transferases (GST), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). LC(50)s of copper and mercury (dissolved throughout metal concentrations) at 96h were 568 microg L(-1), and 62 microg L(-1), respectively. Significant and concentration-dependent effects of both metals on swimming resistance and covered distance against water flow were found at concentrations equal or higher than 50 microg L(-1) for copper and 3 microg L(-1) for mercury (dissolved throughout metal concentrations). These results indicate that SPEDE was efficacious to quantify behavioural alterations in the epibenthic fish P. microps at ecologically relevant concentrations. Significant alterations by both metals on biomarkers were found including: inhibition of AChE and EROD activities, induction of LDH, GST and anti-oxidant enzymes, and increased LPO levels, with LOEC values ranging from 25 to 200 microg L(-1), for copper and from 3 to 25 microg L(-1) for mercury (dissolved throughout metal concentrations). Furthermore, significant and positive correlations were found between some biomarkers (AChE and EROD) and behavioural parameters, while negative correlations were found for others (LPO, anti-oxidant enzymes and LDH) suggesting that disruption of cholinergic

  16. Fish acute toxicity syndromes and their use in the QSAR approach to hazard assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McKim, J.M.; Bradbury, S.P.; Niemi, G.J.

    1987-04-01

    Implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1977 creates the need to reliably establish testing priorities because laboratory resources are limited and the number of industrial chemicals requiring evaluation is overwhelming. The use of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models as rapid and predictive screening tools to select more potentially hazardous chemicals for in-depth laboratory evaluation has been proposed. Further implementation and refinement of quantitative structure-toxicity relationships in aqueous toxicology and hazard assessment requires the development of a mode-of-action database. With such a database, a qualitative structure-activity relationship can be formulated to assign the proper mode of action, and respective QSAR, to a given chemical structure. In this review, the development of fish acute toxicity syndromes (FATS), which are toxic-response sets based on various behavioral and physiological-biochemical measurements, and their projected use in the mode-of-action database are outlined. Using behavioral parameters monitored in the fathead minnow during acute toxicity testing, FATS associated with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors and narcotics could be reliably predicted. However, compounds classified as oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers or stimulants could not be resolved. Refinement of this approach by using respiratory-cardiovascular responses in the rainbow trout, enabled FATS associated with AChE inhibitors, convulsants, narcotics, respiratory blockers, respiratory membrane irritants, and uncouplers to be correctly predicted.

  17. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF CHLORDANE TO FISH AND INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute and chronic toxicity of technical chlordane to bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), Daphnia magna, Hyallela azteca, and Chironomus No. 51 were determined with flow-through conditions. The purpose was ...

  18. Fish bone perforation of the terminal ileum presenting as acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, David; Jones, Michael; Kaushik, Monika; Thomas, William Michael

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a bowel perforation due to a fish bone that presented as an acute abdomen. This patient's gastrointestinal perforation was treated with laparoscopic and open technique. Diagnosis can be difficult as foreign body bowel perforation can mimic other causes of acute abdomen. Diagnosis is still most commonly made intraoperatively. Laparoscopy proved useful in this case as it allowed the most appropriate surgical approach to be made. PMID:24639331

  19. Acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to selected lifestages of cold-, cool-, and warmwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Rach, J.J.; Ramsay, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery personnel depend on therapeutant treatments to control diseases. Currently, hatchery managers in the United States are limited to one approved therapeutant (formalin) and three compounds of Low Regulatory Priority (sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid) to control external diseases of cultured fish. Hydrogen peroxide has been used to effectively control external columnaris and bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout, however, definitive safe treatment concentrations for hydrogen peroxide are lacking for a variety of species. We report the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to 11 species of fry and 13 species of fingerling freshwater fish. Most mortality occurred within the first 30 h after the first exposure to hydrogen peroxide with little change in the overall shape of survival curves over time. Our data predict that in an actual therapeutic application of hydrogen peroxide, most treatment-related mortalities would be observed shortly after the initial exposure. Coolwater species were more sensitive than coldwater species but were generally similar to warmwater species tested. Based on our mortality data, coldwater species and largemouth bass may be treated for 60 min at concentrations of ??? 150 ??l/l without harmful effects; all muskellunge, walleye, bluegill, channel catfish, yellow perch, pallid sturgeon fingerlings, fathead minnow fingerlings, white sucker fingerlings, and northern pike fry may be treated for 60 min at ??? 100 ??l/l; and northern pike fingerlings and white sucker, yellow perch and fathead minnow fry may be treated for 60 min at ??? 50 ??l/l.

  20. Acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to selected lifestages of cold-, cool-, and warmwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Rach, Jeffery J.; Ramsay, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery personnel depend on therapeutant treatments to control diseases. Currently, hatchery managers in the United States are limited to one approved therapeutant (formalin) and three compounds of Low Regulatory Priority (sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid) to control external diseases of cultured fish. Hydrogen peroxide has been used to effectively control external columnaris and bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout, however, definitive safe treatment concentrations for hydrogen peroxide are lacking for a variety of species. We report the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to 11 species of fry and 13 species of fingerling freshwater fish. Most mortality occurred within the first 30 h after the first exposure to hydrogen peroxide with little change in the overall shape of survival curves over time. Our data predict that in an actual therapeutic application of hydrogen peroxide, most treatment-related mortalities would be observed shortly after the initial exposure. Coolwater species were more sensitive than coldwater species but were generally similar to warmwater species tested. Based on our mortality data, coldwater species and largemouth bass may be treated for 60 min at concentrations of ≤ 150 (μl/1 without harmful effects; all muskellunge, walleye, bluegill, channel catfish, yellow perch, pallid sturgeon fingerlings, fathead minnow fingerlings, white sucker fingerlings, and northern pike fry may be treated for 60 min at ≤ 100 μl/l; and northern pike fingerlings and white sucker, yellow perch and fathead minnow fry may be treated for 60 min at ≤ 50μl/l.

  1. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Mebane, Christopher A; Dillon, Frank S; Hennessy, Daniel P

    2012-06-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329 µg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin < other taxa; with Pb, EC50s ranged from 47 to 3,323 µg/L, with westslope cutthroat trout < rainbow trout < other taxa; and with Zn, EC50s ranged from 21 to 3,704 µg/L, with rainbow trout < westslope cutthroat trout ≈ sculpin < other taxa. With swim-up trout fry, a pattern of decreasing resistance with increasing fish size was observed. In metal mixtures, the toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis. PMID:22488500

  2. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Dillon, Frank S.; Hennessy, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329μg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin << other taxa; with Pb, EC50s ranged from 47 to 3,323μg/L, with westslope cutthroat trout < rainbow trout < other taxa; and with Zn, EC50s ranged from 21 to 3,704μg/L, with rainbow trout < westslope cutthroat trout ≈ sculpin << other taxa. With swim-up trout fry, a pattern of decreasing resistance with increasing fish size was observed. In metal mixtures, the toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis.

  3. Acute bioassays and hazard evaluation of representative contaminants detected in Great Lakes fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino, Dora R. May; Smith, Stephen B.

    1987-01-01

    We have provided a hazard ranking for 19 classes of compounds representing many of the nearly 500 organic compounds identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) from the Great Lakes and Lake St. Clair. We initially made a provisional hazard ranking based on available published and unpublished information on aquatic toxicity, bioaccumulation, occurrence and sources. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia pulex at 17A°C in reconstituted hard water were performed with 30 compounds representative of the 19 classes that were highest in the provisional ranking. The resulting toxicity data, along with information on the compounds' occurrence in Great Lakes fish and their sources, were ranked and weighted and then used in calculating the revised hazard ranking. The 10 most hazardous classes, in descending order, are as follows (values shown are mean 48-h EC50s, in μ/ml): arene halides (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT), 0.0011; phthalate esters, 0.133; chlorinated camphenes (toxaphene), 0.0082; polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; e.g., dimethylnaphthalene) and reduced derivatives, 1.01; chlorinated fused polycyclics (e.g., trans-nonachlor), 0.022; nitrogen-containing compounds (e.g., O-methylhydroxyl-amine), 1.35; alkyl halides (e.g., (bromomethyl)cyclohexene), 10.1; cyclic alkanes (e.g., cyclododecane), 20.9; silicon-containing compounds (e.g., dimethyldiethoxy silane), 1.25; and heterocyclic nitrogen compounds (e.g., nicotine), 2.48. We recommend that chronic bioassays be conducted with fish and invertebrates to determine the sublethal effects of the following classes of compounds, for which few toxicity data are available: PAHs, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, other nitrogen-containing compounds, alkyl halides, cyclic alkanes and silicon-containing compounds. Information from these types of studies will aid researchers in determining the possible causal role these contaminants play in

  4. Cyanide fishing and cyanide detection in coral reef fish using chemical tests and biosensors.

    PubMed

    Mak, Karen K W; Yanase, Hideshi; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2005-06-15

    Sodium cyanide has been used in the Philippines to collect tropical marine fish for aquarium and food trades since the early 1960s. Cyanide fishing is a fast method to stun and collect fish. This practice is damaging the coral reefs irreversibly. In most countries cyanide fishing is illegal, but most of the exporting and importing countries do not have test and certificate systems. Many analytical methods are available for the detection of cyanide in environmental and biological samples. However, most of the techniques are time consuming, and some lack specificity or sensitivity. Besides, an ultra sensitive cyanide detection method is needed due to the rapid detoxification mechanisms in fish. The aim of this review is to give an overview of cyanide fishing problem in the south-east Asia and current strategies to combat this destructive practice, summarise some of the methods for cyanide detection in biological samples and their disadvantages. A novel approach to detect cyanide in marine fish tissues is briefly discussed. PMID:15854827

  5. Harmonizing and Optimizing Fish Testing Methods: The OECD Framework Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) serves a key role in the international harmonization of testing of a wide variety of chemicals. An integrated fish testing framework project was initiated in mid-2009 through the OECD with the US as the lead country...

  6. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Daphnid acute toxicity test. 797.1300 Section 797.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Aquatic Guidelines § 797.1300 Daphnid acute toxicity test. (a) Purpose....

  7. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gammarid acute toxicity test. 795.120 Section 795.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) PROVISIONAL TEST GUIDELINES Provisional Environmental Effects Guidelines § 795.120 Gammarid acute toxicity test....

  8. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test. 797.1930 Section 797.1930 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Aquatic Guidelines § 797.1930 Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Algal acute toxicity test. 797.1050 Section 797.1050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Aquatic Guidelines § 797.1050 Algal acute toxicity test. (a) Purpose. The...

  10. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds. PMID:23764236

  11. Test system for exposing fish to resuspended, contaminated sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Wiener, J.G.; Steingraeber, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a new test system for exposing fish to resuspended sediments and associated contaminants. Test sediments were resuspended by revolving test chambers on rotating shafts driven by an electric motor. The timing, speed, and duration of test-chamber revolution were controlled by a rheostat and electronic timer. Each chamber held 45 litres of water and accommodated about 49 g of test fish. The system described had three water baths, each holding six test chambers. We illustrate the performance of this system with results from a 28-day test in which juvenile bluegills Lepomis macrochirus were exposed to resuspended, riverine sediments differing in texture and cadmium content. The test had one sediment-free control and five sediment treatments, with three replicates (chambers) per treatment and 25 fish per replicate. Two-thirds (30 litres) of the test water and sediment in each chamber was renewed weekly. The mean concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) did not vary among treatments; the grand-mean TSS in the five sediment treatments was 975 mg litre-1, similar to the target TSS of 1000 mg litre-1. At the end of the test, an average of 50% of the introduced cadmium was associated with the suspended sediment compartment, whereas the filtered (0.45 μm) water contained 0.4% and bluegills 1.8% of the cadmium.

  12. Acute Hypoxic Test in Patients with Prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Shatylo, Valerii B; Serebrovska, Tatiana V; Gavalko, Anna V; Egorov, Egor; Korkushko, Oleg V

    2016-06-01

    Shatylo, Valerii B., Tetiana V. Serebrovska, Anna V. Gavalko, Egor Egorov, and Oleg V. Korkushko. Acute hypoxic test in patients with prediabetes. High Alt Med Biol. 17:101-107, 2016.-Prediabetes is a state of impaired carbohydrate metabolism when not all of the symptoms required to label a person as diabetic are present, but blood glucose is higher than in healthy subjects. Recent evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) might provide a cost-effective strategy for improving metabolic functioning. One of the most important aspects of the successful IHT application is individualized approach to hypoxic dose and regimen prescription. To establish the relationships between indices of carbohydrate metabolism and individual resistance to hypoxia, the acute hypoxic test (AHT, breathing gas mixture with 12% O2 during 20 minutes) was performed in 33 healthy volunteers (mean age, 63.0, range, 44-76; fasting plasma glucose (FPG) less than 5.6 mmol/L and 2 hours postoral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glycemia less than 7.8 mmol/L) and 30 patients with impaired glucose metabolism (mean age, 65.5, range, 44-75; FPG from 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L and 2 hours post-OGTT glycemia from 7.8 to 11 mmol/L). Negative correlation was found between the SaO2 level at 20th minute AHT and FPG (r = -0.83; p < 0.01) and insulin (r = -0.27; p < 0.05), as well as 2 hours post-OGTT glucose and insulin levels (r = -0.75 and -0.40, respectively). Longer recovery time and less effective functioning of respiratory and cardiovascular systems were also registered in patients with prediabetes showing that their cardiovascular resilience is impaired compared to normoglycemic controls. These patterns of relationship must be considered when assigning the individual modes of IHT. PMID:27213550

  13. ESTIMATING ACUTE AND CRONIC TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS FOR ENDANGERED FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictive toxicological models, including estimates of uncertainty, are necessary to perform probability-based ecological risk assessments. This is particularly true for the protection of endangered species that are not prudent to test, other species that have not been tested o...

  14. Acute outbreak of gnathostomiasis in a fishing community in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Díaz Camacho, Sylvia Paz; Willms, Kaethe; de la Cruz Otero, Ma del Carmen; Zazueta Ramos, Magda Luz; Bayliss Gaxiola, Sergio; Castro Velázquez, Rafael; Osuna Ramírez, Ignacio; Bojórquez Contreras, Angel; Torres Montoya, Edith Hilario; Sánchez Gonzáles, Sergio

    2003-06-01

    An increasing number of human cases of gnathostomiasis have been reported in Sinaloa, Mexico, most of whom have a custom of eating of raw fish dishes such as 'cebiche'. Here we report five adult patients, three women and two men, having an acute episode of vomiting and abdominal pain a few minutes after eating a dish of cebiche prepared from a spotted sleeper perch (Eleotris picta) fished from a nearby lake in southern Sinaloa. All five patients experienced acute throat pain, chest and joint pains, headache and fever. One patient, a 55-year-old male, was hospitalized with suspected pancreatitis and pneumonia. By 8-9 days later, all five patients developed between three and 12 edematous, migrating skin lesions on the back, abdomen, upper and lower extremities, face, eye and scalp. By ELISA, all of them were sero-positive to Gnathostoma doloresi antigen and had elevated IgE levels. Eosinophilia was found in two patients. These patients lived in an agricultural and fishing community. In this community we carried out a sero-epidemiological survey and study of living conditions in a random sample of 309 individuals distributed in 74 households. Frequent consumption of raw fish was reported in 36% of households, and 12 individuals had a clinical history of migrating skin lesions. The sero-prevalence to Gnathostoma antigens was 34.95%. Five fish species and four species of ichthyophagous birds collected from three lakes in the village and a nearby estuary were infected with the advanced third-stage larvae of G. binucleatum, a species found in Ecuador and Mexico. The results describe the first known outbreak of acute gnathostomiasis on the American continent. PMID:12798924

  15. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

    PubMed Central

    Bosco de Salles, João; Matos Lopes, Renato; de Salles, Cristiane M. C.; Cassano, Vicente P. F.; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Cunha Bastos, Vera L. F.; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  16. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide.

    PubMed

    de Salles, João Bosco; Lopes, Renato Matos; de Salles, Cristiane M C; Cassano, Vicente P F; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Bastos, Vera L F Cunha; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  17. Acute oral toxicity test of chemical compounds in silkworms.

    PubMed

    Usui, Kimihito; Nishida, Satoshi; Sugita, Takuya; Ueki, Takuro; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Okumura, Hidenobu; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    This study performed an acute oral toxicity test of 59 compounds in silkworms. These compounds are listed in OECD guidelines as standard substances for a cytotoxicity test, and median lethal dose (LD(50)) werecalculated for each compound. Acute oral LD(50) values in mammals are listed in OECD guidelines and acute oral LD(50) values in silkworms were determined in this study. R(2) for the correlation between LD(50) values in mammals and LD(50) values in silkworms was 0.66. In addition, the acute oral toxicity test in silkworms was performed by two different facilities, and test results from the facilities were highly reproducible. These findings suggest that an acute oral toxicity test in silkworms is a useful way to evaluate the toxicity of compounds in mammals. PMID:26971557

  18. Acute lethal toxicity of some reference chemicals to freshwater fishes of Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Oikari, A.O.J.

    1987-07-01

    Relevance of the choice of a test organism intended to be representative for a given environment seems to be under continual debate in aquatic ecotoxicology. For instance, it is commonly argue that acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout, the species most often recommended as a standard cold water teleost, were not representative for Nordic countries because the species is an alien in local faunas. A comparative study with several freshwater species was therefore initiated to clarify the validity of this assumption. As a first approximation, standard LC 50 assays were conducted. The species used were chosen only on the basis of their local availability, i.e, they randomly represented the fish fauna of Nordic inland waters. Furthermore, inter-species variation of toxicity response was compared with certain other, quantitatively more important, intra-species sources of variability affecting the toxicity of chemicals. Use of reference toxicants has been recommended as a means of standardizing bioassays. Compounds, characteristic of effluents from the pulp and paper industry, were selected for the present study. The toxicity of organic acids such a phenols and resin acids, as well as that of pupmill effluents, strongly depends on water pH. Because of the possibility that species differences could exist in this respect, effects of water acidity on toxicity of these types of substances to a randomly selected local species was investigated. Finally, as an example of the biological source of assay variability, the effect of yolk absorption was studied with a subsequent crisis period due to moderate starvation under laboratory conditions.

  19. Exploring waiving opportunities for mammalian acute systemic toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Graepel, Rabea; Asturiol, David; Prieto, Pilar; Worth, Andrew P

    2016-07-01

    A survey was carried out to explore opportunities for waiving mammalian acute systemic toxicity tests. We were interested in finding out whether data from a sub-acute toxicity test could be used to predict the outcome of an acute systemic toxicity test. The survey was directed at experts in the field of toxicity testing, and was carried out in the context of the upcoming 2018 final registration deadline for chemicals under the EU REACH Regulation. In addition to the survey, a retrospective data analysis of chemicals that had already been registered with the European Chemicals Agency, and for which both acute and sub-acute toxicity data were available, was carried out. This data analysis was focused on chemicals that were administered via the oral route. The answers to the questionnaire showed a willingness to adopt waiving opportunities. In addition, the responses showed that data from a sub-acute toxicity test or dose-range finding study might be useful for predicting chemicals that do not require classification for acute oral toxicity (LD50 > 2000mg/kg body weight). However, with the exception of substances that fall into the non-classified category, it is difficult to predict current acute oral toxicity categories. PMID:27494626

  20. Exercise test in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hsi, W L; Lai, J S

    1996-01-01

    Although maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and oxygen consumption at anaerobic threshold (VO2AT) were used to measure cardiac function, the clinical significance in acute myocardial infarction (MI) has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare VO2max and VO2AT between post-MI patients and healthy men and to correlate the parameters to other clinical measures. Forty-three active healthy men, 44 sedentary healthy men, and 43 post-MI patients were studied using incremental cycle exercise test. Their work rates, oxygen consumption, heart rates, oxygen pulses, ventilation, and other parameters at VO2max and VO2AT were determined with spirometer, gas concentration analyzer, and electrocardiograph. Anaerobic threshold was determined by analyzing the ventilatory parameters. Most of the exercise test parameters at VO2max were greatest in the active men, intermediate in the sedentary men, and least in the post-MI patients (P < 0.01) whereas the rate-pressure products of the active men and sedentary men were not significantly different from each other and were greater than those of the post-MI patients (P < 0.01). In the post-MI patients, VO2max was inversely correlated to the peak serum level of creatine phosphokinase MB isoenzyme (P < 0.01) and associated with extensive infarction (P < 0.05). Most of the parameters at VO2AT were greater in the active men than in the sedentary men (P < 0.01) but not significantly different between the sedentary men and post-MI patients. In the post-MI patients, VO2AT was significantly correlated to left ventricular ejection fraction (P < 0.01) and associated with heart failure (P < 0.05). The results revealed that VO2max and VO2AT had different clinical significance in post-MI patients; VO2max was related to the infarct size, and VO2AT was related to the pumping function of heart. PMID:8777021

  1. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  2. Freshwater Fish Sublethal Tests: A Review of the Sublethal Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pressure on animal testing has traditionally been the purview of mammalian toxicological science, but in the past few years, more attention is given also to environmental safety. As with higher vertebrate animal alternatives, balance between reduce animal use without impairing o...

  3. Consideration of reactivity to acute fish toxicity of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl ketones and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Furuhama, A; Aoki, Y; Shiraishi, H

    2012-01-01

    To understand the key factor for fish toxicity of 11 α,β-unsaturated carbonyl aldehydes and ketones, we used quantum chemical calculations to investigate their Michael reactions with methanethiol or glutathione. We used two reaction schemes, with and without an explicit water molecule (Scheme-1wat and Scheme-0wat, respectively), to account for the effects of a catalytic water molecule on the reaction pathway. We determined the energies of the reactants, transition states (TS), and products, as well as the activation energies of the reactions. The acute fish toxicities of nine of the carbonyl compounds were evaluated to correlate with their hydrophobicities; no correlation was observed for acrolein and crotonaldehyde. The most toxic compound, acrolein, had the lowest activation energy. The activation energy of the reaction could be estimated with Scheme-1wat but not with Scheme-0wat. The complexity of the reaction pathways of the compounds was reflected in the difficulty of the TS structure searches when Scheme-1wat was used with the polarizable continuum model. The theoretical estimations of activation energies of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with catalytic molecules or groups including hydrogen-bond networks may complement traditional tools for predicting the acute aquatic toxicities of compounds that cannot be easily obtained experimentally. PMID:22150015

  4. Role for leptin in promoting glucose mobilization during acute hyperosmotic stress in teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Baltzegar, David A; Reading, Benjamin J; Douros, Jonathon D; Borski, Russell J

    2014-01-01

    Osmoregulation is critical for survival in all vertebrates, yet the endocrine regulation of this metabolically expensive process is not fully understood. Specifically, the function of leptin in the regulation of energy expenditure in fishes, and among ectotherms, in general, remains unresolved. In this study, we examined the effects of acute salinity transfer (72  h) and the effects of leptin and cortisol on plasma metabolites and hepatic energy reserves in the euryhaline fish, the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Transfer to 2/3 seawater (23  ppt) significantly increased plasma glucose, amino acid, and lactate levels relative to those in the control fish. Plasma glucose levels were positively correlated with amino acid levels (R2=0.614), but not with lactate levels. The mRNA expression of liver leptin A (lepa), leptin receptor (lepr), and hormone-sensitive and lipoprotein lipases (hsl and lpl) as well as triglyceride content increased during salinity transfer, but plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride levels remained unchanged. Both leptin and cortisol significantly increased plasma glucose levels in vivo, but only leptin decreased liver glycogen levels. Leptin decreased the expression of liver hsl and lpl mRNAs, whereas cortisol significantly increased the expression of these lipases. These findings suggest that hepatic glucose mobilization into the blood following an acute salinity challenge involves both glycogenolysis, induced by leptin, and subsequent gluconeogenesis of free amino acids. This is the first study to report that teleost leptin A has actions that are functionally distinct from those described in mammals acting as a potent hyperglycemic factor during osmotic stress, possibly in synergism with cortisol. These results suggest that the function of leptin may have diverged during the evolution of vertebrates, possibly reflecting differences in metabolic regulation between poikilotherms and homeotherms. PMID:24194509

  5. Resolving some practical questions about Daphnia acute toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Barera, Y.; Adams, W.J.

    1981-10-01

    Acute toxicity tests were performed with six age groups of Daphnia magna, ranging from less than or equal to6 h to 216 h, and with five chemicals, selected on the basis of their physical and chemical properties as well as their acute toxicity to D. magna. The age of the daphnids did not significantly alter the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values for the chemicals tested. The maximum difference observed in the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values between the 6-h and 216-h age groups was a factor of 3.9 for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). For purposes of standardization, it appears that D. magna up to 48 h of age at the beginning of the test can be used to conduct acute toxicity tests with most chemicals. The results of static acute toxicity tests conducted with butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and D. magna in the presence and absence of several commonly used solvents indicate that the acute toxicity of this chemical is not altered by the use of a solvent carrier. The 48-h EC/sub 50/ value for BBP without a solvent was 1.0 mg/L, compared with a range of 1.6 to 2.2 mg/L when acetone, dimethylformamide, ethanol, or triethylene glycol were used as solvent carriers. The acute toxicities of the solvents in the absence of BBP were also determined for D. magna. The values ranged from 9.3 to 52.4 g/L. The results of static acute tests performed with D. magna and BBP in the presence of various concentrations of daphnid foods (algae or trout chow), indicate that the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values increase proportionally with an increase in food concentrations. These results suggest that acute toxicity tests with D. magna should be conducted in the presence of food with chemicals with a high Ksigma if the results are to be used to select the test concentrations for a chronic study with daphnids. The type of food and the concentration used in the acute test should be the same as those used in a chronic test.

  6. Acute and subchronic toxicity of metal complex azo acid dye and anionic surfactant oil on fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Amwele, Hilma Rantilla; Papirom, Pittaya; Chukanhom, Kanit; Beamish, Fredrick Henry William; Petkam, Rakpong

    2015-01-01

    The acute toxicity study of metal complex dark green azo acid dye, anionic surfactant oil and their mixture determined the 96 hr LC50, and fish behaviours. Subchronic toxicity determined haematology parameters and concentrations of copper and chromium in blood. The 96 hr LC50 was determined by probit analysis and subchronic toxicity was conducted in 90 days. No mortalities were observed in control and anionic surfactant oil treatments. The 96 hr LC50 value of mixture was 26.7 mg I(-1) (95% CL = 20.7 - 46.8) and that of metal complex dark green azo acid dye was not met as the percentage of dead was below 50% of tested organisms. In a treatment of anionic surfactant oil and that of mixture observed behaviours were respiration response, uncoordinated movement, loss of equilibrium, erratic posture and loss of responsiveness. Subchronic toxicity indicated fluctuations in number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes in all chemical treatments. Erythrocyte morphology such as anisocytosis, erythrocytes hypertrophy, karyolysis, cytoplasm vacuolation, ghost cell were observed in fish blood in all chemical treatments. An inverse relation was observed between total copper and chromium concentration in blood. However, the toxicity effect was chemical dose dependent and length of exposure. PMID:26536793

  7. Procalcitonin Strip Test as an Independent Predictor in Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Dias, Brendan Hermenigildo; Rozario, Anthony Prakash; Olakkengil, Santosh Antony; V, Anirudh

    2015-12-01

    Plasma procalcitonin (PCT) is a highly specific marker for the diagnosis of bacterial infection and sepsis. Studies have demonstrated its role in the setting of sepsis and acute pancreatitis. This study aims to analyze and compare the prognostic efficacy of plasma procalcitonin strip test in acute pancreatitis. A prospective study was conducted in the department of general surgery from June 2012 to June 2013. Plasma procalcitonin was estimated by the semiquantitative strip test. The study included a total of 50 patients diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. Data was collected and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 17. Thirty-nine out of the 50 patients (78 %) were males with a mean age of 46.8 years (range, 25-78 years) and 25 patients (50 %) had ethanol-induced pancreatitis, while 13 patients (26 %) had gall stone pancreatitis. Plasma PCT values were found to correlate better than CRP levels and total leukocyte count with the total duration of hospitalization, ITU, and ICU stay, as well as with the progression to severe acute pancreatitis. A cut off for plasma PCT of >2 ng/mL was found to be 100 % sensitive and 100 % specific and a cut off for CRP of >19 mg/dL was 70 % sensitive and 65 % specific for predicting the progression to severe acute pancreatitis. Plasma PCT also correlated well with antibiotic requirement. A cut off value of >0.5 ng/mL for plasma PCT was 100 % sensitive and 80 % specific and a cut off value of >18 mg/dL for CRP was 86 % sensitive and 63 % specific for predicting antibiotic requirement. Plasma procalcitonin is an early and reliable prognostic indicator in acute pancreatitis. The procalcitonin strip test is a rapid test which is useful in analyzing prognosis in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:27011501

  8. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; Schalie, W.H. van der; Leather, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  9. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  10. Acute toxicity of 31 different nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio) tested in adulthood and in early life stages – comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Kovrižnych, Jevgenij A.; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena; Wimmerová, Soňa

    2013-01-01

    At present, nanoparticles are beginning to influence our lives in many ways and understanding the environmental health and safety aspect of nanomaterials has become a crucial issue. The aim of the work was to assess and compare the acute toxicity of 31 different nanomaterials to fish mature individuals Danio rerio with that to fish early life stages on using evaluation of the 48- and 96- hour LC50 values. A further aim was to evaluate teratogenicity of the nanoparticles tested to fish eggs. The nanoparticles tested were: 8 pure metals, 10 metal oxides, 5 other metal compounds and their mixtures, 2 silicon compounds, 3 calcium compounds, and 3 carbon compounds. Using 48-h and 96-h tests of acute toxicity (according to OECD 203), we evaluated mortality data, LC50 values, occurrence of malformations, as well as hatching time. In our study, 6 kinds of nanoparticles – calcium oxide, copper, copper in the form of oxide and CuZnFe4O4, magnesium oxide, and nickel – caused cumulative mortality. Two kinds of nanoparticles – copper and silver – were toxic for fish with LC50 values of approximately 3 mg/L. We did not observe marked differences between the 48-hour and 96-hour acute toxicity LC50 values, yet the possibility to evaluate hatching time in the 96-h acute fish toxicity test seems to be an advantage against that of the 48-hour toxicity. PMID:24179431

  11. Acute toxicity testing of chemicals-Opportunities to avoid redundant testing and use alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Creton, Stuart; Dewhurst, Ian C; Earl, Lesley K; Gehen, Sean C; Guest, Robert L; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Indans, Ian; Woolhiser, Michael R; Billington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the acute systemic oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicities, skin and eye irritancy, and skin sensitisation potential of chemicals is required under regulatory schemes worldwide. In vivo studies conducted to assess these endpoints can sometimes be associated with substantial adverse effects in the test animals, and their use should always be scientifically justified. It has been argued that while information obtained from such acute tests provides data needed to meet classification and labelling regulations, it is of limited value for hazard and risk assessments. Inconsistent application of in vitro replacements, protocol requirements across regions, and bridging principles also contribute to unnecessary and redundant animal testing. Assessment of data from acute oral and dermal toxicity testing demonstrates that acute dermal testing rarely provides value for hazard assessment purposes when an acute oral study has been conducted. Options to waive requirements for acute oral and inhalation toxicity testing should be employed to avoid unnecessary in vivo studies. In vitro irritation models should receive wider adoption and be used to meet regulatory needs. Global requirements for sensitisation testing need continued harmonisation for both substance and mixture assessments. This paper highlights where alternative approaches or elimination of tests can reduce and refine animal use for acute toxicity requirements. PMID:20144136

  12. Acute inhalation toxicity testing: considerations of technical and regulatory aspects.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, J; Bury, D; Föst, U; Gamer, A; Hoernicke, E; Hofmann, T; Kunde, M; Neustadt, T; Schlede, E; Schnierle, H; Wettig, K; Westphal, D

    1996-01-01

    The EU regulatory statute for the acute hazard identification of chemicals requires selection of the two most appropriate routes of administration. Testing employing the oral route is mandatory, whereas selection of the dermal or inhalation route requires expert judgement, i.e. considerations of structural alerts with regard to the inherent acute inhalation toxicity as well as the likelihood of dermal and inhalation exposure, respectively. Currently, testing of chemicals requires acute inhalation exposure of 4-h and 1-h durations according the EU classification and labelling and UN Transport Guidelines, respectively. The analysis made revealed that 1-h exposures appear to add little knowledge in addition to existing 4-h LC50 values and a default value of 4 should be used for conversion of 4-h to 1-h LC50 values, independently of the physical state of the chemical. Therefore, also the unit of concentration of exposure atmospheres should be independent of nominal features of the test substance. Hence, the preferred dose metric is mass (mg/liter air) rather than volume (ppm). Taking into account the overall variability of acute toxicity data the recommendations given are classification into the following groups of 4-h LC50 values: < or = 0.05, > 0.05-0.2, > 0.2-1, > 1-5 and > 5.0 mg/l. No distinction should be made concerning vapours and aerosols with regard to units and conversion factors from 4-h to 1-h LC50 values and the default factor of 4 appears to be most suitable. Further differentiation of classification is not indicated due to technical variability of acute inhalation testing and resolution of the acute bioassay. PMID:9010579

  13. Development of an alternative testing strategy for the fish early life-stage (FELS) test using the AOP framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD 210) is the primary guideline used to estimate chronic toxicity of regulated chemicals. Although already more cost-efficient than adult fish tests, the FELS test has some important drawbacks. Both industry and regulatory inst...

  14. Acute toxicity of certain organochlorine, organophosphorus, synthetic pyrethroid and microbial insecticides to the mosquito fish Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard).

    PubMed

    Mittal, P K; Adak, T; Sharma, V P

    1991-09-01

    Acute toxicity of certain organochlorine, organophosphorus, synthetic pyrethroid and microbial insecticides to the mosquito fish Gambusia affinis were determined to collect baseline data for selecting the resistant strains of the fish. The synthetic pyrethroid, Lambdacyhalothrin was most toxic to the fish (LC50 = 0.0022 ppm), followed by deltamethrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate. Organochlorine insecticides, DDT and gamma-HCH, were less toxic than the pyrethroids, and these were followed by organophosphorus insecticides, malathion, fenthion, monocrotophos and temephos. The last two insecticides were least toxic among the different chemical insecticides (LC50 greater than 80 ppm ai). The microbial insecticide ABG-6262 (Vectolex 2.5 AS), a Bacillus sphaericus preparation, was totally harmless to the fish at 2500 microliters/l up to one week. PMID:1822454

  15. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish early life stage toxicity test. 797.1600 Section 797.1600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Aquatic Guidelines § 797.1600 Fish early life stage toxicity test....

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of bisphenol A with aquatic invertebrates and plants.

    PubMed

    Mihaich, Ellen M; Friederich, Urs; Caspers, Norbert; Hall, A Tilghman; Klecka, Gary M; Dimond, Stephen S; Staples, Charles A; Ortego, Lisa S; Hentges, Steven G

    2009-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA, 4,4'-isopropylidine diphenol) is a commercially important chemical used primarily as an intermediate in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Extensive effect data are currently available, including long-term studies with BPA on fish, amphibians, crustaceans, and mollusks. The aim of this study was to perform additional tests with a number of aquatic invertebrates and an aquatic plant. These studies include acute tests with the midge (Chironomus tentans) and the snail (Marisa cornuarietis), and chronic studies with rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and plants (Lemna gibba). The effect data on different aquatic invertebrate and plant species presented in this paper correspond well with the effect and no-effect concentrations (NOECs) available from invertebrate studies in the published literature and are within the range found for other aquatic species tested with BPA. PMID:19327838

  17. Design and testing of small scale fish meat bone separator useful for fish processing.

    PubMed

    Ali Muhammed, M; Manjunatha, N; Murthy, K Venkatesh; Bhaskar, N

    2015-06-01

    The present study relates to the food processing machinery and, more specifically machine for producing boneless comminuted meat from raw fish fillet. This machine is of belt and drum type meat bone separator designed for small scale fish processing in a continuous mode. The basic principal involved in this machine is compression force. The electric geared motor consists of 1HP and the conveyor belt has a linear velocity of 19 to 22 m min(-1), which was sufficient to debone the fish effectively. During the meat bone separation trials an efficiency up to 75 % on dressed fish weight basis was observed and with a capacity to separate 70 kg h(-1) of meat from fish at the machine speed of 25 rpm. During the trials, it was demonstrated that there was no significant change in the proximate composition of comminuted fish meat when compared to unprocessed fish meat. This design has a greater emphasis on hygiene, provision for cleaning-in-place (CIP) and gives cost effective need and reliability for small scale industries to produce fish meat in turn used for their value added products. PMID:26028734

  18. ANA testing in the presence of acute and chronic infections.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Christine M; Binder, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibody testing is performed to help diagnose patients who have clinical symptoms suggestive of possible autoimmune diseases. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are present in many systemic autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, a positive ANA test may also be seen with non-autoimmune inflammatory diseases, including both acute and chronic infections. When the ANA test is used as an initial screen in patients with non-specific clinical symptoms, such as fever, joint pain, myalgias, fatigue, rash, or anemia, the likelihood of a positive result due to infection will increase, especially in children. This article identifies acute and chronic infectious diseases that are likely to produce a positive ANA result and summarizes recent literature addressing both the causes and consequences of these findings. PMID:27050929

  19. Correlation between heavy metal acute toxicity values in Daphnia magna and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1987-04-01

    In the toxicant bioassays, invertebrates with special reference to aquatic arthropod species have been of recent interest as test models due to the need for developing nonmammalian tests system. The cladoceran Daphnia magna bioassays have several practical advantages. D. magna has been used as a useful test species and its sensitivity to environmental pollutants have been recognized as a general representative of other freshwater zooplankton species. The objectives of this study were to determine the acute toxicity of various heavy metals to Daphnia magna for 48 h of exposure and to compare these values with the existing LC50 values for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri); which is commonly used as a test animal in aquatic bioassay studies.

  20. Useful laboratory tests for studying thrombogenesis in acute cardiac syndromes.

    PubMed

    Fareed, J; Hoppensteadt, D A; Leya, F; Iqbal, O; Wolf, H; Bick, R

    1998-08-01

    We review laboratory tests that evaluate thrombogenesis during acute coronary syndromes. These tests have been found to be valuable research tools in more clearly understanding the pathophysiology of acute coronary syndromes. In particular, we describe tissue factor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, prothrombin fragment 1.2, thrombin-antithrombin complex, fibrinopeptide A, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), t-PA-PAI complex, Bbeta 15-42-related peptides, fibrinogen degradation products, fibrin degradation products, D-dimer, platelet factor 4, beta-thromboglobulin, 5-hydroxytryptamine, thromboxane B2, prostacyclin, endothelin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, soluble thrombomodulin, C1-esterase inhibitor, anaphylotoxins C3a, C4a, and C5a, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor, leukotriene C4, platelet activating factor, anti-phospholipid antibody, and von Willebrand factor. Some of these tests may prove to be useful in clinical diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndromes. Clinical outcome studies are needed to determine which tests may be cost effective and medically useful. PMID:9702994

  1. Automated Lab-on-a-Chip Technology for Fish Embryo Toxicity Tests Performed under Continuous Microperfusion (μFET).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Wigh, Adriana; Friedrich, Timo; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Kaslin, Jan; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-12-15

    The fish embryo toxicity (FET) biotest has gained popularity as one of the alternative approaches to acute fish toxicity tests in chemical hazard and risk assessment. Despite the importance and common acceptance of FET, it is still performed in multiwell plates and requires laborious and time-consuming manual manipulation of specimens and solutions. This work describes the design and validation of a microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip technology for automation of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test common in aquatic ecotoxicology. The innovative device supports rapid loading and immobilization of large numbers of zebrafish embryos suspended in a continuous microfluidic perfusion as a means of toxicant delivery. Furthermore, we also present development of a customized mechatronic automation interface that includes a high-resolution USB microscope, LED cold light illumination, and miniaturized 3D printed pumping manifolds that were integrated to enable time-resolved in situ analysis of developing fish embryos. To investigate the applicability of the microfluidic FET (μFET) in toxicity testing, copper sulfate, phenol, ethanol, caffeine, nicotine, and dimethyl sulfoxide were tested as model chemical stressors. Results obtained on a chip-based system were compared with static protocols performed in microtiter plates. This work provides evidence that FET analysis performed under microperfusion opens a brand new alternative for inexpensive automation in aquatic ecotoxicology. PMID:26506399

  2. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients. PMID:26256397

  3. Systemic response induced by Scorpaena plumieri fish venom initiates acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Boletini-Santos, Douglas; Komegae, Evilin Naname; Figueiredo, Suely G; Haddad, Vidal; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica; Lima, Carla

    2008-03-15

    Scorpaena plumieri venomous fish inflicted severe injuries in humans characterized by systemic effects and cardiovascular abnormalities. Although cardiotoxic and hypotensive effects induced in rats by this venom have been studied, little is known about their effect on bronchial epithelial permeability and airway inflammation in mice. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether the intraplantar or intraperitoneal injection of S. plumieri venom results in systemic response, and whether this event initiates acute lung injury. We found that BALB/c mice developed neutrophilic infiltrates, areas of lung hemorrhage and alveolar macrophage activation within 24h after injection with S. plumieri venom. These histopathological changes were associated with an early increase in BAL fluid protein and early induction of cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases, followed by a later increase in BAL fluid neutrophils. These findings provide clear evidence that the injection of S. plumieri venom in footpad or peritoneal cavity of mice results in venom deposition in the airway and initiates a sustained inflammatory response in the lungs. PMID:18191167

  4. Final turbine and test facility design report Alden/NREC fish friendly turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Thomas C.; Cain, Stuart A.; Fetfatsidis, Paul; Hecker, George E.; Stacy, Philip S.

    2000-09-01

    The final report provides an overview of the Alden/NREC Fish Friendly turbine design phase, turbine test plan, preliminary test results, costs, schedule, and a hypothetical application at a real world project.

  5. The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.

    PubMed

    Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 μg dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 μg dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were <1.0 when using acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments. PMID:21779820

  6. Interest of dynamic tests in acute ecotoxicity assessment in algae

    SciTech Connect

    Jouany, J.M.; Ferard, J.F.; Vasseur, P.; Gea, J.; Truhaut, R.; Rast, C.

    1983-04-01

    Sorption of toxics by algae may be important and occurs very early. Thus, a decrease of the experimental toxic concentrations in the medium results in understating toxicity when tests are conducted under static conditions. In this work, two different methods of exposure of algae (Chlorella vulgaris) are studied, the static test and the pseudodynamic test. Acute effects (biological and analytical effects) of inorganic compounds (Cu/sup 2 +/, Cd/sup 2 +/, Pb/sup 2 +/, Cr/sup 6 +/) have been evaluated for 96 hr of exposure; in each case, IC50 is much lower in the dynamic condition than in the static one. The percentage of reduction varies from 55 to 75% after 96 hr. Accumulation of metal by chlorellae is greater when testing by the pseudodynamic way, with Cu/sup 2 +/ and Pb/sup 2 +/. But in the case of Cd/sup 2 +/ and Cr/sup 6 +/, the concentration factors are similar in the two kinds of exposure. These results point out the advantage of the pseudodynamic test, of which the methodology is very easy, for a more realistic assessment of acute ecotoxicity in these organisms.

  7. Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Dutka, B.

    1997-11-01

    The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents.

  8. Behavioral characterization of the alarm reaction and anxiolytic-like effect of acute treatment with fluoxetine in piauçu fish.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Júnior, Augusto; Alves, Fabiana Luca; Pereira, Aparecida de Sousa Fim; Ide, Liliam Midori; Hoffmann, Anette

    2012-02-01

    In Ostariophysan fish, the detection of the alarm substance liberated into the water as a consequence of an attack by a predator elicits an alarm reaction or anti-predatory behavior. In this study, experiments were performed to: (i) describe and quantitatively characterize the behavioral and ventilatory responses in piauçu fish (Leporinus macrocephalus), individually and as part of a school, to conspecific alarm substance (CAS) and; (ii) test the effect of acute fluoxetine treatment on alarm reaction. Histological analysis revealed the presence of club cells in the intermediate and superficial layers of the epidermis. The predominant behavioral response to CAS was freezing for fish held individually, characterized by the cessation of the swimming activity as the animal settles to a bottom corner of the aquarium. Fish exposed to CAS showed decrease in the mean ventilatory frequency (approximately 13%) relative to control. In schools, CAS elicited a biphasic response that was characterized by erratic movements followed by increased school cohesion and immobility, reflected as an increased school cohesion (65.5% vs. -5.8% for controls) and in the number of animals near the bottom of the aquarium (42.0% vs. 6.5% for controls). Animals treated with single i.p. injections of fluoxetine (10 μg/g b.w.) did not exhibit alarm behavior following CAS stimulation. These results show that an alarm pheromone system is present in piauçu fish, evidenced by the presence of epidermal club cells and an alarm reaction induced by CAS and consequently of a chemosensory system to transmit the appropriate information to neural structures responsible for initiating anti-predator behavioral responses. In addition, fluoxetine treatment caused an anxiolytic-like effect following CAS exposure. Thus, the alarm reaction in piauçu can be a useful model for neuroethological and pharmacological studies of anxiety-related states. PMID:22037203

  9. Weapons testing and endangered fish coexist in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jelks, Howard; Tate, Bill; Jordan, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Okaloosa darters (Etheostoma okaloosae) are small fish found only in a few streams in the Florida panhandle. This species has been listed since 1973 as endangered due to habitat alteration resulting from erosion, the potential competition from brown darters (E. edwini), and a limited geographic distribution. In recent years, however, Okaloosa darters have benefited from improved resource management and adaptive population monitoring techniques developed collaboratively by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Loyola University New Orleans, and Eglin Air Force Base. As a result, the FWS reclassified the Okaloosa darter to the less critical category of threatened in March 2011.

  10. Investigating Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways for Early Fish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD Test Guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an on-going effort to develop efficient and cost-effec...

  11. Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Research Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways During Fish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD 210 fish early life]stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used to estimate chronic fish toxicity, as well as support ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs around the world. As a step toward developing alternatives to the FELS test, a HES...

  12. A critical evaluation of the fish early-life stage toxicity test for engineered nanomaterials: experimental modifications and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Benjamin J; Liddle, Corin C; Windeatt, Kirsten M; Handy, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    There are concerns that regulatory toxicity tests are not fit for purpose for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) or need modifications. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the OECD 210 fish, early-life stage toxicity test for use with TiO2 ENMs, Ag ENMs, and MWCNT. Both TiO2 ENMS (≤160 mg l(-1)) and MWCNT (≤10 mg l(-1)) showed limited acute toxicity, whilst Ag ENMs were acutely toxic to zebrafish, though less so than AgNO3 (6-day LC50 values of 58.6 and 5.0 µg l(-1), respectively). Evidence of delayed hatching, decreased body length and increased muscle width in the tail was seen in fish exposed to Ag ENMs. Oedema (swollen yolk sacs) was also seen in fish from both Ag treatments with, for example, mean yolk sac volumes of 17, 35 and 39 µm(3) for the control, 100 µg l(-1) Ag ENMs and 5 µg l(-1) AgNO3 treatments, respectively. Among the problems with the standard test guidelines was the inability to maintain the test solutions within ±20 % of nominal concentrations. Pronounced settling of the ENMs in some beakers also made it clear the fish were not being exposed to nominal concentrations. To overcome this, the exposure apparatus was modified with the addition of an exposure chamber that ensured mixing without damaging the delicate embryos/larvae. This allowed more homogeneous ENM exposures, signified by improved measured concentrations in the beakers (up to 85.7 and 88.1 % of the nominal concentrations from 10 mg l(-1) TiO2 and 50 µg l(-1) Ag ENM exposures, respectively) and reduced variance between measurements compared to the original method. The recommendations include: that the test is conducted using exposure chambers, the use of quantitative measurements for assessing hatching and morphometrics, and where there is increased sensitivity of larvae over embryos to conduct a shorter, larvae-only toxicity test with the ENMs. PMID:27318802

  13. Acute Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction after a Negative Exercise Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alawi, Abdullah M.; Janardan, Jyotsna; Peck, Kah Y.; Soward, Alan

    2016-01-01

    A myocardial infarction is a rare complication which can occur after an exercise stress test. We report a 48-year-old male who was referred to the Mildura Cardiology Practice, Victoria, Australia, in August 2014 with left-sided chest pain. He underwent an exercise stress test which was negative for myocardial ischaemia. However, the patient presented to the Emergency Department of the Mildura Base Hospital 30 minutes after the test with severe retrosternal chest pain. An acute anteroseptal ST segment elevation myocardial infarction was observed on electrocardiography. After thrombolysis, he was transferred to a tertiary hospital where coronary angiography subsequently revealed significant left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. Thrombus aspiration and a balloon angioplasty were performed. The patient was discharged three days after the surgical procedure in good health. PMID:27226918

  14. Acute toxicity of cadmium and sodium pentachlorophenate to daphnids and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.S.; Paulson, R.L.; Hall, L.W. Jr.; Burton, D.T.

    1986-08-01

    When estimating the toxicity of effluents it is desirable to use organisms sensitive to a wide range of pollutants. Currently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recommends the use of Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas to assess the toxicity of freshwater effluents. Ceriodaphnia sp. has also received increased attention as a standard toxicity test organism due to its sensitivity, short generation time, and ubiquitous distribution. Comparison of toxicity data generated by different investigators is often difficult because of differences in test procedures, dilution waters, or nutritional history of test organisms. The primary objectives of this research were to compare the sensitivity of Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia reticulata, and Pimephales promelas to the reference toxicants CdCl/sub 2/ and sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP) and to compare results with those obtained by other investigators. A secondary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dilution waters on the acute toxicity of these reference toxicants to the above test organisms.

  15. Acute aquatic toxicity of tire and road wear particles to alga, daphnid, and fish.

    PubMed

    Marwood, Christopher; McAtee, Britt; Kreider, Marisa; Ogle, R Scott; Finley, Brent; Sweet, Len; Panko, Julie

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have indicated that tire tread particles are toxic to aquatic species, but few studies have evaluated the toxicity of such particles using sediment, the likely reservoir of tire wear particles in the environment. In this study, the acute toxicity of tire and road wear particles (TRWP) was assessed in Pseudokirchneriella subcapita, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas using a sediment elutriate (100, 500, 1000 or 10000 mg/l TRWP). Under standard test temperature conditions, no concentration response was observed and EC/LC(50) values were greater than 10,000 mg/l. Additional tests using D. magna were performed both with and without sediment in elutriates collected under heated conditions designed to promote the release of chemicals from the rubber matrix to understand what environmental factors may influence the toxicity of TRWP. Toxicity was only observed for elutriates generated from TRWP leached under high-temperature conditions and the lowest EC/LC(50) value was 5,000 mg/l. In an effort to identify potential toxic chemical constituent(s) in the heated leachates, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies and chemical analysis of the leachate were conducted. The TIE coupled with chemical analysis (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry [LC/MS/MS] and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry [ICP/MS]) of the leachate identified zinc and aniline as candidate toxicants. However, based on the high EC/LC(50) values and the limited conditions under which toxicity was observed, TRWP should be considered a low risk to aquatic ecosystems under acute exposure scenarios. PMID:21789673

  16. Interpretation of fish biomarker data for identification, classification, risk assessment and testing of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Dang, ZhiChao

    2016-01-01

    Chemical induced changes in fish biomarkers vitellogenin (VTG), secondary sex characteristics (SSC), and sex ratio indicate modes/mechanisms of action (MOAs) of EAS (estrogen, androgen and steroidogenesis) pathways. These biomarkers could be used for defining MOAs and the causal link between MOAs and adverse effects in fish for the identification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This paper compiled data sets of 150 chemicals for VTG, 57 chemicals for SSC and 38 chemicals for sex ratio in fathead minnow, medaka and zebrafish. It showed 1) changes in fish biomarkers can indicate the MOAs as anticipated; 2) in addition to EAS pathways, chemicals with non-EAS pathways induced changes in fish biomarkers; 3) responses of fish biomarkers did not always follow the anticipated patterns of EAS pathways. These responses may result from the interaction of chemical-induced multiple MOAs and confounding factors like fish diet, infection, culture conditions, general toxicity and stress response. The complex response of fish biomarkers to a chemical of interest requires EDC testing at multiple biological levels. Interpretation of fish biomarker data should be combined with relevant information at different biological levels, which is critical for defining chemical specific MOAs. The utility of fish biomarker data for identification, classification, PBT assessment, risk assessment, and testing of EDCs in the regulatory context was discussed. This paper emphasizes the importance of fish biomarker data in the regulatory context, a weight of evidence approach for the interpretation of fish biomarker data and the need for defining levels of evidence for the identification of EDCs. PMID:27155823

  17. Quality control of the analysis of histamine in fish by proficiency test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelista, Warlley P.; Tette, Patrícia A. S.; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of histamine is required by the European Union for the importation of tuna and other Scombroid fish. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of the analysis of histamine in fish, by means of reference material (RM) and of proficiency test (PT). Sample analysis carried out using RM provided 89.4% recovery. During the proficiency test, the histamine content of the sample was 311.9 mg/kg and the z-score was zero. These results assure the good performance of the laboratory in the analysis of histamine in fish, asuring reliability of results to clients.

  18. Incorporation of a subacute test with zebra fish into a hierarchical system for evaluating the effect of toxicants in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, A.H.; Allard, A.S.; Fischer, S.; Malmberg, M.; Viktor, T. )

    1990-08-01

    Single-species laboratory tests were used to assess the acute toxicity of halogenated phenolic compounds. No single test system was most sensitive to all of the compounds examined, substantial variations in the sensitivity of the various organisms were noted, and there was no correlation between the toxicities assayed with different test systems. The zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) embryo/larvae system was used to examine subacute effects using two of the compounds, and a protocol was developed with 6 weeks preexposure to the toxicant. Preexposure decreased the lowest observable effect concentration by a factor of about 4, and the effect was completely reversible during a 6-week postexposure period in the absence of the toxicant. An enclosed system for carrying out the zebra fish embryo/larvae test was developed and evaluated with three neutral volatile compounds: the median survival time and the frequency of occurrence of deformation were examined as end points. The effect of pH on toxicity was evaluated in buffered media for four of the test systems: toxicity increased markedly at the lower pH values, and it could be shown that the ionized forms of the phenols were not the only contributors to toxicity. It is proposed that the zebra fish system incorporating preexposure could be incorporated into a hierarchical system using a range of organisms for assessing acute toxicity in single species under laboratory conditions and multicomponent systems simulating natural ecosystems.

