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Sample records for acute fish toxicity

  1. Electrophiles and acute toxicity to fish.

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, J L

    1990-01-01

    Effect concentrations in fish LC50 tests with directly acting electrophiles are lower than those of unreactive chemicals that act by narcosis. LC50 values of more hydrophobic reactive chemicals tend to approach those of unreactive chemicals. Quantitative studies to correlate fish LC50 data to physical-chemical properties indicate that LC50 values of reactive chemicals depend on hydrophobicity as well as chemical reactivity. In this paper, several examples will be given of chemical structures that are known as direct electrophiles. This classification might be useful to identify chemicals that are more effective at lower concentrations than unreactive compounds. Chemicals that require bioactivation are not included because almost no information is available on the influence of bioactivation on acute toxic effects in aquatic organisms. PMID:2269228

  2. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos.

  3. Predicting fish acute toxicity using a fish gill cell line-based toxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Tanneberger, Katrin; Knöbel, Melanie; Busser, Frans J M; Sinnige, Theo L; Hermens, Joop L M; Schirmer, Kristin

    2013-01-15

    The OECD test guideline 203 for determination of fish acute toxicity requires substantial numbers of fish and uses death as an apical end point. One potential alternative are fish cell lines; however, several studies indicated that these appear up to several orders of magnitude less sensitive than fish. We developed a fish gill cell line-based (RTgill-W1) assay, using several measures to improve sensitivity. The optimized assay was applied to determine the toxicity of 35 organic chemicals, having a wide range of toxicity to fish, mode of action and physicochemical properties. We found a very good agreement between in vivo and in vitro effective concentrations. For up to 73% of the tested compounds, the difference between the two approaches was less than 5-fold, covering baseline toxicants but as well compounds with presumed specific modes of action, including reactivity, inhibition of acetylcholine esterase or uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Accounting for measured chemical concentrations eliminated two outliers, the hydrophobic 4-decylaniline and the volatile 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene, with an outlier being operationally defined as a substance showing a more than 10-fold difference between in vivo/in vitro effect concentrations. Few outliers remained. The most striking were allyl alcohol (2700-fold), which likely needs to be metabolically activated, and permethrin (190-fold) and lindane (63-fold), compounds acting, respectively, on sodium and chloride channels in the brain of fish. We discuss further developments of this assay and suggest its use beyond predicting acute toxicity to fish, for example, as part of adverse outcome pathways to replace, reduce, or refine chronic fish tests.

  4. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid to fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA; also called peroxyacetic acid) is a promising new therapeutant for parasites and fungus. It is registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an antimicrobial compound approved for indoor use on hard, non-porous surfaces. This study determined the acute toxi...

  5. Acute toxicity value extrapolation with fish and aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Denny R; Mayer, Foster L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Asfaw, Amha

    2005-11-01

    Assessment of risk posed by an environmental contaminant to an aquatic community requires estimation of both its magnitude of occurrence (exposure) and its ability to cause harm (effects). Our ability to estimate effects is often hindered by limited toxicological information. As a result, resource managers and environmental regulators are often faced with the need to extrapolate across taxonomic groups in order to protect the more sensitive members of the aquatic community. The goals of this effort were to 1) compile and organize an extensive body of acute toxicity data, 2) characterize the distribution of toxicant sensitivity across taxa and species, and 3) evaluate the utility of toxicity extrapolation methods based upon sensitivity relations among species and chemicals. Although the analysis encompassed a wide range of toxicants and species, pesticides and freshwater fish and invertebrates were emphasized as a reflection of available data. Although it is obviously desirable to have high-quality acute toxicity values for as many species as possible, the results of this effort allow for better use of available information for predicting the sensitivity of untested species to environmental contaminants. A software program entitled "Ecological Risk Analysis" (ERA) was developed that predicts toxicity values for sensitive members of the aquatic community using species sensitivity distributions. Of several methods evaluated, the ERA program used with minimum data sets comprising acute toxicity values for rainbow trout, bluegill, daphnia, and mysids provided the most satisfactory predictions with the least amount of data. However, if predictions must be made using data for a single species, the most satisfactory results were obtained with extrapolation factors developed for rainbow trout (0.412), bluegill (0.331), or scud (0.041). Although many specific exceptions occur, our results also support the conventional wisdom that invertebrates are generally more sensitive to

  6. Acute toxicity value extrapolation with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny R.; Mayer, Foster L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Asfaw, Amha

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of risk posed by an environmental contaminant to an aquatic community requires estimation of both its magnitude of occurrence (exposure) and its ability to cause harm (effects). Our ability to estimate effects is often hindered by limited toxicological information. As a result, resource managers and environmental regulators are often faced with the need to extrapolate across taxonomic groups in order to protect the more sensitive members of the aquatic community. The goals of this effort were to 1) compile and organize an extensive body of acute toxicity data, 2) characterize the distribution of toxicant sensitivity across taxa and species, and 3) evaluate the utility of toxicity extrapolation methods based upon sensitivity relations among species and chemicals. Although the analysis encompassed a wide range of toxicants and species, pesticides and freshwater fish and invertebrates were emphasized as a reflection of available data. Although it is obviously desirable to have high-quality acute toxicity values for as many species as possible, the results of this effort allow for better use of available information for predicting the sensitivity of untested species to environmental contaminants. A software program entitled “Ecological Risk Analysis” (ERA) was developed that predicts toxicity values for sensitive members of the aquatic community using species sensitivity distributions. Of several methods evaluated, the ERA program used with minimum data sets comprising acute toxicity values for rainbow trout, bluegill, daphnia, and mysids provided the most satisfactory predictions with the least amount of data. However, if predictions must be made using data for a single species, the most satisfactory results were obtained with extrapolation factors developed for rainbow trout (0.412), bluegill (0.331), or scud (0.041). Although many specific exceptions occur, our results also support the conventional wisdom that invertebrates are generally more

  7. Development of a general baseline toxicity QSAR model for the fish embryo acute toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; Vogs, Carolina; Altenburger, Rolf; Escher, Beate I; Scholz, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Fish embryos have become a popular model in ecotoxicology and toxicology. The fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) with the zebrafish embryo was recently adopted by the OECD as technical guideline TG 236 and a large database of concentrations causing 50% lethality (LC50) is available in the literature. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) of baseline toxicity (also called narcosis) are helpful to estimate the minimum toxicity of chemicals to be tested and to identify excess toxicity in existing data sets. Here, we analyzed an existing fish embryo toxicity database and established a QSAR for fish embryo LC50 using chemicals that were independently classified to act according to the non-specific mode of action of baseline toxicity. The octanol-water partition coefficient Kow is commonly applied to discriminate between non-polar and polar narcotics. Replacing the Kow by the liposome-water partition coefficient Klipw yielded a common QSAR for polar and non-polar baseline toxicants. This developed baseline toxicity QSAR was applied to compare the final mode of action (MOA) assignment of 132 chemicals. Further, we included the analysis of internal lethal concentration (ILC50) and chemical activity (La50) as complementary approaches to evaluate the robustness of the FET baseline toxicity. The analysis of the FET dataset revealed that specifically acting and reactive chemicals converged towards the baseline toxicity QSAR with increasing hydrophobicity. The developed FET baseline toxicity QSAR can be used to identify specifically acting or reactive compounds by determination of the toxic ratio and in combination with appropriate endpoints to infer the MOA for chemicals.

  8. Tungsten speciation and toxicity: acute toxicity of mono- and poly-tungstates to fish.

    PubMed

    Strigul, Nikolay; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Christodoulatos, Christos

    2010-02-01

    Tungsten is a widely used transition metal for which very limited information on environmental and toxicological effects is available. Of particular interest is the lack of information linking tungsten speciation and environmental effects. Tungsten anions may polymerize (depending upon concentration, pH, and aquatic geochemistry) in aquatic and soil systems. However, to this date, of all soluble tungstate species only monotungstates have been scrutinized to a fair extent in toxicological studies. The objective of this work is a comparative assessment of the acute toxicity of monotungstates (sodium tungstate, Na(2)WO(4)) and polytungstates (sodium metatungstate, 3Na(2)WO(4).9WO(3)) to Poecilia reticulate. The experiments have been performed according to the OEDC protocols 203 and 204. LD50 values for 1-14 days show that sodium metatungstate is significantly more toxic to fish than sodium tungstate. Based on LD50 (0.86-3.88gL(-1) or 4.67-21.1x10(-3)molNa(2)WO(4)L(-1)), sodium tungstate may be classified as a chemical of low toxicity to fish. Sodium metatungstate caused similar fish mortality to sodium tungstate when it was introduced in 55-80 times lower concentrations (in terms of molL(-1)) than sodium tungstate. LD50 values for sodium metatungstate range from 0.13 to 0.85gWL(-1) or 5.69 to 38.71x10(-5)mol 3Na(2)WO(4).9WO(3)L(-1). Based on these values sodium metatungstate can be classified as a moderate toxic agent to fish.

  9. Acute toxicity and effects analysis of endosulfan sulfate to freshwater fish species.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M; Gardinali, Piero R; Castro, Joffre

    2011-02-01

    Endosulfan sulfate is a persistent environmental metabolite of endosulfan, an organochlorine insecticide-acaricide presently registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. There is, however, limited acute fish toxicity data for endosulfan sulfate. This study determines the acute toxicity (LC₅₀s and LC₁₀s) of endosulfan sulfate to three inland Florida native fish species (mosquitofish [Gambusia affinis]; least killifish [Heterandria formosa]; and sailfin mollies [Poecilia latipinna]) as well as fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Ninety-six-h acute toxicity tests were conducted with each fish species under flow-through conditions. For all of the above-mentioned fish species, 96-h LC₅₀ estimates ranged from 2.1 to 3.5 μg/L endosulfan sulfate. The 96-h LC₁₀ estimates ranged from 0.8 to 2.1 μg/L endosulfan sulfate. Of all of the fish tested, the least killifish appeared to be the most sensitive to endosulfan sulfate exposure. The above-mentioned data were combined with previous acute toxicity data for endosulfan sulfate and freshwater fish for an effects analysis. The effects analysis estimated hazardous concentrations expected to exceed 5, 10, and 50% of the fish species' acute LC₅₀ or LC₁₀ values (HC₅, HC₁₀, and HC₅₀). The endosulfan sulfate freshwater-fish acute tests were also compared with the available freshwater-fish acute toxicity data for technical endosulfan. Technical endosulfan is a mixture of α- and β-endosulfan. The LC₅₀s had a wider range for technical endosulfan, and their distribution produced a lower HC₁₀ than for endosulfan sulfate. The number of freshwater-fish LC₅₀s for endosulfan sulfate is much smaller than the number available for technical endosulfan, reflecting priorities in examining the toxicity of the parent compounds of pesticides. The toxicity test results and effects analyses provided acute effect values for endosulfan sulfate and freshwater fish that might be applied

  10. Fish embryo toxicity test: identification of compounds with weak toxicity and analysis of behavioral effects to improve prediction of acute toxicity for neurotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; König, Maria; Ortmann, Julia; Massei, Riccardo; Paschke, Albrecht; Kühne, Ralph; Scholz, Stefan

    2015-06-02

    The fish embryo toxicity test has been proposed as an alternative for the acute fish toxicity test, but concerns have been raised for its predictivity given that a few compounds have been shown to exhibit a weak acute toxicity in the fish embryo. In order to better define the applicability domain and improve the predictive capacity of the fish embryo test, we performed a systematic analysis of existing fish embryo and acute fish toxicity data. A correlation analysis of a total of 153 compounds identified 28 compounds with a weaker or no toxicity in the fish embryo test. Eleven of these compounds exhibited a neurotoxic mode of action. We selected a subset of eight compounds with weaker or no embryo toxicity (cyanazine, picloram, aldicarb, azinphos-methyl, dieldrin, diquat dibromide, endosulfan, and esfenvalerate) to study toxicokinetics and a neurotoxic mode of action as potential reasons for the deviating fish embryo toxicity. Published fish embryo LC50 values were confirmed by experimental analysis of zebrafish embryo LC50 according to OECD guideline 236. Except for diquat dibromide, internal concentration analysis did not indicate a potential relation of the low sensitivity of fish embryos to a limited uptake of the compounds. Analysis of locomotor activity of diquat dibromide and the neurotoxic compounds in 98 hpf embryos (exposed for 96 h) indicated a specific effect on behavior (embryonic movement) for the neurotoxic compounds. The EC50s of behavior for neurotoxic compounds were close to the acute fish toxicity LC50. Our data provided the first evidence that the applicability domain of the fish embryo test (LC50s determination) may exclude neurotoxic compounds. However, neurotoxic compounds could be identified by changes in embryonic locomotion. Although a quantitative prediction of acute fish toxicity LC50 using behavioral assays in fish embryos may not yet be possible, the identification of neurotoxicity could trigger the conduction of a conventional fish

  11. Acute toxicity bioassays of mercuric chloride and malathion on air-breathing fish Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sanjay; Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Shilpi; Nagpure, N S; Srivastava, Satish K; Verma, M S

    2005-05-01

    Acute toxicity tests (96 h) were conducted in flow-through systems to determine the lethal toxicity of a heavy metal compound, mercuric chloride, and an organophosphorus pesticide, malathion, to air-breathing teleost fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch) and to study their behavior. The 96-h LC50 values were determined, as well as safe levels. The results indicate that mercuric chloride is more toxic than malathion to the fish species under study. Dose- and dose-time-dependent increases in mortality rate were also observed in response to both test chemicals.

  12. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota.

  13. Draft Test Guideline: Fish Acute Toxicity Test, Freshwater And Marine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  14. Draft Test Guideline: Fish Acute Toxicity Mitigated By Humic Acid

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  15. Physiology is pivotal for interactions between salinity and acute copper toxicity to fish and invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Grosell, M; Blanchard, J; Brix, K V; Gerdes, R

    2007-08-30

    The present paper presents original data and a review of the copper (Cu) toxicity literature for estuarine and marine environments. For the first time, acute Cu toxicity across the full salinity range was determined. Killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, eggs were hatched in freshwater (FW), 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 22 and 35 ppt (seawater, SW) and juveniles were allowed to acclimate for 7 days prior to acute toxicity testing. Sensitivity was highest in FW (96 h LC50: 18 microg/l), followed by SW (96 h LC50: 294 microg/l) with fish at intermediate salinities being the most tolerant (96 h LC50 > 963 microg/l at 10 ppt). This approximately 50-fold, non-linear variation in sensitivity could not be accounted for by Cu speciation or competition among cations but can be explained by physiology. The relative Na(+) gradient from the blood plasma to the water is greatest in FW followed by SW and is smallest at 10 ppt. Regression of Cu toxicity versus the equilibrium potential for Na(+), which reflects the relative Na(+) gradient, revealed that 93% of the variation can be attributed to Na(+) gradients and thus osmoregulatory physiology. Examination of the existing literature on acute Cu toxicity in SW (defined as >25 ppt) confirmed that early life stages generally are most sensitive but this pattern may be attributable to size rather than developmental stage. Regardless of developmental stage and phylogeny, size clearly matters for Cu sensitivity. The existing literature on the influence of salinity on acute Cu toxicity as well as studies of mechanisms of Cu toxicity in fish and invertebrates are reviewed.

  16. Acute toxicities to larval rainbow trout of representative compounds detected in Great Lakes fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes has ranked the potential hazard to fish and invertebrates of various chemical compounds detected in two Great Lakes fishes-- lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, and walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Hesselberg and Seelye 1982). This hazard assessment has included the identification of the potential sources of the compounds, determination of the occurrence and abundance of the compounds in Great Lakes fish, and the determination of acute toxicities of representative compounds of 19 chemical classes (Passino and Smith 1987a). In further studies Smith et al. (1988) focused on 6 of the 19 classes of compounds using the zooplankter Daphnia pulex as the test organism. They ranked the six classes as follows (in decreasing order of toxicity): polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, and silicon-containing compounds.

  17. Fish acute toxicity syndromes and their use in the QSAR approach to hazard assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McKim, J.M.; Bradbury, S.P.; Niemi, G.J.

    1987-04-01

    Implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1977 creates the need to reliably establish testing priorities because laboratory resources are limited and the number of industrial chemicals requiring evaluation is overwhelming. The use of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models as rapid and predictive screening tools to select more potentially hazardous chemicals for in-depth laboratory evaluation has been proposed. Further implementation and refinement of quantitative structure-toxicity relationships in aqueous toxicology and hazard assessment requires the development of a mode-of-action database. With such a database, a qualitative structure-activity relationship can be formulated to assign the proper mode of action, and respective QSAR, to a given chemical structure. In this review, the development of fish acute toxicity syndromes (FATS), which are toxic-response sets based on various behavioral and physiological-biochemical measurements, and their projected use in the mode-of-action database are outlined. Using behavioral parameters monitored in the fathead minnow during acute toxicity testing, FATS associated with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors and narcotics could be reliably predicted. However, compounds classified as oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers or stimulants could not be resolved. Refinement of this approach by using respiratory-cardiovascular responses in the rainbow trout, enabled FATS associated with AChE inhibitors, convulsants, narcotics, respiratory blockers, respiratory membrane irritants, and uncouplers to be correctly predicted.

  18. Fish acute toxicity syndromes and their use in the QSAR approach to hazard assessment.

    PubMed Central

    McKim, J M; Bradbury, S P; Niemi, G J

    1987-01-01

    Implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1977 creates the need to reliably establish testing priorities because laboratory resources are limited and the number of industrial chemicals requiring evaluation is overwhelming. The use of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models as rapid and predictive screening tools to select more potentially hazardous chemicals for in-depth laboratory evaluation has been proposed. Further implementation and refinement of quantitative structure-toxicity relationships in aquatic toxicology and hazard assessment requires the development of a "mode-of-action" database. With such a database, a qualitative structure-activity relationship can be formulated to assign the proper mode of action, and respective QSAR, to a given chemical structure. In this review, the development of fish acute toxicity syndromes (FATS), which are toxic-response sets based on various behavioral and physiological-biochemical measurements, and their projected use in the mode-of-action database are outlined. Using behavioral parameters monitored in the fathead minnow during acute toxicity testing, FATS associated with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors and narcotics could be reliably predicted. However, compounds classified as oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers or stimulants could not be resolved. Refinement of this approach by using respiratory-cardiovascular responses in the rainbow trout, enabled FATS associated with AChE inhibitors, convulsants, narcotics, respiratory blockers, respiratory membrane irritants, and uncouplers to be correctly predicted. PMID:3297660

  19. The utility of QSARs in predicting acute fish toxicity of pesticide metabolites: A retrospective validation approach.

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Maynard, Samuel K; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    The European Plant Protection Products Regulation 1107/2009 requires that registrants establish whether pesticide metabolites pose a risk to the environment. Fish acute toxicity assessments may be carried out to this end. Considering the total number of pesticide (re-) registrations, the number of metabolites can be considerable, and therefore this testing could use many vertebrates. EFSA's recent "Guidance on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters" outlines opportunities to apply non-testing methods, such as Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. However, a scientific evidence base is necessary to support the use of QSARs in predicting acute fish toxicity of pesticide metabolites. Widespread application and subsequent regulatory acceptance of such an approach would reduce the numbers of animals used. The work presented here intends to provide this evidence base, by means of retrospective data analysis. Experimental fish LC50 values for 150 metabolites were extracted from the Pesticide Properties Database (http://sitem.herts.ac.uk/aeru/ppdb/en/atoz.htm). QSAR calculations were performed to predict fish acute toxicity values for these metabolites using the US EPA's ECOSAR software. The most conservative predicted LC50 values generated by ECOSAR were compared with experimental LC50 values. There was a significant correlation between predicted and experimental fish LC50 values (Spearman rs = 0.6304, p < 0.0001). For 62% of metabolites assessed, the QSAR predicted values are equal to or lower than their respective experimental values. Refined analysis, taking into account data quality and experimental variation considerations increases the proportion of sufficiently predictive estimates to 91%. For eight of the nine outliers, there are plausible explanation(s) for the disparity between measured and predicted LC50 values. Following detailed consideration of the robustness of

  20. DETERMINANTS OF VARIABILITY IN ACUTE TO CHRONIC TOXICITY RATIOS IN AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variability in acute to chronic ratios (ACRs; LC50/chronic value) has been a continuing interest in aquatic toxicology because of the reliance on ACRs to estimate chronic toxicity for chemicals and species with known acute toxicity but limited or no information on sublethal toxic...

  1. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds.

  2. Acute lethal toxicity of some reference chemicals to freshwater fishes of Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Oikari, A.O.J.

    1987-07-01

    Relevance of the choice of a test organism intended to be representative for a given environment seems to be under continual debate in aquatic ecotoxicology. For instance, it is commonly argue that acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout, the species most often recommended as a standard cold water teleost, were not representative for Nordic countries because the species is an alien in local faunas. A comparative study with several freshwater species was therefore initiated to clarify the validity of this assumption. As a first approximation, standard LC 50 assays were conducted. The species used were chosen only on the basis of their local availability, i.e, they randomly represented the fish fauna of Nordic inland waters. Furthermore, inter-species variation of toxicity response was compared with certain other, quantitatively more important, intra-species sources of variability affecting the toxicity of chemicals. Use of reference toxicants has been recommended as a means of standardizing bioassays. Compounds, characteristic of effluents from the pulp and paper industry, were selected for the present study. The toxicity of organic acids such a phenols and resin acids, as well as that of pupmill effluents, strongly depends on water pH. Because of the possibility that species differences could exist in this respect, effects of water acidity on toxicity of these types of substances to a randomly selected local species was investigated. Finally, as an example of the biological source of assay variability, the effect of yolk absorption was studied with a subsequent crisis period due to moderate starvation under laboratory conditions.

  3. Acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to selected lifestages of cold-, cool-, and warmwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Rach, J.J.; Ramsay, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery personnel depend on therapeutant treatments to control diseases. Currently, hatchery managers in the United States are limited to one approved therapeutant (formalin) and three compounds of Low Regulatory Priority (sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid) to control external diseases of cultured fish. Hydrogen peroxide has been used to effectively control external columnaris and bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout, however, definitive safe treatment concentrations for hydrogen peroxide are lacking for a variety of species. We report the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to 11 species of fry and 13 species of fingerling freshwater fish. Most mortality occurred within the first 30 h after the first exposure to hydrogen peroxide with little change in the overall shape of survival curves over time. Our data predict that in an actual therapeutic application of hydrogen peroxide, most treatment-related mortalities would be observed shortly after the initial exposure. Coolwater species were more sensitive than coldwater species but were generally similar to warmwater species tested. Based on our mortality data, coldwater species and largemouth bass may be treated for 60 min at concentrations of ??? 150 ??l/l without harmful effects; all muskellunge, walleye, bluegill, channel catfish, yellow perch, pallid sturgeon fingerlings, fathead minnow fingerlings, white sucker fingerlings, and northern pike fry may be treated for 60 min at ??? 100 ??l/l; and northern pike fingerlings and white sucker, yellow perch and fathead minnow fry may be treated for 60 min at ??? 50 ??l/l.

  4. Acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to selected lifestages of cold-, cool-, and warmwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Rach, Jeffery J.; Ramsay, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery personnel depend on therapeutant treatments to control diseases. Currently, hatchery managers in the United States are limited to one approved therapeutant (formalin) and three compounds of Low Regulatory Priority (sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid) to control external diseases of cultured fish. Hydrogen peroxide has been used to effectively control external columnaris and bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout, however, definitive safe treatment concentrations for hydrogen peroxide are lacking for a variety of species. We report the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to 11 species of fry and 13 species of fingerling freshwater fish. Most mortality occurred within the first 30 h after the first exposure to hydrogen peroxide with little change in the overall shape of survival curves over time. Our data predict that in an actual therapeutic application of hydrogen peroxide, most treatment-related mortalities would be observed shortly after the initial exposure. Coolwater species were more sensitive than coldwater species but were generally similar to warmwater species tested. Based on our mortality data, coldwater species and largemouth bass may be treated for 60 min at concentrations of ≤ 150 (μl/1 without harmful effects; all muskellunge, walleye, bluegill, channel catfish, yellow perch, pallid sturgeon fingerlings, fathead minnow fingerlings, white sucker fingerlings, and northern pike fry may be treated for 60 min at ≤ 100 μl/l; and northern pike fingerlings and white sucker, yellow perch and fathead minnow fry may be treated for 60 min at ≤ 50μl/l.

  5. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Mebane, Christopher A; Dillon, Frank S; Hennessy, Daniel P

    2012-06-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329 µg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin < other taxa; with Pb, EC50s ranged from 47 to 3,323 µg/L, with westslope cutthroat trout < rainbow trout < other taxa; and with Zn, EC50s ranged from 21 to 3,704 µg/L, with rainbow trout < westslope cutthroat trout ≈ sculpin < other taxa. With swim-up trout fry, a pattern of decreasing resistance with increasing fish size was observed. In metal mixtures, the toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis.

  6. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Dillon, Frank S.; Hennessy, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329μg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin << other taxa; with Pb, EC50s ranged from 47 to 3,323μg/L, with westslope cutthroat trout < rainbow trout < other taxa; and with Zn, EC50s ranged from 21 to 3,704μg/L, with rainbow trout < westslope cutthroat trout ≈ sculpin << other taxa. With swim-up trout fry, a pattern of decreasing resistance with increasing fish size was observed. In metal mixtures, the toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis.

  7. Acute toxicity of cadmium and sodium pentachlorophenate to daphnids and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.S.; Paulson, R.L.; Hall, L.W. Jr.; Burton, D.T.

    1986-08-01

    When estimating the toxicity of effluents it is desirable to use organisms sensitive to a wide range of pollutants. Currently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recommends the use of Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas to assess the toxicity of freshwater effluents. Ceriodaphnia sp. has also received increased attention as a standard toxicity test organism due to its sensitivity, short generation time, and ubiquitous distribution. Comparison of toxicity data generated by different investigators is often difficult because of differences in test procedures, dilution waters, or nutritional history of test organisms. The primary objectives of this research were to compare the sensitivity of Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia reticulata, and Pimephales promelas to the reference toxicants CdCl/sub 2/ and sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP) and to compare results with those obtained by other investigators. A secondary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dilution waters on the acute toxicity of these reference toxicants to the above test organisms.

  8. The effects of salinity on acute toxicity of zinc to two euryhaline species of fish, Fundulus heteroclitus and Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Bielmyer, Gretchen K; Bullington, Joseph B; Decarlo, Carri A; Chalk, Stuart J; Smith, Kelly

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that the toxicity of zinc (Zn) varies with water chemistry and that its bioavailability is controlled by ligand interactions and competing ions. Zn toxicity in freshwaters with varying water chemistry has been well characterized; however, far less attention has been paid to the toxicity of Zn in estuarine and marine systems. We performed experiments using two euryhaline species of killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus and Kryptolebias marmoratus, to investigate the effects of changing salinity on acute toxicity of Zn. Larvae (7- to 8-days old) of each species were exposed to various concentrations of Zn for 96 h at salinities ranging from 0 to 36 ppt and survival was monitored. As salinity increased, Zn toxicity decreased in both fish species, and at salinities above 10 ppt, K. marmoratus larvae were generally more sensitive to Zn than were those of F. heteroclitus. The protection of salinity against Zn toxicity in F. heteroclitus was further investigated to determine the role of Ca(2+). Increased Ca(2+) in freshwater protected against Zn toxicity to the same extent as did saline waters with an equal Ca(2+) concentration up to ∼200 mg/L Ca for F. heteroclitus and ∼400 mg/L Ca for K. marmoratus. These results suggest that these two species may have differing Ca(2+) requirements and/or rates of Ca(2+) uptake in water of intermediate to full-strength salinity (∼200-400 mg/L Ca(2+)) and thus differ in their sensitivity to Zn. The overall goal of this study was to better understand Zn toxicity in waters of different salinity and to generate data on acute Zn toxicity from multiple species over a range of salinities, ultimately for use in development of estuarine and marine biotic ligand models.

  9. The Effects of Salinity on Acute Toxicity of Zinc to Two Euryhaline Species of Fish, Fundulus heteroclitus and Kryptolebias marmoratus

    PubMed Central

    Bielmyer, Gretchen K.; Bullington, Joseph B.; DeCarlo, Carri A.; Chalk, Stuart J.; Smith, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the toxicity of zinc (Zn) varies with water chemistry and that its bioavailability is controlled by ligand interactions and competing ions. Zn toxicity in freshwaters with varying water chemistry has been well characterized; however, far less attention has been paid to the toxicity of Zn in estuarine and marine systems. We performed experiments using two euryhaline species of killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus and Kryptolebias marmoratus, to investigate the effects of changing salinity on acute toxicity of Zn. Larvae (7- to 8-days old) of each species were exposed to various concentrations of Zn for 96 h at salinities ranging from 0 to 36 ppt and survival was monitored. As salinity increased, Zn toxicity decreased in both fish species, and at salinities above 10 ppt, K. marmoratus larvae were generally more sensitive to Zn than were those of F. heteroclitus. The protection of salinity against Zn toxicity in F. heteroclitus was further investigated to determine the role of Ca2+. Increased Ca2+ in freshwater protected against Zn toxicity to the same extent as did saline waters with an equal Ca2+ concentration up to ∼200 mg/L Ca for F. heteroclitus and ∼400 mg/L Ca for K. marmoratus. These results suggest that these two species may have differing Ca2+ requirements and/or rates of Ca2+ uptake in water of intermediate to full-strength salinity (∼200–400 mg/L Ca2+) and thus differ in their sensitivity to Zn. The overall goal of this study was to better understand Zn toxicity in waters of different salinity and to generate data on acute Zn toxicity from multiple species over a range of salinities, ultimately for use in development of estuarine and marine biotic ligand models. PMID:22523126

  10. Correlation between heavy metal acute toxicity values in Daphnia magna and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1987-04-01

    In the toxicant bioassays, invertebrates with special reference to aquatic arthropod species have been of recent interest as test models due to the need for developing nonmammalian tests system. The cladoceran Daphnia magna bioassays have several practical advantages. D. magna has been used as a useful test species and its sensitivity to environmental pollutants have been recognized as a general representative of other freshwater zooplankton species. The objectives of this study were to determine the acute toxicity of various heavy metals to Daphnia magna for 48 h of exposure and to compare these values with the existing LC50 values for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri); which is commonly used as a test animal in aquatic bioassay studies.

  11. Acute toxicity by water containing hexavalent or trivalent chromium in native Brazilian fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus: anatomopathological alterations and mortality.

    PubMed

    Castro, Marcello Pardi; de Moraes, Flávio Ruas; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; da Cruz, Claudinei; Belo, Marco Antonio de Andrade; de Moraes, Julieta Rodini Engrácia

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of hexavalent and trivalent compounds of chromium to the pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, in acute exposures of 96 h through mortality and histopathological responses. Hexavalent potassium dichromate was more toxic than trivalent compounds of chromium chloride, chromium oxide and chromium carbochelate. Sufficient mortalities occurred only with potassium dichromate to yield an LC50 value at 124.2 mg L(-1). Hexavalent chromium caused reversible and irreversible lesions, which may affect organ functionality. Histopathological evaluation showed that trivalent chromium caused lesions of lower severity. Pacu subjected to different concentrations of chromium carbochelate showed no histopathological changes in the kidneys, liver, skin and gills, being similar to those of the control fish. Among the three sources of Cr(3+), only chromium chloride at 200 mg L(-1) resulted in mortality, which reached 100 % within the first 18 h. These findings confirm that trivalent chromium, when administered within recommended levels, may be used safely in aquaculture.

  12. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates.The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies.Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a).The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity data

  13. Olfactory toxicity in fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B; Baldwin, David H; Hara, Toshiaki J; Ross, Peter S; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Olfaction conveys critical environmental information to fishes, enabling activities such as mating, locating food, discriminating kin, avoiding predators and homing. All of these behaviors can be impaired or lost as a result of exposure to toxic contaminants in surface waters. Historically, teleost olfaction studies have focused on behavioral responses to anthropogenic contaminants (e.g., avoidance). More recently, there has been a shift towards understanding the underlying mechanisms and functional significance of contaminant-mediated changes in fish olfaction. This includes a consideration of how contaminants affect the olfactory nervous system and, by extension, the downstream physiological and behavioral processes that together comprise a normal response to naturally occurring stimuli (e.g., reproductive priming or releasing pheromones). Numerous studies spanning several species have shown that ecologically relevant exposures to common pollutants such as metals and pesticides can interfere with fish olfaction and disrupt life history processes that determine individual survival and reproductive success. This represents one of the pathways by which toxic chemicals in aquatic habitats may increasingly contribute to the decline and at-risk status of many commercially and ecologically important fish stocks. Despite our emerging understanding of the threats that pollution poses for chemical communication in aquatic communities, many research challenges remain. These include: (1) the determination of specific mechanisms of toxicity in the fish olfactory sensory epithelium; (2) an understanding of the impacts of complex chemical mixtures; (3) the capacity to assess olfactory toxicity in fish in situ; (4) the impacts of toxins on olfactory-mediated behaviors that are still poorly understood for many fish species; and (5) the connections between sublethal effects on individual fish and the long-term viability of wild populations. This review summarizes and integrates

  14. Progress Towards the Development of a Fathead Minnow Embryo Test and Comparison to the Zebrafish Embryo Test for Assessing Acute Fish Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Zebrafish Embryo Test (ZFET) for acute fish toxicity is a well developed method nearing adoption as an OECD Test Guideline. Early drafts of the test guideline (TG) envisioned a suite of potential test species to be covered including zebrafish, fathead minnow, Japanese Medaka...

  15. Effect of sulfate concentration on acute toxicity of selenite and selenate to invertebrates and fish. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.O.; McCauley, D.J.; McCool, P.; Winkler, N.; DeGraeve, M.

    1998-12-01

    The effect of sulfate concentration on the acute toxicity of selenite (Se IV) and selenate (Se VI) to freshwater organisms was evaluated using toxicity test data generated from this study and toxicity data obtained from the open literature. The acute toxicity of Se IV and Se VI to fathead minnows and two amphipod species, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and Hyalella azteca, were determined in four different sulfate concentrations. The newly generated toxicity data combined with the data obtained from the literature were evaluated using analysis of covariance to determine if there was a significant relationship between acute toxicity and sulfate concentration. The analysis of the Se IV data indicated that there was not a significant relationship between the acute toxicity of Se IV and sulfate concentration. A significant relationship was found between the acute toxicity of Se VI to freshwater organisms and sulfate concentration. Statistically significant slopes describing the relationship between Se VI toxicity and sulfate concentration were determined for individual species and for the combined data. A sulfate-based equation was constructed using the pooled slope to modify the criterion maximum concentration (CMC) for selenate: CMC = e{sup [0.4259(ln[sulfate]) + 4.6305]}.

  16. Determination of the acute toxicity of Supaverm® to native and nonnative fish species of southwestern watersheds in static exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2017-01-01

    Many fishes native to the Gila River Basin, Arizona, are on the decline with about 70 percent of the 17 fish species Federally listed as endangered or threatened. The decline has been partly attributed to the introduction of nonnative fishes that are of recreational interest such as catfish and smallmouth bass. Effective management practices are needed to control the nuisance nonnative fishes in Southwestern United States watersheds to prevent further decline of the native species and facilitate their restoration. An effective approach is the use of chemical toxicants to control the nuisance species. One chemical mixture of interest, Supaverm®, a combination of mebendazole and closantel, has been reported to show selectivity toward nonnative fish species of concern. We conducted acute toxicity tests on native and nonnative fish species of the Gila River (Arizona). Our findings showed that Supaverm® was not selectively toxic to the nonnative fish species suggesting that the use of the chemical mixture to eradicate those fish would not be effective.

  17. Acute toxicity of arsenobetaine

    SciTech Connect

    Kaise, T.; Watanabe, S.; Itoh, K.

    1985-01-01

    The acute toxicity of arsenobetaine was studied in male mice. No deaths were observed with oral administration of 10 g/kg of arsenobetaine. Therefore the LD/sub 50/ value was higher than 10 g/kg. This compound was found in urine in the non-metabolized form. No particular toxic symptoms were observed following administration. These suggest that arsenobetaine has low toxicity and is not metabolized in mice.