  19. Behavioural Effects of the Commonly Used Fish Anaesthetic Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS-222) on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Its Relevance for the Acetic Acid Pain Test

    PubMed Central

    Nordgreen, Janicke; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Janczak, Andrew M.; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2014-01-01

    The pros and cons of using anaesthesia when handling fish in connection with experiments are debated. A widely adopted practice is to wait thirty minutes after anaesthesia before behavioural observations are initiated, but information about immediate effects of a treatment is then lost. This is pertinent for responses to acute stressors, such as acid injection in the acetic acid pain test. However, omission of anaesthetics in order to obtain data on immediate responses will compromise the welfare of fish and contribute to experimental noise due to stress. We therefore tested the effect of tricaine methanesulfonate on the behaviour of zebrafish. We predicted that tricaine (MS 222) would decrease swimming velocity and that the control fish would show an increased level of anxiety- and stress-related behaviours compared to the tricaine group. Following acclimatization to the test tank, baseline behaviour was recorded before immersion in either tricaine (168 mg l−1, treatment group, N = 8) or tank water (control group, N = 7). Latencies to lose equilibrium and to lose response to touch were registered. The fish was then returned to the test tank, and the latency to regain equilibrium was registered in anaesthetized fish. When equilibrium was regained, and at five, thirty and sixty minutes after the fish had been returned to the test tank, behaviour was recorded. The tricaine fish showed the following responses (mean ± sd): latency to lose equilibrium 22.6 s±3.9; latency to lose response to touch 101.9 s±26.8; latency to regain equilibrium 92.0 s±54.4. Contrary to our predictions, neither treatment caused a change in any of the behaviours registered. This indicates that tricaine has no effect on several commonly used behavioural parameters, and that it may be unnecessary to postpone behavioural observations to 30 min after anaesthesia. PMID:24658262

  20. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick) to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. Methods: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Results: Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+); for rapid strep== 84(-) and16 (+); For LE== 80(-) and 20(+) Statistics: From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don’t seem to be a random (independent) assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001) reject Null Hypothesis and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children. PMID:27335975

  1. Mechanical design, fabrication, and test of biomimetic fish robot using LIPCA as artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiguna, T.; Syaifuddin, M.; Park, Hoon C.; Heo, S.

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a mechanical design, fabrication and test of biomimetic fish robot using the Lightweight Piezocomposite Curved Actuator (LIPCA). We have designed a mechanism for converting actuation of the LIPCA into caudal fin movement. This linkage mechanism consists of rack-pinion system and four-bar linkage. We also have tested four types of caudal fin in order to examine effect of different shape of caudal fin on thrust generation by tail beat. Subsequently, based on the caudal fin test, four caudal fins which resemble fish caudal fin shapes of ostraciiform, subcarangiform, carangiform and thunniform, respectively, are attached to the posterior part of the robotic fish. The swimming test using 300 V pp input with 1 Hz to 1.5 Hz frequency was conducted to investigate effect of changing tail beat frequency and shape of caudal fin on the swimming speed of the robotic fish. The maximum swimming speed was reached when the device was operated at its natural swimming frequency. At the natural swimming frequency 1 Hz, maximum swimming speeds of 1.632 cm/s, 1.776 cm/s, 1.612 cm/s and 1.51 cm/s were reached for ostraciiform-, subcarangiform-, carangiform- and thunniform-like caudal fins, respectively. Strouhal numbers, which are a measure of thrust efficiency, were calculated in order to examine thrust performance of the present biomimetic fish robot. We also approximated the net forward force of the robotic fish using momentum conservation principle.

  2. Automation of ALK gene rearrangement testing with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Zwaenepoel, Karen; Merkle, Dennis; Cabillic, Florian; Berg, Erica; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Grazioli, Vittorio; Herelle, Olga; Hummel, Michael; Le Calve, Michele; Lenze, Dido; Mende, Stefanie; Pauwels, Patrick; Quilichini, Benoit; Repetti, Elena

    2015-02-01

    In the past several years we have observed a significant increase in our understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive lung cancer. Specifically in the non-small cell lung cancer sub-types, ALK gene rearrangements represent a sub-group of tumors that are targetable by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Crizotinib, resulting in significant reductions in tumor burden. Phase II and III clinical trials were performed using an ALK break-apart FISH probe kit, making FISH the gold standard for identifying ALK rearrangements in patients. FISH is often considered a labor and cost intensive molecular technique, and in this study we aimed to demonstrate feasibility for automation of ALK FISH testing, to improve laboratory workflow and ease of testing. This involved automation of the pre-treatment steps of the ALK assay using various protocols on the VP 2000 instrument, and facilitating automated scanning of the fluorescent FISH specimens for simplified enumeration on various backend scanning and analysis systems. The results indicated that ALK FISH can be automated. Significantly, both the Ikoniscope and BioView system of automated FISH scanning and analysis systems provided a robust analysis algorithm to define ALK rearrangements. In addition, the BioView system facilitated consultation of difficult cases via the internet. PMID:25576649

  3. DETERMINANTS OF VARIABILITY IN ACUTE TO CHRONIC TOXICITY RATIOS IN AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variability in acute to chronic ratios (ACRs; LC50/chronic value) has been a continuing interest in aquatic toxicology because of the reliance on ACRs to estimate chronic toxicity for chemicals and species with known acute toxicity but limited or no information on sublethal toxic...

  4. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accord...

  5. Quantifying Fish Swimming Behavior in Response to Acute Exposure of Aqueous Copper Using Computer Assisted Video and Digital Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Calfee, Robin D; Puglis, Holly J; Little, Edward E; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to environmental contaminants can be precursors of other effects such as survival, growth, or reproduction. However, these responses may be subtle, and measurement can be challenging. Using juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) with copper exposures, this paper illustrates techniques used for quantifying behavioral responses using computer assisted video and digital image analysis. In previous studies severe impairments in swimming behavior were observed among early life stage white sturgeon during acute and chronic exposures to copper. Sturgeon behavior was rapidly impaired and to the extent that survival in the field would be jeopardized, as fish would be swept downstream, or readily captured by predators. The objectives of this investigation were to illustrate protocols to quantify swimming activity during a series of acute copper exposures to determine time to effect during early lifestage development, and to understand the significance of these responses relative to survival of these vulnerable early lifestage fish. With mortality being on a time continuum, determining when copper first affects swimming ability helps us to understand the implications for population level effects. The techniques used are readily adaptable to experimental designs with other organisms and stressors. PMID:26967350

  6. Quantifying fish swimming behavior in response to acute exposure of aqueous copper using computer assisted video and digital image analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calfee, Robin D.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to environmental contaminants can be precursors of other effects such as survival, growth, or reproduction. However, these responses may be subtle, and measurement can be challenging. Using juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) with copper exposures, this paper illustrates techniques used for quantifying behavioral responses using computer assisted video and digital image analysis. In previous studies severe impairments in swimming behavior were observed among early life stage white sturgeon during acute and chronic exposures to copper. Sturgeon behavior was rapidly impaired and to the extent that survival in the field would be jeopardized, as fish would be swept downstream, or readily captured by predators. The objectives of this investigation were to illustrate protocols to quantify swimming activity during a series of acute copper exposures to determine time to effect during early lifestage development, and to understand the significance of these responses relative to survival of these vulnerable early lifestage fish. With mortality being on a time continuum, determining when copper first affects swimming ability helps us to understand the implications for population level effects. The techniques used are readily adaptable to experimental designs with other organisms and stressors.

  7. Quantifying Fish Swimming Behavior in Response to Acute Exposure of Aqueous Copper Using Computer Assisted Video and Digital Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Robin D.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to environmental contaminants can be precursors of other effects such as survival, growth, or reproduction. However, these responses may be subtle, and measurement can be challenging. Using juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) with copper exposures, this paper illustrates techniques used for quantifying behavioral responses using computer assisted video and digital image analysis. In previous studies severe impairments in swimming behavior were observed among early life stage white sturgeon during acute and chronic exposures to copper. Sturgeon behavior was rapidly impaired and to the extent that survival in the field would be jeopardized, as fish would be swept downstream, or readily captured by predators. The objectives of this investigation were to illustrate protocols to quantify swimming activity during a series of acute copper exposures to determine time to effect during early lifestage development, and to understand the significance of these responses relative to survival of these vulnerable early lifestage fish. With mortality being on a time continuum, determining when copper first affects swimming ability helps us to understand the implications for population level effects. The techniques used are readily adaptable to experimental designs with other organisms and stressors. PMID:26967350

  8. Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.

    PubMed

    Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

    2013-11-01

    Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute

  9. A 3R compliant testing strategy to predict chronic fish toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    To ensure an ecologically relevant basis for environmental quality standards, whole-organism vertebrate tests are considered most suitable. Currently, the fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD 210), which involves an exposure up to one - two months, is used to estimate chronic ...

  10. Fish Oil-Based Fat Emulsion Reduces Acute Kidney Injury and Inflammatory Response in Antibiotic-Treated Polymicrobial Septic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Juey-Ming; Shih, Yao-Ming; Pai, Man-Hui; Hou, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Chiu-Li; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control (NC) group and three septic groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The antibiotic was injected intraperitoneally (IP) after CLP and then daily till the time of sacrifice. Three hours after antibiotic treatment, one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO), while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO) or saline (SC). The septic groups were further divided into two separate time groups, with blood and kidneys samples collected at 24 h or 72 h post-CLP. The results showed that sepsis leads to the activation of neutrophils, T helper (Th)1/Th-2/Th-17 and Treg cells (p < 0.05). Plasma NGAL and mRNA expressions of renal MyD88 and TLR4 were also enhanced (p < 0.05). Compared to the SC group, the group given the fish oil-based emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05), at Day 3 after CLP. These results suggest that administration of a fish oil-based emulsion has favorable effects, maintaining blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis. PMID:26999192

  11. Fish Oil-Based Fat Emulsion Reduces Acute Kidney Injury and Inflammatory Response in Antibiotic-Treated Polymicrobial Septic Mice.

    PubMed

    Shih, Juey-Ming; Shih, Yao-Ming; Pai, Man-Hui; Hou, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Chiu-Li; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control (NC) group and three septic groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The antibiotic was injected intraperitoneally (IP) after CLP and then daily till the time of sacrifice. Three hours after antibiotic treatment, one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO), while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO) or saline (SC). The septic groups were further divided into two separate time groups, with blood and kidneys samples collected at 24 h or 72 h post-CLP. The results showed that sepsis leads to the activation of neutrophils, T helper (Th)1/Th-2/Th-17 and Treg cells (p < 0.05). Plasma NGAL and mRNA expressions of renal MyD88 and TLR4 were also enhanced (p < 0.05). Compared to the SC group, the group given the fish oil-based emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05), at Day 3 after CLP. These results suggest that administration of a fish oil-based emulsion has favorable effects, maintaining blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis. PMID:26999192

  12. Testing resonating vector strength: Auditory system, electric fish, and noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo van Hemmen, J.; Longtin, André; Vollmayr, Andreas N.

    2011-12-01

    Quite often a response to some input with a specific frequency ν○ can be described through a sequence of discrete events. Here, we study the synchrony vector, whose length stands for the vector strength, and in doing so focus on neuronal response in terms of spike times. The latter are supposed to be given by experiment. Instead of singling out the stimulus frequency ν○ we study the synchrony vector as a function of the real frequency variable ν. Its length turns out to be a resonating vector strength in that it shows clear maxima in the neighborhood of ν○ and multiples thereof, hence, allowing an easy way of determining response frequencies. We study this "resonating" vector strength for two concrete but rather different cases, viz., a specific midbrain neuron in the auditory system of cat and a primary detector neuron belonging to the electric sense of the wave-type electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. We show that the resonating vector strength always performs a clear resonance correlated with the phase locking that it quantifies. We analyze the influence of noise and demonstrate how well the resonance associated with maximal vector strength indicates the dominant stimulus frequency. Furthermore, we exhibit how one can obtain a specific phase associated with, for instance, a delay in auditory analysis.

  13. Acute effects of mercuric chloride on glycogen and protein content of zebra fish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Vutukuru, S S; Basani, Kalpana

    2013-03-01

    Presence of mercury and other heavy metals above permissible levels in water bodies across the globe is posing a serious threat to aquatic biota and public health. Occurrence of mercury above the permissible limits in the aquatic ecosystem of Hyderabad city is well established. In this context, we carried out static- renewal bioassays on the zebra fish, Danio rerio exposed to different concentrations of mercuric chloride, and the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) was found to be 0.077 mgl(-1). Behavioral manifestations like loss of scales, hyper secretion of mucus, surfacing and darting movements, loss of balance, irregular swimming patterns were noticed in the fish exposed to 0.077 mgl(-1). The present study also examined the toxic effects of mercuric chloride on vital biochemical constituent's total glycogen and total protein. Significant decrease (p < 0.001) in glycogen and protein content of fish exposed to 0.077 mgl(-1). PMID:24620592

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-06-01

    Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

  15. [Acute toxicity testing (LD50) of Chinese mineral drugs].

    PubMed

    Yue, W; Liu, W H; Wang, L F; Fu, S X; Li, Y S; Kong, Z K; Tang, Z X; Chen, Z L

    1989-02-01

    Acute toxicity and LD50 of 62 mineral drugs were determined by ig, ip or iv in mice, in order to provide some guidelines for safety in clinical use, as well as for pharmacological and toxicological studies. In the present investigation, the difference in the acute toxicity and LD50 between raw drugs and medicines prepared by roasting is explained. PMID:2506896

  16. Copeptin Testing in Acute Myocardial Infarction: Ready for Routine Use?

    PubMed Central

    Reinstadler, Sebastian Johannes; Klug, Gert; Metzler, Bernhard; Mair, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Suspected acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of admission to emergency departments. In the last decade, biomarkers revolutionized the management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes. Besides their pivotal assistance in timely diagnosis, biomarkers provide additional information for risk stratification. Cardiac troponins I and T are the most sensitive and specific markers of acute myocardial injury. Nonetheless, in order to overcome the remaining limitations of these markers, novel candidate biomarkers sensitive to early stage of disease are being extensively investigated. Among them, copeptin, a stable peptide derived from the precursor of vasopressin, emerged as a promising biomarker for the evaluation of suspected acute myocardial infarction. In this review, we summarize the currently available evidence for the usefulness of copeptin in the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction in comparison with routine biomarkers. PMID:25960596

  17. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and interlaboratory testing, life stage, and species.

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Sandy; Lilavois, Crystal R; Lee, Larisa; Augspurger, Tom; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Chris G; Bauer, Candice; Hammer, Edward; Barron, Mace G

    2016-03-01

    The authors developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the 2 life stages; and the variation in sensitivity among commonly tested mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea, Utterbackia imbecillis, and Villosa iris), commonly tested cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), and fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Pimephales promelas, and Lepomis macrochirus). The results of these analyses indicate that intralaboratory variability for median effect concentrations (EC50) averaged about 2-fold for both life stages, whereas interlaboratory variability averaged 3.6-fold for juvenile mussels and 6.3-fold for glochidia. The EC50s for juveniles and glochidia were within a factor of 2 of each other for 50% of paired records across chemicals, with juveniles more sensitive than glochidia by more than 2-fold for 33% of the comparisons made between life stages. There was a high concurrence of sensitivity of commonly tested L. siliquoidea, U. imbecillis, and V. iris to that of other mussels. However, this concurrence decreased as the taxonomic distance of the commonly tested cladocerans and fish to mussels increased. The compiled mussel database and determination of data variability will advance risk assessments by including more robust species sensitivity distributions, interspecies correlation estimates, and availability of taxon-specific empirically derived application factors for risk assessment. PMID:26369904

  18. Effects of Stream Fishes on Benthic Primary Productivity: A Mechanistic Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrave, C. W.

    2005-05-01

    I simultaneously tested three alternative hypotheses (the trophic cascade, nutrient enhancement via terrestrial nutrient translocation, and nutrient enhancement via bioturbation) for consumer regulation of primary productivity (PPR) by three widely distributed stream fish species (Orangethroat Darter, Western Mosquitofish, and Bullhead Minnow). I used stream mesocosms fitted with fish and terrestrial input barriers to address relative importance of localized fish predation versus access to terrestrial inputs for fish consumer effects. Orangethroat Darter, a benthic invertivore, increased PPR through an apparent trophic cascade, by localized reduction of benthic grazing invertebrate densities. Western mosquitofish, a surface feeding insectivore, increased PPR by enhancing nutrients through terrestrial nutrient translocation, and had no effect on benthic grazer invertebrate density. Bullhead Minnow, a benthic omnivore that disturbed sediments during foraging, increased PPR through nutrient enhancement via bioturbation, but within specific stream mesocosm areas two which the fish was restricted it also reduced benthic grazing invertebrates. Thus, suggesting this species may have affected PPR through a combination bioturbation and trophic cascade mechanisms. These mechanistic pathways are likely common processes by which fish affect food web structure and ecosystem function in many stream ecosystems.

  19. Acute toxicity by water containing hexavalent or trivalent chromium in native Brazilian fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus: anatomopathological alterations and mortality.

    PubMed

    Castro, Marcello Pardi; de Moraes, Flávio Ruas; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; da Cruz, Claudinei; Belo, Marco Antonio de Andrade; de Moraes, Julieta Rodini Engrácia

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of hexavalent and trivalent compounds of chromium to the pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, in acute exposures of 96 h through mortality and histopathological responses. Hexavalent potassium dichromate was more toxic than trivalent compounds of chromium chloride, chromium oxide and chromium carbochelate. Sufficient mortalities occurred only with potassium dichromate to yield an LC50 value at 124.2 mg L(-1). Hexavalent chromium caused reversible and irreversible lesions, which may affect organ functionality. Histopathological evaluation showed that trivalent chromium caused lesions of lower severity. Pacu subjected to different concentrations of chromium carbochelate showed no histopathological changes in the kidneys, liver, skin and gills, being similar to those of the control fish. Among the three sources of Cr(3+), only chromium chloride at 200 mg L(-1) resulted in mortality, which reached 100 % within the first 18 h. These findings confirm that trivalent chromium, when administered within recommended levels, may be used safely in aquaculture. PMID:24346495

  20. USE OF RESPIRATORY-CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES OF RAINBOW TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI') IN IDENTIFYING ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES IN FISH: PART 2. MALATHION, CARBARYL, ACROLEIN AND BENZALDEHYDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in vivo fish model was used to monitor the respiratory-cardiovascular responses of individually spinally transected rainbow trout exposed to acutely toxic aqueous concentrations of two acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, malathion and carbaryl, and two mucous membrane irri...

  1. Minimally invasive prostate cancer detection test using FISH probes

    PubMed Central

    Tinawi-Aljundi, Rima; Knuth, Shannon T; Gildea, Michael; Khal, Joshua; Hafron, Jason; Kernen, Kenneth; Di Loreto, Robert; Aurich-Costa, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The ability to test for and detect prostate cancer with minimal invasiveness has the potential to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies. This study was conducted as part of a clinical investigation for the development of an OligoFISH® probe panel for more accurate detection of prostate cancer. Materials and methods One hundred eligible male patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound biopsies were enrolled in the study. After undergoing digital rectal examination with pressure, voided urine was collected in sufficient volume to prepare at least two slides using ThinPrep. Probe panels were tested on the slides, and 500 cells were scored when possible. From the 100 patients recruited, 85 had more than 300 cells scored and were included in the clinical performance calculations. Results Chromosomes Y, 7, 10, 20, 6, 8, 16, and 18 were polysomic in most prostate carcinoma cases. Of these eight chromosomes, chromosomes 7, 16, 18, and 20 were identified as having the highest clinical performance as a fluorescence in situ hybridization test and used to manufacture the fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panels. The OligoFISH® probes performed with 100% analytical specificity. When the OligoFISH® probes were compared with the biopsy results for each individual, the test results highly correlated with positive and negative prostate biopsy pathology findings, supporting their high specificity and accuracy. Probes for chromosomes 7, 16, 18, and 20 showed in the receiver operator characteristics analysis an area under the curve of 0.83, with an accuracy of 81% in predicting the biopsy result. Conclusion This investigation demonstrates the ease of use with high specificity, high predictive value, and accuracy in identifying prostate cancer in voided urine after digital rectal examination with pressure. The test is likely to have positive impact on clinical practice and advance approaches to the detection of prostate cancer. Further evaluation is warranted. PMID

  2. The prognostic value of FISH as an adjunct to conventional cytogenetics for the detection of cryptic gene rearrangements on chromosome 16. A retrospective investigation of 13 patients from Northern Ireland diagnosed with M4Eo acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    McGrattan, P; Humphreys, M W

    2003-05-01

    M4Eo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients with the typical chromosome 16 abnormalities have a favourable prognosis. These subtle 16q22 gene rearrangements can be difficult to detect by conventional cytogenetic methods and if missed could lead to the incorrect assignment of prognostic group and hence subsequent treatment strategies. We retrospectively studied 13 patients diagnosed with M4Eo AML for such chromosome 16 abnormalities comparing conventional cytogenetic (G-banding) and molecular (FISH) methods. G-banded analysis detected only 2 patients with definite chromosome 16 abnormalities whereas FISH detected 4 patients, one with the typical inversion and three with the typical chromosome 16 translocation. FISH analysis also confirmed a false +ve G-banded result in one patient and a false -ve G-banded result in another patient. Finally, FISH confirmed a deletion of one chromosome 16 homologue in another patient indicating a poor prognosis. The overall survival of patients with the typical 16q22 rearrangements (n=4) was also significantly better (P=0.007) than patients with normal chromosome 16 homologues or having other numerical and/or structural abnormalities (n=9). This set of data shows that FISH is a more accurate method for the detection of cryptic 16q22 gene rearrangements and because of the prognostic implications has become a mandatory test along with conventional cytogenetics for all newly diagnosed M4Eo AML patients in Northern Ireland. PMID:12868698

  3. Cardiac function in an endothermic fish: cellular mechanisms for overcoming acute thermal challenges during diving.

    PubMed

    Shiels, H A; Galli, G L J; Block, B A

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the physiology of vertebrate thermal tolerance is critical for predicting how animals respond to climate change. Pacific bluefin tuna experience a wide range of ambient sea temperatures and occupy the largest geographical niche of all tunas. Their capacity to endure thermal challenge is due in part to enhanced expression and activity of key proteins involved in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, which improve cardiomyocyte function and whole animal performance during temperature change. To define the cellular mechanisms that enable bluefin tuna hearts to function during acute temperature change, we investigated the performance of freshly isolated ventricular myocytes using confocal microscopy and electrophysiology. We demonstrate that acute cooling and warming (between 8 and 28°C) modulates the excitability of the cardiomyocyte by altering the action potential (AP) duration and the amplitude and kinetics of the cellular Ca(2+) transient. We then explored the interactions between temperature, adrenergic stimulation and contraction frequency, and show that when these stressors are combined in a physiologically relevant way, they alter AP characteristics to stabilize excitation-contraction coupling across an acute 20°C temperature range. This allows the tuna heart to maintain consistent contraction and relaxation cycles during acute thermal challenges. We hypothesize that this cardiac capacity plays a key role in the bluefin tunas' niche expansion across a broad thermal and geographical range. PMID:25540278

  4. Cardiac function in an endothermic fish: cellular mechanisms for overcoming acute thermal challenges during diving

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, H. A.; Galli, G. L. J.; Block, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the physiology of vertebrate thermal tolerance is critical for predicting how animals respond to climate change. Pacific bluefin tuna experience a wide range of ambient sea temperatures and occupy the largest geographical niche of all tunas. Their capacity to endure thermal challenge is due in part to enhanced expression and activity of key proteins involved in cardiac excitation–contraction coupling, which improve cardiomyocyte function and whole animal performance during temperature change. To define the cellular mechanisms that enable bluefin tuna hearts to function during acute temperature change, we investigated the performance of freshly isolated ventricular myocytes using confocal microscopy and electrophysiology. We demonstrate that acute cooling and warming (between 8 and 28°C) modulates the excitability of the cardiomyocyte by altering the action potential (AP) duration and the amplitude and kinetics of the cellular Ca2+ transient. We then explored the interactions between temperature, adrenergic stimulation and contraction frequency, and show that when these stressors are combined in a physiologically relevant way, they alter AP characteristics to stabilize excitation–contraction coupling across an acute 20°C temperature range. This allows the tuna heart to maintain consistent contraction and relaxation cycles during acute thermal challenges. We hypothesize that this cardiac capacity plays a key role in the bluefin tunas' niche expansion across a broad thermal and geographical range. PMID:25540278

  5. A multigeneration fish toxicity test as an aid in the hazard evaluation of aquatic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, C.S.

    1980-12-01

    A multigeneration toxicity study to assess the effects of pollutants on fish breeding and all the life stages is described. The convict cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum) was used to test the toxicity of trisodium carboxymethyloxysuccinate, a new sequestering agent being evaluated as a detergent builder. Results show that 100 mg/l of the chemical has no effect on fish fecundity, survival of eggs and fry, or adult breeding behavior. This concentration is two orders of magnitude greater than the predicted aquatic environmental concentration under the most unfavorable conditions of its use, sewage treatment, and discharge. (4 diagrams, 2 photos, 23 references, 1 tables)

  6. European Chemicals Agency dossier submissions as an experimental data source: refinement of a fish toxicity model for predicting acute LC50 values.

    PubMed

    Austin, Thomas; Denoyelle, Marieva; Chaudry, Amjad; Stradling, Sam; Eadsforth, Charles

    2015-02-01

    As a result of the stringent data requirements of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation, a vast amount of ecotoxicological data has become available through the dissemination portal of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). As of April 2014, the database contained 12,439 unique substances from 47,909 dossiers. This vast database could be used to refine existing, or to create new, non-testing methods, such as quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Acute fish toxicity data were mined from the ECHA database using the eChemPortal; after filtering for single organic substances, 1159 experimental data points remained, representing 564 compounds. To evaluate the quality and accessibility of this data, the authors used the data to refine and improve an existing QSAR. The reliability of the data submitted to the ECHA database, as well as the effectiveness of the Klimisch scoring system, were assessed by comparing the refined QSAR with established QSAR benchmarks. The model developed meets all Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development principles, has strong internal (leave-one-out internally cross-validated correlation coefficient [Q(2)(LOO)] = 0.91) and external (external coefficient of determination (predicted vs experimental [test set])) validation statistics, and can provide reliable fish median lethal concentration (LC50) predictions for non-polar narcotics. Although some issues with dossier misinformation were discovered, it was found that the ECHA dissemination portal is a valuable and reliable data source. When queried using the eChemPortal, chemical dossiers containing reliable data could be found quickly. The ECHA dissemination portal holds great potential for future QSAR development and improvement, such as updating QSARs within the Ecological Structure-Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) program. PMID:25470737

  7. Toxicity test of landfill leachate using Sarotherodon mossambicus (freshwater fish)

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.H.

    1989-04-01

    Landfill leachate was collected in March and July, 1984, at the Gin Drinkers' Bay Landfill Site, and the properties of the two leachates were examined. The leachate collected in March contained higher contents of total solids, ammonia, and metals than that collected in July. The leachates were treated with EDTA (10(-3) M) and Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ (2 and 4 g/liter), alone and in combination. Addition of alum (2 g/liter) removed more than 60% of the phosphate content of the two leachates, and about 20 and 68% of total solids from leachates collected in March and July, respectively. Different concentrations of the leachates (untreated and alum-treated) were used to test the survival of tilapia, Sarotherodon mossambicus. The 96-hr LC50 for untreated leachates of March and July were 1.4 and 12%, respectively. The alum-treated leachates raised the 96-hr LC50 to 2.2 and 31.4%, accordingly.

  8. Multiple hypotheses testing of fish incidence patterns in an urbanized ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chizinski, C.J.; Higgins, C.L.; Shavlik, C.E.; Pope, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Ecological and evolutionary theories have focused traditionally on natural processes with little attempt to incorporate anthropogenic influences despite the fact that humans are such an integral part of virtually all ecosystems. A series of alternate models that incorporated anthropogenic factors and traditional ecological mechanisms of invasion to account for fish incidence patterns in urban lakes was tested. The models were based on fish biology, human intervention, and habitat characteristics. However, the only models to account for empirical patterns were those that included fish invasiveness, which incorporated species-specific information about overall tolerance and fecundity. This suggests that species-specific characteristics are more important in general distributional patterns than human-mediated dispersal. Better information of illegal stocking activities is needed to improve human-mediated models, and more insight into basic life history of ubiquitous species is needed to truly understand underlying mechanisms of biotic homogenization. ?? Springer 2005.

  9. Design and testing of fish drier system utilizing geothermal energy resource in Ie Suum, Aceh Besar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to increase the value of fish produced by the community in Krueng Raya Sub-district, it has been designed and tested a fish drier system utilizing geothermal energy resource in IeSuum Village, Krueng Raya Sub-district, Aceh Besar District. The geothermal energy is in the form of hot water with the temperature range is between 86 and 86.4 °C. Based on the design consideration, it is used a terraced rack type drier system. The drier system consists of a heat exchanger, drying chamber, and a blower to blow the air. Hot water from the geothermal source is passed into the heat exchanger to increase the air temperature outside it. The air is then blown into the drying chamber. Based on the design analysis is obtained that to dry 200 kg of fish in 24 hour, it is required a drying chamber with 1m long, 1 m width and 0.4 m high, the temperature of hot water entering the exchanger is 80 °C and the temperature of the air entering the drying chamber is maintained at 60°C. The average time required to dry fish till 10% of water level is 18-20 jam. The research is then continued by developing and testing the drying system with three layer rack to put in the fish. From the experimental result is obtained that the average water temperature flows out of the chamber is in the range of 76-78 °C and the temperature in the chamber is in the range of 57-62 °C. In addition, the weight of the fish, which initially is 20 kg, becomes12 kg in average after 18 hours drying process.

  10. Rapid regulation of blood parameters under acute hypoxia in the Amazonian fish Prochilodus nigricans.

    PubMed

    Val, Adalberto Luis; Gomes, Katia Regina Maruyama; de Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca

    2015-06-01

    Prochilodus nigricans, locally known as curimatã, is an Amazonian commercial fish that endures adverse environmental conditions, in particular low dissolved oxygen, during its migration. Poorer environmental conditions are expected in the near future. Prochilodus nigricans overcomes current seasonal and diurnal changes in dissolved oxygen by adjusting erythrocytic levels of ATP and GTP, modulators of Hb-O2 affinity. Will this fish species be endangered under more extreme environmental conditions as hypoxia and acidification tend to occur in a shorter period of time? As P. nigricans does not exhibit any apparent morphological alterations to exploit the air-water interface, it must rely on fast adjustments of blood properties. To investigate this aspect, basic hematology indices, pHe, pHi, plasma lactate, erythrocytic levels of ATP and GTP and functional properties of the hemolysate of P. nigricans were analyzed over a period of 6h in hypoxia and subsequent recovery in normoxia. The levels of erythrocytic GTP were four times higher than ATP and were reduced to ¼ of the original level after 3h under hypoxia. Erythrocytic levels of ATP were unaffected over the experimental period. All other analyzed blood parameters exhibited a time-course change in animals under hypoxia and returned to normoxic levels. Considering the hemolysate functional properties and the ability to regulate the above mentioned blood characteristics, P. nigricans is able to endure short-term changes in dissolved oxygen. PMID:25737030

  11. 3D tooth microwear texture analysis in fishes as a test of dietary hypotheses of durophagy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnell, Mark A.; Darras, Laurent P. G.

    2016-03-01

    differentiate between fishes with different diets even when they range widely in size, habitat, and in the structure of their trophic apparatus. The approach thus has great potential as an additional tool for dietary analysis in extant fishes, and for testing dietary hypotheses in ancient and extinct species.

  12. Effects of fish oil and endorphins on the cold pressor test in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G S; Ringer, T V; Francom, S F; Caswell, K C; DeLoof, M J; Spillers, C R

    1991-11-01

    The effects of fish oil and naloxone on blood pressure, catecholamines, and endorphins during the cold pressor test were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover trial of normotensive and medication-free hypertensive men (n = 13 each). Subjects were given 5 gm omega-3 fatty acids per day or placebo for 30 days with a 1-month washout between interventions. The cold pressor test (hand in ice water for 5 minutes) was done at the end of the treatment periods. Intravenous naloxone (10 mg) or placebo was given before the cold pressor test. Fish oil-treated, normotensive, or hypertensive groups had similar changes in blood pressure, plasma catecholamine levels, and beta-endorphins during the cold pressor test, but naloxone treatment was associated with fivefold and tenfold increases in plasma epinephrine and cortisol levels, respectively. Naloxone may modulate sympathomedullary discharge through blockade of endorphin activity. It is unlikely that endorphins are involved in the blood pressure increase during the cold pressor test or that fish oil alters this response. PMID:1934867

  13. Wanapum Dam Advanced Hydro Turbine Upgrade Project: Part 2 - Evaluation of Fish Passage Test Results Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dresser, Thomas J.; Dotson, Curtis L.; Fisher, Richard K.; Graf, Michael J.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Mathur, Dilip; Heisey, Paul G.

    2007-10-10

    This paper, the second part of a 2 part paper, discusses the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to gain further insight into the results of fish release testing conducted to evaluate the modifications made to upgrade Unit 8 at Wanapum Dam. Part 1 discusses the testing procedures and fish passage survival. Grant PUD is working with Voith Siemens Hydro (VSH) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) of DOE and Normandeau Associates in this evaluation. VSH has prepared the geometry for the CFD analysis corresponding to the four operating conditions tested with Unit 9, and the 5 operating conditions tested with Unit 8. Both VSH and PNNL have conducting CFD simulations of the turbine intakes, stay vanes, wicket gates, turbine blades and draft tube of the units. Primary objectives of the analyses were: • determine estimates of where the inserted fish passed the turbine components • determine the characteristics of the flow field along the paths calculated for pressure, velocity gradients and acceleration associated with fish sized bodies • determine the velocity gradients at the structures where fish to structure interaction is predicted. • correlate the estimated fish location of passage with observed injuries • correlate the calculated pressure and acceleration with the information recorded with the sensor fish • utilize the results of the analysis to further interpret the results of the testing. This paper discusses the results of the CFD analyses made to assist the interpretation of the fish test results.

  14. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV mediates acute nicotine-induced antinociception in acute thermal pain tests

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kia J.; Damaj, M. Imad

    2014-01-01

    Calcium activated second messengers such as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II have been implicated in drug-induced antinociception. The less abundant calcium activated second messenger, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV), mediates emotional responses to pain and tolerance to morphine analgesia; however its role in nicotine-mediated antinociception is currently unknown. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of CaMKIV in the acute effects of nicotine, primarily acute nicotine- induced antinociception. CaMKIV knockout (−/−), heterozygote (+/−), and wild-type (+/+) mice were injected with various doses of nicotine and evaluated in a battery of tests, including the tail-flick and hot-plate tests for antinociception, body temperature, and locomotor activity. Our results show a genotype-dependent reduction in tail-flick and hot- plate latency in CaMKIV (+/−) and (−/−) mice after acute nicotine treatment, while no difference was observed between genotypes in the body temperature and locomotor activity assessments. The results of this study support a role for CaMKIV in acute nicotine-induced spinal and supraspinal pain mechanisms, and further implicate involvement of calcium-dependent mechanisms in drug-induced antinociception. PMID:24196027

  15. Extracellular matrix remodeling of the testes through the male reproductive cycle in Teleostei fish.

    PubMed

    Santana, Julio Cesar de Oliveira; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani

    2014-12-01

    During the fish reproductive cycle, testes undergo morphological changes related to germinal epithelium and remodeling of extracellular matrix components (ECM). ECM is degraded mainly by action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Due to the natural renewal of ECM in fish testes, we choose Pimelodus maculatus to study remodeling of ECM throughout reproductive cycle, using picrosirius (to identify type I, II, III collagen) and reticulin (type III collagen), and to immunolocalize MT1-MMP (membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase) and MMP-2 in testis cells. Testes were classified in four reproductive phases: regenerating, development, spawning capable and regressing. Picrosirius and reticulin demonstrated a differential distribution of total collagen fibers during the reproductive cycle. Immunohistochemistry showed MT1-MMP only in acidophilic granulocyte cells mainly inside blood vessels, in connective tissue of capsule close to the germinal compartment, and also infiltrated in interstitial connective tissue. MMP-2 was detected in fibroblast and endothelial cells of interstitial and capsule blood vessels, in epithelial cells of capsule, and in acidophilic granulocyte cells at same description for MT1-MMP. The fish testes ECM were remodeled throughout reproductive cycle in according to morphophysiological alterations. During reproductive season (spawning capable), the interstitium increased in total collagen fibers (type I, II, III). After spermiation period (regression and regenerating), the amount of collagen fibers decreased in response to action of MMPs on collagen degradation and other interstitial components (not assessed in this study). MMPs seem to be indispensable components for natural cyclic events of ECM remodeling of fish testes and for guarantee tissue homeostasis throughout reproductive cycle. PMID:25142725

  16. The Effects of Salinity on Acute Toxicity of Zinc to Two Euryhaline Species of Fish, Fundulus heteroclitus and Kryptolebias marmoratus

    PubMed Central

    Bielmyer, Gretchen K.; Bullington, Joseph B.; DeCarlo, Carri A.; Chalk, Stuart J.; Smith, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the toxicity of zinc (Zn) varies with water chemistry and that its bioavailability is controlled by ligand interactions and competing ions. Zn toxicity in freshwaters with varying water chemistry has been well characterized; however, far less attention has been paid to the toxicity of Zn in estuarine and marine systems. We performed experiments using two euryhaline species of killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus and Kryptolebias marmoratus, to investigate the effects of changing salinity on acute toxicity of Zn. Larvae (7- to 8-days old) of each species were exposed to various concentrations of Zn for 96 h at salinities ranging from 0 to 36 ppt and survival was monitored. As salinity increased, Zn toxicity decreased in both fish species, and at salinities above 10 ppt, K. marmoratus larvae were generally more sensitive to Zn than were those of F. heteroclitus. The protection of salinity against Zn toxicity in F. heteroclitus was further investigated to determine the role of Ca2+. Increased Ca2+ in freshwater protected against Zn toxicity to the same extent as did saline waters with an equal Ca2+ concentration up to ∼200 mg/L Ca for F. heteroclitus and ∼400 mg/L Ca for K. marmoratus. These results suggest that these two species may have differing Ca2+ requirements and/or rates of Ca2+ uptake in water of intermediate to full-strength salinity (∼200–400 mg/L Ca2+) and thus differ in their sensitivity to Zn. The overall goal of this study was to better understand Zn toxicity in waters of different salinity and to generate data on acute Zn toxicity from multiple species over a range of salinities, ultimately for use in development of estuarine and marine biotic ligand models. PMID:22523126

  17. Proficiency testing pilot for determination of total mercury in fresh fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Santana, L. V.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    A proficiency-testing scheme concerning total mercury determination in fish tissue involved 10 laboratories as participants, who used their regular in-house analytical methods, and the assigned value and the standard deviation used in proficiency testing program was derived from calibration against the certified reference values of the CRMs. The majority of participants obtained satisfactory Z-scores, and laboratories that need to revise their procedures were singled out. The objective these exercises were makes a useful contribution towards the production of proficiency test in Brazil. The uncertainty expanded calculated for the reference material was 22%.

  18. Fish Alternatives in Environmental Risk Assessment: Overview of the Current Landscape

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need for alternative testing strategies has recently expanded into the realm of environmental risk assessment leading to the development of new alternatives to standard aquatic vertebrate testing such as the OECD 203 acute fish toxicity test. The fish embryo test (FET) is one...

  19. Seasonal changes in the tests of fish Puntius ticto, and their relation to heavy metal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Pundir, R. ); Saxena, A.B. )

    1990-08-01

    An integrated hypothesis explaining the implications of environmental influence on the reproductive process has not emerged owing to paucity of data. Nevertheless, evidence is at hand to show that favorable physiological disposition for reproduction is brought about with external and internal factors through the mediation of the neuroendocrine mechanisms. It is now clear that the environmental factors impinge on the exteroreceptors and through them affect the central nervous system, the hypothalamus, the pituitary and finally the gonad. Another endogenous factor is the internal rhythm, which is known to regulate at least in part the seasonal reproductive activity. A review of literature reveals that comparatively much work has been done on the structure and seasonal changes of the testes of fishes. The aim of the present study is to observe seasonal changes in the testes of fish Puntius ticto and their relation to heavy metal toxicity.

  20. Comparison of the promutagenic activity of liver homogenates from fish and rat in the Ames test

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, M.; Kinae, N.; Tomita, I.; Kimura, I.

    1987-04-01

    Several mutagenic assay systems using bacteria have been developed as pre-screening methods for the detection of carcinogens from the industrial and the environmental materials. A liver homogenate, so-called S9 (supernatant at 9000 x g), prepared from the livers of rat, mouse or golden hamster is used for the metabolic activation in these systems. Recently, it was demonstrated that the activity of microsomal mixed function oxidase and the content of cytochrome P-450 in fish was increased by exposure to chemicals and environmental pollutants as observed in mammals. Several mutagenic and carcinogenic substances were isolated from samples of sediment, sea water and marine fish from the estuary area in which a high incidence of croaker nibe (Nibea mitsukurii) skin tumors were observed. But, the incidences of other fish diseases in the coastal area were not significant from those of the control areas. These results suggest that nibe has a high metabolic potency against the xenobiotics and are induced the tumor by these materials. In this paper, the authors report the comparison of liver microsomal enzymic activities of nibe and carp (Cyprinus carpio), freshwater fish, as well as that of rat or without PCB administration. They also describe an application of liver homogenates to the bacterial mutagenicity test developed by Ames.

  1. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES, INCLUDING INTERSPECIES TOXICITY CORRELATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accorda...

  2. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  3. Can Artemia Hatching Assay Be a (Sensitive) Alternative Tool to Acute Toxicity Test?

    PubMed

    Rotini, A; Manfra, L; Canepa, S; Tornambè, A; Migliore, L

    2015-12-01

    Artemia sp. is extensively used in ecotoxicity testing, despite criticisms inherent to both acute and long-term tests. Alternative endpoints and procedures should be considered to support the use of this biological model. The hatching process comprises several developmental steps and the cyst hatchability seems acceptable as endpoint criterion. In this study, we assessed the reliability of the hatching assay on A. franciscana by comparing with acute and long-term mortality tests, using two chemicals: Diethylene Glycol (DEG), Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS). Both DEG and SDS tests demonstrated a dose dependent hatching inhibition. The hatching test resulted more sensitive than acute mortality test and less sensitive than the long-term one. Results demonstrate the reliability and high sensitivity of this hatching assay on a short time lag and support its useful application in first-tier risk assessment procedures. PMID:26245451

  4. Species specificity in the magnitude and duration of the acute stress response in Mediterranean marine fish in culture.

    PubMed

    Fanouraki, E; Mylonas, C C; Papandroulakis, N; Pavlidis, M

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the species-specific stress response for seven Mediterranean fishes in culture. Also, to evaluate the method of measuring free cortisol concentration in the rearing water as a non-invasive and reliable indicator of stress in marine species, of aquaculture importance. Gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata (Sparidae); common dentex, Dentex dentex (Sparidae); common Pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Sparidae); sharpsnout sea bream, Diplodus puntazzo (Sparidae); dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Serranidae); meagre, Argyrosomus regius (Sciaenidae) and European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Moronidae) were subjected to identical acute stress (5-6 min chasing and 1-1.5 min air exposure) under the same environmental conditions and samples were analyzed by the same procedures. Results indicated that there was a clear species-specificity in the magnitude, timing and duration of the stress response in terms of cortisol, glucose and lactate. European sea bass showed a very high response and dusky grouper and meagre a very low response, except plasma glucose concentrations of dusky grouper which was constantly high, while sharpsnout sea bream presented a protracted stress response, up to 8h. The present study confirmed that free cortisol release rate into the water can be used as a reliable stress indicator. PMID:21712040

  5. Use of folk tests to detect ciguateric fish: a scientific evaluation of their effectiveness in Raivavae Island (Australes, French Polynesia).

    PubMed

    Darius, H T; Drescher, O; Ponton, D; Pawlowiez, R; Laurent, D; Dewailly, E; Chinain, M

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a seafood intoxication commonly afflicting island communities in the Pacific. These populations, which are strongly dependent on fish resources, have developed over centuries various strategies to decrease the risk of intoxication, including the use of folk tests to detect ciguateric fish. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two folk tests commonly used in Raivavae Island (Australes, French Polynesia): the rigor mortis test (RMT) and the bleeding test (BT). A total of 107 fish were collected in Raivavae Lagoon, among which 80 were tested by five testers using the RMT versus 107 tested by four testers using BT. First, the performance between testers was compared. Second, the efficiency of these tests was compared with toxicity data obtained via the receptor binding assay (RBA) by assessing various parameter's values such as sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). Comparisons of outcomes between folk tests and RBA analyses were considered: tests used separately or in a parallel versus the series approach by each tester. The overall efficiency of the RMT and BT tests was also evaluated when the judgments of all testers were "pooled". The results demonstrate that efficiencies varied between testers with one showing the best scores in detecting toxic fish: 55% with RMT and 69.2% with BT. BT gave the best results in detecting toxic fish as compared with RMT, giving also better agreement between testers. If high NPV and Se values were to be privileged, the data also suggest that the best way to limit cases of intoxication would be to use RMT and BT tests in a parallel approach. The use of traditional knowledge and a good knowledge of risky versus healthy fishing areas may help reduce the risk of intoxication among communities where ciguatera fish poisoning is highly prevalent. PMID:23289800

  6. METHODS FOR SPAWNING, CULTURING, AND CONDUCTING TOXICITY TESTS WITH EARLY-LIFE STAGES OF ESTUARINE AND MARINE FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides a detailed description of the life history, geographical distribution of the life history, geographical distribution, and procedures for laboratory spawning, culturing and testing of five fishes: the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; the inlan...

  7. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  8. Effects of a test flood on fishes of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valdez, R.A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; McIvor, C.C.; McKinney, T.; Leibfried, W.C.

    2001-01-01

    A beach/habitat-building flow (i.e., test flood) of 1274 m3/s, released from Glen Canyon Dam down the Colorado River through Grand Canyon, had little effect on distribution, abundance, or movement of native fishes, and only short-term effects on densities of some nonnative species Shoreline and backwater catch rates of native fishes, including juvenile humpback chub (Gila cypha), flannelmouth suckers (Catostomus latipinnis), and bluehead suckers (C. discobolus), and all ages of speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus), were not significantly different before and after the flood. Annual spring spawning migrations of flannelmouth suckers into the Paria River and endangered humpback chub into the Little Colorado River (LCR) took place during and after the flood, indicating no impediment to fish migrations. Pre-spawning adults staged in large slack water pools formed at the mouths of these tributaries during the flood. Net movement and habitat used by nine radio-tagged adult humpback chub during the flood were not significantly different from prior observations. Diet composition of adult humpback chub varied, but total biomass did not differ significantly before, during, and after the flood, indicating opportunistic feeding for a larger array of available food items displaced by the flood. Numbers of nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) <152 mm total length decreased by ???8% in electrofishing samples from the dam tailwaters (0-25 km downstream of the dam) during the flood. Increased catch rates in the vicinity of the LCR (125 km downstream of the dam) and Hell's Hollow (314 km downstream of the dam) suggest that these young trout were displaced downstream by the flood, although displacement distance was unknown since some fish could have originated from local populations associated with intervening tributaries. Abundance, catch rate, body condition, and diet of adult rainbow trout in the dam tailwaters were not significantly affected by the flood, and the flood

  9. Comparison of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) as test species in the Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT).

    PubMed

    Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin L; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Bjerregaard, Poul; Petersen, Gitte I; Norrgren, Leif; Orn, Stefan; Braunbeck, Thomas; Baumann, Lisa; Bomke, Christiane; Dorgerloh, Michael; Bruns, Eric; Ruehl-Fehlert, Christine; Green, John W; Springer, Timothy A; Gourmelon, Anne

    2012-03-01

    Results are presented from a validation (with 5 laboratories) of the Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT) developed to detect endocrine disrupters (EDs) and included in the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) working program. The aromatase-inhibiting fungicide prochloraz was tested in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). The fish were exposed during sexual differentiation and development from 0 to 60 days post hatch (dph). After exposure, the vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations were quantified in head/tail homogenate and the sex ratio was determined (defined as female, male, intersex or undifferentiated). NOEC/LOEC and EC(x) designs were compared to optimize the test approach. Results show that both species are highly sensitive to prochloraz during sexual development. They respond by skewing of the sex ratio towards male phenotype and by a VTG decline in females. The NOEC/LOEC approach is preferred because sex ratio is difficult to analyze with a regression model. The mean NOEC/LOEC for prochloraz on the sex ratio was 43.3/134 μg/L and 101/293 μg/L for zebrafish and fathead minnow, respectively. The mean NOEC/LOEC on the decline in female VTG concentration was 65/110 μg/L and ~30/68 μg/L respectively. In conclusion, zebrafish and fathead minnow are suitable species in the FSDT and their sexual differentiation is equally labile to EDs. PMID:22115822

  10. Respiratory Viral Testing and Influenza Antiviral Prescriptions During Hospitalization for Acute Respiratory Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Rolfes, Melissa A.; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly M.; Meek, James I.; Fry, Alicia M.; Chaves, Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined respiratory viral testing and influenza antiviral prescriptions at a US tertiary care hospital. During the 2010–11 to 2012–13 influenza seasons, antiviral prescriptions among acute respiratory illness (ARI) hospitalizations were associated with viral testing (rate ratio = 15.0), and empiric prescriptions were rare (<1% of ARI hospitalizations). PMID:26885545

  11. Evaluation of a Western Blot Test in an Outbreak of Acute Pulmonary Histoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Pizzini, Claudia V.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Reiss, Errol; Hajjeh, Rana; Kaufman, Leo; Peralta, José Mauro

    1999-01-01

    A western blot (WB) test was evaluated for detection of antibodies against native glycosylated and chemically deglycosylated M and H antigens of Histoplasma capsulatum in serum obtained from patients during the acute phase of pulmonary histoplasmosis that occurred during an outbreak. Of 275 serum samples tested by immunodiffusion and complement fixation (CF) samples from 40 patients affected during this outbreak and from 37 negative controls were tested by WB test. A group of patients whose sera were negative for CF antibodies and precipitins early in the acute stage of histoplasmosis but who all seroconverted during convalescence 6 weeks later were tested with the WB test. Antibodies against untreated H and M antigens were detected at a 1:100 dilution by WB test in 45% of the 20 acute-phase serum samples and in all 20 of the convalescent-phase specimens. The WB test’s sensitivity for acute-phase specimens increased to 90% (18 of 20 specimens) when H and M antigens were treated by periodate oxidation to inactivate susceptible carbohydrate epitopes. When native glycosylated antigens were used in the WB test, positive reactions were observed in negative control serum specimens (3 of 37 specimens; 8%) and in serum specimens obtained from asymptomatic persons screened as part of the outbreak investigation (13 of 20 specimens; 65%). These positive reactions were also attributed to glycosidic epitopes since the specificity of the WB test increased from 78 to 100% when periodate-treated H and M antigens were used. WB test with deglycosylated H and M antigens of histoplasmin provides a rapid, sensitive, and specific test to diagnose acute pulmonary histoplasmosis before precipitins can be detected. PMID:9874658

  12. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Agency will use data from this test in assessing the hazard a chemical may present in the aquatic... ratio of daphnid biomass (grams, wet weight) to the volume (liters) of test solution in a test chamber... chosen in a geometric series in which the ratio is between 1.5 and 2.0 (e.g., 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64...

  13. Acute effects of tetracycline exposure in the freshwater fish Gambusia holbrooki: antioxidant effects, neurotoxicity and histological alterations.

    PubMed

    Nunes, B; Antunes, S C; Gomes, R; Campos, J C; Braga, M R; Ramos, A S; Correia, A T

    2015-02-01

    A large body of evidence was compiled in the recent decades showing a noteworthy increase in the detection of pharmaceutical drugs in aquatic ecosystems. Due to its ubiquitous presence, chemical nature, and practical purpose, this type of contaminant can exert toxic effects in nontarget organisms. Exposure to pharmaceutical drugs can result in adaptive alterations, such as changes in tissues, or in key homeostatic mechanisms, such as antioxidant mechanisms, biochemical/physiological pathways, and cellular damage. These alterations can be monitored to determine the impact of these compounds on exposed aquatic organisms. Among pharmaceutical drugs in the environment, antibiotics are particularly important because they include a variety of substances widely used in medical and veterinary practice, livestock production, and aquaculture. This wide use constitutes a decisive factor contributing for their frequent detection in the aquatic environment. Tetracyclines are the individual antibiotic subclass with the second highest frequency of detection in environmental matrices. The characterization of the potential ecotoxicological effects of tetracycline is a much-required task; to attain this objective, the present study assessed the acute toxic effects of tetracycline in the freshwater fish species Gambusia holbrooki by the determination of histological changes in the gills and liver, changes in antioxidant defense [glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and lipoperoxidative damage] as well as potential neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity). The obtained results suggest the existence of a cause-and-effect relationship between the exposure to tetracycline and histological alterations (more specifically in gills) and enzymatic activity (particularly the enzyme CAT in liver and GST in gills) indicating that this compound can exert a pro-oxidative activity. PMID:25475590

  14. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and sterilization. New test containers may contain substances which inhibit growth of algae. They.... (A) Formulation and sterilization of nutrient medium used for algal culture and preparation of...

  15. PAH toxicity at aqueous solubility in the fish embryo test with Danio rerio using passive dosing.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Best, Nina; Fernqvist, Margit Møller; Hercht, Hendrik; Smith, Kilian E C; Braunbeck, Thomas; Mayer, Philipp; Hollert, Henner

    2014-10-01

    As part of the risk assessment process within REACh, prior to manufacturing and distribution of chemical substances their (eco)toxicological impacts have to be investigated. The fish embryo toxicity test (FET) with the zebrafish Danio rerio has gained a high significance as an in vitro alternative to animal testing in (eco)toxicology. However, for hydrophobic organic chemicals it remains a technical challenge to ensure constant freely dissolved concentration at the maximum exposure level during such biotests. Passive dosing with PDMS silicone was thus applied to control the freely dissolved concentration of ten PAHs at their saturation level in the FET. The experiments gave repeatable results, with the toxicity of the PAHs generally increasing with the maximum chemical activities of the PAHs. HPLC analysis confirmed constant exposure at the saturation level. In additional experiments, fish embryos without direct contact to the silicone surface showed similar mortalities as those exposed with direct contact to the silicone. Silicone oil overlaying the water phase as a novel passive dosing phase had no observable effects on the development of the fish embryos until hatching. This study provides further data to support the close relationship between the chemical activity and the toxicity of hydrophobic organic compounds. Passive dosing from PDMS silicone enabled reliable toxicity testing of (highly) hydrophobic substances at aqueous solubility, providing a practical way to control toxicity exactly at the maximum exposure level. This approach is therefore expected to be useful as a cost-effective initial screening of hydrophobic chemicals for potential adverse effects to freshwater vertebrates. PMID:25048891

  16. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concentration of test substance that is calculated to kill 50 percent of a test population during continuous..., procedures, and mysids from the same population or culture container, except that none of the chemical is..., growth and reproduction of the mysids. A recommended food is live Artemia spp. (48-hour-old nauplii)....

  17. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interval shall be calculated. (d) Test conditions—(1) Test species—(i) Selection. (A) The mysid shrimp... with netting material of appropriate mesh size. (iv) Dilution water. (A) Natural or artificial seawater.... (C) Artificial seawater can be prepared by adding commercially available formulations or by...

  18. An accurate test for acute appendicitis: In-111 WBC imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, D.A.; Weber, P.M.; Kang, I.Y.; dosRemedios, L.V.; Jasko, I.A.

    1985-05-01

    The decision to operate when acute appendicitis (APPY) is suspected is often difficult. Surgeons accept up to a 20% false positive rate to avoid any delay that may result in appendiceal rupture and peritonitis. The authors have successfully improved early diagnostic accuracy by using abdominal imaging beginning 2 hours after injecting In-111 labeled WBC. Patients with clear-cut (APPY) had laparotomy and were not studied. Those who were to be observed in the ER for possible (APPY) had their leukocytes harvested, labeled with In-111 oxine, and reinjected. Abnormal localized activity in the right lower quadrant (RLQ) imaged at 2 hours was graded relative to bone marrow activity (8M): 0, 1+BM. When available the surgical specimen was imaged for In-111 activity. Of 31 patients studied there were 13 with positive scans for (APPY) all surgically confirmed. There were 4 additional abnormal studies all demonstrating known diagnostic patterns, 2 of pertonitis and 2 of colitis. There were 14 negative studies in 8 of whom the clinical course was benign; the remaining 6 had laparotomy with 3 having (APPY) and 3 not. Thus there were no false positives and 3 false negatives. One case negative at 2 hours had appendiceal activity later. The 3 cases with 3+ activity all had apendiceal abscesses. This new application of In-111 oxine WBC imaging is safe, simple, sensitive and specific. It shortens the time to surgical intervention and should reduce the surgical false positive rate.

  19. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  20. Fish-Friendly Hydropower Turbine Development & Deployment: Alden Turbine Preliminary Engineering and Model Testing

    SciTech Connect

    2011-10-01

    The Alden turbine was developed through the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) former Advanced Hydro Turbine Systems Program (1994-2006) and, more recently, through the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the DOE's Wind & Water Power Program. The primary goal of the engineering study described here was to provide a commercially competitive turbine design that would yield fish passage survival rates comparable to or better than the survival rates of bypassing or spilling flow. Although the turbine design was performed for site conditions corresponding to 92 ft (28 m) net head and a discharge of 1500 cfs (42.5 cms), the design can be modified for additional sites with differing operating conditions. During the turbine development, design modifications were identified for the spiral case, distributor (stay vanes and wicket gates), runner, and draft tube to improve turbine performance while maintaining features for high fish passage survival. Computational results for pressure change rates and shear within the runner passage were similar in the original and final turbine geometries, while predicted minimum pressures were higher for the final turbine. The final turbine geometry and resulting flow environments are expected to further enhance the fish passage characteristics of the turbine. Computational results for the final design were shown to improve turbine efficiencies by over 6% at the selected operating condition when compared to the original concept. Prior to the release of the hydraulic components for model fabrication, finite element analysis calculations were conducted for the stay vanes, wicket gates, and runner to verify that structural design criteria for stress and deflections were met. A physical model of the turbine was manufactured and tested with data collected for power and efficiency, cavitation limits, runaway speed, axial and radial thrust, pressure pulsations, and wicket gate torque. All parameters were observed to fall within ranges

  1. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from these tests in assessing the hazard of a chemical to the aquatic environment. (b) Definitions. The... exposure over a specified period of time. (4) “Loading” means the ratio of test organisms biomass (grams... the ratio is between 1.5 and 2.0 (e.g., 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 mg/l). An equal number of mysids...

  2. Ecological risk assessment of substances with suspected estrogenic activity using standard laboratory fish tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gimeno, S.; Bowmer, C.T.

    1999-07-01

    The assessment of risks to the aquatic environment in the European Union is generally based on a comparison of Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) with Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) for surrogate, or representative, organisms of the receiving waters. Such risk assessments are required for new and priority existing chemicals, pesticides, and, in the near future, biocides; they are dependent on robust in vivo test data. Current strategies for ecological risk assessment were not designed to assess the risk of endocrine disrupters. The selection of suitable fish species and practical in vivo end points for determining endocrine disruption in fish are discussed, including the adaptation of some existing guidelines. This paper is partly based on a series of experiments conducted at the laboratory to look at the effects of a model alkylphenol (4-tert-pentylphenol), an industrial chemical intermediate, acting as a pseudo-estrogen on an all-male population of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Exposure to the test substance occurred at critical life stages for endocrine disruption. Biochemical parameters as well as histological parameters were applied, and their suitability to be used in ecological risk assessment is discussed.

  3. INVESTIGATING ALTERNATIVES TO THE FISH EARLY-LIFE STAGE TEST: A STRATEGY FOR DISCOVERING AND ANNOTATING ADVERSE OUTCOME PATHWAYS FOR EARLY FISH DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Daniel; Volz, David C; Embry, Michelle R; Ankley, Gerald T; Belanger, Scott E; Léonard, Marc; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanguay, Robert; Truong, Lisa; Wehmas, Leah

    2014-01-01

    The fish early-life stage (FELS) test (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] test guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an ongoing effort to develop efficient and cost-effective alternatives to the FELS test, there is a need to identify and describe potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to FELS toxicity. To support this endeavor, the authors outline and illustrate an overall strategy for the discovery and annotation of FELS AOPs. Key events represented by major developmental landmarks were organized into a preliminary conceptual model of fish development. Using swim bladder inflation as an example, a weight-of-evidence–based approach was used to support linkage of key molecular initiating events to adverse phenotypic outcomes and reduced young-of-year survival. Based on an iterative approach, the feasibility of using key events as the foundation for expanding a network of plausible linkages and AOP knowledge was explored and, in the process, important knowledge gaps were identified. Given the scope and scale of the task, prioritization of AOP development was recommended and key research objectives were defined relative to factors such as current animal-use restrictions in the European Union and increased demands for fish toxicity data in chemical management programs globally. The example and strategy described are intended to guide collective efforts to define FELS-related AOPs and develop resource-efficient predictive assays that address the toxicological domain of the OECD 210 test. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:158–169. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any

  4. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Algistatic means having the property of inhibiting algal growth. (3) ECx means the experimentally derived chemical concentration that is calculated to effect X percent of the test criterion. (4) Growth means a relative measure of the viability of an algal population based on the number and/or weight of algal...

  5. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Algistatic means having the property of inhibiting algal growth. (3) ECx means the experimentally derived chemical concentration that is calculated to effect X percent of the test criterion. (4) Growth means a relative measure of the viability of an algal population based on the number and/or weight of algal...

  6. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Algistatic means having the property of inhibiting algal growth. (3) ECx means the experimentally derived chemical concentration that is calculated to effect X percent of the test criterion. (4) Growth means a relative measure of the viability of an algal population based on the number and/or weight of algal...

  7. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will use data from this test in assessing the hazard... organisms within a particular period of exposure (which shall be stated). Loading means the ratio of the... chosen in a geometric series in which the ratio is between 1.5 and 2.0 (e.g., 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64...

  8. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., conductivity, TOC or COD, and particulate matter of the dilution water shall be measured at the beginning of..., acclimation and test periods; (4) Apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or... dark photoperiod with a 15- to 30-minute transition period. (B) Facilities should be well...

  9. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., acclimation, and test periods; (3) apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or aerating the water as necessary; and (4) an apparatus for providing a 16-hour light and 8-hour dark... concentration Particulate matter 20 mg/liter. Total organic carbon or 2 mg/liter. Chemical oxygen demand 5...

  10. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., acclimation, and test periods; (3) apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or aerating the water as necessary; and (4) an apparatus for providing a 16-hour light and 8-hour dark... concentration Particulate matter 20 mg/liter. Total organic carbon or 2 mg/liter. Chemical oxygen demand 5...

  11. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., conductivity, TOC or COD, and particulate matter of the dilution water shall be measured at the beginning of..., acclimation and test periods; (4) Apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or... dark photoperiod with a 15- to 30-minute transition period. (B) Facilities should be well...

  12. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., conductivity, TOC or COD, and particulate matter of the dilution water shall be measured at the beginning of..., acclimation and test periods; (4) Apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or... dark photoperiod with a 15- to 30-minute transition period. (B) Facilities should be well...

  13. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., acclimation, and test periods; (3) apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or aerating the water as necessary; and (4) an apparatus for providing a 16-hour light and 8-hour dark... concentration Particulate matter 20 mg/liter. Total organic carbon or 2 mg/liter. Chemical oxygen demand 5...

  14. Acute toxicity and cytotoxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus strains on fish and mouse bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Grisolia, Cesar Koppe; Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino; Ramos, Felipe Rosa; Lopes, Madaí Cruz; Muniz, Daphne Heloisa Freitas; Monnerat, Rose Gomes

    2009-01-01

    The insecticidal properties of delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) serotypes kurstaki and israelensis and crystal proteins of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) serotype H5 have been used in insect control for decades. The availability of microbial toxins in biopesticides as well as in plants with incorporated protection has been increasing the concerns about biosafety. Acute toxicity to Danio rerio and cytotoxicity on mouse bone marrow cells and peripheral erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus were tested with Bt israelensis, Bt kurstaki and Bs H5 strains. The concentration and dose tested were 10(6) and 10(8) spores/ml, respectively. Neither lethality nor effects on mouse bone marrow were promoted by any strain. In necrosis-apoptosis study on peripheral erythrocytes of O. niloticus an increased frequency of necrotic cells caused by exposure to strains of B. thuringiensis was found. Exposure to B. sphaericus did not show cytotoxic effects in either tested system. None of the strains studied induced apoptosis in contrast with the chemical controls. PMID:18670879

  15. Maintaining the Constant Exposure Condition for an Acute Caenorhabditis elegans Mortality Test Using Passive Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyuck-Chul; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Lim, Dongyoung; Choi, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Maintaining the constant exposure to hydrophobic organic compouds in acute toxicity tests is one of the most difficult issues in the evaluation of their toxicity and corresponding risks. Passive dosing is an emerging tool to keep constant aqueous concentration because of the overwhelming mass loaded in the dosing phase. The primary objectives of this study were to develop the constant exposure condition for an acute mortality test and to compare the performance of the passive dosing method with the conventional spiking with co-solvent. Methods A custom cut polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tubing loaded with benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) was placed in each well of a 24-well plate containing assay medium. The rate of the release of BBP from PDMS was evaluated by measuring the change in the concentration of BBP in the assay medium. The efficiency of maintaining constant exposure condition was also evaluated using a simple two-compartment mass transport model employing a film-diffusion theory. An acute mortality test using 10 C. elegans in each well was conducted for the evaluation of the validity of passive dosing and the comparative evaluation of the passive dosing method and the conventional spiking method. Results Free concentration in the assay medium reached 95% steady state value within 2.2 hours without test organisms, indicating that this passive dosing method is useful for an acute toxicity test in 24 hours. The measured concentration after the mortality test agreed well with the estimated values from partitioning between PDMS and the assay medium. However, the difference between the nominal and the free concentration became larger as the spiked concentration approached water solubility, indicating the instability of the conventional spiking with a co-solvent. Conclusions The results in this study support that passive dosing provides a stable exposure condition for an acute toxicity test. Thus, it is likely that more reliable toxicity assessment can be

  16. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis of Test Endpoints for Detecting the Effects of Endocrine Active Substances in Fish Full Life Cycle Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish full life cycle (FFLC) tests are increasingly required in the ecotoxicological assessment of endocrine active substances. However, FFLC tests have not been internationally standardized or validated, and it is currently unclear how such tests should best be designed to provid...

  17. Metals (Ag(+) , Cd(2+) , Cr(6+) ) affect ATPase activity in the gill, kidney, and muscle of freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus following acute and chronic exposures.

    PubMed

    Atli, Gülüzar; Canli, Mustdafa

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were individually acutely exposed to different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 μg/mL) of Cd(2+) , Cr(6+) , and Ag(+) for 96 h and 0.05 μg/mL concentration of the same metals for different periods (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 days) chronically. Following each experimental protocol, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, Mg(2+) -ATPase, and Ca(2+) -ATPase activities were measured in the gill, kidney, and muscle of O. niloticus. In vitro experiments were also performed to determine the direct effects of metal ions (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 μg/mL) on ATPases. Except Ag(+) , none of the metals caused fish mortality within 30 days. Silver killed all the fishes within 16 days. Metal exposures generally decreased Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase and Ca(2+) -ATPase activities in the tissues of O. niloticus, although there were some fluctuations in Mg(2+) -ATPase activity. Ag(+) and Cd(2+) were found to be more toxic to ATPase activities than Cr(6+) . It was also observed that metal efficiency was higher in the gill than in the other tissues. Results indicated that the response of ATPases varied depending on metals, exposure types, and tissues. Because ATPases are sensitive to metal toxicity, their activity can give valuable data about fish physiology. Therefore, they may be used as a sensitive biomarker in environmental monitoring in contaminated waters. PMID:21901811

  18. A review and test of predictive models for the bioaccumulation of radiostrontium in fish.

    PubMed

    Smith, J T; Sasina, N V; Kryshev, A I; Belova, N V; Kudelsky, A V

    2009-11-01

    Empirical relations between the (90)Sr concentration factor (CF) and the calcium concentration in freshwater aquatic systems have previously been determined in studies based on data obtained prior to the Chernobyl accident. The purpose of the present research is to review and compare these models, and to test them against a database of post-Chernobyl measurements from rivers and lakes in Ukraine, Russia, Belarus and Finland. It was found that two independently developed models, based on pre-Chernobyl empirical data, are in close agreement with each other, and with empirical data. Testing of both models against new data obtained after the Chernobyl accident confirms the models' predictive ability. An investigation of the influence of fish size on (90)Sr accumulation showed no significant relationship, though the data set was somewhat limited. PMID:19656592

  19. Sildenafil versus nitric oxide for acute vasodilator testing in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Janine F.; Voswinckel, Robert; Sommer, Natascha; Franco, Oscar H.; Grimminger, Friedrich; Reichenberger, Frank; Seeger, Werner; Gall, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vasoreactivity testing with inhaled NO is recommended for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) because of its therapeutic and prognostic value. Sildenafil has acute pulmonary vasodilating properties, but its diagnostic and prognostic impact in PAH is unknown. Our objective was to compare acute vasodilating responses to sildenafil and those to NO during right heart catheterization and also their prognostic values in patients with PAH. Ninety-nine patients with idiopathic PAH and 99 with associated PAH underwent vasoreactivity testing with NO and sildenafil. Only mild adverse effects of sildenafil, in the form of hypotension, were observed, at a rate of 4.5%. The acute responder rate was 8.1% for NO and 11.6% for sildenafil. The NO-induced response in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac output correlated with the response to sildenafil. Thirteen patients were long-term responders to calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and 3 of them were correctly identified by acute vasoreactivity test with both drugs. The specificity of the vasoreactivity test for identifying long-term CCB responders was 88.9% for NO and 85.1% for sildenafil testing. A trend toward better survival was found in sildenafil and NO responders, compared with nonresponders. Use of sildenafil for vasoreactivity testing is safe. Sildenafil may be useful as alternative vasoreactivity-testing agent, identifying the same number of long-term CCB responders as NO. However, NO seems to be a more ideal testing drug because of its pharmacologic properties. Moreover, sildenafil vasoreactivity testing might contribute to an improved estimate of prognosis among patients with PAH. PMID:26064455

  20. Results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted at SRS NPDES outfalls, July--October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Acute (48 hour LC50) and chronic (7-day reproductive impairment) toxicity tests were conducted on Ceriodaphnia dubia in water collected from 53 NPDES outfalls. All tests were conducted at the in-stream waste concentration. only 12 of the 53 outfalls showed no evidence of toxicity. Twenty-eight of the outfalls were acutely toxic, often producing 100% mortality during the first day of exposure. Fourteen outfalls had no discharge at the time of sampling and could not be tested. Three outfalls were not tested because their toxicity has been adequately characterized in other investigations. Elevated concentrations of total residual chlorine are suspected to be responsible for the observed toxicity of many NPDES outfalls, particularly the sanitary wastewater treatment plants. Chemical data from previous studies indicate that metals may also be present in toxic concentrations at many outfalls. Toxicity identification and reduction options are discussed.

  1. Tigriopus fulvus: The interlaboratory comparison of the acute toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Faraponova, Olga; Giacco, Elisabetta; Biandolino, Francesca; Prato, Ermelinda; Del Prete, Francesco; Valenti, Alessandra; Sarcina, Stefania; Pasteris, Andrea; Montecavalli, Adele; Comin, Stefano; Cesca, Claudia; Francese, Marco; Cigar, Monica; Piazza, Veronica; Falleni, Fabrizio; Lacchetti, Ines

    2016-02-01

    The paper reports the results of an interlaboratory comparison involving 11 laboratories, with the objectives of apply and validate a new standardized ecotoxicological method on marine crustacean Tigriopus fulvus. Copper was chosen as reference toxicant as indicated in the official method. The results of two independent tests performed by all the participants, demonstrated that the new method is simple, fast and easy to learn. This is confirmed even by the values of z-score index calculated for each laboratory and the relative coefficient of variation (CV) which are 6.32% after 24h, 6.56 after 48h and 35.3% after 96h, mentioned in the ISO standards for the precision of interlaboratory assays. Therefore its use could be recommended in environmental studies and monitoring. PMID:26584461

  2. [Are urgent imaging tests indicated in the management of acute pancreatitis?].

    PubMed

    Fornell Pérez, R; Lozano Rodríguez, A

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common emergency within abdominal disease. It is accepted that two of three conditions must be fulfilled for its diagnosis: characteristic clinical presentation, characteristic laboratory findings, and/or characteristic diagnostic imaging findings. The first two conditions are the most often used, probably for reasons of efficiency and frequency. Nevertheless, the need for imaging studies is sometimes a source of conflict. For this reason, we decided to review the current evidence regarding the indication of urgent imaging tests in the management of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26655802

  3. Testing the Low-density Hypothesis for Reversed Sex Change in Polygynous Fish: Experiments in Labroides dimidiatus

    PubMed Central

    Kuwamura, Tetsuo; Kadota, Tatsuru; Suzuki, Shohei

    2014-01-01

    Hermaphroditism is ubiquitous among plants and widespread in the animal kingdom. It is an unsolved problem why reversed sex change has evolved in polygynous and protogynous reef fish. We have previously suggested that facultative monogamy occurs in low-density populations of polygynous species and that males that become single as a result of accidental mate loss may change sex when they meet larger males. In this study, to test this ‘low-density hypothesis', we conducted field experiments with the coral reef fish Labroides dimidiatus in which a portion of females were removed to create a low-density situation. The ‘widowed' males moved to search for a new mate when no male, female or juvenile fish migrated into their territories and paired with nearby single fish, whether male or female. Alternatively, males expanded their territories to take over the nearest pair whose male was much smaller. These results support our low-density hypothesis. PMID:24621782

  4. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raimondo, Sandy; Lilavois, Crystal R.; Lee, Larisa; Augspurger, Tom; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Bauer, Candice R.; Hammer, Edward J.; Barron, Mace G.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and inter-laboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the two life stages; and the variation in sensitivity among commonly tested mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea, Utterbackia imbecillis, Villosa iris), commonly tested cladocerans (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Pimephales promelas, Lepomis macrochirus). The results of these analyses indicate intra-laboratory variability for median effect concentrations (EC50) averaged about 2 fold for both life stages, while inter-laboratory variability averaged 3.6 fold for juvenile mussels and 6.3 fold for glochidia. The EC50s for juveniles and glochidia were within a factor of 2 of each other for 50% of paired records across chemicals, with juveniles more sensitive than glochidia by more than 2 fold for 33% of the comparisons made between life stages. There was a high concurrence of the sensitivity of commonly tested L. siliquoidea, U. imbecillis, and V. iris to that of other mussels. However, this concurrence decreases as the taxonomic distance of the commonly tested cladocerans and fish to mussels increases. The compiled mussel database and determination of data variability will advance risk assessments by including more robust species sensitivity distributions, interspecies correlation estimates, and availability of taxon-specific empirically derived application factors for risk assessment.

  5. A system for conducting flow-through toxicity tests with larval fish

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, S.A.; Oris, J.T.; Guttman, S.I.

    1995-08-01

    Assessment of toxicological effects in aquatic systems commonly include larval fish 96-h LC50 determinations. The LC50 tests are conducted using static renewal as well as flow-through methods. However, in the case of chemicals with high vapor pressures or fugacity, static renewal methods may produce inconsistent results arising from the pulsed nature of exposure. In addition, in exposures involving these types of compounds, the fluctuation in concentration that can occur between renewals is unlike most exposure scenarios in nature. For these reasons, flow-through systems are often preferable. The authors report here on an inexpensive, easily constructed, flow-through system for toxicant exposure of small organisms. Data are presented to illustrate the capacity of the system to maintain uniform toxicant concentrations relative to static renewal methods.

  6. A Rapid In-Clinic Test Detects Acute Leptospirosis in Dogs with High Sensitivity and Specificity.

    PubMed

    Kodjo, Angeli; Calleja, Christophe; Loenser, Michael; Lin, Dan; Lizer, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A rapid IgM-detection immunochromatographic test (WITNESS® Lepto, Zoetis) has recently become available to identify acute canine leptospirosis at the point of care. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated by comparison with the microscopic agglutination assay (MAT), using a positive cut-off titer of ≥800. Banked serum samples from dogs exhibiting clinical signs and suspected leptospirosis were selected to form three groups based on MAT titer: (1) positive (n = 50); (2) borderline (n = 35); and (3) negative (n = 50). Using an analysis to weight group sizes to reflect French prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 93.5% (88.2% unweighted), respectively. This test rapidly identifies cases of acute canine leptospirosis with high levels of sensitivity and specificity with no interference from previous vaccination. PMID:27110562

  7. Early work load tests for evaluation of long-term prognosis of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Granath, A; Södermark, T; Winge, T; Volpe, U; Zetterquist, S

    1977-01-01

    Exercise tests performed 3 and 9 weeks after acute myocardial infarction in 205 patients were found to give prognostic information on the survival during a follow-up period of 2 to 5 years. The appearance of tachycardia, major ventricular arrhythmias, or anginal complaints during these early exercise tests was thus accompanied by a significantly increased mortality during the observation period. Ventricular arrhythmias disclosed by exercise proved to be of higher prognostic significance than those recorded at rest on the same occasions. The usefulness of early exercise tests in the evaluation of the response to antiarrhythmic treatment after acute myocardial infarction as well as of the prognostic importance of the effects was documented in a smaller series of patients. PMID:884025

  8. A Rapid In-Clinic Test Detects Acute Leptospirosis in Dogs with High Sensitivity and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Kodjo, Angeli; Calleja, Christophe; Loenser, Michael; Lin, Dan; Lizer, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A rapid IgM-detection immunochromatographic test (WITNESS® Lepto, Zoetis) has recently become available to identify acute canine leptospirosis at the point of care. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated by comparison with the microscopic agglutination assay (MAT), using a positive cut-off titer of ≥800. Banked serum samples from dogs exhibiting clinical signs and suspected leptospirosis were selected to form three groups based on MAT titer: (1) positive (n = 50); (2) borderline (n = 35); and (3) negative (n = 50). Using an analysis to weight group sizes to reflect French prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 93.5% (88.2% unweighted), respectively. This test rapidly identifies cases of acute canine leptospirosis with high levels of sensitivity and specificity with no interference from previous vaccination. PMID:27110562

  9. Acute moderate exercise elicits increased dorsolateral prefrontal activation and improves cognitive performance with Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Hiroki; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Kato, Morimasa; Okamoto, Masako; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Soya, Hideaki

    2010-05-01

    A growing number of human studies have reported the beneficial influences of acute as well as chronic exercise on cognitive functions. However, neuroimaging investigations into the neural substrates of the effects of acute exercise have yet to be performed. Using multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we sought cortical activation related to changes in the Stroop interference test, elicited by an acute bout of moderate exercise, in healthy volunteers (N=20). The compactness and portability of fNIRS allowed on-site cortical examination in a laboratory with a cycle ergometer, enabling strict control of the exercise intensity of each subject by assessing their peak oxygen intake (VO2peak). We defined moderate exercise intensity as 50% of a subject's peak oxygen uptake (50%VO2peak). An acute bout of moderate exercise caused significant improvement of cognitive performance reflecting Stroop interference as measured by reaction time. Consistent with previous functional neuroimaging studies, we detected brain activation due to Stroop interference (incongruent minus neutral) in the lateral prefrontal cortices in both hemispheres. This Stroop-interference-related activation was significantly enhanced in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex due to the acute bout of moderate exercise. The enhanced activation significantly coincided with the improved cognitive performance. This suggests that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is likely the neural substrate for the improved Stroop performance elicited by an acute bout of moderate exercise. fNIRS, which allows physiological monitoring and functional neuroimaging to be combined, proved to be an effective tool for examining the cognitive effects of exercise. PMID:20006719

  10. A confirmatory study of the up-and-down method for acute oral toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Bruce, R D

    1987-01-01

    Ten materials have been tested in parallel both by the "classical" method for acute oral toxicity (LD50) and by the up-and-down method. Materials tested included laundry and dishwashing detergents, a shampoo, a flavor, potassium hydroxide, and caffeine. All testing was done in Sprague-Dawley rats. Excellent agreement was seen between the two methods. The classical method typically used 40 to 50 animals while the up-and-down method required only six to nine animals per material. PMID:3556826

  11. Comparison of dissolved and total metals concentrations from acute tests with saltwater organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Lussier, S.M.; Boothman, W.S.; Champlin, D.; Poucher, S.; Helmstetten, A.

    1999-05-01

    Aquatic life criteria (ALC) have traditionally been expressed for meals in terms of total-recoverable or acid-soluble concentrations. Recent US Environmental protection Agency policy recommended use of dissolved metal concentrations for setting water quality standards. Criteria derived from previous tests could be expressed in terms of dissolved metals if ratios of dissolved-to-total concentrations in those tests were consistent. Using those metals with insufficient dissolved metals data to directly derive criteria (arsenic (III), cadmium, chromium (VI), lead, nickel, selenium (IV), and zinc), the authors measured both total and dissolved metal concentrations in acute saltwater static and flow-through tests. Exposure conditions simulated those of original tests used to derive ALC. Partitioning of metals between dissolved and particulate forms was very consistent. Dissolved metal concentrations were greater than 90% of total concentrations in all tests, exceeding 95% in 10 of 13 tests. Dissolved-to-total metal ratios did not vary significantly with concentration, time, or type of test. Biological responses were consistent with historical data. Results implied that in acute saltwater toxicity tests used to establish ALC, metals were primarily dissolved. Thus criteria developed for metals based on total concentrations should be equally valid when expressed in terms of dissolved concentrations.

  12. Do freshwater fishes diversify faster than marine fishes? A test using state-dependent diversification analyses and molecular phylogenetics of new world silversides (atherinopsidae).

    PubMed

    Bloom, Devin D; Weir, Jason T; Piller, Kyle R; Lovejoy, Nathan R

    2013-07-01

    Freshwater habitats make up only ∼0.01% of available aquatic habitat and yet harbor 40% of all fish species, whereas marine habitats comprise >99% of available aquatic habitat and have only 60% of fish species. One possible explanation for this pattern is that diversification rates are higher in freshwater habitats than in marine habitats. We investigated diversification in marine and freshwater lineages in the New World silverside fish clade Menidiinae (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae). Using a time-calibrated phylogeny and a state-dependent speciation-extinction framework, we determined the frequency and timing of habitat transitions in Menidiinae and tested for differences in diversification parameters between marine and freshwater lineages. We found that Menidiinae is an ancestrally marine lineage that independently colonized freshwater habitats four times followed by three reversals to the marine environment. Our state-dependent diversification analyses showed that freshwater lineages have higher speciation and extinction rates than marine lineages. Net diversification rates were higher (but not significant) in freshwater than marine environments. The marine lineage-through time (LTT) plot shows constant accumulation, suggesting that ecological limits to clade growth have not slowed diversification in marine lineages. Freshwater lineages exhibited an upturn near the recent in their LTT plot, which is consistent with our estimates of high background extinction rates. All sequence data are currently being archived on Genbank and phylogenetic trees archived on Treebase. PMID:23815658

  13. Investigation of mucus obtained from different fish species on the acute pain induced with scalpel incision in paw of rats

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Nihal; Suleyman, Bahtiyar; Kuyrukluyildiz, Ufuk; Nalkiran, Hatice Sevim; Kiran, Altan; Gencoglu, Songul; Duzgun, Ahmet; Kurtoglu, Ilker Zeki; Yarali, Oguzhan; Gul, Mehmet Ali; Suleyman, Halis

    2015-01-01

    No comparative study could be found for the analgesic activity of mucuses from the Oncorhynchus mykiss (OM), Salvelinus fontinalis (SF), Salmo coruhensis (SC), Acipenser gueldenstaedtii (AG), and Acipenser baerii (AB) fish species in the literature. We aimed to investigate the effects of mucuses obtained from the abovementioned fish species on scalpel incision-induced pain in the rat paw and to examine the role of oxidant/antioxidant parameters and COX-2 gene expression in the analgesic activities. Animals were divided into groups: SIC (scalpel incision; SI), SIDS (SI+25 mg/kg diclofenac sodium), SOM (SI+25 mg/kg OM mucus), SFM (SI+25 mg/kg SF mucus), SCM (SI+25 mg/kg SC mucus), SAgM (SI+25 mg/kg AG mucus), SAbM (SI+25 mg/kg AB mucus), and HG (healthy). The paw pain thresholds were measured with a Basile algesimeter before and after diclofenac sodium (DS) or mucus administration, and then the rats were euthanized with thiopental sodium. Oxidant/antioxidant and COX-2 gene expression parameters were measured in paw tissues. OM, SC, AG, and AB fish mucuses could not decrease the SI-induced pain. However, SF fish mucus prevented this pain by 69% after the first hour and by 58.3% after the third hour. DS was shown to suppress pain more weakly than SF, preventing the pain by 62.1% and 50.0% after the first and third hours, respectively. SF mucus and DS significantly inhibited increase of COX-2 gene expression, while other fish mucuses could not. None of the fish mucuses except SF mucus in conjunction with DS could significantly inhibit the increase in oxidant parameters and decrease in antioxidants. SF fish mucus should be comparatively assessed in clinical practice for treatment of postoperative pain. PMID:26490740

  14. Direct Comparison of Flow-FISH and qPCR as Diagnostic Tests for Telomere Length Measurement in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Rodrigues, Fernanda; Santana-Lemos, Bárbara A.; Scheucher, Priscila S.; Alves-Paiva, Raquel M.; Calado, Rodrigo T.

    2014-01-01

    Telomere length measurement is an essential test for the diagnosis of telomeropathies, which are caused by excessive telomere erosion. Commonly used methods are terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis by Southern blot, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with flow cytometry (flow-FISH), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Although these methods have been used in the clinic, they have not been comprehensively compared. Here, we directly compared the performance of flow-FISH and qPCR to measure leukocytes' telomere length of healthy individuals and patients evaluated for telomeropathies, using TRF as standard. TRF and flow-FISH showed good agreement and correlation in the analysis of healthy subjects (R2 = 0.60; p<0.0001) and patients (R2 = 0.51; p<0.0001). In contrast, the comparison between TRF and qPCR yielded modest correlation for the analysis of samples of healthy individuals (R2 = 0.35; p<0.0001) and low correlation for patients (R2 = 0.20; p = 0.001); Bland-Altman analysis showed poor agreement between the two methods for both patients and controls. Quantitative PCR and flow-FISH modestly correlated in the analysis of healthy individuals (R2 = 0.33; p<0.0001) and did not correlate in the comparison of patients' samples (R2 = 0.1, p = 0.08). Intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was similar for flow-FISH (10.8±7.1%) and qPCR (9.5±7.4%; p = 0.35), but the inter-assay CV was lower for flow-FISH (9.6±7.6% vs. 16±19.5%; p = 0.02). Bland-Altman analysis indicated that flow-FISH was more precise and reproducible than qPCR. Flow-FISH and qPCR were sensitive (both 100%) and specific (93% and 89%, respectively) to distinguish very short telomeres. However, qPCR sensitivity (40%) and specificity (63%) to detect telomeres below the tenth percentile were lower compared to flow-FISH (80% sensitivity and 85% specificity). In the clinical setting, flow-FISH was more accurate, reproducible, sensitive, and specific in the

  15. FISH ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES: APPLICATION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF MECHANISM-SPECIFIC QSARS (QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictive models based on quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), are used as rapid screening tools to identify potentially hazardous chemicals. Several QSARs are now available that predict the acute toxicity of narcotic-industrial chemicals. Predictions for compo...

  16. Claudins in a primary cultured puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) gill epithelium model alter in response to acute seawater exposure.

    PubMed

    Bui, Phuong; Kelly, Scott P

    2015-11-01

    Gill epithelium permeability and qualitative/quantitative aspects of gill claudin (cldn) tight junction (TJ) protein transcriptomics were examined with a primary cultured model gill epithelium developed using euryhaline puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) gills. The model was prepared using seawater-acclimated fish gills and was cultured on permeable cell culture filter supports. The model is composed of 1-2 confluent layers of gill pavement cells (PVCs), with the outer layer exhibiting prominent apical surface microridges and TJs between adjacent cells. During development of electrophysiological characteristics, the model exhibits a sigmoidal increase in transpithelial resistance (TER) and plateaus around 30 kΩcm(2). At this point paracellular movement of [(3)H]polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 was low at ~1.75 cm s(-1)×10(-7). When exposed to apical seawater (SW) epithelia exhibit a marked decrease in TER while PEG flux remained unchanged for at least 6 h. In association with this, transcript encoding cldn TJ proteins cldn3c, -23b, -27a, -27c, -32a and -33b increased during the first 6 h while cldn11a decreased. This suggests that these proteins are involved in maintaining barrier properties between gill PVCs of SW fishes. Gill cldn mRNA abundance also altered 6 and 12 h following abrupt SW exposure of puffer fish, but in a manner that differed qualitatively and quantitatively from the cultured model. This most likely reflects the cellular heterogeneity of whole tissue and/or the contribution of the endocrine system in intact fish. The current study provides insight into the physiological and transcriptomic response of euryhaline fish gill cells to a hyperosmotic environment. PMID:26239219

  17. Acute toxicity, respiratory reaction, and sensitivity of three cyprinid fish species caused by exposure to four heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongjun; Liang, Youguang; Li, Sixin; Chang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Using 3 cyprinid fish species zebra fish, rare minnow, and juvenile grass carp, we conducted assays of lethal reaction and ventilatory response to analyze sensitivity of the fish to 4 heavy metals. Our results showed that the 96 h LC50 of Hg(2+) to zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnow were 0.14 mg L(-1), 0.23 mg L(-1), and 0.10 mg L(-1), respectively; of Cu(2+)0.17 mg L(-1), 0.09 mg L(-1), and 0.12 mg L(-1) respectively; of Cd(2+)6.5 mg L(-1), 18.47 mg L(-1), 5.36 mg L(-1), respectively; and of Zn(2+)44.48 mg L(-1), 31.37 mg L(-1), and 12.74 mg L(-1), respectively. Under a 1-h exposure, the ventilatory response to the different heavy metals varied. Ventilatory frequency (Vf) and amplitude (Va) increased in zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnows exposed to Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) (P<0.05), and the Vf and Va of the 3 species rose initially and then declined when exposed to Cd(2+). Zn(2+) had markedly different toxic effects than the other heavy metals, whose Vf and Va gradually decreased with increasing exposure concentration (P<0.05). The rare minnow was the most highly susceptible of the 3 fish species to the heavy metals, with threshold effect concentrations (TEC) of 0.019 mg L(-1), 0.046 mg L(-1), 2.142 mg L(-1), and 0.633 mg L(-1) for Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+), respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to use ventilatory parameters as a biomarker for evaluating the pollution toxicity of metals and to recognize early warning signs by using rare minnows as a sensor. PMID:23755209

  18. Effects of DHA-rich fish oil supplementation on the lipid profile, markers of muscle damage, and neutrophil function in wheelchair basketball athletes before and after acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Marques, Camila Garcia; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Levada-Pires, Adriana Cristina; Jacintho, Thiago Manzoni; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tânia Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil (FO) supplementation on the lipid profile, levels of plasma inflammatory mediators, markers of muscle damage, and neutrophil function in wheelchair basketball players before and after acute exercise. We evaluated 8 male basketball wheelchair athletes before and after acute exercise both prior to (S0) and following (S1) FO supplementation. The subjects were supplemented with 3 g of FO daily for 30 days. The following components were measured: the plasma lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides), plasma inflammatory mediators (C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α), markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), and neutrophil function (cytokine production, phagocytic capacity, loss of membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, neutral lipid accumulation, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)). Acute exercise increased the plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDH, IL1ra, and IL-6, led to the loss of membrane integrity, ROS production, and a high mitochondrial membrane potential in neutrophils, and reduced the phagocytic capacity and IL-6 production by the neutrophils (S0). However, supplementation prevented the increases in the plasma levels of LDH and IL-6, the loss of membrane integrity, and the alterations in ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential in the neutrophils that were induced by exercise (S1). In conclusion, DHA-rich FO supplementation reduces the markers of muscle damage, inflammatory disturbances, and neutrophil death induced by acute exercise in wheelchair athletes. PMID:25942100

  19. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Kitty

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash in an 84-acre complex of the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Steam Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits extended as far as 4 miles upstream (Emory River mile 6) of the Plant, and some ash was carried as far downstream as Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}4 miles downstream of the Tennessee River confluence with the Clinch River). A byproduct of coal burning power plants, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be toxic to biological systems. The effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to be the effects of specific ash constituents, especially selenium, on fish early life stages. Uptake by adult female fish of fly ash constituents through the food chain and subsequent maternal transfer of contaminants to the developing eggs is thought to be the primary route of selenium exposure to larval fish (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Lemly 1999, Moscatello and others 2006), but direct contact of the fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash constituents in river water and sediments is also a potential risk factor (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Jezierska and others 2009). To address the risk of fly ash from the Kingston spill to the reproductive health of downstream fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA including: (1) a field study of the bioaccumulation of fly ash constituents in fish ovaries and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill; (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (reported in the current

  20. The value of assessment tests in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun-feng; Jiang, Yan-ping; Zhou, Lin-fu; Wu, Xue-ling

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT), serum copeptin, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels as potential predictive factors for recurrence of acute exacerbation and all-cause mortality in 6 months of COPD inpatients. One hundred fifty-nine patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled and followed up for 6 months. The CAT scores, serum copeptin, procalcitonin and CRP levels were measured on admission and 14 days and 3 months later in all patients. The primary endpoint was recurrence of acute exacerbation in 6 months. The secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality after 6 months. The CAT scores, serum copeptin, procalcitonin and CRP levels were significantly elevated on admission and stabilized at 14 days (P < 0.01). In a univariate logistic regression analysis, CAT scores (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10), forced expiratory volume in 1 second % (OR = 1.01), serum copeptin (OR = 1.32) and CRP levels (OR = 1.01) were significantly related to recurrence of acute exacerbation in 6 months (P < 0.05). In a multivariate logistic regression model, increasing CAT scores (OR = 1.10) and serum copeptin levels (OR = 1.29) were still associated with an increased odds of exacerbation (P < 0.05). In a univariate logistic regression analysis, increasing CAT scores (OR = 1.19), forced expiratory volume in 1 second % (OR = 1.05), serum copeptin levels (OR = 1.44) and hospitalization in the previous years (OR = 1.24) were significant determinants of death over a follow-up period of 6 months (P < 0.05). But only serum copeptin (OR = 1.53) and CAT scores (OR = 1.37) were associated with mortality in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Hence, high CAT scores and serum copeptin levels link with recurrence of acute exacerbation and all-cause mortality during 6 months in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. PMID:24270077

  1. Further Tests of Changes in Fish Escape Behavior Resulting from Sublethal Stresses Associated with Hydroelectric Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, M.G.

    2004-10-20

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. The most commonly used laboratory technique for assessing susceptibility to predation is the predator preference test. In this report, we evaluate the field application of a new technique that may be valuable for assessing indirect mortality, based on changes in a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). The behavioral response is a rapid movement commonly referred to as a startle response, escape response, or C-shape, based on the characteristic body position assumed by the fish. When viewed from above, a startled fish bends into a C-shape, then springs back and swims away in a direction different from its original orientation. This predator avoidance (escape) behavior can be compromised by sublethal stresses that temporarily stun or disorient the fish. Initial studies demonstrated that turbulence created in a small laboratory tank can alter escape behavior. As a next step, we converted our laboratory design to a more portable unit, transported it to Alden Research Laboratory in Holden, Massachusetts, and used it to test fish that passed uninjured through a pilot-scale turbine runner. Rainbow trout were either passed through the turbine or exposed to handling stresses, and their behavior was subsequently evaluated. Groups of five fish were given a startle stimulus (a visual and pressure wave cue) and filmed with a high-speed (500 frames per s) video camera. The reactions of each group of fish to the startle stimulus were filmed at nominally 1-, 5-, and 15-min post-exposure. We compared the behaviors of 70 fish passed through the turbine

  2. USE OF RESPIRATORY-CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES OF RAINBOW TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI') IN IDENTIFYING ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES IN FISH: PART 1. PENTACHLOROPHENOL, 2,4-DINITROPHENOL, TRICAINE. METHANESULFONATE AND 1-OCTANOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in vivo fish model was adapted to monitor respiratory-cardivascular responses of spinally transected rainbow trout exposed to acutely toxic aqueous concentrations of two uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), and two narco...

  3. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  4. Design of a testing strategy using non-animal based test methods: lessons learnt from the ACuteTox project.

    PubMed

    Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Prieto, Pilar; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Stanzel, Sven

    2013-06-01

    In the framework of toxicology, a testing strategy can be viewed as a series of steps which are taken to come to a final prediction about a characteristic of a compound under study. The testing strategy is performed as a single-step procedure, usually called a test battery, using simultaneously all information collected on different endpoints, or as tiered approach in which a decision tree is followed. Design of a testing strategy involves statistical considerations, such as the development of a statistical prediction model. During the EU FP6 ACuteTox project, several prediction models were proposed on the basis of statistical classification algorithms which we illustrate here. The final choice of testing strategies was not based on statistical considerations alone. However, without thorough statistical evaluations a testing strategy cannot be identified. We present here a number of observations made from the statistical viewpoint which relate to the development of testing strategies. The points we make were derived from problems we had to deal with during the evaluation of this large research project. A central issue during the development of a prediction model is the danger of overfitting. Procedures are presented to deal with this challenge. PMID:22951946

  5. Intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.; Bidwell, Joseph R.; Cope, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Geis, S.; Greer, I.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kane, C.M.; May, T.W.; Neves, R.J.; Newton, T.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Whites, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the performance and variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and newly transformed juvenile mussels using the standard methods outlined in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Multiple 48-h toxicity tests with glochidia and 96-h tests with juvenile mussels were conducted within a single laboratory and among five laboratories. All tests met the test acceptability requirements (e.g., ???90% control survival). Intralaboratory tests were conducted over two consecutive mussel-spawning seasons with mucket (Actinonaias ligamentina) or fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. For the glochidia of both species, the variability of intralaboratory median effective concentrations (EC50s) for the three toxicants, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV), ranged from 14 to 27% in 24-h exposures and from 13 to 36% in 48-h exposures. The intralaboratory CV of copper EC50s for juvenile fatmucket was 24% in 48-h exposures and 13% in 96-h exposures. Interlaboratory tests were conducted with fatmucket glochidia and juveniles by five laboratories using copper as a toxicant. The interlaboratory CV of copper EC50s for glochidia was 13% in 24-h exposures and 24% in 48-h exposures, and the interlaboratory CV for juveniles was 22% in 48-h exposures and 42% in 96-h exposures. The high completion success and the overall low variability in test results indicate that the test methods have acceptable precision and can be performed routinely. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  6. Micronucleus test in fishes as indicators of environmental quality in subestuaries of the Río de la Plata (Uruguay).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; Villar, Silvia; Acuña Plavan, Alicia

    2015-02-28

    Genotoxic agents may exert damage that may be active through following generations. Micronuclei are cytoplasmic chromatin masses outside the main cell nucleus, indicators of chromosomal damage. This study applied micronuclei test to evaluate genetic damage of fish in three breeding and nursery areas of commercially important fishes exposed to differing degrees of anthropogenic impact: Pando, Solís Chico and Solís Grande sub-estuaries. The micronuclei test revealed differences in the presence and concentrations of genotoxic components in these sub-estuaries. Fish in the urban and industrialized Pando sub-estuary presented the highest percentages of micronuclei. The absence of seasonal changes in micronuclei in Pando fish could be explained by physical characteristics of the sub-estuary and by regional weather conditions. Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes, 1835) was the species most susceptible to genotoxic components. It is recommended the use of a battery of biomarkers to better explain the health of organisms in that important nursery area. PMID:25455785

  7. In vivo identification, survival, and functional efficacy of transplanted hepatocytes in acute liver failure mice model by FISH using Y-chromosome probe.

    PubMed

    Krishna Vanaja, D; Sivakumar, B; Jesudasan, R A; Singh, L; Janardanasarma, M K; Habibullah, C M

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has excited much interest in lending temporary metabolic support to a failing liver following acute liver injury. The exact site from which they act and the clinical, biochemical, and histological changes in the recipient body following hepatocyte transplantation is yet to be worked out. The present study is an attempt to delineate location and function of transplanted hepatocytes and also the overall survival of these cells with a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique using a Y-chromosome-specific probe in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mice model of fulminant hepatic failure. Fifty-five syngenic adult Swiss female mice of approximately the same age and body weight were divided into three groups. Group-1 (n = 15), which received mineral oil, served as a negative control. Group-II (n = 15) received CCl4 (3 mL/kg) 40% vol/vol in mineral oil, by gavage served as positive control for hepatic failure. Group-III (n = 25) received intrasplenic transplantation of syngenic single cell suspension of hepatocytes in Hanks medium, after 30 h of CCl4 administration. Male Swiss adult mice (n = 15) served as donors of hepatocytes. The overall survival of animals in groups I to III was 100, 0, and 70%, respectively, by 2 wk of the study period. Transplanted hepatocytes were identified by Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining and confirmed with a FISH technique using the Y-chromosome probe. The majority of exogenously transplanted hepatocytes were found in the liver and spleen sections even after 1 wk of hepatocyte transplantation. Transplanted cells were mostly found to be translocated into the sinusoids of the liver. Transplanted hepatocytes were found to be beneficial as a temporary liver support in a failing liver, significantly improving the survival of the animals. In the present study, the FISH technique was used to unequivocally distinguish the transplanted cells from the host, and thus describes a model for studying the

  8. Acute effects of mercuric chloride on intracellular GSH levels and mercury distribution in the fish Oreochromic aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P.; Min, S.Y.; Keong, W.M.

    1988-02-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in the effects of trace metals on intracellular levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). Most of the research has been performed on rats. As GSH is ubiquitous in living organisms it is of interest to establish a relationship between mercury intoxication and intracellular GSH levels in fish; especially as fish living in rivers and coastal areas are often expose to mercury as an aquatic pollutant. The role of GSH in fish trace metal toxicity has not been thoroughly investigated. The distribution of total glutathione (oxidized + reduced) in selected black sea bass organs seems to follow the established pattern for mammalian organs. Thus, it would appear that teleostian and mammalian glutathione metabolism may have many similarities. There are few reports concerning the effects of mercury during the first few hours of exposure. The aim of this investigation is to establish any changes in organ GSH and mercury levels following just 2 h exposure to mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/).

  9. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Pesce, Caterina; Chiang, Yi-Te; Kuo, Cheng-Yuh; Fong, Dong-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity. PMID:25914634

  10. Estimation of uncertainty of a reference material for proficiency testing for the determination of total mercury in fish in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, L. V.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    We provide an uncertainty estimates for homogeneity and stability studies of reference material used in proficiency test for determination of total mercury in fish fresh muscle tissue. Stability was estimated by linear regression and homogeneity by ANOVA. The results indicate that the reference material is both homogeneous and chemically stable over the short term. Total mercury concentration of the muscle tissue, with expanded uncertainty, was 0.294 ± 0.089 μg g-1.

  11. Multi-criteria decision analysis of test endpoints for detecting the effects of endocrine active substances in fish full life cycle tests.

    PubMed

    Crane, Mark; Gross, Melanie; Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T; Axford, Stephen; Bjerregaard, Poul; Brown, Ross; Chapman, Peter; Dorgeloh, Michael; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Green, John; Hazlerigg, Charles; Janssen, John; Lorenzen, Kai; Parrott, Joanne; Rufli, Hans; Schäfers, Christoph; Seki, Masanori; Stolzenberg, Hans-Christian; van der Hoeven, Nelly; Vethaak, Dick; Winfield, Ian J; Zok, Sabine; Wheeler, James

    2010-07-01

    Fish full life cycle (FFLC) tests are increasingly required in the ecotoxicological assessment of endocrine active substances. However, FFLC tests have not been internationally standardized or validated, and it is currently unclear how such tests should best be designed to provide statistically sound and ecologically relevant results. This study describes how the technique of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) was used to elicit the views of fish ecologists, aquatic ecotoxicologists and statisticians on optimal experimental designs for assessing the effects of endocrine active chemicals on fish. In MCDA qualitative criteria (that can be valued, but not quantified) and quantitative criteria can be used in a structured decision-making process. The aim of the present application of MCDA is to present a logical means of collating both data and expert opinions on the best way to focus FFLC tests on endocrine active substances. The analyses are presented to demonstrate how MCDA can be used in this context. Each of 3 workgroups focused on 1 of 3 species: fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Test endpoints (e.g., fecundity, growth, gonadal histopathology) were scored for each species for various desirable features such as statistical power and ecological relevance, with the importance of these features determined by assigning weights to them, using a swing weighting procedure. The endpoint F1 fertilization success consistently emerged as a preferred option for all species. In addition, some endpoints scored highly in particular species, such as development of secondary sexual characteristics (fathead minnow) and sex ratio (zebrafish). Other endpoints such as hatching success ranked relatively highly and should be considered as useful endpoints to measure in tests with any of the fish species. MCDA also indicated relatively less preferred endpoints in fish life cycle tests. For example, intensive

  12. Development of miniaturized acute toxicity tests for Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.L.; Kimerle, R.A.; Moser, E.M.; McKee, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard EPA methods for conducting static, 48-hour, acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) can be miniaturized to successfully yield accurate LC50/EC50 values. The screening procedure involves exposing the test organisms to 1 mL of test solution, in test chambers which consist of the wells on 48-well microliter plates. Toxicity of the microliter plates and solvent, DO concentration, organism biomass to test solution ratio, partitioning of the chemicals and dilution of the test solution during transfer of the test organisms were examined. Survival and exposure were not significantly altered using non-standard test chambers. Toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), pentachlorophenol (PCP), kepone, and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was determined using D. magna and fathead minnows. Serial dilutions were made and 1 mL aliquots pipetted into the wells. Daphnia magna, < 24 hours old, and newly hatched fathead minnows, were transferred into the wells, twenty individuals per concentration, one per well. Dose-response curves were established for all test compounds. LC50/EC50`s values obtained using miniaturized methods strongly correlated with those obtained using standard EPA procedures. The tests were repeated a number of times with coefficient of variances for D. magna ranging from 10% with kepone to 64% with SLS. For fathead minnows CVs ranged from 0% with PCP to 23% with kepone. It was concluded that current methods can be miniaturized, yet still provide accurate information regarding toxicity for compounds in limited supply. This method may also be amenable to effluent testing i.e. TIE fractions. Other benefits include reducing the amount of equipment and space needed to conduct a test and the time involved.

  13. ACUTE TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO FATHEAD MINNOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute toxicity of ammonia to fathead minnows Pimephales promelas was measured in 35, 96-hour, flow-through tests. The fish were from both wild and hatchery-reared stocks, and ranged in size from 0.1 to 2.3 g. The 96-hour median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 0.75 to...

  14. ACUTE TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO RAINBOW TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute toxicity of ammonia to hatchery-reared rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri was measured in 86 flow-through tests, 96 hours to 35 days long. Fish ranged in age from 1-day-old fry (<0.1 g) to 4-year-old adults (2.6 kg). The 96-hour median lethal concentrations (96-hour LC50) ra...

  15. EFFECT OF FLUCTUATING EXPOSURES ON THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) AND CUTTHROAT TROUT (S. CLARKI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute toxicity bioassays in which fish were exposed to short-term cyclic fluctuations of ammonia were conducted on rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and on cutthroat trout (S. clarki). Companion tests were also conducted in which test fish were subjected to ammonia at constant conc...