  18. Acute Toxicity, Respiratory Reaction, and Sensitivity of Three Cyprinid Fish Species Caused by Exposure to Four Heavy Metals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjun; Liang, Youguang; Li, Sixin; Chang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Using 3 cyprinid fish species zebra fish, rare minnow, and juvenile grass carp, we conducted assays of lethal reaction and ventilatory response to analyze sensitivity of the fish to 4 heavy metals. Our results showed that the 96 h LC50 of Hg2+ to zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnow were 0.14 mg L−1, 0.23 mg L−1, and 0.10 mg L−1, respectively; of Cu2+0.17 mg L−1, 0.09 mg L−1, and 0.12 mg L−1 respectively; of Cd2+6.5 mg L−1, 18.47 mg L−1, 5.36 mg L−1, respectively; and of Zn2+44.48 mg L−1, 31.37 mg L−1, and 12.74 mg L−1, respectively. Under a 1-h exposure, the ventilatory response to the different heavy metals varied. Ventilatory frequency (Vf) and amplitude (Va) increased in zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnows exposed to Hg2+ and Cu2+ (P<0.05), and the Vf and Va of the 3 species rose initially and then declined when exposed to Cd2+. Zn2+ had markedly different toxic effects than the other heavy metals, whose Vf and Va gradually decreased with increasing exposure concentration (P<0.05). The rare minnow was the most highly susceptible of the 3 fish species to the heavy metals, with threshold effect concentrations (TEC) of 0.019 mg L−1, 0.046 mg L−1, 2.142 mg L−1, and 0.633 mg L−1 for Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+, respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to use ventilatory parameters as a biomarker for evaluating the pollution toxicity of metals and to recognize early warning signs by using rare minnows as a sensor. PMID:23755209

  19. Acute toxicity, respiratory reaction, and sensitivity of three cyprinid fish species caused by exposure to four heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongjun; Liang, Youguang; Li, Sixin; Chang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Using 3 cyprinid fish species zebra fish, rare minnow, and juvenile grass carp, we conducted assays of lethal reaction and ventilatory response to analyze sensitivity of the fish to 4 heavy metals. Our results showed that the 96 h LC50 of Hg(2+) to zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnow were 0.14 mg L(-1), 0.23 mg L(-1), and 0.10 mg L(-1), respectively; of Cu(2+)0.17 mg L(-1), 0.09 mg L(-1), and 0.12 mg L(-1) respectively; of Cd(2+)6.5 mg L(-1), 18.47 mg L(-1), 5.36 mg L(-1), respectively; and of Zn(2+)44.48 mg L(-1), 31.37 mg L(-1), and 12.74 mg L(-1), respectively. Under a 1-h exposure, the ventilatory response to the different heavy metals varied. Ventilatory frequency (Vf) and amplitude (Va) increased in zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnows exposed to Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) (P<0.05), and the Vf and Va of the 3 species rose initially and then declined when exposed to Cd(2+). Zn(2+) had markedly different toxic effects than the other heavy metals, whose Vf and Va gradually decreased with increasing exposure concentration (P<0.05). The rare minnow was the most highly susceptible of the 3 fish species to the heavy metals, with threshold effect concentrations (TEC) of 0.019 mg L(-1), 0.046 mg L(-1), 2.142 mg L(-1), and 0.633 mg L(-1) for Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+), respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to use ventilatory parameters as a biomarker for evaluating the pollution toxicity of metals and to recognize early warning signs by using rare minnows as a sensor.

  20. [Toxicity of puffer fish fins].

    PubMed

    Honda, Shunichi; Ichimaru, Shunichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Tamao; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji

    2007-10-01

    Puffer fish is prized as a Japanese traditional food and its fin is also used in the cuisine. However, whether the fin is edible or not is determined for convenience from the toxicity of skin, since little information is available about the toxicity of puffer fish fins. In the present study, we examined the toxicity of fins and skin of three toxic species, Takifugu vermicularis, T. snyderi, and T. porphyreus. The toxicity of T. vermicularis fins (< 5-52.4 MU/g) was significantly lower than that of skin (<5-1200 MU/g). HPLC analysis showed that tetrodotoxin was a major toxic principle irrespective of the toxicity value in each tissue of T. vermicularis. In the case of T. snyderi and T. porphyreus, the toxicity of fins was at almost the same level as that of the skin. The toxicity (< 10-12 MU/g) of caudal fins of T. porphyreus was apparently increased to 16.5-22.0 MU/g by drying. However, the toxin amounts in the dried fins were slightly decreased as compared with those of the non-dried fins. These results demonstrate that puffer fish with toxic skin also have toxic fins.

  1. Investigations in Fish Control: 92. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Rotenone to Daphnia magna, 93. Toxicity of Rotenone to Developing Rainbow Trout, 94. Oral Toxicity of Rotenone to Mammals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    completed as part of the EPA requirements. One of the studies required consisted of acute and chronic toxicity tests on Daphnia magna , the organism chosen because it is sensitive to toxic substances.

  2. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve.

  3. Application of an Automated Fish Biomonitoring System at Old O-Field for Continuous Acute Toxicity Effluent Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    Tommy R. Shedd, Henry S. Gardner , Robert A. Finch, and Robert C. Bishoff U.S. Army Biomedical Research and Development Laboratory Fort Detrick...Zeigler Bros., Inc., Gardners , PA) plus frozen brine shrimp (Living World, Virginia Pet Supply, Fairfax VA). Fish were not fed during the 2-week...Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. 3. Diamond , J.M. and T.R.Shedd. 1995. Standard Guide for Ventilatory Behavioral Toxicology Testing

  4. Interactions between water temperature and contaminant toxicity to freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Patra, Ronald W; Chapman, John C; Lim, Richard P; Gehrke, Peter C; Sunderam, Ramasamy M

    2015-08-01

    Warming of freshwaters as a result of climate change is expected to have complex interactions with the toxicity of contaminants to aquatic organisms. The present study evaluated the effects of temperature on the acute toxicity of endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, and phenol to 3 warm water species of fish-silver perch, rainbowfish, and western carp gudgeon-and 1 cold water species, rainbow trout. Endosulfan was more toxic to silver perch at 30 °C and 35 °C than at 15 °C, 20 °C and 25 °C during short exposures of 24 h, but at 96 h, temperature had no effect on toxicity. Toxicity to rainbow trout increased with increasing temperature, whereas warm water species exhibited maximum toxicity at around 30 °C, decreasing again toward 35 °C. Chlorpyrifos became more toxic to all species with increasing temperature. Phenol toxicity to all species decreased at low to intermediate temperatures; but as temperatures increased further toward the upper thermal limit, phenol became more toxic. Increasing toxicity in the upper thermal range of cold water species may contribute to upstream range contraction in rivers with high toxicant loads. In contrast, warm water species may not exhibit a range shift within rivers as a result of interactions between temperature and toxicity. Catchment management to offset global warming at local scales may present opportunities to mitigate increased toxicity of contaminants to fish.

  5. Chromatographic evaluation of the toxicity in fish of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez-Saldaña, José María; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Medina-Hernández, María José; Villanueva-Camañas, Rosa María; Sagrado, Salvador

    2005-01-05

    Ecotoxicity assessment is essential before placing new chemical substances on the market. An investigation of the use of the chromatographic retention (log k) in biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) as an in vitro approach to evaluate the toxicity in fish of pesticides (acute toxicity levels as pLC(50)) is proposed. A heterogeneous data set of 85 pesticides from six chemical families with available experimental fish toxicity data (ECOTOX database from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)) was used. For pesticides exhibiting non-polar narcosis mechanism in fish (non-specific toxicity), more reliable models and precise pLC(50) estimations are obtained from log k (quantitative retention-activity relationships, QRAR) than from log P (quantitative structure-activity relationships, QSAR) or ECOSAR (ECOSAR program from U.S. EPA).

  6. INTER-SPECIES MODELS FOR ACUTE AQUATIC TOXICITY BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide interspecies QSARs for acute toxicity to 17 aquatic species, such as fish, snail, tadpole, hydrozoan, crustacean, insect larvae, and bacteria developed using 5,000 toxic effect results for approximately 2400 chemicals.

  7. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaike, R

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water. PMID:12897217

  8. Toxicity of nitrite to fish: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, W.M. Jr.; Morris, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    Nitrite, an intermediate in the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, changes hemoglobin to methemoglobin, which does not carry oxygen; nitrite may thus cause anoxia in fish and other aquatic organisms. The published literature on nitrite toxicity to fish, which consists of about 40 papers, shows that the ratio of the 24-h LC50 (concentration lethal to half of the test organisms in 24 h) to the 96-h LC50 has a median value of 2.0 and is fairly uniform across species; toxicity tests of differing duration can therefore be standardized to a common duration. In general, chronic effects are difficult to detect at concentrations below one-fifth of the 96-h LC50. Most fish concentrate nitrite in fresh water; chloride in the external environment offsets the toxicity of nitrite by competing with nitrite for uptake through the chloride cells of the gills. Bicarbonate also reduces the toxicity of nitrite, but it is less than 1% as effective as chloride. Calcium reduces the toxicity of nitrite, but much less than chloride; the effects of other metal cations have not been studied. Hydrogen ion concentration of the medium has not been shown to have a discrete effect on the toxicity of nitrite except at extreme concentrations uncharacteristic of the environments in which fish ordinarily live. Nitrite toxicity is exacerbated by low oxygen concentrations because nitrite reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Very small fish seem less sensitive to nitrite than fish of intermediate or large size. Present evidence suggests that salmonids are among the fishes most sensitive to nitrite. The least-sensitive species tested thus far are the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and bluegill Lepomis macrochirus; the largemouth bass does not concentrate nitrite.

  9. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES, INCLUDING INTERSPECIES TOXICITY CORRELATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accorda...

  10. Acute and chronic toxicity studies with monochlorobenzene in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahlich, G.M.; Larson, R.E.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The toxicity of monochlorobenzene (CB) was investigated in rainbow trout following acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration and chronic exposure via the water in a continuously flowing system for 15 or 30 days. In the acute study overt toxicity and hepatotoxicity were monitored over a 96-h time period. Variables measured to assess toxicity included weight changes, liver weight to body weight ratios, behavioral changes, alanine aminotransferase activity (GPT), sulfobromophthalein (BSP) retention, total plasma protein concentration and liver histopathology. In the chronic study the same measures of toxicity were followed as well as food consumption and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Upon acute i.p. exposure the toxicant (9.8 mmol/kg) caused behavioral changes in the fish which were consistent with the known anesthetic properties of CB in mammals. Elevations in BSP retention and GPT activity, and histopathology indicated that CB was hepatotoxic in fish. The LC50 of CB in trout exposed via the water for 96 h was 4.7 mg/l. Chronic exposure of trout to 2 or 3 mg/l CB resulted in similar behavioral changes as seen in the acute study. Liver toxicity was evident from elevations in GPT activity. BSP retention and AP activity appeared to be affected by the nutritional status of the trout as much as by the CB treatment. After 30 days of exposure to 3 mg/l CB, trout appeared to have developed some tolerance to the toxic effects.

  11. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO{sub 2} and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD{sub 5} and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population.

  12. Acute copper toxicity following copper glycinate injection.

    PubMed

    Oon, S; Yap, C-H; Ihle, B U

    2006-11-01

    We present a patient who developed multi-organ failure due to severe copper toxicity following attempted suicide by s.c. injection of copper glycinate. Acute copper toxicity is rare in the developed world, although it occurs more frequently in developing world countries, where it is a common mode of suicide. Acute toxicity usually results from oral ingestion and there are several local and systemic effects. Specific management can be difficult as there is little evidence regarding the efficacy of chelating agents in acute toxicity.

  13. Steroidal alkaloid toxicity to fish embryos.

    PubMed

    Crawford, L; Kocan, R M

    1993-02-01

    Embryos of two species of fish were evaluated for their suitability as model systems for steroidal alkaloid toxicity, the Japanese rice fish, medaka (Oryzius latipes) and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Additionally, the equine neurotoxic sesquiterpene lactone repin, was also tested. A PROBIT program was used to evaluate the EC1, EC50 and EC99 as well as the associated confidence limits. The steroidal alkaloids tested were the Solanum potato glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, the aglyclones solanidine and solasodine and the Veratrum alkaloid, jervine. Embryo mortality, likely due to structural or functional abnormalities in the early development stages of the embryo, were the only response observed in both species. The rainbow trout exhibited a toxic response to chaconine, solasidine, repin and solanine but the medaka embryos were only affected by the compounds, chaconine and solanine. Rainbow trout may indeed serve as a good lower vertebrate model for studying the toxicity of steroidal alkaloids.

  14. Alternative acute oral toxicity assessment under REACH based on sub-acute toxicity values.

    PubMed

    Gissi, Andrea; Louekari, Kimmo; Hoffstadt, Laurence; Bornatowicz, Norbert; Aparicio, Alberto Martin

    2016-11-08

    The REACH Regulation requires information on acute oral toxicity for substances produced or imported in quantities greater than one tonne per year. When registering, animal testing should be used as last resort. The standard acute oral toxicity test requires use of animals. Therefore, the European Chemicals Agency examined whether alternative ways exist to generate information on acute oral toxicity. The starting hypothesis was that low acute oral toxicity can be predicted from the results of low toxicity in oral sub-acute toxicity studies. Proving this hypothesis would allow avoiding acute toxicity oral testing whenever a sub-acute oral toxicity study is required or available and indicates low toxicity. ECHA conducted an analysis of the REACH database and found suitable studies on both acute oral and sub-acute oral toxicities for 1,256 substances. 415 of these substances had low toxicity in the sub-acute toxicity study (i.e. NO(A)EL at or above the classification threshold of 1,000 mg/kg). For 98% of these substances, low acute oral toxicity was also reported (i.e. LD₅₀ above the classification threshold of 2,000 mg/kg). On the other hand, no correlation was found between lower NO(A)ELs and LD₅₀. According to the REACH regulation, this approach for predicting acute oral toxicity needs to be considered as part of a weight of evidence analysis. Therefore, additional sources of information to support this approach are presented. Ahead of the last REACH registration deadline in 2018, ECHA estimates that registrants of about 550 substances can omit the in vivo acute oral study by using this adaptation.

  15. The toxic effects of chlorophenols and associated mechanisms in fish.

    PubMed

    Ge, Tingting; Han, Jiangyuan; Qi, Yongmei; Gu, Xueyan; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Chen; Naeem, Sajid; Huang, Dejun

    2017-03-01

    Chlorophenols (CPs) are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment primarily released from agricultural and industrial wastewater. These compounds are not readily degraded naturally, and easily accumulate in organs, tissues and cells via food chains, further leading to acute and chronic toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Herein, we review the available literature regarding CP toxicity in fish, with special emphasis on the potential toxic mechanisms. CPs cause oxidative stress via generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of lipid peroxidation and/or oxidative DNA damage along with inhibition of antioxidant systems. CPs affect immune system by altering the number of mature B cells and macrophages, while suppressing phagocytosis and down-regulating the expression of immune factors. CPs also disrupt endocrine function by affecting hormone levels, or inducing abnormal gene expression and interference with hormone receptors. CPs at relatively higher concentrations induce apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated pathway, cell death receptor-mediated pathway, and/or DNA damage-mediated pathway. CPs at relatively lower concentrations promote cell proliferation, and foster cancers-prone environment by increasing the rate of point mutations and oxidative DNA lesions. These toxic effects in fish are induced directly by CPs per se or indirectly by their metabolic products. In addition, recent studies on the alteration of DNA methylation by CPs through high-throughput DNA sequencing analysis provide new insights into our understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying CPs toxicity.

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Wollenberger, L; Halling-Sørensen, B; Kusk, K O

    2000-04-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC), streptomycin (ST), sulfadiazine (SU), tetracycline (TC), tiamulin (TI) and tylosin (TY) was tested in accordance to the ISO (1989) and OECD (1996) standard procedures. The acute toxicities (48-h EC50 value, mg/l) in decreasing order were OA (4.6), TI (40), SU (221), ST (487), TY (680) and OTC (approximately 1000). NOECs were 340 mg/l for TC and 1000 mg/l for M and OL. Toxic effect on reproduction occurred generally at concentrations, which were one order of magnitude below the acute toxic levels. The chronic toxicity (EC50 values, mg/l) in the D. magna reproduction test in decreasing order were TI (5.4), SU (13.7), TC (44.8) and OTC (46.2). The NOECs (mg/l) obtained in the reproduction test with OA, ST, TY and M were 0.38 for OA, 32 for ST, 45 for TY and 250 for M. The observed toxicity of OA to D. magna indicates that this substance, which is a commonly used feed additive in fish farms, has a potential to cause adverse effects on the aquatic environment.

  17. Acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.; Haws, R.; Little, D.; Reese, D.; Peterson, C.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    This study develops data on the acute aquatic toxicity of selected biodiesel fuels which may become subject to environmental effects test regulations under the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The test substances are Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Methyl Soyate (MS), a biodiesel mixture of 20% REE and 80% Diesel, a biodiesel mixture of 50% REE and diesel, and a reference substance of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel. The test procedure follows the Daphnid Acute Toxicity Test outlined in 40 CFR {section} 797.1300 of the TSCA regulations. Daphnia Magna are exposed to the test substance in a flow-through system consisting of a mixing chamber, a proportional diluter, and duplicate test chambers. Novel system modifications are described that accommodate the testing of oil-based test substances with Daphnia. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an EC50, an effective concentration producing immobility in 50% of the test specimen.

  18. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.

    PubMed Central

    Reese, E; Kimbrough, R D

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. PMID:8020435

  19. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, E.; Kimbrough, R.D.

    1993-12-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. 128 refs., 7 tabs.

  20. [An acute toxicity study of bromantane].

    PubMed

    Bugaeva, L I; Verovskiĭ, V E; Iezhitsa, I N; Spasov, A A

    2000-01-01

    The toxicity of bromantan was evaluated by conventional acute tests (according to Belen'kiĭ) and by the behavioral activity data (according to Irvin). A method of integral graphical representation of the behavioral activity data is suggested, according to which the results are plotted as a "dose trajectory." Using the dose trajectory constructed for bromantan, the levels of therapeutic, toxic, and lethal doses were calculated. It was established that catecholaminergic effects account for the mechanism of therapeutic action of bromantan, while cholinergic effects determine the drug action in toxic doses.

  1. Olanzapine overdose presenting with acute muscle toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Keyal, Niraj; Shrestha, Gentle Sunder; Pradhan, Saurabh; Maharjan, Ramesh; Acharya, Subhash Prasad; Marhatta, Moda Nath

    2017-01-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is being increasingly used as an intentional overdose. It usually presents with reduced and fluctuating level of consciousness and coma. It may rarely present with muscle toxicity by binding to HT2A receptor in skeletal muscle and increasing its permeability. We report a case of such poisoning which had no obvious symptoms but was brought to emergency due to overdose and was found to have acute muscle toxicity as evidenced by raised creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. From this, we also want to emphasize that CPK levels should be checked in all the patient's prescribed olanzapine to look for muscle toxicity.

  2. QSAR models for predicting in vivo aquatic toxicity of chlorinated alkanes to fish.

    PubMed

    Zvinavashe, Elton; van den Berg, Hans; Soffers, Ans E M F; Vervoort, Jacques; Freidig, Andreas; Murk, Albertinka J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2008-03-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play a crucial role in reducing the number of animals to be used for toxicity testing resulting from the adoption of the new European Union chemical control system called Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH). The objective of the present study was to generate in vitro acute toxicity data that could be used to develop a QSAR model to describe acute in vivo toxicity of chlorinated alkanes. Cytotoxicity of a series of chlorinated alkanes to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was observed at concentrations similar to those that have been shown previously to be toxic to fish. Strong correlations exist between the acute in vitro toxicity of the chlorinated alkanes and (i) hydrophobicity [modeled by the calculated log K ow (octanol-water partition coefficient); r (2) = 0.883 and r int (2) = 0.854] and (ii) in vivo acute toxicity to fish ( r (2) = 0.758). A QSAR model has been developed to predict in vivo acute toxicity to fish, based on the in vitro data and even on in silico log K ow data only. The developed QSAR model is applicable to chlorinated alkanes with up to 10 carbon atoms, up to eight chlorine atoms, and log K ow values lying within the range from 1.71 to 5.70. Out of the 100204 compounds on the European Inventory of Existing Chemicals (EINECS), our QSAR model covers 77 (0.1%) of them. Our findings demonstrate that in vitro experiments and even in silico calculations can replace animal experiments in the prediction of the acute toxicity of chlorinated alkanes.

  3. CDP-choline: acute toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Grau, T; Romero, A; Sacristán, A; Ortiz, J A

    1983-01-01

    The acute toxicity of a single dose of cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline, citicoline, Somazina) by different administration routes in mice and rats has been studied. LD50 values were determined according to the cumulative method by Reed-Muench for mortality rate, and Pizzi's method for calculation of standard error.

  4. Consensus Modeling of Oral Rat Acute Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    An acute toxicity dataset (oral rat LD50) with about 7400 compounds was compiled from the ChemIDplus database. This dataset was divided into a modeling set and a prediction set. The compounds in the prediction set were selected so that they were present in the modeling set used...

  5. Ecophysiological perspectives on engineered nanomaterial toxicity in fish and crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Neal Ingraham; MacCormack, Tyson James

    2017-03-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are incorporated into numerous industrial, clinical, food, and consumer products and a significant body of evidence is now available on their toxicity to aquatic organisms. Environmental ENM concentrations are difficult to quantify, but production and release estimates suggest wastewater treatment plant effluent levels ranging from 10(-4) to >10(1)μgL(-1) for the most common formulations by production volume. Bioavailability and ENM toxicity are heavily influenced by water quality parameters and the physicochemical properties and resulting colloidal behaviour of the particular ENM formulation. ENMs generally induce only mild acute toxicity to most adult fish and crustaceans under environmentally relevant exposure scenarios; however, sensitivity may be considerably higher for certain species and life stages. In adult animals, aquatic ENM exposure often irritates respiratory and digestive epithelia and causes oxidative stress, which can be associated with cardiovascular dysfunction and the activation of immune responses. Direct interactions between ENMs (or their dissolution products) and proteins can also lead to ionoregulatory stress and/or developmental toxicity. Chronic and developmental toxicity have been noted for several common ENMs (e.g. TiO2, Ag), however more data is necessary to accurately characterize long term ecological risks. The bioavailability of ENMs should be limited in saline waters but toxicity has been observed in marine animals, highlighting a need for more study on possible impacts in estuarine and coastal systems. Nano-enabled advancements in industrial processes like water treatment and remediation could provide significant net benefits to the environment and will likely temper the relatively modest impacts of incidental ENM release and exposure.

  6. Acute toxicity of saline produced waters to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Evans, J.M.; DuFresne, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of to osmotic specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow, (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silvemide (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  7. Acute methanol toxicity in minipigs

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, D.C.; Dye, J.A.; Nassise, M.P.; Ekuta, J.; Bolon, B.

    1993-01-01

    The pig has been proposed as a potential animal model for methanol-induced neuro-ocular toxicosis in humans because of its low liver tetrahydrofolate levels and slower rate of formate metabolism compared to those of humans. To examine the validity of this animal model, 12 4-month-old female minipigs (minipig YU) were given a single oral dose of water or methanol at 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 g/kg body wt by gavage (n = 3 pigs/dose). Dose-dependent signs of acute methanol intoxication, which included mild CNS depression, tremors, ataxia, and recumbency, developed within 0.5 to 2.0 hr, and resolved by 52 hr. Methanol- and formate-dosed pigs did not develop optic nerve lesions, toxicologically significant formate accumulation, or metabolic acidosis. Based on results following a single dose, female minipigs do not appear to be overtly sensitive to methanol and thus may not be a suitable animal model for acute methanol-induced neuroocular toxicosis.

  8. Acute aquatic toxicity of alkyl phenol ethoxylates

    SciTech Connect

    Schueuermann G2 )

    1991-04-01

    The recently derived log Kow (octanol/water partition coefficient in logarithmic form) increment for a nonterminal oxyethylene unit was used to calculate a quantitative structure-activity relationships for literature data on the acute crustacean toxicity of polyoxyethylene surfactants. The resulting log Kow regression parameters are between the corresponding values for nonpolar and polar narcosis, which supports an interpretation of the surfactants' aquatic toxicity on the basis of another distinct mode of action. Furthermore, a comparison with calculated water solubility data indicates that for log Kow greater than 5 an aquatic toxicity decrease due to a solubility limit is expected, which gets support from two other sets on toxicity data of nonyl phenol polyethoxylates.

  9. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  10. Acute toxicity of gymnodimine to mice.

    PubMed

    Munday, Rex; Towers, Neale R; Mackenzie, Lincoln; Beuzenberg, Veronica; Holland, Patrick T; Miles, Christopher O

    2004-08-01

    The acute toxicity of the phycotoxin gymnodimine to female Swiss mice by intraperitoneal injection and by oral administration has been determined. Gymnodimine was highly toxic by injection, the LD50 being only 96 microg/kg. Animals either died within 10 min of injection or made a full recovery with no perceptible long-term effects. Gymnodimine was also toxic after oral administration by gavage (LD50 755 microg/kg), but was much less toxic when administered with food. No signs of toxicity were seen in mice voluntarily ingesting food containing gymnodimine at a level sufficient to give a dose of approximately 7500 microg/kg. Pre-treatment with physostigmine or neostigmine protected against injected gymnodimine, suggesting that the latter exerts its toxic effects via blockade of nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction. The low toxicity of gymnodimine when ingested with food suggests that this compound is of low risk to humans, a conclusion that is consonant with anecdotal evidence for the absence of harmful effects in individuals consuming shellfish contaminated with gymnodimine.

  11. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B.

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  12. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  13. [Acute Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Daphnia carinata].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Coptis chinensis rhizome and preparations were widely used for the treatment of fish diseases in aquaculture. the acute toxicological effect of CRE on lethal, movement and phototaxis was studied on Daphnia carinata monoclone as a test animal in the present experiment. The results showed that CRE was acute toxic to this animal and alkaloids berberine concentrations in CRE changed in the following sequence: half lethal > half inhibitory > limitable, which led to a significant change in phototaxis index of Daphnia carinata. The concentration of CRE for the significant change in phototaxis index was 4.27 mg x L(-1), which was lower than the concentration in water to cure the fish diseases and this conclusion indicated an ecological risk of this antibiotic to Daphnia carinata in aquaculture. In addition, the concentration of CRE in phototaxis index was changed from 30.62 times at 48th hour to 36.51 times at 24th hour that were lower than half lethal concentration. Detecting phototaxis index was easy and only 3 hours was required, so utilizing the quickly change of Daphnia carinata phototaxis can be an effective method to monitor the toxicity effect of CRE on Daphnia carinata. The abuse of rhizome or preparations in aquaculture might destroy the aquatic food chain, resulting in an imbalance of aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Laboratory studies on antimycin A as a fish toxicant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, Bernard L.; Lennon, Robert E.; Hogan, James W.

    1969-01-01

    Liquid and sand formulations of antimycin A were tested in laboratory waters of various temperature, hardness, pH, and turbidity against 31 species of fresh-water fish of various sizes and life stages. Each formulation of toxicant was lethal under all water conditions to fish eggs, fry, fingerlings, and adult fish. Trouts are the most sensitive and catfishes the least sensitive. Of the 31 species, 24 succumb to 5 p.p.b. or less of the toxicant; only certain catfishes survive 25 p.p.b, The order of toxicity to various species of fish suggests that antimycin has possibilities for selective or partial control of certain unwanted fish. Although toxic to fish under ice, antimycin is more active in warm water than in cold. It is slightly more active in soft water than in hard; it is more active and persists far longer in water at pH 5 to 8 than at pH 9 or 10. It is active on fish in either clear and turbid waters, and it can be detoxified by potassium permanganate, The results contributed to registration of antimycin A in Fintrol-5 formulation as a fish toxicant.

  15. Application of a fish DNA damage assay as a biological toxicity screening tool for metal plating wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K.; Zong, M.; Meier, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The utility of a fish DNA damage assay as a rapid monitoring tool was investigated. Metal plating wastewater was chosen as a sample because it contains various genotoxic metal species. Fish DNA damage assay results were compared to data generated from the conventional whole effluent toxicity (WET) test procedure. The Microtox{reg_sign} assay (Azur Environmental, Carlsbad, CA, USA) using Vibrio fischeri was also employed. Eleven samples from two metal plating companies were collected for this evaluation. For the fish DNA damage assay, 7-d-old fathead minnow larvae, Pimephales promelas, were utilized. They were exposed to a series of dilutions at 20 C for 2 h. Whole effluent toxicity tests conducted in this study included two acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and fathead minnows and two chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows. The fish DNA damage assay showed good correlations with both the acute and chronic WET test results, especially with those obtained with fathead minnows. The kappa values, an index of agreement, between the fish DNA damage assay and WET tests were shown to be acceptable. These findings imply that this novel fish DNA damage assay has use as an expedient toxicity screening procedure since it produces comparable results to those of the acute and chronic fathead minnow toxicity tests.

  16. Effects of chlorine on freshwater fish under various time and chemical conditions: toxicity of chlorine to freshwater fish. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.S.; Bartos, J.M.; Danos, P.T.

    1982-07-01

    Laboratory bioassays to determine the acute toxicity of monochloramine, dichloramine, hypochlorous acid, and hypochlorite ion to emerald shiners, channel catfish, and rainbow trout were conducted. Four exposure regimes typical of chlorination schedules at operating steam electric power plants were used. Fish were exposed to single 15-minute, 30-minute, 120-minute, and quadruple 30-minute periods. No mortality or LC50 values were determined for each species of fish and chemical species of chlorine. Hypochlorous acid was the most toxic form of chlorine studied, followed closely by dichloramine. Monochloramine and hypochlorite ion were three to four times less toxic than hypochlorous acid and dichloramine. On the average, emerald shiners were 1.8 times more sensitive to chlorine than channel catfish and 3.3 times more sensitive than rainbow trout to the four forms of chlorine. The fish were more tolerant of chlorine during short duration exposures and most sensitive during the continuous 120-minute exposures. The significant differences in toxicity noted among the various chlorine species suggest that careful attention should be paid not only to total residual chlorine but to both the chlorine and fish species present and the duration of exposure expected in establishing chlorination regimes.

  17. Measuring the acute toxicity of estuarine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H.; Swartz, R.C.; Lanberson, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    Estuarine sediments frequently are repositories and sources of anthropogenic contaminants. Toxicity is one method of assessing the environmental quality of sediments, yet because of the extreme range of salinities that characterize estuaries few infaunal organisms have both the physiological tolerance and sensitivity to chemical contaminants to serve in estuarine sediment toxicity tests. The study describes research on the estuarine burrowing amphipod, Eohaustorius estuarius Bosworth, 1973, whose survival was >95% in control sediments across a 2 to 28% salinity range over 10-d periods. E. estuarius also was acutely sensitive to low sediment concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (LC50 approximately = 10.6 mg/kg), and its sensitivity to fluoranthene was not affected by salinity. E. estuarius was almost as sensitive as Rhepoxynius abronius to fluoranthene and to field-collected sediments from Puget Sound urban and industrial bays. E. estuarius was also more tolerant of very fine, uncontaminated sediments than R. abronius. Furthermore, E. estuarius was more sensitive to sediments spiked with fluoranthene than the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca. E. estuarius, and possibly other estuarine haustoriid species, appears to be an excellent candidate for testing the acute toxicity if estuarine and marine sediments.

  18. Photoenhanced Toxicity of Oil to Larval Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photoenhanced toxicity is the increase in the toxicity of a chemical in the presence of ultraviolet light (UV), compared to toxicity elicited under conditions of minimal UV. Oil products, weathered oils, combusted oil products, and specific polycyclic aromatic compounds in oil ha...

  19. Sensitivity of Danio rerio (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) during two stages of development based on acute toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Freiry, R; Stelzer, J A A; Maltchik, L; Arenzon, A

    2014-10-01

    The sensitivity of Danio rerio to three chemicals was compared at two growth stages [larval (10 ± 2 after hatching) and post-larval (60 ± 4 days after hatching)] based on acute toxicity tests. Thirty-nine 48 h acute toxicity tests were performed with the substances CuSO4, NaCl and KCl. The 48 h LC50 values at the two growth stages were compared by independent samples t-tests. The results showed a clear decrease in sensitivity when post-larval organisms were used. Since acute toxicity test methods for D. rerio that recommend using post-larval stage fish do not represent the most sensitive stage of the test organism, our study suggests a revision of the methods to use larval fish.

  20. Toxicity of 33 NCS to freshwater fish and sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marking, Leif L.; King, Everett L.; Walker, Charles R.; Howell, John H.

    1970-01-01

    The chemical 33NCS (3'-chloro-3-nitrosalicylanilide) was evaluated as a fish control agent and as a larvicide for sea lampreys at the Fish Control Laboratories of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and the Hammond Bay Biological Station of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. The chemical is rapidly toxic to many species. Sea lampreys, bowfin, and channel catfish are the most sensitive species. Carp are more sensitive than trouts or sunfishes. Use of 33NCS in selective control of freshwater fishes or sea lampreys requires precise control because its toxicity is strongly influenced by variations in water quality.

  1. EXTRAPOLATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY AMONG AQUATIC SPECIES BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation provides inter-species QSARs for acute toxicity to ciliates, fish and daphnia...The inter-species QSARs can be also useful in the analysis of the relative species sensitivity to a variety of pollutants and will be useful in assisting in risk assessments of potential ...

  2. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid to fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA; also called peroxyacetic acid) is a stabilized mixture of acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide and water that does not leave dangerous residues in the environment when it breaks down as most compounds do. PAA is a promising disinfectant in the US aquaculture industry to control paras...

  3. Acute Oral Toxicity Up-And-Down-Procedure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Up-and-Down Procedure is an alternative acute toxicity test that provides a way to determine the toxicity of chemicals with fewer test animals by using sequential dosing steps. Find out about this test procedure.

  4. Acute Renal Failure after Consumption of Fish Gall Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Yu Yao, Bian

    2014-01-01

    A case of acute renal failure after consumption of fish gall bladder as traditional medical remedy is reported. The patient fully recovered with conservative treatment. The risk of acute kidney failure and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following ingestion of fish gall bladder is highlighted. PMID:24829840

  5. Metal bioavailability and toxicity to fish in low-alkalinity lakes - a critical-review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spry, D.J.; Wiener, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Fish in low-alkalinity lakes having ph of 6.0-6.5 Or less often have higher body or tissue burdens of mercury, cadmium, and lead than do fish in nearby lakes with higher ph. The greater bioaccumulation of these metals in such waters seems to result partly from the greater aqueous abundances of biologically available forms (ch3hg+, cd2+, and pb2+) at low ph. In addition, the low concentrations of aqueous calcium in low-alkalinity lakes increase the permeability of biological membranes to these metals, which in fish may cause greater uptake from both water and food. Fish exposed to aqueous inorganic aluminum in the laboratory and field accumulate the metal in and on the epithelial cells of the gills; however, there is little accumulation of aluminum in the blood or internal organs. In low-ph water, both sublethal and lethal toxicity of aluminum has been clearly demonstrated in both laboratory and field studies at environmental concentrations. In contrast, recently measured aqueous concentrations of total mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and lead in low-alkalinity lakes are much lower than the aqueous concentrations known to cause acute or chronic toxicity in fish, although the vast majority of toxicological research has involved waters with much higher ionic strength than that in low-alkalinity lakes. Additional work with fish is needed to better assess (1) the toxicity of aqueous metals in low-alkalinity waters, and (2) the toxicological significance of dietary methylmercury and cadmium.

  6. Acute toxicity of biodiesel to freshwater and marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, D.; Peterson, C.

    1995-11-01

    Biodiesel fuels are reported to be nontoxic resulting in less potential hazard to fish and other aquatic life in case of accidental spills. This paper reports on static tests with rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and rapeseed ethyl ester (REE) performed according to EPA/600/4-90/027. The acute aquatic toxicity tests were conducted with both rainbow trout and daphnia magna by CH2M Hill in Corvallis, Oregon under contract to the University of Idaho. The LC50 (the point at which 50% have died and 50% are still alive determined by interpolation) values for each of the substrates tested with daphnia magna in parts per million were as follows: control(table salt (NaCl)) = 3.7, D2 = 1.43, RME = 23, REE = 99, and Methyl Soyate = 332. Duplicate tests with rainbow trout were run with 10 organisms per replicate. LC50 numbers were not reported because of the failure to kill a sufficient number of fish at the concentrations tested, even with the diesel control fuel. The 20 percent and 50 percent blends had scattered losses of fish but none of the tests had less than 85 percent survival at any concentrations after 96 hours.

  7. History of fish toxicants in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cumming, K.B.

    1975-01-01

    Many bodies of water have been overrun with fish species that are undesirable for the well-being of endemic aquatic biota and are of little or no interest to anglers. This situation has resulted from the transplanting of fish, creation of new waters, increasing fishing pressure and changing water quality. Although as many as 30 toxicants have been tried, only about 30 major piscicides have been used in rehabilitation programs to remove the unwanted species. Explicit knowledge of the mode of action of toxicants in the environment and improvements in fish farming, have permitted fishery managers to reduce the amount of control chemical that is applied to obtain a desired result. The number and volume of waters being reclaimed have increased, but this trend may change soon because environmental laws involving the use of registered pesticides are becoming more restrictive. Registration research has established the safety of some fish toxicants but has eliminated others. Only four piscicides are presently registered (or nonfood use application: antimycin and rotenone as general fish toxicants and 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and Bayluscide as selective lampricides.

  8. Comparative acute and chronic sensitivity of fish and amphibians: a critical review of data.

    PubMed

    Weltje, Lennart; Simpson, Peter; Gross, Melanie; Crane, Mark; Wheeler, James R

    2013-04-01

    The relative sensitivity of amphibians to chemicals in the environment, including plant protection product active substances, is the subject of ongoing scientific debate. The objective of this study was to compare systematically the relative sensitivity of amphibians and fish to chemicals. Acute and chronic toxicity data were obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) ECOTOX database and were supplemented with data from the scientific and regulatory literature. The overall outcome is that fish and amphibian toxicity data are highly correlated and that fish are more sensitive (both acute and chronic) than amphibians. In terms of acute sensitivity, amphibians were between 10- and 100-fold more sensitive than fish for only four of 55 chemicals and more than 100-fold more sensitive for only two chemicals. However, a detailed inspection of these cases showed a similar acute sensitivity of fish and amphibians. Chronic toxicity data for fish were available for 52 chemicals. Amphibians were between 10- and 100-fold more sensitive than fish for only two substances (carbaryl and dexamethasone) and greater than 100-fold more sensitive for only a single chemical (sodium perchlorate). The comparison for carbaryl was subsequently determined to be unreliable and that for sodium perchlorate is a potential artifact of the exposure medium. Only a substance such as dexamethasone, which interferes with a specific aspect of amphibian metamorphosis, might not be detected using fish tests. However, several other compounds known to influence amphibian metamorphosis were included in the analysis, and these did not affect amphibians disproportionately. These analyses suggest that additional amphibian testing is not necessary during chemical risk assessment.

  9. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of dioxin in fish.

    PubMed

    King-Heiden, Tisha C; Mehta, Vatsal; Xiong, Kong M; Lanham, Kevin A; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Ganser, Alissa; Heideman, Warren; Peterson, Richard E

    2012-05-06

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin) is a global environmental contaminant and the prototypical ligand for investigating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated toxicity. Environmental exposure to TCDD results in developmental and reproductive toxicity in fish, birds and mammals. To resolve the ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks posed by exposure to dioxin-like AHR agonists, a vertebrate model is needed that allows for toxicity studies at various levels of biological organization, assesses adverse reproductive and developmental effects and establishes appropriate integrative correlations between different levels of effects. Here we describe the reproductive and developmental toxicity of TCDD in feral fish species and summarize how using the zebrafish model to investigate TCDD toxicity has enabled us to characterize the AHR signaling in fish and to better understand how dioxin-like chemicals induce toxicity. We propose that such studies can be used to predict the risks that AHR ligands pose to feral fish populations and provide a platform for integrating risk assessments for both ecologically relevant organisms and humans.

  10. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Dioxin in Fish1

    PubMed Central

    King-Heiden, Tisha C.; Mehta, Vatsal; Xiong, Kong M.; Lanham, Kevin A.; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S.; Ganser, Alissa; Heideman, Warren

    2011-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin) is a global environmental contaminant and the prototypical ligand for investigating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated toxicity. Environmental exposure to TCDD results in developmental and reproductive toxicity in fish, birds and mammals. To resolve the ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks posed by exposure to dioxin-like AHR agonists, a vertebrate model is needed that allows for toxicity studies at various levels of biological organization, assesses adverse reproductive and developmental effects and establishes appropriate integrative correlations between different levels of effects. Here we describe the reproductive and developmental toxicity of TCDD in feral fish species and summarize how using the zebrafish model to investigate TCDD toxicity has enabled us to characterize the AHR signaling in fish and to better understand how dioxin-like chemicals induce toxicity. We propose that such studies can be used to predict the risks that AHR ligands pose to feral fish populations and provide a platform for integrating risk assessments for both ecologically relevant organisms and humans. PMID:21958697

  11. Influence of water quality parameters on acute silver toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, T.; Forsythe, B. II; Wenholz, M.; Jeffers, R.; Waldrop, V.; La Point, T.; Bens, C.; Cobb, G.; Klaine, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The data to adequately characterize the influence of water quality on silver toxicity in freshwater are lacking or poorly developed. Current attempts to extrapolate existing data sets to many sites result in extremely low silver limits. The error associated with these extrapolations dictate that a silver toxicity data set, accounting for various water quality parameters, be generated. The interactive effects of chloride, hardness, alkalinity, total organic carbon, and pH on the acute toxicity of silver (AgNO{sub 3}) were measured using juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. The 96-hr LC50 for fathead minnows at the lowest tested levels of water quality parameters was 1.4 ug/L. At the highest levels tested, the 96-hr LC50 for fathead minnows was 3.8 ug/L. Preliminary results suggest the 48-hr LC50 values for Daphnia magna were similar to those of the fish. These results indicate a mitigating effect of certain water quality parameters.

  12. Acute toxicity of karlotoxins to mice

    PubMed Central

    Place, Allen R.; Munday, R.; Munday, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Karlotoxins, polyketide derivatives produced by the dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum, are associated with fish kills in temperate estuaries world wide. In this study, the acute effects of 3 pure karlotoxin analogs (KmTx 1, KmTx 3 and KmTx 2) have been examined in mice. Transient lethargy and increased respiratory rates were observed soon after dosing with the karlotoxins by intraperitoneal injection, but no deaths were recorded in animals dosed with KmTx 2 at up to 500 μg/kg or with KmTx 1 or KmTx 3 at up to 4000 μg/kg. Animals dosed intraperitoneally with KmTx 1 and KmTx 3 at 4000 μg/kg showed a pronounced decrease in food and water intake, lasting 3–4 days after dosing, accompanied by a significant decrease in body weight. After this time, the lost body weight was regained and the behavior and appearance of the mice remained normal throughout the following 10 day observation period. No effects were seen in mice dosed orally with KmTx 1 or KmTx 3 at a dose of 4000 μg/kg. It is concluded that contamination of seafood if it were to occur with these karlotoxins is unlikely to pose a major risk of acute intoxication in consumers. PMID:25150200

  13. Developing a list of reference chemicals for testing alternatives to whole fish toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Kramer, Nynke I; Völker, Doris; Scholz, Stefan; Hafner, Christoph; Lee, Lucy E J; Bols, Niels C; Hermens, Joop L M

    2008-11-11

    This paper details the derivation of a list of 60 reference chemicals for the development of alternatives to animal testing in ecotoxicology with a particular focus on fish. The chemicals were selected as a prerequisite to gather mechanistic information on the performance of alternative testing systems, namely vertebrate cell lines and fish embryos, in comparison to the fish acute lethality test. To avoid the need for additional experiments with fish, the U.S. EPA fathead minnow database was consulted as reference for whole organism responses. This database was compared to the Halle Registry of Cytotoxicity and a collation of data by the German EPA (UBA) on acute toxicity data derived from zebrafish embryos. Chemicals that were present in the fathead minnow database and in at least one of the other two databases were subject to selection. Criteria included the coverage of a wide range of toxicity and physico-chemical parameters as well as the determination of outliers of the in vivo/in vitro correlations. While the reference list of chemicals now guides our research for improving cell line and fish embryo assays to make them widely applicable, the list could be of benefit to search for alternatives in ecotoxicology in general. One example would be the use of this list to validate structure-activity prediction models, which in turn would benefit from a continuous extension of this list with regard to physico-chemical and toxicological data.

  14. Effect of species, life stage, and water temperature on the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide to fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Schreier, T.M.; Howe, G.E.; Redman, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a drug of low regulatory priority status that is effective in treating fish and fish eggs infected by fungi. However, only limited information is available to guide fish culturists in administering hydrogen peroxide to diseased fish. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine (1) the sensitivity of brown trout Salmo trutta, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and bluegill Lepomis, machrochirus to hydrogen peroxide treatments; (2) the sensitivity of various life stages of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to hydrogen peroxide treatments; and (3) the effect of water temperature on the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide to three fish species. Fish were exposed to hydrogen peroxide concentrations ranging from 100 to 5,000 mu L/L (ppm) for 15-min or 45-min treatments every other day for four consecutive treatments to determine the sensitivity of various species and life stages of fish. Except for walleye, most species of fish tested (less than or equal to 2 g) tolerated hydrogen peroxide of 1,000 mu L/L or greater. Walleyes were sensitive to hydrogen peroxide concentrations as low as 100 mu L/L. A correlation was found between the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide and the life stages of rainbow trout; larger fish were more sensitive. Generally, the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide increased for all species as water temperature increased. The results of these experiments demonstrate that it is important to consider the effects of species, life stage, and water temperature when conducting hydrogen peroxide treatments.

  15. Acute toxicity of methanol to mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Helmstetter, A.; Gamerdinger, A.P.; Pruell, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Methanol is being promoted as an alternative fuel because of the clean air benefits of reduced carbon monoxide and other by-product emissions. In the event of an accidental spill or leakage from a storage tank, there is limited data available on the impact of alternative fuels on marine ecosystems. Before considering the impact of methanol on ecosystem processes, it is necessary to establish the acute toxicity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was selected for study because of its use as an indicator species of marine ecosystem health (Widdows and Donkin 1992). Our primary objective was to determine the LC-50 value of methanol to adult Mytilus edulis. We also not sublethal effects that were observed during the course of the 96-hr exposure. 16 refs., 1 fig. 3 tabs.

  16. Acute toxicity and accumulation of zinc in the crayfish, Orconectes virilis (Hagen)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Zinc produces acute toxicity to freshwater organisms over a range of concentrations from 90 to 58, 100..mu..g Zn/L; with the range of acute median effect concentrations being similar for freshwater fish and invertebrates. The capacity to regulate internal zinc concentrations in decapod crustaceans has been described. Studies with the crayfish Austropotambius pallipes suggested a relatively high degree of tolerance to zinc by this animal. The present study is designed to describe the toxicity of zinc to the crayfish Orconectes virilis over a 2-wk exposure period. In addition, whole animal and tissue analyses were performed on the test organisms and compared to previous results.

  17. Acute toxicity of TFM and a TFM/niclosamide mixture to selected species of fish, including lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and mudpuppies (Necturus maculosus), in laboratory and field exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boogaard, M.A.; Bills, T.D.; Johnson, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of the lampricides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) to non-target fishes has been a major point of concern since their use to control larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations began in the early 1960s. The toxicity of TFM to several non-target fish species has been demonstrated in previous studies. However, little information is available on the toxicity of the TFM/1% niclosamide mixture. One species of particular concern is the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Juvenile lake sturgeon of several size ranges were exposed to determine potential effects of the lampricides to individuals present in treatment streams. Sac fry were most resistant to the lampricides followed by fingerlings in the 200 to 225 mm size range. Swim-up fry and fingerlings less than 100 mm were the most sensitive. Concentrations that produced 50% mortality (LC50s) in juvenile lake sturgeon of these smaller size ranges were at or near the minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) required for effective control of larval sea lampreys. The mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus), an amphibian native to several tributaries of the Great Lakes, have also become a species of interest in recent years. Laboratory tests conducted with TFM and a TFM/1% niclosamide mixture on adult mudpuppies indicate that although the amphibian is sensitive to the lampricides, an adequate margin of safety exists for adult mudpuppies to survive when exposed during stream treatments. Fifteen other fish species native to streams treated with lampricides were investigated in the laboratory to determine their sensitivity to the lampricides. Centrarchids, bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were the least sensitive to TFM, while ictalurids, black bullhead (Ictalurus melas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and tadpole madtom (Notorus gyrinus) were the most sensitive. On-site bioassays conducted before lampricide

  18. Acute toxicity of TFM and a TFM/niclosamide mixture to selected species of fish, including lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and mudpuppies (Necturus maculosus), in laboratory and field exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boogaard, M.A.; Bills, T.D.; Johnson, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of the lampricides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2???,5-dichloro-4???-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) to non-target fishes has been a major point of concern since their use to control larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations began in the early 1960s. The toxicity of TFM to several non-target fish species has been demonstrated in previous studies. However, little information is available on the toxicity of the TFM/1 % niclosamide mixture. One species of particular concern is the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Juvenile lake sturgeon of several size ranges were exposed to determine potential effects of the lampricides to individuals present in treatment streams. Sac fry were most resistant to the lampricides followed by fingerlings in the 200 to 225 mm size range. Swim-up fry and fingerlings less than 100 mm were the most sensitive. Concentrations that produced 50% mortality (LC50s) in juvenile lake sturgeon of these smaller size ranges were at or near the minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) required for effective control of larval sea lampreys. The mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus), an amphibian native to several tributaries of the Great Lakes, have also become a species of interest in recent years. Laboratory tests conducted with TFM and a TFM/1 % niclosamide mixture on adult mudpuppies indicate that although the amphibian is sensitive to the lampricides, an adequate margin of safety exists for adult mudpuppies to survive when exposed during stream treatments. Fifteen other fish species native to streams treated with lampricides were investigated in the laboratory to determine their sensitivity to the lampricides. Centrarchids, bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were the least sensitive to TFM, while ictalurids, black bullhead (Ictalurus melas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and tadpole madtom (Notorus gyrinus) were the most sensitive. On-site bioassays conducted before lampricide

  19. Acute and environmental toxicity studies with hexazinone

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, G.L. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    The acute toxicity of hexazinone, a herbicide intended for general noncropland areas and selected crop uses (alfalfa and sugarcane), has been evaluated to establish proper handling guidelines and to measure its potential impact on the environment. The material is slightly to moderately toxic when given as a single oral dose; its LD50 in male rats is 1690 mg/kg, in male guinea pigs 860 mg/kg, and in male dogs greater than 3400 mg/kg although in the dog emesis prevented accurate quantitation. When the material is administered intraperitoneally, the LD50 in rats is 530 mg/kg. In both studies, no gross or histologic alterations were apparent. Hexazinone is a moderate to severe eye irritant in the rabbit and produced only mild erythema in rabbit skin at 5278 mg/kg, a dose which did not produce lethality or other clinical signs. Subchronic dermal exposures (10 consecutive doses) to rabbits produced increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase at the highest levels tested (680 and 770 mg/kg in two separate experiments) with no effects seen at 150 mg/kg. One-hour inhalation exposure of up to 7.48 mg/liter did not produce mortality in rats.

  20. Draft Test Guideline: Fish Life Cycle Toxicity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  1. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Dorman, Rebecca A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Doug K; Brumbaugh, William G; Hammer, Edward J; Bauer, Candice R; Mount, David R

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1 mg K/L to 3 mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  3. MOAtox: A comprehensive mode of action and acute aquatic toxicity database for predictive model development.

    PubMed

    Barron, M G; Lilavois, C R; Martin, T M

    2015-04-01

    The mode of toxic action (MOA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity and as an alternative to chemical class-based predictive toxicity modeling. However, the development of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and other models has been limited by the availability of comprehensive high quality MOA and toxicity databases. The current study developed a dataset of MOA assignments for 1213 chemicals that included a diversity of metals, pesticides, and other organic compounds that encompassed six broad and 31 specific MOAs. MOA assignments were made using a combination of high confidence approaches that included international consensus classifications, QSAR predictions, and weight of evidence professional judgment based on an assessment of structure and literature information. A toxicity database of 674 acute values linked to chemical MOA was developed for fish and invertebrates. Additionally, species-specific measured or high confidence estimated acute values were developed for the four aquatic species with the most reported toxicity values: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), and the cladoceran (Daphnia magna). Measured acute toxicity values met strict standardization and quality assurance requirements. Toxicity values for chemicals with missing species-specific data were estimated using established interspecies correlation models and procedures (Web-ICE; http://epa.gov/ceampubl/fchain/webice/), with the highest confidence values selected. The resulting dataset of MOA assignments and paired toxicity values are provided in spreadsheet format as a comprehensive standardized dataset available for predictive aquatic toxicology model development.

  4. A brief overview of nonneoplastic hepatic toxicity in fish.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jeffrey C; Wolfe, Marilyn J

    2005-01-01

    Biochemical assays are not routinely used to assess liver damage in fish, therefore, a histopathological evaluation is usually required to determine the existence or extent of nonneoplastic liver toxicity. Many mammalian pathologists may be uncomfortable when requested to identify and interpret subtle liver changes in these unfamiliar animals. It may be reassuring to note that there are more similarities than differences between fish and mammals in terms of their macro- and microanatomy, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and pathologic responses to hepatotoxic substances. This brief overview addresses several topics pertaining to hepatotoxicity in fish, including: anatomic considerations, that is, how the anatomy of the fish liver may be predictive of its metabolic capacity, and also its microscopic appearance, following exposure to toxins; physiologic considerations, including comparisons between mammalian and fish livers regarding the uptake, elimination, toxification, or detoxification of xenobiotic compounds; morphologic responses to toxicity, in which some of the general types of findings that are most commonly observed in cases or studies of fish hepatotoxicity are highlighted; and last, responses of the fish liver to specific hepatotoxins.

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity of boron to a variety of freshwater organisms.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Koch, Brian T

    2011-08-01

    Boron enters the aquatic environment from various sources, including weathering of borates, sewage effluents, coal combustion, use of cleaning compounds, and agrochemicals. The present study was designed to generate data on acute and chronic boron toxicity in support of an update of water quality standards in Illinois, USA. We examined the acute toxicity of boron to eight different freshwater organisms including a fish, an insect, two crustaceans, and four bivalve mollusks. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present data on the toxicity of boron to freshwater mollusks. We also sought to clarify whether hardness or pH affect boron toxicity to aquatic life, and to quantify chronic effect levels in two freshwater species. Sensitivity among the various species ranged widely, with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) being the most sensitive. Neither pH nor hardness had a consistent effect on acute boron toxicity to two crustaceans (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca), but we observed evidence that chloride reduces boron toxicity to H. azteca. The fathead minnow, while more acutely sensitive than the other species, had a lower acute to chronic ratio than did H. azteca, which had reduced reproduction at 13 mg/L. While we do not know the extent to which the eight tested species represent the range of sensitivities of native but untested species in Illinois, the current water quality standard for Illinois (1 mg/L) is conservative with regard to the native species tested thus far.

  6. Ammonia Production, Excretion, Toxicity, and Defense in Fish: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Yuen K.; Chew, Shit F.

    2010-01-01

    Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH4+transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia through the blood–brain barrier and passages of ammonia and water through transporters in the plasmalemma of brain cells. Additionally, brain ammonia toxicity could be related to the passage of glutamine through the mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. On the other hand, recent reports on ammonia excretion in fish confirm the involvement of Rhesus glycoproteins in the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Therefore, this review focuses on both the earlier literature and the up-to-date information on the problems and mechanisms concerning the permeation of ammonia, as NH3, NH4+ or proton-neutral nitrogenous compounds, across mitochondrial membranes, the blood–brain barrier, the plasmalemma of neurons, and the branchial and cutaneous epithelia of fish. It also addresses how certain fishes with high ammonia tolerance defend against ammonia toxicity through the regulation of the permeation of ammonia and related nitrogenous compounds through various types of membranes. It is hoped that this review would revive the interests in investigations on the passage of ammonia through the mitochondrial membranes and the blood–brain barrier of ammonotelic fishes and fishes with high brain ammonia tolerance, respectively. PMID:21423375

  7. Acute and environmental toxicity studies with hexazinone.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, G L

    1984-08-01

    The acute toxicity of hexazinone, a herbicide intended for general noncropland areas and selected crop uses (alfalfa and sugarcane), has been evaluated to establish proper handling guidelines and to measure its potential impact on the environment. The material is slightly to moderately toxic when given as a single oral dose; its LD50 in male rats is 1690 mg/kg, in male guinea pigs 860 mg/kg, and in male dogs greater than 3400 mg/kg although in the dog emesis prevented accurate quantitation. When the material is administered intraperitoneally, the LD50 in rats is 530 mg/kg. Repeated doses (five oral doses per week for 2 weeks) of 300 mg/kg to rats produced slight weight loss in one of two replicate experiments. In both studies, no gross or histologic alterations were apparent. Hexazinone is a moderate to severe eye irritant in the rabbit and produced only mild erythema in rabbit skin at 5278 mg/kg, a dose which did not produce lethality or other clinical signs. Subchronic dermal exposures (10 consecutive doses) to rabbits produced increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase at the highest levels tested (680 and 770 mg/kg in two separate experiments) with no effects seen at 150 mg/kg. There were no alterations in livers from treated rabbits examined by light microscopy. No dermal sensitization was produced when concentrations of up to 50% were tested in guinea pigs. One-hour inhalation exposure of up to 7.48 mg/liter did not produce mortality in rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. [Acute toxicity of different type pesticide surfactants to Daphnia magna].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-huan; Li, Hua; Chen, Cheng-yu; Li, Jian-tao; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    By using the standard test methods in Experimental Guideline for Environmental Safety Evaluation of Chemical Pesticide to aquatic organisms, a comparative study was conducted on the acute toxicity of 39 nonionic, 6 anionic, and 3 cationic surfactants to Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity of three cationic surfactants 1427, 1227 and C8-10 to D. magna belonged to virulent level, and the toxicity of 1427 was the highest, with the EC50 value being 0.97 x 10(-2) mg x L(-1). The acute toxicity of nonionic surfactants polyoxyethylene ether castor oil EL, Tween, and Span emulsifiers belonged to low level, but the toxicity of alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether surfactants was relatively high, of which, AEO-7 and AEO-5 displayed high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.82 and 0.97 mg x L(-1), respectively. In these surfactants, the more liposolubility, the higher the toxicity was. Most of the anionic surfactants were medium in toxicity, but the acute toxicity of NNO belonged to high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.17 mg x L(-1).

  9. Toxicity of Cultured Bullseye Puffer Fish Sphoeroides annulatus

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez-Vazquez, Erick J.; Garcia-Ortega, Armando; Campa-Cordova, Angel I.; de la Parra, Isabel Abdo; Ibarra-Martinez, Lilia; Heredia-Tapia, Alejandra; Ochoa, Jose L.

    2012-01-01

    The toxin content in various life cycle stages of tank-cultivated bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) were analyzed by mouse bioassay and ESI-MS spectrometry analysis. The presence of toxin content was determined in extracts of sperm, eggs, embryo, larvae, post-larvae, juvenile, pre-adult, and adult fish, as well as in food items used during the cultivation of the species. Our findings show that only the muscle of juveniles, the viscera of pre-adults, and muscle, liver, and gonad of adult specimens were slightly toxic (<1 mouse unit). Thus, cultivated S. annulatus, as occurs with other cultivated puffer fish species, does not represent a food safety risk to consumers. This is the first report of toxin analysis covering the complete life stages of a puffer fish under controlled conditions. PMID:22412804

  10. Toxicity of cultured bullseye puffer fish Sphoeroides annulatus.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Vazquez, Erick J; Garcia-Ortega, Armando; Campa-Cordova, Angel I; Abdo de la Parra, Isabel; Ibarra-Martinez, Lilia; Heredia-Tapia, Alejandra; Ochoa, Jose L

    2012-02-01

    The toxin content in various life cycle stages of tank-cultivated bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) were analyzed by mouse bioassay and ESI-MS spectrometry analysis. The presence of toxin content was determined in extracts of sperm, eggs, embryo, larvae, post-larvae, juvenile, pre-adult, and adult fish, as well as in food items used during the cultivation of the species. Our findings show that only the muscle of juveniles, the viscera of pre-adults, and muscle, liver, and gonad of adult specimens were slightly toxic (<1 mouse unit). Thus, cultivated S. annulatus, as occurs with other cultivated puffer fish species, does not represent a food safety risk to consumers. This is the first report of toxin analysis covering the complete life stages of a puffer fish under controlled conditions.

  11. Comparative toxicity of eight metals on freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Yakub, Nadzifah; Ramle, Nur-Amalina; Abas, Ahmad

    2015-09-01

    Two freshwater fish, Rasbora sumatrana (Cyprinidae) and Poecilia reticulata (guppy; Poeciliidae), were exposed to a range of eight heavy metals (copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al), and manganese (Mn)) at varied concentrations for 96 h in the laboratory. Mortality was assessed and median lethal concentrations (LC50) were calculated. It was observed that the LC50 values increased with a decrease in mean exposure times, for all metals and for both fish types. The 96-h LC50 values for Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al, and Mn were 0.006, 0.10, 0.46, 0.63, 0.83, 1.71, 1.53, and 5.71 mg/L for R. sumatrana and 0.038, 0.17, 1.06, 1.99, 15.62, 1.46, 6.76, and 23.91 mg/L for P. reticulata, respectively. The metal toxicity trend for R. sumatrana and P. reticulata from most to least toxic was Cu > Cd > Zn > Pb > Ni > Al > Fe > Mn and Cu > Cd > Zn > Fe > Pb > Al > Ni > Mn, respectively. Results indicated that Cu was the most toxic metal on both fish, and R. sumatrana was more sensitive than P. reticulata to all the eight metals.

  12. Dispersant and salinity effects on weathering and acute toxicity of South Louisiana crude oil.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Adam J; Nyman, J Andrew; Kaller, Michael D; Green, Christopher C

    2013-11-01

    Chemical dispersants are an important technology in the remediation of oil spills in the aquatic environment, facilitating degradation of crude oil and salinity is an important factor in dispersant effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of salinity on the degradation chemistry of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acute toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the dispersant COREXIT 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil on a common estuarine fish. Laboratory microcosms were designed at salinities of 4 parts per thousand (ppt), 12 ppt, or 18 ppt and spiked with crude oil, COREXIT 9500A, or a combined exposure to crude oil and COREXIT and allowed to biodegrade for 1 wk, 4 wk, and 16 wk. The WAF was harvested for analytical PAH analysis and acute toxicity testing in juvenile Fundulus grandis. Compared with undispersed oil, COREXIT exponentially increased the PAH concentrations in the WAF for up to 16 wk; hopane-normalized concentrations indicated that biodegradation was slowed for the first 4 wk. Dispersed crude oil and COREXIT were acutely toxic following 1 wk of biodegradation with no correlation between PAH concentrations and crude oil WAF mortality. Both dispersant and dispersant oil mixtures remained toxic for at least 4 wk at the lowest salinity tested, suggesting increased sensitivity or reduced biodegradation of toxic components in low-saline environments. At the lowest salinity, oil dispersed with COREXIT was more toxic than either the COREXIT alone or oil alone, even after 16 wk of biodegradation.

  13. Evaluation of acute toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a nickel mining waste to Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino; Muniz, Daphne Heloisa de Freitas; Ferreira, Maria Fernanda Nince; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2010-11-01

    The pyrometallurgical process of mining for obtaining ferronickel involves a stage of calcinations. At this stage a residue is generated described as a calcination dust of fine black grains. Analysis of this material revealed a significant presence of Fe, around 53,000 ppm and Ni, around 14,000, beyond of other metals as Al, Mn, and Cr. Adults and larvae of Oreochromis niloticus were used to evaluate acute toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, and histopathological effects. The data obtained show absence of toxicity in concentrations of 5, 10 and 50% but a considerable potential for bioaccumulation in the fish's body.

  14. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  15. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; Schalie, W.H. van der; Leather, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  16. Interspecies quantitative structure-activity-activity relationships (QSAARs) for prediction of acute aquatic toxicity of aromatic amines and phenols.

    PubMed

    Furuhama, A; Hasunuma, K; Aoki, Y

    2015-01-01

    We propose interspecies quantitative structure-activity-activity relationships (QSAARs), that is, QSARs with descriptors, to estimate species-specific acute aquatic toxicity. Using training datasets consisting of more than 100 aromatic amines and phenols, we found that the descriptors that predicted acute toxicities to fish (Oryzias latipes) and algae were daphnia toxicity, molecular weight (an indicator of molecular size and uptake) and selected indicator variables that discriminated between the absence or presence of various substructures. Molecular weight and the selected indicator variables improved the goodness-of-fit of the fish and algae toxicity prediction models. External validations of the QSAARs proved that algae toxicity could be predicted within 1.0 log unit and revealed structural profiles of outlier chemicals with respect to fish toxicity. In addition, applicability domains based on leverage values provided structural alerts for the predicted fish toxicity of chemicals with more than one hydroxyl or amino group attached to an aromatic ring, but not for fluoroanilines, which were not included in the training dataset. Although these simple QSAARs have limitations, their applicability is defined so clearly that they may be practical for screening chemicals with molecular weights of ≤364.9.

  17. Towards a scheme of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for the acute toxicity of PAHs in sediment.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Tom T; Law, Robin J; Rumney, Heather S; Kirby, Mark F; Kelly, Carole

    2011-11-01

    Toxic equivalency factors/quotients (TEF/TEQs) express the toxicity of complex mixtures. For PAHs, TEF values are available for assessing their carcinogenic potential and are expressed as benzo[a]pyrene equivalents. This study develops a similar approach for their acute toxicity in sediments. Acute toxicity (10 day EC₅₀) values were generated using the marine amphipod Corophium volutator bioassay for twelve low molecular weight PAHs. The results ranged from 24 to > 1000 mg/Kg sediment dry weight for 4-methyldibenzothiophene and anthracene, respectively. Phenanthrene was used as the reference compound (TEF=1) and so the TEQ values derived are expressed as phenanthrene equivalents. In order to illustrate the applicability of this approach to the development of marine indicators we plotted TEQ values for acute toxicity to UK environmental monitoring data. Further work is required to validate the TEF values produced and to extend the TEQ approach to include a wider range of low molecular weight PAHs.

  18. Identification of acute toxicants in New Bedford Harbor sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; McKinney, R.A.; Kuhn, A.; Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH) is a marine Superfund site contaminated with high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. Experiments were conducted to determine the causal toxic agent(s) in pore waters from New Bedford Harbor sediments to amphipods and mysid shrimp. Chemical manipulations to characterize toxicity revealed that pore-water toxicity was organic in nature. Fractionation and subsequent mass spectral identification of peaks in the toxic fraction indicated that PCBs. PAHs, and unknown compounds were present. Comparisons of PAH LC50s and PAH concentrations in this fraction indicated that the toxicity was not due to PAHs because the PAH concentrations were much lower than the reported PAH LC50s. One unknown peak was positively identified as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and the other tentatively identified as pyrazole. Toxicity tests and comparison of toxicity in the blank and toxic fractions eliminated the two unknowns as toxic causal agents. The authors determined the range of PCB LC50s to fall between 10 and 110 ppb for Mysidopsis bahia and Ampelisca abdita. Concentrations of PCBs for the toxic fractions ranged from 12 to 27 ppb. This range falls within the observed PCB LC50s for M. bahia and A. abdita. Based upon these PCB concentrations, they concluded that PCBs were the acute toxic agents in NBH pore waters. Other compounds in the toxic fractions, or compounds that coeluted and were undistinguished from PCBs had minor contributions to the measured toxicity.

  19. Acute toxicity of the herbicide bromoxynil to Daphnia magna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Schmulbach, James C.

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicities of technical-grade bromoxynil octanoate (BO) and two commercial formulations, Buctril® and Bronate®, to < 24-h-old neonate Daphnia magna (Straus) were determined in soft, hard, and oligosaline water. In addition, effects of life stage, feeding, aging the herbicide, and exposure duration on BO toxicity to daphnids were investigated. Regardless of formulation, life stage, and water quality, BO was found to be extremely to highly toxic to daphnids in standard tests; 48-h EC50 values ranged from 41 to 161 m̈g/L. Bromoxynil octanoate was the most toxic to neonates in soft water and the least toxic in hard water. The acute toxicities of the three bromoxynil herbicides to a given age group of daphnids were similar within the same water type. Overall, neonates and 7-d-old adults were more sensitive than 14- or 15-d-old adults to each herbicide. Feeding daphnids during the toxicity test significantly decreased BO toxicity compared to not feeding them. Aging BO (as Buctril) in hard water decreased its toxicity, and the rate of deactivation was rapid, with an estimated half-life of biological activity of 13 h. Daphnids immobilized by exposures to toxic BO concentrations for ≤ 6 h recovered their mobility, whereas exposures of 18 and 24 h to BO produced toxic effects in daphnids similar to those exposed for 48 h. These results indicated that standard continuous exposure tests may not adequately predict the acute toxicity of BO to freshwater animals in the field.

  20. Toxicity of inorganic contaminants, individually and in environmental mixtures, to three endangered fishes (Colorado squawfish, bonytail, and razorback sucker)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Two life stages of three federally-listed endangered fishes, Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius), bonytail (Gila elegans), and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) were exposed to copper, selenate, selenite, and zinc individually, and to mixtures of nine inorganics in a reconstituted water that simulated the water quality of the middle Green River, Utah. The mixtures simulated environmental ratios of arsenate, boron, copper, molybdenum, selenate, selenite, uranium, vanadium, and zinc in two tributaries, Ashley Creek and Stewart Lake outlet, of the middle Green River. The rank order of toxicity of the individual inorganics, from most to least toxic, was: copper > zinc > selenite > selenate. Colorado squawfish larvae were more sensitive to all four inorganics and the two mixtures than the juveniles, whereas there was no consistent response between the two life stages for the other two species. There was no consistent difference in sensitivity to the inorganics among the three endangered fishes. Both mixtures exhibited either additive or greater than additive toxicity to these fishes. The primary toxic components in the mixtures, based on toxic units, were copper and zinc. Acute toxicity values were compared to measured environmental concentrations in the two tributaries to derive margins of uncertainty. Margins of uncertainty were low for both mixtures (9–22 for the Stewart Lake outlet mixture, and 12–32 for the Ashley Creek mixture), indicating that mixtures of inorganics derived from irrigation activities may pose a hazard to endangered fishes in the Green River.

  1. Acute toxicity of seeds of the sapodilla (Achras sapota L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, P D; Simon, W R; West, M E

    1984-01-01

    An aqueous extract of the sapodilla seed (Achras sapota L.) was acutely toxic to mice and rats (i.p. LD50 = 190 and 250 mg/kg, respectively) with symptoms of dyspnoea, apnoea and convulsions. Soxhlet extraction and chromatographic separation of the seed constituents yielded a brown amorphous solid containing saponin. This was heat-stable and toxic by the i.p. route (LD50 = 30-50 mg/kg) but non-toxic by the oral route in mice and rats. It is proposed that the toxicity of the sapodilla seed is due mainly to the saponin content.

  2. Ratios between acute aquatic toxicity and effects on population growth rates in relation to toxicant mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Roex, E.W.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. Van; Wezel, A.P. Van; Straalen, N.M. Van

    2000-03-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is mostly based on the results of standardized toxicity tests. To obtain environmental quality criteria, extrapolation factors are used that depend on the amount and quality of available data. These extrapolation factors do not, however, take into account the mode of action of the compound tested or the life history of the test organism. In this study, the authors analyzed the variability in acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) for various chemicals in relation to their mode of action. Chemicals were classified as nonpolar narcotics, polar narcotics, specifically acting compounds, and heavy metals. As an acute endpoint, the LC50 was used; as a chronic endpoint, the lowest test concentration at which the natural rate of population increase (r) is affected, or LOEC(r), was used. Data were derived from the on-line literature. Nonpolar narcotic chemicals demonstrate the smallest variation in ACRs, and acute tests can be used to derive chronic endpoints for this class. For the other classes, the variation in ACRs is larger. Fish species especially show a relatively large ACR. For heavy metals, differences in the mode of action may play an important role in explaining differences in ACRs. For the other three classes, however, it is less reliable to predict chronic toxicity using the results of acute tests. In general, differences in species sensitivity rather than in mode of action for the chemical seem to determine differences in ACRs.

  3. [Acute toxic hepatitis due to drinking water].

    PubMed

    Martínez Amate, Eva; Rodríguez Manrique, Marco A; González Sánchez, Mercedes; Casado Martin, Marta

    2010-11-01

    Toxic-induced liver disease is uncommon, although the true proportion of cases of hepatotoxicity is unknown, as this entity is underdiagnosed and underreported. The main reasons why toxic-induced liver disease goes unnoticed is the lack of pathognomonic data and the lack of spontaneous reporting by doctors and pharmacists. In some cases, the toxic substance can leave its «signature» in the form of clinical semiology suggestive of an underlying toxic cause. We present a case of hepatotoxicity induced by drinking water (chlorinated), which produced a reactive metabolites syndrome (trihalomethanes from the reaction of chlorine with organic products). Although the clinical presentation was typical, the case posed a diagnostic challenge for the various professionals involved.