  16. Feeling the heat: the effect of acute temperature changes on predator–prey interactions in coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Bridie J. M.; Domenici, Paolo; Munday, Phillip L.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that the elevated temperatures predicted to occur by the end of the century can affect the physiological performance and behaviour of larval and juvenile fishes; however, little is known of the effect of these temperatures on ecological processes, such as predator–prey interactions. Here, we show that exposure to elevated temperatures significantly affected the predator–prey interactions of a pair of common reef fish, the planktivorous damselfish (Pomacentrus wardi) and the piscivorous dottyback (Pseudochromis fuscus). When predators exposed to elevated temperatures interacted with prey exposed in a similar manner, maximal attack speeds increased. This effect coupled with decreasing prey escape speeds and escape distances led to increased predation rates. Prey exposed to elevated temperatures also had decreased reaction distances and increased apparent looming threshold, suggesting that their sensory performance was affected. This occurred despite the increase in maximal attack speeds, which in other species has been shown to increase reaction distances. These results suggest that the escape performance of prey is sensitive to short-term increases in ambient temperature. As marine environments become more thermally variable in the future, our results demonstrate that some predators may become more successful, suggesting that there will be strong selection for the maintenance of maximal escape performance in prey. In the present era of rapid climate change, understanding how changes to individual performance influence the relationships between predators and their prey will be increasingly important in predicting the effects of climate change within ecosystems. PMID:27293696

  17. Clinical investigation: thyroid function test abnormalities in cardiac arrest associated with acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Iltumur, Kenan; Olmez, Gonul; Arıturk, Zuhal; Taskesen, Tuncay; Toprak, Nizamettin

    2005-01-01

    Introduction It is known that thyroid homeostasis is altered during the acute phase of cardiac arrest. However, it is not clear under what conditions, how and for how long these alterations occur. In the present study we examined thyroid function tests (TFTs) in the acute phase of cardiac arrest caused by acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and at the end of the first 2 months after the event. Method Fifty patients with cardiac arrest induced by ACS and 31 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who did not require cardioversion or cardiopulmonary resuscitation were enrolled in the study, as were 40 healthy volunteers. The patients were divided into three groups based on duration of cardiac arrest (<5 min, 5–10 min and >10 min). Blood samples were collected for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), tri-iodothyronine (T3), free T3, thyroxine (T4), free T4, troponin-I and creatine kinase-MB measurements. The blood samples for TFTs were taken at 72 hours and at 2 months after the acute event in the cardiac arrest and AMI groups, but only once in the control group. Results The T3 and free T3 levels at 72 hours in the cardiac arrest group were significantly lower than in both the AMI and control groups (P < 0.0001). On the other hand, there were no significant differences between T4, free T4 and TSH levels between the three groups (P > 0.05). At the 2-month evaluation, a dramatic improvement was observed in T3 and free T3 levels in the cardiac arrest group (P < 0.0001). In those patients whose cardiac arrest duration was in excess of 10 min, levels of T3, free T3, T4 and TSH were significantly lower than those in patients whose cardiac arrest duration was under 5 min (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.005 and P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion TFTs are significantly altered in cardiac arrest induced by ACS. Changes in TFTs are even more pronounced in patients with longer periods of resuscitation. The changes in the surviving patients were characterized by euthyroid sick

  18. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50`s in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests.

  19. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  20. Testing Three Species Distribution Modelling Strategies to Define Fish Assemblage Reference Conditions for Stream Bioassessment and Related Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Peter M.; Kennard, Mark J.; Moffatt, David B.; Sheldon, Fran; Butler, Gavin L.

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models are widely used for stream bioassessment, estimating changes in habitat suitability and identifying conservation priorities. We tested the accuracy of three modelling strategies (single species ensemble, multi-species response and community classification models) to predict fish assemblages at reference stream segments in coastal subtropical Australia. We aimed to evaluate each modelling strategy for consistency of predictor variable selection; determine which strategy is most suitable for stream bioassessment using fish indicators; and appraise which strategies best match other stream management applications. Five models, one single species ensemble, two multi-species response and two community classification models, were calibrated using fish species presence-absence data from 103 reference sites. Models were evaluated for generality and transferability through space and time using four external reference site datasets. Elevation and catchment slope were consistently identified as key correlates of fish assemblage composition among models. The community classification models had high omission error rates and contributed fewer taxa to the ‘expected’ component of the taxonomic completeness (O/E50) index than the other strategies. This potentially decreases the model sensitivity for site impact assessment. The ensemble model accurately and precisely modelled O/E50 for the training data, but produced biased predictions for the external datasets. The multi-species response models afforded relatively high accuracy and precision coupled with low bias across external datasets and had lower taxa omission rates than the community classification models. They inherently included rare, but predictable species while excluding species that were poorly modelled among all strategies. We suggest that the multi-species response modelling strategy is most suited to bioassessment using freshwater fish assemblages in our study area. At the species level

  1. Marble burying as a test of the delayed anxiogenic effects of acute immobilisation stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Sonal; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2014-08-15

    A majority of rodent studies characterizing the anxiogenic effects of stress have utilized exploration-based models, such as the elevated plus-maze. An alternative strategy has relied on ethologically natural behavior such as defensive burying. One such paradigm, marble burying, has proven to be an effective behavioral assay of the anxiolytic effects of pharmacological manipulations, and of genetically modified mouse models. Relatively little, however, is known about the sensitivity of this test in assessing the anxiogenic effects of stress. Most of the earlier reports have examined the immediate, but not more long-term, effects of pharmacological or environmental manipulations in mice. Hence, we used the marble burying test to examine if acute immobilization stress leads to enhanced anxiety-like behavior in C57Bl/6 mice if the test is employed with a significant time delay. We find this test to be sensitive enough to detect the anxiogenic effects even 10 days after a single episode of 2-h immobilization stress. Our results suggest that the marble burying test could serve as a useful behavioral paradigm for not only estimating the gradual progression of the anxiogenic impact of stress over time, but also raises the possibility of using the temporal delay after stress to test the potential efficacy of post-stress interventions with anxiolytic drugs. PMID:24932962

  2. An evaluation of fish early life stage tests for predicting reproductive and longer-term toxicity from plant protection product active substances.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, James R; Maynard, Samuel K; Crane, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The chronic toxicity of chemicals to fish is routinely assessed by using fish early life stage (ELS) test results. Fish full life cycle (FLC) tests are generally required only when toxicity, bioaccumulation, and persistence triggers are met or when there is a suspicion of potential endocrine-disrupting properties. This regulatory approach is based on a relationship between the results of fish ELS and FLC studies first established more than 35 yrs ago. Recently, this relationship has been challenged by some regulatory authorities, and it has been recommended that more substances should undergo FLC testing. In addition, a project proposal has been submitted to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to develop a fish partial life cycle (PLC) test including a reproductive assessment. Both FLC and PLC tests are animal- and resource-intensive and technically challenging and should therefore be undertaken only if there is clear evidence that they are necessary for coming to a regulatory decision. The present study reports on an analysis of a database of paired fish ELS and FLC endpoints for plant protection product active substances from European Union draft assessment reports and the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Pesticide Ecotoxicity Database. Analysis of this database shows a clear relationship between ELS and FLC responses, with similar median sensitivity across substances when no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) are compared. There was also no indication that classification of a substance as a mammalian reproductive toxicant leads to more sensitive effects in fish FLC tests than in ELS tests. Indeed, the response of the ELS tests was generally more sensitive than the most sensitive reproduction NOEC from a FLC test. This analysis indicates that current testing strategies and guidelines are fit for purpose and that there is no need for fish full or partial life cycle tests for most plant protection

  3. Fish Oil Diet Associated with Acute Reperfusion Related Hemorrhage, and with Reduced Stroke-Related Sickness Behaviors and Motor Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Michaela C.; Howells, David W.; Crewther, David P.; Constantinou, Nicki; Carey, Leeanne M.; Rewell, Sarah S.; Turchini, Giovanni M.; Kaur, Gunveen; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFAs). However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviors after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioral effects of PUFA supplementation over a 6-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute hemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined 6 weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviors, acute motor impairment, and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behavior. PMID:24567728

  4. Fish oil diet associated with acute reperfusion related hemorrhage, and with reduced stroke-related sickness behaviors and motor impairment.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Howells, David W; Crewther, David P; Constantinou, Nicki; Carey, Leeanne M; Rewell, Sarah S; Turchini, Giovanni M; Kaur, Gunveen; Crewther, Sheila G

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFAs). However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviors after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioral effects of PUFA supplementation over a 6-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute hemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined 6 weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviors, acute motor impairment, and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behavior. PMID:24567728

  5. Validation of a refined short-term adult fish reproductive test with improved power for mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) to test complex effluents.

    PubMed

    Bosker, Thijs; Hewitt, L Mark; Munkittrick, Kelly R; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2010-10-01

    Short-term adult fish reproductive tests are widely used to assess the toxicity of chemicals and waste streams. However, these tests often have low power to detect differences in egg production among treatments, due to high variance and small sample sizes, limiting their effectiveness for informing regulatory decisions. A protocol for a fish reproductive test using mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) was refined to increase statistical power. Three studies using the original protocol were compared with three studies using the refined protocol. Tank pre-selection and sample size increased the a priori power from 11.2% to 85.7%. After exposure, average power levels were 62.0%, a more than five-fold increase compared to studies that used the original protocol (power of 15.0%). There was a high level of consistency compared to the original protocol; differences >33% in female and male gonad size and egg production could be detected among treatments. This study demonstrates that a refinement process can address shortcomings in short-term adult fish reproductive protocols, creating a solid foundation for further standardization and possible regulatory use. PMID:20708267

  6. Testing the influence of environmental heterogeneity on fish species richness in two biogeographic provinces

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Raphaël; Cabana, Gilbert; Rodríguez, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental homogenization in coastal ecosystems impacted by human activities may be an important factor explaining the observed decline in fish species richness. We used fish community data (>200 species) from extensive surveys conducted in two biogeographic provinces (extent >1,000 km) in North America to quantify the relationship between fish species richness and local (grain <10 km2) environmental heterogeneity. Our analyses are based on samples collected at nearly 800 stations over a period of five years. We demonstrate that fish species richness in coastal ecosystems is associated locally with the spatial heterogeneity of environmental variables but not with their magnitude. The observed effect of heterogeneity on species richness was substantially greater than that generated by simulations from a random placement model of community assembly, indicating that the observed relationship is unlikely to arise from veil or sampling effects. Our results suggest that restoring or actively protecting areas of high habitat heterogeneity may be of great importance for slowing current trends of decreasing biodiversity in coastal ecosystems. PMID:25699209

  7. "Fish Friendly" Hydropower Turbine Development and Deployment. Alden Turbine Preliminary Engineering and Model Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of a collaborative research project funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and hydropower industry partners with the objective of completing the remaining developmental engineering required for a “fish-friendly” hydropower turbine called the Alden turbine.

  8. Effort test performance in clinical acute brain injury, community brain injury, and epilepsy populations.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Natalie E; Kemp, Steven; Coughlan, Anthony K; Moulin, Chris J A; Bhakta, Bipin B

    2014-01-01

    Effort tests have become commonplace within medico-legal and forensic contexts and their use is rising within clinical settings. It is recognized that some patients may fail effort tests due to cognitive impairment and not because of poor effort. However, investigation of the base rate of failure among clinical populations other than dementia is limited. Forty-seven clinical participants were recruited and comprised three subgroups: acute brain injury (N = 11), community brain injury (N = 20), and intractable epilepsy (N = 16). Base rates of failure on the Word Memory Test (WMT; Green, 2003 ) and six other less well-validated measures were investigated. A significant minority of patients failed effort tests according to standard cutoff scores, particularly patients with severe traumatic brain injury and marked frontal-executive features. The WMT was able to identify failures associated with significant cognitive impairment through the application of profile analysis and/or lowered cutoff levels. Implications for clinical assessment, effort test interpretation, and future research are discussed. PMID:25084843

  9. Reducing the number of fish in bioconcentration studies with general chemicals by reducing the number of test concentrations.

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Creton, Stuart; Weltje, Lennart; Maynard, Samuel K; Wheeler, James R

    2014-11-01

    Fish bioconcentration test guidelines generally require that bioconcentration factors (BCFs) are determined at two exposure concentrations. However, recent revisions to the OECD test guideline for bioconcentration testing (TG 305) provide the option to use only one exposure concentration, when justification is provided, although two concentrations may still be required for some regulatory purposes. Recently, this justification has been demonstrated for plant protection product active ingredients. To determine whether this justification has a broader validity for general chemicals, an analysis of 236 BCF studies on general chemicals was conducted. The results presented here again demonstrate that BCF values do not significantly differ between concentrations when more than one concentration is used. This relationship is particularly strong for BCFs ⩾1000L/kg, which is beneficial, since only chemicals with BCFs >2000L/kg may require regulatory action. This analysis therefore provides a data-driven rationale for using the one test concentration approach for general chemical substances and thus could contribute to a substantial reduction in the use of fish in bioconcentration tests. PMID:25128673

  10. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. PMID:21309017

  11. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible. PMID:26467150

  12. Influences of thermal acclimation and acute temperature change on the motility of epithelial wound-healing cells (keratocytes) of tropical, temperate and Antarctic fish.

    PubMed

    Ream, Rachael A; Theriot, Julie A; Somero, George N

    2003-12-01

    The ability to heal superficial wounds is an important element in an organism's repertoire of adaptive responses to environmental stress. In fish, motile cells termed keratocytes are thought to play important roles in the wound-healing process. Keratocyte motility, like other physiological rate processes, is likely to be dependent on temperature and to show adaptive variation among differently thermally adapted species. We have quantified the effects of acute temperature change and thermal acclimation on actin-based keratocyte movement in primary cultures of keratocytes from four species of teleost fish adapted to widely different thermal conditions: two eurythermal species, the longjaw mudsucker Gillichthys mirabilis (environmental temperature range of approximately 10-37 degrees C) and a desert pupfish, Cyprinodon salinus (10-40 degrees C), and two species from stable thermal environments, an Antarctic notothenioid, Trematomus bernacchii (-1.86 degrees C), and a tropical clownfish, Amphiprion percula (26-30 degrees C). For all species, keratocyte speed increased with increasing temperature. G. mirabilis and C. salinus keratocytes reached maximal speeds at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C, respectively, temperatures within the species' normal thermal ranges. Keratocytes of the stenothermal species continued to increase in speed as temperature increased above the species' normal temperature ranges. The thermal limits of keratocyte motility appear to exceed those of whole-organism thermal tolerance, notably in the case of T. bernacchii. Keratocytes of T. bernacchii survived supercooling to -6 degrees C and retained motility at temperatures as high as 20 degrees C. Mean keratocyte speed was conserved at physiological temperatures for the three temperate and tropical species, which suggests that a certain rate of motility is advantageous for wound healing. However, there was no temperature compensation in speed of movement for keratocytes of the Antarctic fish, which

  13. Amygdala lesions produce analgesia in a novel, ethologically relevant acute pain test.

    PubMed

    Hebert, M A; Ardid, D; Henrie, J A; Tamashiro, K; Blanchard, D C; Blanchard, R J

    1999-08-01

    Acute pain tests using mechanical stimuli typically do not involve objects important in the evolutionary history of the subjects, and may fail to evaluate the contribution of biobehavioral defensive reactions to the total pain response. Spines are common structural defenses that protect plants and animals against predation. The present studies examined the reaction to contact with such natural, mechanical pain stimuli in the laboratory rat, utilizing a floor board with protruding pins located in the middle of a novel alley (the "fakir" test). Behavioral responses were characterized in 10-min tests (Experiment 1). Subjects showed voluntary contact with the pins followed by patterns of avoidance and risk assessment (stretch attend and stretch approach). Few subjects crossed the array of pins. The amygdala has been implicated in the perception of pain, particularly in stressful or fearful contexts. In Experiment 2, the fakir test was used to examine, concurrently, the effects of amygdala lesions on analgesiometric (frequency and duration of pin crossings) and anxiometric (risk assessment) measures. Large, bilateral, lesions of the amygdala significantly increased both the number of pin crossings and time spent on the pins without affecting the risk assessment measures. These findings suggest a possible dissociation between anxiety and pain perception with an important (nonaffective) role for the amygdala in the latter. PMID:10463635

  14. Cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells present a valuable alternative to fish lethal testing for azoxystrobin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elsa T; Pardal, Miguel Â; Laizé, Vincent; Cancela, M Leonor; Oliveira, Paulo J; Serafim, Teresa L

    2015-11-01

    The present study aims at identifying, among six mammalian and fish cell lines, a sensitive cell line whose in vitro median inhibitory concentration (IC50) better matches the in vivo short-term Sparus aurata median lethal concentration (LC50). IC50s and LC50 were assessed after exposure to the widely used fungicide azoxystrobin (AZX). Statistical results were relevant for most cell lines after 48 h of AZX exposure, being H9c2 the most sensitive cells, as well as the ones which provided the best prediction of fish toxicity, with a LC50,96h/IC50,48h = 0.581. H9c2 cell proliferation upon 72 h of AZX exposure revealed a LC50,96h/IC50,72h = 0.998. Therefore, identical absolute sensitivities were attained for both in vitro and in vivo assays. To conclude, the H9c2 cell-based assay is reliable and represents a suitable ethical alternative to conventional fish assays for AZX, and could be used to get valuable insights into the toxic effects of other pesticides. PMID:26319055

  15. Fish community results

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, G.D.; Scott, E.M. Jr.; Brown, A.M.

    1991-05-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operates 9 reservoirs on the Tennessee River and 37 reservoirs on its tributaries. TVA is committed to maintaining the health of aquatic resources created when the reservoir system was built. To that end, TVA in cooperation with Valley states, operates a water resource monitoring program that includes physical, chemical, and biological data collection components. Biological monitoring will target the following selected elements within three zones of the reservoir (inflow, transition, and forebay): Sediment/Water-column Acute Toxicity Screening, Benthic macroinvertebrates, and Fish. Reservoir fisheries monitoring is divided into the following activities: Fish Biomass, Fish Tissue Contamination, Fish Community Monitoring, and Fish Health Assessment. This report presents the results of fish community monitoring and fish health assessments.

  16. Linking the response of endocrine regulated genes to adverse effects on sex differentiation improves comprehension of aromatase inhibition in a Fish Sexual Development Test.

    PubMed

    Muth-Köhne, Elke; Westphal-Settele, Kathi; Brückner, Jasmin; Konradi, Sabine; Schiller, Viktoria; Schäfers, Christoph; Teigeler, Matthias; Fenske, Martina

    2016-07-01

    The Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT) is a non-reproductive test to assess adverse effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. With the present study it was intended to evaluate whether gene expression endpoints would serve as predictive markers of endocrine disruption in a FSDT. For proof-of-concept, a FSDT according to the OECD TG 234 was conducted with the non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (test concentrations: 10μg/L, 32μg/L, 100μg/L) using zebrafish (Danio rerio). Gene expression analyses using quantitative RT-PCR were included at 48h, 96h, 28days and 63days post fertilization (hpf, dpf). The selection of genes aimed at finding molecular endpoints which could be directly linked to the adverse apical effects of aromatase inhibition. The most prominent effects of fadrozole exposure on the sexual development of zebrafish were a complete sex ratio shift towards males and an acceleration of gonad maturation already at low fadrozole concentrations (10μg/L). Due to the specific inhibition of the aromatase enzyme (Cyp19) by fadrozole and thus, the conversion of C19-androgens to C18-estrogens, the steroid hormone balance controlling the sex ratio of zebrafish was altered. The resulting key event is the regulation of directly estrogen-responsive genes. Subsequently, gene expression of vitellogenin 1 (vtg1) and of the aromatase cyp19a1b isoform (cyp19a1b), were down-regulated upon fadrozole treatment compared to controls. For example, mRNA levels of vtg1 were down-regulated compared to the controls as early as 48 hpf and 96 hpf. Further regulated genes cumulated in pathways suggested to be controlled by endocrine mechanisms, like the steroid and terpenoid synthesis pathway (e.g. mevalonate (diphospho) decarboxylase (mvd), lanosterol synthase (2,3-oxidosqualene-lanosterol cyclase; lss), methylsterol monooxygenase 1 (sc4mol)) and in lipid transport/metabolic processes (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star), apolipoprotein Eb (apoEb)). Taken together

  17. Dexamethasone acutely down-regulates genes involved in steroidogenesis in stallion testes.

    PubMed

    Ing, Nancy H; Forrest, David W; Riggs, Penny K; Loux, Shavahn; Love, Charlie C; Brinsko, Steven P; Varner, Dickson D; Welsh, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, livestock and primate species, a single dose of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone acutely lowers testosterone biosynthesis. To determine the mechanism of decreased testosterone biosynthesis, stallions were treated with 0.1mg/kg dexamethasone 12h prior to castration. Dexamethasone decreased serum concentrations of testosterone by 60% compared to saline-treated control stallions. Transcriptome analyses (microarrays, northern blots and quantitative PCR) of testes discovered that dexamethasone treatment decreased concentrations of glucocorticoid receptor alpha (NR3C1), alpha actinin 4 (ACTN4), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR), squalene epoxidase (SQLE), 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24), glutathione S-transferase A3 (GSTA3) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNAs. Dexamethasone increased concentrations of NFkB inhibitor A (NFKBIA) mRNA in testes. SQLE, DHCR24 and GSTA3 mRNAs were predominantly expressed by Leydig cells. In man and livestock, the GSTA3 protein provides a major 3-ketosteroid isomerase activity: conversion of Δ(5)-androstenedione to Δ(4)-androstenedione, the immediate precursor of testosterone. Consistent with the decrease in GSTA3 mRNA, dexamethasone decreased the 3-ketosteroid isomerase activity in testicular extracts. In conclusion, dexamethasone acutely decreased the expression of genes involved in hormone signaling (NR3C1, ACTN4 and LHCGR), cholesterol synthesis (SQLE and DHCR24) and steroidogenesis (GSTA3 and CYP19A1) along with testosterone production. This is the first report of dexamethasone down-regulating expression of the GSTA3 gene and a very late step in testosterone biosynthesis. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved may lead to new approaches to modulate androgen regulation of the physiology of humans and livestock in health and disease. PMID:25010478

  18. Dissolved:total metals concentrations in marine acute toxicity test simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lussier, S.M.; Boothman, W.S.; Champlin, D.; Poucher, S.; Helmstetter, A.

    1995-12-31

    Use of water quality criteria expressed as dissolved metal is recommended by the US EPA, Office of Water, because ``dissolved metal more closely approximates the bioavailable fraction of metal in the water column than does total recoverable metal.`` Water quality criteria (WQC) are expressed in terms of total recoverable or acid-soluble metals concentrations; in part because few toxicity tests with aquatic organisms include measurement of dissolved metals. Therefore, if WQC are to be expressed as dissolved, complete retesting or derivation of dissolved:total (D:T) metals relationships to adjust existing criteria were required. To derive D:T ratios, simulated tests were conducted using concentrations and species similar to those used to derive original criteria. Dissolved (<0.45/{micro}) and total recoverable metals were measured to determine the partitioning relationship under these experimental conditions and convert criteria to reflect dissolved metals concentrations. Simulations were conducted with arsenic (III), cadmium, chromium (VI), lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc. In all simulations, average dissolved metals comprised 93--100% of total metals measured. Dissolved:total ratios did not significantly differ for a given metal throughout each test among test type or treatment concentration. Biological results, while insufficient to derive criteria directly, were generally consistent with results of historical biological response data. These results demonstrate that, under the conditions employed, i.e, short exposure periods (2--4 days) and low particulate load typical of these tests, metals are essentially not removed from solution onto particles. This does not imply that such partitioning is representative of conditions in natural waters, but rather that in the historical acute toxicity tests used to establish water quality criteria, metals were primarily dissolved.

  19. FISH ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES AND THEIR USE IN THE QSAR (QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP) APPROACH TO HAZARD ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1977 creates the need to reliably establish testing priorities because laboratory resources are limited and the number of industrial chemicals requiring evaluation is overwhelming. The use of quantitative structure activity re...

  20. Diagnosing Stroke in Acute Vertigo: The HINTS Family of Eye Movement Tests and the Future of the "Eye ECG".

    PubMed

    Newman-Toker, David E; Curthoys, Ian S; Halmagyi, G Michael

    2015-10-01

    Patients who present to the emergency department with symptoms of acute vertigo or dizziness are frequently misdiagnosed. Missed opportunities to promptly treat dangerous strokes can result in poor clinical outcomes. Inappropriate testing and incorrect treatments for those with benign peripheral vestibular disorders leads to patient harm and unnecessary costs. Over the past decade, novel bedside approaches to diagnose patients with the acute vestibular syndrome have been developed and refined. A battery of three bedside tests of ocular motor physiology known as "HINTS" (head impulse, nystagmus, test of skew) has been shown to identify acute strokes more accurately than even magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging (MRI-DWI) when applied in the early acute period by eye-movement specialists. Recent advances in lightweight, high-speed video-oculography (VOG) technology have made possible a future in which HINTS might be applied by nonspecialists in frontline care settings using portable VOG. Use of technology to measure eye movements (VOG-HINTS) to diagnose stroke in the acute vestibular syndrome is analogous to the use of electrocardiography (ECG) to diagnose myocardial infarction in acute chest pain. This "eye ECG" approach could transform care for patients with acute vertigo and dizziness around the world. In the United States alone, successful implementation would likely result in improved quality of emergency care for hundreds of thousands of peripheral vestibular patients and tens of thousands of stroke patients, as well as an estimated national health care savings of roughly $1 billion per year. In this article, the authors review the origins of the HINTS approach, empiric evidence and pathophysiologic principles supporting its use, and possible uses for the eye ECG in teleconsultation, teaching, and triage. PMID:26444396

  1. Diagnostic value of latex agglutination test in diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Syeda Fasiha; Patil, Asha B.; Nadagir, Shobha D.; Nandihal, Namrata; Lakshminarayana, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To know the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children below five years of age. To compare conventional culture and antigen detection methods (Latex agglutination test). Materials and Methods: 100 CSF samples of clinically suspected meningitis cases in children below 5 years of age were included. The samples were subjected to cell count, Gram stain, culture and LAT. The organisms isolated in the study were characterized according to standard procedures. Results: Of the 100 cases studied, 31 cases were diagnosed as ABM by Gram stain, culture and latex agglutination test as per WHO criteria. The hospital frequency of ABM was 1.7%. 15 (48.38) cases were culture positive. Gram stain was positive in 22(70.96) cases and LAT in 17(54.83) cases. Haemophilus influenzae was the most common causative agent of acute bacterial meningitis followed by S.pneumoniae. Case fatality rate was 45.16%. The sensitivity and specificity of LAT was 66.66% and 87.91% respectively. Conclusion: Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and early diagnosis and treatment is life saving and reduces chronic morbidity. LAT was more sensitive compared to conventional Gram stain and Culture technique in identifying the fastidious organisms like H.influenzae, S.pneumoniae and Group B Streptococcus. However, the combination of Gram stain, Culture and LAT proved to be more productive than any of the single tests alone. PMID:24339598

  2. γ-Oryzanol protects against acute cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mice testes.

    PubMed

    Spiazzi, Cristiano C; Manfredini, Vanusa; Barcellos da Silva, Fabiana E; Flores, Erico M M; Izaguirry, Aryele P; Vargas, Laura M; Soares, Melina B; Santos, Francielli W

    2013-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal that is present at low levels mainly in food and water and also in cigar smoke. The present study evaluated the testicular damage caused by acute cadmium exposure and verified the protective role of γ-oryzanol (ORY). Mice were administrated with a single dose of 2.5mg/kg of CdCl2, and then treated with ORY (50mM in canola oil, 5mL/kg). Testes were removed after 24h and tested for lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonylation, DNA breakage, ascorbic acid, cadmium and non-proteic thiols contents, and for the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and δ-aminolevulic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D). Cadmium presented a significant alteration in all parameters, except GPx and CAT activities. Therapy reduced in a slight degree cadmium concentration in testes (around 23%). ORY restored SOD and GST activities as well as TBARS production to the control levels. Furthermore, ORY partially recovered δ-ALA-D activity inhibited by cadmium. This study provides the first evidence on the therapeutic properties of ORY in protecting against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:23395783

  3. Teflubenzuron as a tool for control of trichodinids in freshwater fish: Acute toxicity and in vivo efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ikefuti, Cynthia Venâncio; Carraschi, Silvia Patrícia; Barbuio, Roberto; da Cruz, Claudinei; de Pádua, Santiago Benites; Onaka, Eduardo Makoto; Ranzani-Paiva, Maria José Tavares

    2015-07-01

    In this study we describe the anti-Trichodina effects of teflubenzuron (TFB) for Oreochromis niloticus and for Piaractus mesopotamicus. We also evaluated the acute toxicity, for both species, by using TFB in the concentrations of 700.0, 800.0, 900.0 and 1000.0 mg L(-1) and a control, without the drug. To assess the efficacy of TFB against Trichodina spp., we used the concentrations of 30.0 or 50.0 mg L(-1) for one hour exposure in tilapia, and the concentration of 30.0, 50.0 and 80.0 mg L(-1) for one hour and 50 mg L(-1) for two hours exposures in pacu. Teflubenzuron did not present significant toxicity in either species, with LC50;48h > 1000.0 mg L(-1). The drug effectiveness was observed against four identified Trichodina species: T. magna, T. heterodentata, T. compacta and T. centrostrigeata, with 87.9% parasite reduction with one hour exposure to 50.0 mg L(-1) TFB on O. niloticus and 96.1% with two hours exposure to 50.0 mg L(-1) TFB on P. mesopotamicus. Teflubenzuron is a drug with potential to be used in Brazilian aquaculture; it attends to important requirements, such as low toxicity and high efficacy in controlling Trichodina spp. infection in O. niloticus and P. mesopotamicus. PMID:25913667

  4. A Miniature Bioassay for Testing the Acute Phytotoxicity of Photosystem II Herbicides on Seagrass

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Adam D.; Collier, Catherine J.; Flores, Florita; Mercurio, Phil; O’Brien, Jake; Ralph, Peter J.; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) herbicides have been detected in nearshore tropical waters such as those of the Great Barrier Reef and may add to the pressure posed by runoff containing sediments and nutrients to threatened seagrass habitats. There is a growing number of studies into the potential effects of herbicides on seagrass, generally using large experimental setups with potted plants. Here we describe the successful development of an acute 12-well plate phytotoxicity assay for the PSII herbicide Diuron using isolated Halophila ovalis leaves. Fluorescence images demonstrated Diuron affected the entire leaf surface evenly and responses were not influenced by isolating leaves from the plant. The optimum exposure duration was 24 h, by which time the inhibition of effective quantum yield of PSII (∆F/Fm’) was highest and no deterioration of photosystems was evident in control leaves. The inhibition of ∆F/Fm’ by Diuron in isolated H. ovalis leaves was identical to both potted and hydroponically grown plants (with leaves remaining attached to rhizomes), indicating similar reductions in photosynthetic activity in these acute well-plate assays. The sensitivity of the assay was not influenced by irradiance (range tested 40 to 400 μmol photons m-2 s-1). High irradiance, however, caused photo-oxidative stress in H. ovalis and this generally impacted in an additive or sub-additive way with Diuron to damage PSII. The bioassay using isolated leaves is more rapid, uses far less biological material and does not rely on specialised aquarium facilities in comparison with assays using potted plants. The development and validation of this sensitive bioassay will be useful to reliably screen and monitor the phytotoxicity of existing and emerging PSII herbicides and contribute to risk assessments and water quality guideline development in the future. PMID:25674791

  5. Comparison of the Staphylococcus QuickFISH BC test with the tube coagulase test performed on positive blood cultures for evaluation and application in a clinical routine setting.

    PubMed

    Carretto, E; Bardaro, M; Russello, G; Mirra, M; Zuelli, C; Barbarini, D

    2013-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that delayed proper therapy in bloodstream infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus increases the mortality rate, emphasizing the need to shorten the turnaround time for positive blood cultures. Different techniques are currently available, from phenotypic methods to more complex tests such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF), real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and fluorescence in situ hybridization using peptide nucleic acid probes (PNA FISH). This study evaluated the performance of the Staphylococcus QuickFISH BC test (QFT), a novel FISH methodology, compared with the direct tube coagulase test (DTCT) on blood cultures exhibiting Gram-positive cocci in clusters. A total of 173 blood cultures collected from 128 different patients were analyzed using the DTCT, evaluated after both 4 and 24 h, and the QFT. A total of 179 isolates were identified using the Vitek2 system. Thirty-five out of 35 Staphylococcus aureus were correctly identified by the QFT (sensitivity = 100%), with a specificity of 100% (no green fluorescence was detected for strains different from S. aureus). The DTCT was positive after 4 h for 28 out of the 35 samples (sensitivity = 80%) and after 24 h for 31 out of the 35 samples (sensitivity = 88.57%). Among the remaining 144 isolates, one was then identified as Corynebacterium striatum and two as Micrococcus luteus. QFT identified 139 out of the 141 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (sensitivity = 98.58%), showing again a specificity of 100% (no fluorescent red signals were detected for strains different from CoNS). We also discuss also the implementation process of this methodology in our setting, with particular emphasis on the workflow and the cost-effectiveness. PMID:23100336

  6. Species-specific considerations in using the fish embryo test as an alternative to identify endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Viktoria; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hecker, Markus; Schäfers, Christoph; Fischer, Rainer; Fenske, Martina

    2014-10-01

    A number of regulations have been implemented that aim to control the release of potentially adverse endocrine disrupters into the aquatic environment based on evidence from laboratory studies. Currently, such studies rely on testing approaches with adult fish because reliable alternatives have not been validated so far. Fish embryo tests have been proposed as such an alternative, and here we compared two species (medaka and zebrafish) to determine their suitability for the assessment of substances with estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity. Changes in gene expression (in here the phrase gene expression is used synonymously to gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is additionally regulated, e.g., by translation and protein stability) patterns between the two species were compared in short term embryo exposure tests (medaka: 7-day post fertilization [dpf]; zebrafish: 48 and 96h post fertilization [hpf]) by using relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The tested genes were related to the hypothalamic-gonadal-axis and early steroidogenesis. Test chemicals included 17α-ethinylestradiol and flutamide as estrogenic and anti-androgenic reference compounds, respectively, as well as five additional substances with endocrine activities, namely bisphenol A, genistein, prochloraz, linuron and propanil. Estrogenic responses were comparable in 7-dpf medaka and 48/96-hpf zebrafish embryos and included transcriptional upregulation of aromatase b, vitellogenin 1 as well as steroidogenic genes, suggesting that both species reliably detected exposure to estrogenic compounds. However, anti-androgenic responses differed between the two species, with each species providing specific information concerning the mechanism of anti-androgenic disruption in fish embryos. Although small but significant changes in the expression of selected genes was observed in 48-hpf zebrafish embryos, exposure prolonged to 96hpf was necessary to obtain a response indicative

  7. Four-Stage Audit Demonstrating Increased Uptake of HIV Testing in Acute Neurology Admissions Using Staged Practical Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sokhi, Dilraj Singh; Oxenham, Chantal; Coates, Rebecca; Forbes, Mhairi; Gupta, Nadi K.; Blackburn, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background UK National Guidelines (UKNG) advise HIV testing in clinically indicated neurological presentations. We audited the impact of our practical strategies to increase uptake of HIV testing at a regional acute neurology admissions unit. Methods We audited HIV testing in 4 periods over 2 years: before we designed a UKNG-based “HIV testing in Neurology” protocol (“pre-protocol”); after dissemination of the protocol alone (“post-protocol”); post-protocol dissemination combined with both a tailored departmental admissions clerking proforma to prompt for HIV testing & consenting, and regular focussed tutorials to doctors on HIV testing in neurological patients (“post-proforma”); and finally one year after the post-proforma period (“+1 year”). We also looked at the total number of HIV tests sent from the unit during the two-year period. We assessed significance using Fisher’s exact test. Results 47.8% of all acute neurology non-stroke admissions were eligible for HIV testing during all the audit periods. Testing rates were as follows: pre-protocol 21.9%; post-protocol 36.6%; post-proforma 83.3%; and at +1 year 65.4% (p<0.05 for both post-protocol and +1 year when compared to pre-protocol). Documentation of consent for HIV testing improved from 25% to 67.6% with the HIV-tailored clerking proforma. The total number of HIV tests requested from the unit doubled in the post-proforma period compared to pre-protocol (p<0.05). Conclusion In conclusion: the combination of an HIV testing protocol, a tailored departmental clerking proforma and regular focussed teaching to doctors on indications for HIV testing led to a sustained increase in HIV testing uptake in our regional acute neurology admissions unit. PMID:26335351

  8. Echocardiography, nuclear scintigraphy, and stress testing in the emergency department evaluation of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mather, P J; Shah, R

    2001-05-01

    open after review of all these analytical modalities is the duration of time these test results remain valid; when does an individual patient need to be reevaluated as to their specific pretest probability? The answer to this question lies in the presenting clinical scenario. If the patient presents with a similar inciting trigger for his or her symptoms, and the cardiac risk profile has not changed appreciably, then the previous study (whether a provocative stress test or even a cardiac catheterization) probably can be reliably counted. If the patient's risk profile has changed or the symptoms are new or more intense, the physician is compelled to pursue this encounter as a new, acute event. This can be true even in the setting of a previous cardiac catheterization that showed nonobstructive coronary disease, because plaque rupture can be acute and unpredictable. Ultimately, optimal care calls for each institution to develop a specific approach, in conjunction with their consultative cardiologist or critical care specialist, to enhance patient care, safety, and diagnostic outcome, while maintaining cost efficiency. PMID:11373982

  9. Risk stratification by treadmill testing in acute myocardial infarction following thrombolytic therapy.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Debnath, N B; Roy, S; Banerjee, A; Maity, A K

    1998-02-01

    Survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) should have risk stratification for assessment of their future risk of cardiovascular events. One of the important means of risk stratification is by treadmill test (TMT). Most of the algorithms for assessment were done in the prethrombolytic era. But in the post-thrombolytic era, risk stratification by TMT should be properly evaluated. Fifty males with confirmed AMI with age ranging from 38-62 years (mean 48 years) were tested with a symptom limited (Modified Bruce Protocol) TMT. The patients were followed up for a minimum of 6 months (range 6-10 months). Out of 50 patients, 38 reported for follow up. Among them 22 (Group A) had cardiac events and 16 (Group B) had no events. Among the patients (Group A), 6 had unstable angina, 7 had reinfarction, 2 had sudden death, 4 had coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and 3 had angioplasty. Comparison between the two groups, A and B in TMT parameters like ST segment depression > 2.5 mm (12 vs 9), no. of leads where ST depression occurred (66 vs 48) during exercise, mean work capacity (8.1 vs 7.9 mets), mean systolic blood pressure response were all statistically insignificant. Though TMT was believed to be a good prognostic indicator to assess further cardiac events after AMI, its efficacy in risk stratification after thrombolysis is yet to be determined. This study does not show its worth in post MI risk assessment. PMID:11273111

  10. Two 6-minute Walk Tests Are Required During Hospitalisation for Acute Exacerbation of COPD.

    PubMed

    Osadnik, Christian R; Borges, Rodrigo C; McDonald, Christine F; Carvalho, Celso R F; Holland, Anne E

    2016-06-01

    The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is recommended to be performed twice to accurately assess exercise performance in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to the presence of a learning effect. It is unknown whether a learning effect exists when the 6MWT is performed during hospitalisation for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). This study investigated whether repeat 6MWTs are necessary when conducted in inpatients with AECOPD. Pooled analysis was undertaken of data from two studies (Australia and Brazil) involving 46 participants (25 males, mean age 67.2 years, FEV1 43% predicted) admitted with AECOPD. Two 6MWTs, separated by ≥20 minutes, were performed on the day of discharge. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD; primary outcome), perceived dyspnoea (Borg scale), heart rate and oxyhaemoglobin saturation were recorded. 6MWD data from tests one (T1) and two (T2) were analysed via visual inspection of Bland-Altman plots. Factors associated with test improvement or decline were explored. Mean 6MWD difference between T1 and T2 was 6.2 m, however limits of agreement were wide (-92.2 m to 104.5 m). 32 (70%) participants improved (by any distance) from T1 to T2 by a mean (± standard deviation) of 32 m ± 28 m. Of these, 14 (30%) improved by a distance > 30 m. Fourteen (30%) participants recorded poorer 6MWD at T2 by a mean of 52 m ± 36 m. No factors were able to identify participants who improved or declined upon repeat testing. When performed in patients admitted to hospital with AECOPD, the 6MWT needs to be conducted twice in order to better estimate 6MWD. PMID:26643192

  11. Evaluation of reduced sediment volume procedures for acute toxicity tests using the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jacob K; Kennedy, Alan J; Farrar, J Daniel; Mount, David R; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2010-12-01

    The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost because of sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs associated with organism recovery at the conclusion of the exposure. The objective of the current study was to evaluate reduced sediment volume versions of the standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 10-d acute Leptocheirus plumulosus method that uses a beaker size of 1,000 ml and 20 organisms. The test design used evaluated the effects of beaker size (250 and 100 ml) and associated sediment volume (75 and 30 ml, respectively) as well as organism loading density (10 and 20 organisms) on test endpoint responsiveness relative to the standard 10-d test method. These comparisons were completed with three different types of contaminated sediments: a field-collected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment, a lead-spiked control sediment, and a control sediment spiked with mineral oil. Assessment criteria included test endpoint sensitivity, endpoint consistency, statistical power, water quality, and logistical assessments. Results indicate that the current U.S. EPA method is preferable to the reduced sediment volume methods we assessed, but that a 250-ml beaker/10 organism experimental design is of comparable utility and may be advantageous when reduced sediment volumes are desirable because of high contaminant (spiking studies) or sediment disposal costs. In addition, the results of the current study provide toxicity reference values for PAHs, lead, and an oil surrogate for petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:20890914

  12. Validity of acute and chronic tactile sensory testing after spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Detloff, Megan Ryan; Clark, Leslie M.; Hutchinson, Karen J.; Kloos, Anne D.; Fisher, Lesley C.; Basso, D. Michele

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) impairs sensory systems causing allodynia. Measuring the development of allodynia in rodent models of SCI is challenging due to spinal shock and marked motor impairments. Assessment of SCI-induced allodynia is not standardized across labs, making interpretation of results difficult. Therefore, we validated sensory threshold assessment after SCI and developed a novel assessment of allodynia prior to motor recovery in a rat SCI model. One hundred fifty-six Sprague–Dawley rats received T8 laminectomy or mild to moderate SCI using the OSU SCI device (0.3 mm to 1.3mm cord displacement). To determine tactile thresholds, von Frey hairs (VFH) were applied in Up–Down or ascending order to the dorsal or plantar hindpaw. The most efficient and valid procedures that maintain high sensitivity and specificity were identified. Ten Up–Down VFH applications yielded stable thresholds; reducing the risk of threshold decay and unnecessary exposure to painful stimuli. Importantly, distraction of SCI-rats with food revealed differential decay of thresholds than when distraction is not provided. The new test uses dorsal VFH stimulation and is independent of trunk or hindlimb control. Acute dorsal VFH thresholds collected before recovery of hindlimb weight support accurately predicted plantar VFH thresholds measured at late timepoints (χ2=8.479; p<0.05). Thus, standardized testing early after SCI using the dorsal VFH test or later using 10 stimuli in the Up–Down test produces valid measures of tactile sensation across many SCI severities. Early detection of allodynia in experimental SCI will allow identification of mechanisms responsible for pain development and determine targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:20643128

  13. Validity of acute and chronic tactile sensory testing after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Detloff, Megan Ryan; Clark, Leslie M; Hutchinson, Karen J; Kloos, Anne D; Fisher, Lesley C; Basso, D Michele

    2010-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) impairs sensory systems causing allodynia. Measuring the development of allodynia in rodent models of SCI is challenging due to spinal shock and marked motor impairments. Assessment of SCI-induced allodynia is not standardized across labs, making interpretation of results difficult. Therefore, we validated sensory threshold assessment after SCI and developed a novel assessment of allodynia prior to motor recovery in a rat SCI model. One hundred fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats received T8 laminectomy or mild to moderate SCI using the OSU SCI device (0.3 mm to 1.3 mm cord displacement). To determine tactile thresholds, von Frey hairs (VFH) were applied in Up-Down or ascending order to the dorsal or plantar hindpaw. The most efficient and valid procedures that maintain high sensitivity and specificity were identified. Ten Up-Down VFH applications yielded stable thresholds; reducing the risk of threshold decay and unnecessary exposure to painful stimuli. Importantly, distraction of SCI-rats with food revealed differential decay of thresholds than when distraction is not provided. The new test uses dorsal VFH stimulation and is independent of trunk or hindlimb control. Acute dorsal VFH thresholds collected before recovery of hindlimb weight support accurately predicted plantar VFH thresholds measured at late timepoints (chi(2)=8.479; p<0.05). Thus, standardized testing early after SCI using the dorsal VFH test or later using 10 stimuli in the Up-Down test produces valid measures of tactile sensation across many SCI severities. Early detection of allodynia in experimental SCI will allow identification of mechanisms responsible for pain development and determine targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:20643128

  14. Screening for Wilson Disease in Acute Liver Failure: A Comparison of Currently Available Diagnostic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Korman, Jessica D.; Volenberg, Irene; Balko, Jody; Webster, Joe; Schiodt, Frank V.; Squires, Robert H.; Lee, William M.; Schilsky, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) due to Wilson disease (WD) is invariably fatal without emergency liver transplantation. Therefore, rapid diagnosis of WD should aid prompt transplant listing. To identify the best method for diagnosis of ALF due to WD (ALF-WD), data and serum were collected from 140 ALF patients (16 with WD), 29 with other chronic liver diseases and 17 with treated chronic WD. Ceruloplasmin (Cp) was measured by both oxidase activity and nephelometry and serum copper levels by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In patients with ALF, a serum Cp <20 mg/dL by the oxidase method provided a diagnostic sensitivity of 21% and specificity of 84% while, by nephelometry, a sensitivity of 56% and specificity of 63%. Serum copper levels exceeded 200 g/dL in all ALF-WD patients measured (13/16), but were also elevated in non-WD ALF. An alkaline phosphatase (AP) to total bilirubin (TB) ratio <4 yielded a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 96%, and a likelihood ratio of 23 for diagnosing fulminant WD. In addition, an AST:ALT ratio > 2.2 yielded a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 86%, and a likelihood ratio of 7 for diagnosing fulminant WD. Combining the tests provided a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. In conclusion, conventional WD testing utilizing serum ceruloplasmin and/or serum copper levels are less sensitive and specific in identifying patients with ALF-WD than other available tests. More readily available laboratory tests including alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and serum aminotransferases by contrast provides the most rapid and accurate method for diagnosis of ALF due to WD. PMID:18798336

  15. Development of a novel in vitro method for drug development for fish; application to test efficacy of antimicrosporidian compounds.

    PubMed

    Saleh, M; Kumar, G; Abdel-Baki, A-A; Dkhil, M; El-Matbouli, M; Al-Quraishy, S

    2014-12-01

    Few drugs are approved for treating diseases caused by parasites in minor species such as fish. This is due, in part, to the expense of drug development and to the comparatively small market. In vivo effectiveness trials for antiparasitic drugs are costly, time consuming and require ethics approval, therefore an in vitro screening approach is a cost-effective alternative to finding promising drug candidates. We developed an in vitro testing system to test antimicrosporidial compounds against a microsporidian pathogen Heterosporis saurida. Five antiparasitic compounds, albendazole, fumagillin, TNP-70, nitazoxanide and lufenuron, were assayed for antimicrosporidial activity. All compounds reduced the number of H saurida spores in infected cells when applied at a concentration that did not appear to be toxic to the host cells. Albendazole inhibited replication of H saurida by >60 per cent, fumagillin and its analogue TNP-470 inhibited H saurida >80 per cent, nitazoxanide and lufenuron inhibited growth >70 per cent. The data suggest that both fumagillin and its analogous TNP-70 hold the best promise as therapeutic agents against H saurida. The ability to use fish cell cultures to assess drugs against H saurida demonstrates an approach that may be helpful to evaluate other drugs on different microsporidia and host cells. PMID:25200429

  16. Further tests of changes in fish escape behavior resulting from sublethal stresses associated with hydroelectric turbine passage

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, Michael G.; Cada, Glenn F.; Smith, John G.

    2004-04-01

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. The most commonly used laboratory technique for assessing susceptibility to predation is the predator preference test. This report evaluates the field application of a new technique that may be valuable for assessing indirect mortality, based on changes in a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). The study compared the behaviors of 70 fish passed through the turbine and another 70 under control conditions (either transferred from the holding tank or injected into the Alden loop downstream of turbine). The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a startle response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of the maximum C-shape, time to completion of the C-shape, completeness of the C-shape, direction of turn, and degree of turn. The data were evaluated for statistical significance and patterns of response were identified.

  17. 77 FR 43089 - Evaluation of an Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Testing: Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... (NICEATM), in collaboration with the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative... validation status of an up-and-down procedure (UDP) for acute dermal systemic toxicity testing. NICEATM... Panel and made available to the public. The Panel will meet in public session to review the...

  18. Testing the stages model in the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika

    PubMed Central

    Muschick, Moritz; Nosil, Patrik; Roesti, Marius; Dittmann, Marie Theres; Harmon, Luke; Salzburger, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive radiation (AR) is a key process in the origin of organismal diversity. However, the evolution of trait disparity in connection with ecological specialization is still poorly understood. Available models for vertebrate ARs predict that diversification occurs in the form of temporal stages driven by different selective forces. Here, we investigate the AR of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika and use macroevolutionary model fitting to evaluate whether diversification happened in temporal stages. Six trait complexes, for which we also provide evidence of their adaptiveness, are analysed with comparative methods: body shape, pharyngeal jaw shape, gill raker traits, gut length, brain weight and body coloration. Overall, we do not find strong evidence for the ‘stages model’ of AR. However, our results suggest that trophic traits diversify earlier than traits implicated in macrohabitat adaptation and that sexual communication traits (i.e. coloration) diversify late in the radiation. PMID:25274371

  19. Testing the stages model in the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Muschick, Moritz; Nosil, Patrik; Roesti, Marius; Dittmann, Marie Theres; Harmon, Luke; Salzburger, Walter

    2014-11-22

    Adaptive radiation (AR) is a key process in the origin of organismal diversity. However, the evolution of trait disparity in connection with ecological specialization is still poorly understood. Available models for vertebrate ARs predict that diversification occurs in the form of temporal stages driven by different selective forces. Here, we investigate the AR of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika and use macroevolutionary model fitting to evaluate whether diversification happened in temporal stages. Six trait complexes, for which we also provide evidence of their adaptiveness, are analysed with comparative methods: body shape, pharyngeal jaw shape, gill raker traits, gut length, brain weight and body coloration. Overall, we do not find strong evidence for the 'stages model' of AR. However, our results suggest that trophic traits diversify earlier than traits implicated in macrohabitat adaptation and that sexual communication traits (i.e. coloration) diversify late in the radiation. PMID:25274371

  20. Evaluation of Four Commercial Multiplex Molecular Tests for the Diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Salez, Nicolas; Vabret, Astrid; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Andreoletti, Laurent; Carrat, Fabrice; Renois, Fanny; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs) are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Documentation of respiratory specimens can help for an appropriate clinical management with a significant effect on the disease progress in patient, the antimicrobial therapy used and the risk of secondary spread of infection. Here, we compared the performances of four commercial multiplex kits used in French University Hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratories for the detection of ARI pathogens (i.e., the xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel Fast, RespiFinder SMART 22, CLART PneumoVir and Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory Pathogen 33 kits). We used a standardised nucleic acids extraction protocol and a comprehensive comparative approach that mixed reference to well established real-time PCR detection techniques and analysis of convergent positive results. We tested 166 respiratory clinical samples and identified a global high degree of correlation for at least three of the techniques (xTAG, RespiFinder and FTD33). For these techniques, the highest Youden’s index (YI), positive predictive (PPV) and specificity (Sp) values were observed for Core tests (e.g., influenza A [YI:0.86–1.00; PPV:78.95–100.00; Sp:97.32–100.00] & B [YI:0.44–1.00; PPV:100.00; Sp:100.00], hRSV [YI:0.50–0.99; PPV:85.71–100.00; Sp:99.38–100.00], hMPV [YI:0.71–1.00; PPV:83.33–100.00; Sp:99.37–100.00], EV/hRV [YI:0.62–0.82; PPV:93.33–100.00; Sp:94.48–100.00], AdV [YI:1.00; PPV:100.00; Sp:100.00] and hBoV [YI:0.20–0.80; PPV:57.14–100.00; Sp:98.14–100.00]). The present study completed an overview of the multiplex techniques available for the diagnosis of acute respiratory infections. PMID:26107509

  1. Acute heat stress induces differential gene expressions in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C) for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group). The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (p<0.05) during the heat stress. The numbers of apoptotic cells increased 2 h after the acute heat stress (79 ± 7 vs. 322 ± 192, control vs. heat stress; p<0.05), which was earlier than the time of increase in layer-type roosters. Based on a chicken 44 K oligo microarray, 163 genes were found to be expressed significantly different in the testes of the heat-stressed chickens from those of the controls, including genes involved in the response to stimulus, protein metabolism, signal transduction, cell adhesion, transcription, and apoptosis. The mRNA expressions of upregulated genes, including HSP25, HSP90AA1, HSPA2, and LPAR2, and of downregulated genes, including CDH5, CTNNA3, EHF, CIRBP, SLA, and NTF3, were confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, numerous transcripts in the testes exhibited distinct expressions between the heat-stressed broiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration. PMID:25932638

  2. Can Species Distribution Models Aid Bioassessment when Reference Sites are Lacking? Tests Based on Freshwater Fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labay, Ben J.; Hendrickson, Dean A.; Cohen, Adam E.; Bonner, Timothy H.; King, Ryan S.; Kleinsasser, Leroy J.; Linam, Gordon W.; Winemiller, Kirk O.

    2015-10-01

    Recent literature reviews of bioassessment methods raise questions about use of least-impacted reference sites to characterize natural conditions that no longer exist within contemporary landscapes. We explore an alternate approach for bioassessment that uses species site occupancy data from museum archives as input for species distribution models (SDMs) stacked to predict species assemblages of freshwater fishes in Texas. When data for estimating reference conditions are lacking, deviation between richness of contemporary versus modeled species assemblages could provide a means to infer relative biological integrity at appropriate spatial scales. We constructed SDMs for 100 freshwater fish species to compare predicted species assemblages to data on contemporary assemblages acquired by four independent surveys that sampled 269 sites. We then compared site-specific observed/predicted ratios of the number of species at sites to scores from a multimetric index of biotic integrity (IBI). Predicted numbers of species were moderately to strongly correlated with the numbers observed by the four surveys. We found significant, though weak, relationships between observed/predicted ratios and IBI scores. SDM-based assessments identified patterns of local assemblage change that were congruent with IBI inferences; however, modeling artifacts that likely contributed to over-prediction of species presence may restrict the stand-alone use of SDM-derived patterns for bioassessment and therefore warrant examination. Our results suggest that when extensive standardized survey data that include reference sites are lacking, as is commonly the case, SDMs derived from generally much more readily available species site occupancy data could be used to provide a complementary tool for bioassessment.

  3. Diagnosis of CMT1A duplications and HNPP deletions by interphase FISH: Implications for testing in the cytogenetics laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, L.G.; Kennedy, G.M.; Spikes, A.S.