  4. Chronic toxicity of chloroform to Japanese medaka fish.

    PubMed Central

    Toussaint, M W; Rosencrance, A B; Brennan, L M; Beaman, J R; Wolfe, M J; Hoffmann, F J; Gardner, H S

    2001-01-01

    Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were continually exposed in a flow-through diluter system for 9 months to measured chloroform concentrations of 0.017, 0.151, or 1.463 mg/L. Parameters evaluated were hepatocarcinogenicity, hepatocellular proliferation, hematology, and intrahepatic chloroform concentration. Histopathology was evaluated at 6 and 9 months. Chloroform was not hepatocarcinogenic to the medaka at the concentrations tested. Chronic toxicity was evidenced at these time points by statistically significant ([alpha] = 0.05) levels of gallbladder lesions and bile duct abnormalities in medaka treated with 1.463 mg/L chloroform. We assessed hepatocellular proliferation by exposing test fish to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine in the aquarium water for 72 hr after 4 and 20 days of chloroform exposure; we then quantified area-labeling indices of the livers using computer-assisted image analysis. We observed no treatment-related increases in cellular proliferation. We analyzed cells in circulating blood in medaka after 6 months of chloroform exposure. Hematocrit, leukocrit, cell viability, and cell counts of treated fish were not significantly different from those of control fish. Using gas chromatography (GC), we evaluated intrahepatic concentrations of chloroform in fish after 9 months of exposure. Livers from the 0.151 and 1.463 mg/L chloroform-treated fish had detectable amounts of chloroform, but these levels were always lower than the aquaria concentrations of chloroform. Thus, it appeared that chloroform did not bioaccumulate in the liver. Unidentified presumptive metabolite peaks were found in the GC tracings of these fish livers. PMID:11171522

  5. Acute toxicity prediction to threatened and endangered ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Evaluating contaminant sensitivity of threatened and endangered (listed) species and protectiveness of chemical regulations often depends on toxicity data for commonly tested surrogate species. The U.S. EPA’s Internet application Web-ICE is a suite of Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) models that can extrapolate species sensitivity to listed taxa using least-squares regressions of the sensitivity of a surrogate species and a predicted taxon (species, genus, or family). Web-ICE was expanded with new models that can predict toxicity to over 250 listed species. A case study was used to assess protectiveness of genus and family model estimates derived from either geometric mean or minimum taxa toxicity values for listed species. Models developed from the most sensitive value for each chemical were generally protective of the most sensitive species within predicted taxa, including listed species, and were more protective than geometric means models. ICE model estimates were compared to HC5 values derived from Species Sensitivity Distributions for the case study chemicals to assess protectiveness of the two approaches. ICE models provide robust toxicity predictions and can generate protective toxicity estimates for assessing contaminant risk to listed species. Reporting on the development and optimization of ICE models for listed species toxicity estimation

  6. Toxic substances: Effects on fish. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biochemical and physiological effects of toxic substances on fish populations. Particular emphasis is placed upon using fish as an indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Toxicity effects of mercury, zinc, calcium chloride, sodium chloride, lead, cadmium, copper, and aluminum in freshwater and seawater fish are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Toxic effects of acrylamide in a freshwater fish, Heteropneustes fossilis

    SciTech Connect

    Shanker, R.; Seth, P.K.

    1986-08-01

    It has been shown that acrylamide is a cumulative neurotoxic agent and can conjugate with glutathione enzymically and nonenzymically. The enzymic conjugation is catalyzed by a cytosolic enzyme, glutathione S-transferase. Laboratory animals exposed to acrylamide exhibited a decrease in glutathione level and in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase of brain and liver. The inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase by acrylamide, which catalyzes its conjugation with glutathione, may lead to the accumulation of the monomer and its enhanced neurotoxicity. At present little is known about the toxic effects of acrylamide in fishes. The present study deals with the determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) of acrylamide and its effect on the hepatic glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase levels of the fresh water fish, Heteropneustes fossilis.

  8. On the performance of acute toxicity tests using the National Reference Toxicant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Zaidhk, B.

    1995-12-31

    The US National Reference Toxicant Database was used to compile data from 158 Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 187 fathead minnow acute toxicity tests. The data are analyzed using the EPA flow-chart for acute toxicity tests to determine the distribution of test methods selected. The data are reanalyzed using maximum likelihood estimation assuming probit, logit and Gompertz tolerance distributions and non-parametrically using the Spearman-Karber method with and without trimming. The results of these analyses are compared with respect to mean square error for the parametric methods and confidence intervals for the point estimate for all analyses.

  9. [Acute toxicity and bioavailability of nano red elemental selenium].

    PubMed

    Gao, X; Zhang, J; Zhang, L

    2000-01-30

    The reaction ratio of nano red elemental selenium (nanose) with GSH in vitro was one-tenth of that of sodium selenite. Mice were fed with nanose and sodium selenite separately at 50 micrograms/kg BW for 30 days. Both selenium forms could significantly increased Se concentration of blood, liver and activity of blood GSH-Px. Acute toxicity experiment of mice implied that the acute toxicity of nanose was nearly one-seventh of that of sodium selenite. The LD50 for nanose se was 112.98 mg kg BW, and the LD50 for sodium selenite was Se 15.72 mg/kg BW. The acute toxicity of nanose was low for mice.

  10. Temperature determines toxicity: bisphenol A reduces thermal tolerance in fish.

    PubMed

    Little, Alexander G; Seebacher, Frank

    2015-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous pollutant around the globe, but whether environmental concentrations have toxic effects remains controversial. BPA interferes with a number of nuclear receptor pathways, including several that mediate animal responses to environmental input. Because thermal acclimation is regulated by these pathways in fish, we hypothesized that the toxicity of BPA would change with ambient temperature. We exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) to ecologically relevant and artificially high concentrations of BPA at two acclimation temperatures, and tested physiological responses at two test temperatures that corresponded to acclimation temperatures. We found ecologically relevant concentrations of BPA (20 μg l(-1)) impair swimming performance, heart rate, muscle and cardiac SERCA activity and gene expression. We show many of these responses are temperature-specific and non-monotonic. Our results suggest that BPA pollution can compound the effects of climate change, and that its effects are more dynamic than toxicological assessments currently account for.

  11. Uranium Exerts Acute Toxicity by Binding to Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Cofactor

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R. VanEngelen; Robert I. Szilagyi; Robin Gerlach; Brady E. Lee; William A. Apel; Brent M. Peyton

    2011-02-01

    Uranium as an environmental contaminant has been shown to be toxic to eukaryotes and prokaryotes; however, no specific mechanisms of uranium toxicity have been proposed so far. Here a combination of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies are presented describing direct inhibition of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent growth and metabolism by uranyl cations. Electrospray-ionization mass spectroscopy, UV-vis optical spectroscopy, competitive Ca2+/uranyl binding studies, relevant crystal structures, and molecular modeling unequivocally indicate the preferred binding of uranyl simultaneously to the carboxyl oxygen, pyridine nitrogen, and quinone oxygen of the PQQ molecule. The observed toxicity patterns are consistent with the biotic ligand model of acute metal toxicity. In addition to the environmental implications, this work represents the first proposed molecular mechanism of uranium toxicity in bacteria, and has relevance for uranium toxicity in many living systems.

  12. Resolving some practical questions about Daphnia acute toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Barera, Y.; Adams, W.J.

    1981-10-01

    Acute toxicity tests were performed with six age groups of Daphnia magna, ranging from less than or equal to6 h to 216 h, and with five chemicals, selected on the basis of their physical and chemical properties as well as their acute toxicity to D. magna. The age of the daphnids did not significantly alter the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values for the chemicals tested. The maximum difference observed in the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values between the 6-h and 216-h age groups was a factor of 3.9 for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). For purposes of standardization, it appears that D. magna up to 48 h of age at the beginning of the test can be used to conduct acute toxicity tests with most chemicals. The results of static acute toxicity tests conducted with butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and D. magna in the presence and absence of several commonly used solvents indicate that the acute toxicity of this chemical is not altered by the use of a solvent carrier. The 48-h EC/sub 50/ value for BBP without a solvent was 1.0 mg/L, compared with a range of 1.6 to 2.2 mg/L when acetone, dimethylformamide, ethanol, or triethylene glycol were used as solvent carriers. The acute toxicities of the solvents in the absence of BBP were also determined for D. magna. The values ranged from 9.3 to 52.4 g/L. The results of static acute tests performed with D. magna and BBP in the presence of various concentrations of daphnid foods (algae or trout chow), indicate that the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values increase proportionally with an increase in food concentrations. These results suggest that acute toxicity tests with D. magna should be conducted in the presence of food with chemicals with a high Ksigma if the results are to be used to select the test concentrations for a chronic study with daphnids. The type of food and the concentration used in the acute test should be the same as those used in a chronic test.

  13. Impacts of hypersaline acclimation on the acute toxicity of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos to salmonids.

    PubMed

    Maryoung, Lindley A; Lavado, Ramon; Schlenk, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Acclimation to hypersaline conditions enhances the acute toxicity of certain thioether organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in some species of euryhaline fish. As the organophosphate chlorpyrifos is commonly detected in salmonid waterways, the impacts of hypersaline conditions on its toxicity were examined. In contrast to other previously examined pesticides, time to death by chlorpyrifos was more rapid in freshwater than in hypersaline water (16ppth). The median lethal time (LT50) after 100μg/L chlorpyrifos exposure was 49h (95% CI: 31-78) and 120h (95% CI: 89-162) for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in freshwater and those acclimated to hypersaline conditions, respectively. Previous studies with hypersaline acclimated fish indicated induction of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes that may detoxify chlorpyrifos. In the current study, chlorpyrifos metabolism was unaltered in liver and gill microsomes of freshwater and hypersaline acclimated fish. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in brain and bioavailability of chlorpyrifos from the aqueous exposure media were also unchanged. In contrast, mRNA expression of neurological targets: calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta, chloride intracellular channel 4, and G protein alpha i1 were upregulated in saltwater acclimated fish, consistent with diminished neuronal signaling which may protect animals from cholinergic overload associated with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. These results indicate targets other than acetylcholinesterase may contribute to the altered toxicity of chlorpyrifos in salmonids under hypersaline conditions.

  14. Acute toxicity and QSAR of chlorophenols on Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Devillers, J.; Chambon, P.

    1986-10-01

    Chlorophenols which are released into natural waters from various industrial processes and from agricultural uses have been recognized as a group of chemical substances potentially hazardous to the aquatic environment. Therefore it is important to estimate their toxic impact on biota. Thus, the scope of this research was to obtain acute toxicity data for seventeen chlorophenols towards Daphnia magna and to explore the possibilities of deriving QSAR's (quantitative structure-activity relationship) from the above values.

  15. Degradation and acute toxicity studies of degradable implant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Michelle Suzette

    The present study investigated the acute toxicities of the degradation product components of six degradable polymers, the acute toxicities of nine metallic ions and accelerated degradation of one degradable polymer. Prior to these studies, the effect of the anticipated test conditions on the Microtox acute toxicity assay was determined. It was shown that the Microtox is unaffected by pH of water within the range of 5 to 10 and that the test is unaffected by tris buffer at physiologic pH and concentration. The toxicity and rates of degradation of poly(glycolic acid), PGA; two samples of poly(L-lactic acid), PLLA; samples of different molecular weights, poly(caprolactone), PCL; poly(ortho ester), POE; and poly(hydroxybutyrate-cohydroxyvalerate), PHBV, were compared, along with the toxicity of their degradation product components. The toxic concentrations ranged from 100 muM (lactic acid) to 125,000 muM (pentaerythritol). The degradation product components in order of most toxic to least toxic are lactic acid, caproic acid, glycolic acid, cyclohexanedimethanol, propionic acid, hydroxybutyric acid, 1,6-hexanediol, pentaerythritol dipropionate, pentaerythritol and hydroxyvaleric acid. Acute toxicity was determined for metallic ions in water and buffer. The toxic concentrations ranged from 33 muM (Tisp{4+} in water) to 3,580 muM (Wsp{6+} in buffer). The four most toxic ions in water (Tisp{4+}, Mosp{5+}, Fesp{3+}, Crsp{3+}) caused solution pH to decrease markedly. The six other ions (Vasp{3+}, Cosp{3+}, Alsp{3+,} Tisp{4+} adjusted to pH 6.1, Nisp{2+} and Wsp{6+}) markedly. The six other ions (Vasp{3+}, Cosp{3+}, Alsp{3+}, Tisp{4+} adjusted to pH 6.1, Nisp{2+} and Wsp{6+}) did not appreciably affect pH. In buffer, Alsp{3+}, Nisp{2+}, Wsp{6+} and Vsp{3+} became much less toxic, suggesting formation of complexes. In general the least toxic ions do not create an acid environment and/or do form protective complexes. PHBV has good mechanical properties and, compared with the

  16. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations.

  17. Toxicity profile of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for fungi and Cyprinus carpio fish.

    PubMed

    Juneidi, Ibrahim; Hayyan, Maan; Mohd Ali, Ozair

    2016-04-01

    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds.

  18. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  19. Draft Test Guideline: Gammarid Acute Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  20. Draft Test Guideline: Penaeid Acute Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  1. Draft Test Guideline: Mysid Acute Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  2. Extrapolation of acute toxicity across bee species.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen

    2016-10-01

    In applying cross-species extrapolation safety factors from honeybees to other bee species, some basic principles of toxicity have not been included, for example, the importance of body mass in determining a toxic dose. The present study re-analyzed published toxicity data, taking into account the reported mass of the individuals in the identified species. The analysis demonstrated a shift to the left in the distribution of sensitivity of honeybees relative to 20 other bee species when body size is taken into account, with the 95(th) percentile for contact and oral toxicity reducing from 10.7 (based on μg/individual bee) to 5.0 (based on μg/g bodyweight). Such an approach results in the real drivers of species differences in sensitivity-such as variability in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in and target-receptor binding-being more realistically reflected in the revised safety factor. Body mass can also be used to underpin the other parameter of first-tier risk assessment, that is, exposure. However, the key exposure factors that cannot be predicted from bodyweight are the effects of ecology and behavior of the different species on exposure to a treated crop. Further data are required to understand the biology of species associated with agricultural crops and the potential consequences of effects on individuals at the levels of the colony or bee populations. This information will allow the development of appropriate higher-tier refinement of risk assessments and testing strategies rather than extensive additional toxicity testing at Tier 1. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:622-626. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Comparative study on toxicity evaluation of anaerobically treated parboiled rice manufacturing wastewater through fish bioassay.

    PubMed

    Giri, Dipti Ramesh; Singh, Ekta; Satyanarayan, Shanta

    2016-01-01

    Short term aquatic bioassay has been developed into a useful tool in water quality management. These tests give information on comparative toxicity of several compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of raw and anaerobically treated effluents of the parboiled rice manufacturing industry. The acute toxicity test was carried out by using the fish Lebistes reticulatus under laboratory conditions. LC50 values for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours ranged between 4.6 and 7.0% for the raw parboiled rice manufacturing wastewater. Two anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactors and two different media matrices, i.e. UV stabilized Biopac media and Fugino spirals, were used for the treatment of parboiled rice mill wastewater. Effluents from these two reactors depicted LC50 values in the range of 68-88% and 62-78% for Biopac and Fugino spiral packed reactors, respectively. From the results, it is evident that anaerobically treated effluents from Biopac packed reactor is marginally better than Fugino spiral packed reactor. Results subjected to statistical evaluation depicted regression coefficient of more than 0.9 indicating good correlation between the mortality and effluent concentration.

  4. Relative toxicities of similar formulations of pyrethrum and rotenone to fish and immature stoneflies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, W.R.; Cope, O.B.

    1965-01-01

    The insecticidal properties of rotenone and pyrethrum have been known for many years. Both toxicants have long histories of extensive use for control of a variety of insect pests. Rotenone has been also employed as a management tool by fishery biologists to rehabilitate fishing waters, and its toxicity to fish in a number of ecological situations is well established. Pyrethrum's toxicity to fish is less well known.

  5. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.

    PubMed

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 μg total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development.

  6. [Acute toxicity of bemithyl and bromithyl].

    PubMed

    Bugaeva, L I; Spasov, A A; Verovskiĭ, V E; Iezhitsa, I N

    2000-01-01

    The experiments on rats showed for bemithyl LD50 = 581.48 (350.17-965.57) mg/kg and for bromithyl LD50 = 1750.30 (1463.07-2093.92) mg/kg (males) and 1584.29 (1280.46-1960.22) mg/kg (females). The therapeutic ratios are 4-6 for both drugs, while the toxicity index is 10-15 for bemithyl and 20 <196> 22 for bromithyl. It was established that ergotropic effects prevail in the toxicity of bemithyl administered in the 20-80 mg/kg dose range, while trophotropic effects are dominating at doses above 100 mg/kg. Bromithyl exhibits a dose-dependent trophotropic effect in the entire dose range.

  7. Acute toxicity of pinnatoxins E, F and G to mice.

    PubMed

    Munday, Rex; Selwood, Andrew I; Rhodes, Lesley

    2012-11-01

    The acute toxicities to mice of pinnatoxins E, F and G, members of the cyclic imine group of phycotoxins, by intraperitoneal injection and/or oral administration, have been determined. These substances were all very toxic by intraperitoneal injection, with LD(50) values between 12.7 and 57 μg/kg. Pinnatoxin E was much less toxic by oral administration than by intraperitoneal injection, but this was not the case for pinnatoxin F. The median lethal doses of the latter substance by gavage and by voluntary intake were only 2 and 4 times higher than that by injection. The high oral toxicity of pinnatoxin F raises concerns as to the possibility of adverse effects of this substance in shellfish consumers, although it should be noted that no toxic effects in humans have been recorded with pinnatoxins or with any other compound of the cyclic imine group.

  8. Asparaginase-associated toxicity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hijiya, Nobuko; van der Sluis, Inge M

    2016-01-01

    Asparaginase is an integral component of multiagent chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Positive outcomes are seen in patients who are able to complete their entire prescribed course of asparaginase therapy. Toxicities associated with asparaginase use include hypersensitivity (clinical and subclinical), pancreatitis, thrombosis, encephalopathy, and liver dysfunction. Depending on the nature and severity of the toxicity, asparaginase therapy may be altered or discontinued in some patients. Clinical hypersensitivity is the most common asparaginase-associated toxicity requiring treatment discontinuation, occurring in up to 30% of patients receiving Escherichia coli-derived asparaginase. The ability to rapidly identify and manage asparaginase-associated toxicity will help ensure patients receive the maximal benefit from asparaginase therapy. This review will provide an overview of the common toxicities associated with asparaginase use and recommendations for treatment management.

  9. Comparison of Toxicities to Vibrio fischeri and Fish Based on Discrimination of Excess Toxicity from Baseline Level

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao H.; Yu, Yang; Huang, Tao; Qin, Wei C.; Su, Li M.; Zhao, Yuan H.

    2016-01-01

    Investigations on the relationship of toxicities between species play an important role in the understanding of toxic mechanisms to environmental organisms. In this paper, the toxicity data of 949 chemicals to fish and 1470 chemicals to V. fischeri were used to investigate the modes of action (MOAs) between species. The results show that although there is a positive interspecies correlation, the relationship is poor. Analysis on the excess toxicity calculated from toxic ratios (TR) shows that many chemicals have close toxicities and share the same MOAs between the two species. Linear relationships between the toxicities and octanol/water partition coefficient (log KOW) for baseline and less inert compounds indicate that the internal critical concentrations (CBRs) approach a constant both to fish and V. fischeri for neutral hydrophobic compounds. These compounds share the same toxic mechanisms and bio-uptake processes between species. On the other hand, some hydrophilic compounds exhibit different toxic effects with greatly different log TR values between V. fischeri and fish species. These hydrophilic compounds were identified as reactive MOAs to V. fischeri, but not to fish. The interspecies correlation is improved by adding a hydrophobic descriptor into the correlation equation. This indicates that the differences in the toxic ratios between fish and V. fischeri for these hydrophilic compounds can be partly attributed to the differences of bioconcentration between the two species, rather than the differences of reactivity with the target macromolecules. These hydrophilic compounds may more easily pass through the cell membrane of V. fischeri than the gill and skin of fish, react with the target macromolecules and exhibit excess toxicity. The compounds with log KOW > 7 exhibiting very low toxicity (log TR < –1) to both species indicate that the bioconcentration potential of a chemical plays a very important role in the identification of excess toxicity and MOAs

  10. Evaluation of acute bioassays for assessing toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hose, J.E.; Barlow, L.A.; Bent, S.; Elseewi, A.A.; Cliath, M.; Resketo, M.; Doyle, C.

    1986-03-01

    Proposed State of California regulations use fish toxicity information as one criterion in municipal or industrial waste hazard evaluation. Static 96-hr bioassays were performed using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), blacksmith (Chromis punctipinnis), and glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) exposed to soil experimentally contaminated with up to 500 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) capacitor fluid added at a concentration of 500 mg liter-1. Other bioassays were conducted with a 6-day mixing period prior to the bioassay or with acetone added to solubilize the PCBs. No mortality attributable to PCB toxicity was observed in definitive bioassays using the two fish and one invertebrate species. PCB levels leached from soil containing 500 ppm Aroclor 1242 ranged from less than 0.6 to 3.4 ppb in freshwater tests to 3.5 ppb in seawater bioassays. Using these data as the basis for waste classification, soils contaminated with up to 500 ppb PCBs during capacitor spills would be designated nonhazardous. PCBs are known to be environmentally persistent and to bioaccumulate. Acute toxicity tests, therefore, do not adequately evaluate the general toxicity of PCB-contaminated soils. Hazardous waste regulations for hydrophobic compounds such as PCBs should instead be based upon chronic toxicity data and should also consider bioaccumulation potential.

  11. Evaluation of acute bioassays for assessing toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Hose, J E; Barlow, L A; Bent, S; Elseewi, A A; Cliath, M; Resketo, M; Doyle, C

    1986-03-01

    Proposed State of California regulations use fish toxicity information as one criterion in municipal or industrial waste hazard evaluation. Static 96-hr bioassays were performed using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), blacksmith (Chromis punctipinnis), and glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) exposed to soil experimentally contaminated with up to 500 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) capacitor fluid added at a concentration of 500 mg liter-1. Other bioassays were conducted with a 6-day mixing period prior to the bioassay or with acetone added to solubilize the PCBs. No mortality attributable to PCB toxicity was observed in definitive bioassays using the two fish and one invertebrate species. PCB levels leached from soil containing 500 ppm Aroclor 1242 ranged from less than 0.6 to 3.4 ppb in freshwater tests to 3.5 ppb in seawater bioassays. Using these data as the basis for waste classification, soils contaminated with up to 500 ppb PCBs during capacitor spills would be designated nonhazardous. PCBs are known to be environmentally persistent and to bioaccumulate. Acute toxicity tests, therefore, do not adequately evaluate the general toxicity of PCB-contaminated soils. Hazardous waste regulations for hydrophobic compounds such as PCBs should instead be based upon chronic toxicity data and should also consider bioaccumulation potential.

  12. Bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne copper and zinc to fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clearwater, Susan J.; Farag, Aida M.; Meyer, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    To date, most researchers have used dietborne metal concentrations rather than daily doses to define metal exposure and this has resulted in contradictory data within and between fish species. It has also resulted in the impression that high concentrations of dietborne Cu and Zn (e.g.>900 mg kg−1 dry diet) are relatively non-toxic to fish. We re-analyzed existing data using rations and dietborne metal concentrations and used daily dose, species and life stage to define the toxicity of dietborne Cu and Zn to fish. Partly because of insufficient information we were unable to find consistent relationships between metal toxicity in laboratory-prepared diets and any other factor including, supplemented metal compound (e.g. CuSO4 or CuCl2), duration of metal exposure, diet type (i.e. practical, purified or live diets), or water quality (flow rates, temperature, hardness, pH, alkalinity). For laboratory-prepared diets, dietborne Cu toxicity occurred at daily doses of >1 mg kg−1 body weight d−1 for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), 1–15 mg kg−1 body weight d−1 (depending on life stage) for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and 35–45 mg kg−1 body weight d−1 for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We found that dietborne Zn toxicity has not yet been demonstrated in rainbow trout or turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) probably because these species have been exposed to relatively low doses of metal (<90 mg kg−1 body weight d−1) and effects on growth and reproduction have not been analyzed. However, daily doses of 9–12 mg Zn kg−1 body weight d−1 in laboratory-prepared diets were toxic to three other species, carp Cyprinus carpio, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, and guppy Poecilia reticulata. Limited research indicates that biological incorporation of Cu or Zn into a natural diet can either increase or decrease metal bioavailability, and the relationship between bioavailability and toxicity remains unclear. We have resolved the contradictory data

  13. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acute toxicity of chemical substances and mixtures (“chemicals”) subject to environmental effects test... per volume of nutrient medium or test solution in a specified period of time. (5) Static system means a test container in which the test solution is not renewed during the period of the test. (c)...

  14. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS... mixtures. In order to minimize the need for animal testing, the Agency encourages the review of existing acute toxicity information on mixtures that are substantially similar to the mixture under...

  15. Acute Toxicity of Thionyl Chloride Vapor for Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-19

    C. and H. V. Davis (1971), The Acute Toxicity of Brief Exposures to Hydrogen Fluoride, Hydrogen Chloride, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Hydrocyanic Acid ...ELECTRODE • • •WAITE ’SOLENOID VALVE P V|TOW ACID -FLEX - ELECTRICAL INTERCONNECTIONS CHART RECORDER Figure 2. Analysis system for total chloride

  16. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid (PAA) to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis theronts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an antimicrobial disinfectant used in agriculture, food processing and medical facilities. It has recently been suggested as a means to control infestations of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of two products contai...

  17. Acute toxicity of selected herbicides and surfactants to larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Faerber, Neil L.

    1989-01-01

    The acute toxicities of eight commercial herbicides and two surfactants to early fourth instar larvae of the midgeChironomus riparius were determined under static conditions. The formulated herbicides tested were Eradicane® (EPTC), Fargo® (triallate), Lasso® (alachlor), ME4 Brominal® (bromoxynil), Ramrod® (propachlor), Rodeo® (glyphosate), Sencor®(metribuzin), and Sutan (+)® (butylate); the two surfactants were Activator N.F.® and Ortho X-77®. In addition, technical grade alachlor, metribuzin, propachlor, and triallate were tested for comparison with the formulated herbicides. The relative toxicity of the commercial formulations, based on percent active ingredient, varied considerably. The EC50 values ranged from 1.23 mg/L for Fargo® to 5,600 mg/L for Rodeo®. Fargo®, ME4 Brominal®, and Ramrod®were moderately toxic to midge larvae; Lasso®, Sutan (+)®, and Eradicane® were slightly toxic; and Sencor® and Rodeo® were practically non-toxic. The 48-hr EC50 values of the two surfactants were nearly identical and were considered moderately toxic to midges. For two of the herbicides in which the technical grade material was tested, the inert ingredients in the formulations had a significant effect on the toxicity of the active ingredients. Fargo® was twice as toxic as technical grade triallate, whereas Sencor® was considerably less toxic than technical grade metribuzin. A comparison of the slope function values indicated that the toxic action of all the compounds occurred within a relatively narrow range. Published acute toxicity data on these compounds for other freshwater biota were tabulated and compared with our results. In general, the relative order of toxicity toC. riparius was similar to those for other freshwater invertebrates and fish. Maximum concentrations of each herbicide in bulk runoff during a projected “critical” runoff event were calculated as a percentage of the application rate lost in a given volume of runoff. A comparison

  18. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Korani, M; Rezayat, S M; Gilani, K; Arbabi Bidgoli, S; Adeli, S

    2011-01-01

    Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver) have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 μg/mL) in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 μg/mL) in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater tissue abnormalities than the subjects of acute tests. It seems that colloidal nanosilver has the potential to provide target organ toxicities in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  19. Effect of solcoseryl on antitumour action and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Danysz, A; Sołtysiak-Pawluczuk, D; Czyzewska-Szafran, H; Jedrych, A; Jastrzebski, Z

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo effect of Solcoseryl on the antitumour activity and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs was examined. It was found that Solcoseryl does not inhibit the antineoplastic effectiveness of the drugs against transplantable P 388 leukaemia in mice. Studies of the effect of Solcoseryl on acute toxicity of selected antineoplastic drugs in mice revealed that the biostimulator could exert a modifying influence. The prior administration of Solcoseryl significantly decreases the acute toxicity of methotrexate but has no effect on acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, increases the acute toxicity of bleomycin and vinblastine and has no effect on acute toxicity of methotrexate and mitoxantron. On the other hand, Solcoseryl administered simultaneously with the antineoplastic drugs increases acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and mitoxantron. The protective effect of the biostimulator noted exclusively against acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil was also observed after multiple administration of this anticancer drug.

  20. Toxicity, sublethal effects, and potential modes of action of select fungicides on freshwater fish and invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elskus, Adria A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of agricultural and urban use of fungicides and widespread detection of these pesticides in surface waters, relatively few data are available on the effects of fungicides on fish and invertebrates in the aquatic environment. Nine fungicides are reviewed in this report: azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, fludioxonil, myclobutanil, fenarimol, pyraclostrobin, pyrimethanil, and zoxamide. These fungicides were identified as emerging chemicals of concern because of their high or increasing global use rates, detection frequency in surface waters, or likely persistence in the environment. A review of the literature revealed significant sublethal effects of fungicides on fish, aquatic invertebrates, and ecosystems, including zooplankton and fish reproduction, fish immune function, zooplankton community composition, metabolic enzymes, and ecosystem processes, such as leaf decomposition in streams, among other biological effects. Some of these effects can occur at fungicide concentrations well below single-species acute lethality values (48- or 96-hour concentration that effects a response in 50 percent of the organisms, that is, effective concentration killing 50 percent of the organisms in 48 or 96 hours) and chronic sublethal values (for example, 21-day no observed adverse effects concentration), indicating that single-species toxicity values may dramatically underestimate the toxic potency of some fungicides. Fungicide modes of toxic action in fungi can sometimes reflect the biochemical and (or) physiological effects of fungicides observed in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, far more studies are needed to explore the potential to predict effects in nontarget organisms based on specific fungicide modes of toxic action. Fungicides can also have additive and (or) synergistic effects when used with other fungicides and insecticides, highlighting the need to study pesticide mixtures that occur in surface waters. For fungicides that partition to

  1. Sediment acute toxicity testing utilizing short-term bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of two new bioassays for acute toxicity assessments of sediments. A bacterial bioassay based on inhibition of alpha-glucosidase biosynthesis in Bacillus licheniformis and a 48-hour lethality bioassay employing the benthic cladoceran, Chydorus sphaericus. were evaluated by direct comparisons with standard bioassays, using sediment samples collected from various sites in Florida. This study showed that the bioassay based on inhibition of alpha-glucosidase biosynthesis in Bacillus licheniformis was useful in the acute toxicity screening of sediment elutriates. In regards to Escambia County, Florida samples, the assay was comparable with the Microtox assay and was especially sensitive for samples containing metals. To determine an appropriate procedure for assessing hydrophobic contaminants of sediments in the B. licheniformis bioassay, two extracting procedures were compared. Based on the responses in the Microtox bioassay, shaking sediment samples in methylene chloride produced extracts that were significantly higher in toxicity than extracts obtained by sonication for eight of the ten sediment samples tested. Comparisons of methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as exchange solvents revealed that there was generally no significant difference between these solvents in terms of toxicity in the Microtox assay. Solvent extracts prepared by shaking and exchanged into methanol showed lower toxicity in the B. licheniformis bioassay than in the Microtox assay. Observed sediment toxicity in both bioassays was expressed in terms of the equivalent dry weight concentration of sediment causing 50% inhibition of the assay organism.

  2. Efficacy and toxicity of formalin solutions containing paraformaldehyde for fish and egg treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, G.E.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.; Schreier, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Formalin used for fish and egg treatments at hatcheries often develops a white precipitate called paraformaldehyde when stored at low temperatures. This presents a problem for hatchery managers because most of the literature and treatment procedures claim that formalin containing paraformaldehyde is more toxic than pure formalin and is not safe for fish or egg treatments. Acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) showed that the toxicity of formalin solutions containing a moderate amount of fine paraformaldehyde was similar to that of pure formalin. In efficacy tests on fish eggs, the bottom fraction of a formalin solution containing paraformaldehyde and a sample from the clear top fraction were equally effective in controlling fungal infection on rainbow trout eggs and caused no treatment-related mortality. Chemical assays found on average a 3% difference in formaldehyde concentration between top and bottom fractions of a formalin solution containing paraformaldehyde. We recommend normal use of formalin solutions containing light to moderate amounts of fine paraformaldehyde. Allowing solutions to warm to room temperature may resolubilize moderate amounts of paraformaldehyde if the exposure to cold was not prolonged. If precipitation is heavier, clear top fractions can be decanted and used as normal because paraformaldehyde settles to the bottom of containers. Formalin solutions that have been exposed to freezing temperatures for long periods (more than 6 weeks) and have developed large amounts of paraformaldehyde solids should not be used and resolubilization by warming is not possible. Formation of paraformaldehyde in formalin solutions can be easily avoided by storing formalin at room temperature.

  3. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

    PubMed Central

    Bosco de Salles, João; Matos Lopes, Renato; de Salles, Cristiane M. C.; Cassano, Vicente P. F.; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Cunha Bastos, Vera L. F.; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  4. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide.

    PubMed

    de Salles, João Bosco; Lopes, Renato Matos; de Salles, Cristiane M C; Cassano, Vicente P F; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Bastos, Vera L F Cunha; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon.

  5. Toxicity of oil sands acid-extractable organic fractions to freshwater fish: Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) and Oryzias latipes (Japanese medaka).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Anthony E; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Farwell, Andrea J; Dixon, D George

    2017-03-01

    The Alberta oil sands are one of the largest global petroleum deposits and, due to non-release practices for oil sands process-affected waters, produced tailings are stored in large ponds. The acid extractable organic (AEO) compounds in oil sands process-affected water are of greatest concern due to their persistence and toxicity to a variety of aquatic biota. The present study evaluated the toxicity of the five AEO fractions to two fish species: Oryzias latipes (Japanese medaka) and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow). The fractions (F1-F5) were comprised of AEO with increasing mean molecular weight and subsequent increases in cyclicity, aromaticity, degree of oxygenation, and heteroatom content. The lowest molecular weight fraction, F1, displayed the lowest acute toxicity to both fish species. For fathead minnow, F5 displayed the greatest toxic potency, while F2 to F4 displayed intermediate toxicities. For Japanese medaka, F2 and F3 displayed the greatest acute toxicities and F1, F4 and F5 were significantly less potent. Overall, fathead minnow were more acutely sensitive to AEO than Japanese medaka. The present study indicates that AEO toxicity may not be solely driven by a narcotic mode of action, but chemical composition such as aromaticity and heteroatom content and their relation to toxicity suggest other drivers indicative of additional modes of toxic action.

  6. Automated Lab-on-a-Chip Technology for Fish Embryo Toxicity Tests Performed under Continuous Microperfusion (μFET).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Wigh, Adriana; Friedrich, Timo; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Kaslin, Jan; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-12-15

    The fish embryo toxicity (FET) biotest has gained popularity as one of the alternative approaches to acute fish toxicity tests in chemical hazard and risk assessment. Despite the importance and common acceptance of FET, it is still performed in multiwell plates and requires laborious and time-consuming manual manipulation of specimens and solutions. This work describes the design and validation of a microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip technology for automation of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test common in aquatic ecotoxicology. The innovative device supports rapid loading and immobilization of large numbers of zebrafish embryos suspended in a continuous microfluidic perfusion as a means of toxicant delivery. Furthermore, we also present development of a customized mechatronic automation interface that includes a high-resolution USB microscope, LED cold light illumination, and miniaturized 3D printed pumping manifolds that were integrated to enable time-resolved in situ analysis of developing fish embryos. To investigate the applicability of the microfluidic FET (μFET) in toxicity testing, copper sulfate, phenol, ethanol, caffeine, nicotine, and dimethyl sulfoxide were tested as model chemical stressors. Results obtained on a chip-based system were compared with static protocols performed in microtiter plates. This work provides evidence that FET analysis performed under microperfusion opens a brand new alternative for inexpensive automation in aquatic ecotoxicology.

  7. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  8. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, F J; Mayer, F L; Sappington, L C; Buckler, D R; Bridges, C M; Greer, I E; Hardesty, D K; Henke, C E; Ingersoll, C G; Kunz, J L; Whites, D W; Augspurger, T; Mount, D R; Hattala, K; Neuderfer, G N

    2005-02-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  9. Acute toxicity of cyanogen chloride to Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Kononen, D.W.

    1988-09-01

    The destruction of cyanide in waste waters by chlorination has been shown to result in the formation of the extremely toxic compound, cyanogen chloride. Industrial cyanide-containing waste waters may be treated by a batch chlorination process under highly alkaline conditions prior to being discharged into a receiving water systems. Alternatively, if the concentration of cyanide is relatively low, and such waste waters may be diverted to municipal waste treatment facilities where they may be subjected to a process of chlorination which may not be sufficient for the complete oxidative destruction of the available cyanide. Although a large body of literature exists concerning the toxicity of HCN and metallic cyanide compounds to aquatic organisms, there is a comparative scarcity of information concerning cyanogen chloride toxicity. This study was designed to determine the acute toxicity of CNCl to Daphnia magna neonates under static bioassay conditions.

  10. Acute toxicity of 50 metals to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Akira; Yamamuro, Masumi; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2015-07-01

    Metals are essential for human life and physiological functions but may sometimes cause disorders. Therefore, we conducted acute toxicity testing of 50 metals in Daphnia magna: EC50s of seven elements (Be, Cu, Ag, Cd, Os, Au and Hg) were < 100 µg l(-1) ; EC50s of 13 elements (Al, Sc, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Rb, Y, Rh, Pt, Tl and Pb) were between 100 and 1000 µg l(-1) ; EC50s of 14 elements (Li, V, Mn, Fe, Ge, As, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, W and Ir) were between 1,001 and 100,000 µg l(-1) ; EC50s of six elements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sr and Mo) were > 100,000 µg l(-1) ; and. 7 elements (Ti, Zr, Bi, Nb, Hf, Re and Ta) did not show EC50 at the upper limit of respective aqueous solubility, and EC50s were not obtained. Ga, Ru and Pd adhered to the body of D. magna and physically retarded the movement of D. magna. These metals formed hydroxides after adjusting the pH. Therefore, here, we distinguished this physical effect from the physiological toxic effect. The acute toxicity results of 40 elements obtained in this study were not correlated with electronegativity. Similarly, the acute toxicity results of metals including the rare metals were also not correlated with first ionization energy, atomic weight, atomic number, covalent radius, atomic radius or ionic radius.