    1997-03-31

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 1A is an inherited peripheral neuropathy characterized by slowly progressive distal muscle wasting and weakness, decreased nerve conduction velocities, and genetic linkage to 17p12. Most (>98%) CMT1A cases are caused by a DNA duplication of a 1.5-Mb region in 17p12 containing the PMP22 gene. The reciprocal product of the CMT1A duplication is a 1.5-Mb deletion which causes hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). The most informative current diagnostic testing requires pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to detect DNA rearrangement-specific junction fragments. We investigated the use of interphase FISH for the detection of duplications and deletions for these disorders in the clinical molecular cytogenetics laboratory. Established cell lines or blood specimens from 23 individuals with known molecular diagnoses and 10 controls were obtained and scored using a two-color FISH assay. At least 70%, of CMT1A cells displayed three signals consistent with duplications. Using this minimum expected percentile to make a CMT1A duplication diagnosis, all patients with CMT1A showed a range of 71-92% of cells displaying at least three signals. Of the HNPP cases, 88% of cells displayed only one hybridization signal, consistent with deletions. The PMP22 locus from normal control individuals displayed a duplication pattern in {approximately}9% of cells, interpreted as replication of this locus. The percentage of cells showing replication was significantly lower than in those cells displaying true duplications. We conclude that FISH can be reliably used to diagnose CMT1A and HNPP in the clinical cytogenetics laboratory and to readily distinguish the DNA rearrangements associated with these disorders from individuals without duplication or deletion of the PMP22 locus. 43 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... embryo cups into the test chambers. (B) For brook trout and rainbow trout a test begins when newly... initiation of the test. (D) When embryos are received from an outside culture source (i.e., rainbow and brook... (Cyprinodon variegatus). (C) Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). (D) Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)....

  5. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... embryo cups into the test chambers. (B) For brook trout and rainbow trout a test begins when newly... initiation of the test. (D) When embryos are received from an outside culture source (i.e., rainbow and brook... (Cyprinodon variegatus). (C) Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). (D) Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)....

  6. Acute response test to adaptive servo-ventilation, a possible modality to assessing the reversibility of pulmonary vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Hieda, Michinari; Seguchi, Osamu; Mutara, Yoshihiro; Sunami, Haruki; Sato, Takuma; Yanase, Masanobu; Hiroki, Hata; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Nakatani, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Since pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left-sided heart failure (HF) with elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is contraindication for heart transplantation (HTx), correct evaluation of reversibility in PVR is essential for adequate therapeutic decision-making. However, guidelines or recommended protocols for pharmacological testing to evaluate the reversibility of PVR have not been established yet. In this report, we presented a 34-year-old male with advanced HF complicated by severe PH with high PVR [5.93 Wood units (WU)] who was deemed eligible for HTx. To evaluate his HTx candidacy, oxygen inhalation test was applied during right heart catheterization (RHC) and PVR was drastically decreased to 2.29 WU. At that time, acute response test to adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) was also applied and use of ASV temporarily but substantially decreased PVR to 2.15 WU. From the results of both oxygen inhalation test and acute response test to ASV, reversibility of PVR in this patient was confirmed, and the patient was approved as HTx candidate and received left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation for bridge to transplant. After LVAD implantation, PVR substantially and persistently decreased to 2.4 WU. These findings indicate that acute response test to ASV during RHC may be a possible modality to evaluate the reversibility of PVR in HF patients with PH complicated by elevated PVR. PMID:25809453

  7. Artemia salina as test organism for assessment of acute toxicity of leachate water from landfills.

    PubMed

    Svensson, B M; Mathiasson, L; Mårtensson, L; Bergström, S

    2005-03-01

    Artemia salina has, for the first time, been used as test organism for acute toxicity of leachate water from three landfills (the municipal landfills at Kristianstad, Sweden and Siauliai, Lithuania, and an industrial landfill at Stena fragmenting AB, Halmstad, as well as for leachate from Kristianstad treated in different ways in a pilot plan). Artemia can tolerate the high concentrations of chloride ions found in such waters. Large differences in toxicities were found, the leachate from Siauliai being the most toxic one. To increase the selectivity in the measurements, a fractionation was done by using ion exchange to separate ammonium/ammonia and metal ions from the leachate, and activated carbon adsorbents for organic pollutants. The influence of some metals and phenol compounds on the toxicity was investigated separately. It was found that most of the toxicity emanated from the ammonium/ammonia components in the leachate. However, there was also a significant contribution n from organic pollutants, other than phenol compounds, since separate experiments had in this latter case indicated negligible impact. The concentrations of metals were at a level, shown by separate experiments, where only small contribution to the toxicity could be expected. PMID:15869192

  8. ACOUSTICALLY ACTIVE INJECTION CATHETER GUIDED BY ULTRASOUND: NAVIGATION TESTS IN ACUTELY ISCHEMIC PORCINE HEARTS

    PubMed Central

    Belohlavek, Marek; Katayama, Minako; Zarbatany, David; Fortuin, F. David; Fatemi, Mostafa; Nenadic, Ivan Z.; McMahon, Eileen M.

    2014-01-01

    Catheters are increasingly used therapeutically and investigatively. With complex usage comes a need for more accurate intracardiac localization than traditional guidance can provide. An injection catheter navigated by ultrasound was designed and then tested in an open-chest model of acute ischemia in eight pigs. The catheter is made “acoustically active” by a piezoelectric crystal near its tip, electronically controlled, vibrating in the acoustic frequency range, and uniquely identifiable using pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler. Another “target” crystal was sutured to the epicardium within the ischemic region. Sonomicrometry was used to measure distances between the two crystals and then compared to measurements from 2D echocardiographic images. Complete data were obtained from 7 pigs, and the correlation between sonomicrometry and ultrasound measurements was excellent (p < 0.0001, ρ = 0.9820), as was the intraclass correlation coefficient (0.96) between 2 observers. These initial experimental results suggest high accuracy of ultrasound navigation of the acoustically active catheter prototype located inside the beating left ventricle. PMID:24785441

  9. In vitro cytotoxicity testing of 30 reference chemicals to predict acute human and animal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Barile, F.A.; Arjun, S.; Borges, L. )

    1991-03-11

    This study was conducted in cooperation with the Scandinavian Society of Cell Toxicology, as part of the Multicenter Evaluation for In Vitro Cytotoxicity (MEIC), and was designed to develop an in vitro model for predicting acute human and animal toxicity. The technique relies on the ability of cultured transformed rat lung epithelial cells (L2) to incorporate radiolabled amino acids into newly synthesized proteins in the absence or presence of increasing doses of the test chemical, during a 24-hr incubation. IC50 values were extrapolated from the dose-response curves after linear regression analysis. Human toxic blood concentrations estimated from rodent LD50 values suggest that our experimental IC50's are in close correlation with the former. Validation of the data by the MEIC committee shows that our IC50 values predicted human lethal dosage as efficient as rodent LD50's. It is anticipated that this and related procedures may supplement or replace currently used animal protocols for predicting human toxicity.

  10. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions. PMID:24934557

  11. A biology-based dynamic approach for the reconciliation of acute and chronic toxicity tests: application to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Zaldívar, José-Manuel; Baraibar, Joaquín

    2011-03-01

    There is the need to integrate existing toxicity data in a coherent framework for extending their domain of applicability as well as their extrapolation potential. This integration would also reduce time and cost-consuming aspects of these tests and reduce animal usage. In this work, based on data extracted from literature, we have assessed the advantages that a dynamic biology-toxicant fate coupled model for Daphnia magna could provide when assessing toxicity data, in particular, the possibility to obtain from short-term (acute) toxicity test long-term (chronic) toxicity values taking into account the inherent variability of D. magna populations and the multiple sources of data. The results show that this approach overcomes some of the limitations of existing toxicity tests and that the prediction errors are considerably reduced when compared with the factor from 2 to 5 obtained using acute-to-chronic ratios. PMID:21168184

  12. An experimental test of the capture-restraint protocol for estimating the acute stress response.

    PubMed

    Pakkala, Jesse J; Norris, D Ryan; Newman, Amy E M

    2013-01-01

    Stress-induced increases in glucocorticoids (GCs) modulate behavior and are key in directing energy reserves. The capture-restraint protocol was developed to experimentally stimulate and quantify the magnitude of the acute stress response by comparing baseline GC levels with those collected after restraining a subject for a period of time, typically 30 min. This protocol has been used extensively in the field and lab, yet few studies have investigated whether it parallels hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation under natural acute stressors. We examined the hypothesis that acute stress from the capture-restraint protocol accurately mimics the adrenocortical response induced by a natural acute stressor. Using wild-caught rock pigeons Columba livia in a repeated-measures design, we compared plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations at baseline, after exposure to acute capture-restraint (30 min in a cloth bag), after tethering in a harness (30 min), and after a real but nonlethal attack by a predatory raptor. As found in previous studies, the capture-restraint treatment significantly increased CORT levels of pigeons compared with baseline. However, we also found that when pigeons were exposed to an attack by a raptor, their CORT levels were more than twice as high compared with the capture-restraint treatment. Our results provide evidence that an authentic acute stressor can activate the HPA axis to a greater extent than the capture-restraint protocol and also suggest that real predation attempts can have a significant effect on acute stress levels of wild birds. PMID:23434787

  13. Alterations in histology and antioxidant defense system in the testes of the lake Van fish (Alburnus tarichi Güldenstädt, 1814).

    PubMed

    Kaptaner, Burak; Kankaya, Ertuğrul; Dogan, Abdulahad; Durmuş, Atilla

    2016-08-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated gonadal abnormalities in the Lake Van fish (Alburnus tarichi) from Lake Van caused by increasing pollution. In the present study, the fish was collected from an area of Lake Van receiving mainly sewage treatment plant effluent at prespawning period (April) and from a river (Karasu) which is close to the polluted area of the lake and where the fish migrates at spawning period (May). Collected specimens were examined for testicular alterations, gonadosomatic index (GSI), condition factor (CF), and antioxidant defense system biomarkers based on comparison with a reference lake (Erçek) and a reference freshwater inlet (Memedik River). Histological examinations of the testes of fish from the polluted area and the connected river showed various alterations consisting of macrophage aggregates, vacuolation, pyknosis, germ cell degeneration, seminiferous tubule dilation, disorganization of tubules, reduced spermatozoa, and fibrosis. A lower GSI and CF were also observed. Moreover, alterations in the antioxidant system biomarkers were determined in the testis tissues of fish from the Lake Van and Karasu River, indicating oxidative stress. These results suggest that the abnormalities in the testes are causally related to the increased oxidative stress, and pollution in Lake Van may have adversely affected the reproductive health of the lake Van fish. PMID:27435621

  14. Aneuploidy in human sperm: the use of multicolor FISH to test various theories of nondisjunction.

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, E. L.; Rademaker, A. W.; Martin, R. H.

    1996-01-01

    While it is known that all chromosomes are susceptible to meiotic nondisjunction, it is not clear whether all chromosomes display the same frequency of nondisjunction. By use of multicolor FISH and chromosome-specific probes, the frequency of disomy in human sperm was determined for chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 9, 12, 15, 16, 18, 20, and 21, and the sex chromosomes. A minimum of 10,000 sperm nuclei were scored from each of five healthy, chromosomally normal donors for every chromosome studied, giving a total of 418,931 sperm nuclei. The mean frequencies of disomy obtained were 0.09% for chromosome 1; 0.08% for chromosome 2; 0.11% for chromosome 4; 0.14% for chromosome 9; 0.16% for chromosome 12; 0.11% for chromosomes 15, 16, and 18; 0.12% for chromosome 20; 0.29% for chromosome 21; and 0.43% for the sex chromosomes. Data for chromosomes 1, 12, 15, and 18, and the sex chromosomes have been published elsewhere. When the mean frequencies of disomy were compared, the sex chromosomes and chromosome 21 had significantly higher frequencies of disomy than that of any other autosome studied. These results corroborate the pooled data obtained from human sperm karyotypes and suggest that the sex chromosome bivalent and the chromosome 21 bivalent are more susceptible to nondisjunction during spermatogenesis. From these findings, theories proposed to explain the variable incidence of nondisjunction can be supported or discarded as improbable. PMID:8571962

  15. Aneuploidy in human sperm: The use of multicolor FISH to test various theories of nondisjunction

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, E.L.; Martin, R.H.

    1996-02-01

    While it is known that all chromosomes are susceptible to meiotic nondisjunction, it is not clear whether all chromosomes display the same frequency of nondisjunction. By use of multicolor FISH and chromosome-specific probes, the frequency of disomy in human sperm was determined for chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 9, 12, 15, 16, 18, 20, and 21, and the sex chromosomes. A minimum of 10,000 sperm nuclei were scored from each of five healthy, chromosomally normal donors for every chromosome studied, giving a total of 418,931 sperm nuclei. The mean frequencies of disomy obtained were 0.09% for chromosome 1; 0.08% for chromosome 2; 0.11% for chromosome 4; 0.14% for chromosome 9; 0.16% for chromosome 12; 0.11% for chromosomes 15, 16, and 18; 0.12% for chromosome 20; 0.29% for chromosome 21; and 0.43% for the sex chromosomes. Data for chromosomes 1, 12, 15, and 18, and the sex chromosomes have been published elsewhere. When the mean frequencies of disomy were compared, the sex chromosomes and chromosome 21 had significantly higher frequencies of disomy than that of any other autosome studied. These results corroborate the pooled data obtained from human sperm karyotypes and suggest that the sex chromosome bivalent and the chromosome 21 bivalent are more susceptible to nondisjunction during spermatogenesis. From these findings, theories proposed to explain the variable incidence of nondisjunction can be supported or discarded as improbable. 33 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Big fish in big ponds: a multilevel analysis of test anxiety and achievement in special gifted classes.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Thomas; Preckel, Franzis; Zeidner, Moshe; Schleyer, Esther

    2008-04-01

    This study analyzes the effects of individual achievement and achievement level of student reference group on test anxiety in a national sample of 769 gifted Israeli students (grade levels 4-9), which was previously investigated by Zeidner and Schleyer (1999a). We hypothesized that when controlling for individual achievement, students' experiences of test anxiety should increase with the increasing ability level of their peer reference group. It was assumed that this effect was largely mediated by reference group effects on academic self-concept (big-fish-little-pond effect). Zeidner and Schleyer found that gifted students within a gifted peer reference group showed higher levels of test anxiety than gifted students within a non-gifted peer reference group. Of note, the present study focused exclusively on gifted students attending special gifted classes. The main research question was whether or not the assumed effects of individual and class achievement can be found for gifted students in special gifted classes when taking the variance of achievement level (grades) of the special gifted classes into account. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methodology, the assumed effects were vindicated for this special group of high ability students. Thus, in line with previous results, the Worry component of test anxiety was more highly reactive to the effects of individual achievement than the Emotionality component. Also, in line with our theoretical assumptions, achievement/anxiety relations were largely mediated by the effects of academic self-concept. PMID:18350396

  17. World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP) guideline for testing the efficacy of ectoparasiticides for fish.

    PubMed

    Sommerville, C; Endris, R; Bell, T A; Ogawa, K; Buchmann, K; Sweeney, D

    2016-03-30

    This guideline is intended to assist in the planning and execution of studies designed to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides for fish. It is the first ectoparasite-specific guideline to deal with studies set in the aquatic environment and therefore provides details for the maintenance of environmental standards for finfish. Information is included on a range of pre-clinical study designs as well as clinical studies in commercial/production sites, set within a regulatory framework. It provides information on the study animals, their welfare, husbandry and environmental requirements during the study. The most commonly pathogenic ectoparasites are presented with relevant points regarding life history, host challenge and numeric evaluation. Preparation and presentation of both topical and oral test treatments is provided, together with guidance on data collection and analysis. The guideline provides a quality standard or efficacy studies on finfish, which will assist researchers and regulatory authorities worldwide and contribute to the wider objective of harmonisation of procedures. PMID:27351036

  18. Fish-allergic patients may be able to eat fish.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Ahmad A; Bahna, Sami L

    2015-03-01

    Reported fish allergy prevalence varies widely, with an estimated prevalence of 0.2% in the general population. Sensitization to fish can occur by ingestion, skin contact or inhalation. The manifestations can be IgE or non-IgE mediated. Several fish allergens have been identified, with parvalbumins being the major allergen in various species. Allergenicity varies among fish species and is affected by processing or preparation methods. Adverse reactions after eating fish are often claimed to be 'allergy' but could be a reaction to hidden food allergen, fish parasite, fish toxins or histamine in spoiled fish. Identifying such causes would allow free consumption of fish. Correct diagnosis of fish allergy, including the specific species, might provide the patient with safe alternatives. Patients have been generally advised for strict universal avoidance of fish. However, testing with various fish species or preparations might identify one or more forms that can be tolerated. PMID:25666551

  19. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  20. Fish Aversion and Attraction to Selected Agrichemicals.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Koakoski, Gessi; Kalichak, Fabiana; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; de Alcântara Barcellos, Heloísa Helena; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2016-10-01

    In agriculture intensive areas, fishponds and natural water bodies located in close proximity to these fields receive water with variable amounts of agrichemicals. Consequently, toxic compounds reach nontarget organisms. For instance, aquatic organisms can be exposed to tebuconazole-based fungicides (TBF), glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), and atrazine-based herbicides (ABH) that are potentially dangerous, which motivates the following question: Are these agrichemicals attractant or aversive to fish? To answer this question, adult zebrafish were tested in a chamber that allows fish to escape from or seek a lane of contaminated water. This attraction and aversion paradigm was evaluated with zebrafish in the presence of an acute contamination with these compounds. We showed that only GBH was aversive to fish, whereas ABH and TBF caused neither attraction nor aversion for zebrafish. Thus, these chemicals do not impose an extra toxic risk by being an attractant for fish, although TBF and ABH can be more deleterious, because they induce no aversive response. Because the uptake and bioaccumulation of chemicals in fish seems to be time- and dose-dependent, a fish that remains longer in the presence of these substances tends to absorb higher concentrations than one that escapes from contaminated sites. PMID:27423874

  1. Fabrication, testing and modeling of a new flexible armor inspired from natural fish scales and osteoderms.

    PubMed

    Chintapalli, Ravi Kiran; Mirkhalaf, Mohammad; Dastjerdi, Ahmad Khayer; Barthelat, Francois

    2014-09-01

    Crocodiles, armadillo, turtles, fish and many other animal species have evolved flexible armored skins in the form of hard scales or osteoderms, which can be described as hard plates of finite size embedded in softer tissues. The individual hard segments provide protection from predators, while the relative motion of these segments provides the flexibility required for efficient locomotion. In this work, we duplicated these broad concepts in a bio-inspired segmented armor. Hexagonal segments of well-defined size and shape were carved within a thin glass plate using laser engraving. The engraved plate was then placed on a soft substrate which simulated soft tissues, and then punctured with a sharp needle mounted on a miniature loading stage. The resistance of our segmented armor was significantly higher when smaller hexagons were used, and our bio-inspired segmented glass displayed an increase in puncture resistance of up to 70% compared to a continuous plate of glass of the same thickness. Detailed structural analyses aided by finite elements revealed that this extraordinary improvement is due to the reduced span of individual segments, which decreases flexural stresses and delays fracture. This effect can however only be achieved if the plates are at least 1000 stiffer than the underlying substrate, which is the case for natural armor systems. Our bio-inspired system also displayed many of the attributes of natural armors: flexible, robust with 'multi-hit' capabilities. This new segmented glass therefore suggests interesting bio-inspired strategies and mechanisms which could be systematically exploited in high-performance flexible armors. This study also provides new insights and a better understanding of the mechanics of natural armors such as scales and osteoderms. PMID:24613857

  2. Opportunities for animal alternatives implementation in the evolving OECD fish testing framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation reviews opportunities for animal alternative approaches in the FTF. These will be placed in the context of in vivo tests required in many regulatory situations for the registration of industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. The Framework inte...

  3. A novel system for embryo-larval toxicity testing of pelagic fish: Applications for impact assessment of Deepwater Horizon crude oil.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, John D; Mager, Edward M; Hoenig, Ronald H; Alloy, Matthew; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Bodinier, Charlotte; Benetti, Daniel D; Roberts, Aaron P; Grosell, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Key differences in the developmental process of pelagic fish embryos, in comparison to embryos of standard test fish species, present challenges to obtaining sufficient control survival needed to successfully perform traditional toxicity testing bioassays. Many of these challenges relate to the change in buoyancy, from positive to negative, of pelagic fish embryos that occurs just prior to hatch. A novel exposure system, the pelagic embryo-larval exposure chamber (PELEC), has been developed to conduct successful bioassays on the early life stages (ELSs; embryos/larvae) of pelagic fish. Using this unique recirculating upwelling system, it was possible to significantly improve control survival in pelagic fish ELS bioassays compared to commonly used static exposure methods. Results demonstrate that control performance of mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos in the PELEC system, measured as percent survival after 96-hrs, significantly outperformed agitated static exposure and static exposure systems. Similar significant improvements in 72-hr control survival were obtained with yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). The PELEC system was subsequently used to test the effects of photo-induced toxicity of crude oil to mahi-mahi ELSs over the course of 96-hrs. Results indicate a greater than 9-fold increase in toxicity of Deepwater Horizon (DWH) crude oil during co-exposure to ambient sunlight compared to filtered ambient sunlight, revealing the importance of including natural sunlight in 96-hr DWH crude oil bioassays as well as the PELEC system's potential application in ecotoxicological assessments. PMID:27505137

  4. ‘I’m fishing really’ — inflammatory marker testing in primary care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Jessica; de Salis, Isabel; Hamilton, Willie; Salisbury, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammatory markers can be helpful as part of the diagnostic workup for specific diseases or for monitoring disease activity. A third use is as a screening and/or triage tool to differentiate between the presence or absence of disease. Most research into inflammatory markers looks at diagnosis of specific diseases and comes from secondary care. Qualitative studies to explore when and why clinicians use these tests in primary care are lacking. Aim To identify clinicians’ approaches to inflammatory marker testing in primary care. Design and setting Qualitative study with 26 GPs and nurse practitioners. Method Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured topic guide. Clinicians reviewed recent cases of inflammatory marker testing in their pathology inbox. Interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis was conducted by two of the authors. Results Clinicians are uncertain about the appropriate use of inflammatory markers and differ in their approach to testing patients with undifferentiated symptoms. Normal or significantly elevated inflammatory markers are seen as helpful, but mildly raised inflammatory markers in the context of non-specific symptoms are difficult to interpret. Clinicians describe a tension between not wanting to ‘miss anything’ and, on the other hand, being wary of picking up borderline abnormalities that can lead to cascades of further tests. Diagnostic uncertainty is a common reason for inflammatory marker testing, with the aim to reassure; however, paradoxically, inconclusive results can generate a cycle of uncertainty and anxiety. Conclusion Further research is needed to define when inflammatory marker testing is useful in primary care and how to interpret results. PMID:26852797

  5. Acute Pulmonary Vasodilator Testing With Inhaled Treprostinil in Children With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Takatsuki, Shinichi; Parker, Donna K.; Doran, Aimee K.; Friesen, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Acute pulmonary vasodilator testing (AVT) is essential to determining the initial therapy for children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This study aimed to report the initial experience with inhaled treprostinil used for AVT in children with PAH and to evaluate the hemodynamic change after inhaled treprostinil compared with inhaled nitric oxide. This prospective cohort study was designed for 13 children who underwent AVT with inhaled treprostinil or oxygen plus inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) during catheterization. Inhaled treprostinil was delivered during cardiac catheterization by adapting the Optineb ultrasonic nebulizer via either a flow-inflating bag or the manual mode of the anesthesia system. The median age of the patients was 10 years (range 4–17 years). The etiologies of PAH included idiopathic PAH and associated PAH. All the patients tolerated inhaled treprostinil without marked clinical worsening and received six or nine breaths (36 or 54 µg) of treprostinil. The median of the total treprostinil doses was 1.53 µg/kg (range 0.71–2.89 µg/kg). Inhaled treprostinil was administrated via an endotracheal tube (n = 8), anesthesia mask (n = 3), or laryngeal mask airway (n = 2). Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and inhaled treprostinil significantly decreased the mean pulmonary artery pressure and the pulmonary vascular resistance index compared with baseline. Three adverse events were reported after inhaled treprostinil, including cough and mild to moderate hypotension with higher doses. All adverse events resolved without any intervention. This study report is the first to describe the use of inhaled treprostinil for AVT in children with PAH. In this small pediatric cohort, inhaled treprostinil was effectively delivered and well tolerated and may be useful for AVT. PMID:23184020

  6. A noninvasive test of exposition to toxicants: quantitative analysis of cytochrome P4501A expression in fish scales.

    PubMed

    Quirós, Laia; Raldúa, Demetrio; Navarro, Anna; Casado, Marta; Barceló, Damià; Piña, Benjamin

    2007-10-01

    Elevated expression of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) is an established biomarker for exposition to a wide range of toxicants, particularly for dioxin and structurally similar compounds. Expression of CYP1A usually is analyzed in internal organs, which involves dissection of the specimen. To avoid unnecessary animal killing, we present here an alternative method based on the monitoring of CYP1A expression in fish scales. Using beta-naphthoflavone (BNF; 50 mg/kg body wt, intraperitoneal injection) as inducer in goldfish (Carassius auratus), we monitored levels of CYP1A mRNA both in scales and liver of treated and control specimens. Treatment with BNF resulted in a similar induction of CYP1A gene in both tissues, although scales responded faster (at 8 h after treatment) than liver (between 24 and 48 h). The scale-based test has the unique advantage of allowing sequential testing in the same specimen, which facilitates analysis of the time course of CYP1A induction and allows the study of individual variability. The method implies minimal suffering of the animals, because it only requires removal of a moderate (n = 1-3) number of scales for each time point. This nondestructive, fast, and relatively inexpensive test for toxic exposure therefore is suitable for environmental monitoring and food safety control programs in which specimen preservation is required. PMID:17867895

  7. Application of a fish DNA damage assay as a biological toxicity screening tool for metal plating wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K.; Zong, M.; Meier, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The utility of a fish DNA damage assay as a rapid monitoring tool was investigated. Metal plating wastewater was chosen as a sample because it contains various genotoxic metal species. Fish DNA damage assay results were compared to data generated from the conventional whole effluent toxicity (WET) test procedure. The Microtox{reg_sign} assay (Azur Environmental, Carlsbad, CA, USA) using Vibrio fischeri was also employed. Eleven samples from two metal plating companies were collected for this evaluation. For the fish DNA damage assay, 7-d-old fathead minnow larvae, Pimephales promelas, were utilized. They were exposed to a series of dilutions at 20 C for 2 h. Whole effluent toxicity tests conducted in this study included two acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and fathead minnows and two chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows. The fish DNA damage assay showed good correlations with both the acute and chronic WET test results, especially with those obtained with fathead minnows. The kappa values, an index of agreement, between the fish DNA damage assay and WET tests were shown to be acceptable. These findings imply that this novel fish DNA damage assay has use as an expedient toxicity screening procedure since it produces comparable results to those of the acute and chronic fathead minnow toxicity tests.

  8. Closed-loop control of zebrafish response using a bioinspired robotic-fish in a preference test

    PubMed Central

    Kopman, Vladislav; Laut, Jeffrey; Polverino, Giovanni; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the response of zebrafish to a robotic-fish whose morphology and colour pattern are inspired by zebrafish. Experiments are conducted in a three-chambered instrumented water tank where a robotic-fish is juxtaposed with an empty compartment, and the preference of live subjects is scored as the mean time spent in the vicinity of the tank's two lateral sides. The tail-beating of the robotic-fish is controlled in real-time based on feedback from fish motion to explore a spectrum of closed-loop systems, including proportional and integral controllers. Closed-loop control systems are complemented by open-loop strategies, wherein the tail-beat of the robotic-fish is independent of the fish motion. The preference space and the locomotory patterns of fish for each experimental condition are analysed and compared to understand the influence of real-time closed-loop control on zebrafish response. The results of this study show that zebrafish respond differently to the pattern of tail-beating motion executed by the robotic-fish. Specifically, the preference and behaviour of zebrafish depend on whether the robotic-fish tail-beating frequency is controlled as a function of fish motion and how such closed-loop control is implemented. PMID:23152102

  9. Closed-loop control of zebrafish response using a bioinspired robotic-fish in a preference test.

    PubMed

    Kopman, Vladislav; Laut, Jeffrey; Polverino, Giovanni; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the response of zebrafish to a robotic-fish whose morphology and colour pattern are inspired by zebrafish. Experiments are conducted in a three-chambered instrumented water tank where a robotic-fish is juxtaposed with an empty compartment, and the preference of live subjects is scored as the mean time spent in the vicinity of the tank's two lateral sides. The tail-beating of the robotic-fish is controlled in real-time based on feedback from fish motion to explore a spectrum of closed-loop systems, including proportional and integral controllers. Closed-loop control systems are complemented by open-loop strategies, wherein the tail-beat of the robotic-fish is independent of the fish motion. The preference space and the locomotory patterns of fish for each experimental condition are analysed and compared to understand the influence of real-time closed-loop control on zebrafish response. The results of this study show that zebrafish respond differently to the pattern of tail-beating motion executed by the robotic-fish. Specifically, the preference and behaviour of zebrafish depend on whether the robotic-fish tail-beating frequency is controlled as a function of fish motion and how such closed-loop control is implemented. PMID:23152102

  10. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  11. Excreted Thiocyanate Detects Live Reef Fishes Illegally Collected Using Cyanide—A Non-Invasive and Non-Destructive Testing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Marcela C. M.; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A. P.; Rocha, Rui J. M.; Lopes, Isabel; Pereira, Ruth; Duarte, Armando C.; Rubec, Peter J.; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Cyanide fishing is a method employed to capture marine fish alive on coral reefs. They are shipped to markets for human consumption in Southeast Asia, as well as to supply the marine aquarium trade worldwide. Although several techniques can be used to detect cyanide in reef fish, there is still no testing method that can be used to survey the whole supply chain. Most methods for cyanide detection are time-consuming and require the sacrifice of the sampled fish. Thiocyanate anion (SCN−) is a metabolite produced by the main metabolic pathway for cyanide anion (CN−) detoxification. Our study employed an optical fiber (OF) methodology (analytical time <6 min) to detect SCN− in a non-invasive and non-destructive manner. Our OF methodology is able to detect trace levels (>3.16 µg L−1) of SCN− in seawater. Given that marine fish exposed to cyanide excrete SCN− in the urine, elevated levels of SCN− present in the seawater holding live reef fish indicate that the surveyed specimens were likely exposed to cyanide. In our study, captive-bred clownfish (Amphiprion clarkii) pulse exposed for 60 s to either 12.5 or 25 mg L−1 of CN− excreted up to 6.96±0.03 and 9.84±0.03 µg L−1 of SCN−, respectively, during the 28 days following exposure. No detectable levels of SCN− were recorded in the water holding control organisms not exposed to CN−, or in synthetic seawater lacking fish. While further research is necessary, our methodology can allow a rapid detection of SCN− in the holding water and can be used as a screening tool to indicate if live reef fish were collected with cyanide. PMID:22536375

  12. Alternatives to in vivo Tests to Detect Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) in Fish and Amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant amount of current research in risk assessment of chemicals is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, replace or refine the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. In 2009, the US EPA began implementation of t...

  13. The fish embryo toxicity test as a replacement for the larval growth and survival test: A comparison of test sensitivity and identification of alternative endpoints in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Stephens, Dane A; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2015-06-01

    The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test has been proposed as an alternative to the larval growth and survival (LGS) test. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the sensitivity of the FET and LGS tests in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) and to determine if the inclusion of sublethal metrics as test endpoints could enhance test utility. In both species, LGS and FET tests were conducted using 2 simulated effluents. A comparison of median lethal concentrations determined via each test revealed significant differences between test types; however, it could not be determined which test was the least and/or most sensitive. At the conclusion of each test, developmental abnormalities and the expression of genes related to growth and toxicity were evaluated. Fathead minnows and zebrafish exposed to mock municipal wastewater-treatment plant effluent in a FET test experienced an increased incidence of pericardial edema and significant alterations in the expression of genes including insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2, heat shock protein 70, and cytochrome P4501A, suggesting that the inclusion of these endpoints could enhance test utility. The results not only show the utility of the fathead minnow FET test as a replacement for the LGS test but also provide evidence that inclusion of additional endpoints could improve the predictive power of the FET test. PMID:25929752

  14. Differences in detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in covertly infected salmonid fishes by the stress-inducible furunculosis test and culture-based assays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Ford, L.A.; Smith, D.R.; Schachte, J.H.; Petrie, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate detection of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (the cause of furunculosis disease) in covertly infected salmonids is difficult and is a cause of concern for those involved in fish health inspection and resource management programs. In this study, we examined populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that previously sustained natural episodes of furunculosis. Consequently, the sampled fish were presumed to harbor latent infections. Mucus, gill, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine samples (N = 100 fish per group sampled) were processed and examined by (1) direct dilution counts and (2) quadrant streaking after a 48-h pre-enrichment in trypticase soy broth (TSB). Another subsample of fish from each group was then subjected to stress-inducible furunculosis tests. Stress tests detected A. salmonicida in three of four groups of fish that were examined whereas the pathogen was detected in only two of the groups analyzed with culture-based assays. Although pre-enrichment in TSB enhanced detection within internal sampling sites including the liver, heart, spleen, and kidney, enrichment did not enhance detection from mucus, gill, or intestinal samples.

  15. Acute toxicity of trichloroethylene to saltwater organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.S.; Tolmsoff, A.J.; Petrocelli, S.R.

    1986-12-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon primarily utilized for vapor-phase degreasing in the fabricated metals industry. Other applications include cold-metal cleaning and use in the manufacture of organic chemicals. TCE enters the environment as a result of volatilization during its production and through its industrial uses. TCE has been detected in aquatic environments and organisms at part-per-trillion (pptr) concentrations. Although TCE is indicated to be widely distributed, relatively limited data exist on the acute effects of TCE on aquatic organisms, especially saltwater species. Results of static acute tests of TCE with a saltwater alga, invertebrate, and fish are reported here to enhance the data base.

  16. The role of experiential avoidance in acute pain tolerance: a laboratory test.

    PubMed

    Feldner, Matthew T; Hekmat, Hamid; Zvolensky, Michael J; Vowles, Kevin E; Secrist, Zachary; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2006-06-01

    The present investigation examined the role of experiential avoidance in terms of acute pain tolerance and subsequent recovery. Seventy nonclinical participants completed the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire and underwent a well-established cold pressor task. Results indicated that individuals reporting higher levels of experiential avoidance had lower pain endurance and tolerance and recovered more slowly from this particular type of aversive event. Consistent with theoretical prediction, these findings suggest that experiential avoidance may play a role in tolerance of acute pain. PMID:15882839

  17. Ciprofloxacin-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis mimicking bullous drug eruption confirmed by a positive patch test.

    PubMed

    Hausermann, P; Scherer, K; Weber, M; Bircher, A J

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of an 80-year-old woman presenting with ciprofloxacin-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) confirmed by a positive patch test. Cutaneous morphology, course and histological findings were consistent with a definite diagnosis according to the AGEP validation score of the EuroSCAR study group. We point to the rarity of quinolone-induced AGEP and discuss immunological mechanisms, the value of in vivo and in vitro tests as well as the main differential diagnosis. Furthermore, we highlight in this particular case the challenging differentiation from bullous drug eruption. PMID:16205075

  18. Testing monophyly of the freshwater fish Leporinus (Characiformes, Anostomidae) through molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, J L; Carvalho-Costa, L F; Venere, P C; Carvalho, D C; Troy, W P; Galetti, P M

    2016-03-01

    Monophyly of the genus Leporinus (Characiformes: Anostomidae) was tested by sequencing and analysing a total of 4732 bp, including two mitochondrial [cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and cytochrome b (Cytb)] and three nuclear [myosin heavy chain 6 cardiac muscle alpha (Myh6), recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1) and recombination activating gene 2 (RAG2)] loci for 22 species of Leporinus, or c. 25% of all described species in the genus. Phylogenetic tree analyses (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian species tree) indicate Leporinus to be paraphyletic, with monophyly being rejected by both Kishino-Hasegawa and Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. The sequenced species of Leporinus are distributed across five clades that are interleaved among other anostomid genera. Several taxonomic changes are suggested as being necessary to restore monophyly for the group. The clade containing the type species, Leporinus fasciatus, should be considered Leporinus sensu stricto and at least three new genera should be described for other species currently considered part of Leporinus. PMID:26822755

  19. Toxicological assessment of enzyme-treated asparagus extract in rat acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies and genotoxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Ono, Tomoko; Sato, Atsuya; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    The safety of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) developed as a novel anti-stress functional material was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and genotoxicity assays. In the acute oral dose toxicity study, all rats survived during the test period and ETAS did not influence clinical appearance, body weight gain and necropsy findings at a dosage of 2000mg/kg body weight. Thus, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ETAS was determined to be greater than 2000mg/kg. The 90-day subchronic study (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight, delivered by gavage) in rats reported no significant adverse effects in food consumption, body weight, mortality, urinalysis, hematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. In the micronucleus test of mice, the incidence of micronuclei in ETAS-administered groups (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg/day, injected twice) was equivalent to that of the negative control group, while the positive control group receiving mitomycin C showed a high incidence. The potential of ETAS to induce gene mutation was tested using four Salmonella typhimurium strains and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. The test sample was not mutagenic to the test strains. These results support the safety of ETAS as food and dietary supplement. PMID:24389363

  20. ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTIONAL, MORPHOLOGICAL AND ENZYMATIC TEST FOR ACUTE NEPHROTOXICITY INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative merits of a comprehensive series of contemporary methods for detection of acute nephrotoxicity were evaluated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 30.0 mg mercuric chloride (HgCl2)/kg body weight by ip injection. Indices of nephrotoxicity were e...

  1. The value of acute toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals for estimation of human response.

    PubMed

    Barle, Ester Lovšin; Looser, Roland; Cerne, Manica; Bechter, Rudolf

    2012-04-01

    The determination of single high doses of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is used mostly to fulfill regulatory demands. Oral LD(50) values in animals for over 300 API were compared to the minimal effective therapeutic doses (METD) in humans in order to find a correlation between animal and human data. The highest correlation between human METD and animal LD(50) was found for the dog (R=0.323), the lowest for the rat (0.287). It was determined that acute oral LD(50) of rats have poor correlation with the METD, and cannot be used as a classification criteria into official acute toxic categories. Only 13% of API has been classified as fatal if swallowed according to the EU CLP regulation, none of the substances with very low therapeutic dose have been identified as EU CLP acute toxicity category 1. Substances with very low therapeutic doses, which could potentially have toxic effects in humans, are not identified with the use of oral LD(50) and current classification system. We propose that the acute toxicity based on rat LD(50) dose is not used as a basis for classification of pharmaceuticals, and that the METD is applied as basis for classification. PMID:22306828

  2. SALT MARSH HABITAT FROM A FISH EYE VIEW: A TEST OF THE DIMENSIONLESS INDEX OF HABITAT COMPLEXITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salt marshes are considered important foraging and predator refuge areas for fish, but these functions are rarely measured. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between the structural complexity of the habitat and fish size in marshes subjected to different wat...

  3. Role of the 13C-methacetin breath test in the assessment of acute liver injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Mao, Jing-Yi; Wang, Hong-Yan; Li, Xin; Xu, You-Qing

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of the 13C-methacetin breath test (13C-MBT) in the assessment of acute liver injury in a rat model. METHODS: Acute liver injury in rats was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (D-GalN). Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 8) and five model groups (each n = 8), and acute liver injury was assessed at different time points (6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h) after D-GalN injection. The 13C-MBT, biochemical tests, 15-min retention rate of indocyanine green (ICGR15), and liver biopsy were performed and compared between the control and model groups. Correlations between parameters of the 13C-MBT (Tmax, MVmax, CUM120 and DOBmax), biochemical tests, ICGR15 and liver necrosis score were also analyzed using Spearman’s correlation analysis. RESULTS: Tmax, MVmax, CUM120 and DOBmax, as well as most of the traditional methods, correlated with the liver necrosis score (r = 0.493, P < 0.05; r = -0.731, P < 0.01; r = -0.618, P < 0.01; r = -0.592, P < 0.01, respectively). MVmax, CUM120 and DOBmax rapidly decreased and were lower than those in the controls as early as 6 h after D-GalN injection (3.84 ± 0.84 vs 5.06 ± 0.78, P < 0.01; 3.35 ± 0.72 vs 4.21 ± 1.44, P < 0.05; 52.3 ± 20.58 vs 75.1 ± 9.57, P < 0.05, respectively) and reached the lowest point 24 h after D-GalN injection. MVmax, CUM120 and DOBmax returned to normal levels 72 h after D-GalN injection and preceded most of the traditional methods, including liver biopsy. CONCLUSION: The 13C-MBT is a sensitive tool for the timely detection of acute liver injury and early prediction of recovery in a rat model. Further clinical studies are warranted to validate its role in patients with acute liver injury. PMID:25170215

  4. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.; McKinstry, C.; Cook, C.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation from 1996 to 1999 determined that from 211,685 to 576,676 fish were entrained annually at Grand Coulee Dam. Analysis of the entrainment data found that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the third year of the strobe light study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The objective of the study is to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout under field conditions. The prototype system consists of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended 15 m vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, illuminate a region directly upstream of the barge. The 2003 study period extended from June 16 through August 1. Three light treatments were used: all six lights on for 24 hours, all lights off for 24 hours, and three of six lights cycled on and off every hour for 24 hours. These three treatment conditions were assigned randomly within a

  5. Biological safety of fish (tilapia) collagen.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kohei; Igawa, Kazunari; Sugimoto, Kouji; Yoshizawa, Yuu; Yanagiguchi, Kajiro; Ikeda, Takeshi; Yamada, Shizuka; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Marine collagen derived from fish scales, skin, and bone has been widely investigated for application as a scaffold and carrier due to its bioactive properties, including excellent biocompatibility, low antigenicity, and high biodegradability and cell growth potential. Fish type I collagen is an effective material as a biodegradable scaffold or spacer replicating the natural extracellular matrix, which serves to spatially organize cells, providing them with environmental signals and directing site-specific cellular regulation. This study was conducted to confirm the safety of fish (tilapia) atelocollagen for use in clinical application. We performed in vitro and in vivo biological studies of medical materials to investigate the safety of fish collagen. The extract of fish collagen gel was examined to clarify its sterility. All present sterility tests concerning bacteria and viruses (including endotoxin) yielded negative results, and all evaluations of cell toxicity, sensitization, chromosomal aberrations, intracutaneous reactions, acute systemic toxicity, pyrogenic reactions, and hemolysis were negative according to the criteria of the ISO and the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. The present study demonstrated that atelocollagen prepared from tilapia is a promising biomaterial for use as a scaffold in regenerative medicine. PMID:24809058

  6. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  7. City Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

  8. Permutation tests for centre effect on survival endpoints with application in an acute myeloid leukaemia multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Biard, L; Porcher, R; Resche-Rigon, M

    2014-07-30

    When analysing multicentre data, it may be of interest to test whether the distribution of the endpoint varies among centres. In a mixed-effect model, testing for such a centre effect consists in testing to zero a random centre effect variance component. It has been shown that the usual asymptotic χ(2) distribution of the likelihood ratio and score statistics under the null does not necessarily hold. In the case of censored data, mixed-effects Cox models have been used to account for random effects, but few works have concentrated on testing to zero the variance component of the random effects. We propose a permutation test, using random permutation of the cluster indices, to test for a centre effect in multilevel censored data. Results from a simulation study indicate that the permutation tests have correct type I error rates, contrary to standard likelihood ratio tests, and are more powerful. The proposed tests are illustrated using data of a multicentre clinical trial of induction therapy in acute myeloid leukaemia patients. PMID:24676752

  9. Qualification of spontaneous undirected locomotor behavior of fish for sublethal toxicity testing. Part 1. Variability of measurement parameters under general test conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Vogl, C.; Grillitsch, B.; Wytek, R.; Spieser, O.H.; Scholz, W.

    1999-12-01

    An automated, personal computer-based video-processing, object-recognition, and object-tracing system was used to record and analyze undirected spontaneous locomotor behavior of small groups of undisturbed zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) in laboratory tanks. The primary data provided by the monitoring system were the individually assigned, time-stamped coordinates of the fish in two-dimensional projection. Secondary parameters (position, velocity of movement in the horizontal and the vertical direction, and temporal intraindividual and interindividual association) were calculated. The computed parameters offered a multidimensional description of spontaneous undirected swimming behavior of the fish and proved to be largely independent of water temperature, length, weight, and sex ratio of the zebra fish within the standardized range, but varied significantly with the feeding regime, time of day, number of fish per tank, and batch. Statistical characteristics of the behavioral parameters confirmed them as being appropriate for parametric statistical analyses.

  10. Genotyping Test with Clinical Factors: Better Management of Acute Postoperative Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Hajj, Aline; Peoc’h, Katell; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Jabbour, Hicham; Naccache, Nicole; Abou Zeid, Hicham; Yazbeck, Patricia; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Individualization of acute postoperative pain treatment on an evidence-based decision process is a major health concern. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of genetic and non-genetic factors on the variability of response to morphine in acute postoperative pain. A group of nighty-five patients undergoing major surgery were included prospectively. At 24 h, a logistic regression model was carried out to determine the factors associated with morphine doses given by a Patient Controlled Analgesia device. The dose of morphine was associated with age (p = 0.011), patient weight (p = 0.025) and the duration of operation (p = 0.030). This dose decreased with patient’s age and duration of operation and increased with patient’s weight. OPRM1 and ABCB1 polymorphisms were significantly associated with administered dose of morphine (p = 0.038 and 0.012 respectively). Patients with at least one G allele for c.118A>G OPRM1 polymorphism (AG/GG) needed 4 times the dose of morphine of AA patients. Additionally, patients with ABCB1 CT and CC genotypes for c.3435C>T polymorphism were 5.6 to 7.1 times more prone to receive higher dose of morphine than TT patients. Our preliminary results support the evidence that OPRM1/ABCB1 genotypes along with age, weight and duration of operation have an impact on morphine consumption for acute postoperative pain treatment. PMID:25809606

  11. Substrate uptake tests and quantitative FISH show differences in kinetic growth of bulking and non-bulking activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Lou, Inchio; de Los Reyes, Francis L

    2005-12-20

    The competition between filaments and floc formers in activated sludge has been historically described using kinetic selection. However, recent studies have suggested that bacterial storage may also be an important factor in microbial selection, since the dynamic nature of substrate flows into wastewater treatment plants elicit transient responses from microorganisms. Respirometry-based kinetic selection should thus be reevaluated by considering cell storage, and a more reliable method should be developed to include bacterial storage in the analysis of growth of filaments and floc formers in activated sludge. In this study, we applied substrate uptake tests combined with metabolic modeling to determine the growth rates, yields and maintenance coefficients of bulking and non-bulking activated sludge developed in lab scale reactors under feast and famine conditions. The results of quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that the filaments Eikelboom Type 1851, Type 021N, and Thiothrix nivea were dominant in bulking sludge, comprising 42.0 % of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS), with 61.6% of the total filament length extending from flocs into bulk solution. Only low levels of Type 1851 filament length (4.9% of MLVSS) occurred in non-bulking sludge, 83.0% of which grew inside the flocs. The kinetic parameters determined from the substrate uptake tests were consistent with those from respirometry and showed that filamentous bulking sludge had lower growth rates and maintenance coefficients than non-bulking sludge. These results provide support for growth kinetic differences in explaining the competitive strategy of filamentous bacteria. PMID:16155949

  12. USE OF RESPIRATORY-CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES OF RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) IN IDENTIFYING ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES IN FISH: PART 3. POLAR NARCOTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physiological responses of rainbow trout to acutely lethal aqueous concentrations of the suspected polar narcotics phenol, 2,4,-dimethylphenol, aniline, 2-chloroaniline and 4-chloroaniline were examined. Visible signs of intoxication included tremors that progressed to whole-...

  13. [Clinical application of blood matching with hemolytic test in vitro for transfusion treatment of crisis puerpera with acute hemolytic anemia].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Min; Tang, Cong-Hai; Gan, Wei-Wei; Wu, A-Yang; Yang, Hui-Cong; Zhang, Tian-Xin; Huang, Yan Xue; Qiu, Lu-Zhen; Chen, Hong-Pu; Lin, Feng-Li

    2014-08-01

    This study was aimed to establish the matching method of hemolytic test in vitro, and to guide the transfusion treatment for puerpera with acute hemolytic disease. The donor's erythrocytes were sensibilized by all the antibodies in plasma of patient in vitro and were added with complement, after incubation for 6.5 hours at 38 °C, the hemolysis or no hemolysis were observed. It is safe to transfuse if the hemolysis did not occur. The results showed that when the matching difficulty happened to puerpera with acute hemolytic disease, the compatible donor could be screened by hemolytic test in vitro. There were no untoward effects after transfusion of 6 U leukocyte-depleted erythrocyte suspension. The all hemoglobin, total bilirubins, indirect bilirubin, reticulocyte, D-dimex and so on were rapidly improved in patient after transfusion , showing obvious clinical efficacy of treatment. It is concluded that when the matching results can not judge accurately compatible or incompatible through the routine method of cross matching, the agglutinated and no-hemolytic erythrocytes can be screened by hemolytic test in vitro and can be transfused with good efficacy; the hemoglobin level can be promoted rapidly, and no untoward effects occur. PMID:25130835

  14. Automation of an in vitro cytotoxicity assay used to estimate starting doses in acute oral systemic toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Bouhifd, Mounir; Bories, Gilles; Casado, Juan; Coecke, Sandra; Norlén, Hedvig; Parissis, Nicholaos; Rodrigues, Robim M; Whelan, Maurice P

    2012-06-01

    Application of High Throughput Screening (HTS) to the regulatory safety assessment of chemicals is still in its infancy but shows great promise in terms of facilitating better understanding of toxicological modes-of-action, reducing the reliance on animal testing, and allowing more data-poor chemicals to be assessed at a reasonable cost. To promote the uptake and acceptance of HTS approaches, we describe in a stepwise manner how a well known cytotoxicity assay can be automated to increase throughput while maintaining reliability. Results generated with selected reference chemicals compared very favourably with data obtained from a previous international validation study concerning the prediction of acute systemic toxicity in rodents. The automated assay was then included in a formal ECVAM validation study to determine if the assay could be used for binary classification of chemicals with respect to their acute oral toxicity, using a threshold equivalent to a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. in a rodent bioassay (LD50). This involved the blind-testing of 56 reference chemicals on the HTS platform to produce concentration-response and IC50 data. Finally, the assay was adapted to a format more suited to higher throughput testing without compromising the quality of the data obtained. PMID:22465836

  15. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25259848

  16. A False Positive Dengue Fever Rapid Diagnostic Test Result in a Case of Acute Parvovirus B19 Infection.

    PubMed

    Izumida, Toshihide; Sakata, Hidenao; Nakamura, Masahiko; Hayashibara, Yumiko; Inasaki, Noriko; Inahata, Ryo; Hasegawa, Sumiyo; Takizawa, Takenori; Kaya, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of dengue fever occurred in Japan in August 2014. We herein report the case of a 63-year-old man who presented with a persistent fever in September 2014. Acute parvovirus B19 infection led to a false positive finding of dengue fever on a rapid diagnostic test (Panbio Dengue Duo Cassette(TM)). To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of a false positive result for dengue IgM with the dengue rapid diagnostic test. We believe that epidemiological information on the prevalence of parvovirus B19 is useful for guiding the interpretation of a positive result with the dengue rapid diagnostic test. PMID:27181552

  17. SCREENING AND TESTING FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN FISH - BIOMARKERS AS "SIGNPOSTS," NOT "TRAFFIC LIGHTS," IN RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomarkers provide important tools for addressing the impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in fish. Presently, biomarkers are best used as mechanistic "signposts" rather than as "red traffic lights" in the environmental risk assessment of EDCs. In field studies, bio...

  18. DarT: The embryo test with the Zebrafish Danio rerio--a general model in ecotoxicology and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Roland

    2002-01-01

    The acute fish test is an animal test whose ecotoxicological relevance is worthy of discussion. The primary aim of protection in ecotoxicology is the population and not the individual. Furthermore the concentration of pollutants in the environment is normally not in the lethal range. Therefore the acute fish test covers solely the situation after chemical spills. Nevertheless, acute fish toxicity data still belong to the base set used for the assessment of chemicals. The embryo test with the zebrafish Danio rerio (DarT) is recommended as a substitute for the acute fish test. For validation an international laboratory comparison test was carried out. A summary of the results is presented in this paper. Based on the promising results of testing chemicals and waste water the test design was validated by the DIN-working group "7.6 Fischei-Test". A normed test guideline for testing waste water with fish is available. The test duration is short (48 h) and within the test different toxicological endpoints can be examined. Endpoints from the embryo test are suitable for QSAR-studies. Besides the use in ecotoxicology the introduction as a toxicological model was investigated. Disturbance of pigmentation and effects on the frequency of heart-beat were examined. A further important application is testing of teratogenic chemicals. Based on the results DarT could be a screening test within preclinical studies. PMID:12096329

  19. Development of a Complete Life Cycle Sediment Toxicity Test for the Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Existing sediment toxicity test methods are limited to acute and chronic exposure of invertebrates and acute exposure of vertebrates, with limited guidance on the chronic exposure of vertebrates, specifically fishes. A series of life stage-specific studies were conducted to dete...

  20. Acute In Vivo Testing of a Respiratory Assist Catheter: Implants in Calves Versus Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Eash, Heide J.; Frankowski, Brian J.; Litwak, Kenneth; Wagner, William R.; Hattler, Brack G.; Federspiel, William J.

    2007-01-01

    A respiratory catheter that is inserted through a peripheral vein and placed within the vena cava is being developed for CO2 removal in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The catheter uses a rapidly pulsating balloon to enhance gas exchange. In this study, the CO2 removal performance of our catheter was assessed in acute sheep implants and compared with calf implants, primarily because sheep have cardiac outputs (CO) that are more comparable with human CO and lower than calves. Respiratory catheters (25 mL balloon, 0.17 m²) were inserted acutely in sheep (n = 2) and calves (n = 6) through the jugular vein and placed within the vena cava in two positions: spanning the right atrium (RA) and within the inferior vena cava (IVC). The postinsertion CO in the sheep ranged from 4.1 to 7.2 L/min compared with 6.2 to 15.5 L/min for the calves. The maximum CO2 removal rates (vCO2) were 297 ml/min/m² (calf) and 282 ml/min/m² (sheep) in the RA position and 240 ml/min/m² (calf) and 248 ml/min/m² (sheep) in the IVC position. The respective removal rates between animal models were not statistically different (p values > 0 .05 for all data sets). The dependence of the vCO2 on balloon pulsation was also not statistically different between the animal models. PMID:12918576

  1. Is the Quality of Sushi Ruined by Freezing Raw Fish and Squid? A Randomized Double-Blind Trial With Sensory Evaluation Using Discrimination Testing

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Kentaro; Fukuchi, Takahiko; Yoshimura, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Sushi is a traditional Japanese cuisine enjoyed worldwide. However, using raw fish to make sushi may pose risk of certain parasitic infections, such as anisakidosis, which is most reported in Japan. This risk of infection can be eliminated by freezing fish; however, Japanese people are hesitant to freeze fish because it is believed that freezing ruins sushi's taste. Methods. A randomized double-blind trial with discrimination testing was conducted to examine the ability of Japanese individuals to distinguish between frozen and unfrozen sushi. A pair of mackerel and squid sushi, one once frozen and the other not, was provided to the participants, and they were asked to answer which one tasted better. Results. Among 120 rounds of discrimination testing involving the consumption of 240 pieces of mackerel sushi, unfrozen sushi was believed to taste better in 42.5% (51 dishes) of cases, frozen sushi was thought to taste better in 49.2% (59 dishes), and the participants felt the taste was the same in 8.3% (10 dishes). The odds ratio for selecting unfrozen sushi as “tastes better” over frozen sushi was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], .59–1.26; P = .45). For squid, unfrozen sushi was believed to be superior 48.3% of the time (58 dishes), and frozen sushi, 35.0% of the time (42 dishes). They were felt to be the same in 16.7% (20 dishes) (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, .93–2.05; P = .11). Conclusions. Freezing raw fish did not ruin sushi's taste. These findings may encourage the practice of freezing fish before using it in sushi, helping to decrease the incidence of anisakidosis. PMID:25697740

  2. Transgenic Fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish into which foreign DNA is artificially introduced and integrated into their genome are called transgenic fish. Since the development of the first transgenic fish in 1985, techniques to produce transgenic fish have improved tremendously, resulting in the production of genetically modified (GM) ...

  3. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project : Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grond Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.A.; McKinstry, C.A.; Simmons, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1995, the Colville Confederated Tribes have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC's Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the first year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. Analysis of the effect of strobe lights on the distribution (numbers) and behavior of kokanee and rainbow trout was based on 51, 683 fish targets detected during the study period (June 30 through August 1, 2001). Study findings include the following: (1) Analysis of the count data indicated that significantly more fish were present when the lights were on compared to off. This was true for both the 24-hr tests as well as the 1-hr tests. Powerplant discharge, distance from lights, and date were significant factors in the analysis. (2) Behavioral results indicated that fish within 14 m of the lights were trying to avoid the lights by swimming across the lighted region or

  4. Microfluidic system with integrated electroosmotic pumps, concentration gradient generator and fish cell line (RTgill-W1)--towards water toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Glawdel, Tomasz; Elbuken, Caglar; Lee, Lucy E J; Ren, Carolyn L

    2009-11-21

    This study presents a microfluidic system that incorporates electroosmotic pumps, a concentration gradient generator and a fish cell line (rainbow trout gill) to perform toxicity testing on fish cells seeded in the system. The system consists of three mechanical components: (1) a toxicity testing chip containing a microfluidic gradient generator which creates a linear concentration distribution of toxicant in a cell test chamber, (2) an electroosmotic (EO) pump chip that controls the flow rate and operation of the toxicity chip, and (3) indirect reservoirs that connect the two chips allowing for the toxicant solution to be pumped separately from the electroosmotic pump solution. The flow rate and stability of the EO pumps was measured and tested by monitoring the gradient generator using fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, a lethality test was performed with this system setup using a rainbow trout gill cell line (RTgill-W1) as the test cells and sodium dodecyl sulfate as a model toxicant. A gradient of sodium dodecyl sulfate, from 0 to 50 microg mL(-1), was applied for 1 hr to the attached cells, and the results were quantified using a Live/Dead cell assay. This work is a preliminary study on the application of EO pumps in a living cell assay, with the potential to use the pumps in portable water quality testing devices with RTgill-W1 cells as the biosensors. PMID:19865731

  5. Acute Pancreatitis Induced by Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine Proven by Single and Low Dose Challenge Testing in a Child with Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Yi, Geum-Chae-Won; Yoon, Ka-Hyun; Hwang, Jin-Bok

    2012-12-01

    We report here a case of drug-induced acute pancreatitis proved by elimination and single, low dose challenge test in a child with Crohn disease. A 14-year-old boy with moderate/severe Crohn disease was admitted due to high fever and severe epigastric pain during administration of mesalazine and azathioprine. Blood test and abdominal ultrasonography revealed acute pancreatitis. After discontinuance of the medication and supportive care, the symptoms and laboratory findings improved. A single, low dose challenge test was done to confirm the relationship of the adverse drug reaction and acute pancreatitis, and to discriminate the responsible drug. Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine showed positive responses, and mesalazine showed a negative response. We introduce the method of single, low dose challenge test and its interpretation for drug-induced pancreatitis. PMID:24010098

  6. There is need for antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests to identify common acute tropical illnesses.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Henry; Suankratay, Chusana

    2007-01-01

    Enteric fever, typhus, leptospirosis, dengue, melioidosis, and tuberculous meningitis present urgent diagnostic problems that require experience and clinical judgment to make early evidence-based management decisions. Basic and applied research dealing with reliable antigen-based diagnostics has been published and confirmed for several of these infections. This should have initiated commercial production but has not. Established international firms see little profit in such diagnostic kits since they would be used in poor countries with little prospects for return of investment capital. We attempt to illustrate this issue, using common causes of acute febrile illnesses in the Southeast Asian region. We believe that rapid diagnostic technology could prevent significant delay in starting appropriate therapy, reduce hospital expenses, and even save lives. PMID:17617848

  7. Molecular genetic tests for FLT3, NPM1, and CEBPA in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Bai, Shaochun; Vance, Gail H

    2013-01-01

    Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and a normal karyotype constitute the single largest cytogenetic group of AML. It is important to identify prognostic markers that predict patients' outcome more precisely. The presence of mutations in FLT3 (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3), NPM1 (Nucleophosmin), and CEBPA (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha) genes hold prognostic significance in patients with AML and normal cytogenetics. Therefore, mutation identification may help to optimize therapeutic approaches in this group of patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based fragment length analysis for mutations in FLT3 and NPM1 has been shown to be a fast and sensitive method, while nucleotide sequencing represents a gold standard for CEBPA heterogeneous mutational screening. We describe both fragment length assay and sequencing methods for mutational analysis of these three genes. PMID:23666693

  8. Arterial damages in acute elbow dislocations: which diagnostic tests are required?

    PubMed

    Lutter, Christoph; Pfefferkorn, Ronny; Schoeffl, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Blunt vessel injuries of peripheral arteries caused by a direct trauma are rare. Studies have described the frequency of arterial ruptures following closed elbow dislocations in 0.3-1.7% of all cases. However, arterial damage does not always necessarily appear as a complete rupture of the vessel with a loss of peripheral circulation and ischaemic symptoms; a relatively strong periarticular system of collaterals can maintain circulation. Furthermore, the traumatic dislocation can also cause intimal tears, arterial dissections and aneurysms or thrombosis. In all cases of vessel injury, including total disruption, a peripheral pulse might still be palpable. 3 weeks after an acute elbow dislocation, we have diagnosed a patient with a long-segment stenosis of the brachial artery and a thrombosis of the radial artery. Therefore, the close anatomic proximity to the neurovascular structures should always be considered in cases of elbow dislocations, even if peripheral pulses are traceable. PMID:27436035

  9. Surveillance of Acute Respiratory Infections Using Community-Submitted Symptoms and Specimens for Molecular Diagnostic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Jennifer; Rowe, Aaron; Brownstein, John S.; Chunara, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory systems for surveillance of acute respiratory infection give real-time information about infections circulating in the community, yet to-date are limited to self-reported syndromic information only and lacking methods of linking symptom reports to infection types. We developed the GoViral platform to evaluate whether a cohort of lay volunteers could, and would find it useful to, contribute self-reported symptoms online and to compare specimen types for self-collected diagnostic information of sufficient quality for respiratory infection surveillance. Volunteers were recruited, given a kit (collection materials and customized instructions), instructed to report their symptoms weekly, and when sick with cold or flu-like symptoms, requested to collect specimens (saliva and nasal swab). We compared specimen types for respiratory virus detection sensitivity (via polymerase-chain-reaction) and ease of collection. Participants were surveyed to determine receptivity to participating when sick, to receiving information on the type of pathogen causing their infection and types circulating near them. Between December 1 2013 and March 1 2014, 295 participants enrolled in the study and received a kit. Of those who reported symptoms, half (71) collected and sent specimens for analysis. Participants submitted kits on average 2.30 days (95 CI: 1.65 to 2.96) after symptoms began. We found good concordance between nasal and saliva specimens for multiple pathogens, with few discrepancies. Individuals report that saliva collection is easiest and report that receiving information about what pathogen they, and those near them, have is valued and can shape public health behaviors. Community-submitted specimens can be used for the detection of acute respiratory infection with individuals showing receptivity for participating and interest in a real-time picture of respiratory pathogens near them. PMID:26075141

  10. An Analysis of Hematological Parameters as a Diagnostic test for Malaria in Patients with Acute Febrile Illness: An Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim; Rana, Safia; Hassan, Mohd Jaseem; Nabi, Farhat; Jetley, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hematological changes are among the most common complications encountered in malaria. This study analyzes and statistically evaluates the hematological changes as a diagnostic test for malaria in patients with acute febrile illness and whether these could guide the physician to institute specific antimalarial treatment. Methods The present study was an observational study, conducted from January to December 2012. A total of 723 patients presenting with acute febrile illness at our hospital were evaluated. A complete blood count and malarial parasite microscopy were performed for each patient. Results The findings showed that 172 out of 723 patients (24%) were diagnosed to have malaria by positive smear report. There were 121 males and 51 females with a male to female ratio of 2.3:1. Maximum number of cases were seen in the 20-30 years age group. There was a statistically significant reduction in hemoglobin (p<0.005), platelet count (p<0.001) and total leukocyte count (p<0.001) levels in patients with malaria compared to those without the disease. Likelihood ratios for a positive result of platelets (6.2) and total leukocyte count (3.4) was relevant as compared to hemoglobin (1.61) and Red cell distribution width (1.79). The negative predictive values for hemoglobin (79%), total leukocyte count (86%), platelets (94%) and Red cell distribution width (93%) were significant. Red cell distribution width values were found to be higher in patients with malaria than in patients without malaria (p<0.001). Conclusion This study revealed that routinely used laboratory findings such as hemoglobin, leukocytes, platelet counts and even red cell distribution width values can provide a diagnostic clue in a patient with acute febrile illness in endemic areas, thus increasing the probability of malaria and enhancing prompt initiation of treatment. PMID:24498476

  11. Acute toxicity of the cationic surfactant C12-benzalkonium in different bioassays: how test design affects bioavailability and effect concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Geurts, Marc; Sjollema, Sascha B; Kramer, Nynke I; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J

    2014-03-01

    Using an ion-exchange-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method, the freely dissolved concentrations of C12-benzalkonium were measured in different toxicity assays, including 1) immobilization of Daphnia magna in the presence or absence of dissolved humic acid; 2) mortality of Lumbriculus variegatus in the presence or absence of a suspension of Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) sediment; 3) photosystem II inhibition of green algae Chlorella vulgaris; and 4) viability of in vitro rainbow trout gill cell line (RTgill-W1) in the presence or absence of serum proteins. Furthermore, the loss from chemical adsorption to the different test vessels used in these tests was also determined. The C12-benzalkonium sorption isotherms to the different sorbent phases were established as well. Our results show that the freely dissolved concentration is a better indicator of the actual exposure concentration than the nominal or total concentration in most test assays. Daphnia was the most sensitive species to C12-benzalkonium. The acute Daphnia and Lumbriculus tests both showed no enhanced toxicity from possible ingestion of sorbed C12-benzalkonium in comparison with water-only exposure, which is in accordance with the equilibrium partitioning theory. Moreover, the present study demonstrates that commonly used sorbent phases can strongly affect bioavailability and observed effect concentrations for C12-benzalkonium. Even stronger effects of decreased actual exposure concentrations resulting from sorption to test vessels, cells, and sorbent phases can be expected for more hydrophobic cationic surfactants. PMID:24273010

  12. Blood tests: One too many? Evaluating blood requesting guidance developed for acute patients admitted to trauma and orthopaedic units.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Alastair; Reidy, Mike; Scicluna, Gabrielle; Love, Gavin J; Joss, Judith

    2016-03-01

    In a recently published report from the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, around 20% of clinical practice which encompasses blood science investigations is considered wasteful. Blood tests including liver function tests (LFTs), C-reactive protein (CRP), coagulation screens, and international normalising ratios (INR) are frequently requested for patients who undergo emergency hospital admission. The paucity of guidance available for blood requesting in acute trauma and orthopaedic admissions can lead to inappropriate requesting practices and over investigation. Acute admissions over a period of one month were audited retrospectively for the frequency and clinical indications of requests for LFTs, coagulation screens/INR, and CRP. The total number of blood tests requested for the duration of the patient's admission was recorded. Initial auditing of 216 admissions in January 2014 demonstrated a striking amount of over-investigation. Clinical guidelines were developed with multidisciplinary expert input and implemented within the department. Re-audit of 233 admissions was carried out in September 2014. Total no. of LFTs requested: January 895, September 336 (-62.5%); coagulation screens/INR requested: January 307, September 210 (-31.6%); CRPs requested: January 894, September 317 (-64.5%). No. of blood requests per patient: January (M=4.81, SD 4.75), September (M=3.60, SD=4.70). Approximate combined total cost of LFT, coagulation/INR, CRP in January £2674.14 and September £1236.19 (-£1437.95, -53.77%). A large decrease was observed in admission requesting and subsequent monitoring (p<0.01) following the implementation. This both significantly reduced cost and venepuncture rates. PMID:26696248

  13. Integrated ecotoxicological assessment of marine sediments affected by land-based marine fish farm effluents: physicochemical, acute toxicity and benthic community analyses.

    PubMed

    Silva, C; Yáñez, E; Martín-Díaz, M L; Riba, I; DelValls, T A

    2013-08-01

    An integrated ecotoxicological assessment of marine sediments affected by land-based marine fish farm effluents was developed using physicochemical and benthic community structure analyses and standardised laboratory bioassays with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), amphipods (Ampelisca brevicornis) and sea urchin larvae (Paracentrotus lividus). Intertidal sediment samples were collected at five sites of the Rio San Pedro (RSP) creek, from the aquaculture effluent to a clean site. The effective concentration (EC50) from bacterial bioluminescence and A. brevicornis survival on whole sediments and P. lividus larval developmental success on sediment elutriates were assessed. Numbers of species, abundance and Shannon diversity were the biodiversity indicators measured in benthic fauna of sediment samples. In parallel, redox potential, pH, organic matter and metal levels (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the sediment and dissolved oxygen in the interstitial water were measured in situ. Water and sediment physicochemical analysis revealed the exhibition of a spatial gradient in the RSP, evidenced by hypoxia/anoxia, reduced and acidic conditions, high organic enrichment and metal concentrations at the most contaminated sites. Whereas, the benthic fauna biodiversity decreased the bioassays depicted decreases in EC50, A. brevicornis survival, P. lividus larval success at sampling sites closer to the studied fish farms. This study demonstrates that the sediments polluted by fish farm effluents may lead to alterations of the biodiversity of the exposed organisms. PMID:23681739

  14. Types, Risk Factors, Clinical symptoms and Diagnostic Tests of Acute Adult Meningitis in Northern Iran During 2006-2012

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Babamahmoodi, Farhang

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment and otherwise associated with serious morbidity and mortality. Aim The aim of this study was to assess types, risk factors, clinical symptoms and diagnostic tests of meningitis in hospitalized patients of Mazandaran University of medical sciences hospitals during 2006-2012. Matherials and Methods This is a retrospective descriptive study. Following approval of the ethics committee of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, records of adult patients diagnosed with acute meningitis from 2006 to 2012 were extracted from Mazandaran Provincial Health Center and patients attending hospitals affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, standard deviation, and median). Results In this study, of the 137 patients with meningitis, 73 (53.9%) were viral, 61 (46%) bacterial, 1 (0.7%) fungal, and 2 (1.4%) unknown. The majority of risk factors in patients were head trauma, upper respiratory infection, and drug addiction. The most common clinical signs were headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, and stiff neck. Conclusion In this study, the incidence of meningitis was much lower than any other country. It could be due to geographic variation or incomplete recording of patient's data. It is recommended to perform a longitudinal study during the coming years on patients with meningitis. PMID:26155497

  15. Review of nucleic acid amplification tests and clinical prediction rules for diagnosis of tuberculosis in acute care facilities.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Amit S; Davis, J Lucian; Schecter, Gisela F; Barry, Pennan M; Flood, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of hospitalization and mortality in the United States. Prevention of TB transmission in acute care facilities relies on prompt identification and implementation of airborne isolation, rapid diagnosis, and treatment of presumptive pulmonary TB patients. In areas with low TB burden, this strategy may result in inefficient utilization of airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs). We reviewed TB epidemiology and diagnostic approaches to inform optimal TB detection in low-burden settings. Published clinical prediction rules for individual studies have a sensitivity ranging from 81% to 100% and specificity ranging from 14% to 63% for detection of culture-positive pulmonary TB patients admitted to acute care facilities. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have a specificity of >98%, and the sensitivity of NAATs varies by acid-fast bacilli sputum smear status (positive smear, ≥95%; negative smear, 50%-70%). We propose an infection prevention strategy using a clinical prediction rule to identify patients who warrant diagnostic evaluation for TB in an AIIR with an NAAT. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether use of clinical prediction rules and NAATs results in optimized utilization of AIIRs and improved detection and treatment of presumptive pulmonary TB patients. PMID:26166303

  16. Comparative proteomic profiling and possible toxicological mechanism of acute injury induced by carbon ion radiation in pubertal mice testes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong

    2016-07-01

    We investigated potential mechanisms of acute injury in pubertal mice testes after exposure to carbon ion radiation (CIR). Serum testosterone was measured following whole-body irradiation with a 2Gy carbon ion beam. Comparative proteomic profiling and Western blotting were applied to identify potential biomarkers and measure protein expression, and terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was performed to detect apoptotic cells. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to investigate protein localization. Serum testosterone was lowest at 24h after CIR, and 10 differentially expressed proteins were identified at this time point that included eIF4E, an important regulator of initiation that combines with mTOR and 4EBP1 to control protein synthesis via the mTOR signalling pathway during proliferation and apoptosis. Protein expression and localization studies confirmed their association with acute injury following exposure to CIR. These three proteins may be useful molecular markers for detecting abnormal spermatogenesis following exposure to environmental and cosmic radiation

  17. Laboratory Measures of Postural Control During the Star Excursion Balance Test After Acute First-Time Lateral Ankle Sprain

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris M.; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-01-01

    Context No researchers, to our knowledge, have investigated the immediate postinjury-movement strategies associated with acute first-time lateral ankle sprain (LAS) as quantified by center of pressure (COP) and kinematic analyses during performance of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Objective To analyze the kinematic and COP patterns of a group with acute first-time LAS and a noninjured control group during performance of the SEBT. Design Case-control study. Setting University biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 81 participants with acute first-time LAS (53 men, 28 women; age = 23.22 ± 4.93 years, height = 1.73 ± 0.09 m, mass = 75.72 ± 13.86 kg) and 19 noninjured controls (15 men, 4 women; age = 22.53 ± 1.68 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.08 m, mass = 71.55 ± 11.31 kg). Intervention Participants performed the anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) reach directions of the SEBT. Main Outcome Measure(s) We assessed 3-dimensional kinematics of the lower extremity joints and associated fractal dimension (FD) of the COP path during performance of the SEBT. Results The LAS group had decreased normalized reach distances in the ANT, PL, and PM directions when compared with the control group on their injured (ANT: 58.16% ± 6.86% versus 64.86% ± 5.99%; PL: 85.64% ± 10.62% versus 101.14% ± 8.39%; PM: 94.89% ± 9.26% versus 107.29 ± 6.02%) and noninjured (ANT: 60.98% ± 6.74% versus 64.76% ± 5.02%; PL: 88.95% ± 11.45% versus 102.36% ± 8.53%; PM: 97.13% ± 8.76% versus 106.62% ± 5.78%) limbs (P < .01). This observation was associated with altered temporal sagittal-plane kinematic profiles throughout each reach attempt and at the point of maximum reach (P < .05). This result was associated with a reduced FD of the COP path for each reach direction on the injured limb only (P < .05). Conclusions Acute first-time LAS was associated with bilateral deficits in postural control, as evidenced by the bilateral

  18. In vitro methods for the determination of test chemicals metabolism utilizing fish liver subcellular fractions and hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this one-day short course is to train students on methods used to measure in vitro metabolism in fish and extrapolate this information to the intact animal. This talk is one of four presentations given by course instructors. The first part of this talk provides a...

  19. EVALUATION OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTS WITH LARVAL STRIPED BASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) appear to be a desirable test species for the estuarine environment because their critical life stages are spent in estuaries, they have wide tolerance to salinity, and they are available through government and private hatcheries. oxicity test proc...

  20. Challenges in Obtaining HIV Testing in an Acute Involuntary Inpatient Psychiatric Setting.

    PubMed

    Weller, Jennifer; Levitt, Gwen; Myers, Robert; Riley, Aaron; Gesmundo, Celsius-Kit

    2016-01-01

    Even in health care professions, a stigma remains for patients with co-occurring HIV and serious mental illness. Researchers at a large, urban medical center encountered this stigma when they attempted to initiate a study of cognition in psychiatric inpatients with and without HIV who were seen as vulnerable in the context of research. Education efforts and advocacy on the part of the research team was instrumental and resulted in system-wide changes in the hospital, including the addition of HIV testing to the psychiatric admission laboratory panel. Within the first year that routine laboratory orders included an HIV test, the rate of testing ordered by inpatient-attending psychiatrists reached 60% of admissions. As of 2014, 13 HIV tests were found to be HIV seropositive in inpatients, with four of those cases classified as new-onset, as opposed to two positive tests in the year prior to our study. PMID:27426407

  1. Testing an application of a biotic ligand model to predict acute toxicity of metal mixtures to rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yuichi; Kamo, Masashi; Naito, Wataru

    2015-04-01

    The authors tested the applicability of a previously developed biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict acute toxicity of single metals and metal mixtures (cadmium, lead, and zinc) to rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a single available dataset. The BLM used in the present study hypothesizes that metals inhibit an essential cation (calcium) and organisms die as a result of its deficiency, leading to an assumption that the proportion of metal-binding ligand (f) is responsible for the toxic effects of metals on the survival of rainbow trout. The f value is a function of free-ion concentrations of metals computed by a chemical speciation model, and the function has affinity constants as model parameters. First, the survival effects of single metals were statistically modeled separately (i.e., f-survival relationship) by using the generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution. The modeled responses of survival rates to f overlapped reasonably irrespective of metals tested, supporting the theoretical prediction from the BLM that f-survival relationships are comparable regardless of metal species. The authors thus developed the generalized linear mixed model based on all data pooled across the single-metal tests. The best-fitted model well predicted the survival responses observed in mixture tests (r = 0.97), providing support for the applicability of the BLM to predict effects of metal mixtures. PMID:25323464

  2. Increased RO concentrate toxicity following application of antiscalants - acute toxicity tests with the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli.

    PubMed

    Feiner, Mona; Beggel, Sebastian; Jaeger, Nadine; Geist, Juergen

    2015-02-01

    In reverse osmosis, a frequently used technology in water desalination processes, wastewater (RO concentrate) is generated containing the retained solutes as well as so-called antiscalants (AS), i.e. chemical substances that are commonly applied to prevent membrane-blocking. In this study, a risk assessment of a possible discharge of concentrate into a small stream was conducted. The acute toxicity of two concentrates containing two different ASs and of concentrate without AS to the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli was studied. Mortality of gammarids exposed to the concentrate without AS was not different to the control, whereas concentrates including ASs caused mortality rates up to 100% at the highest test concentrations after 168 h. Resulting EC50-values were 36.2-39.4% (v/v) after 96 h and 26.6-58.0% (v/v) after 168 h. These results suggest that the ecotoxicological relevance of antiscalants is greater than currently assumed. PMID:25476491

  3. Comparison of ethanol toxicity to Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia tested at two different temperatures: static acute toxicity test results

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, I.T.; Cowgill, U.M.; Murphy, P.G.

    1987-08-01

    Ethanol is a commonly used solvent in toxicity testing, yet there are few studies in the literature devoted to its toxicity to zooplankton. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of Daphnia magna Straus 1820 and Ceriodaphnia dubia J. Richard 1894 to ethanol. Two temperatures were selected because most toxicity data involving D. magna has been carried out at 20/sup 0/C while all discussions concerning C. dubia appear to relate to temperatures oscillating around 25/sup 0/C. Thus, the response of these two organisms to ethanol was examined at 20/sup 0/C and at 24/sup 0/C.r

  4. Non-invasive cardiac index monitoring during cardiopulmonary functional testing provides additional prognostic value in patients after acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Feng; Chen, Wei-Siang; Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Liu, Min-Hui; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Huang, Yu-Yen; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Wang, Chao-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The prognostic value of parameters derived from a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is well established in patients stabilized after acute heart failure (HF). Under multidisciplinary disease management, this study sought to test whether noninvasive cardiac output (CO) monitoring (NICOM) during the CPET provides additional prognostic value. In total, 131 patients stabilized after acute HF agreed to undergo the CPET with NICOM. Outcome follow-up focused on composite events of death and HF-related rehospitalization. Patients with a peak cardiac index (CI) of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/ m(2) (n = 32), compared to those with a peak CI of > 4.5 L/minute/m(2) (n = 99), had higher incidences of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension, but had lower hemoglobin levels, estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)). During the 1.2 ± 0.7 years of follow-up, there were 8 (6.1%) deaths, and 16 (12.2%) HF-related rehospitalizations. In a Cox univariable analysis, a lower event-free survival was associated with a history of DM, a higher Ve/VCO(2) slope, lower peak VCO(2) and eGFR, and a peak CI of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/ m(2) (P < 0.05). The Cox multivariable analysis showed that the Ve/VCO(2) slope (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01~1.16, P = 0.02) and peak CI of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/m(2 )(HR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.18~9.01, P = 0.02) were significant independent predictors. In conclusion, NICOM during the CPET was demonstrated to provide prognostic information in addition to traditional risk factors, biomarkers, and other well-established CPET parameters. PMID:23258137

  5. Developing and testing a patient information booklet for thrombolysis used in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Peter; Wanklyn, Peter; Raynor, D K; Waxman, Robin

    2010-12-01

    Objective  Thrombolysis decreases the chance of post-stroke dependence, although its use carries significant risk, notably of intra-cerebral haemorrhage. Patients (and families) face an important risk/benefit decision before consenting. We drafted a patient information booklet for this purpose, and applied performance-based readability testing with the aim that the most important information in the booklet could be found and understood. Methods  The booklet was developed with reference to best practice in information writing and design. We User-Tested its performance on 56 people without prior experience of stroke. After reading the booklet they were asked to find and explain 15 pieces of information. The booklet was revised according to its performance and re-tested, until each item was found and understood by at least 80% of participants. Key findings  The four-page information booklet contained approximately 900 words, organised into six sections. A risk-palette graphic showed the chance of positive and negative outcomes. The booklet was tested on four participant cohorts and revised, including more bold text, re-wording, changing the title and changing the graphic to a coloured bar chart. Testing the final version on the fourth cohort of 20 people showed that each of the 15 tested items of information met the target of at least 80% participants being able to find and understand it. Conclusions  The use of information design and User Testing produced a booklet that is understandable by people with no prior experience of stroke. User Testing is an inexpensive and quick method to ensure that information intended for patients is usable. PMID:21054597

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy Assessment of Immunochromatographic Tests for the Rapid Detection of Antibodies against Orientia tsutsugamushi Using Paired Acute and Convalescent Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Watthanaworawit, Wanitda; Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Jintaworn, Suthatip; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Richards, Allen L.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Nosten, François

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of two immunochromatographic tests (ICTs), the Access Bio CareStart Scrub Typhus test (Somerset, NJ) (IgM), and the SD BIOLINE Tsutsugamushi test (Kyonggi-do, Republic of Korea) (IgG, IgM, or IgA) compared with indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and real-time PCR results as reference tests using 86 paired acute and convalescent specimens from febrile patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the CareStart test were 23.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.8–38.6) and 81.4% (95% CI: 66.6–91.6), respectively, for acute specimens and 32.6% (95% CI: 19.1–48.5) and 79.1% (95% CI: 64.0–90.0), respectively, for convalescent specimens. For the SD BIOLINE test, sensitivity and specificity were 20.9% (95% CI: 10.0–36.0) and 74.4% (95% CI: 58.8–86.5), respectively, for acute specimens and 76.7% (95% CI: 61.4–88.2) and 76.7% (95% CI: 61.4–88.2), respectively, for convalescent specimens. The poor sensitivity obtained for both ICTs during this study when performed on acute specimens highlights the difficulties in prompt diagnosis of scrub typhus. PMID:26458778

  7. Ciguatera fish poisoning - New York City, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    During August 2010-July 2011, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of six outbreaks and one single case of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving a total of 28 persons. CFP results from consumption of certain large, predatory, tropical reef fish that have bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTX). CFP is characterized by various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurologic symptoms. A prolonged period of acute illness can result, and the neurologic symptoms can last months, with variable asymptomatic and symptomatic periods. The first two outbreaks and the single case, involving 13 persons, were reported during August 6-September 13, 2010. DOHMH distributed a health alert in November 2010 requesting health-care providers be alert for CFP signs and symptoms. The health alert resulted in identification of 11 more cases that month and an additional two outbreaks involving four persons in July 2011. In comparison, only four CFP outbreaks, involving 21 persons total, had been reported in New York City (NYC) during the preceding 10 years (2000-2009). DOHMH's investigation revealed that 13 persons became ill after eating barracuda, and 15 became ill after eating grouper. Although specific and highly sensitive laboratory analyses can detect and confirm CTX in fish, no practical field tests are available for fish monitoring programs. CFP prevention depends on educating the public, seafood suppliers, and distributors about known CFP endemic areas and high-risk fish species. Traceback investigations of fish associated with outbreaks provide valuable information regarding fishing areas associated with CFP. Not all fish from CFP endemic areas are ciguatoxic, but persons who eat fish from endemic regions are at higher risk for CFP. If an illness is suspected to be CFP, public health authorities should be notified and informed of the case history for possible investigation and intervention measures. PMID:23364271

  8. Acute Oxidative Effect and Muscle Damage after a Maximum 4 Min Test in High Performance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes Filho, José; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine lipid peroxidation markers, physiological stress and muscle damage in elite kayakers in response to a maximum 4-min kayak ergometer test (KE test), and possible correlations with individual 1000m kayaking performances. The sample consisted of twenty-three adult male and nine adult female elite kayakers, with more than three years’ experience in international events, who voluntarily took part in this study. The subjects performed a 10-min warm-up, followed by a 2-min passive interval, before starting the test itself, which consisted of a maximum 4-min work paddling on an ergometer; right after the end of the test, an 8 ml blood sample was collected for analysis. 72 hours after the test, all athletes took part in an official race, when then it was possible to check their performance in the on site K1 1000m test (P1000m). The results showed that all lipoproteins and hematological parameters tested presented a significant difference (p≤0.05) after exercise for both genders. In addition, parameters related to muscle damage such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) presented significant differences after stress. Uric acid presented an inverse correlation with the performance (r = -0.76), while CK presented a positive correlation (r = 0.46) with it. Based on these results, it was possible to verify muscle damage and the level of oxidative stress caused by indoor training with specific ergometers for speed kayaking, highlighting the importance of analyzing and getting to know the physiological responses to this type of training, in order to provide information to coaches and optimize athletic performance. PMID:27111088

  9. Stress testing for risk stratification of patients with low to moderate probability of acute cardiac ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Rudraiah, L; Zalenski, R J

    2001-02-01

    In summary, this article focused on the use of stress testing to risk-stratify patients at the conclusion of their emergency evaluation for ACI. As discussed, those patients in the probably not ACI category require additional risk stratification prior to discharge. It should be kept in mind that patients in this category are heterogeneous, containing subgroups at both higher and lower risk of ACI and cardiac events. The patients with lower pretest probability for ACI may only need exercise testing in the ED. Patients with higher pretest probability should undergo myocardial perfusion or echocardiographic stress testing to maximize diagnostic and prognostic information. Prognostic information is the key to provocative testing in the ED. Prognostic information is the component that will help emergency physicians identify the patients who may be discharged home safely without having to worry about a 6% annual cardiac death rate and a 10% overall death rate over the next 30 months. Stress testing provides this key prognostic data, and it can be obtained in short-stay chest pain observation units in a safe, timely, and cost-effective fashion. PMID:11214405

  10. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  11. Nanoparticles in wastewater treatment plants: a novel acute toxicity test for ciliates and its implementation in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Corinna; von Tümpling, Wolf; Berendonk, Thomas; Jungmann, Dirk

    2015-05-01

    Nanomaterial (NM) release into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is inevitable due to increased production and application throughout past decades and in the future. Concern arose about environmental risks and impact on activated sludge. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) for NMs according to established guidelines is considered not suitable, because NMs exhibit unique characteristics. For hazard identification on activated sludge, standard test organisms for aquatic toxicity testing are not meaningful. In this study, we developed an acute toxicity test for ciliates (Paramecium tetraurelia) as representatives of the important functional group of microbial predators and filter feeders. We chose silver nanoparticles (nAg) exemplarily for ion releasing nanoparticles and regarded toxicity by ions as well. Our results indicate that ions are more toxic (EC₅₀ 0.73 mg/L) than nanoparticles themselves (EC₅₀ 2.15 mg/L). However, nAg must be considered as a source of ions and requires size, surface coating, and compartment-specific ERA. We strived to develop such ERA based on our results, modeled environmental concentration data from literature, and surface area concentrations. Results indicated a probable risk toward activated sludge. This likely has effects on effluent water quality. We conclude that carefully modeled environmental concentrations are vital for more exact ERA for nAg and other NMs. PMID:25592910

  12. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Simmons, C.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the second year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The 2002 study period extended from May 18 through July 30. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. The prototype system consisted of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, were aimed to illuminate a specific region directly upstream of the barge. Three light level treatments were used: 6 of 6 lights on, 3 of 6 lights on, and all lights off. These three treatment conditions were applied for an entire 24-hr day and were randomly assigned within a 3-day block throughout the study period. A seven-transducer splitbeam

  13. Using stable isotopes to test for trophic niche partitioning: a case study with stream salamanders and fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Lowe, Winsor H.; Marra, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    5. Although we did not identify mechanisms that facilitate salamander and fish coexistence, our empirical data and use of novel approaches to describe the trophic niche did yield important insights on the role of predator–prey interactions and cannibalism as alternative coexistence mechanisms. In addition, we found that 95% kernel estimators are a simple and robust method to describe population-level measure of trophic structure.

  14. Effect of freezing/thawing process in different sizes of blue fish in the Mediterranean through lysosomal enzymatic tests.

    PubMed

    Alberio, Giuseppina R A; Barbagallo, Riccardo N; Todaro, Aldo; Bono, Gioacchino; Spagna, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The assessment of freshness of different sizes of blue fish (Engraulis encrasicolus 12 cm, Sardina pilchardus 15 cm, Trachurus trachurus 40 cm, Scomber japonicus colias 60 cm) was carried out using non-conventional enzymatic methods. The activities of the three lysosomal enzymes (α-glucosidase (AG), β-galactosidase (B-GAL) and β-N-acetylglucosamidase (B-NA)) in extracts of blue fish muscle were measured over a period of 21 days of storage. A significant increase (p<0.05) of AG activity was observed in all species, with a large increase seen after only one day of storage. B-NA activity increased slightly in sardines, horse mackerels and chub mackerel during frozen/thawed storage. Finally, the increase of B-GAL activity was significant (p<0.05) only in the samples of larger blue fish as horse mackerel and chub mackerel. All of these enzyme activities may be helpful predictive markers to limit fraud in these species. PMID:24262525

  15. Should IGHV status and FISH testing be performed in all CLL patients at diagnosis? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Sameer A; Strati, Paolo; Tsang, Mazie; West, Colin P; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    Since the first description of the natural history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) by David Galton in 1966, the considerable heterogeneity in the disease course has been well recognized. The Rai and Binet staging systems described ∼40 years ago have proven to be robust prognostic tools. Over the past 2 decades, several novel biological, genetic, and molecular markers have been shown to be useful adjuncts to the Rai and Binet staging systems. In this systematic review, we examined the role of immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IGHV) mutation status and genetic abnormalities determined by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in patients with newly diagnosed CLL. The cumulative evidence presented in this systematic review is sufficient to recommend that FISH andIGHVbe performed as standard clinical tests for all patients with newly diagnosed CLL in those countries with the resources to do so. In addition to clinical stage, these parameters could represent the minimal standard initial prognostic evaluation for patients with CLL. This approach will allow the application of powerful, recently developed prognostic indices (all of which are dependent onIGHVand FISH results) to all patients with newly diagnosed CLL. PMID:26841802

  16. The Time between Paraquat Ingestion and a Negative Dithionite Urine Test in an Independent Risk Factor for Death and Organ Failure in Acute Paraquat Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Sujin; Kim, Young-hee; Gil, Hyo-wook; Song, Ho-yeon

    2012-01-01

    To identify a prognostic marker that is less sensitive to variations in the elapsed time since paraquat ingestion, we assessed the time between paraquat ingestion and a negative dithionite urine test as a prognostic parameter in patients with acute paraquat intoxication. Forty-one patients with acute paraquat intoxication were enrolled in this study and analyzed to verify significant determinants of mortality and organ dysfunction. The amount of paraquat ingested, paraquat plasma levels, and the time to a negative urine dithionite test were significant independent risk factors predicting mortality. The amount of paraquat ingestion, and the time to a negative urine dithionite test were independent risk factors predicting organ dysfunction. With a cut-off value of 34.5 hr for the time to negative conversion of the urine dithionite test, the sensitivity and specificity for mortality were 71.4% and 75.0%, respectively. The incidence of acute kidney injury and respiratory failure above 34.5 hr were 100% and 85.0%, respectively. In conclusion, the time to a negative urine dithionite test is the reliable marker for predicting mortality and/or essential organ failure in patients with acute paraquat intoxication, who survive 72 hr. PMID:22969243

  17. Incorporating Acute HIV Screening into Routine HIV Testing at Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinics, and HIV Testing and Counseling Centers in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Pettifor, Audrey E.; Phiri, Sam; Kamanga, Gift; Hoffman, Irving F.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Rosenberg, Nora E.; Nsona, Dominic; Pasquale, Dana; Tegha, Gerald; Powers, Kimberly A.; Phiri, Mcleod; Tembo, Bisweck; Chege, Wairimu; Miller, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Integrating acute HIV-infection (AHI) testing into clinical settings is critical to prevent transmission, and realize potential treatment-as-prevention benefits. We evaluated acceptability of AHI testing and compared AHI prevalence at sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and HIV testing and counseling (HTC) clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods: We conducted HIV RNA testing for HIV-seronegative patients visiting STI and HTC clinics. AHI was defined as positive RNA and negative/discordant rapid antibody tests. We evaluated demographic, behavioral, and transmission-risk differences between STI and HTC patients and assessed performance of a risk-score for targeted screening. Results: Nearly two-thirds (62.8%, 9280/14,755) of eligible patients consented to AHI testing. We identified 59 persons with AHI (prevalence = 0.64%)–a 0.9% case-identification increase. Prevalence was higher at STI [1.03% (44/4255)] than at HTC clinics [0.3% (15/5025), P < 0.01], accounting for 2.3% of new diagnoses vs 0.3% at HTC clinic. Median viral load (VL) was 758,050 copies per milliliter; 25% (15/59) had VL ≥10,000,000 copies per milliliter. Median VL was higher at STI (1,000,000 copies/mL) compared with HTC (153,125 copies/mL, P = 0.2). Among persons with AHI, those tested at STI clinics were more likely to report genital sores compared with those tested at HTC clinics (54.6% vs 6.7%, P < 0.01). The risk score algorithm performed well in identifying persons with AHI at HTC clinics (sensitivity = 73%, specificity = 89%). Conclusions: The majority of patients consented to AHI testing. AHI prevalence was substantially higher in STI clinics than HTC clinics. Remarkably high VLs and concomitant genital scores demonstrate the potential for transmission. Universal AHI screening at STI clinics, and targeted screening at HTC centers, should be considered. PMID:26428231

  18. Utilization of fecal occult blood test in the acute hospital setting and its impact on clinical management and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghi, S; Ren, H; Catungal, J; Yen, I; Liu, B; Wong, RJ; Bhuket, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite lack of evidence supporting the use of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in the acute hospital setting, FOBT is commonly used in the inpatient setting for reasons other than colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Aims: To evaluate practice trends in utilizing FOBT on inpatients and its impact on affecting clinical management and outcomes. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of consecutive adult patients undergoing FOBT from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011 during an acute medical admission at a large urban safety net hospital was performed. Indications for FOBT, and the impact of FOBT results on endoscopic procedures performed and clinical outcomes were assessed. The number of inpatient endoscopic procedures before and after discontinuing inpatient FOBT was also assessed. Results: A total of 207 inpatient FOBTs were performed in 2011. The most common reason cited for FOBT was anemia (36%, n = 74) followed by gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding (27%, n = 55). Interestingly, 23% (n = 47) of the patients undergoing inpatient FOBT had overt GI bleeding. As expected, patients with positive FOBT were significantly more likely to undergo endoscopic examinations (P < 0.01). After discontinuing the availability of inpatient FOBT, patients were less likely to undergo endoscopic examinations [odds ratio (OR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-0.85]. Conclusion: Inappropriate utilization of FOBT in the inpatient setting is common, even when the indication does not support its use. Setting limitations on inpatient FOBT may reduce the inappropriate utilization of inpatient FOBT. Quality improvement initiatives are needed to educate clinicians on the appropriate use of FOBT, which is primarily for average risk CRC screening. PMID:27089107

  19. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old) immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Results Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %), but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP), leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent) and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine. PMID:22691230

  20. Acute and chronic sensitivity, avoidance behavior and sensitive life stages of bullfrog tadpoles exposed to the biopesticide abamectin.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Ana M; Daam, Michiel A; Dos Santos, Liliana R A; Sanches, Ana L M; Araújo, Cristiano V M; Espíndola, Evaldo L G

    2016-04-01

    As compared to other aquatic organism groups, relatively few studies have been conducted so far evaluating the toxicity of pesticides to amphibians. This may at least partly be due to the fact that regulations for registering pesticides usually do not require testing amphibians. The sensitivity of amphibians is generally considered to be covered by that based on toxicity tests with other aquatic organisms (e.g. fish) although the impact of a pesticide on amphibians may be very different. In the present study, acute and chronic laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of abamectin (as Vertimec(®) 18EC) to bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) tadpoles. Acute tests were conducted at two tadpole stages (Gosner stage 21G and 25G) and avoidance tests were also conducted with stage Gosner stage 21G tadpoles. Calculated acute toxicity values were greater than those reported for standard fish test species, hence supporting the use of fish toxicity data as surrogates for amphibians in acute risk assessments. Given the limited number and extent of available amphibian toxicity studies, however, research needs to increase our understanding of pesticide toxicity to amphibians are discussed. PMID:26758616

  1. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  2. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals. PMID:22355456

  3. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species - SETAC Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and inter-laboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the two life stages; and the variation in sensitiv...

  4. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the 2 life stages; and the variation in se...

  5. CHALLENGE WITH BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS BY EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENTLY INFECTED CALVES: PROTECTION BY VACCINATION AND NEGATIVE RESULTS OF ANTIGEN TESTING IN NONVACCINATED ACUTELY INFECTED CALVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calves persistently infected (PI) with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) represent an important source of infection for susceptible cattle. We evaluated vaccine efficacy using calves PI with noncytopathic BVDV2a for the challenge and compared tests to detect BVDV in acutely or transiently infected ...

  6. Interim report on the genetic and animal toxicity testing of SRC-I products, intermediates, and waste materials. Appendix D. Acute animal studies reports

    SciTech Connect

    Drozdowicz, B.Z.; Kelly, C.M.

    1983-09-01

    Appendix D is a collection of 25 individual reports on the toxicity of SRC-I products, intermediates and residues to rabbits, rats and guinea pigs with acute oral, dermal and inhalation exposure. It includes also eye and dermal irritation tests in rabbits and guinea pigs and dermal sensitization studies in albino guinea pigs. (LTN)

  7. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of TPH-contaminated soils with the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Nazerias, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    Responses of Eisenia foetida to petroleum-contaminated soils are being assessed using a 21-day test described previously. The authors prepared dilutions of two soils, referred to as A and B, using their reference-soil counterparts, collected from near the contaminated sites. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of each soil was measured by latroscan before the dilutions were prepared. References for the A and B soils contained 167 and 1,869 ppm of TPH, respectively. Thus, neither reference soil was pristine. Dilutions of the A soil tested with E. foetida contained from 179 to 305 ppm TPH; dilutions of the B soil contained from 1,875 to 1,950 ppm TPH. E foetida survival was 100% in both dilution series. Mean growth of Eisenia in dilutions of the A soil ranged from 48 to 74 mg dry-weight growth per pair of worms; these values were lower than those in any dilution of the B soil series. Lipid levels of worms in higher concentrations of the A and B soils were similar to one another and to published values, suggesting little inhibition of feeding in either dilution series. Earthworm reproduction was zero in the A series, but moderately high in the B series. Thus, the A soil apparently contained materials other than TPH that inhibited earthworm growth and reproduction. This study shows that (1) TPH at concentrations as high as 1,800 ppm may not always be inhibitor to earthworm growth or reproduction and (2) that earthworm survival, as a test endpoint, is much less sensitive than either growth or reproduction.

  8. Evaluation of ETV6/RUNX1 Fusion and Additional Abnormalities Involving ETV6 and/or RUNX1 Genes Using FISH Technique in Patients with Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cigdem; Cetin, Zafer; Manguoglu, Ayse Esra; Tayfun, Funda; Clark, Ozden Altiok; Kupesiz, Alphan; Akkaya, Bahar; Karauzum, Sibel Berker

    2016-06-01

    Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of childhood leukemia. Specifically, ALL is a malignant disorder of the lymphoid progenitor cells, with a peak incidence among children aged 2-5 years. The t(12;21)(p13;q22) translocation occurs in 25 % of childhood B cell precursor ALL. In this study, bone marrow samples were obtained from 165 patients with childhood ALL. We analyzed the t(12;21) translocation and other related abnormalities using the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with the ETV6(TEL)/RUNX1(AML1) ES dual color translocation probe. Conventional cytogenetic analyses were also performed. ETV6 and RUNX1 related chromosomal abnormalities were found in 42 (25.5 %) of the 165 patients with childhood ALL. Among these 42 patients, structural changes were detected in 33 (78.6 %) and numerical abnormalities in 9 (21.4 %). The frequency of FISH abnormalities in pediatric ALL cases were as follows: 8.5 % for t(12;21)(p13;q22) ETV6/RUNX1 fusion, 6.0 % for RUNX1 amplification, 3.0 % for tetrasomy/trisomy 21, 1.8 % for ETV6 deletion, 1.21 % for ETV6 deletion with RUNX1 amplification, 1.21 % for ETV6 amplification with RUNX1 amplification, 0.6 % for polyploidy, 0.6 % for RUNX1 deletion, and 0.6 % for diminished ETV6 signal. The most common structural abnormality was the t(12;21) translocation, followed by RUNX1 amplification and ETV6 deletion, while the most commonly observed numerical abnormality was trisomy 21. PMID:27065576

  9. Investigation of acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos-methyl on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) larvae.

    PubMed

    Gül, Ali

    2005-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl, a wide-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide and potential toxic pollutant contaminating aquatic ecosystems, was investigated for acute toxicity. Larvae of the freshwater fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were repeated three times and the 96 h LC50 was determined for the larvae. The static test method for assessing acute toxicity was used. Water temperature was maintained at 25+/-1 degrees C. In addition, behavioral changes at each chlorpyrifos-methyl concentration were observed for the individual fish. Data obtained from the chlorpyrifos-methyl acute toxicity tests were evaluated using Finney's probit analysis statistical method. The 96 h LC50 value for Nile tilapia larvae was calculated to be 1.57 mg/l. PMID:15722087

  10. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  11. Fish flavor.

    PubMed

    Kawai, T

    1996-02-01

    This article reviews features of flavor in three groups of fishes and summarizes them as follows: (1) fresh saltwater fish are nearly odorless because they contain a small quantity of volatiles; (2 freshwater fish give off pyrrolidine and earthy-odor compounds, which are responsible for their maturity and surrounding water pollution, and (3) euryhaline fish exhibit a variety of unsaturated carbonyls and alcohols derived from enzymatic and nonenzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PAs). These features are discussed, as are the effects of different enzymatic activities on PA oxidation and the effects of pH on mechanisms of formation of the volatiles. The monotonous volatile constitution of saltwater fish is likely caused by an unknown antioxidation system restraining the fish from oxidizing. The variety of constitution of euryhaline fish, especially that of anadromous fish under spawning conditions, could result from the loss of that system. The thermal environments of heated foods are also reviewed. The basic environment of fish, which allows the formation of flavor compounds, is discussed to confirm the volatiles found in unheated fish. PMID:8744606

  12. Evaluation of the integrated testing strategy for PNEC derivation under REACH.

    PubMed

    May, Martin; Drost, Wiebke; Germer, Sabine; Juffernholz, Tanja; Hahn, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Species sensitivity evaluation represents an approach to avoid chronic toxicity testing of aquatic vertebrates in accordance with the animal welfare concept of the EU chemicals regulation. In this study a data set of chemicals is analysed for relative species sensitivity between Daphnia and fish in chronic testing to evaluate under what condition chronic fish tests can be waived without underestimating the environmental hazard. Chronic fish toxicity is covered in 84% of the evaluated substances by the chronic invertebrate test and an assessment factor of 50. Thus, animal testing can be avoided in environmental hazard assessment for many chemicals. Moreover, it is shown that species sensitivity in chronic testing is associated with species sensitivity in acute testing. The more sensitive species in chronic testing is predicted with a high probability if a species is >5x more sensitive in acute testing. If substances are comparable or more toxic to Daphnia in acute testing than to fish chronic fish toxicity is covered by the chronic Daphnia test and an assessment factor of 50 in about 95% of the evaluated cases. To provide decision support for the regulation of chemicals a categorization scheme on relative sensitivity comparison is presented. PMID:27103318

  13. Application of a cytochrome P-450 IA1-ELISA in environmental monitoring and toxicological testing of fish.

    PubMed

    Goksøyr, A; Larsen, H E; Husøy, A M

    1991-01-01

    1. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on polyclonal rabbit anti-cod cytochrome P-450 IA1 IgG has been developed in our laboratory. 2. The antibodies employed in the ELISA demonstrate good cross-reactivity with the homologous protein in a number of other fish species, giving cross-reacting protein bands o 54-59 kDa in liver microsomes, as determined by Western blotting. 3. The ELISA technique has been used in numerous experiments with both field collected and laboratory exposed fish of different species, showing good correlation with contaminant exposure. 4. In some instances of PCB exposure where the classical P-450 IA1 monooxygenase assay 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) failed to reveal any induction, the ELISA technique demonstrated increased levels of P-450 IA1 protein, indicating inhibiting effects of the PCBs on EROD measurement. 5. In tissues like gill filaments, and in whole cod larvae, where EROD activity is barely detectable, if at all, the ELISA technique showed induction after exposure to a water soluble fraction (WSF) of North Sea crude oil. 6. The results reviewed indicate the usefulness of the ELISA technique to allow rapid screening of a large number of samples, and especially when catalytic measurement is difficult or impossible due to (a) small sample or tissue size, (b) loss of activities in bad storage conditions, or (c) presence of compounds inhibiting activity. PMID:1677846

  14. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO{sub 2} and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD{sub 5} and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population.

  15. An experimental test of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in a teleost fish: 11-ketotestosterone suppresses innate immunity in three-spined sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Joachim; Kalbe, Martin; Langefors, Asa; Mayer, Ian; Milinski, Manfred; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2007-10-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) provides a functional explanation for how sexual ornaments can provide honest signals of male quality. A key aspect of this hypothesis is that testosterone (T) has a bimodal effect: a higher T level enhances the expression of ornaments (increasing mating success and, ultimately, fitness); however, at the same time, it suppresses immune function. Tests of the latter assumption, which have focused mainly on aspects of adaptive immunity in birds, led to equivocal results. We performed a hormone-implant experiment in male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to test the key assumptions of the ICHH in a fish, where the dominant circulating androgen is 11-ketotestosterone (11kT) rather than T. Males were implanted with 11-ketoandrostenedione, which is a natural precursor of 11kT. Each individual's circulating 11kT level, ornamentation, and immunocompetence were measured 2 weeks later. In addition, we quantified oxidative tissue damage because the ICHH has been hypothesized to work via oxidative stress. We found that the males' 11kT levels correlated positively with ornamentation but negatively with immunocompetence, in particular, measures of innate immunity. Moreover, there was a trend for fish with high 11kT levels to suffer more from oxidative stress. Thus, our data provide support for the ICHH. PMID:17891730

  16. The clock-drawing test as a possible indicator of acute psychosis.

    PubMed

    Tene, Oren; Sigler, Mayanit; Shiloh, Roni; Weizman, Abraham; Aizenberg, Dov

    2016-05-01

    The clock-drawing test (CDT) is used widely to evaluate cognitive disorders, but its role in the assessment of psychotic disorders has not been studied. We sought to examine whether the CDT plays a role as an indicator of psychosis and to establish its sensitivity to clinical improvement of psychosis. The CDT was administered twice to 53 hospitalized patients without dementia but with psychosis: once at admission and again before discharge. The CDT scores were calculated in a random order by two independent senior psychiatrists who were blinded to the patients' status (admission or discharge). The inter-rater reliability was high (0.89 at admission, 0.85 at discharge, P<0.01 for both). The severity of psychosis was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Patients had significantly lower CDT scores at admission than at discharge (2.87±1.39 vs. 3.91±1.08, respectively, P<0.01). The PANSS-total score of the patients showed a significant improvement (84.90±17.77 vs. 69.18±16.23, P<0.01). An inverse correlation was found between CDT performance and psychosis severity, as reflected by the PANSS-positive symptom subscale at admission (R=-0.279, P<0.05). Our findings suggest that the CDT may aid in the assessment of psychotic states and in their clinical monitoring. PMID:26752620

  17. Evaluation of OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals with aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; McCarthy, J.F.; Frank, M.L.; Singley, P.T.