  11. Changes in food (Chlorella) levels and the acute toxicity of cadmium to Daphnia carinata and Eschinisca triserialis

    SciTech Connect

    Chandini, T.

    1988-09-01

    Inasmuch as cadmium is known to be toxic to both fish and aquatic invertebrates due to bioaccumulation and biomagnification potential, the present study was initiated to determine the acute effects of cadmium on two cladoceran species - Daphnia carinata and Echinisca triserialis commonly found in fresh waters of Delhi. The two species in the extreme ends of the size continuum and were chosen to determine the magnitude of toxicity in relation to body size. As extraneous abiotic and biotic factors such as temperature, pH, food have been shown to greatly modify a pollutant stress, the present study was conducted with the objective of determining if differences in food levels could modify the acute toxicity effects of cadmium on these cladocerans. An attempt has also been made to compare these results with previous studies on cadmium toxicity.

  12. Effects of water chemistry on the toxicity of Cu to the fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis: Development of a BLM for therapeutic application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a common ectoparasite that invades the skin and gills of freshwater fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is often used to control infestations of Ich in pond aquaculture in the United States. In this study, we determined the acute toxicity of CuSO4 to the free-swimmin...

  13. Protection against oxaliplatin acute neurosensory toxicity by venlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Durand, Jean-Philippe; Brezault, Catherine; Goldwasser, François

    2003-07-01

    Venlafaxine (Effexor; Wyeth Lederlé) has previously shown therapeutic effects for the management of chronic and neuropathic pains. We report here the efficacy of venlafaxine upon acute neurosensory symptoms secondary to oxaliplatin toxicity. A dose of 50 mg of venlafaxine was given orally at the beginning of the oxaliplatin infusion. Patients did not experience any or very low paresthesias, even in the cold. As the results were very dramatic and reproducible, we propose that venlafaxine may be of use in the daily management of oxaliplatin-related neurosensory toxicity.

  14. Acute toxicity of nickel nanoparticles in rats after intravenous injection

    PubMed Central

    Magaye, Ruth R; Yue, Xia; Zou, Baobo; Shi, Hongbo; Yu, Hongsheng; Liu, Kui; Lin, Xialu; Xu, Jin; Yang, Cui; Wu, Aiguo; Zhao, Jinshun

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to add scientific data in regard to the use of metallic nanoparticles in nanomedicine. The acute toxicity of nickel (Ni) nanoparticles (50 nm), intravenously injected through the dorsal penile vein of Sprague Dawley rats was evaluated in this study. Fourteen days after injection, Ni nanoparticles induced liver and spleen injury, lung inflammation, and caused cardiac toxicity. These results indicate that precautionary measures should be taken with regard to the use of Ni nanoparticles or Ni compounds in nanomedicine. PMID:24648736

  15. Acute toxicity of some hydrazine compounds to salamander larvae, Ambystoma spp

    SciTech Connect

    Slonim, A.R.

    1986-11-01

    Although hydrazine compounds have been used extensively by industry for a very long time, they have become important in recent years as propellants for aerospace operations. The study of hydrazine compounds in this laboratory began about two decades ago and developed into a large pharmacological and toxicological research program that included also environmental considerations. Subsequently, acute toxicity studies were conducted on the common guppy (Lebistes reticulatus Peters) using four hydrazine compounds of interest. The toxicity of these propellants were evaluated next on other species of aquatic organisms such as mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) and amphibians. Two different studies were conducted on amphibians: One utilized amphibian eggs and the other amphibian larvae. The larvae of spotted and marbled salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum and A. opacum, respectively) were used primarily in numerous static bioassays to determine the acute toxicity of hydrazine, UDMH and Aerozine-50 on these organisms. The remaining larvae were used in other tests mainly to corroborate previous experimental results (e.g., to see whether toxicity is affected by organism size, aeration of test solutions, and water hardness). The results on the larvae are presented in this paper.

  16. Toxic substances: Effects on fish. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biochemical and physiological effects of toxic substances on fish populations. Particular emphasis is placed upon using fish as an indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Toxicity effects of mercury, zinc, calcium chloride, sodium chloride, lead, cadmium, copper, and aluminum in freshwater and seawater fish are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Comparison of toxicity of class-based organic chemicals to algae and fish based on discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline level.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin J; Tai, Hong W; Yu, Yang; Wen, Yang; Wang, Xiao H; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-07-01

    Toxicity data to fish and algae were used to investigate excess toxicity between species. Results show that chemicals exhibiting excess toxicity to fish also show excess toxicity to algae for most of the compounds. This indicates that they share the same mode of action between species. Similar relationships between logKOW and toxicities to fish and algae for baseline and less inert compounds suggest that they have similar critical body residues in the two species. Differences in excess toxicity for some compounds suggest that there is a difference of physiological structure and metabolism between fish and algae. Some reactive compounds (e.g. polyamines) exhibit greater toxic effects for algae than those for fish because of relatively low bio-uptake potential of these hydrophilic compounds in fish as compared with that in algae. Esters exhibiting greater toxicity in fish than that in algae indicate that metabolism can affect the discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline level. Algae growth inhibition is a very good surrogate for fish lethality. This is not only because overall toxicity sensitivity to algae is greater than that to fish, but also the excess toxicity calculated from algal toxicity can better reflect reactivity of compounds with target molecules than fish toxicity.

  18. The submitochondrial particle assay as a screening test for acute aquatic toxicity of surfactant molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bookland, E.A.; Bettermann, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    Two complementary protocols of the submitochondrial particle assay (SMP) were evaluated as screening tools for predicting the acute aquatic toxicity of various classes and chain lengths of surfactant molecules. SMP contain the functionally intact mitochondrial enzyme systems responsible for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Both the Electron Transfer Assay (ETR) and the Reverse Electron Transfer Assay (RET) have been shown in prior work to generally be sensitive to agents capable of membrane and protein interactions, both suspected mechanisms of action for surfactants. The toxicity of ten compounds; four anionic surfactants, C{sub 12} alkyl sulfate (C{sub 12}AS), C{sub 12} and C{sub 15} alkyl ethoxy sulfate (C{sub 12}E{sub 4}S, C{sub 15}E{sub 4}S), linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C{sub 12.3}LAS); one nonionic surfactant, alkyl ethoxylate (C{sub 12}E{sub 3}); three cationic surfactants, C{sub 8}, C{sub 12}, and C{sub 16} alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (C{sub 8}TMAC, C{sub 12}TMAC, C{sub 16}TMAC); an alcohol (C{sub 12}OH); and an amine, alkyl dimethylamine (C{sub 12}DMA); was determined. In all cases, both the ETR and the RET gave results showing equal or greater sensitivity than previously reported acute fish and invertebrate LC{sub 50}`s. In addition, increasing toxicity with increasing alkyl chain length was observed. As a rapid screening tool, the SMP bioassay avoids exposure concerns such as degradation of test material, a common concern for acute in vivo toxicity testing with rapidly degradable materials. Results indicate that the SMP bioassay can be useful as a predictive screening tool for the aquatic toxicity of surfactants.

  19. An evaluation of acute toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Banlunara, Wijit; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong; Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth

    2011-11-01

    Tests for acute oral toxicity, eye irritation, corrosion and dermal toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were conducted in laboratory animals following OECD guidelines. Oral administration of AgNPs at a limited dose of 5,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout the observation period. Percentage of body weight gain of the mice showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. In the hematological analysis, there was no significant difference between mice treated with AgNPs and controls. Blood chemistry analysis also showed no differences in any of the parameter examined. There was neither any gross lesion nor histopathological change observed in various organs. The results indicated that the LD(50) of colloidal AgNPs is greater than 5,000 mg/kg body weight. In acute eye irritation and corrosion study, no mortality and toxic signs were observed when various doses of colloidal AgNPs were instilled in guinea pig eyes during 72 hr observation period. However, the instillation of AgNPs at 5,000 ppm produced transient eye irritation during early 24 hr observation time. No any gross abnormality was noted in the skins of the guinea pigs exposed to various doses of colloidal AgNPs. In addition, no significant AgNPs exposure relating to dermal tissue changes was observed microscopically. In summary, these findings of all toxicity tests in this study suggest that colloidal AgNPs could be relatively safe when administered to oral, eye and skin of the animal models for short periods of time.

  20. Acute toxicity of chlorine and bromine to fathead minnows and bluegills

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.; Soracco, R.J.; Mayack, L.A.; Shealy, R.L.; Broadwell, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the relative toxicity of chlorine and BCDMH to three types of fish in a freshwater system used for cooling a nuclear reactor. There are no previous studies comparing BCDMH toxicity with chlorine toxicity. Bromine chloride has been shown to be similar or slightly less toxic than chlorine. The results of this study indicate that chlorine and bromine produce similar residual halogen toxicity to fish. 19 references, 2 tables.

  1. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Adalto; Grosell, Martin; Gregory, Sean M; Wood, Chris M

    2002-04-15

    On the basis of these facts about freshwater fish and invertebrates: (i) the Na+ turnover is a physiological process associated with the gill membranes; (ii) the key mechanism of acute silver toxicity consists of reduction in Na+ uptake by blockade of gill Na+,K+-ATPase; (iii) the mass-specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarusdiogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above hypothesis. Therefore, sensitivity to AgNO3, in terms of either total measured silver or free Ag+, was reliably predicted from the whole body Na+ uptake rate in animals with body mass ranging over 6 orders of magnitude (from micrograms to grams). A positive log-log correlation between acute AgNO3 toxicity and body mass of the same species was also observed. Furthermore, the whole body Na+ uptake rate was inversely related to body mass in unexposed animals. The combination of these last two results explains why the small animals in this study were more sensitive to Ag+ than the larger ones. Taken together, these results clearly point out the possibility of incorporating the Na+ uptake rate into the current version of the Biotic Ligand Model to improve the predictive capacity of this model. In the absence of information on Na+ uptake rate, then body mass may serve as a surrogate.

  2. Evaluation of acute toxicity potential of water hyacinth leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenbiao; Guo, Xiaoguang; Huang, Mingliang

    2014-06-01

    Although higher protein yield per hectare of water hyacinth than that of soy, high protein content of its leaves and good essential amino acid pattern have been proven, its dietary toxicity for human or animal consumption has not yet been evaluated. Therefore, the acute toxicity of water hyacinth leaves has been evaluated by an animal feeding test. The concentrations of common toxic metals including cadmium, lead, platinum, palladium, tin, mercury, barium, silver, stibium and aluminum in the water hyacinth leaf powder (WHLP) used for the animal feeding test were within their maximum limits in food additives as reported by the World Health Organization. The median lethal dose (LD50) of WHLP was more than 16 g kg(-1) body weight. In the study, after feeding for 7 and 28 days, the body weight of all the mice increased. The results of hematological analysis, clinical biochemical analysis, histopathological evaluation, general dissection or investigations of internal organs, appearance and behavior observations did not indicate any adverse effects from the diet containing WHLP. It is therefore concluded that water hyacinth leaves are not acutely toxic.

  3. Aquatic acute toxicity assessments of molybdenum (+VI) to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Wei; Liang, Chenju; Yeh, Hui-Ju

    2016-03-01

    Generally, molybdenum (Mo) metals in the environment are very rare, but wastewater discharges from industrial processes may contain high concentrations of Mo, which has the potential to contaminate water or soil if not handled properly. In this study, the impact of three common compounds of hexavalent Mo (sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4‧2H2O), ammonium molybdate ((NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)) in an aquatic system were assessed based on 48-h exposure acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (D. magna). The LC50 toxicities for associated conjugate ions including Na(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NH4(+) were determined. Furthermore, the LC50 values for the three forms of hexavalent Mo were determined, and the acute toxicities of the Mo forms were found to follow the order: (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O > MoO3 > Na2MoO4‧2H2O in solution. (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O exhibited the lowest LC50 of 43.3 mg L(-1) (corresponding to 23.5 mg Mo L(-1)) among the three molybdenum salts. The research confirmed that the toxicity of molybdenum in the aquatic system is highly dependent on the form of molybdenum salts used, and is also associated with the influence of the background water quality.

  4. Acute toxicity testing in cultures of mouse neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Walum, E; Peterson, A

    1983-01-01

    Cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells (C1300) may be used as models for nerve cells since they have a number of properties in common with their normal counterparts in vivo. In order to test the possibility of using C1300 cells as alternative to experimental animals when testing for acute toxicity, cells (clone 41A3) were exposed to a number of common chemicals (CH3HgCl, CdCl2,HgCl2 ppDDT, n-butanol, benzene, dioxan, n-propanol, aceton and t-butanol). The toxic effect was quantified by measuring the degree of cell detachment in the cultures. The concentrations of chemicals that caused 25% of the total cell number to detach (TD25) were used for comparison with LD50 values. In spite of the very simplified situation in culture, where the toxicity of a substance is little or not at all influenced by factors like penetration, storage, metabolism and excretion a good correlation (corr. coeff. 0,98) was obtained between TD25 values and LD50 values. Good correlations between in vitro and in vivo tests have also been reported by others. One possible explanation to these findings could be simplified in vivo toxicokinetics of these substances when tested in high doses for general effects like animal death. If so, simple in vitro tests may be used for predicting acute toxicity of certain groups of substances.

  5. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  6. Rapid assessment of the toxicity of oil sands process-affected waters using fish cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sansom, Bryan; Vo, Nguyen T K; Kavanagh, Richard; Hanner, Robert; Mackinnon, Michael; Dixon, D George; Lee, Lucy E J

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and reliable toxicity assessment of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) is needed to support oil sands reclamation projects. Conventional toxicity tests using whole animals are relatively slow, costly, and often subjective, while at the same time requiring the sacrifice of test organisms as is the case with lethal dosage/concentration assays. A nonlethal alternative, using fish cell lines, has been developed for its potential use in supporting oil sands reclamation planning and to help predict the viability of aquatic reclamation models such as end-pit lakes. This study employed six fish cell lines (WF-2, GFSk-S1, RTL-W1, RTgill-W1, FHML, FHMT) in 24 h viability assays for rapid fluorometric assessment of cellular integrity and functionality. Forty-nine test water samples collected from the surface of oil sands developments in the Athabasca Oil Sands deposit, north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, were evaluated in blind. Small subsample volumes (8 ml) were mixed with 2 ml of 5× concentrated exposure media and used for direct cell exposures. All cell line responses in terms of viability as measured by Alamar blue assay, correlated well with the naphthenic acids (NA) content in the samples (R (2) between 0.4519 and 0.6171; p<0.0001) when data comparisons were performed after the bioassays. NA or total acid-extractable organics group has been shown to be responsible for most of the acute toxicity of OSPW and our results further corroborate this. The multifish cell line bioassay provides a strong degree of reproducibility among tested cell lines and good relative sensitivity of the cell line bioassay as compared to available in vivo data that could lead to cost effective, high-throughput screening assays.

  7. Acute and subchronic toxic effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Immunotoxicity assessments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ziwei; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-08-01

    Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are widely used pesticides in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. The spleen and head kidney in the bony fish are the major hematopoietic organs, and play a crucial part in immune responses. This study evaluated the subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 in the immune organs of common carp and compared the acute and subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the swimming speed (SS) of common carp. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h-LC50 of ATR and CPF for common carp was determined to be 2.142 and 0.582 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, acute and subacute toxicity of ATR and CPF in common carp resulted in hypoactivity. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 genes were induced in the spleen and head kidney of common carp exposed to ATR and CPF in the subchronic toxicity test. Our results indicate that ATR and CPF are highly toxic to common carp, and hypoactivity in common carp by acute and subchronic toxicity of ATR and CPF may provide a useful tool for assessing the toxicity of triazine herbicide and organophosphorous pesticides to aquatic organisms. In addition, the results from the subchronic toxicity test exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that ATR and CPF exposure cause immunotoxicity to common carp.

  8. Acute bioassays and hazard evaluation of representative contaminants detected in Great Lakes fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino, Dora R. May; Smith, Stephen B.

    1987-01-01

    We have provided a hazard ranking for 19 classes of compounds representing many of the nearly 500 organic compounds identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) from the Great Lakes and Lake St. Clair. We initially made a provisional hazard ranking based on available published and unpublished information on aquatic toxicity, bioaccumulation, occurrence and sources. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia pulex at 17A°C in reconstituted hard water were performed with 30 compounds representative of the 19 classes that were highest in the provisional ranking. The resulting toxicity data, along with information on the compounds' occurrence in Great Lakes fish and their sources, were ranked and weighted and then used in calculating the revised hazard ranking. The 10 most hazardous classes, in descending order, are as follows (values shown are mean 48-h EC50s, in μ/ml): arene halides (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT), 0.0011; phthalate esters, 0.133; chlorinated camphenes (toxaphene), 0.0082; polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; e.g., dimethylnaphthalene) and reduced derivatives, 1.01; chlorinated fused polycyclics (e.g., trans-nonachlor), 0.022; nitrogen-containing compounds (e.g., O-methylhydroxyl-amine), 1.35; alkyl halides (e.g., (bromomethyl)cyclohexene), 10.1; cyclic alkanes (e.g., cyclododecane), 20.9; silicon-containing compounds (e.g., dimethyldiethoxy silane), 1.25; and heterocyclic nitrogen compounds (e.g., nicotine), 2.48. We recommend that chronic bioassays be conducted with fish and invertebrates to determine the sublethal effects of the following classes of compounds, for which few toxicity data are available: PAHs, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, other nitrogen-containing compounds, alkyl halides, cyclic alkanes and silicon-containing compounds. Information from these types of studies will aid researchers in determining the possible causal role these contaminants play in

  9. Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

    2012-02-01

    National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 μg/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 μg/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant.

  10. Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.

    PubMed

    Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

    2013-11-01

    Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute

  11. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24 h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R?) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex? and Phos-Chek WD881?) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881? and Silv-Ex? were above the predetermined 2000 mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R? because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  12. Determination of acute oral toxicity of flumethrin in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Oruc, H H; Hranitz, J M; Sorucu, A; Duell, M; Cakmak, I; Aydin, L; Orman, A

    2012-12-01

    Flumethrin is one of many pesticides used for the control and treatment of varroatosis in honey bees and for the control of mosquitoes and ticks in the environment. For the control of varroatosis, flumethrin is applied to hives formulated as a plastic strip for several weeks. During this time, honey bees are treated topically with flumethrin, and hive products may accumulate the pesticide. Honey bees may indirectly ingest flumethrin through hygienic behaviors during the application period and receive low doses of flumethrin through comb wax remodeling after the application period. The goal of our study was to determine the acute oral toxicity of flumethrin and observe the acute effects on motor coordination in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca). Six doses (between 0.125 and 4.000 microg per bee) in a geometric series were studied. The acute oral LD50 of flumethrin was determined to be 0.527 and 0.178 microg per bee (n = 210, 95% CI) for 24 and 48 h, respectively. Orally administered flumethrin is highly toxic to honey bees. Oral flumethrin disrupted the motor coordination of honey bees. Honey bees that ingested flumethrin exhibited convulsions in the antennae, legs, and wings at low doses. At higher doses, partial and total paralysis in the antennae, legs, wings, proboscises, bodies, and twitches in the antennae and legs were observed.

  13. The pattern of acute toxic nephropathy in Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adelekun, T A; Ekwere, T R; Akinsola, A

    1999-01-01

    All cases of acute renal failure (ARF) seen over a two year (1993-94) period were evaluated. Those that had acute toxic nephropathy were further studied to determine the aetiologic agents involved, the clinical features and the effect of available treatment on its prognosis. Ten cases (33.3%) out of 30 ARF had toxins responsible for their renal failure. They were 8 males and 2 females. Agents responsible were green water in 2, naphthalene containing remedies in 2 and analgesic combination in 1 while herbal remedies were implicated in 5 cases. Anuria was a prominent feature occurring in 9 (90%) of the patients. The patients were uraemic with a mean serum creatinine of 1460 +/- 485.0 umol/1 and urea of 33.1 +/- 5.3 mmol/1 on admission. They were all anaemic with packed cell volume less than 18% in eight of the patients. Six (60%) of the patients required haemodialysis while 4 were managed conservatively. Prognosis was good as 8 (80%) of the patients survived and were followed up in the clinic for periods anging 6 to 18 months and their serum creatinine and urea levels normalised. It is concluded that acute toxic nephropathy is common in our practice, and it is eminently preventable. The prognosis is good if dialytic therapy is available.

  14. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nimish B; Spann, James W; Hill, Elwood F

    2009-03-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Phos-Chek D-75F, and Fire-Trol LCG-R) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex and Phos-Chek WD881) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881 and Silv-Ex were above the predetermined 2000mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R, Phos-Chek D-75F, and Fire-Trol LCG-R because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  15. Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Dutka, B.

    1997-11-01

    The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents.

  16. Data on acute toxicity of the progestin STS 557.

    PubMed

    Hillesheim, H G; Hoffmann, H

    1983-02-01

    In mice and rabbits of both sexes the acute toxicity of STS 557 (17 alpha-cyanomethyl-17 beta-hydroxy-estra-4, 9-dien-3-one) was determined after its oral or parenteral (i.p., s.c.) administration. In rabbits increasing lethality was observed following STS 557 suspended in tylose solution at the dose range of 1.0 to 3.0 g/kg p.o. or i.p. The approximate LD50-values were 1.0 to 1.5 g/kg for the i.p. route and 1.0 to 2.0 g/kg for the oral route. Levonorgestrel injected i.p. did not cause any lethality up to the dose of 3.0 g/kg. After oral or s.c. administration to mice, doses of 4.0 g/kg STS 557 were well tolerated. A dose-related toxicity occurred only after i.p. doses between 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg (STS 557), and between 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg (levonorgestrel), respectively. Using an oily vehicle for the oral route in mice, the lethal threshold dose for STS 557 was lowered to about 2.0 g/kg. In conclusion, a low oral acute toxicity was determined for STS 557 corresponding to that of other progestagens like levonorgestrel or norethisterone.

  17. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-05-19

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure-activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical-chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard.

  18. Acute toxicities of six manufactured nanomaterial suspensions to Daphnia magna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoshan; Zhu, Lin; Chen, Yongsheng; Tian, Shengyan

    2009-01-01

    The rapid growth of nanotechnology is stimulating research on the potential environmental impacts of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). This paper summarizes a comprehensive study on the 48-h acute toxicity of water suspensions of six MNMs (i.e., ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3, C60, SWCNTs, and MWCNTs) to Daphnia magna, using immobilization and mortality as toxicological endpoints. The results show that the acute toxicities of all MNMs tested are dose dependent. The EC50 values for immobilization ranged from 0.622 mg/L (ZnO NPs) to 114.357 mg/L (Al2O3 NPs), while the LC50 values for mortality ranged from 1.511 mg/L (ZnO NPs) to 162.392 mg/L (Al2O3 NPs). In these tests, TiO2, Al2O3, and carbon-based nanomaterials were more toxic than their bulk counterparts. Moreover, D. magna were found to ingest nanomaterials from the test solutions through feeding behaviors, which indicates that the potential ecotoxicities and environmental health effects of these MNMs cannot be neglected.

  19. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Sim, Kae Shin; Moses Richardson, Jaime Stella; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Hoe, See Ziau

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  20. Acute Toxicity Estimation and Operational Risk Management of Chemical Warfare Agent Exposures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    December 2001 Deputy Assistant to The Secretary of Defense Chemical and Biological (Warfare Agent) Defense ((DATSD- CBD ) interim-certified acute...avoidance (detection), protection, decontamination, and medical intervention. d. Compares the DATSD- CBD interim-certified acute toxicity values...defense. 2. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. a. Translating Toxicity Information into ORM Terminology. The 2001 DATSD- CBD toxicity

  1. Acute oral and percutaneous toxicity of pesticides to mallards: Correlations with mammalian toxicity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, R.H.; Haegele, M.A.; Tucker, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Acute oral (po) and 24-hr percutaneous (perc) LD50 values for 21 common pesticides (19 anticholinesterases, of which 18 were organophosphates, and one was a carbamate; one was an organochlorine central nervous system stimulant; and one was an organonitrogen pneumotoxicant) were determined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Three of the pesticides tested were more toxic percutaneously than orally. An index to the percutaneous hazard of a pesticide, the dermal toxicity index (DTI = po LD50/perc LD50 ? 100), was also calculated for each pesticide. These toxicity values in mallards were compared with toxicity data for rats from the literature. Significant positive correlations were found between log po and log percutaneous LD50 values in mallards (r = 0.65, p 0.10). Variations in percutaneous methodologies are discussed with reference to interspecies variation in toxicity values. It is recommended that a mammalian DTI value approaching 30 be used as a guideline for the initiation of percutaneous toxicity studies in birds, when the po LD50 and/or projected percutaneous LD50 are less than expected field exposure levels.

  2. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Anders, Nico; Klankermayer, Jürgen; Schaeffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC50: 83mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC50: 2980mg/L), 2-MF (LC50: 405mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC50: 244mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels.

  3. Assessing acute toxicities of pre- and post-treatment industrial wastewaters with Hydra attenuata: A comparative study of acute toxicity with the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Staples, R.E.; Stahl, R.G. Jr. . Haskell Lab. for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (a) determine wastewater treatment effectiveness using two freshwater organisms, (b) compare acute toxicity results from the two species exposed to the wastewaters, and (c) link acute and potential developmental toxicity of wastewaters in one organism. The acute toxicities of several pretreatment and post-treatment industrial waste-water samples wee evaluated with adult Hydra attenuata and fathead minnows. The acute LC50s agreed closely when results in Hydra attenuata were compared with those from fathead minnow tests. Acute LC50s ranged from 3 to >100% of samples with hydra, and from 1.0 to >100% of sample with fathead minnows. The results provided strong evidence of treatment effectiveness because toxicity decreased with progressive stages of treatment. Previously the Hydra Developmental Toxicity Assay was used as a prescreen mainly for in vitro assessment of developmental toxicity with pure compounds and to prioritized toxicants according to selective toxicity to the developing embryo. Recently the authors modified the assay for testing natural waters and wastewaters; hence, some of the wastewater samples also were tested for their developmental toxicity. In this case, the relative selective toxicity of these wastewater samples ranged from 0.7 to 2.1, indicating that no sample was uniquely toxic to the developing embryo, although acute toxicity was manifested. Overall, their results indicate the Hydra Assay functions appropriately in assessments of acute and developmental toxicity of industrial wastewaters and may be a simple and useful tool in a battery of tests for broader scale detection of environmental hazards.

  4. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients.

  5. Acute renal toxicity after ingestion of Lava light liquid.

    PubMed

    Erickson, T B; Aks, S E; Zabaneh, R; Reid, R

    1996-06-01

    A 65-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse and seizure disorder presented to the emergency department with altered mental status, increased anion gap acidosis, phenytoin toxicity, and acute kidney failure. The patient had ingested the liquid contents of a Lava light, which contained chlorinated paraffin, polyethylene glycol (molecular weight 200), kerosene, and micro-crystalline wax. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry of the patient's blood produced results consistent with the same analysis of the Lava light contents. After 3 days of declining mental status and worsening kidney function, the patient required hemodialysis. After a prolonged hospitalization, the patient was discharged home with residual renal insufficiency. Although multifactorial, the associated renal toxicity was most probably related to the low molecular weight polyethylene glycol content of the lamp's liquid contents.

  6. Acute renal insufficiency and toxic hepatitis following scorpions sting.

    PubMed

    Krkic-Dautovic, Sajma; Begovic, Begler

    2007-01-01

    Scorpion sting is a huge medical problem in countries of South America, Arabian Peninsula and Africa. In countries of Mediterranean region, where Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs, this problem is sporadic. Following the sting of very poisonous red scorpions, death may occur inside of 48 hours by reason of cardiac arrest and acute renal insufficiency (ARI). In our work we represent a case of 54-years old man. In his case, ARI and toxic hepatitis developed inside of 24 hours after the scorpion sting. Applied conservative therapy was not sufficient enough to solve ARI, so patient needed haemodialysis. With intensive conservative therapy and haemodialysis applied every other day, ARI and toxic hepatitis were solved within 25 days. After that, patient was released from hospital for ambulant treatment.

  7. Quinolone arthropathy--acute toxicity to immature articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Gough, A W; Kasali, O B; Sigler, R E; Baragi, V

    1992-01-01

    A class effect of quinolone antibacterial agents observed during animal toxicity testing is a specific arthropathy (QAP). Despite the growing list of laboratory animals susceptible to QAP and reports of arthralgia in patients treated with quinolones, the potential for QAP development in humans remains unknown. This review discusses current concepts in the biology of articular cartilage and how these concepts elucidate QAP pathogenesis. Biomechanical forces within synovial joints and toxicokinetic properties of quinolones contribute to QAP induction. Since a limited number of mechanistic pathways exist for acute articular damage, QAP may serve as a research tool to probe the pathobiology of injury to articular cartilage.

  8. Biological responses to phenylurea herbicides in fish and amphibians: New directions for characterizing mechanisms of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, Vicki L; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Urea-based herbicides are applied in agriculture to control broadleaf and grassy weeds, acting to either inhibit photosynthesis at photosystem II (phenylureas) or to inhibit acetolactate synthase acetohydroxyacid synthase (sulfonylureas). While there are different chemical formulas for urea-based herbicides, the phenylureas are a widely used class in North America and have been detected in aquatic environments due to agricultural run-off. Here, we summarize the current state of the literature, synthesizing data on phenylureas and their biological effects in two non-target animals, fish and amphibians, with a primary focus on diuron and linuron. In fish, although the acutely lethal effects of diuron in early life stages appear to be >1mg/L, recent studies measuring sub-lethal behavioural and developmental endpoints suggest that diuron causes adverse effects at lower concentrations (i.e. <0.1mg/L). Considerably less toxicity data exist for amphibians, and this is a knowledge gap in the literature. In terms of sub-lethal effects and mode of action (MOA), linuron is well documented to have anti-androgenic effects in vertebrates, including fish. However, there are other MOAs that are not adequately assessed in toxicology studies. In order to identify additional potential MOAs, we conducted in silico analyses for linuron and diuron that were based upon transcriptome studies and chemical structure-function relationships (i.e. ToxCast™, Prediction of Activity Spectra of Substances). Based upon these analyses, we suggest that steroid biosynthesis, cholesterol metabolism and pregnane X receptor activation are common targets, and offer some new endpoints for future investigations of phenylurea herbicides in non-target animals.

  9. Photoenhanced toxicity of oil to larval fish - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photoenhanced toxicity is the increase in the toxicity of a chemical in the presence of ultraviolet light (UV), compared to toxicity elicited under conditions of minimal UV. A variety of oil products, weathered and chemically dispersed oils, and specific polycyclic aromatic compo...

  10. Assessment of the freshwater annual fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia as a toxicity test organism using three reference substances.

    PubMed

    Arenzon, Alexandre; Pinto, Régis Fontana; Colombo, Patrick; Raya-Rodriguez, Maria Teresa

    2003-09-01

    This study presents a preliminary evaluation of the use of the Brazilian fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia as a test organism in toxicity tests. The cryptobiotic stage presented by the eggs of fish C. melanotaenia can overcome the difficulty of continuously keeping cultures and recruiting healthy animals in sufficient numbers to be used in toxicity tests. In order to determine the applicability of this species as a test organism, three different reference substances were evaluated in 96-h acute toxicity tests: Copper sulfate (CuSO4 x 5H2O), sodium dodecil sulfate (C12H25NaO4S), and sodium chloride (NaCl). Sensitivity ranged as follows: copper sulfate (0.05-0.13 mg/L), sodium dodecil sulfate (10.7-19.0 mg/L), and sodium chloride (1.44-1.96 g/L). We conclude that C. melanotaenia shows potential as a test organism in toxicity tests; however, further research should be conducted with other substances and should be compared with the research on other species before we can reach more conclusive results.

  11. Photo-induced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to fish (Lepomis spp. , Lepomis macrochirus, and Pimephales promelas)

    SciTech Connect

    Oris, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    The acute toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to fish in the presence of solar radiation has been assessed. These studies were conducted in a laboratory system under simulated sunlight. Anthracene, a linear 3-ring PAH was used as a model compound in the examination of light intensity and photoperiod effects, the elucidation of possible sites and modes of toxic action, and the development of an environmental hazard assessment. The primary test species in these studies was juvenile sunfish (Lepomis spp., and Lepomis macrochirus). Eleven other PAH were examined for potential photo-activity with larvae of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). A structure-activity relationship has been developed based on molecular structure and photochemical properties which can predictively classify a compound as being phototoxic or non-phototoxic. The results of these experiments are environmentally significant since when compared to current natural PAH concentrations in water and in fish tissue, there are waters in which photo-induced PAH toxicity may presently occur. It is concluded that solar radiation is an important accessory parameter that deserves consideration in the toxicity assessment of PAH in the aquatic environment.

  12. Characterization of the dinophysistoxin-2 acute oral toxicity in mice to define the Toxicity Equivalency Factor.

    PubMed

    Abal, Paula; Louzao, M Carmen; Cifuentes, José Manuel; Vilariño, Natalia; Rodriguez, Ines; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2017-04-01

    Ingestion of shellfish with dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) can lead to diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). The official control method of DSP toxins in seafood is the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS). However in order to calculate the total toxicity of shellfish, the concentration of each compound must be multiplied by individual Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF). Considering that TEFs caused some controversy and the scarce information about DTX2 toxicity, the aim of this study was to characterize the oral toxicity of DTX2 in mice. A 4-Level Up and Down Procedure allowed the characterization of DTX2 effects and the estimation of DTX2 oral TEF based on determination of the lethal dose 50 (LD50). DTX2 passed the gastrointestinal barrier and was detected in urine and feces. Acute toxicity symptoms include diarrhea and motionless, however anatomopathology study and ultrastructural images restricted the toxin effects to the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless enterocytes microvilli and tight junctions were not altered, disconnecting DTX2 diarrheic effects from paracellular epithelial permeability. This is the first report of DTX2 oral LD50 (2262 μg/kg BW) indicating that its TEF is about 0.4. This result suggests reevaluation of the present TEFs for the DSP toxins to better determine the actual risk to seafood consumers.

  13. Concentration-dependent toxicity effect of SDBS on swimming behavior of freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ma, Jing; Zhou, Siyun; Ma, Fang

    2015-07-01

    Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) is a kind of widely used anionic surfactant and its discharge may pose potential risk to the receiving aquatic ecosystem. The aim of our study is to investigate the toxic effect of SDBS on fish swimming behavior quantitatively, followed by examination whether there are significant differences of swimming behavior among applied fish species (i.e. zebra fish (Danio rerio), Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and red carp (Cyprinus carpio)). The swimming speed and vertical position were analyzed after the fish exposed to SDBS aiming to reflect the toxicity of SDBS on fish. Our results showed that the swimming behavior of three fishes was significantly affected by SDBS, although there were slight differences of swimming pattern changes among three fish species when they exposed to the same concentration of SDBS. It could be seen that red carp, one of the native fish species in China, can be used as a model fish to reflect the water quality changes as well as zebra fish and Japanese medaka which are commonly used as model fishes. Our study also illustrated that the swimming behavior monitoring may have a good application prospect in pre-warning of water quality.

  14. Temperature-dependent toxicities of four common chemical pollutants to the marine medaka fish, copepod and rotifer.

    PubMed

    Li, Adela J; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Bao, Vivien W W; Yi, Andy X L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemical toxicity to marine ectotherms is the lowest at an optimum temperature (OT) and it exacerbates with increasing or decreasing temperature from the OT. This study aimed to verify this hypothetical temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) model through laboratory experiments. Acute toxicity over a range of temperatures was tested on four commonly used chemicals to three marine ectotherms. Our results confirmed that toxicities, in terms of 96-h LC50 (median lethal concentration; for the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma and the copepod Tigriopus japonicus) and 24-h LC50 (for the rotifer Brachionus koreanus), were highly temperature-dependent, and varied between test species and between study chemicals. The LC50 value of the fish peaked at 20 °C for copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate and triphenyltin chloride, and at 25 °C for dichlorophenyltrichloroethane and copper pyrithione, and decreased with temperature increase or decrease from the peak (i.e., OT). However, LC50 values of the copepod and the rotifer generally showed a negative relationship with temperature across all test chemicals. Both copepod and rotifer entered dormancy at the lowest temperature of 4 °C. Such metabolic depression responses in these zooplanktons could reduce their uptake of the chemical and hence minimize the chemical toxicity at low temperatures. Our TDCT model is supported by the fish data only, whereas a simple linear model fits better to the zooplankton data. Such species-specific TDCT patterns may be jointly ascribed to temperature-mediated changes in (1) the physiological response and susceptibility of the marine ectotherms to the chemical, (2) speciation and bioavailability of the chemical, and (3) toxicokinetics of the chemical in the organisms.

  15. Acute toxicity bioassay of dimethoate on freshwater airbreathing catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Rakesh K; Singh, Ram N; Singh, Sarika; Singh, Narendra N; Das, Vijai K

    2009-05-01

    Pesticides are chemicals used for pest control in the agricultural fields. They finally reach the surrounding water bodies through surface runoff affecting the aquatic fauna. Dimethoate is frequently used organophosphate pesticide due to its high effectiveness and rapid breakdown into environmentally safe products. A 96 hr static acute toxicity test was carried out to determine the LC50 value of dimethoate, on the freshwater airbreathing catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). The fish were exposed to 7 different concentrations of dimethoate (2.50, 2.75, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, 3.75 and 4.00 mg l(-1)) for toxicity bioassay. Control (0.00 mg l(-1)) was also carried out. The data were subjected to Finney's Probit analysis and processed with Trimmed Spearman-Karber statistical software. The LC50 values for dimethoate for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr were 3.38, 3.23, 3.08 and 2.98 mg l(-1), respectively. At higher concentration of dimethoate (3.25 mg l(-1) and above) the fish showed uncoordinated behaviour such as erratic and jerky swimming, attempt to jump out of water, frequent surfacing and gulping of air, decrease in opercular movement and copious secretion of mucus all over the body.

  16. Acute oral toxicity of the herbicide BUREX EKO in pheasants.

    PubMed

    Legáth, J; Mlynarcíková, H; Svický, E; Lenhardt, L; Kacmár, P; Benová, K; Kovác, G

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute LD50, clinical symptoms and pathological changes of acute BUREX EKO intoxication in pheasants according to OECD No 205. Medium lethal dose (LD50) of BUREX EKO in pheasant is 3.84 ml/kg body weight with the upper level of reliability 4.50 ml and lower level of reliability 3.27 ml/kg body weight. As far as the calculation to the effective substance is concerned it is 1077 mg of chloridazone per kg body weight with the interval of reliability from 919 to 1263 mg/kg body weight. Calculated the effective substance of chloridazone (3.84 ml is LD50 of BUREX EKO which contains 1077 mg of chloridazone) BUREX EKO can be classified as the moderately toxic substance to pheasants. There were following clinical symptoms of the BUREX EKO intoxication in pheasants: apathy, drowsiness, incapability to move, ruffled feathers, slight diarrhoea, strenuous respiration, tonico-clonical cramps before death, decease with the head expressively bent rearwards. There was a relatively fast beginning of rigor mortis in dead pheasants. Pathologico-anatomical dissection of the pheasants obtained under conditions of acute intoxication did not reveal any changes on the organs of both experimental and control pheasants which would be immediately connected with the effect of the administered substance. Hyperaemia was recorded by histologico-pathological investigation of the liver and kidneys. No changes on the brain and intestine wall were recorded.

  17. Toxicity of 33NCS (3'-chloro-3-nitrosalicylanilide) to freshwater fish and sea lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marking, Leif L.; King, Everett L.; Walker, Charles R.; Howell, John H.

    1970-01-01

    The chemical 33NCS (3'-chloro-3-nitrosalicylanilide) was evaluated as a fish control agent and as a larvicide for sea lampreys at the Fish Control Laboratories of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and the Hammond Bay Biological Station of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. The chemical is rapidly toxic to many species. Sea lampreys, bowfin, and channel catfish are the most sensitive species. Carp are more sensitive than trouts or sunfishes. Use of 33NCS in selective control of freshwater fishes or sea lampreys requires precise control because its toxicity is strongly influenced by variations in water quality.

  18. Acetone potentiation of acute acetonitrile toxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.J.; Hayes, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to investigate the nature and mechanism of a toxicologic interaction between acetonitrile and acetone. Results of oral doe-response studies utilizing 1:1 (w/w) mixture of acetonitrile and acetone, or varying doses of acetonitrile administered together with a constant dose of acetone, indicated that acetone potentiated acute acetonitrile toxicity three- to fourfold in rats. The onset of severe toxicity (manifested by tremors and convulsions) was delayed in the groups dosed with both solvents compared to the groups that received acetonitrile or acetone alone. Blood cyanide (a metabolite of acetonitrile) and serum acetonitrile and acetone concentrations were measured after oral administration of 25% aqueous solutions of acetonitrile, acetone, or acetonitrile plus acetone. Concentrations of cyanide in the blood of rats given acetonitrile plus acetone remained near baseline, in contrast to the high concentrations found in rats dosed with acetonitrile alone. At 34-36 h, high blood cyanide concentrations were found in rats dosed with both of the solvents. This delayed onset of elevation of blood cyanide coincided with the occurrence of clinical signs and with the disappearance of serum acetone. In further pharmacokinetic studies, blood cyanide concentrations were measured after similar dosage regimens of acetone and acetonitrile. Peak cyanide concentrations were found to be significantly greater in rats dosed with both solvents than in rats given only acetonitrile. Administration of either sodium thiosulfate or a second dose of acetone prevented the toxicity associated with exposure to both solvents.

  19. Demonstration of toxicity to fish and to mammalian cells by Pfiesteria species: comparison of assay methods and strains.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, Joann M; Gordon, Andrew S; Moeller, Peter D; Law, J Mac; Coyne, Kathryn J; Lewitus, Alan J; Ramsdell, John S; Marshall, Harold G; Deamer, Nora J; Cary, S Craig; Kempton, Jason W; Morton, Steven L; Rublee, Parke A

    2005-03-01

    Toxicity and its detection in the dinoflagellate fish predators Pfiesteria piscicida and Pfiesteria shumwayae depend on the strain and the use of reliable assays. Two assays, standardized fish bioassays (SFBs) with juvenile fish and fish microassays (FMAs) with larval fish, were compared for their utility to detect toxic Pfiesteria. The comparison included strains with confirmed toxicity, negative controls (noninducible Pfiesteria strains and a related nontoxic cryptoperidiniopsoid dinoflagellate), and P. shumwayae strain CCMP2089, which previously had been reported as nontoxic. SFBs, standardized by using toxic Pfiesteria (coupled with tests confirming Pfiesteria toxin) and conditions conducive to toxicity expression, reliably detected actively toxic Pfiesteria, but FMAs did not. Pfiesteria toxin was found in fish- and algae-fed clonal Pfiesteria cultures, including CCMP2089, but not in controls. In contrast, noninducible Pfiesteria and cryptoperidiniopsoids caused no juvenile fish mortality in SFBs even at high densities, and low larval fish mortality by physical attack in FMAs. Filtrate from toxic strains of Pfiesteria spp. in bacteria-free media was cytotoxic. Toxicity was enhanced by bacteria and other prey, especially live fish. Purified Pfiesteria toxin extract adversely affected mammalian cells as well as fish, and it caused fish death at environmentally relevant cell densities. These data show the importance of testing multiple strains when assessing the potential for toxicity at the genus or species level, using appropriate culturing techniques and assays.

  20. Demonstration of toxicity to fish and to mammalian cells by Pfiesteria species: Comparison of assay methods and strains

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, JoAnn M.; Gordon, Andrew S.; Moeller, Peter D.; Law, J. Mac; Coyne, Kathryn J.; Lewitus, Alan J.; Ramsdell, John S.; Marshall, Harold G.; Deamer, Nora J.; Cary, S. Craig; Kempton, Jason W.; Morton, Steven L.; Rublee, Parke A.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity and its detection in the dinoflagellate fish predators Pfiesteria piscicida and Pfiesteria shumwayae depend on the strain and the use of reliable assays. Two assays, standardized fish bioassays (SFBs) with juvenile fish and fish microassays (FMAs) with larval fish, were compared for their utility to detect toxic Pfiesteria. The comparison included strains with confirmed toxicity, negative controls (noninducible Pfiesteria strains and a related nontoxic cryptoperidiniopsoid dinoflagellate), and P. shumwayae strain CCMP2089, which previously had been reported as nontoxic. SFBs, standardized by using toxic Pfiesteria (coupled with tests confirming Pfiesteria toxin) and conditions conducive to toxicity expression, reliably detected actively toxic Pfiesteria, but FMAs did not. Pfiesteria toxin was found in fish- and algae-fed clonal Pfiesteria cultures, including CCMP2089, but not in controls. In contrast, noninducible Pfiesteria and cryptoperidiniopsoids caused no juvenile fish mortality in SFBs even at high densities, and low larval fish mortality by physical attack in FMAs. Filtrate from toxic strains of Pfiesteria spp. in bacteria-free media was cytotoxic. Toxicity was enhanced by bacteria and other prey, especially live fish. Purified Pfiesteria toxin extract adversely affected mammalian cells as well as fish, and it caused fish death at environmentally relevant cell densities. These data show the importance of testing multiple strains when assessing the potential for toxicity at the genus or species level, using appropriate culturing techniques and assays. PMID:15728353

  1. The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.

    PubMed

    Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 μg dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 μg dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were <1.0 when using acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments.

  2. Assessing the toxic threat of selenium to fish and aquatic birds

    SciTech Connect

    Lemly, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    A procedure is given for evaluating the toxic threat of selenium to fish and wildlife. Toxic threat is expressed as hazard, and is based on the potential for food-chain bioaccumulation and reproductive impairment in fish and aquatic birds, which are the most sensitive biological responses for estimating ecosystem-level impacts of selenium contamination. Five degress of hazard are possible depending on the expected environmental concentrations of selenium, exposure of fish and aquatic birds to toxic concentrations, and resultant potential for reproductive impairment. A separate hazard score is given to each of five ecosystem components; water, sediments, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish eggs, and aquatic bird eggs. An example is given to illustrate how the procedure is applied to selenium data from a typical contaminant monitoring program.

  3. Acute toxicity of a No. 6 fuel oil to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, T.A.; Ward, G.S.; Parrish, P.R.

    1980-05-01

    The oil tanker Argo Merchant broke up in shoal waters off Nantucket, Massachusetts, in December 1976 and spilled a No. 6 fuel oil containing a No. 2 cutter stock. The US Coast Guard attempted to burn the oil slick at sea, but heavy seas contributed to an unsuccessful operation. Shortly after the spill, acute toxicity tests were performed with five test materials and three saltwater organisms - an alga, a copepod, and a fish. The test materials included a No. 6 fuel oil, a wicking agent, and lighter fluid. The materials were tested singularly and in combination. The three materials were also combined according to instructions from the US Coast Guard, ignited, and the resulting residue tested.

  4. Purification, characterization and toxic profile of two toxins isolated from puffer fish Tetraodon patoca, available in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Sohel; Rahman, M M; Hossain, T; Mosaddik, A; Khatun, S; Absar, N

    2007-03-01

    Among the marine toxins related to human intoxication, tetrodotoxin has been known as one of the most prejudicial. Two tetrodotoxins, namely PFT-1 and PFT-2 were isolated and purified from liver of puffer fish by thin layer chromatography. The structure of both the toxins was elucidated by means of IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. Sub acute toxicity study showed that both the toxins had pronounced effects on total RBC, WBC, platelet and ESR. Further serum levels of SGPT, SGOT, SALP, bilirubin, creatinine and urea are also affected by the toxins. The histopathological examinations showed that all the tissues such as liver, lung, heart and kidney of rat were severely changed after treatment with the toxins. The toxicity of the purified compounds, PFT-1 and PFT-2 were also performed by brine shrimp lethality bioassay.

  5. Neutral red uptake cytotoxicity tests for estimating starting doses for acute oral toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Stokes, William S; Casati, Silvia; Strickland, Judy; Paris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity assays can be used as alternative toxicity tests to reduce the total number of animals needed for acute oral toxicity tests. This unit describes two methods for determining the in vitro cytotoxicity of test substances using neutral red uptake (NRU) and using the in vitro data to determine starting doses for in vivo acute oral systemic toxicity tests, e.g., the up-and-down procedure or the acute toxic class method. The use of the NRU methods to determine starting doses for acute oral toxicity tests may reduce the number of animals required, and for relatively toxic substances, this approach may also reduce the number of animals that die or require humane euthanasia due to severe toxicity. An interlaboratory validation study has demonstrated that the methods are useful and reproducible for these purposes. Two standardized protocols provide details for performing NRU tests with rodent and human cells.

  6. Acute toxicity of Daphnia pulex to six classes of chemical compounds potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stephen B.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Blouin, Marc A.

    1988-01-01

    Of the six classes of chemicals potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota, derivatives of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most acutely toxic (48-h EC 50) to Daphnia pulex. The other classes, listed in order of decreasing toxicity were alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, silicon-containing compounds. O f the 41 compounds representing the six chemical classes, 6 were extremely toxic (> 0.01 - 0.1 mg/L), 11 highly toxic (> 01. - 1.0 mg/L), 20 moderately toxic (> 1.0 - 10.0 mg/L), and 4 slightly toxic (>10 - 100 mg/L). The reference compound, p, p'DDT, was super toxic (< 0.01 mg/L). Based on toxicity and relative abundance (hazard ranking) of the 21 compounds that were detected in tissue of Great Lakes fishes, the classes of compounds that present the greatest threat to Great Lakes aquatic biota are PAH derivatives, alkyl halides, and cyclic aklanes.

  7. Oil and oil dispersant do not cause synergistic toxicity to fish embryos.

    PubMed

    Adams, Julie; Sweezey, Michael; Hodson, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) embryos were exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAFs; oil dissolved in water) and chemically enhanced water accommodated fractions (CEWAFs; oil dispersed in water with Corexit 9500A) of Medium South American (MESA) crude oil. The CEWAF was approximately 100-fold more toxic than WAF based on nominal loadings of test solutions (% v/v). In contrast, the ratio of WAF and CEWAF toxicity expressed as measured oil concentrations approximated 1.0, indicating that the higher toxicity of CEWAFs was caused by an increase in exposure to hydrocarbons with chemical dispersion. In a second experiment, the chronic toxicity of Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed heavy fuel oil 7102 (HFO 7102) to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos was compared to chemically dispersed Nujol, a nontoxic mineral oil. Dispersant alone was toxic, but caused different signs of toxicity than HFO 7102. Nujol at a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:20 was nontoxic, suggesting that dispersant was sequestered by oil and not present at toxic concentrations. In contrast, the same nominal loadings of dispersed HFO 7102 caused concentration-dependent increases in toxicity. Both experiments suggest that chemically dispersed oil was more toxic to fish embryos than solutions created by mechanical mixing due to the increased exposure of fish to petroleum hydrocarbons and not to changes in hydrocarbon toxicity. The Nujol control discriminated between the toxicity of oil and chemical dispersant and would be a practical addition to programs of dispersant testing.

  8. A newly emerging toxic dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida: natural ecology and toxicosis to fish and other species.

    PubMed

    Faith, S A; Miller, C A

    2000-02-01

    Pfiesteria, a toxic dinoflagellate, recently has emerged as a cause of fish kills near the East Coast. Recent research into one species. Pfiesteria piscicida, has revealed a complex life cycle of at least 24 stages. Metamorphosis of one stage to another often depends on presence or absence of fish. Growth of P piscicida is promoted both directly and indirectly by nutrients such as inorganic phosphate and nitrate, as well as organic phosphate, and may be related to effluent-induced blooms. Sewage and agricultural runoff flowing into estuaries often provide these nutrients and may be correlated with the majority of fish kills in the Atlantic coastal region of the US (5). P piscicida is extremely toxic, with a low density capable of killing fish within 3 minutes (1,3,12). Fish exposed to sublethal doses of the toxin have prominent lesions. The syndrome leads to population level death losses and associated economic losses in local fisheries.

  9. Acute toxicity and histopathology of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis, mitchill) exposed to aluminum in acid water

    SciTech Connect

    Tandjung, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    Fingerling brook trout were exposed to different concentrations of Al at pH 5.6. The Basic Static Acute Toxicity Test was used to determine the 96-hr LC50. The toxicity of Al varied inversely with water hardness. The 96-hr LC/sub 50/ at a hardness of 2, 18, and 40 mg/l (CaCO/sub 3/) was 0.37, 3.4, and 6.53 mg/l Al respectively. Darkening of skin color was possible due to an increase in Na ions in the water as a result of body ion loss, activating the hormone MSH which causes melanin granules to spread within the melanocytes. Histology of all tissues of surviving fish appeared normal 3 months after transfer to uncontaminated water. The lateral line canal was regenerated by the end of the second month of the recovery period. In conclusion, we found that histology was essential to the interpretation of the toxicological effects of Al. The mortality of brook trout was attributed to Al toxicity that increased cell membrane permeability and mucification. Increased permeability resulted in the loss of body salt and an influx of Al and H ions. Mucus on gill surfaces caused anoxia leading to cell degeneration. Death was due to disturbances in osmoregulation, breakdown in enzyme activity, and disruption of O/sub 2/ transport.

  10. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  11. Combinatorial QSAR Modeling of Rat Acute Toxicity by Oral Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) toxicity models have become popular tools for identifying potential toxic compounds and prioritizing candidates for animal toxicity tests. However, few QSAR studies have successfully modeled large, diverse mammalian toxicity end...

  12. Development of biotic ligand models for chronic manganese toxicity to fish, invertebrates, and algae.

    PubMed

    Peters, Adam; Lofts, Stephen; Merrington, Graham; Brown, Bruce; Stubblefield, William; Harlow, Keven

    2011-11-01

    Ecotoxicity tests were performed with fish, invertebrates, and algae to investigate the effect of water quality parameters on Mn toxicity. Models were developed to describe the effects of Mn as a function of water quality. Calcium (Ca) has a protective effect on Mn toxicity for both fish and invertebrates, and magnesium (Mg) also provides a protective effect for invertebrates. Protons have a protective effect on Mn toxicity to algae. The models derived are consistent with models of the toxicity of other metals to aquatic organisms in that divalent cations can act as competitors to Mn toxicity in fish and invertebrates, and protons act as competitors to Mn toxicity in algae. The selected models are able to predict Mn toxicity to the test organisms to within a factor of 2 in most cases. Under low-pH conditions invertebrates are the most sensitive taxa, and under high-pH conditions algae are most sensitive. The point at which algae become more sensitive than invertebrates depends on the Ca concentration and occurs at higher pH when Ca concentrations are low, because of the sensitivity of invertebrates under these conditions. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations have very little effect on the toxicity of Mn to aquatic organisms.

  13. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... particulate matter of the dilution water should be measured at the beginning of each static test and at the..., acclimation and test periods. (C) Apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or insufficient dissolved oxygen, respectively. (D) Apparatus for providing a 16-hour light and 8-hour...

  14. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... particulate matter of the dilution water should be measured at the beginning of each static test and at the..., acclimation and test periods. (C) Apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or insufficient dissolved oxygen, respectively. (D) Apparatus for providing a 16-hour light and 8-hour...

  15. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... particulate matter of the dilution water should be measured at the beginning of each static test and at the..., acclimation and test periods. (C) Apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or insufficient dissolved oxygen, respectively. (D) Apparatus for providing a 16-hour light and 8-hour...

  16. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... particulate matter of the dilution water should be measured at the beginning of each static test and at the..., acclimation and test periods. (C) Apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or insufficient dissolved oxygen, respectively. (D) Apparatus for providing a 16-hour light and 8-hour...

  17. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... particulate matter of the dilution water should be measured at the beginning of each static test and at the..., acclimation and test periods. (C) Apparatus for straining particulate matter, removing gas bubbles, or insufficient dissolved oxygen, respectively. (D) Apparatus for providing a 16-hour light and 8-hour...

  18. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid (PAA) to fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA; also called peroxyacetic acid) is a promising new aquatic disinfectant that has also been used to treat parasites and fungus. It is registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an antimicrobial compound approved for indoor use on hard, non-porous surfaces. T...

  19. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid to various fish species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA; also called peroxyacetic acid) is a promising disinfectant in the US aquaculture industry to control parasites and fungus. It is a stabilized mixture of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide that does not leave dangerous residues in the environment when it breaks down as most compo...

  20. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity to fish and invertebrates in marine and estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Leonard, Erin M

    2017-04-01

    In freshwater settings the toxicity of the trace metal nickel (Ni) is relatively well understood. However, until recently, there was little knowledge regarding Ni toxicity in waters of higher salinity, where factors such as water chemistry and the physiology of estuarine and marine biota would be expected to alter toxicological impact. This review summarizes recent literature investigating Ni toxicity in marine and estuarine invertebrates and fish. As in freshwater, three main mechanisms of Ni toxicity exist: ionoregulatory impairment, inhibition of respiration, and promotion of oxidative stress. However, unlike in freshwater biota, where mechanisms of toxicity are largely Class-specific, the delineation of toxic mechanisms between different species is less defined. In general, despite changes in Ni speciation in marine waters, organism physiology appears to be the main driver of toxic impact, a fact that will need to be accounted for when adapting regulatory tools (such as bioavailability normalization) from freshwater to estuarine and marine environments.

  1. Toxicity of white phosphorus to waterfowl: acute exposure in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Gustafson, M.; Klein, P.; Karouna-Renier, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of an effort to understand extensive, white phosphorus (P4)-induced waterfowl mortality at Eagle River Flats, Fort Richardson, Alaska, we conducted a number of acute toxicity tests using penned mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in 1993 and 1994. The 24-hr median lethal dose (LD50) for P4 dissolved in oil was 6.46 mg/kg in adult males and 6.96 mg/kg in adult females. Although the median lethal doses were not statistically different, the female dose-response curve had a statistically shallower slope than that of males. The LD50 for the ecologically more relevant pelletized form of P4 in adult males was 4.05 mg/kg. In mallards, one mechanism of P4 toxicity caused rapid (3 to 10 hr) mortality and had signs consistent with anoxia. A second, slower acting mechanism resulted in hepatic and renal pathology including extensive fat deposition in the liver and cellular necrosis. White phosphorus accumulated in adipose tissues, but only for a few days.

  2. Influence of chemical and environmental stressors on acute cadmium toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, K.N.; Benson, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that the cytosolic protein metallothionein (MT) is induced not only by exposure to certain heavy metals but also by a variety of other factors, including environmental stress. While MT synthesis has been observed with exposure to cold temperatures, there is a paucity of data concerning the influence of cold on heavy-metal toxicity. The present investigation focused on the influence of metal and cold pretreatments on the acute toxicity of cadmium. Mortalities of 80% and 100% were observed for mice orally administered challenge doses of 100 mg Cd/kg and 150 mg Cd/kg, respectively. To determine a protective cadmium pretreatment dose, animals were administered 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 25, and 50 mg Cd/kg 24 h prior to cadmium challenge. In animals pretreated with 10 mg Cd/kg, mortalities of 20% and 70% were observed with the respective challenge doses. Immediately following cold stress (4/sup 0/C, 12 h), mortalities of 30% and 90% were observed with cadmium challenge doses of 100 and 150 mg Cd/kg, respectively. Significant correlations were demonstrated between induced hepatic MT concentrations and cadmium pretreatment, as well as cold pretreatment. The induced tolerance to cadmium was attributed, in part, to the induction of MT synthesis. Furthermore, the induced levels of MT resulting from cold stress may confound the simplistic approach of using MT as a biological monitor of occupational exposure to cadmium.

  3. Severe Coal Tar Sealcoat Runoff Toxicity to Fish Is Prevented by Bioretention Filtration.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Jenifer K; Edmunds, Richard C; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Davis, Jay W; Incardona, John P; Stark, John D; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2016-02-02

    Coal tar sealcoats applied to asphalt surfaces in North America, east of the Continental Divide, are enriched in petroleum-derived compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The release of PAHs and other chemicals from sealcoat has the potential to contaminate nearby water bodies, reducing the resiliency of aquatic communities. Despite this, relatively little is known about the aquatic toxicology of sealcoat-derived contaminants. We assessed the impacts of stormwater runoff from sealcoated asphalt on juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and embryo-larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). We furthermore evaluated the effectiveness of bioretention as a green stormwater method to remove PAHs and reduce lethal and sublethal toxicity in both species. We applied a coal tar sealcoat to conventional asphalt and collected runoff from simulated rainfall events up to 7 months postapplication. Whereas sealcoat runoff was more acutely lethal to salmon, a spectrum of cardiovascular abnormalities was consistently evident in early life stage zebrafish. Soil bioretention effectively reduced PAH concentrations by an order of magnitude, prevented mortality in juvenile salmon, and significantly reduced cardiotoxicity in zebrafish. Our findings show that inexpensive bioretention methods can markedly improve stormwater quality and protect fish health.

  4. Acute toxicity evaluation for quinolone antibiotics and their chlorination disinfection processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Wei, Dongbin; Du, Yuguo

    2014-09-01

    Acute toxicity of 21 quinolone antibiotics was monitored using photobacterium Vibrio fischeri assay. The minimum IC20 (inhibitory concentration for 20% luminescence elimination) was obtained at the least 18.86μmol/L for the tested quinolones. A quantitative structure-activity relationship model was established to investigate the possible mechanism for the acute toxicity. The critical physicochemical descriptors, describing σ and π atom electronegativity, implied that the electron transfer might occur between the quinolones and photobacterium V. fischeri. Although the quinolones exhibited limited acute toxicity to photobacterium, toxicity elevation was detected after their chlorination. Hence, chlorination disinfection treatment of quinolone-containing water should be of concerns.

  5. Molecular connectivity of phenols and their toxicity to fish

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.H.; Kier, L.B.

    1984-03-01

    Reliable studies on the toxicity of a large number of compounds have recently become available to the scientific community from the Environmental Research Laboratory at Duluth, Minnesota, The Stanford Research Institute and the University of Wisconsin at Superior. This extensive database makes it possible to contact QSAR studies for the purpose of establishing structural relationships with toxicity in order to make predictions and possibly shed light on the mechanisms involved. One group of compounds, the phenols, are of particular interest due to their wide use and potential for environmental contamination. The purpose of this study is to relate the relative toxicity to the structure in an effort to make predictions about the toxic potentiality of other phenols.

  6. Reduction of acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent using Fenton-coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Yaobin

    2014-06-15

    Dye wastewater exhibits significant ecotoxicity even though its physico-chemical parameters meet the discharge standards. In this work, the acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent were tested, and the Fenton-coagulation process was carried out to detoxify this dye effluent. The acute toxicity was evaluated according to the mortality rate of zebrafish, and genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. Removal of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was also investigated. The results indicated that the dye effluent showed strong acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. After 4h of treatment by Fenton-coagulation process, the dye effluent exhibited no significant acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. In addition, its COD was less than 50mg/L, which met the discharge standard. It demonstrates that Fenton-coagulation process can comprehensively reduce the acute toxicity and genotoxicity as well as the COD of the dye effluent.

  7. Acute Selenium Toxicity Associated With a Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    MacFarquhar, Jennifer K.; Broussard, Danielle L.; Melstrom, Paul; Hutchinson, Richard; Wolkin, Amy; Martin, Colleen; Burk, Raymond F.; Dunn, John R.; Green, Alice L.; Hammond, Roberta; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Selenium is an element necessary for normal cellular function, but it can have toxic effects at high doses. We investigated an outbreak of acute selenium poisoning. Methods A case was defined as the onset of symptoms of selenium toxicity in a person within 2 weeks after ingesting a dietary supplement manufactured by “Company A,” purchased after January 1, 2008. We conducted case finding, administered initial and 90-day follow-up questionnaires to affected persons, and obtained laboratory data where available. Results The source of the outbreak was identified as a liquid dietary supplement that contained 200 times the labeled concentration of selenium. Of 201 cases identified in 10 states, 1 person was hospitalized. The median estimated dose of selenium consumed was 41 749 μg/d (recommended dietary allowance is 55 μg/d). Frequently reported symptoms included diarrhea (78%), fatigue (75%), hair loss (72%), joint pain (70%), nail discoloration or brittleness (61%), and nausea (58%). Symptoms persisting 90 days or longer included fingernail discoloration and loss (52%), fatigue (35%), and hair loss (29%). The mean initial serum selenium concentration of 8 patients was 751 μg/L (reference range, ≤125 μg/L). The mean initial urine selenium concentration of 7 patients was 166 μg/24 h (reference range, ≤55 μg/24 h). Conclusions Toxic concentrations of selenium in a liquid dietary supplement resulted in a widespread outbreak. Had the manufacturers been held to standards used in the pharmaceutical industry, it may have been prevented. PMID:20142570

  8. Ciguatera fish toxicity in French Polynesia: size does not always matter.

    PubMed

    Gaboriau, Matthias; Ponton, Dominique; Darius, H Taiana; Chinain, Mireille

    2014-06-01

    Accumulation of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in tropical reef fish tissues during their life is responsible of the most prevalent human seafood intoxication in the South Pacific called Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP). It has been assumed for a long time that CTXs are transferred and accumulated along the trophic food chain, and consequently that smaller individuals within a given fish species are safer to eat than larger ones. However, the relationship between toxicity and fish size has been studied for a limited number of species only and the conclusions are often contradictory. The toxicity of 856 fishes from 59 different species sampled in six islands in French Polynesia between 2003 and 2011 was assessed by Receptor Binding Assay. Among them, 45 species × island and 32 families × island for which the number of individuals was ≥6 allowed testing the relationship between toxicity and size. Except for six specimens of Lutjanus bohar caught in Fakarava (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.854), the 44 remaining species × island showed no significant increase of CTXs concentration with fish total length (TL). Moreover, the proportion of toxic individuals decreased significantly for Epinephelus polyphekadion from Fakarava (n = 24; P < 0.05) and Kyphosus cinerascens from Raivavae (n = 29; P < 0.05), while no significant variation was detected for the other 43 species × island. At the family level, only three positive and three negative relationships between size and CTXs concentration were observed among the 32 family × island analyzed. No relationship between the proportion of toxic fish within a family and the relative total length of individuals were observed. The lack of relationship between toxicity and size observed for most of the species and families from the six islands suggests that fish size cannot be used as an efficient predictor of fish toxicity in French Polynesia. These results highlight the need for improving our knowledge about metabolic processes

  9. Isolation and characterization of acutely toxic fractions in oil sands wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeek, A.; Mackay, W.; MacKinnon, M.

    1995-12-31

    Extraction of oil from oil sand using the hot water flotation method results in the production of large volumes of wastewater that are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. At Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Oil Sands Group Inc., this wastewater is stored in large tailings ponds that must eventually be reclaimed. The acute toxicity of these wastewaters was assessed and the acutely toxic fractions were identified. Samples were collected from the surface and fine tails zones of the Syncrude and Suncor tailings ponds during the summers of 1991 and 1992. The Microtox bioassay was used to assess the acute toxicity before and after various treatments. Where significant reductions in acute toxicity were found, further acute toxicity tests were carried out using Daphnia magna and rainbow trout. The Microtox IC{sub 50} of all centrifuged tailings pond water samples varied between 26.5 and 46%. Daphnia LC{sub 50}s varied between 76 and 98% and a rainbow trout LC{sub 50} was 12.5 %. Organic compounds that have a non-polar component, as removed by solid phase extraction with C{sub 18} sorbent, accounted for all the acute toxicity (100%) of all samples. Organic ``acids``, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5, also accounted for all the acute toxicity (100%) of all samples except those from pond 1A of Suncor. In pond 1A, organic ``acids`` accounted for approximately 55--60% of the acute toxicity, nonpolar organic volatile compounds accounted for approximately 20--35% and the balance of the acute toxicity was due to non-polar organic compounds that were neither volatile nor organic ``acids``, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5.

  10. Acute toxicity of methyl mercury to the larval lamprey, Petromyzon marinus

    SciTech Connect

    Mallatt, J.; Barron, M.G.; McDonough, C.

    1986-08-01

    Mercury compounds pollute many aquatic habitats and are extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Acute toxicity of waterborne methyl mercury has been studied in several teleost species. Lampreys are taxonomically distant from teleosts and are used for comparative toxicological purposes. Landlocked sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, inhabit the Great Lakes region, and their larvae (ammocoetes) burrow in stream sediments. In this study, the authors present toxicity curves for ammocoetes exposed acutely to methyl mercuric chloride solutions. Susceptibility was related to temperature and animal size.

  11. Toxicity and toxin identification in Colomesus asellus, an Amazonian (Brazil) freshwater puffer fish.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joacir Stolarz; Fernandes, Solange Cristina Rego; Schwartz, Carlos Alberto; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Jorge Alex Taquita; Rodrigues Pires, Osmindo; de Freitas, José Carlos

    2006-07-01

    Toxicity and toxin identification in Colomesus asellus, an Amazonian (Brazil) freshwater puffer fish. By using four different techniques--mouse bioassay, ELISA, HPLC and mass spectrometry-we evaluated the toxicity in the extracts of C. asellus, a freshwater puffer fish from the rivers of the Amazon, and identified for the first time the components responsible for its toxicity. The T20G10 monoclonal antibody raised against TTX, and employed in an indirect competitive enzyme immunoassay, showed very low affinity for the C. asellus extracts, indicating that TTX and its analogs are not the main toxic components of the extracts. This antibody was efficient in detecting presence of TTX in a total extract of Sphoeroides spengleri, which is one of the most toxic puffer fish found in the Atlantic coast. Extracts of C. asellus were toxic when administered intraperitonially into mice with an average toxicity of 38.6+/-12 mouse unit (MU)/g, while HPLC analysis indicated a lower toxin content (7.6+/-0 5MU/g). The HPLC profile showed no traces of TTX, but only the presence of PSPs (STX, GTX 2 and GTX 3). These toxins were also confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  12. Relationship between biotransformation and the toxicity and fate of xenobiotic chemicals in fish.

    PubMed Central

    Lech, J J; Bend, J R

    1980-01-01

    Many of the biotransformation reactions which have been described for xenobiotic substances in mammals have been demonstrated in fish in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Several of these biotransformation reactions have been shown to occur in fish at rates which are sufficient to have significant effects on the toxicity and residue dynamics of selected chemicals. Inhibition of these reactions can lead to increased toxicity and bioaccumulation factors for certain chemicals. Several classes of compounds, including some polychlorinated biphenyls, are metabolized slowly, and their disposition in fish may not be influenced to any great extent by biotransformation. Metabolites of compounds which are biotransformed rapidly may appear in certain fish tissues, and in many instances these are not accounted for by conventional residue analysis methods. Microsomal mixed-function oxidases in several species of fish have been demonstrated to be induced by specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and by exposure of fish to crude oil. Induction of these enzymes in fish can result in both qualitative and quantitative differences in the metabolic disposition of xenobiotics to which fish are exposed. PMID:6993198

  13. Potential contribution of inorganic ions to whole effluent acute toxicity and genotoxicity during sewage tertiary treatment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Quan, Ying; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Shaokui; Liu, Xinchun

    2015-09-15

    Two acute toxicity tests (luminescent bacteria assay and cladoceran assay) and one genotoxicity test (broad bean assay) were used to evaluate whole effluent toxicity during the standard anion exchange resin-based pilot-scale sewage tertiary treatment that stably achieved significant dissolved organic carbon and inorganic ions reduction. The effect of six representative inorganic ions (i.e., Cl(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-)-N, NO2(-)-N, NH4(+)-N and PO4(3-)-P) on the acute toxicity and genotoxicity was further investigated. Significant whole effluent genotoxicity reduction was observed as an ∼ 57% micronucleated cell frequency reduction and ∼ 46% mitotic index increment during the pilot-scale periods, which should be attributed to significant organic removal since no significant (p ≥ 0.116) increase in genotoxicity was observed with the increase in these ionic concentrations. However, no significant (p ≥ 0.14) reductions were observed for whole effluent acute toxicity using two acute toxicity assays during the pilot-scale periods, and these inorganic ions, especially NH4(+)-N, contributed considerably to the acute toxicity. Based on Pearson correlation coefficients, whole effluent acute toxicity showed significant positive (p < 0.001, r ≥ 0.758) correlations with the NH4(+)-N concentration. Two optimal models were finally developed using step-wise multiple linear regression to predict the whole effluent acute toxicity via NH4(+)-N concentrations.

  14. BEHAVIOR OF PERSISTENT BIOACCUMULATIVE TOXICANTS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whether through environmental criteria or site-specific risk assessments, many EPA programs rely on linking environmental exposures to levels of adverse effect (or no effect) in fish and wildlife. While empirical relationships of exposure to effect can be used for such assessmen...

  15. Mechanisms of zinc toxicity in the galaxiid fish, Galaxias maculatus.

    PubMed

    McRae, Nicole K; Gaw, Sally; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential metal, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environments occurring both naturally, and through anthropogenic inputs. This study investigated impacts of sub-lethal Zn exposure in the galaxiid fish Galaxias maculatus. Known as inanga, this amphidromous fish is widespread throughout the Southern hemisphere, but to date almost nothing is known regarding its sensitivity to elevated environmental metals. Fish were exposed to environmentally-relevant concentrations of Zn (control, 8, 270 and 1000μgL(-1)) over 96h. End-points measured included those relating to ionoregulatory disturbance (whole body calcium and sodium influx), oxygen consumption (respirometry), oxidative stress (catalase activity and lipid peroxidation) and whole body accumulation of Zn. Zn exposure caused increases in catalase activity and lipid peroxidation, but only at the highest exposure level tested. Zn also significantly inhibited calcium influx, but stimulated sodium influx, at 1000μgL(-1). The sub-lethal changes induced by Zn exposure in inanga appear to be conserved relative to other, better-studied species. These data are the first to explore the sensitivity of juvenile galaxiid fish to Zn, information that will be critical to ensuring adequate environmental protection of this important species.