    1983-10-01

    The protocols in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines for testing of chemicals with aquatic organisms were evaluated for the following tests: (1) Fish, Acute Toxicity Test, (2) Bioaccumulation: Flow-through Fish Test, (3) Daphnia sp., 14-day Reproduction Test (including an Acute Immobilization Test), and (4) Alga, Growth Inhibition Test. The protocols were evaluated by conducting the tests with different classes of chemicals (i.e., water soluble, less water soluble requiring a chemical carrier, and volatile chemical). Flow-through and semistatic Fish, Acute Toxicity Tests were conducted with cupric chloride and acridine. The Bioaccumulation Flow-Through Fish Test was conducted with naphthalene and DDE. Three chemicals - cupric chloride, acridine, and di-n-butyl phthalate - were used to evaluate the Daphnia sp., 14-day Reproduction Test. The Alga, Growth Inhibition Test was evaluated with three chemicals: cupric chloride, acridine, and paradichlorobenzene. By following the OECD guidelines in conducting these tests, results were obtained that are comparable with literature data obtained with other methods. An evaluation of each test protocol is given with recommendations for the guidelines for conducting the tests.

  18. Toxicity test method development in southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Use of aquatic toxicity tests is relatively new in southeast Asia. As part of the ASEAN-Canada Cooperative Programme on Marine Science -- Phase 2, which includes development of marine environmental criteria, a need for tropical toxicity data was identified. A step-wise approach was used for test method development (simple, acute tests and easily measured endpoints first, then more complex short-term chronic methods), for test specific selection (using species found throughout the region first, and then considering species with narrower geographic distribution), and for integration of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) practices into all laboratory activities. Development of test protocols specifically for tropical species included acute and chronic toxicity tests with marine fish, invertebrates and algae. Criteria for test species selection will be reviewed. Method development was based on procedures and endpoints already widely used in North America and Europe (e.g., 96-h LC50 with fish), but adapted for use with tropical species. For example, a bivalve larval development test can use the same endpoints but the duration is only 24 hours. Test method development included research on culture and holding procedures, determination of test conditions (e.g., duration, test containers), and identification of appropriate endpoints. Acute tests with fish and invertebrates were developed first. The next step was development of short-term chronic tests to measure phytoplankton growth, bivalve and echinoderm embryo or larval development, and larval fish growth. The number of species and types of tests was increased in a staged approach, as laboratories became better equipped and personnel gained practical experience. In most cases, method development coincided with training workshops to introduce the principles of toxicity testing.

  19. The scale epithelium as a novel, non-invasive tool for environmental assessment in fish: Testing exposure to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Alves, R M S; Pereira, B F; Ribeiro, R G L G; Pitol, D L; Ciamarro, C M; Valim, J R T; Caetano, F H

    2016-07-01

    Increasing pollution levels have turned our attention to assessing lethal and sublethal effects of toxic agents using the most informative techniques possible. We must seek non-invasive or non-lethal sampling methods that represent an attractive alternative to traditional techniques of environmental assessment in fish. Detergents are amongst the most common contaminants of water bodies, and LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate) is one of the most used anionic surfactant on the market. Our study analyzed morphological alterations (histological and histochemical) of the scale epithelium of Prochilodus lineatus under exposure to two concentrations of LAS, 3.6mg/L and 0.36mg/L, for a period of 30 days and evaluated at 14, 21 and 30 days. In order to establish morphological analysis of the scale epithelium as a new non-lethal environmental assessment tool that is reliable and comparable to classic methods, the relative sensibility of this technique was compared to a commonly used method of environmental assessment in fish, the estimation of the effects of pollutants upon branchial morphology. Two experiments were carried out, testing animals in tanks, and in individual aquariums. Results of analyses on gill tissue show that exposure to 3.6mg/L of surfactant caused severe damage, including hyperplasia, hypertrophy and fusion at 14 days, with aneurisms at 21 and 30 days; while exposure to 0.36mg/L had lighter effects on the organ, mainly lower incidence of fusion and hyperplasia. Aditionally, scale morphology was altered severely in response to 3.6mg/L of LAS, consistently showing increased mucous and club cell production. Epithelial thickness was the most variable parameter measured. Scale epithelium sensibility has the potential to be a reliable environmental marker for fish species since it has the advantage of being less invasive when compared to traditional methods. However, more studies are required to increase the robustness of the technique before it can be

  20. Acute exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol disrupts audience effects on male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Dzieweczynski, Teresa L; Buckman, Christina M

    2013-03-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can have profound effects on the behavior of aquatic organisms residing in polluted waters. Males are especially sensitive to the effects of estrogen mimics and both courtship and aggression may be dramatically reduced by chemical exposure. Population-level impacts may occur if these chemicals decrease the ability of males to obtain mates or defend territories. Exposure might also have far-reaching impacts by interfering with information transfer within a network of individuals. For example, males exposed to an endocrine disruptor may be less sensitive to the presence of an audience. Male Siamese fighting fish were used to examine how short-term exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) alters audience effects on male-male interactions. Males either received a nominal dose of EE2 or remained unexposed and then interacted with an opponent in one of three treatments (female, male, or no audience). EE2 altered audience effects in this study. Opponent-directed gill flaring was lower when a female audience was present compared to when there was a male or no audience in both EE2 and control males. The number of opponent-directed tail beats did not differ as a function of audience type in EE2 males. In contrast, unexposed males increased opponent-directed tail beats when a female audience is present. Therefore, EE2 reduces the ability of males to communicate with multiple individuals simultaneously. If this is the case, endocrine disruptor exposure may alter population structure as selection should favor individuals that are able to readily adjust their signaling behavior as a function of social context. PMID:23333768

  1. Fish and Game Warden (Gov. Ser.) 0-94.94--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  2. Effects of carbamazepine on cortisol levels and behavioral responses to stress in the fish Jenynsia multidentata.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, Emilia; Durando, Patricia; Valdés, M Eugenia; Franchioni, Liliana; Bistoni, María de los Ángeles

    2016-05-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant drug, prescribed worldwide for the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and trigeminal neuralgia, which has been frequently detected in aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to analyze if CBZ modifies scototaxis and shoaling behaviors and/or whole-body cortisol levels of the one-sided livebearing fish Jenynsia multidentata under stress condition. Female adults of J. multidentata were exposed to 0, 10, 50 and 200μgCBZ/L during 14days. After CBZ exposure, fish were subjected to restraint stress during 15min. Control animals were not exposed to CBZ or stress. In the light/dark preference test (scototaxis), the individuals under acute restraint stress (without CBZ) exhibited a significant increase in the mean speed and in the time spent both in the light compartment and in the bottom of the tank with respect to controls. They also showed a tendency to stay longer frozen in the light compartment. Fish exposed to 10 and 50μgCBZ/L showed a significant reduction in mean speed compared to stressed fish without CBZ. A reduction in the time spent in the bottom of the tank was also observed in fish exposed to 10μgCBZ/L. Fish exposed to 200μgCBZ/L showed a decreasing tendency in all behavioral endpoints (time spent in the light compartment, mean speed, time spent at the bottom and freezing) in comparison to stressed fish not exposed to CBZ. Considering whole-body cortisol results, fish under acute restraint stress (without CBZ) significantly increased their hormone levels with respect to the control group, while fish exposed to CBZ and acute restraint stress, significantly decreased their whole-body cortisol levels. There were no significant changes in shoaling behavior due to either stress or CBZ exposure and no significant differences in whole-body cortisol levels between experimental groups. Considering that the light/dark and shoaling tests measure different stress response behaviors regulated by different

  3. Fish Oil-Fed Mice Have Impaired Resistance to Influenza Infection12

    PubMed Central

    Schwerbrock, Nicole M. J.; Karlsson, Erik A.; Shi, Qing; Sheridan, Patricia A.; Beck, Melinda A.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary fish oils, rich in (n-3) PUFA, including eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, have been shown to have antiinflammatory properties. Although the antiinflammatory properties of fish oil may be beneficial during a chronic inflammatory illness, the same antiinflammatory properties can suppress the inflammatory responses necessary to combat acute viral infection. Given that (n-3) fatty acid-rich fish oil supplementation is on the rise and with the increasing threat of an influenza pandemic, we tested the effect of fish oil feeding for 2 wk on the immune response to influenza virus infection. Male C57BL/6 mice fed either a menhaden fish oil/corn oil diet (4 g fish oil:1 g corn oil, wt:wt at 5 g/100 g diet) or a control corn oil diet were infected with influenza A/PuertoRico/8/34 and analyzed for lung pathology and immune function. Although fish oil-fed mice had lower lung inflammation compared with controls, fish oil feeding also resulted in a 40% higher mortality rate, a 70% higher lung viral load at d 7 post infection, and a prolonged recovery period following infection. Although splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity was suppressed in fish oil-fed mice, lung NK activity was not affected. Additionally, lungs of infected fish oil-fed mice had significantly fewer CD8+ T cells and decreased mRNA expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-1-α, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. These results suggest that the antiinflammatory properties of fish oil feeding can alter the immune response to influenza infection, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:19549756

  4. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  5. Effects of copper on the acute cortisol response and associated physiology in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Tellis, Margaret S; Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) exposure on the acute stress-induced cortisol response and associated physiological consequences in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were exposed to 30 μg Cu/L in moderately hard water (120 mg/L as CaCO(3)) for 40 days, following which time the acute cortisol response was examined with a series of stressors. At 40 days, a 65% increase in Cu was observed in the gill, but no accumulation was observed in the liver, brain or head kidney. Stressors such as air exposure or confinement did not elicit an increase in circulating cortisol levels for Cu-exposed fish, in contrast to controls. However, this inhibitory effect on the acute cortisol response appeared to have few implications on the ability of Cu-exposed fish to maintain ion and carbohydrate homeostasis. For example, plasma Na(+), Ca(2+) and glucose levels as well as hepatic glycogen levels were the same post-stress in control and Cu-exposed fish. Trout were also challenged with exposure to 50% seawater for 48 h, where Cu-exposed trout maintained plasma Na(+), glucose and hepatic glycogen levels. However, Cu-exposed fish experienced decreased plasma K(+) levels throughout the Cu exposure and stress tests. In conclusion, chronic Cu exposure resulted in the abolition of an acute cortisol response post-stress. There was no Cu accumulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI axis) suggesting this was not a direct toxic effect of Cu on the cortisol regulatory pathway. However, the lack of an acute cortisol response in Cu-exposed fish did not impair the ability of the fish to maintain ion and carbohydrate homeostasis. This effect on cortisol may be a strategy to reduce costs during the chronic stress of Cu exposure, and not endocrine disruption as a result of toxic injury. PMID:21964321

  6. Results of Laboratory Testing for Diphacinone in Seawater, Fish, Invertebrates, and Soil Following Aerial Application of Rodenticide on Lehua Island, Kauai County, Hawaii, January 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orazio, Carl E.; Tanner, Michael J.; Swenson, Chris; Herod, Jeffrey J.; Dunlevy, Peter; Gale, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2009, rodenticide bait (Ramik Green pellets) containing the active ingredient diphacinone was aerially applied to Lehua Island. Reported herein are the results of laboratory analyses to determine diphacinone concentrations in samples of seawater, fillet of fish, soft tissue of limpets (opihi), whole-body crabs, and soil collected from Lehua Island, Kauai County, Hawaii, after aerial application of the rodenticide bait. Diphacinone was specifically chosen because of its low toxicity to nontarget organisms. Its use on Lehua Island is the second time it has ever been used for an aerial application to eradicate rodents. Testing of the Lehua Island samples for diphacinone utilized high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. No detectable concentrations of diphacinone were found in any of the samples from Lehua Island. The limits of detection for diphacinone were 0.4 nanograms per milliliter (parts per billion) seawater, 15 nanograms per gram (dry weight) soil, 20 nanograms per gram (parts per billion) fish fillet, 13 nanograms per gram whole crab, and 34 nanograms per gram soft tissue limpet.

  7. [Epidemiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) of salmonid fish in France: study of the course of natural infection by combined use of viral and seroneutralization test and eradication attempts].

    PubMed

    Hattenberger-Baudouy, A M; Danton, M; Merle, G; de Kinkelin, P

    1995-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN), a rhabdoviral infection of salmonid fish, was considered to be an exotic disease in Europe until it was recognized in France and Italy in 1987. In France, the existence of this new condition led the authorities in charge of animal health to order epidemiological studies to be undertaken. These studies were based upon virological, serological and experimental diagnostic methods and also encompassed disease eradication attempts. Studies were conducted at 7 fish farming sites, involved 1,545 salmonid fish, of which 848 were sacrificed, and represented 262 virological examinations and 1,782 serum neutralization tests. The presence of the IHN virus was detected in the 7 trout farm fish populations that were located in 5 regions, one of which was situated 600 km from the place where the first isolation of IHN virus was made. Moreover, 6 out of 7 rainbow trout populations reared in these farms also harboured viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) often resulting in overt disease. Rainbow trout was the only salmonid fish species found infected with IHN. Overt infection, which was observed in fish ageing less than 2,200 degrees-days, always occurred at water temperatures below 14 degrees C, and the younger fish were more susceptible (mortality rate > or = 80%). Although the IHN virus is easily isolable from fish undergoing overt infection, it was hardly detectable in survivors until they were adults, at which stage the virus was shedded via sexual products which constituted suitable materials for virological examination and disease transmission assays. Survivors of overt and dormant IHN infection developed consistent immune response and special attention was paid to neutralizing antibodies (NAb) to IHN virus. The detection of such NAb in fish from infected farming sites or other NAb from presumably IHN-free sites, correlated fairly well with the presence and further detection of IHN virus among such fish populations. Our data

  8. Acute toxicity of TFM and a TFM/niclosamide mixture to selected species of fish, including lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and mudpuppies (Necturus maculosus), in laboratory and field exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boogaard, M.A.; Bills, T.D.; Johnson, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of the lampricides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) to non-target fishes has been a major point of concern since their use to control larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations began in the early 1960s. The toxicity of TFM to several non-target fish species has been demonstrated in previous studies. However, little information is available on the toxicity of the TFM/1% niclosamide mixture. One species of particular concern is the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Juvenile lake sturgeon of several size ranges were exposed to determine potential effects of the lampricides to individuals present in treatment streams. Sac fry were most resistant to the lampricides followed by fingerlings in the 200 to 225 mm size range. Swim-up fry and fingerlings less than 100 mm were the most sensitive. Concentrations that produced 50% mortality (LC50s) in juvenile lake sturgeon of these smaller size ranges were at or near the minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) required for effective control of larval sea lampreys. The mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus), an amphibian native to several tributaries of the Great Lakes, have also become a species of interest in recent years. Laboratory tests conducted with TFM and a TFM/1% niclosamide mixture on adult mudpuppies indicate that although the amphibian is sensitive to the lampricides, an adequate margin of safety exists for adult mudpuppies to survive when exposed during stream treatments. Fifteen other fish species native to streams treated with lampricides were investigated in the laboratory to determine their sensitivity to the lampricides. Centrarchids, bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were the least sensitive to TFM, while ictalurids, black bullhead (Ictalurus melas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and tadpole madtom (Notorus gyrinus) were the most sensitive. On-site bioassays conducted before lampricide

  9. Acute toxicity of TFM and a TFM/niclosamide mixture to selected species of fish, including lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and mudpuppies (Necturus maculosus), in laboratory and field exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boogaard, M.A.; Bills, T.D.; Johnson, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of the lampricides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2???,5-dichloro-4???-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) to non-target fishes has been a major point of concern since their use to control larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations began in the early 1960s. The toxicity of TFM to several non-target fish species has been demonstrated in previous studies. However, little information is available on the toxicity of the TFM/1 % niclosamide mixture. One species of particular concern is the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Juvenile lake sturgeon of several size ranges were exposed to determine potential effects of the lampricides to individuals present in treatment streams. Sac fry were most resistant to the lampricides followed by fingerlings in the 200 to 225 mm size range. Swim-up fry and fingerlings less than 100 mm were the most sensitive. Concentrations that produced 50% mortality (LC50s) in juvenile lake sturgeon of these smaller size ranges were at or near the minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) required for effective control of larval sea lampreys. The mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus), an amphibian native to several tributaries of the Great Lakes, have also become a species of interest in recent years. Laboratory tests conducted with TFM and a TFM/1 % niclosamide mixture on adult mudpuppies indicate that although the amphibian is sensitive to the lampricides, an adequate margin of safety exists for adult mudpuppies to survive when exposed during stream treatments. Fifteen other fish species native to streams treated with lampricides were investigated in the laboratory to determine their sensitivity to the lampricides. Centrarchids, bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were the least sensitive to TFM, while ictalurids, black bullhead (Ictalurus melas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and tadpole madtom (Notorus gyrinus) were the most sensitive. On-site bioassays conducted before lampricide

  10. Acute administration of toluene affects memory retention in novel object recognition test and memory function-related gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Fujimaki, Hidekazu

    2012-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the acute effect of a single administration of toluene (300 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on memory retention in the hippocampus-dependent novel object recognition test and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit expression in the hippocampus of C3H/HeN female mice using real-time RT-PCR. We performed a novel object recognition test including a habituation phase, training phase and test phase in each mouse. Twenty-four hours after the training phase, to determine the effect of acute toluene administration on memory retention, half of the mice (n=10) were injected with toluene 60 min before the test phase. Toluene-injected mice did not prefer novel objects and showed poor discrimination between novel and familiar objects and decreased expression of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B mRNA in the hippocampus. This is the first study to show that acute toluene injection impairs hippocampus-dependent nonspatial memory retention accompanied by selective modulation of NMDA receptor subunit expression. PMID:21607994

  11. A possible approach to large-scale laboratory testing for acute radiation sickness after a nuclear detonation.

    PubMed

    Adalja, Amesh A; Watson, Matthew; Wollner, Samuel; Toner, Eric

    2011-12-01

    After the detonation of an improvised nuclear device, several key actions will be necessary to save the greatest number of lives possible. Among these tasks, the identification of patients with impending acute radiation sickness is a critical problem that so far has lacked a clear solution in national planning. We present one possible solution: the formation of a public-private partnership to augment the capacity to identify those at risk for acute radiation sickness. PMID:21988186

  12. Boussignac CPAP system for brain death confirmation with apneic test in case of acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome – series of cases

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Andrzej; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are some patients with severe respiratory disturbances like adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and suspicion of brain death, for whom typical performance of the apneic test is difficult to complete because of quick desaturation and rapid deterioration without effective ventilation. To avoid failure of brain death confirmation and possible loss of organ donation another approach to apneic test is needed. We present two cases of patients with clinical symptoms of brain death, with lung pathology (acute lung injury, ARDS, lung embolism and lung infection), in whom apneic tests for recognizing brain death were difficult to perform. During typical performance of apneic test involving the use of oxygen catheter for apneic oxygenation we observed severe desaturation with growing hypotension and hemodynamic destabilization. But with the use of Boussignac CPAP system all necessary tests were successfully completed, confirming the patient’s brain death, which gave us the opportunity to perform procedures for organ donation. The main reason of apneic test difficulties was severe gas exchange disturbances secondary to ARDS. Thus lack of positive end expiratory pressure during classical performance of apneic test leads to quick desaturation and rapid hemodynamic deterioration, limiting the observation period below dedicated at least 10-minute interval. Conclusion The Boussignac CPAP system may be an effective tool for performing transparent apneic test in case of serious respiratory disturbances, especially in the form of acute lung injury or ARDS. PMID:26124664

  13. Test of salt marsh as a site of production and export of fish biomass with implications for impoundment management and restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Philip W.

    2002-01-01

    Salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, and although they are thought to enhance the productivity of open estuarine waters, the mechanism by which energy transfer occurs has been debated for decades. One possible mechanism is the transfer of saltmarsh production to estuarine waters by vagile fishes and invertebrates. Saltmarsh impoundments in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, that have been reconnected to the estuary by culverts provide unique opportunities for studying marsh systems with respect to aquatic communities. The boundaries between salt marshes and the estuary are clearly defined by a system of dikes that confine fishes into a known area, and the exchange of aquatic organisms are restricted to culverts where they may be easily sampled. A multi-gear approach was used monthly to estimate fish standing stock, fish ingress/egress, and predation. Changes in saltmarsh fish abundance, and exchange with the estuary reflected the seasonal pattern of marsh flooding in the xv northern Indian River Lagoon system. During a six month period of marsh flooding, saltmarsh fishes had continuous access to marsh food resources. Piscivorous fishes regularly entered the marsh via creeks and ditches to prey upon marsh fishes, and piscivorous birds aggregated following major fish migrations to the marsh surface or to deep habitats. As water levels receded in winter, saltmarsh fishes concentrated into deep habitats and migration to the estuary ensued. The monthly estimates of fish standing stock, net fish ingress, and predation were used to develop a biomass budget to estimate annual production of fishes and the relative yield to predatory fish, birds, and direct migration to the estuary. Annual production of saltmarsh fishes was estimated to be 17.7 g·m-2 salt marsh, which falls within the range of previously reported values for estuarine fish communities. The relative yields were at least 21% to piscivorous fishes, 14% to piscivorous birds, and 32

  14. A test of the diathesis-stress model in the emergency department: Who develops PTSD after an acute coronary syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Donald; Kronish, Ian M.; Wasson, Lauren Taggart; Giglio, James F.; Davidson, Karina W.; Whang, William

    2014-01-01

    Most acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients first present to the emergency department (ED). Patients who present to overcrowded EDs develop more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms due to the ACS than do patients who present to less crowded EDs, but no research has indicated whether some patients may be more vulnerable to the effects of ED crowding than others. In an observational cohort study, we tested whether depressed patients developed more ACS-induced PTSD symptoms under conditions of ED overcrowding than patients who had never been depressed. We conducted psychiatric interviews for current and past depression in 189 ACS patients admitted through the ED within a week of hospitalization, and screened for PTSD symptoms 1 month later using the Impact of Events Scale-Revised. The sum of ED admissions for the 12 hours prior to and 12 hours after each participant's admission was categorized into tertiles for analysis. In a 3 (ED crowding tertile) by 3 (never, past, current depression) analysis of covariance adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, we found significant effects for ED crowding, depression status, and their interaction (all p's <.05). Mean PTSD scores were significantly higher (p=.005) for participants who were currently depressed and were treated during times of high ED crowding [25.38, 95% CI= 16.18-34.58], or had a history of depression [10.74, 95% CI= 6.86-14.62], relative to all other participants, who scored 5.6 or less. These results suggest that depressed ACS patients may be most vulnerable to the stress-inducing effects of ED crowding. PMID:24612925

  15. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of an Induction Regimen for In Vivo Combined Testing of Novel Drugs against Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min H.; Liem, Natalia L. M.; Carol, Hernan; Boehm, Ingrid; Groepper, Daniel; Reynolds, C. Patrick; Stewart, Clinton F.; Lock, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Current regimens for induction therapy of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), or for re-induction post relapse, use a combination of vincristine (VCR), a glucocorticoid, and l-asparaginase (ASP) with or without an anthracycline. With cure rates now approximately 80%, robust pre-clinical models are necessary to prioritize active new drugs for clinical trials in relapsed/refractory patients, and the ability of these models to predict synergy/antagonism with established therapy is an essential attribute. In this study, we report optimization of an induction-type regimen by combining VCR, dexamethasone (DEX) and ASP (VXL) against ALL xenograft models established from patient biopsies in immune-deficient mice. We demonstrate that the VXL combination was synergistic in vitro against leukemia cell lines as well as in vivo against ALL xenografts. In vivo, VXL treatment caused delays in progression of individual xenografts ranging from 22 to >146 days. The median progression delay of xenografts derived from long-term surviving patients was 2-fold greater than that of xenografts derived from patients who died of their disease. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that systemic DEX exposure in mice increased 2-fold when administered in combination with VCR and ASP, consistent with clinical findings, which may contribute to the observed synergy between the 3 drugs. Finally, as proof-of-principle we tested the in vivo efficacy of combining VXL with either the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL/Bcl-w inhibitor, ABT-737, or arsenic trioxide to provide evidence of a robust in vivo platform to prioritize new drugs for clinical trials in children with relapsed/refractory ALL. PMID:22479469

  16. Antibiotic treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis based on rapid urine test and local epidemiology: lessons from a primary care series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) is an ideal target of optimization for antibiotic therapy in primary care. Because surveillance networks on urinary tract infections (UTI) mix complicated and uncomplicated UTI, reliable epidemiological data on AUC lack. Whether the antibiotic choice should be guided by a rapid urine test (RUT) for leukocytes and nitrites has not been extensively studied in daily practice. The aim of this primary care study was to investigate local epidemiology and RUT-daily use to determine the optimal strategy. Methods General practitioners included 18–65 years women with symptoms of AUC, performed a RUT and sent urines for analysis at a central laboratory. Different treatment strategies were simulated based on RUT and resistance results. Results Among 347 enrolled patients, 78% had a positive urine culture. Escherichia coli predominated (71%) with high rates of susceptibility to nitrofurantoin (100%), fosfomycin (99%), ofloxacin (97%), and even pivmecillinam (87%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (87%). Modelization showed that the systematic use of RUT would reduce by 10% the number of patients treated. Fosfomycin for patients with positive RUT offered a 90% overall bacterial coverage, compared to 98% for nitrofurantoin. 95% for ofloxacin, 86% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 78% for pivmecillinam. Conclusion Local epidemiology surveillance data not biased by complicated UTI demonstrates that the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance has not affected AUC yet. Fosfomycin first line in all patients with positive RUT seems the best treatment strategy for AUC, combining good bacterial coverage with expected low toxicity and limited effect on fecal flora. Trial registration The current study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00958295) PMID:24612927

  17. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  18. Fishing Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

  19. Testing for shared biogeographic history in the lower Central American freshwater fish assemblage using comparative phylogeography: concerted, independent, or multiple evolutionary responses?

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Justin C; Johnson, Jerald B

    2014-01-01

    A central goal of comparative phylogeography is determining whether codistributed species experienced (1) concerted evolutionary responses to past geological and climatic events, indicated by congruent spatial and temporal patterns (“concerted-response hypothesis”); (2) independent responses, indicated by spatial incongruence (“independent-response hypothesis”); or (3) multiple responses (“multiple-response hypothesis”), indicated by spatial congruence but temporal incongruence (“pseudocongruence”) or spatial and temporal incongruence (“pseudoincongruence”). We tested these competing hypotheses using DNA sequence data from three livebearing fish species codistributed in the Nicaraguan depression of Central America (Alfaro cultratus, Poecilia gillii, and Xenophallus umbratilis) that we predicted might display congruent responses due to co-occurrence in identical freshwater drainages. Spatial analyses recovered different subdivisions of genetic structure for each species, despite shared finer-scale breaks in northwestern Costa Rica (also supported by phylogenetic results). Isolation-with-migration models estimated incongruent timelines of among-region divergences, with A. cultratus and Xenophallus populations diverging over Miocene–mid-Pleistocene while P. gillii populations diverged over mid-late Pleistocene. Approximate Bayesian computation also lent substantial support to multiple discrete divergences over a model of simultaneous divergence across shared spatial breaks (e.g., Bayes factor [B10] = 4.303 for Ψ [no. of divergences] > 1 vs. Ψ = 1). Thus, the data support phylogeographic pseudoincongruence consistent with the multiple-response hypothesis. Model comparisons also indicated incongruence in historical demography, for example, support for intraspecific late Pleistocene population growth was unique to P. gillii, despite evidence for finer-scale population expansions in the other taxa. Empirical tests for phylogeographic congruence

  20. Comparison of laboratory and field avoidance behavior of fish in heated chlorinated water

    SciTech Connect

    Giattina, J.D.; Cherry, D.S.; Cairns, J. Jr.; Larrick, S.R.

    1981-07-01

    The effects of intermittent chlorination and temperature selection on the movement of fish were studied in an integrated field and laboratory project on the New River at the Glen Lyn Power Plant in southwestern Virginia. Over a temperature range of 7 to 36 C, the total number of fish sampled from the intermittently chlorinated thermal effluent was lower than control values (P less than or equal to 0.09) when total residual chlorine (TRC) concentration were greater than or equal to 0.15 mg/liter. After seasonal variations were segregated into discrete intervals of field temperature and fish avoidance of TRC, a decline in fish abundance in the chlorinated, heated discharge was observed within 95% confidence limits. In summer field temperatures of 27 to 30 C, fish avoided a TRC concentration that ranged from 0.19 to 0.28 mg/liter TRC; when temperatures were falling from 26 to 7 C, they avoided 0.23 to 0.24 mg/liter TRC. In most cases, laboratory-determined avoidance concentrations predicted accurately the TRC concentrations that would elicit the avoidance behavior of fish under natural field conditions. Based on published acute toxicity tests with intermittent chlorination, spotfin shiners and most other fish species generally avoided chlorien residuals 50% or less of the median lethal concentrations.

  1. Fish Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... not eat any fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can ... many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  2. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  3. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific fish used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  4. Contaminant levels in Gulf of Mexico reef fish after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill as measured by a fishermen-led testing program.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Timothy P; Gohlke, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    The BP oil disaster posed a significant threat to the U.S. seafood industry. Invertebrates (shrimp, oyster, crab) and other nearshore species comprised the majority of postspill testing by federal and state agencies. Deeper water finfish were sampled less frequently, despite population ranges that overlapped with affected waters. We report on a voluntary testing program with Gulf of Mexico commercial fishermen to ensure the safety of their catch. Seven species of reef fish were tested for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, several metals, and a constituent of Corexit 9500A and 9527A dispersants. Only two of 92 samples had detectable levels of benzo(a)pyrene-equivalents (a combined measure of carcinogenic potency across 7 different PAHs), which were still below federal safety thresholds. PAH ratios for these samples suggest pyrogenic (not petrogenic) contamination - indicating potential sources other than Deepwater Horizon. Metals were largely absent (cadmium, lead) or consistent with levels previously reported (mercury, arsenic). One notable exception was tilefish, which showed mercury concentrations lower than expected. We did not detect dispersant in any of our samples, indicating that it was not present in these species during the study period. Our findings suggest minimal risk to public health from these seafoods as a result of the disaster; however, the most contaminated areas were not sampled through this program. PMID:24401096

  5. Acute Toxicity Prediction in Multiple Species by Leveraging Mechanistic ToxCast Mitochondrial Inhibition Data and Simulation of Oral Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Wilson, Daniel M; Bartels, Michael J; Chaudhuri, Shubhra; Price, Paul S; Carney, Edward W

    2015-10-01

    There is great interest in assessing the in vivo toxicity of chemicals using nonanimal alternatives. However, acute mammalian toxicity is not adequately predicted by current in silico or in vitro approaches. Mechanisms of acute toxicity are likely conserved across invertebrate, aquatic, and mammalian species, suggesting that dose-response concordance would be high and in vitro mechanistic data could predict responses in multiple species under conditions of similar bioavailability. We tested this hypothesis by comparing acute toxicity between rat, daphnia, and fish and by comparing their respective acute data to inhibition of mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ToxCast in vitro high-throughput screening data. Logarithmic scatter plots of acute toxicity data showed a clear relationship between fish, daphnia, and intravenous rat but not oral rat data. Similar plots versus MMP showed a well-delineated upper boundary for fish, daphnia, and intravenous data but were scattered without an upper boundary for rat oral data. Adjustments of acute oral rat toxicity values by simulating fractional absorption and CYP-based metabolism as well as removing compounds with hydrolyzable linkages or flagged as substrates for glucuronidation delineated an upper boundary for rat oral toxicity versus MMP. Mitochondrial inhibition at low concentrations predicted highly acutely toxic chemicals for fish and daphnia but not the rat where toxicity was often attenuated. This use of a single high-throughput screening assay to predict acute toxicity in multiple species represents a milestone and highlights the promise of such approaches but also the need for refined tools to address systemic bioavailability and the impact of limited absorption and first pass metabolism. PMID:26139166

  6. Effect of species, life stage, and water temperature on the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide to fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Schreier, T.M.; Howe, G.E.; Redman, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a drug of low regulatory priority status that is effective in treating fish and fish eggs infected by fungi. However, only limited information is available to guide fish culturists in administering hydrogen peroxide to diseased fish. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine (1) the sensitivity of brown trout Salmo trutta, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and bluegill Lepomis, machrochirus to hydrogen peroxide treatments; (2) the sensitivity of various life stages of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to hydrogen peroxide treatments; and (3) the effect of water temperature on the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide to three fish species. Fish were exposed to hydrogen peroxide concentrations ranging from 100 to 5,000 mu L/L (ppm) for 15-min or 45-min treatments every other day for four consecutive treatments to determine the sensitivity of various species and life stages of fish. Except for walleye, most species of fish tested (less than or equal to 2 g) tolerated hydrogen peroxide of 1,000 mu L/L or greater. Walleyes were sensitive to hydrogen peroxide concentrations as low as 100 mu L/L. A correlation was found between the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide and the life stages of rainbow trout; larger fish were more sensitive. Generally, the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide increased for all species as water temperature increased. The results of these experiments demonstrate that it is important to consider the effects of species, life stage, and water temperature when conducting hydrogen peroxide treatments.

  7. Interrenal dysfunction in fish from contaminated sites: In vivo and in vitro studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hontela, A.

    1995-12-31

    An endocrine impairment characterized by a reduced capacity to elevate plasma cortisol levels in response to an acute standardized capture stress, has been previously diagnosed in yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and in northern pike, Esox lucius, from sites contaminated by mixtures of pollutants (heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs) or by BKME. The most recent studies were designed to (1) field validate this dysfunction usable as a marker of reduced physiological competence in fish; (2) demonstrate the impairment of the interrenal tissue in fish from sites located in a mining region in Abitibi; and (3) elucidate the physiological mechanisms underlying the impairment of the interrenal tissue in fish chronically exposed to xenobiotics. The responsiveness of the interrenal tissue to a standardized dose of ACTH1-39 was assessed in vivo in yellow perch from contaminated and reference sites maintained in experimental enclosures, as well as in vitro using complete growth medium in a perifusion system and in microplates. The results showed that the functional impairment of the internal tissue in fish exposed to xenobiotics is an exposure related phenomenon modulated by season. The functional tests with the interrenal tissue revealed that the responsiveness to ACTH is significantly reduced and that the synthesis of cortisol is disrupted, in fish from contaminated sites. Use of the functional ACTH-tests with the interrenal tissue of fish in environmental monitoring will be discussed.

  8. Ontogenetic improvement of visual function in the medaka Oryzias latipes based on an optomotor testing system for larval and adult fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carvalho, P.S.M.; Noltie, D.B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a system for evaluation of visual function in larval and adult fish. Both optomotor (swimming) and optokinetic (eye movement) responses were monitored and recorded using a system of rotating stripes. The system allowed manipulation of factors such as width of the stripes used, rotation speed of the striped drum, and light illuminance levels within both the scotopic and photopic ranges. Precise control of these factors allowed quantitative measurements of visual acuity and motion detection. Using this apparatus, we tested the hypothesis that significant posthatch ontogenetic improvements in visual function occur in the medaka Oryzias latipes, and also that this species shows significant in ovo neuronal development. Significant improvements in the acuity angle alpha (ability to discriminate detail) were observed from approximately 5 degrees at hatch to 1 degree in the oldest adult stages. In addition, we measured a significant improvement in flicker fusion thresholds (motion detection skills) between larval and adult life stages within both the scotopic and photopic ranges of light illuminance. Ranges of flicker fusion thresholds (X?? ?? SD) at log I=1.96 (photopic) varied from 37.2 ?? 1.6 cycles/s in young adults to 18.6 ?? 1.6 cycles/s in young larvae 10 days posthatch. At log I= - 2.54 (scotopic), flicker fusion thresholds varied from 5.8 ?? 0.7 cycles/s in young adults to 1.7 ?? 0.4 cycles/s in young larvae 10 days posthatch. Light sensitivity increased approximately 2.9 log units from early hatched larval stages to adults. The demonstrated ontogenetic improvements in visual function probably enable the fish to explore new resources, thereby enlarging their fundamental niche. ?? 2002 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Routine HIV testing in acute medical admissions in a high prevalence area reduces morbidity and mortality of HIV: a full cycle audit.

    PubMed

    Hill-Tout, Rachel; Cormack, Ian; Elgalib, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Late HIV diagnosis in the UK remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In line with British HIV Association recommendations, we implemented routine HIV Screening in Croydon University Hospital Acute Medical Unit in London after an audit in 2011 revealed very high levels of late diagnosis. Our re-audit assessed the impact of Acute Medical Unit screening and found that patients identified by screening, compared to those tested due to clinical suspicion of HIV, were significantly less likely to be diagnosed late, had fewer AIDS-defining illnesses and shorter hospital admissions. In addition, screening identified patients who were not in traditional 'high-risk' groups and patients who had defaulted HIV care and who subsequently re-engaged with care. PMID:26378190

  10. Testing payment-for-performance in French acute care hospitals: a point of view from the French Federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, France began a diagnosis related groups-based financing system for both public and private acute care hospitals. France opted for a mix of financing systems with over 80% of funding based on diagnosis related groups (DRG). After seven years of DRG-based financing, the French government is testing a payment-for-performance system in acute care hospitals, based on the USA experience. France is currently fine-tuning this model. So far, observations have raised doubts as to whether this approach will improve the value of health care in French hospitals: the budget appears insufficient, the quality of the available indicators is poor and the model is complex. However, it has focused attention on the question of health care quality. PMID:24683810

  11. Recommendation of an Appropriate Medium for In Vitro Drug Susceptibility Testing of the Fish Pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum

    PubMed Central

    Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Irgang, Rute; Núñez, Soledad; Romalde, Jesús L.; Toranzo, Alicia E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, Anacker and Ordal agar, marine agar (MA), and Flexibacter maritimus medium (FMM) were compared with the dilute versions of Mueller-Hinton agar (DMHA) medium recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) for their use in disk diffusion tests with Tenacibaculum maritimum strains and to calculate the MICs of five drugs by the Etest method. Preliminary growth tests performed with 32 strains of this pathogen on each medium revealed that all strains failed to grow on DMHA, while the remaining media supported good growth of all isolates. In the susceptibility tests, which were carried out with the other three media, all strains were resistant to oxolinic acid and were highly susceptible to amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, showing a good correspondence with the Etest values, which ranged from 0.064 to 0.75 and 0.006 to 1.5 μg/ml, respectively. Enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline produced significantly smaller inhibition zones and MICs on MA than on the other media assayed. However, fast, clear, and well-defined zones of inhibition were displayed for all strains at 24 h of incubation only on FMM by both the disk diffusion assay and Etest. In addition, FMM prepared with commercial sea salts instead of seawater was also suitable for bacterial isolation as well as for susceptibility testing. On the basis of these results, the use of FMM to determine the in vitro susceptibility of T. maritimum and its inclusion in a future revision of the NCCLS M42 report are recommended. PMID:15616279

  12. Recommendation of an appropriate medium for in vitro drug susceptibility testing of the fish pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Irgang, Rute; Núñez, Soledad; Romalde, Jesús L; Toranzo, Alicia E

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, Anacker and Ordal agar, marine agar (MA), and Flexibacter maritimus medium (FMM) were compared with the dilute versions of Mueller-Hinton agar (DMHA) medium recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) for their use in disk diffusion tests with Tenacibaculum maritimum strains and to calculate the MICs of five drugs by the Etest method. Preliminary growth tests performed with 32 strains of this pathogen on each medium revealed that all strains failed to grow on DMHA, while the remaining media supported good growth of all isolates. In the susceptibility tests, which were carried out with the other three media, all strains were resistant to oxolinic acid and were highly susceptible to amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, showing a good correspondence with the Etest values, which ranged from 0.064 to 0.75 and 0.006 to 1.5 mug/ml, respectively. Enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline produced significantly smaller inhibition zones and MICs on MA than on the other media assayed. However, fast, clear, and well-defined zones of inhibition were displayed for all strains at 24 h of incubation only on FMM by both the disk diffusion assay and Etest. In addition, FMM prepared with commercial sea salts instead of seawater was also suitable for bacterial isolation as well as for susceptibility testing. On the basis of these results, the use of FMM to determine the in vitro susceptibility of T. maritimum and its inclusion in a future revision of the NCCLS M42 report are recommended. PMID:15616279

  13. Salmon testes meal as a functional feed additive in fish meal and plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum)and nile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus L.) fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report that salmon testes meal (TM) produced from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts is a potential protein source for aquafeed formulations. A series of feeding trials was conducted using three different fish species; including Nile tilapia, rainbow trout, and white sturgeon at their early gr...

  14. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or though physical contact (for example, on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Less often, bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute ...

  15. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... control. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  17. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  18. Application of the Liver Maximum Function Capacity Test in Acute Liver Failure: A Helpful Tool for Decision-Making in Liver Transplantation?

    PubMed Central

    Vondran, Florian Wolfgang Rudolf; Schumacher, Carsten; Johanning, Kai; Hartleben, Björn; Knitsch, Wolfgang; Wiesner, Olaf; Jaeckel, Elmar; Manns, Michael Peter; Klempnauer, Juergen; Bektas, Hueseyin; Lehner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite aggressive intensive medical management acute liver failure (ALF) may require high-urgency liver transplantation (LTx). Available prognostic scores do not apply for all patients; reliable tools to identify individuals in need of LTx are highly required. The liver maximum function capacity test (LiMAx) might represent an appropriate option. Referring to a case of ALF after Amanita phalloides-intoxication the potential of the LiMAx-test in this setting is discussed. Presentation of Case. LiMAx was performed in a 27-year-old patient prior to and after high-urgency LTx. In accordance with clinical appearance of hepatic encephalopathy, coagulopathy, and acute kidney failure, the LiMAx-test constituted a fulminant course of ALF with hardly any detectable metabolic activity. Following LTx with a marginal donor organ (95% hepatosteatosis), uptake of liver function was demonstrated by postoperative increase of the LiMAx-value. The patient was discharged from hospital on postoperative day 26. Discussion. ALF often is associated with a critical state of the patient that requires almost immediate decision-making regarding further therapy. Application of a noninvasive liver function test might help to determine the prognosis of ALF and support decision-making for or against LTx as well as acceptance of a critical donor organ in case of a critically ill patient. PMID:27274881

  19. TVA Reservoir Monitoring Program: Fish community results, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, E.M. Jr.

    1992-07-31

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operates 9 reservoirs on the Tennessee River and 37 reservoirs on its tributaries. TVA is committed to maintaining the health of aquatic resources created when the reservoir system was built. To that end, TVA conducts the Water Resources and Biological Monitoring Program that includes physical, chemical, and biological data collection components. Biological monitoring targets the following selected elements within three zones of the reservoir (inflow, transition, and forebay): Sediment/Water-column Acute Toxicity Screening (forebay and transition zone only); Benthic macroinvertebrates Fish Reservoir fish monitoring is divided into the following activities: Fish Biomass; Fish Tissue Contamination; Fish Community Monitoring; Fish Health Assessment. This report presents the results of fall1991 fish community monitoring and fish health assessment data using a new analytical approach: Reservoir Index of Biotic Integrity (RIBI). Fish health assessment is included in this report as one of the RIBI metrics.

  20. Measured and modeled toxicokinetics in cultured fish cells and application to in vitro-in vivo toxicity extrapolation.

    PubMed

    Stadnicka-Michalak, Julita; Tanneberger, Katrin; Schirmer, Kristin; Ashauer, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Effect concentrations in the toxicity assessment of chemicals with fish and fish cells are generally based on external exposure concentrations. External concentrations as dose metrics, may, however, hamper interpretation and extrapolation of toxicological effects because it is the internal concentration that gives rise to the biological effective dose. Thus, we need to understand the relationship between the external and internal concentrations of chemicals. The objectives of this study were to: (i) elucidate the time-course of the concentration of chemicals with a wide range of physicochemical properties in the compartments of an in vitro test system, (ii) derive a predictive model for toxicokinetics in the in vitro test system, (iii) test the hypothesis that internal effect concentrations in fish (in vivo) and fish cell lines (in vitro) correlate, and (iv) develop a quantitative in vitro to in vivo toxicity extrapolation method for fish acute toxicity. To achieve these goals, time-dependent amounts of organic chemicals were measured in medium, cells (RTgill-W1) and the plastic of exposure wells. Then, the relation between uptake, elimination rate constants, and log KOW was investigated for cells in order to develop a toxicokinetic model. This model was used to predict internal effect concentrations in cells, which were compared with internal effect concentrations in fish gills predicted by a Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic model. Our model could predict concentrations of non-volatile organic chemicals with log KOW between 0.5 and 7 in cells. The correlation of the log ratio of internal effect concentrations in fish gills and the fish gill cell line with the log KOW was significant (r>0.85, p = 0.0008, F-test). This ratio can be predicted from the log KOW of the chemical (77% of variance explained), comprising a promising model to predict lethal effects on fish based on in vitro data. PMID:24647349

  1. What makes mangroves attractive to fish? Use of artificial units to test the influence of water depth, cross-shelf location, and presence of root structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagelkerken, I.; Faunce, C. H.

    2008-09-01

    Mangroves are an attractive fish habitat because they provide shelter and food for juvenile fishes. However, because mangroves are almost always located in shallow water and in sheltered (i.e., lagoonal, estuarine or bay) environments, the degree to which the latter two factors contribute to the attractiveness of mangrove prop-roots as a fish habitat is unknown. Artificial Mangrove Units (AMUs) were placed at multiple depths and along a gradient from an embayment to, and including, the coral reef. Total fish density and species richness in AMUs placed in the embayment was lower at 1 m depth than at 2 and 3 m depth, suggesting that shallow water is not a prerequisite for the attractiveness of mangrove prop-roots as a fish habitat. Total fish density and species richness were equal or greater in AMUs on the coral reef than in the embayment, suggesting that placement of mangroves in a sheltered lagoonal environment is not solely responsible for the attractiveness of mangrove prop-roots either. After 3 weeks, removal of AMUs did not have a negative effect on total fish density or species richness. However, within the embayment AMU removal resulted in the complete collapse of the assemblage component comprised of species that use mangroves as juvenile habitats, highlighting the need for a species-based approach towards assessing the benefits provided by the presence of mangrove root structure for fishes.

  2. Fish robotics and hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauder, George

    2010-11-01

    Studying the fluid dynamics of locomotion in freely-swimming fishes is challenging due to difficulties in controlling fish behavior. To provide better control over fish-like propulsive systems we have constructed a variety of fish-like robotic test platforms that range from highly biomimetic models of fins, to simple physical models of body movements during aquatic locomotion. First, we have constructed a series of biorobotic models of fish pectoral fins with 5 fin rays that allow detailed study of fin motion, forces, and fluid dynamics associated with fin-based locomotion. We find that by tuning fin ray stiffness and the imposed motion program we can produce thrust both on the fin outstroke and instroke. Second, we are using a robotic flapping foil system to study the self-propulsion of flexible plastic foils of varying stiffness, length, and trailing edge shape as a means of investigating the fluid dynamic effect of simple changes in the properties of undulating bodies moving through water. We find unexpected non-linear stiffness-dependent effects of changing foil length on self-propelled speed, and as well as significant effects of trailing edge shape on foil swimming speed.

  3. Acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Barr, Wendy; Smith, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Acute diarrhea in adults is a common problem encountered by family physicians. The most common etiology is viral gastroenteritis, a self-limited disease. Increases in travel, comorbidities, and foodborne illness lead to more bacteria-related cases of acute diarrhea. A history and physical examination evaluating for risk factors and signs of inflammatory diarrhea and/or severe dehydration can direct any needed testing and treatment. Most patients do not require laboratory workup, and routine stool cultures are not recommended. Treatment focuses on preventing and treating dehydration. Diagnostic investigation should be reserved for patients with severe dehydration or illness, persistent fever, bloody stool, or immunosuppression, and for cases of suspected nosocomial infection or outbreak. Oral rehydration therapy with early refeeding is the preferred treatment for dehydration. Antimotility agents should be avoided in patients with bloody diarrhea, but loperamide/simethicone may improve symptoms in patients with watery diarrhea. Probiotic use may shorten the duration of illness. When used appropriately, antibiotics are effective in the treatment of shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, Clostridium difficile, traveler's diarrhea, and protozoal infections. Prevention of acute diarrhea is promoted through adequate hand washing, safe food preparation, access to clean water, and vaccinations. PMID:24506120

  4. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant fish kill for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.; Opresko, D.M.; Talmage, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring of fish kills in upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) from July 1990 to June 1993. Since the opening of Lake Reality (LR) in 1988, total numbers of fish inhabiting upper EFPC have increased. However, species diversity has remained poor. Water quality data have been collected in upper EFPC during the time period covered in this report. Total residual chlorine (TRC) levels have exceeded federal and state water quality criteria over the years. However, with the installation of two dechlorination systems in late 1992, TRC levels have been substantially lowered in most portions of upper EFPC. By June 1993, concentrations of TRC were 0.04 to 0.06 mg/L at the north-south pipes (NSP) and below detection limits at sampling station AS-8 and were 0 to 0.01 mg/L at the inlet and outlet of LR. The daily chronic fish mortality in upper EFPC has been attributed to background stress resulting from the continuous discharge of chlorine into upper EFPC. Mean daily mortality rates for 22 acute fish kills were three fold or more above background and usually exceeded ten fish per day. Total number of dead fish collected per acute kill event ranged from 30 to over 1,000 fish; predominant species killed were central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) and striped shiners (Luxilus chrysocephalus). Spills or elevated releases of toxic chemicals, such as acids, organophosphates, aluminum nitrate, ammonia, or chlorine, were identified as possible causative agents; however, a definitive cause-effect relationship was rarely established for any acute kills. Ambient toxicity testing, in situ chemical monitoring, and streamside experiments were used to examine TRC dynamics and ambient toxicity in EFPC.