  16. Behavior, Ecology and Toxicity of Venomous Marine Fishes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-31

    u ltrastructure of the venom apparatus of the stingrays and scorpion fishes ’~~nd~ .. I# )”the chemistry and pharmacolo~~~~~~M~~ ~~~~~~ o of stingray

  17. Carbon nanotubes enhanced the lead toxicity on the freshwater fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, D. S. T.; Alves, O. L.; Barbieri, E.

    2013-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes are promising nanostructures for many applications in materials industry and biotechnology. However, it is mandatory to evaluate their toxicity and environmental implications. We evaluated nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HNO3-MWCNT) toxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and also the lead (Pb) toxicity modulation after the nanotube interaction. Industrial grade multiwalled carbon nanotubes [Ctube 100, CNT Co. Ltd] were treated with 9M HNO3 for 12h at 150°C to generate oxygenated groups on the nanotube surface, to improve water dispersion and heavy metal interaction. The HNO3-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes were physico-chemically characterized by several techniques [e.g. TEM, FE-SEM, TGA, ζ-potential and Raman spectroscopy]. HNO3-MWCNT did not show toxicity on Nile tilapia when the concentration ranged from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, and the maximum exposure time was 96h. After 24, 48, 72 and 96h the LC50 values of Pb were 1.65, 1.32, 1.10 and 0.99 mg/L, respectively. To evaluate the Pb-nanotube interaction influence on the ecotoxicity, we submitted the Nile tilapia to different concentrations of Pb mixed with a non-toxic concentration of HNO3-MWCNT (1.0 mg/L). After 24, 48, 72, 96 h the LC50 values of Pb plus nanotubes were: 0.32, 0.25, 0.20, 0.18 mg/L, respectively. These values showed a synergistic effect after Pb-nanotube interaction since Pb toxicity increased over five times. X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm lead adsorption on the carbon nanotube oxidized surface. The exposure of Nile tilapia to Pb plus HNO3-MWCNT caused both oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion decrease, when compared to the control. Finally, our results show that carbon nanotubes interact with classical pollutants drawing attention to the environmental implications.

  18. Joint toxicity of ethyleneamines to algae, daphnids and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Wijk, R.J. van; Postma, J.F. . Dept. of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry); Houwelingen, H. . Dept. of Applied Mathematics)

    1994-01-01

    The joint toxicity of some ethyleneamines to Selenastrum capricornutum, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata have been determined as a contribution to the environmental risk assessment of wastewater discharges. A few combinations showed antagonistic or synergistic effects, but the majority of combinations were additive at the lethal level. Thus additivity appears to be a reasonable assumption for risk assessment purposes of wastewater discharges. The design of tests and the biometrical approach using models describing isobolograms to evaluate test results are described in detail. This method and subsequent statistical evaluation procedure were found to be very suitable to determine additivity in aquatic toxicity tests.

  19. Systematic Review of the Relationship between Acute and Late Gastrointestinal Toxicity after Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peach, Matthew Sean; Showalter, Timothy N.; Ohri, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    A small but meaningful percentage of men who are treated with external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer will develop late gastrointestinal toxicity. While numerous strategies to prevent gastrointestinal injury have been studied, clinical trials concentrating on late toxicity have been difficult to carry out. Identification of subjects at high risk for late gastrointestinal injury could allow toxicity prevention trials to be performed using reasonable sample sizes. Acute radiation therapy toxicity has been shown to predict late toxicity in several organ systems. Late toxicities may occur as a consequential effect of acute injury. In this systematic review of published reports, we found that late gastrointestinal toxicity following prostate radiotherapy seems to be statistically and potentially causally related to acute gastrointestinal morbidity as a consequential effect. We submit that acute gastrointestinal toxicity may be used to identify at-risk patients who may benefit from additional attention for medical interventions and close follow-up to prevent late toxicity. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity could also be explored as a surrogate endpoint for late effects in prospective trials. PMID:26697225

  20. Examining predictors of chemical toxicity in freshwater fish using the random forest technique.

    PubMed

    Tuulaikhuu, Baigal-Amar; Guasch, Helena; García-Berthou, Emili

    2017-03-03

    Chemical pollution is one of the main issues globally threatening the enormous biodiversity of freshwater ecosystems. The toxicity of substances depends on many factors such as the chemical itself, the species affected, environmental conditions, exposure duration, and concentration. We used the random forest technique to examine the factors that mediate toxicity in a set of widespread fishes and analyses of covariance to further assess the importance of differential sensitivity among fish species. Among 13 variables, the 5 most important predictors of toxicity with random forests were, by order of importance, the chemical substance itself (i.e., Chemical Abstracts Service number considered as a categorical factor), octanol-water partition coefficient (log P), pollutant prioritization, ecological structure-activity relationship (ECOSAR) classification, and fish species for 50% lethal concentrations (LC50) and the chemical substance, fish species, log P, ECOSAR classification, and water temperature for no observed effect concentrations (NOECs). Fish species was a very important predictor for both endpoints and with the two contrasting statistical techniques used. Different fish species displayed very different relationships with log P, often with different slopes and with as much importance as the partition coefficient. Therefore, caution should be exercised when extrapolating toxicological results or relationships among species. In addition, further research is needed to determine species-specific sensitivities and unravel the mechanisms behind them.

  1. TOXICITY OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL TO ENDANGERED AND SURROGATE FISH SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality criteria (WQC) generally are based on the responses of easily cultured and tested surrogate species. Little is known about the relative sensitivity of surrogate and endangered species. The objective of this study was to compare acute and chronic (early life-stage) ...

  2. Acute Toxicity of Endosulfan to the Non-target Organisms Hyalella curvispina and Cnesterodon decemmaculatus.

    PubMed

    Mugni, Hernán; Paracampo, Ariel; Demetrio, Pablo; Scalise, Ana; Solís, Marina; Fanelli, Silvia; Bonetto, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Pesticide consumption in Argentina has steadily increased over the last two decades, while one of these compounds, namely endosulfan, is commonly found in environmental samples. Also the fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and the amphipod Hyalella curvispina are widely distributed in agricultural areas of southern South America. The aim of the present contribution was therefore to determine the acute toxicity of endosulfan to both organisms, and compare it with species sensitivity distributions (SSD) and measured field concentrations. The 48 h-LC50 (with 95 % confidence limits) were 1.8 (1.6-2.1) µg/L for C. decemmaculatus and 16.4 (15.1-17.7) µg/L for H. curvispina. C. decemmaculatus was more sensitive than 74 % of fish based on the SSD. Endosulfan concentrations in stream water reported in the literature were often higher than the C. decemmaculatus LC50. It may hence be concluded that C. decemmaculatus is a suitable sentinel organism for ecotoxicological risk assessment in South America.

  3. Draft Test Guideline: Fish Early-Life Stage Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  4. Oral toxicity of extracts of the microcystin-containing cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii to the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Djediat, Chakib; Moyenga, David; Malécot, Mélodie; Comte, Katia; Yéprémian, Claude; Bernard, Cécile; Puiseux-Dao, Simone; Edery, Marc

    2011-07-01

    As previously demonstrated the medaka fish appears to offer a good model for studies of microcystins (MCs) effects. Since cyanobacterial toxins are released with other molecules in the aquatic environment when the producers are dying, in this study, we performed additional experiments in order to compare the described effects obtained with the pure toxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR), among the most toxic MCs, to those induced by complex extracts of an MCs-producer Planktothrix agardhii, strain PMC 75.02 and a natural bloom containing the MCs-producer P. agardhii. The toxicity of these extracts containing several variants of MC was determined in adult medaka treated by gavage. Extracts of an MCs-free strain of P. agardhii (PMC 87.02) were assayed for comparison. Extracts effects were analysed on two tissues, liver and intestine by means of photon and transmission electron microscopy. MC was localized in these tissues by immunocytochemistry. No effect was detectable with extracts of the MCs-free P. agardhii strain. The two MCs-P. agardhii extracts (strain and natural bloom) were able to induce harmful effects in the liver and intestine of the medaka fish in acute intoxication by gavage. In these target organs as shown by toxin immunolocalization, reactions leading to cell disjunction and lysis were observed apparently associated with an immune reaction implying MC containing macrophages. These effects are similar to those previously described with photonic microscopy in medaka treated with pure MC-LR with additional results obtained under the electron microscope. Since no significant effect was detected with the MCs-free (PMC 87.02) extract, we then conclude that MCs, even in complex association with other cyanobacterial components, should be responsible for the toxic effects observed in treated fish.

  5. DICLOFENAC: NEW DATA ON CHRONIC TOXICITY AND BIOCONCENTRATION IN FISH

    PubMed Central

    Memmert, Ulrich; Peither, Armin; Burri, Roland; Weber, Klaus; Schmidt, Thomas; Sumpter, John P; Hartmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is regularly detected in surface waters. To support a robust aquatic risk assessment, two early life stage (ELS) tests, compliant with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline 210, were conducted in rainbow trout and in zebrafish. Population relevant endpoints, such as hatching, growth, and survival, and in the trout study, histopathological effects in potential target organs, were examined. The bioconcentration of DCF in rainbow trout was measured in a separate study according to OECD test guideline 305. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) in rainbow trout remained below 10, demonstrating no relevant bioconcentration of DCF in fish. In the rainbow trout ELS test, the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) including histopathology was 320 µg/L. The effect of DCF on zebrafish growth was less clear, and the NOEC can be interpreted as 10 µg/L. However, for a number of reasons, the authors consider the moderately reduced growth of zebrafish exposed to concentrations of up to 320 µg/L not a repeatable, treatment-related effect of DCF. This leads us to a conclusion that DCF has, with high probability, no adverse effect on both fish species up to 320 µg/L. This NOEC indicates a sufficient safety margin for fish populations, because concentrations of DCF in European rivers are in the range of ng/L to low µg/L. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:442–452. © 2013 SETAC PMID:23325530

  6. Acute pulmonary toxicity of urban particulate matter and ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, R.; Bjarnason, S. G.; Adamson, I. Y.; Hedgecock, C.; Kumarathasan, P.; Guénette, J.; Potvin, M.; Goegan, P.; Bouthillier, L.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the acute lung toxicity of urban particulate matter in interaction with ozone. Rats were exposed for 4 hours to clean air, ozone (0.8 ppm), the urban dust EHC-93 (5 mg/m3 or 50 mg/m3), or ozone in combination with urban dust. The animals were returned to clean air for 32 hours and then injected (intraperitoneally) with [3H]thymidine to label proliferating cells and killed after 90 minutes. The lungs were fixed by inflation, embedded in glycol methacrylate, and processed for light microscopy autoradiography. Cell labeling was low in bronchioles (0.14 +/- 0.04%) and parenchyma (0.13 +/- 0.02%) of air control animals. Inhalation of EHC-93 alone did not induce cell labeling. Ozone alone increased (P < 0.05) cell labeling (bronchioles, 0.42 +/- 0.16%; parenchyma, 0.57 +/- 0.21%), in line with an acute reparative cell proliferation. The effects of ozone were clearly potentiated by co-exposure with either the low (3.31 +/- 0.31%; 0.99 +/- 0.18%) or the high (4.45 +/- 0.51%; 1.47 +/- 0.18%) concentrations of urban dust (ozone X EHC-93, P < 0.05). Cellular changes were most notable in the epithelia of terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts and did not distribute to the distal parenchyma. Enhanced DNA synthesis indicates that particulate matter from ambient air can exacerbate epithelial lesions in the lungs. This may extend beyond air pollutant interactions, such as to effects of inhaled particles in the lungs of compromised individuals. Images Figure 1 PMID:9403707

  7. Acute Toxicity of the Antifouling Compound Butenolide in Non-Target Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli H.; Xu, Ying; Pan, Ke; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] is a recently discovered and very promising anti-marine-fouling compound. In this study, the acute toxicity of butenolide was assessed in several non-target organisms, including micro algae, crustaceans, and fish. Results were compared with previously reported results on the effective concentrations used on fouling (target) organisms. According to OECD's guideline, the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) was 0.168 µg l−1, which was among one of the highest in representative new biocides. Mechanistically, the phenotype of butenolide-treated Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos was similar to the phenotype of the pro-caspase-3 over-expression mutant with pericardial edema, small eyes, small brains, and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the bodies of zebrafish embryos. Butenolide also induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, with the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), Bcl-2 family proteins, and caspases and proteasomes/lysosomes involved in this process. This is the first detailed toxicity and toxicology study on this antifouling compound. PMID:21897857

  8. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs fish in their acute tests. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Geological Survey.

  9. Monitoring acute and chronic water column toxicity in the Northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary, California, USA, using the euryhaline amphipod, Hyalella azteca: 2006 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Werner, Inge; Deanovic, Linda A; Markiewicz, Dan; Khamphanh, Manisay; Reece, Charles K; Stillway, Marie; Reece, Charissa

    2010-10-01

    After the significant population decline of several pelagic fish species in the Northern Sacramento-San Joaquin (SSJ) Estuary (CA, USA) in 2002, a study was performed to monitor water column toxicity using the amphipod Hyalella azteca. From January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2007, water samples were collected biweekly from 15 to 16 sites located in large delta channels and main-stem rivers, selected based on prevalent distribution patterns of fish species of concern. Ten-day laboratory tests with H. azteca survival and relative growth as toxicity endpoints were conducted. The enzyme inhibitor piperonyl butoxide ([PBO], 25 µg/L) was added to synergize or antagonize pyrethroid or organophosphate (OP) insecticide toxicity, respectively. Significant amphipod mortality was observed in 5.6% of ambient samples. Addition of PBO significantly changed survival or growth in 1.1% and 10.1% of ambient samples, respectively. Sites in the Lower Sacramento River had the largest number of acutely toxic samples, high occurrence of PBO effects on amphipod growth (along with sites in the South Delta), and the highest total ammonia/ammonium concentrations (0.28 ± 0.15 mg/L). Ammonia/ammonium, or contaminants occurring in mixture with these, likely contributed to the observed toxicity. Pyrethroid insecticides were detected at potentially toxic concentrations. Overall, results of this study identified specific areas and contaminants of concern and showed that water in the Northern SSJ Estuary was at times acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates.

  10. Safety evaluation of Se-methylselenocysteine as nutritional selenium supplement: acute toxicity, genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Jia, Xudong

    2014-12-01

    The significant toxicity of selenium emphasizes the need to assess the health risk of various selenocompounds as nutritional supplements. Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMC) was recently reported to be more bioactive but the toxicological effects have not been sufficiently characterized. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of SeMC and provide the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for its use in human diet. Our results demonstrated that SeMC, with the Median Lethal Dose (LD50) of 12.6 and 9.26mg/kg BW in female and male mice, was of high potent of health hazard under acute oral exposure, but a battery of tests including Ames test, micronucleus assay and mouse sperm malformation assay suggested that SeMC was not genotoxic. The repeated dose study indicated little systemic toxicity of SeMC at supernutritional levels (0.5, 0.7, 0.9mg/kg BW/day) after 90-day oral exposure. Importantly, the 95% lower confidence value of Benchmark Dose (BMDL) was estimated as 0.34mg/kg BW/day according to the elevated relative liver weight. The ADI for human was established at 3.4μg/kg BW/day. The results suggested greater safety of SeMC as a nutritional selenium supplement, but health risk needs to be further evaluated when SeMC is applied beyond this level to achieve cancer chemoprevention.

  11. Severe Acute Pulmonary Toxicity Associated with Brentuximab in a Patient with Refractory Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Sabet, Yasmin; Ramirez, Saul; Rosell Cespedes, Elizabeth; Rensoli Velasquez, Marimer; Porres-Muñoz, Mateo; Gaur, Sumit; Figueroa-Casas, Juan B.; Porres-Aguilar, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    Acute pulmonary toxicity associated with brentuximab appears to be a rare but serious adverse effect that can be potentially fatal. We report the case of a twenty-nine-year-old female with Hodgkin's lymphoma who was treated with brentuximab and later presented with severe acute pulmonary toxicity; she improved after the discontinuation of brentuximab and administration of antibiotics and glucocorticoid therapy. Currently there is very little data in the literature in regard to the clinical manifestations and characteristics of patients taking brentuximab and the potential development of acute severe pulmonary toxicity, as well as the appropriate therapeutic approach, making this particular case of successful treatment and resolution unique. PMID:27190667

  12. Pathology of acute 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol toxicity in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Schiefer, H B; Nicholson, S; Kasali, O B; Hancock, D S; Greenhalgh, R

    1985-01-01

    Mice were killed 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after intragastrical administration of 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg body weight of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol. The animals became clinically ill after 12 hours and some animals in the highest dose group died. Histological examination of duodenal crypts, thymus and spleen revealed, in all dose groups, presence of the characteristic lesions that are known to be produced by trichothecenes, but the intensity of lesions in the 40 mg group corresponded to lesions known to be caused by 4 mg/kg of T-2 toxin. A rabbit skin bioassay with 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol gave negative results on one occasion and a mild reaction to 100 to 500 micrograms/mL on another. It is concluded that 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol is considerably less toxic than T-2 toxin, but causes acute effects in the dividing cells of the body in a manner characteristic of trichothecenes. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 1b. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:4041976

  13. Acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos to embryo and larvae of banded gourami Trichogaster fasciata.

    PubMed

    Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Saha, Sampa; van den Brink, Paul J; Peeters, Edwin T H M; Bosma, Roel H; Rashid, Harunur

    2017-02-01

    This study elucidated the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the early life stages of banded gourami (Trichogaster fasciata). To determine the acute effects of chlorpyrifos on their survival and development, we exposedthe embryos and two-day-old larvae to six concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10 and 100 µg L(-1)) of chlorpyrifos in plastic bowls. Log-logistic regression was used to calculate LC10 and LC50 values. Results showed that embryo mortality significantly increased with increasing chlorpyrifos concentrations. The 24-h LC10 and LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of chlorpyrifos for embryos were 0.89 (0.50-1.58) and 11.8 (9.12-15.4) µg L(-1), respectively. Hatching success decreased and mortality of larvae significantly increased with increasing concentrations of chlorpyrifos. The 24-h LC10 and LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of chlorpyrifos for larvae were 0.53 (0.27-1.06) and 21.7 (15.9-29.4) µg L(-1), respectively; the 48-h LC10 and LC50 for larvae were 0.04 (0.02-0.09) and 5.47 (3.77-7.94) µg L(-1), respectively. The results of this study suggest that 1 µg L(-1) of chlorpyrifos in the aquatic environment may adversely affect the development and the reproduction of banded gourami. Our study also suggests that banded gourami fish can serve as an ideal model species for evaluating developmental toxicity of environmental contaminants.

  14. Influence of complexans (EDTA, DTPA) on the toxicity of Cadmium to fish at chronic levels

    SciTech Connect

    Muramoto, S.

    1981-05-01

    There are a few reports on the effects of the complexing agents, as heavy metal pollution-inhibiting agents, to the aquatic animals. SPRAGUE(1968) reported on the influence of NTA on the zinc-and copper poisoning to brook trout. NISHIKAWA and TABATA(1969) conducted some experiments on eliminations of the toxicity of waste water from copper mines with EDTA using water fleas and dace. However, this in an area which has not so far as been clarifies in investigations on metal complexan toxicity and accumulation. In the previous paper, the effects of complexans(EDTA,NTA, and DTPA) on the metal-toxicity(Cd,Cu,Zn and Pb) at lethal levels and of complexan(EDTA) on the removing cadmium from the Cd-polluted fish were reported. This reports is examination of influence of complexans (EDTA and DTPA) on the metal toxicity and on the metal accumulation in viscera, gills and other parts of the fish exposing cadmium at low concentrations, long term(3 months). Vertebrae deformed fish induced by cadmium were observed with eye. The vertebrae of the fish were then examined by x-ray photography.

  15. Daphnia and fish toxicity of (benzo)triazoles: validated QSAR models, and interspecies quantitative activity-activity modelling.

    PubMed

    Cassani, Stefano; Kovarich, Simona; Papa, Ester; Roy, Partha Pratim; van der Wal, Leon; Gramatica, Paola

    2013-08-15

    Due to their chemical properties synthetic triazoles and benzo-triazoles ((B)TAZs) are mainly distributed to the water compartments in the environment, and because of their wide use the potential effects on aquatic organisms are cause of concern. Non testing approaches like those based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are valuable tools to maximize the information contained in existing experimental data and predict missing information while minimizing animal testing. In the present study, externally validated QSAR models for the prediction of acute (B)TAZs toxicity in Daphnia magna and Oncorhynchus mykiss have been developed according to the principles for the validation of QSARs and their acceptability for regulatory purposes, proposed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). These models are based on theoretical molecular descriptors, and are statistically robust, externally predictive and characterized by a verifiable structural applicability domain. They have been applied to predict acute toxicity for over 300 (B)TAZs without experimental data, many of which are in the pre-registration list of the REACH regulation. Additionally, a model based on quantitative activity-activity relationships (QAAR) has been developed, which allows for interspecies extrapolation from daphnids to fish. The importance of QSAR/QAAR, especially when dealing with specific chemical classes like (B)TAZs, for screening and prioritization of pollutants under REACH, has been highlighted.

  16. Some factors influencing susceptibility of rainbow trout to the acute toxicity of an ethyl mercury phosphate formulation (Timsan)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.; Yasutake, William T.; Morgan, Reginald

    1969-01-01

    This study determined the influence of water temperature (55–68° F), dissolved oxygen (4–12 ppm), water hardness as CaCO3 (20–256 ppm), and chloride ions (to 2 mM) on the susceptibility of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to the acute toxicity of ethyl mercury phosphate (EMP). The fish were exposed for one hour to 0.125 ppm EMP, the active ingredient of Timsan, a commercial EMP formulation. The death rate because of the exposure to EMP increased with an increase in water temperature, a decrease in dissolved oxygen, and an increase in chloride ions; calcium appeared to have no effect. The effect of water temperature and dissolved oxygen was ascribed to changes in the respiration rate of the fish, and a chemical explanation is presented for the effect of chloride ions.

  17. Acute lethal and sublethal effects of neem leaf extract on the neotropical freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus.

    PubMed

    Winkaler, Elissandra U; Santos, Thiago R M; Machado-Neto, Joaquim G; Martinez, Cláudia B R

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity of the aqueous extract of neem leaves, a product extensively used in fish-farms as alternative for the control of fish parasites and fish fry predators, for the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. The 24 h LC(50) of neem leaf extract for juveniles P. lineatus was estimated as 4.8 g L(-1); the fish were then exposed for 24 h to 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g L(-1) or only clean water (control). Plasma glucose levels were higher in fish exposed to 2.5 g L(-1) and 5.0 g L(-1) neem extract, relative to control, indicating a typical stress response. Neem extract did not interfere with the osmoregulating capacity of the fish, as their plasma sodium, chloride, total protein and osmolarity did not change. The presence of the biopesticide interfered with the antioxidant defense system of P. lineatus, as there was a decrease in liver catalase activity at all neem concentrations and the detoxifying enzyme glutathione-S-transferase was activated in fish exposed to 5.0 g L(-1). Fish exposed to all neem extract concentrations exhibited damaged gill and kidney tissue. These results indicate that although neem extract is less toxic to P. lineatus than other synthetic insecticides used in fish-farming it does cause functional and morphological changes in this fish species.

  18. Importance of structural information in predicting human acute toxicity from in vitro cytotoxicity data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soyoung; Park, Keunwan; Ahn, Hee-Sung; Kim, Dongsup

    2010-07-15

    In this study, we tried to assess the utility of the structural information of drugs for predicting human acute toxicity from in vitro basal cytotoxicity, and to interpret the informative quality and the pharmacokinetic meaning of each structural descriptor. For this, human acute toxicity data of 67 drugs were taken from literature with their basal cytotoxicity data, and used to develop predictive models. A series of multiple linear regression analyses were performed to construct feasible regression models by combining molecular descriptors and cytotoxicity data. We found that although the molecular descriptors alone had only moderate correlation with human acute toxicity, they were highly useful for explaining the discrepancy between in vitro cytotoxicity and human acute toxicity. Among many possible models, we selected the most explanatory models by changing the number and the type of combined molecular descriptors. The results showed that our selected models had high predictive power (R{sup 2}: between 0.7 and 0.87). Our analysis indicated that those successful models increased the prediction accuracies by providing the information on human pharmacokinetic parameters which are the major reason for the difference between human acute toxicity and cytotoxicity. In addition, we performed a clustering analysis on selected molecular descriptors to assess their informative qualities. The results indicated that the number of single bonds, the number of hydrogen bond donors and valence connectivity indices are closely related to linking cytotoxicity to acute toxicity, which provides insightful explanation about human toxicity beyond cytotoxicity.

  19. Toxicity of Sodium Bicarbonate to Fish from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production in the Tongue and Powder River Drainages, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of aquatic life to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), a major constituent of coal-bed natural gas-produced water. Excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate in the wastewater from coal-bed methane natural gas production released to freshwater streams and rivers may adversely affect the ability of fish to regulate their ion uptake. The collaborative study focuses on the acute and chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate on select fish species in the Tongue and Powder River drainages in southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming. Sodium bicarbonate is not naturally present in appreciable concentrations within the surface waters of the Tongue and Powder River drainages; however, the coal-bed natural gas wastewater can reach levels over 1,000 milligrams per liter. Large concentrations have been shown to be acutely toxic to native fish (Mount and others, 1997). In 2003, with funding and guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a collaborative study on the potential effects of coal-bed natural gas wastewater on aquatic life. A major goal of the study is to provide information to the State of Montana Water Quality Program needed to develop an aquatic life standard for sodium bicarbonate. The standard would allow the State, if necessary, to establish targets for sodium bicarbonate load reductions.

  20. PAH toxicity at aqueous solubility in the fish embryo test with Danio rerio using passive dosing.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Best, Nina; Fernqvist, Margit Møller; Hercht, Hendrik; Smith, Kilian E C; Braunbeck, Thomas; Mayer, Philipp; Hollert, Henner

    2014-10-01

    As part of the risk assessment process within REACh, prior to manufacturing and distribution of chemical substances their (eco)toxicological impacts have to be investigated. The fish embryo toxicity test (FET) with the zebrafish Danio rerio has gained a high significance as an in vitro alternative to animal testing in (eco)toxicology. However, for hydrophobic organic chemicals it remains a technical challenge to ensure constant freely dissolved concentration at the maximum exposure level during such biotests. Passive dosing with PDMS silicone was thus applied to control the freely dissolved concentration of ten PAHs at their saturation level in the FET. The experiments gave repeatable results, with the toxicity of the PAHs generally increasing with the maximum chemical activities of the PAHs. HPLC analysis confirmed constant exposure at the saturation level. In additional experiments, fish embryos without direct contact to the silicone surface showed similar mortalities as those exposed with direct contact to the silicone. Silicone oil overlaying the water phase as a novel passive dosing phase had no observable effects on the development of the fish embryos until hatching. This study provides further data to support the close relationship between the chemical activity and the toxicity of hydrophobic organic compounds. Passive dosing from PDMS silicone enabled reliable toxicity testing of (highly) hydrophobic substances at aqueous solubility, providing a practical way to control toxicity exactly at the maximum exposure level. This approach is therefore expected to be useful as a cost-effective initial screening of hydrophobic chemicals for potential adverse effects to freshwater vertebrates.

  1. Results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted at SRS NPDES outfalls, July--October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Acute (48 hour LC50) and chronic (7-day reproductive impairment) toxicity tests were conducted on Ceriodaphnia dubia in water collected from 53 NPDES outfalls. All tests were conducted at the in-stream waste concentration. only 12 of the 53 outfalls showed no evidence of toxicity. Twenty-eight of the outfalls were acutely toxic, often producing 100% mortality during the first day of exposure. Fourteen outfalls had no discharge at the time of sampling and could not be tested. Three outfalls were not tested because their toxicity has been adequately characterized in other investigations. Elevated concentrations of total residual chlorine are suspected to be responsible for the observed toxicity of many NPDES outfalls, particularly the sanitary wastewater treatment plants. Chemical data from previous studies indicate that metals may also be present in toxic concentrations at many outfalls. Toxicity identification and reduction options are discussed.

  2. Pathology of diethylnitrosamine toxicity in the fish Rivulus marmoratus

    SciTech Connect

    Thiyagarajah, A.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1985-11-01

    Rivulus marmoratus were exposed to 0, 10, 21, 45, 95, or 200 mg/liter diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for 6 weeks and examined 12 weeks after the end of exposure. Fatty change, hepatocellular glycogenosis, multiple basophilic foci, enlarged and distorted cells with or without an enlarged nucleus, and hyaline bodies and cytological alterations observed after exposure to DEN. Hemangiomas, cholangiomas, biliary cystadenomas, and glandular, trabecular and anaplastic hepatocellular carcinomas were observed at the 18th week. Only those fish exposed to 95 mg/liter DEN had cavernous hemangiomas and peliosis-like lesions, which could be a preneoplastic lesion preceding cavernous hemangiomas. Adenomatous hyperplasia of thyroid and granulomas were other chronic reactions caused by DEN toxicosis.

  3. Toxic substances: Effects on fish. January 1978-July 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1978-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biochemical and physiological effects of toxic substances on fish populations. Particular emphasis is placed on using fish as an indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Toxicity effects of mercury, zinc, calcium chloride, sodium chloride, lead, cadmium, copper, and aluminum in freshwater and seawater fish are included. (This updated bibliography contains 330 citations, 66 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  4. Toxic substances: Effects on fish. January 1978-July 1989 (A Bibliography from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1978-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biochemical and physiological effects of toxic substances on fish populations. Particular emphasis is placed on using fish as an indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Toxicity effects of mercury, zinc, calcium chloride, sodium chloride, lead, cadmium, copper, and aluminum in freshwater and seawater fish are included. (This updated bibliography contains 356 citations, 26 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  5. Toxic substances: effects on fish. January 1970-July 1988 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1970-July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biochemical and physiological effects of toxic substances on fish populations. Particular emphasis is placed on using fish as an indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Toxicity effects of mercury, zinc, calcium chloride, sodium chloride, lead, cadmium, copper, and aluminum in freshwater and seawater fish are included. (This updated bibliography contains 264 citations, 24 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  6. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  7. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the results of acute toxicity tests conducted with common surrogate species, and several species of threatened and endangered species for which there were excess artificially propagated stock to allow direct testing.

  8. Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

    1980-01-01

    General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

  9. Quantitative Structure--Activity Relationship Modeling of Rat Acute Toxicity by Oral Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Few Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have successfully modeled large, diverse rodent toxicity endpoints. Objective: In this study, a combinatorial QSAR approach has been employed for the creation of robust and predictive models of acute toxi...

  10. Toxicity assessment on haemotology, biochemical and histopathological alterations of silver nanoparticles-exposed freshwater fish Labeo rohita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, K. S.; Kanipandian, N.; Thirumurugan, R.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of nano based-products induces the potential hazards from their manufacture, transportation, waste disposal and management processes. In this report, we emphasized the acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using freshwater fish Labeo rohita as an aquatic animal model. The AgNPs were synthesized using chemical reduction method and the formation of AgNPs was monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis. The functional groups, crystaline nature and morphological characterizations were carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. UV-Vis range was observed at 420 nm and XRD pattern showed that the particles are crystalline nature. HRTEM analysis revealed that the morphology of particles was spherical and size ranges between 50 and 100 nm. This investigation was extended to determine the potential acute toxicity, L. rohita was treated orally with the lethal concentration (LC50) of AgNPs. The antioxidative responses were studied in the three major tissues such as gill, liver and muscle of L. rohita. The results of this investigation showed that increasing the concentration of AgNPs led to bioaccumulation of AgNPs in the major tissues. The haematological parameters showed significant alterations in the treated fish. The histological changes caused by chemically synthesized AgNPs demonstrated the damages in the tissues, primary lamella and blood vessels of L. rohita. The histological study also displayed the formation of vacuolation in liver and muscle when compared with untreated tissues (control) of L. rohita.

  11. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment: a Delphi consensus.

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Escherich, Gabriele; Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Halsey, Christina; Hough, Rachael; Jeha, Sima; Kato, Motohiro; Liang, Der-Cherng; Mikkelsen, Torben Stamm; Möricke, Anja; Niinimäki, Riitta; Piette, Caroline; Putti, Maria Caterina; Raetz, Elizabeth; Silverman, Lewis B; Skinner, Roderick; Tuckuviene, Ruta; van der Sluis, Inge; Zapotocka, Ester

    2016-06-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis, asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, arterial hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, seizures, depressed level of consciousness, methotrexate-related stroke-like syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, high-dose methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14 toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall assessment of outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment, these expert opinion-based definitions will allow reliable comparisons of frequencies and severities of acute toxic effects across treatment protocols, and facilitate international research on cause, guidelines for treatment adaptation, preventive strategies, and development of consensus algorithms for reporting on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment.

  12. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  13. Acute toxicity, twenty-eight days repeated dose toxicity and genotoxicity of vanadyl trehalose in kunming mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pingzhe; Ni, Zaizhong; Wang, Bin; Ma, Baicheng; Duan, Huikun; Li, Xiaodan; Ma, Xiaofeng; Wei, Qian; Ji, Xiangzhen; Liu, Qiqi; Xing, Shuguang; Li, Minggang

    2017-04-01

    A new trend has been developed using vanadium and organic ligands to form novel compounds in order to improve the beneficial actions and reduce the toxicity of vanadium compounds. In present study, vanadyl trehalose was explored the oral acute toxicity, 28 days repeated dose toxicity and genotoxicity in Kunming mice. The Median Lethal Dose (LD50) of vanadyl trehalose was revealed to be 1000 mg/kg body weight in fasted Kunming mice. Stomach and intestine were demonstrated to be the main target organs of vanadyl trehalose through 28 days repeated dose toxicity study. And vanadyl trehalose also showed particular genotoxicity through mouse bone marrow micronucleus and mouse sperm malformation assay. In brief, vanadyl trehalose presented certain, but finite toxicity, which may provide experimental basis for the clinical application.

  14. Acute exposure of a glyphosate-based herbicide affects the gills and liver of the Neotropical fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus.

    PubMed

    Shiogiri, Natália S; Paulino, Marcelo G; Carraschi, Silvia P; Baraldi, Flávia G; da Cruz, Claudinei; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of Roundup(®) Ready (RR) in Piaractus mesopotamicus, and evaluate the effects on the morphology of the gills and liver of exposed surviving fish. Fish were exposed to 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5mgL(-1) of glyphosate, and the LC(50);48h was estimated at 3.74±0.2mgL(-1). Gill histopathology was rare, and the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase enzyme did not change, suggesting normal function. However, the damage to the liver was classified as moderate to severe. Cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid accumulation, nuclear and cellular membrane alterations and glycogen depletion were found in the liver, suggesting a reduction in the liver function. The glyphosate in the RR formulation was classified as moderately toxic for P. mesopotamicus, and the severe damage in the liver may affect the detoxification and/or tissue repair process and contribute to fish death.

  15. Acute to chronic estimation of Daphnia magna toxicity within the QSAAR framework.

    PubMed

    Furuhama, A; Hayashi, T I; Tatarazako, N

    2016-10-21

    We constructed models for acute to chronic estimation of the Daphnia magna reproductive toxicities of chemical substances from their Daphnia magna acute immobilization toxicities. The models combined the acute toxicities with structural and physicochemical descriptors. We used multiregression analysis and selected the descriptors for the models by means of a genetic algorithm. Of the best 100 models (as indicated by the lack of fit score), 90% included the following descriptors: acute toxicity (i.e. an activity parameter), distribution coefficient (log D) and structural indicator variables that indicate the presence of -NH2 attached to aromatic carbon and the presence of a chlorine atom. We compared the predictive abilities of five of these quantitative structure-activity-activity relationship (QSAAR) acute to chronic estimation models with the predictive ability of a simple linear regression model. The comparison revealed that inclusion of structural and physicochemical descriptors such as those in QSAAR models can improve models for extrapolation from acute to chronic toxicity. Our results also provide a QSAAR framework that is expected to be useful for the further development of chronic toxicity estimation models.

  16. Toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Milletia ferruginea (Hochst) seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, K; Bishaw, D; Mulat, T

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Birbira [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Milletia ferruginea] seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates, Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant; Milletia ferruginea pulverized seeds have been used for fish poisoning since time immemorial. Macroinvertebrates are important biological indicators of alteration in the natural water sources. Milletia ferruginea seed extract was applied at concentrations of 125, 250, 500 1000 and 2000 ppm on Hydropsychididae whereas Baetidae were exposed at various concentrations viz., 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 & 500 ppm. Milletia ferruginea seeds crude extract of lethal doses (LCso and LC90) required for Baetidae 49.29 mg/l and 172.52 mg/l were respectively and the respective doses (LC50 and LC90) against Hydropsychidae were 679.64 mg/l and 2383.93 mg/l. The present investigation end result demonstrated that Milletia ferruginea seed extracts were extremely toxic to Baetidae than Hydropsychididae. As a result, application of Milletia ferruginea seed extracts into the rivers/streams for fish poisoning possibly leads to contamination and disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, the concerned authorities should launch appropriate awareness campaign among the local inhabitants and fisherman about adverse effect of Birbira seed extracts. Furthermore, providing alternative ecofriendly techniques for fish harvesting may possibly bring constructive out come in the near future.