  5. Impact of rapid antigen detection testing on antibiotic prescription in acute pharyngitis in adults. FARINGOCAT STUDY: a multicentric randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute pharyngitis is one of the most frequent consultations to the general practitioner and in most of the cases an antibiotic is prescribed in primary care in Spain. Bacterial etiology, mainly by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), accounts for 10-20% of all these infections in adults. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of rapid antigen detection testing (RADT) to identify GABHS in acute pharyngitis on the utilization of antibiotics in primary care. Methods/design Multicentric randomized controlled trial in which antibiotic prescription between two groups of patients with acute pharyngitis will be compared. The trial will include two arms, a control and an intervention group in which RADT will be performed. The primary outcome measure will be the proportion of inappropriate antibiotic prescription in each group. Two hundred seventy-six patients are required to detect a reduction in antibiotic prescription from 85% in the control group to 75% in the intervention group with a power of 90% and a level of significance of 5%. Secondary outcome measures will be specific antibiotic treatment, antibiotic resistance rates, secondary effects, days without working, medical visits during the first month and patient satisfaction. Discussion The implementation of RADT would allow a more rational use of antibiotics and would prevent adverse effects of antibiotics, emergence of antibiotic resistance and the growth of inefficient health expenses. Trial registration ISRCTN23587778 PMID:20331895

  6. Trangenic fish as models in environmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Winn, R N

    2001-01-01

    Historically, fish have played significant roles in assessing potential risks associated with exposure to chemical contamination in aquatic environments. Considering the contributions of transgenic rodent models to biomedicine, it is reasoned that the development of transgenic fish could enhance the role of fish in environmental toxicology. Application of transgenic fish in environmental studies remains at an early stage, but recent introduction of new models and methods demonstrates progress. Rapid advances are most evident in the area of in vivo mutagenesis using fish carrying transgenes that serve as recoverable mutational targets. These models highlight many advantages afforded by fish as models and illustrate important issues that apply broadly to transgenic fish in environmental toxicology. Development of fish models carrying identical transgenes to those found in rodents is beneficial and has revealed that numerous aspects of in vivo mutagenesis are similar between the two classes of vertebrates. Researchers have revealed that fish exhibit frequencies of spontaneous mutations similar to rodents and respond to mutagen exposure consistent with known mutagenic mechanisms. Results have demonstrated the feasibility of in vivo mutation analyses using transgenic fish and have illustrated their potential value as a comparative animal model. Challenges to development and application of transgenic fish relate to the needs for improved efficiencies in transgenic technology and in aspects of fish husbandry and use. By taking advantage of the valuable and unique attributes of fish as test organisms, it is anticipated that transgenic fish will make significant contributions to studies of environmentally induced diseases. PMID:11581523

  7. Impact of choice of imaging modality accompanying outpatient exercise stress testing on outcomes and resource use after revascularization for acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Federspiel, Jerome J.; Shah, Bimal R.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Chang, Patricia P.; Stearns, Sally C.; Mudrick, Daniel W.; Cowper, Patricia A.; Green, Cynthia L.; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise stress testing is commonly obtained after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We compared the relationships between exercise echocardiography and nuclear testing after ACS-related PCI on outcomes and resource use. Methods Longitudinal observational study using fee-for-service Medicare claims to identify patients undergoing outpatient exercise stress testing with imaging within 15 months after PCI performed for ACS between 2003 and 2004. Results Of 63,100 patients undergoing stress testing 3 to 15 months post-PCI, 31,731 (50.3%) underwent an exercise stress test with imaging. Among 29,279 patients undergoing exercise stress testing with imaging, 15.5% received echocardiography. Echocardiography recipients had higher rates of repeat stress testing (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.60, CI 2.19–3.10) compared with those undergoing nuclear imaging in the 90 days after testing, but lower rates of revascularization (adjusted HR 0.87, CI 0.76–0.98) and coronary angiography (adjusted HR 0.88, CI 0.80–0.97). None of these differences persisted subsequent to 90 days after stress testing. Rates of death and readmission for myocardial infarction rates were similar. Total Medicare payments were lower initially after echocardiography (incremental difference $498, CI 488–507), an effect attributed primarily to lower reimbursement for the stress test itself, but not significantly different after 14 months after testing. Conclusions In this study using administrative data, echocardiography recipients initially had fewer invasive procedures but higher rates of repeat testing than nuclear testing recipients. However, these differences between echo and nuclear testing did not persist over longer time frames. PMID:24093861

  8. Parental effects improve escape performance of juvenile reef fish in a high-CO2 world.

    PubMed

    Allan, Bridie J M; Miller, Gabrielle M; McCormick, Mark I; Domenici, Paolo; Munday, Philip L

    2014-02-22

    Rising CO2 levels in the oceans are predicted to have serious consequences for many marine taxa. Recent studies suggest that non-genetic parental effects may reduce the impact of high CO2 on the growth, survival and routine metabolic rate of marine fishes, but whether the parental environment mitigates behavioural and sensory impairment associated with high CO2 remains unknown. Here, we tested the acute effects of elevated CO2 on the escape responses of juvenile fish and whether such effects were altered by exposure of parents to increased CO2 (transgenerational acclimation). Elevated CO2 negatively affected the reactivity and locomotor performance of juvenile fish, but parental exposure to high CO2 reduced the effects in some traits, indicating the potential for acclimation of behavioural impairment across generations. However, acclimation was not complete in some traits, and absent in others, suggesting that transgenerational acclimation does not completely compensate the effects of high CO2 on escape responses. PMID:24403326

  9. Exposure to Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Genistein during Activation Does Not Affect Sperm Motility in the Fighting Fish Betta splendens

    PubMed Central

    Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Gendelman, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100 μM) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7 nM or 3.7 μM) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm. PMID:24516856

  10. Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of genistein during activation does not affect sperm motility in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; Gendelman, Hannah K

    2014-01-01

    Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100 μ M) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7 nM or 3.7 μ M) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm. PMID:24516856

  11. Anticonvulsant and acute neurotoxic effects of imperatorin, osthole and valproate in the maximal electroshock seizure and chimney tests in mice: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Wojda, Ewa; Andres-Mach, Marta; Cisowski, Wojciech; Glensk, Michal; Glowniak, Kazimierz; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the anticonvulsant and acute adverse (neurotoxic) effects of imperatorin and osthole (two natural coumarin derivatives) with valproate (a classical antiepileptic drug) in the maximal electroshock seizure and chimney tests in mice. The anticonvulsant and acute adverse effects of imperatorin, osthole and valproate were determined at 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after their systemic (i.p.) administration. The evaluation of time-course and dose-response relationships for imperatorin, osthole and valproate in the maximal electroshock seizure test revealed that the compounds produced a clear-cut antielectroshock action in mice and the experimentally derived ED(50) values for imperatorin ranged between 167 and 290 mg/kg, those for osthole ranged from 253 to 639 mg/kg, whereas the ED(50) values for valproate ranged from 189 to 255 mg/kg. The evaluation of acute neurotoxic effects in the chimney test revealed that the TD(50) values for imperatorin ranged between 329 and 443 mg/kg, the TD(50) values for osthole ranged from 531 to 648 mg/kg, while the TD(50) values for valproate ranged from 363 to 512 mg/kg. The protective index (as a ratio of TD(50) and ED(50) values) for imperatorin ranged between 1.13 and 2.60, for osthole ranged from 0.83 to 2.44, and for valproate ranged between 1.72 and 2.00. In conclusion, both natural coumarin derivatives deserve more attention from a preclinical point of view as compounds possessing some potentially favorable activities in terms of suppression of seizures, quite similar to those reported for valproate. PMID:19406619

  12. The added value of the 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity test for industrial chemicals with a low (sub)acute toxicity profile in a high quality dataset.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy; Andrew, David J; Rego, Laura

    2014-08-01

    A survey conducted on the EU Notification of New Substances (NONS) database suggested that for industrial chemicals with a profile of low toxicity in (sub)acute toxicity tests there is little added value to the conduct of the 90-day repeated dose study. Avoiding unnecessary animal testing is a central aim of the EU REACH chemicals legislation; therefore we sought to verify the profile using additional data. The OECD's eChemPortal was searched for substances that had both a 28-day and a 90-day study and their robust study summaries were then examined from the ECHA CHEM database. Out of 182 substances with high quality 28-day and 90-day study results, only 18 reported no toxicity of any kind in the (sub)acute tests. However, for 16 of these there were also no reported signs of toxicity at or close to the limit dose (1000mg/kgbw/d) in the 90-day study. Restricting the 'low (sub)acute toxicity in a high quality dataset' profile to general industrial chemicals of no known biological activity, whilst allowing irritant substances, increases the data set and improves the prediction to 95% (20 substances out of 21 substances). The low toxicity profile appears to be of low prevalence within industrial chemicals (10-15%), nevertheless, avoidance of the conduct of a redundant 90-day study for this proportion of the remaining REACH phase-in substances would avoid the use of nearly 50,000 animals and save industry 50million Euros, with no impact on the assessment of human health. PMID:24768988

  13. Acute contact toxicity test of insecticides (Cipermetrina 25, Lorsban 48E, Thionex 35) on honeybees in the southwestern zone of Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Branchiccela, María Belén

    2012-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation is expanding rapidly in Uruguay, with its land area having increased by 95 times during the past 10 years. Because of the region's Neotropical conditions, insecticide use is required to ensure adequate soybean productivity. However, in areas shared by soybean crops and beekeepers - such as the southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU) - the use of insecticides can increase the risks of honeybee death and honey contamination. Uruguayan commercial and legal guidelines set out practices and field doses designed to prevent acute intoxication with insecticides. However, honeybees in the SWZU are predominantly a polyhybrid subspecies different from that used to set international reference values, and hence they may have a different acute toxicity response, thus rendering such precautions ineffective. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity response of polyhybrid honeybees in the SWZU to cypermethrin (commercial formulation: Cipermetrina 25 Agrin®), chlorpyrifos (commercial formulation: Lorsban 48E®), and endosulfan (commercial formulation: Thionex 35®). Acute toxicity bioassays were conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of each insecticide for the honeybees. The results indicate that, compared with EU reference values, SWZU honeybees have a higher toxicological sensitivity to chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, and a lower toxicological sensitivity to cypermethrin, based on the commercial formulations tested. However, when these results were adjusted according to their field dose equivalents, only chlorpyrifos emerged as a potential problem for beekeeping, as the maximum recommended field dose of Lorsban 48E® for soybean crops in Uruguay is 23 times the corresponding LD(50) for honeybees in the SWZU. PMID:22440636

  14. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  15. Gone Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

  16. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

    2014-01-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8 years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

  17. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

    2014-02-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8 years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

  18. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid to fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA; also called peroxyacetic acid) is a stabilized mixture of acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide and water that does not leave dangerous residues in the environment when it breaks down as most compounds do. PAA is a promising disinfectant in the US aquaculture industry to control paras...

  19. Acute toxicity of vanadium to the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus

    SciTech Connect

    Gravenmier, J.J.; Johnston, D.W.; Arnold, W.R.

    2005-02-15

    Vanadium is widely distributed, occurring in many types of minerals, coal, and petroleum. Anthropogenic sources of vanadium originate from the production, processing, and wastes of these materials. The aquatic toxicity of vanadium to fish species is not well characterized. This study focused on the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, a small and widely distributed euryhaline species of fish. The three-spined stickleback is used as an effluent-monitoring species in both Canada and the United States. Five 96-h static renewal acute toxicity tests were performed in moderately hard water with adult fish. The geometric mean and range of the five 96-h LC{sup 50}s based on measured concentrations of total vanadium in the test solution were 3.17 and 2.35-4.07 mg V/L, respectively. A conservative estimation of a safe concentration of vanadium that would not affect survival of adult three-spined sticklebacks over a 96-h exposure period in moderately hard water is approximately 0.30 mg V/L. A comparison with other fish species previously tested suggests that the three-spined stickleback is intermediate in sensitivity to vanadium. Information reported from this study may be useful in effluent toxicity identification evaluations and ecological risk assessments related to vanadium.

  20. Acute toxicity and accumulation of zinc in the crayfish, Orconectes virilis (Hagen)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Zinc produces acute toxicity to freshwater organisms over a range of concentrations from 90 to 58, 100..mu..g Zn/L; with the range of acute median effect concentrations being similar for freshwater fish and invertebrates. The capacity to regulate internal zinc concentrations in decapod crustaceans has been described. Studies with the crayfish Austropotambius pallipes suggested a relatively high degree of tolerance to zinc by this animal. The present study is designed to describe the toxicity of zinc to the crayfish Orconectes virilis over a 2-wk exposure period. In addition, whole animal and tissue analyses were performed on the test organisms and compared to previous results.

  1. Analysis of alpha particle-driven toroidal Alfv{acute e}n eigenmodes in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor deuterium{endash}tritium experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G.Y.; Cheng, C.Z.; Budny, R.; Chang, Z.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.; Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.; Wong, K.L.; Zweben, S.

    1996-11-01

    The toroidal Alfv{acute e}n eigenmodes (TAE) are calculated to be stable in the presently obtained deuterium{endash}tritium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Plasma Phys. Controlled Nucl. Fusion Res. {bold 26}, 11 (1984)]. However, the core localized TAE mode can exist and is less stable than the global TAE modes. The beam ion Landau damping and the radiative damping are the two main stabilizing mechanisms in the present calculation. In future deuterium{endash}tritium experiments, the alpha-driven TAE modes are predicted to occur with a weakly reversed shear profile. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Fish embryo tests with Danio rerio as a tool to evaluate surface water and sediment quality in rivers influenced by wastewater treatment plants using different treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Thellmann, Paul; Köhler, Heinz-R; Rößler, Annette; Scheurer, Marco; Schwarz, Simon; Vogel, Hans-Joachim; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-11-01

    In order to evaluate surface water and the sediment quality of rivers connected to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment technologies, fish embryo tests (FET) with Danio rerio were conducted using native water and sediment samples collected upstream and downstream of four WWTPs in Southern Germany. Two of these WWTPs are connected to the Schussen River, a tributary of Lake Constance, and use a sand filter with final water purification by flocculation. The two others are located on the rivers Schmiecha and Eyach in the area of the Swabian Alb and were equipped with a powdered activated carbon stage 20 years ago, which was originally aimed at reducing the release of stains from the textile industry. Several endpoints of embryo toxicity including mortality, malformations, reduced hatching rate, and heart rate were investigated at defined time points of embryonic development. Higher embryotoxic potentials were found in water and sediments collected downstream of the WWTPs equipped with sand filtration than in the sample obtained downstream of both WWTPs upgraded with a powdered activated carbon stage. PMID:25391229

  3. Use of life tables and LC50 tests to evaluate chronic and acute toxicity effects of copper on the marine copepod Tisbe furcata (Baird)

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann, R.K. . Dept. of Marine Zoology and Marine Chemistry)

    1994-09-01

    Cohorts of the epiphytic marine copepod Tisbe furcata were chronically exposed to copper in life-table experiments to test whether ecologically relevant impacts can occur at sublethal concentrations. Data on fecundity, longevity, and rate of development were used to calculate r[sub m]--the intrinsic rate of natural increase. Acute toxicity tests were done to compare the concentrations of copper affecting individual lethality and population biology. The LC50 value for Tisbe furcata nauplii was 2.8 [mu]M copper. The results from the life-table experiments show that 0.9 [mu]M copper can cause significant negative effects on demographic parameters (total production of nauplii, life span, and reproductive period for fertile females) and reduce the percentage of fertile females leading to a 61% reduction of r[sub m]. However, r[sub m] was still positive at 0.9 [mu]M copper, and the net reproductive rate (R[sub 0]) indicated a fivefold increase in population size from one generation to the next. Although there were no significant effects of copper at 0.5 [mu]M, there was a negative trend in almost all the demographic parameters, indicating that the observed 10% reduction of r[sub m] at this concentration was an effect of copper. For the substances tested so far with both acute LC50 tests and life-table experiments, r[sub m] was not reduced at concentrations below LC50/10. When life-table experiments are used as part of environmental hazard assessments, concentrations below LC50/10 should be tested to detect substances that are potentially harmful to the environment at sublethal concentrations, rather than testing concentrations close to LC50.

  4. Acute toxicity of biodiesel to freshwater and marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, D.; Peterson, C.

    1995-11-01

    Biodiesel fuels are reported to be nontoxic resulting in less potential hazard to fish and other aquatic life in case of accidental spills. This paper reports on static tests with rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and rapeseed ethyl ester (REE) performed according to EPA/600/4-90/027. The acute aquatic toxicity tests were conducted with both rainbow trout and daphnia magna by CH2M Hill in Corvallis, Oregon under contract to the University of Idaho. The LC50 (the point at which 50% have died and 50% are still alive determined by interpolation) values for each of the substrates tested with daphnia magna in parts per million were as follows: control(table salt (NaCl)) = 3.7, D2 = 1.43, RME = 23, REE = 99, and Methyl Soyate = 332. Duplicate tests with rainbow trout were run with 10 organisms per replicate. LC50 numbers were not reported because of the failure to kill a sufficient number of fish at the concentrations tested, even with the diesel control fuel. The 20 percent and 50 percent blends had scattered losses of fish but none of the tests had less than 85 percent survival at any concentrations after 96 hours.

  5. Recombinant protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunochromatographic tests for detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus in SARS patients.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ming; Chen, Hsiao Ying; Foo, Shen Yun; Tan, Yee-Joo; Goh, Phuay-Yee; Wee, Shock Hwa

    2004-03-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a rapid immunochromatographic test for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients were developed by utilizing the well-characterized recombinant proteins Gst-N and Gst-U274. The ELISA detected IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV in all 74 convalescent-phase samples from SARS patients while weakly cross-reacting to only 1 of the 210 control sera from healthy donors. This finding thus led to a kit sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100, 99.5, and 99.6%, respectively. The test thus provided a positive predictive value (PPV) of 98.7% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. In addition, the ELISA gave a positive delta of 5.4 and a negative delta of 3.6, indicating an excellent differentiation between positives and negatives. The same recombinant proteins were also applied to a newly developed platform for the development of a 15-min rapid test. The resulting rapid test has an excellent agreement of 99.6%, with a kappa value of 1.00, with the ELISA. Again, this rapid test was able to detect 100% of the samples tested (n = 42) while maintaining a specificity of 99.0% (n = 210). The PPV and NPV for the rapid test thus reached 95.3 and 100%, respectively. PMID:15013977

  6. The clinical utility of genetic testing for t(8;16)(p11;p13) in congenital acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Daifu, Tomoo; Kato, Itaru; Kozuki, Kagehiro; Umeda, Katsutsugu; Hiramatsu, Hidefumi; Watanabe, Ken-Ichiro; Kamiya, Ichiro; Taki, Tomohiko; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Heike, Toshio; Adachi, Souichi

    2014-07-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;16)(p11;p13) is known to have very poor prognosis in adults. In contrast, the prognosis is not clear in pediatric patients and chemotherapy is generally started immediately in cases of congenital leukemia because of its association with hyperleukocytosis and poor prognosis. This study reports a case of congenital AML where chemotherapy was discontinued after detection of a MOZ-CBP fusion, which remains in remission without additional treatment. This article stresses the importance of examination for the presence of the MOZ-CBP fusion at diagnosis to inform treatment decisions in congenital AML. PMID:24390445

  7. Alternatives to in vivo tests to detect endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in fish and amphibians – interactions with estrogens, androgens, and thyroid hormones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disruption is considered a highly relevant endpoint for environmental risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, biocides and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, screening for endocrine disruption – with focus on vertebrates (fish and amphibians) and estrogen, and...

  8. Usefulness of C-reactive protein testing in acute cough/respiratory tract infection: an open cluster-randomized clinical trial with C-reactive protein testing in the intervention group

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Point of care testing for C-reactive protein (CRP) has shown promise as a measure to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing in respiratory tract infections (RTI), but its use in primary care is still controversial. We aimed to evaluate the effect of CRP testing on the prescription of antibiotics, referral for radiography, and the outcome of patients in general practice with acute cough/RTI. Methods An open-cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted, with CRP testing performed in the intervention group. Antibiotic prescribing and referral for radiography were the main outcome measures. Results A total of 179 patients were included: 101 in the intervention group and 78 in the control group. The two groups were similar in clinical characteristics. In the intervention group, the antibiotic prescribing rate was 37.6%, which was significantly lower than that in the control group (58.9%) (P = 0.006). Referral for chest X-ray was also significantly lower in the intervention group (55.4%) than in the control group (75.6%) (P = 0.004). The recovery rate, as recorded by the GPs, was 92.9% and 93.6% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Conclusion The study showed that CRP testing in patients with acute cough/RTI may reduce antibiotic prescribing and referral for radiography, probably without compromising recovery. Trial registration The trial was registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration System (identification number: NCT01794819). PMID:24886066

  9. TOXICITY OF AMMONIA, NITRITE AND NITRATE TO FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia and nitrite are highly toxic to fishes, wig ammonia occurring in urface waters more commonly than nitrite. itrate is a related compound but is not ignificantly toxic to fishes. he acute toxicity of ammonia to aquatic organisms s affected by water pH, dissolved oxygen, tem...

  10. Mycobacterium ulcerans causes minimal pathogenesis and colonization in Medaka (Oryzias latipes): An experimental fish model of disease transmission

    PubMed Central

    Mosi, Lydia; Mutoji, Nadine K.; Basile, Fritz A; Donnell, Robert; Jackson, Kathrine L.; Spangenberg, Thomas; Kishi, Yoshito; Ennis, Don G.; Small, Pamela L.C.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans causes Buruli ulcer in humans, a progressive ulcerative epidermal lesion due to the mycolactone toxin produced by the bacterium. Molecular analysis of M. ulcerans reveals it is closely related to M. marinum, a pathogen of both fish and man. Molecular evidence from diagnostic PCR assays for the insertion sequence IS2404 suggests an association of M. ulcerans with fish. However, fish infections by M. ulcerans have not been well documented and IS2404 has been found in other mycobacteria. We have thus, employed two experimental approaches to test for M. ulcerans in fish. We show here for the first time that M. ulcerans with or without the toxin does not mount acute or chronic infections in Japanese Medaka “Oryzias latipes” even at high doses. Moreover, M. ulcerans-infected medaka do not exhibit any visible signs of infection nor disease and the bacteria do not appear to replicate over time. In contrast, similar high doses of the wild-type M. marinum or a mycolactone producing M. marinum “DL” strain are able to mount an acute disease with mortality in medaka. Although these results would suggest that M. ulcerans does not mount infections in fish we have evidence that CLC macrophages from goldfish are susceptible to mycolactones. PMID:22465732

  11. The effect of tramadol hydrochloride on early life stages of fish.

    PubMed

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Berankova, Petra; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the early-life stage toxicity test on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with tramadol hydrochloride. The FET was performed using the method inspired by the OECD guideline 236. Newly fertilized zebrafish eggs were exposed to tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 144h. An embryo-larval toxicity test on C. carpio was performed according to OECD guideline 210 also with tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 32 days. Hatching was significantly influenced in both acute and subchronic toxicity assays. Subchronic exposure also influenced early ontogeny, both morphometric and condition characteristics and caused changes in antioxidant enzyme activity. The LOEC value was found to be 10μg/l tramadol hydrochloride. PMID:27208654

  12. How Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... often detect these changes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) This is similar to cytogenetic testing. It uses ... to specific genes or parts of particular chromosomes. FISH can find the chromosome changes (such as translocations) ...

  13. Effects of acute or chronic environmental enrichment on regional Fos protein expression following sucrose cue-reactivity testing in rats.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Jeffrey W; Barnes, Jesse L; Koerber, Jonathon; Glueck, Edwin; Ginder, Darren; Hyde, Jeff; Eaton, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) reduces sucrose seeking by rats with a history of sucrose self-administration. The present experiment examined whether acute or chronic EE also reduces brain Fos levels, a protein marker indicative of neuronal activation. Fos levels were also examined after either 1 or 30 days of forced abstinence to examine whether Fos levels vary with the incubation of sucrose craving. Fos expression was examined in 18 regions and was identified in brain slices using immunohistochemistry. Fos levels were higher in most regions after 30 days of forced abstinence and were decreased in most regions by either acute or chronic EE. Eleven regions had some statistically significant effect and/or interaction of EE or incubation on Fos; the most salient of these are listed here. In the prelimbic cortex, there was an incubation of Fos and EE reduced Fos at both forced abstinence time points. In contrast, in the orbitofrontal cortex, there was no Fos incubation but EE reduced Fos at both forced abstinence time points. An interaction of EE and incubation was observed in the anterior cingulate cortex and nucleus accumbens core and shell where Fos incubated but EE only decreased Fos at the day 30 forced abstinence time point. In contrast, in the dorsolateral striatum Fos incubated, but EE robustly decreased Fos expression at both forced abstinence time points. These differential expression patterns provide rationale for more detailed, site-specific molecular functional studies in how they relate to the ability of EE to reduce sucrose seeking. PMID:26068175

  14. Field-based evaluations of horizontal flat-plate fish screens, II: Testing of a unique off-stream channel device - The Farmers Screen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Screens are installed at water diversion sites to reduce entrainment of fish. Recently, the Farmers Irrigation District (Oregon) developed a unique flat-plate screen (the “Farmers Screen”) that operates passively and may offer reduced installation and operating costs. To evaluate the effectiveness of this screen on fish, we conducted two separate field experiments. First, juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were released over a working version of this screen under a range of inflows (0.02–0.42 m3/s) and diversion flows (0.02–0.34 m3/s) at different water depths. Mean approach velocities ranged from 0 to 5 cm/s and sweeping velocities ranged from 36 to 178 cm/s. Water depths over the screen surface ranged from 1 to 25 cm and were directly related to inflow. Passage of fish over the screen under these conditions did not severely injure them or cause delayed mortality, and no fish were observed becoming impinged on the screen surface. Second, juvenile coho salmon and steelhead O. mykiss were released at the upstream end of a 34-m flume and allowed to volitionally move downstream and pass over a 3.5-m section of the Farmers Screen to determine whether fish would refuse to pass over the screen after encountering its leading edge. For coho salmon, 75–95% of the fish passed over the screen within 5 min and 82–98% passed within 20 min, depending on hydraulic conditions. For steelhead, 47–90% of the fish passed over the screen within 5 min and 79–95% passed within 20 min. Our results indicate that when operated within its design criteria, the Farmers Screen provides safe and efficient downstream passage of juvenile salmonids under a variety of hydraulic conditions.

  15. Assessment of carotid plaque neovascularization by contrast-enhanced ultrasound and high sensitivity C-reactive protein test in patients with acute cerebral infarction: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Yin, Xiaohua; Xu, Weixin; Jin, Lin; Lu, Min; Wang, Yingchun

    2016-07-01

    Vulnerable carotid plaque easily ruptures and causes cerebral infarction. Plaque inflammation and neovascularization have both been shown as important characteristics in vulnerable plaque. We assessed neovascularization within carotid plaque using contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and also assessed inflammation, using high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) testing, in acute cerebral infarction patients. A total of 106 patients with acute cerebral infarction and 40 controls were enrolled in the study. All subjects had been previously found to have carotid atherosclerotic plaques, and the plaques were classified as soft plaque, hard plaque, mixed plaque, and calcified plaque, using carotid artery ultrasound. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed on the plaques for quantitative analysis and hs-CRP levels were measured. The results showed that plaque enhancement was present in 81.1 % of cerebral infarction patients and 40.0 % of controls. The contrast parameters for cerebral infarction patients were significantly different from controls. For cerebral infarction patients, soft plaque showed the highest enhanced percentage, 95.1 %, with contrast parameters significantly different to other types of plaque. The hs-CRP levels of enhanced cerebral infarction patients were higher than in non-enhanced patients. Correlation analysis in cerebral infarction patients showed that hs-CRP levels were closely related to the contrast parameters. Acute cerebral infarction patients showed intense contrast enhancement and inflammation in carotid plaque, and different types of plaque had various degrees of enhancement, suggesting that contrast-enhanced ultrasound and hs-CRP might be used for plaque risk stratification. PMID:27021564

  16. Influence of acute or chronic administration of ovarian hormones on the effects of desipramine in the forced swim test in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Aparna; Frazer, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Gender may influence antidepressant (AD) treatment outcome. In order to address this pre-clinically, the potential effects of ovarian hormones on AD treatment in ovariectomized female rats were investigated. Objectives In the first study, the effect of acute administration of estrogen and progesterone on the antidepressant-like effects of desipramine (DMI), a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), was investigated in the forced swimming test (FST). In the second study, the effect of chronic administration of these hormones on the effects of chronically administered DMI was investigated. Results In the acute study, the hormones blocked the effects of DMI in the FST as demonstrated by the absence of either a reduction in immobility or an increase in climbing behavior in animals treated with DMI in combination with the hormones. Concentration-response experiments on hippocampal synaptosomes revealed no changes in the Km or Bmax for uptake of 3H-NE in hormone-treated rats. In the chronic study, the antidepressant-like effects of DMI in the FST were not blocked by chronic administration of hormones. Interestingly, the hormones affected the serum concentrations of DMI. These levels were significantly higher in animals receiving 10 or 15 mg/kg/day in hormone-treated rats as compared to those with placebo. Conclusions Acute administration of hormones blocked the effects of DMI (given three times over 24 h) in the FST. However, chronic administration of these hormones failed to block the effects of chronically administered DMI (at a dose that produces clinically relevant serum concentrations). PMID:24590054

  17. Intermittent exposure to social defeat and open-field test in rats: acute and long-term effects on ECG, body temperature and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity. After implantation of a transmitter for the radiotelemetric recording of electrocardiogram (ECG), body temperature and physical activity, adult male rats (Rattus norvegicus, Wild Type Groningen strain) were repeatedly exposed (10 consecutive times, on alternate days) to either a social stressor (defeat by a con-specific, n = 15) or an open-field, control challenge (transfer to a new cage; n = 8). ECGs, body temperature and physical activity were continuously recorded in baseline, test and recovery periods (each lasting 15 min), at the 1st and 10th episodes of both defeat and open-field challenge. The circadian rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and physical activity were monitored before (5 days), during (16 days) and after (21 days) the intermittent stress protocol. This study indicates that there is no clear habituation of either acute cardiac autonomic responsivity (as estimated by means of time-domain indexes of heart rate variability) or arrhythmia occurrence to a brief, intermittent, homotypic challenge, regardless of the nature of the stressor (social or non-social). On the other hand, rats exposed to social challenge also failed to show adaptation of acute temperature and activity stress responsiveness, whereas rats facing open-field challenge developed habituation of activity and sensitization of temperature responses. Repeated social challenge produced remarkable reductions of the heart rate circadian rhythm amplitude (this effect being significantly greater than that produced by intermittent open-field), but only minor changes in the daily rhythms of body temperature and physical activity. PMID:12171764

  18. Prediction of Short-Term Outcome in Acute Superior Vestibular Nerve Failure: Three-Dimensional Video-Head-Impulse Test and Caloric Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Rambold, Holger A.

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study examines acute unilateral vestibular failure (up to seven days after onset) with modern vestibular testing (caloric irrigation and video-head-impulse test, vHIT) in 54 patients in order to test if the short-term outcome of the patients depends on the lesion pattern defined by the two tests. Patients were grouped according to a pathological unilateral caloric weakness without a pathological vHIT: group I; additional a pathological vHIT of the lateral semicircular canal (SCC): group II; and an additional pathological vHIT of the anterior SCC: group III. Patients with involvement of the posterior SCC were less frequent and not included in the analysis. Basic parameters, such as age of the subjects, days after symptom onset, gender, side of the lesion, treatment, and dizziness handicap inventory, were not different in groups I to III. The frequency of pathological clinical findings and pathological quantified measurements increased from groups I to III. The outcome parameter “days spent in the hospital” was significantly higher in group III compared to group I. The analysis shows that differential vestibular testing predicts short-term outcome of the patients and might be in future important to treat and coach patients with vestibular failure. PMID:26649042

  19. Poor performance of the determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab combo fourth-generation rapid test for detection of acute infections in a National Household Survey in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Duong, Yen T; Mavengere, Yvonne; Patel, Hetal; Moore, Carole; Manjengwa, Julius; Sibandze, Dumile; Rasberry, Christopher; Mlambo, Charmaine; Li, Zhi; Emel, Lynda; Bock, Naomi; Moore, Jan; Nkambule, Rejoice; Justman, Jessica; Reed, Jason; Bicego, George; Ellenberger, Dennis L; Nkengasong, John N; Parekh, Bharat S

    2014-10-01

    Fourth-generation HIV rapid tests (RTs) claim to detect both p24 antigen (Ag) and HIV antibodies (Ab) for early identification of acute infections, important for targeting prevention and reducing HIV transmission. In a nationally representative household survey in Swaziland, 18,172 adults, age 18 to 49 years, received home-based HIV rapid testing in 2010 and 2011. Of the 18,172 individuals, 5,822 (32.0%) were Ab positive (Ab(+)) by the Determine HIV-1/2 Ab/Ab combo test, and 5,789 (99.4%) of those were confirmed to be reactive in the Uni-Gold test. Determine combo identified 12 individuals as having acute infections (Ag(+)/Ab negative [Ab(-)]); however, none had detectable HIV-1 RNA and 8 of 12 remained HIV negative at their 6-week follow-up visit (4 were lost to follow-up). All RT-nonreactive samples were pooled and tested by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) to identify acute infections. NAAT identified 13 (0.1%) of the 12,338 HIV antibody-negative specimens as HIV RNA positive, with RNA levels ranging from 300 to >10,000,000 copies/ml. However, none of them were Ag(+) by Determine combo. Follow-up testing of 12 of the 13 NAAT-positive individuals at 6 months demonstrated 12 seroconversions (1 individual was lost to follow-up). Therefore, the Determine combo test had a sensitivity of 0% (95% confidence interval, 0 to 28) and positive predictive value of 0% for the detection of acute infections. The ability of the 4th-generation Determine combo to detect antigen was very poor in Swaziland. Thus, the Determine combo test does not add any value to the current testing algorithm; rather, it adds additional costs and complexity to HIV diagnosis. The detection of acute HIV infections may need to rely on other testing strategies. PMID:25122853

  20. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.; Johnson, Robert; McKinstry, C.

    2006-03-01

    The construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams on the Columbia River resulted in the complete extirpation of the anadromous fishery upstream of these structures. Today, this area is totally dependent upon resident fish resources to support local fisheries. The resident fishing is enhanced by an extensive stocking program for target species in the existing fishery, including kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss). The kokanee fishery in Lake Roosevelt has not been meeting the return goals set by fisheries managers despite the stocking program. Investigations of physical and biological factors that could affect the kokanee population found predation and entrainment had a significant impact on the fish population. In 1999 and 2000, walleye (Sander vitreum) consumed between 15% and 9%, respectively, of the hatchery kokanee within 41 days of their release, while results from a study in the late 1990s estimated that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam could account for up to 30% of the total mortality of the stocked fish. To address the entrainment loss, the Bonneville Power Administration commissioned a study to determine if fish would avoid areas illuminated by strobe lights in the forebay of the third powerplant. This work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes). From 2002 through 2004, six strobe lights were suspended in the center of the opening to the third powerplant forebay during summer months. Results from those studies indicated that fish appeared to be attracted to the illuminated area but only at night and when flow conditions within the third powerplant forebay were minimal. However, small but consistent results from these studies indicated that under high flow conditions, fish might be avoiding the lights. The 2005 study was designed to examine whether, under high flow conditions near the penstock

  1. Biomonitoring test procedures and biological criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Lipschultz, M.J.; Foster, W.E.

    1997-10-01

    The Water Environment Federation recently issued a special publication, Biomonitoring in the Water Environment. In this paper, the authors highlight the contents of the chapter 3, Biomonitoring Test Procedures, identify current trends in test procedures and introduce the concept of biological criteria (biocriteria). The book chapter (and this paper) focuses on freshwater and marine chronic and acute toxicity tests used in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits program to identify effluents and receiving waters containing toxic materials in acutely or chronically toxic concentrations. The two major categories of toxicity tests include acute tests and chronic tests. The USEPA chronic tests required in NPDEs permits have been shortened to 7 days by focusing on the most sensitive life-cycle stages; these tests are often referred to as short-term chronic tests. The type of test(s) required depend on NPDES permit requirements, objectives of the test, available resources, requirements of the test organisms, and effluent characteristics such as variability in flow or toxicity. The permit writer will determine the requirements for toxicity test(s) by considering such factors as dilution, effluent variability, and exposure variability. Whether the required test is acute or chronic, the objective of the test is to estimate the safe or no effect concentration which is defined as the concentration which will permit normal propagation of fish and other aquatic life in the receiving waters. In this paper, the authors review the types of toxicity tests, the commonly used test organisms, and the uses of toxicity test data. In addition, they briefly describe research on new methods and the use of biological criteria.

  2. Fish Tales

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  3. EDIT: A New International Multicentre Programme to Develop and Evaluate Batteries of In Vitro Tests for Acute and Chronic Systemic Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ekwall, B; Clemedson, C; Ekwall, B; Ring, P; Romert, L

    1999-01-01

    The Multicenter Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity (MEIC) programme provided a battery of three basal cytotoxicity tests with a good (R2 = 0.77) prediction of human acute lethal blood concentrations. The predictive power of this battery would be considerably improved by the addition of new supplementary in vitro tests. The development of these new tests will be facilitated by a close coupling of test development to evaluation. The Cytotoxicology Laboratory, Uppsala (CTLU), is therefore inviting all interested in vitro toxicologists to take part in the Evaluation-guided Development of In Vitro Toxicity and Toxicokinetic Tests (EDIT). All EDIT activities (subprojects) will be designed on a case-by-case basis, but will follow a common pattern. The CTLU will use the accumulated MEIC/EDIT data, and its experience from the previous MEIC evaluation, to suggest priority areas, i.e. the need for certain in vitro toxicity data/tests as supplements to existing in vitro models/batteries on human systemic toxicity. Detailed research programmes corresponding to these areas will be published on the Internet. The CTLU will also try to raise funds for some projects and will coordinate multilaboratory studies. Interested laboratories developing or already using priority tests are encouraged to join the subprojects and to test specific sets of substances (usually sets of MEIC reference chemicals) in their new assays. The CTLU will provide adequate human reference data and will also evaluate results as single components of complex models, together with the laboratory conducting the test. At present, ten priority areas have been identified: a) repeat dose toxicity in vitro; b) urgent mechanistic information from in vitro studies of protein denaturation, morphology of cell injury, differential toxicity between various rapidly measured endpoints (10-60 minutes) and 24-hour cytotoxicity, toxicity to aerobic cells, and discrimination between rapid and slow cytotoxic mechanisms; c) in

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Pooled Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing for Acute HIV Infection after Third-Generation HIV Antibody Screening and Rapid Testing in the United States: A Comparison of Three Public Health Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Angela B.; Patel, Pragna; Sansom, Stephanie L.; Farnham, Paul G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Bennett, Berry; Kerndt, Peter R.; Bolan, Robert K.; Heffelfinger, James D.; Prabhu, Vimalanand S.; Branson, Bernard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Detection of acute HIV infection (AHI) with pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) following HIV testing is feasible. However, cost-effectiveness analyses to guide policy around AHI screening are lacking; particularly after more sensitive third-generation antibody screening and rapid testing. Methods and Findings We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of pooled NAAT screening that assessed the prevention benefits of identification and notification of persons with AHI and cases averted compared with repeat antibody testing at different intervals. Effectiveness data were derived from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention AHI study conducted in three settings: municipal sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, a community clinic serving a population of men who have sex with men, and HIV counseling and testing sites. Our analysis included a micro-costing study of NAAT and a mathematical model of HIV transmission. Cost-effectiveness ratios are reported as costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained in US dollars from the societal perspective. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on key variables, including AHI positivity rates, antibody testing frequency, symptomatic detection of AHI, and costs. Pooled NAAT for AHI screening following annual antibody testing had cost-effectiveness ratios exceeding US$200,000 per QALY gained for the municipal STD clinics and HIV counseling and testing sites and was cost saving for the community clinic. Cost-effectiveness ratios increased substantially if the antibody testing interval decreased to every 6 months and decreased to cost-saving if the testing interval increased to every 5 years. NAAT was cost saving in the community clinic in all situations. Results were particularly sensitive to AHI screening yield. Conclusions Pooled NAAT screening for AHI following negative third-generation antibody or rapid tests is not cost-effective at recommended antibody testing intervals for high-risk persons

  5. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  6. Acute and chronic intakes of fallout radionuclides by Marshallese from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak and related internal radiation doses.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L; Weinstock, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  7. ACUTE AND CHRONIC INTAKES OF FALLOUT RADIONUCLIDES BY MARSHALLESE FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTING AT BIKINI AND ENEWETAK AND RELATED INTERNAL RADIATION DOSES

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L.; Weinstock, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  8. Procedures for use of freshwater fishes in the development of reproducible toxicological information.

    PubMed

    Marking, L L

    1984-05-01

    Toxicity testing with fish began early in this century, but standardized methods have been developed only within the last three decades. Standardized test procedures promote reproducibility of results; healthy fish properly handled and acclimated to test conditions are a given prerequisite. The principles of acute toxicity testing are important in the design of chronic tests for suspected carcinogens because certain factors influence the activity of chemicals or contaminants. The pH of test water is a critical factor in governing the uptake of chemicals by fish. Buffering is required so that uniform pH in waters of different hardnesses and different pHs in water of a given hardness are maintained. The importance of water quality control is graphically demonstrated by the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol; the toxicant is over 50 times more toxic in water at pH 6.5 than at pH 9.5. Results of laboratory tests on toxicity or carcinogenicity of single compounds in a clean environment represent an oversimplification of the real world because organisms are actually exposed to multiple chemicals or stresses. Because the environment is a complex interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that are extremely variable and dynamic, simulation of these systems in the laboratory is, at best, artificial; therefore, results developed must be considered to be predictive. PMID:6749253

  9. Cholescintigraphy in acute acalculous cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanna, L.; Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Berman, D.S.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-08-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a relatively rare but potentially lethal condition if not treated promptly. Since stones are not present, diagnostic procedures such as ultrasound or other radiological procedures are frequently not helpful. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid scan results were analyzed in 11 proven cases of acute acalculous cholecystitis. All had positive tests with nonvisualization of the gallbladder giving a sensitivity of 100%. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy is a highly reliable test and is easily performed even in acutely ill patients and should be the test of choice in all patients predisposed to and suspected of acute acalculous cholecystitis.

  10. Utility of the Tourniquet Test and the White Blood Cell Count to Differentiate Dengue among Acute Febrile Illnesses in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Christopher J.; Lorenzi, Olga D.; Colón, Lisandra; Sepúlveda García, Arleene; Santiago, Luis M.; Cruz Rivera, Ramón; Cuyar Bermúdez, Liv Jossette; Ortiz Báez, Fernando; Vázquez Aponte, Delanor; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm3) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2–7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

  11. Prognostic evaluation by clinical exercise test scores in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention or fibrinolysis for acute myocardial infarction (a Danish Trial in Acute Myocardial Infarction-2 Sub-Study).

    PubMed

    Valeur, Nana; Clemmensen, Peter; Grande, Peer; Saunamäki, Kari

    2007-10-01

    The prognostic accuracy of exercise testing after myocardial infarction is low, and different models have been proposed to enhance the predictive value for subsequent mortality. This study tested a simple score against 3 established scores. Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarctions were randomized in the Danish Trial in Acute Myocardial Infarction-2 (DANAMI-2) to either primary percutaneous coronary intervention or fibrinolysis with predischarge exercise testing. Clinical and exercise test data were collected prospectively and were available for 1,115 patients. A simple score was derived, awarding 1 point for history or new signs of heart failure, 1 point for a left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, 1 point for age >65 years in men and age >70 years in women, and 1 point for exercise capacity <5 METs in men and exercise capacity <4 METs in women. This DANAMI score was compared with the Veterans Affairs Medical Center score, the Duke treadmill score, and the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio Della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-2 (GISSI-2) score in multivariate Cox models and receiver-operating characteristic plots. All scoring systems were predictive of adverse outcomes. The DANAMI score performed better, with greater chi-square values (142 vs 53 to 88 for the prediction of death). Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves were compared and were larger for the DANAMI score (C-statistic 0.79 vs 0.71 to 0.74 for the other tests regarding mortality). The DANAMI score stratified patients into a small high-risk group (8% of the population with 43% mortality in 6 years), an intermediate-risk group (13% with 16% mortality in 6 years), and a low-risk group (79% with 4% mortality in 6 years). In conclusion, a simple exercise test score composed of age, METs, heart failure, and a left ventricular ejection fraction <40% seems to outperform the Duke treadmill score, Veterans Affairs Medical Center score, and GISSI-2 score in risk stratifying

  12. Acute toxicity test of a natural iron chelator and an antioxidant, extracted from Triticum aestivum Linn. (wheat grass).

    PubMed

    Das, Priyabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Mandal, Suvra; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Pal, Amartya; Sarkar, Nirmal Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2014-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (wheat grass) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. Previously the purified compounds and crude extract of T. aestivum were established to have iron chelation potency and antioxidant activity. So it is necessary to evaluate the toxic properties of any compound isolated from plant extract to prevent any untoward side effects. The aim of this study was to determine the acute oral toxicity level of our purified compounds, i.e. mugineic acids and methylpheophorbide a., and crude extract of T. aestivum, on Swiss albino mice at dosage of 2000 mg/kg for a period of 14 days using the organisation for economic co-operation and development guidelines 423. There was no mortality. No change in behavioural pattern, clinical signs, body weight and blood biochemistry profile were observed. Kidney and liver showed normal histo-pathological architecture. Hence, the oral administration of compounds and extract of T. aestivum did not produce any significant toxic effect on mice. Thus we may conclude that the extract can be utilised for pharmaceutical formulations as iron chelator and antioxidant agent for various diseases. PMID:24697628

  13. Toxicity of sodium molybdate and sodium dichromate to Daphnia magna straus evaluated in acute, chronic, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition tests.

    PubMed

    Diamantino, T C; Guilhermino, L; Almeida, E; Soares, A M

    2000-03-01

    As a result of a widespread application in numerous industrial processes, chromium is a contaminant of many environmental systems. Chromium and their compounds are toxic to both invertebrates and vertebrates and, for this reason, there has been a search for suitable and less toxic alternatives. Molybdenum compounds have been studied as alternative to chromium compounds for some industrial applications. The toxicity of chromium is well known but the effects of molybdenum and molybdenum mining on natural populations and communities of freshwater invertebrates have not often been studied. However, chromium, and molybdenum (and their compounds) are included in the same list (List II) of European Union dangerous substances. In this study, the acute and chronic effects of sodium molybdate and sodium dichromate to Daphnia magna Straus were evaluated. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo effects of these two metals on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of D. magna Straus were investigated. LC(50) values determined at 48 h were 0.29 and 2847.5 mg L(-1) for chromium (as sodium dichromate) and molybdenum (as sodium molybdate), respectively. No significant in vitro effects of both metals on AChE were found. However, both toxicants inhibited AChE in vivo at concentrations under the respective 48-h LC(50) values. Both sodium dichromate and sodium molybdate inhibited the reproduction and growth of D. magna, but the concentrations inducing significant effects were different for the two chemicals. Sodium molybdate had significant lower toxicity to D. magna Straus than sodium dichromate. PMID:10702344

  14. Potentials and limits for the use of ozone as a fish disease control agent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.; Nelson, Nancy C.; Yasutake, Wm. T.

    1979-01-01

    Ozone and chlorine inactivation curves were determined in three types of freshwater at 20 C for the destruction of the fish pathogens Aeromonas salmonicida the etiologic agent of furunculosis, and Yersinia ruckeri the enteric redmouth bacterium (ERM). Ozone and chlorine inactivation curves were also obtained in the same water types at 10 C for the fish pathogenic viruses infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHNV), and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPNV). Acute toxicity tests using the rainbow trout as a representative salmonid revealed that ozone was highly toxic at the dose levels used. Partial chronic (3. mo.) testing revealed that ozone exposure at 2 μg/L causes only minimal physiological changes, none of which would be expected to compromise biological function.

  15. Prevalence of patients with acute febrile illnesses and positive dengue NS1 tests in a tertiary hospital in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Asigau, Viola; Lavu, Evelyn K; McBride, William J H; Biloh, Eric; Naroi, Francis; Koana, Egi; Ferguson, John K; Laman, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Because the prevalence of dengue fever in urban settings in Papua New Guinea is unknown, we investigated the presence of dengue using the NS1 antigen test in an outpatient-based prospective observational study at Port Moresby General Hospital. Of 140 patients with acute febrile illnesses, dengue fever was diagnosed in 14.9% (20 of 134; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 9.6-22.4). Malaria (2 of 137; 1.5%; 95% CI = 0.3-5.7), chikungunya (3 of 140; 2.1%; 95% CI = 0.6-6.6), and bacterial bloodstream infections (0 of 80; 0%; 95% CI = 0-5.7) were uncommon. Dengue fever should no longer be considered rare in Papua New Guinea. PMID:25331803

  16. Trends in Cardiac Biomarker Testing in China for Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction, 2001 to 2011: China PEACE-Retrospective AMI Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Hu, Shuang; Spertus, John A.; Lin, Zhenqiu; Desai, Nihar R.; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe trends in the availability of biomarker testing in Chinese hospitals and how practice complies with established standards for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Background Cardiac biomarker testing is standard in high-income countries, but little is known about the availability and use of cardiac biomarker testing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as China. Methods Based on a nationally representative sample of Chinese hospitals in 2001, 2006 and 2011, we describe the temporal trends and regional differences in the hospital capability and rates of use of cardiac biomarker testing, as well as the variation in use across hospitals with testing capability, for patients labeled with the diagnosis of AMI. Results We sampled 175 hospitals (162 participated in the study) and 18,631 AMI admissions. 14,370 patients were included in analysis of biomarker use. The proportion of hospitals with biomarker testing capability was 57.4% in 2001 (25.0% troponin and 32.4% creatine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB) only) and 96.3% (81.4% troponin and 14.9% CK-MB only) in 2011. The proportion of hospitals with troponin testing capability in 2011 was significantly higher in urban compared with rural hospitals (96.8% vs. 71.4%, p< 0.001). In 2011, only 55.9% of hospitals with troponin testing capability (71 out of 127 hospitals) used the assay for more than 80% of their patients with AMI. Among hospitals with either biomarker testing capability, there was marked variation in use in both rural (from 7.1% to 100.0% of patients) and urban hospitals (from 57.9% to 100.0% of patients). In 2011, 36.1% of the patients with AMI did not have troponin tested and 4.9% did not have either biomarker measured. Conclusions The recommended biomarker tests for AMI diagnosis are not universally available and the testing is not consistently applied when it is available in China. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01624883 PMID:25893247

  17. Contaminant sensitivity of threatened and endangered fishes compared to standard surrogate species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sappington, L.C.; Mayer, F.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Buckler, D.R.; Jones, J.R.; Ellersieck, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    Standard environmental assessment procedures are designed to protect terrestrial and aquatic species. However, it is not known if endangered species are adequately protected by these procedures. At present, toxicological data obtained from studies with surrogate test fishes are assumed to be applicable to endangered fish species, but this assumption has not been validated. Static acute toxicity tests were used to compare the sensitivity of rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows to several federally listed fishes (Apache trout, Lahontan cutthroat trout, greenback cutthroat trout, bonytail chub, Colorado pikeminnow, razorback sucker, Leon Springs pupfish, and desert pupfish). Chemicals tested included carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin. Results indicated that the surrogates and listed species were of similar sensitivity. In two cases, a listed species had a 96-h LC50 (lethal concentration to 50% of the population) that was less than one half of its corresponding surrogate. In all other cases, differences between listed and surrogate species were less than twofold. A safety factor of two would provide a conservative estimate for listed cold-water, warm-water, and euryhaline fish species.

  18. Systematic, theoretically-grounded development and feasibility testing of an innovative, preventive web-based game for children exposed to acute trauma

    PubMed Central

    Marsac, Meghan L.; Winston, Flaura K.; Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Kohser, Kristen L.; March, Sonja; Kenardy, Justin; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Millions of children are affected by acute medical events annually, creating need for resources to promote recovery. While web-based interventions promise wide reach and low cost for users, development can be time- and cost-intensive. A systematic approach to intervention development can help to minimize costs and increase likelihood of effectiveness. Using a systematic approach, our team integrated evidence on the etiology of traumatic stress, an explicit program theory, and a user-centered design process to intervention development. Objective To describe evidence and the program theory model applied to the Coping Coach intervention and present pilot data evaluating intervention feasibility and acceptability. Method Informed by empirical evidence on traumatic stress prevention, an overarching program theory model was articulated to delineate pathways from a) specific intervention content to b) program targets and proximal outcomes to c) key longer-term health outcomes. Systematic user-testing with children ages 8–12 (N = 42) exposed to an acute medical event and their parents was conducted throughout intervention development. Results Functionality challenges in early prototypes necessitated revisions. Child engagement was positive throughout revisions to the Coping Coach intervention. Final pilot-testing demonstrated promising feasibility and high user-engagement and satisfaction. Conclusion Applying a systematic approach to the development of Coping Coach led to the creation of a functional intervention that is accepted by children and parents. Development of new e-health interventions may benefit from a similar approach. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of Coping Coach in achieving targeted outcomes of reduced trauma symptoms and improved health-related quality of life. PMID:25844276

  19. Bortezomib has little ex vivo activity in chronic myeloid leukemia: individual tumor response testing comparative study in acute and chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Lidia; Czyżewski, Krzysztof; Kołodziej, Beata; Kuryło-Rafińska, Beata; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Gniot, Michał; Lewandowska, Maria; Komarnicki, Mieczysław; Wysocki, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Resistance to imatinib is one of the most important issues in treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. The objective of the study was to analyze the ex vivo drug resistance profile to bortezomib and 22 other antileukemic drugs, including three tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), in CML in comparison to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Material and methods A total of 82 patients entered the study, including 36 CML and 46 AML adults. Among CML patients, 19 had advanced disease, 16 were resistant to imatinib, and 6 had ABL-kinase domain mutations. The ex vivo drug resistance profile was studied by the MTT assay. Results CML cells were more resistant than AML blasts to the following drugs: prednisolone, vincristine, doxorubicin, etoposide, melphalan, cytarabine, fludarabine, thiotepa, 4-HOO-cyclophosphamide, thioguanine, bortezomib, topotecan, and clofarabine. CML cells were 2-fold more sensitive to busulfan than AML cells. CML patients with clinical imatinib resistance had higher ex vivo resistance to vincristine, daunorubicin, etoposide, and busulfan. No significant differences to all tested drugs, including TKIs, were observed between CML patients with non-advanced and advanced disease. CML patients with mutation had higher ex vivo resistance to vincristine, idarubicin, thiotepa, and busulfan. Conclusions CML cells are ex vivo more resistant to most drugs than acute myeloid leukemia blasts. Busulfan is more active in CML than AML cells. In comparison to AML cells, bortezomib has little ex vivo activity in CML cells. No differences between CML subgroups in sensitivity to 3 tested TKIs were detected. PMID:23788881

  20. Evaluation of genotoxic potential of chromium (VI) in Channa punctata fish in terms of chromosomal aberrations.

    PubMed

    Yadav, K K; Trivedi, S P

    2006-01-01

    Chromium, a widely recognized carcinogenic, mutagenic and redox active metal, is released into aquatic environments by electroplating, tannery and textile industries. Elevated concentrations in sediments and interstitial waters are well documented. Fishes dwelling in chromium waste infested waters are presumed to be affected by its deposits. To evaluate the genotoxic potential of chromium [Cr(VI)] on aquatic bio-system, bottom feeding fishes, Channa punctata, as model fish, were exposed to [Cr(VI)]. The chromosomal aberration test (CAT) was used as biomarker of [Cr(VI)] induced toxicity. The fish were divided into three groups:Group I non-treated controls; group II positive controls, treated with an intra-muscular injection of mitomycin-C at 1 mg/kg body wt; group III exposed to a sublethal concentration (7.689 mg/l) of [Cr(VI)], dissolved in the water. For CAT estimation, short term static bioassays were conducted and samples were collected from the kidneys of fish after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 hrs of exposure. The remarkable chromosomal aberrations recorded in the present investigation included chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, chromatid deletions, fragments, acentric fragments, and ring and di-centric chromosomes, along with chromatid and chromosome gaps. A significant increase in chromosomal aberrations was observed after 72 hrs of [Cr(VI)] exposure. The present study, thus reveals that even for acute exposure, [Cr(VI)] is a genotoxic agent for C. punctata. PMID:17059348

  1. Acute Toxicity Comparison of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Various Freshwater Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young Shin; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Yong Hwa; Kang, Sung Wook

    2015-01-01

    While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris), a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna), and a fish (Oryzias latipes) based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203). According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50) of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing “acute category 3” in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish. PMID:25654094

  2. Acute toxicity comparison of single-walled carbon nanotubes in various freshwater organisms.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Eun Kyung; Chung, Young Shin; Johari, Seyed Ali; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Yong Hwa; Kang, Sung Wook; Yu, Il Je

    2015-01-01

    While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris), a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna), and a fish (Oryzias latipes) based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203). According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50) of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing "acute category 3" in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish. PMID:25654094

  3. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    PubMed Central

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  4. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses.

    PubMed

    Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C

    2015-05-26

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  5. [Evaluation of Antilles fish ciguatoxicity by mouse and chick bioassays].

    PubMed

    Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P

    2003-03-01

    Ciguatera is a common seafood poisoning in Western Atlantic and French West Indies. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean is a public health problem. A toxicological study was carried out on 178 Caribbean fish specimens (26 species) captured off Guadeloupe and Saint Barthelemy between 1993 and 1999. The mouse bioassay and the chick feeding test were used to control fish edibility. Ciguatoxins presence was assumed when symptomatology was typical of ciguatera in mouse and chick. Fishes were classified in three groups: non toxic fish (edible), low toxic fish (not edible) and toxic fish (not edible). 75% of fishes were non toxic. Toxic fish specimens belonged to four families of high trophic level carnivores: Carangidae, Lutjanidae, Serranidae et Sphyraenidae. Percentages of toxic fishes to humans reached 55% for Caranx latus and 33% for Caranx bartholomaei and Caranx lugubris. Only a significant correlation between weight and toxicity was only found for C. latus and snappers. Small carnivorous groupers (Serranidae) were also toxic. Atoxic fish species were (a) pelagic fish (Coryphaena hippurus, Auxis thazard and Euthynnus pelamis), (b) invertebrates feeders (Malacanthus plumieri, Balistes vetula), (c) small high-risk fish or (d) fish of edible benthic fish families. Liver of four fishes (Mycteroperca venenosa, Caranx bartholomaei, Seriola rivoliana, Gymnothorax funebris) contained ciguatoxins at a significant level although their flesh was safe. This study confirms the usefulness of mouse and chick bioassays for sanitary control of fish. PMID:12784589