  17. Influence of sulfate, Ca, and Mg on the acute toxicity of potassium dichromate to Daphnia similis

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Mamoru; Kuroda, Koichi ); Endo, Ginji; Horiguchi, Shunichi )

    1991-03-01

    In the Daphnia test which is commonly employed for assessing effects of chemicals to aquatic environments, it is well known that the toxicity of chemicals is variable with test animals and also with the chemistry of test waters. However, it is not clear what constituents in water affect toxicity of chemicals. The authors report here experimental results which show that sulfate, calcium and magnesium, commonly contained in aquatic environments, decrease the toxicity of K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} which is recommended as a reference toxicant in the acute toxicity test.

  18. Qsars for photoinduced toxicity: 1. acute lethality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to daphnia magna'

    SciTech Connect

    Mekenyan, O.G.; Ankley, G.T.; Veith, G.D.; Call, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Research with a variety of aquatic species has shown that while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generally not acutely toxic in conventional laboratory tests, many are extremely toxic in the presence of sunlight. In an effort to develop a model for predicting which PAHs may exhibit photo-induced toxicity, Newsted and Giesy (1987) reported a parabolic relationship between the toxicity and the energy of the triplet state of a variety of PAHs. The authors have reexamined these data and propose a more mechanistic explanation for the prediction of photo-induced PAH toxicity. They sought a molecular descriptor which could be computed from structure rather than measured empirically.

  19. Excretory nitrogen metabolism and defence against ammonia toxicity in air-breathing fishes.

    PubMed

    Chew, S F; Ip, Y K

    2014-03-01

    With the development of air-breathing capabilities, some fishes can emerge from water, make excursions onto land or even burrow into mud during droughts. Air-breathing fishes have modified gill morphology and morphometry and accessory breathing organs, which would tend to reduce branchial ammonia excretion. As ammonia is toxic, air-breathing fishes, especially amphibious ones, are equipped with various strategies to ameliorate ammonia toxicity during emersion or ammonia exposure. These strategies can be categorized into (1) enhancement of ammonia excretion and reduction of ammonia entry, (2) conversion of ammonia to a less toxic product for accumulation and subsequent excretion, (3) reduction of ammonia production and avoidance of ammonia accumulation and (4) tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels. Active ammonia excretion, operating in conjunction with lowering of ambient pH and reduction in branchial and cutaneous NH₃ permeability, is theoretically the most effective strategy to maintain low internal ammonia concentrations. NH₃ volatilization involves the alkalization of certain epithelial surfaces and requires mechanisms to prevent NH₃ back flux. Urea synthesis is an energy-intensive process and hence uncommon among air-breathing teleosts. Aestivating African lungfishes detoxify ammonia to urea and the accumulated urea is excreted following arousal. Reduction in ammonia production is achieved in some air-breathing fishes through suppression of amino acid catabolism and proteolysis, or through partial amino acid catabolism leading to alanine formation. Others can slow down ammonia accumulation through increased glutamine synthesis in the liver and muscle. Yet, some others develop high tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels, including tissues in the brain. In summary, the responses of air-breathing fishes to ameliorate ammonia toxicity are many and varied, determined by the behaviour of the species and the nature of the environment in

  20. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Mount, David R.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Greer, I. Eugene; May, Thomas W.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 μg/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 μg/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 μg/L (Missouri) and 1.9 μg/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 μg/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 μg/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested.

  1. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Mebane, C.A.; Mount, D.R.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Greer, I.E.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 ??g/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 ??g/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 ??g/L (Missouri) and 1.9 ??g/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 ??g/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 ??g/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  2. Acute Electrocardiographic ST Segment Elevation May Predict Hypotension in a Swine Model of Severe Cyanide Toxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-21

    induced shock, 30 swine were anesthetized and monitored and then intoxicated with a continuous cyanide infusion until severe hypotension (50 % of...TOXICOLOGY INVESTIGATION Acute Electrocardiographic ST Segment ElevationMay Predict Hypotension in a Swine Model of Severe Cyanide Toxicity Tylan A...Toxicology 2012 Abstract Cyanide causes severe cardiac toxicity resulting in tachycardia, hypotension, and cardiac arrest; however, the clinical diagnosis can

  3. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Acute Kidney Injury due to Glyphosate Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Indirakshi, J.; Sunnesh, A.; Aruna, M.; Reddy, M. Hari Krishna; Kumar, Anil C. V.; Chandra, V. Sarat; Sangeetha, B.; Katyarmal, D. T.; Ram, R.; Kumar, V. Siva

    2017-01-01

    The literature, particularly from India, is scarce on the renal effects of glyphosate poisoning. Glyphosate causes toxicity not only after its ingestion but also after dermal exposure by inhalation route and on eye exposure. We present a patient report of glyphosate consumption which resulted in toxic epidermal necrolysis – the first report after glyphosate consumption and acute kidney injury.

  4. Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome presenting as acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale.

    PubMed

    Zaki, S A; Shanbag, P; Chavan, V; Shenoy, P

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 7-year-old boy with staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome who presented with acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale. We wish to highlight this unusual presentation as the diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome depends chiefly on a high degree of clinical suspicion. Early diagnosis and prompt institution of appropriate therapy will significantly reduce morbidity and mortality.

  5. Toxicity and effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus.

    PubMed

    Langiano, Vivian do Carmo; Martinez, Cláudia B R

    2008-03-01

    The toxicity of Roundup, a glyphosate-based herbicide widely used in agriculture, was determined for the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. The 96 h-LC(50) of Roundup was 13.69 mg L(-1), indicating that this fish is more sensitive to Roundup than rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). These differences should be considered when establishing criteria for water quality and animal well-being in the Neotropical region. Short-term (6, 24 and 96 h) toxicity tests were then performed to evaluate the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of the herbicide (7.5 and 10 mg L(-1)) to P. lineatus. Roundup did not interfere with the maintenance of the ionic balance and there was no significant alteration in plasma cortisol levels in Roundup-exposed fish. However an increase in plasma glucose was noted in fish exposed to 10 mg L(-1) of the herbicide, indicating a typical stress response. Catalase liver activity also showed an increase in fish exposed to 10 mg L(-1) of the herbicide, suggesting the activation of antioxidant defenses after Roundup exposure. In addition, Roundup induced several liver histological alterations that might impair normal organ functioning. Therefore, short-term exposure to Roundup at subletal concentrations induced biochemical, physiological and histological alterations in P. lineatus.

  6. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2013-10-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses.

  7. Acute management of autoimmune toxicity in cancer patients on immunotherapy: Common toxicities and the approach for the emergency physician.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Anna J; McNeil, Catriona

    2017-01-16

    When a patient receiving anti-cancer treatment presents acutely unwell, an understanding of associated side effects of their therapy is critical. This review will discuss the approach to patients receiving anti-cancer treatment with immunotherapy presenting with autoimmune toxicities in the emergency setting. These toxicities are commonly referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAE). IrAE might consist of, but are not limited to, dermatologic, gastrointestinal (diarrhoea, colitis), hepatic, endocrine (thyroid dysfunction, hypophysitis, adrenal crisis), renal, ocular and pulmonary toxicity. General principles of managing these irAE in the acute setting will be outlined. Steroid therapy is a critical component of the treatment algorithm, being administered at high doses and for prolonged periods to switch off immune over-activation. Prompt intervention might prevent multi-organ failure and fatality, and allow patients to remain on effective anti-cancer therapy.

  8. 1H-NMR-based metabolomic study on toxicity of methomyl and methidathion in fish.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dahye; Kim, Siwon; Lee, Minji; Yoon, Changshin; Kim, Suhkmann

    2016-12-01

    A (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was applied to detect the toxicity of antiacetylcholinesterase insecticides, methomyl (methyl (1E)-N-(methylcarbamoyloxy)ethanimidothioate) and methidathion (3-(dimethoxyphosphinothioyl sulfanylmethyl)-5-methoxy-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-one), using zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Chinese bleak (Aphyocypris chinensis). Generally, methomyl and methidathion have been believed not to highly accumulate in fish tissues. However, these pesticides showed their toxicity by altering patterns of whole-body metabolites in neurotransmitter balance, energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and muscle maintenance in low concentrations. We used Pearson correlation analysis to contextualize the metabolic markers in pesticide treated groups. We observed that the positive correlations of choline with acetate and betaine in untreated control were shifted to null correlations showing acetylcholinesterase specific toxicity. This research demonstrated the applicability and potential of NMR metabolomics in detecting toxic effects of insecticide with a modicum of concentrations in aquatic environment.

  9. Imazapyr+imazapic herbicide determines acute toxicity in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen.

    PubMed

    Golombieski, Jaqueline Ineu; Sutili, Fernando Jonas; Salbego, Joseânia; Seben, Débora; Gressler, Luciane Tourem; da Cunha, Jéssyka Arruda; Gressler, Leticia Trevisan; Zanella, Renato; Vaucher, Rodrigo de Almeida; Marchesan, Enio; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-06-01

    Imazapyr (IMY) and imazapic (IMI) are imidazolinone herbicides which have been associated in a commercial formulation (Kifix(®)). To date, there are no studies on the toxicity of an IMY+IMI herbicide in fish. This work aimed to assess the acute toxicity (24 and 96 h) of IMY+IMI (0, 0.488 and 4.88 µg/L) towards Rhamdia quelen through hematological, biochemical, immunological, ionoregulatory and enzymatic indexes. Red blood cell count was lower at 4.88 than at 0.488 µg/L (24 and 96 h); mean corpuscular volume was lower than control at both concentrations (24 h) and at 0.488 µg/L (96 h); lymphocytes declined at 4.88 µg/L comparing to control (96 h); and monocytes increased at 4.88 µg/L (96 h) in comparison with the respective control and with 4.88 µg/L at 24h. Aspartate aminotransferase was higher at 0.488 µg/L (96 h) than the respective control and the respective concentration at 24 h; uric acid reduced at 4.88 µg/L comparing with 0.488 µg/L (96 h); and cortisol was lower at 4.88 µg/L compared to 0.488 µg/L and control (96 h). Herbicide exposure lowered plasma bactericidal activity at both concentrations (24 h) and at 0.488 µg/L (96 h); and plasma complement activity declined at 4.88 µg/L comparing with 0.488 µg/L and control (96 h), and was lower at all concentrations at 96 h than at 24 h. Plasma K(+) levels were higher at 4.88µg/L than in the remaining groups (24 and 96h); and Na(+) levels decreased at 4.88 µg/L compared to control (96 h). Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and H(+)-ATPase activities in gills were lower at 4.88 µg/L comparing with control (24 h) and with the respective concentration at 96 h; and AChE activity in brain was higher at 0.488 and 4.88 µg/L than control (24 h) and the respective concentrations at 96 h, while in muscle it was higher at 0.488 and 4.88 µg/L than control (96 h) and the respective concentrations at 24 h. The present findings demonstrate that, despite IMY+IMI targets the animal-absent AHAS enzyme, such formulation displayed

  10. Acute toxicity of furazolidone on Artemia salina, Daphnia magna, and Culex pipiens molestus larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Macri, A.; Stazi, A.V.; Dojmi di Delupis, G.

    1988-10-01

    As a result of evidence of the ecotoxicity of nitrofurans, the acute toxicity of furazolidone was tested in vivo on two aquatic organisms, Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, which are both crustaceans. Toxicity studies were also performed on larvae of Culex pipiens molestus. Results indicated a significant toxicity of the compound on Culex pipiens and Daphnia magna, while Artemia salina proved to be the least sensitive.

  11. Synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide on acute toxicity of pyrethrins to Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Jeffrey; Gagne, James; Sharp, Janice

    2016-08-01

    A series of acute toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca was performed to quantify the synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on pyrethrin toxicity. Concentrations of PBO <4 µg/L caused no toxicity enhancement, whereas toxicity increased with PBO concentrations between 4 µg/L and 15 µg/L. Additive toxicity calculations showed that true synergism accounted for an increase in pyrethrin toxicity (decrease in median lethal concentration) of 1.4-fold to 1.6-fold and varied only slightly between 4 µg/L and 15 µg/L PBO, whereas direct toxicity of PBO accounted for an additional increase in mixture toxicity (up to 3.2-fold) that was proportional to PBO concentration. The results can be used to assess the risk of measured or predicted co-occurring concentrations of PBO and pyrethrins in surface waters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2111-2116. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Arsenic Toxicity to Juvenile Fish: Effects of Exposure Route, Arsenic Speciation, and Fish Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic toxicity to juvenile rainbow trout and fathead minnows was evaluated in 28-day tests using both dietborne and waterborne exposures, both inorganic and organic arsenic species, and both a live diet and an arsenic-spiked pellet diet. Effects of inorganic arsenic on rainbow...

  13. Toxicity of clay flocculation of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, to estuarine invertebrates and fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    The benthic environmental effects of proposed control procedures for red tide events are relatively unknown but important to understand. The objective of this study was to determine the laboratory-derived toxicities of a clay flocculation technique proposed for the Florida red ti...

  14. Toxic marine puffer fish in Thailand seas and tetrodotoxin they contained.

    PubMed

    Chulanetra, Monrat; Sookrung, Nitat; Srimanote, Potjanee; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Chongsa-Nguan, Manas; Kurazono, Hisao; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2011-10-01

    A total of 155 puffers caught from two of Thailand's seas, the Gulf of Siam and the Andaman seas, during April to July 2010 were included in this study. Among 125 puffers from the Gulf of Siam, 18 were Lagocephalus lunaris and 107 were L. spadiceus which were the same two species found previously in 2000-2001. Thirty puffers were collected from the Andaman seas, 28 Tetraodon nigroviridis and two juvenile Arothron reticularis; the two new species totally replaced the nine species found previously in 1992-1993. Conventional mouse bioassay was used to determine the toxicity in all fish tissue extracts, i.e., liver, reproductive tissue, digestive tissue and muscle. One of each of the species L. lunaris and L. spadiceus (5.56 and 0.93%, respectively) were toxic. All 28 T. nigroviridis and 2 A. reticularis (100%) from the Andaman seas were toxic. The toxicity scores in T. nigroviridis tissues were much higher than in the respective tissues of the other three fish species. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that the main toxic principle was tetrodotoxin (TTX). This study is the first to report TTX in L. spadiceus. Our findings raised a concern for people, not only Thais but also inhabitants of other countries situated on the Andaman coast; consuming puffers of the Andaman seas is risky due to potential TTX intoxication.

  15. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  16. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Radiotherapy, and the Risk of Acute and Chronic Toxicity: The Mayo Clinic Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Pinn, Melva E.; Gold, Douglas G. M.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Osborn, Thomas G.; Brown, Paul D.; Miller, Robert C.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the acute and chronic toxic effects of radiotherapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 21 consecutive patients with SLE, who had received 34 courses of external beam radiotherapy and one low-dose-rate prostate implant, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with discoid lupus erythematosus were excluded. Results: Median survival was 2.3 years and median follow-up 5.6 years. Eight (42%) of 19 patients evaluable for acute toxicity during radiotherapy experienced acute toxicity of Grade 1 or greater, and 4 (21%) had acute toxicity of Grade 3 or greater. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-72%) and 56% (95% CI, 28-81%), respectively. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater was 28% (95% CI, 18-60%) and 40% (95% CI, 16-72%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater correlated with SLE renal involvement (p < 0.006) and possibly with the presence of five or more American Rheumatism Association criteria (p < 0.053). Chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater correlated with an absence of photosensitivity (p < 0.02), absence of arthritis (p < 0.03), and presence of a malar rash (p < 0.04). Conclusions: The risk of acute and chronic toxicity in patients with SLE who received radiotherapy was moderate but was not prohibitive of the use of radiotherapy. Patients with more advanced SLE may be at increased risk for chronic toxicity.

  17. Fish pre-acclimation temperature only modestly affects cadmium toxicity in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Søfteland, Liv; Hevrøy, Ernst M; Rasinger, Josef D; Waagbø, Rune

    2016-04-01

    An emerging focus in environmental toxicology is how climate change will alter bioavailability and uptake of contaminants in organisms. Ectothermic animals unable to adjust their temperature by local migration, such as farmed fish kept in net pens, may become more vulnerable to contaminants in warmer seas. The aim of this work was to study cadmium (Cd) toxicity in cells obtained from fish acclimated to sub-optimal growth temperature. Atlantic salmon hepatocytes, harvested from fish pre-acclimated either at 15°C (optimal growth temperature) or 20°C (heat-stressed), were exposed in vitro to two concentrations of Cd (control, 1 and 100µM Cd) for 48h. Cd-induced cytotoxicity, determined with the xCELLigence system, was more pronounced in cells from fish pre-acclimated to a high temperature than in cells from fish grown at optimal temperature. A feed spiked with antioxidants could not ameliorate the Cd-induced cytotoxicity in cells from temperature-stressed fish. At the transcriptional level, Cd exposure affected 11 out of 20 examined genes, of which most are linked to oxidative stress. The transcriptional levels of a majority of the altered genes were changed in cells harvested from fish grown at sub-optimal temperature. Interaction effects between Cd exposure and fish pre-acclimation temperature were seen for four transcripts, hmox1, mapk1, fth1 and mmp13. Overall, this study shows that cells from temperature-stressed fish are modestly more vulnerable to Cd stress, and indicate that mechanisms linked to oxidative stress may be differentially affected in temperature-stressed cells.

  18. Endothelial Function and Serum Concentration of Toxic Metals in Frequent Consumers of Fish

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, Silvio; Vasto, Sonya; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Grosso, Giuseppe; Bergante, Sonia; Galvano, Fabio; Massenti, Fatima Maria; Amodio, Emanuele; Rosafio, Giuseppe; Verga, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Background Endothelial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Consumption of fish is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, but there is paucity of data concerning its effect on endothelial function. Furthermore, investigation of the effects of fish consumption on health must take into account the ingestion of contaminants, including transition metals and some metalloids, which may have unfavorable effects on health, including those on the cardiovascular system. We investigated the association between fish consumption, endothelial function (flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery), and serum concentration of some toxic metals in apparently healthy people. Methods Twenty-nine high fish consumers (at least 3 portions a week) were compared with 25 low fish consumers (less than 1 portion a week). All participants were free of diabetes, cardiovascular or other systemic diseases. Serum metal (antimonium, arsenic, mercury, lead, cobalt, copper, zinc, selenium, strontium) concentrations were measured in subgroups of 24 high fish consumers and 19 low fish consumers. Results Both groups exhibited similar habitual dietary patterns, age and anthropometric characteristics. The high fish consumers had higher flow mediated dilation (9.7±1.8 vs. 7.3±1.9%; P<0.001), but also higher serum concentrations of mercury (5.87±2.69 vs. 1.65±1.10 mcg/L; P<0.001) and arsenic (6.04±3.25 vs. 2.30±1.58 mcg/L; P<0.001). The fasting plasma glucose concentrations were significantly correlated with both mercury (r = 0.39; P = 0.01) and arsenic concentrations (r = 0.55; P<0.001). Conclusions Habitual consumption of high amounts of fish is associated with better endothelial function despite higher serum concentrations of mercury and arsenic. PMID:25401695

  19. Quantitative structure-toxicity relationships of organophosphorous pesticides to fish (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongyun; Jiang, Xin; Yu, Guifen; Zhao, Zhenhua; Bian, Yongrong; Wang, Fang

    2006-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationships between 1381 chemical and structural parameters of 43 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and their toxicity to fish, Cyprinus carpio, using ChemOffice 8.03 and Dragon 2.1. By multivariate linear regression and intervariable regression analyses, various equations have been derived to calculate the lethal toxicity value, LC(50), for 43 OPs found in fish with different levels of toxicity. Results show that for all selected OPs, especially those of low toxic OPs (LC(50)< 2.5 mM), the equation, LC(50) = 56.259 - 13.071 lg K(ow)+17.510 MATS8P-17.455 Mor24u - 0.085 MW + 1.706 (lg K(ow))(2) + 2.306 (Mor14e)(2) + 6.849 Mor20 m (n = 43, F = 36.815, r = 0.942, r(adj)(2) = 0.862, SE = 2.899, p < 10(-6)), could account for 86.2% of the variability of the toxic effect. The steric and electronic characteristics and the hydrophobicity of OPs, in particular, are among the most important parameters determining the toxicity of OPs to fish. For the OPs with high toxicity, different structural parameters were introduced into the following two equations: LC(50)=3.795-1.195 (H1p)(2)-0.037 U-2.225 MATS3v-19.593 Tcon (n = 16, F = 56.820, r = 0.977, r(adj)(2) = 0.937, SE = 0.143, p < 10(-6)), where LC(50) is less than 2.5 mM, and LC(50) = 0.341-0.561 (HOMA)(2) + 0.231 HOMA (n = 3,r(adj)(2) = 1), where LC(50) is less than 0.3 mM. These results suggest that chemical and structural parameters could be useful in modeling chemical reactivity within homologous series of OP compounds and elucidating possible mechanisms associated with different levels of toxicity to fish.

  20. Supplementation of parenteral nutrition with fish oil attenuates acute lung injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Kohama, Keisuke; Nakao, Atsunori; Terashima, Mariko; Aoyama-Ishikawa, Michiko; Shimizu, Takayuki; Harada, Daisuke; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Yamashita, Hayato; Fujiwara, Mayu; Kotani, Joji

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has diverse immunomodulatory properties and attenuates acute lung injury when administered in enternal nutrition. However, enteral nutrition is not always feasible. Therefore, we investigated the ability of parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil to ameliorate acute lung injury. Rats were infused with parenteral nutrition solutions (without lipids, with soybean oil, or with soybean oil and fish oil) for three days. Lipopolysaccharide (15 mg/kg) was then administered intratracheally to induce acute lung injury, characterized by impaired lung function, polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment, parenchymal tissue damage, and upregulation of mRNAs for inflammatory mediators. Administration of parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil prior to lung insult improved gas exchange and inhibited neutrophil recruitment and upregulation of mRNAs for inflammatory mediators. Parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil also prolonged survival. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, leukotriene B4 and leukotriene B5 secretion was measured in neutrophils from the peritoneal cavity. The neutrophils from rats treated with fish oil-rich parenteral nutrition released significantly more leukotriene B5, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid, than neutrophils isolated from rats given standard parenteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition with fish oil significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats in part by promoting the synthesis of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. PMID:24688221

  1. Acute toxicity of pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin to Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shane A; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Belden, Jason B

    2013-07-01

    Fungicide application rates on row crop agriculture have increased across the United States, and subsequently, contamination of adjacent wetlands can occur through spray drift or field runoff. To investigate fungicide toxicity, Hyalella azteca amphipods were exposed to 2 fungicide formulations, Headline and Stratego, and their active strobilurin ingredients, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin. Water-only exposures resulted in similar median lethal concentration (LC50; 20-25 µg/L) values for formulations and strobilurin ingredients, suggesting that toxicity is due to strobilurin ingredients. These values were below concentrations that could occur following spray drift over embedded cropland wetlands. When fungicides were added to overlying water of sediment-water microcosms, toxicity was reduced by 500% for Headline and 160% for Stratego, compared with water-only exposures, based on the total amount of fungicide added to the systems. In addition, when fungicides were added to sediment prior to the addition of water, the reduction in toxicity was even greater, with no toxicity occurring at environmentally relevant levels. Differences in toxicity among exposure groups were explained by dissipation from water as toxicity values based on measured water concentrations were within 20% between all systems. The present study reinforces previous studies that Headline and Stratego are toxic to nontarget aquatic organisms. However, the presence of sediment is likely to ameliorate some toxicity of fungicide formulations, especially if spraying occurs prior to wetland inundation.

  2. Field ecology of toxic Pfiesteria complex species and a conservative analysis of their role in estuarine fish kills.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, H B; Burkholder, J M; Mallin, M A; Deamer-Melia, N J; Reed, R E

    2001-10-01

    Within the past decade, toxic Pfiesteria outbreaks have been documented in poorly flushed, eutrophic areas of the largest and second largest estuaries on the U.S. mainland. Here we summarize a decadal field effort in fish kill assessment, encompassing kills related to Pfiesteria (49 major kills in North Carolina estuaries since 1991 and 4 in Maryland estuaries in 1997) and to other factors such as low oxygen stress (79 major fish kills in North Carolina estuaries). The laboratory and field data considered in developing our protocols are described, including toxic Pfiesteria behavior, environmental conditions conducive to toxic Pfiesteria activity, and impacts of toxic clonal Pfiesteria on fish health. We outline the steps of the standardized fish bioassay procedure that has been used since 1991 to diagnose whether actively toxic Pfiesteria was present during estuarine fish kills. Detailed data are given for a 1998 toxic Pfiesteria outbreak in the Neuse Estuary in North Carolina to illustrate of the full suite of diagnostic steps completed. We demonstrate that our conservative approach in implicating toxic Pfiesteria involvement in fish kills has biased in favor of causes other than Pfiesteria. Data are summarized from experiments that have shown stimulation of toxic Pfiesteria strains by nutrient (N, P) enrichment, supporting field observations of highest abundance of toxic strains in eutrophic estuaries. On the basis of a decade of research on toxic Pfiesteria, we present a conceptual model of the seasonal dynamics of toxic strains as affected by changing food resources and weather patterns. We also recommend protocols and research approaches that will strengthen the science of fish kill assessment related to Pfiesteria and/or other causative factors.

  3. Field ecology of toxic Pfiesteria complex species and a conservative analysis of their role in estuarine fish kills.

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, H B; Burkholder, J M; Mallin, M A; Deamer-Melia, N J; Reed, R E

    2001-01-01

    Within the past decade, toxic Pfiesteria outbreaks have been documented in poorly flushed, eutrophic areas of the largest and second largest estuaries on the U.S. mainland. Here we summarize a decadal field effort in fish kill assessment, encompassing kills related to Pfiesteria (49 major kills in North Carolina estuaries since 1991 and 4 in Maryland estuaries in 1997) and to other factors such as low oxygen stress (79 major fish kills in North Carolina estuaries). The laboratory and field data considered in developing our protocols are described, including toxic Pfiesteria behavior, environmental conditions conducive to toxic Pfiesteria activity, and impacts of toxic clonal Pfiesteria on fish health. We outline the steps of the standardized fish bioassay procedure that has been used since 1991 to diagnose whether actively toxic Pfiesteria was present during estuarine fish kills. Detailed data are given for a 1998 toxic Pfiesteria outbreak in the Neuse Estuary in North Carolina to illustrate of the full suite of diagnostic steps completed. We demonstrate that our conservative approach in implicating toxic Pfiesteria involvement in fish kills has biased in favor of causes other than Pfiesteria. Data are summarized from experiments that have shown stimulation of toxic Pfiesteria strains by nutrient (N, P) enrichment, supporting field observations of highest abundance of toxic strains in eutrophic estuaries. On the basis of a decade of research on toxic Pfiesteria, we present a conceptual model of the seasonal dynamics of toxic strains as affected by changing food resources and weather patterns. We also recommend protocols and research approaches that will strengthen the science of fish kill assessment related to Pfiesteria and/or other causative factors. PMID:11677181

  4. Acute toxicity effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on sperm vitality, kinematics and fertilization success in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jigang; Niu, Cuijuan

    2016-08-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has emerged as one of the most concerning contaminants in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity effect of PFOS on sperm viability, kinematics and fertilization success in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Sperm were activated in aqueous media containing a range of PFOS concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.9 and 9 mg/L). Viabilities and kinematics of the sperm exposed to different PFOS treatments were assessed via computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) at 20, 40 60 and 80 s after activation. PFOS exposure decreased the percentage of motile sperm, the curvilinear velocity (VCL), and the mean angular displacement (MAD) of spermatozoa, but showed no influence on the straight-line velocity (VSL) or the angular path velocity (VAP). Furthermore, a significant decrease in fertilization success was observed in spermatozoa that were exposed to 0.9 mg/L PFOS or more. These findings indicate that PFOS pollution in natural aquatic environment may be a potential threaten to successful reproduction of fish.

  5. USE OF MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION (TIE) METHODS IN DETERMINING CAUSES OF TOXICITY TO FISH IN A MARINE AQUARIUM FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We obtained a water sample containing broken pieces of a tropical coral reef decor that was suspected of causing fish toxicity in a major aquarium. A toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) was performed using three species: a mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia; inland silvers...

  6. Colonisation of toxic environments drives predictable life-history evolution in livebearing fishes (Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo; Tobler, Michael; Brian Langerhans, R

    2014-01-01

    New World livebearing fishes (family Poeciliidae) have repeatedly colonised toxic, hydrogen sulphide-rich waters across their natural distribution. Physiological considerations and life-history theory predict that these adverse conditions should favour the evolution of larger offspring. Here, we examined nine poeciliid species that independently colonised toxic environments, and show that these fishes have indeed repeatedly evolved much larger offspring size at birth in sulphidic waters, thus uncovering a widespread pattern of predictable evolution. However, a second pattern, only indirectly predicted by theory, proved additionally common: a reduction in the number of offspring carried per clutch (i.e. lower fecundity). Our analyses reveal that this secondary pattern represents a mere consequence of a classic life-history trade-off combined with strong selection on offspring size alone. With such strong natural selection in extreme environments, extremophile organisms may commonly exhibit multivariate phenotypic shifts even though not all diverging traits necessarily represent adaptations to the extreme conditions.

  7. Prediction and experimental validation of acute toxicity of beta-blockers in Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Fraysse, Benoit; Garric, Jeanne

    2005-10-01

    Acute toxicity of beta-adrenoceptor blockers (beta-blockers) was studied with beta-blockers as single compounds or in mixture using the standardized acute 2-d Ceriodaphnia dubia immobility test. The tested compounds were selected according to their selectivity for the beta1-adrenoceptor, with three beta1-selective blockers (acebutolol, atenolol, and metoprolol) and three non-beta1-selective blockers (nadolol, oxprenolol, and propranolol). The acute toxicity (median effective concentration) of the six single compounds ranged from 1.4 mg/L for propranolol to 163 mg/L for nadolol. According to European Union directive 93/67EEC, these values range from toxic for aquatic organisms to nonclassified. The more toxic compounds, propranolol and oxprenolol, are both characterized by a membrane-stabilizing activity, a strong affinity for the beta1-adrenoceptor, and a high octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow). The property of beta-receptor selectivity seems not to be involved in the observed acute toxicity of the single compounds for C. dubia. Nevertheless, the toxicity of the selected compounds in mixture can be defined according to the beta1-selectivity. Two main joint effects have been detected: An independent action for the beta1-selective blockers, and an additive effect when either the nonselective beta1-selective blockers or the six compounds are tested together. The concentration addition model seems to be appropriate, providing a reasonable worst-case estimation of beta-blocker mixture toxicity for regulatory purposes.

  8. Salinity-dependent mechanisms of copper toxicity in the galaxiid fish, Galaxias maculatus.

    PubMed

    Glover, Chris N; Urbina, Mauricio A; Harley, Rachel A; Lee, Jacqueline A

    2016-05-01

    The euryhaline galaxiid fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus) is widely spread throughout the Southern hemisphere occupying near-coastal streams that may be elevated in trace elements such as copper (Cu). Despite this, nothing is known regarding their sensitivity to Cu contamination. The mechanisms of Cu toxicity in inanga, and the ameliorating role of salinity, were investigated by acclimating fish to freshwater (FW), 50% seawater (SW), or 100% SW and exposing them to a graded series of Cu concentrations (0-200μgL(-1)) for 48h. Mortality, whole body Cu accumulation, measures of ionoregulatory disturbance (whole body ions, sodium (Na) influx, sodium/potassium ATPase activity) and ammonia excretion were monitored. Toxicity of Cu was greatest in FW, with mortality likely resulting from impaired Na influx. In both FW and 100% SW, ammonia excretion was significantly elevated, an effect opposite to that observed in previous studies, suggesting fundamental differences in the effect of Cu in this species relative to other studied fish. Salinity was protective against Cu toxicity, and physiology seemed to play a more important role than water chemistry in this protection. Inanga are sensitive to waterborne Cu through a conserved impairment of Na ion homeostasis, but some effects of Cu exposure in this species are distinct. Based on effect concentrations, current regulatory tools and limits are likely protective of this species in New Zealand waters.

  9. Confirmation of Stormwater Bioretention Treatment Effectiveness Using Molecular Indicators of Cardiovascular Toxicity in Developing Fish.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Jenifer K; Edmunds, Richard C; Redig, Maria G; Mudrock, Emma M; Davis, Jay W; Incardona, John P; Stark, John D; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2016-02-02

    Urban stormwater runoff is a globally significant threat to the ecological integrity of aquatic habitats. Green stormwater infrastructure methods such as bioretention are increasingly used to improve water quality by filtering chemical contaminants that may be harmful to fish and other species. Ubiquitous examples of toxics in runoff from highways and other impervious surfaces include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Certain PAHs are known to cause functional and structural defects in developing fish hearts. Therefore, abnormal heart development in fish can be a sensitive measure of clean water technology effectiveness. Here we use the zebrafish experimental model to assess the effects of untreated runoff on the expression of genes that are classically responsive to contaminant exposures, as well as heart-related genes that may underpin the familiar cardiotoxicity phenotype. Further, we assess the effectiveness of soil bioretention for treating runoff, as measured by prevention of both visible cardiac toxicity and corresponding gene regulation. We find that contaminants in the dissolved phase of runoff (e.g., PAHs) are cardiotoxic and that soil bioretention protects against these harmful effects. Molecular markers were more sensitive than visible toxicity indicators, and several cardiac-related genes show promise as novel tools for evaluating the effectiveness of evolving stormwater mitigation strategies.

  10. Toxicity of retene to early life stages of two freshwater fish species

    SciTech Connect

    Billiard, S.M.; Querbach, K.; Hodson, P.V.

    1999-09-01

    Larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed for 14 d to graded nominal concentrations of waterborne retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene) from 5 to 336 h postfertilization. Reduced growth, yolk sac edema, and mortality were observed before swim up at nominal concentrations of 320 {micro}g/L and higher in a concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, exposures of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to retene (32--320 {micro}g/L) for 42 d from the eyed egg stage to hatch and from hatch to the onset of swim up behavior caused exposure-related increases in blue sac disease posthatch. Symptoms included increased activity of cytochrome P4501A (CYPIA) enzymes, yolk sac edema, subcutaneous hemorrhaging, reduced growth, and craniofacial malformations. Chronic exposure to retene resulted in mortality before swim up. Blue sac symptoms were observed in fish exposed to nominal concentrations as low as 32 {micro}g/L, the lowest concentration tested, and fin erosion and opercular sloughing were evident in 100% of retene-exposed swim up larvae. No symptoms were observed in control fish or in fish exposed to acetone, the solvent carrier. The observed pathology resembles the toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity to developing stages of fish, and results suggest that chronic exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may be responsible for recruitment failure associated with pulp mill effluents and oil spills.

  11. Toxic and essential trace elemental contents in fish species from the Black Sea, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tuzen, Mustafa

    2009-08-01

    Toxic and essential element content of ten different fish species from the Black Sea were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion method. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference materials (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The relative standard deviations were found to be lower than 10%. Toxic element content in fish samples were found 25-84 microg/kg for mercury, 0.11-0.32 microg/g for arsenic, 0.28-0.87 microg/g for lead, 0.10-0.35 microg/g for cadmium, 1.14-3.60 microg/g for nickel. Trace element content in fish samples were found 36.2-145 microg/g for iron, 0.65-2.78 microg/g for copper, 2.76-9.10 microg/g for manganese, 38.8-93.4 microg/g for zinc, 0.19-0.85 microg/g for selenium, 0.63-1.74 microg/g for chromium. The levels of lead and cadmium in fish samples were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption.

  12. Three dimensional quantitative structure-toxicity relationship modeling and prediction of acute toxicity for organic contaminants to algae.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiangqin; Jin, Minghao; Sheng, Lianxi

    2014-08-01

    Although numerous chemicals have been identified to have significant toxicological effect on aquatic organisms, there is still lack of a reliable, high-throughput approach to evaluate, screen and monitor the presence of organic contaminants in aquatic system. In the current study, we proposed a synthetic pipeline to automatically model and predict the acute toxicity of chemicals to algae. In the procedure, a new alignment-free three dimensional (3D) structure characterization method was described and, with this method, several 3D-quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (3D-QSTR) models were developed, from which two were found to exhibit strong internal fitting ability and high external predictive power. The best model was established by Gaussian process (GP), which was further employed to perform extrapolation on a random compound library consisting of 1014 virtually generated substituted benzenes. It was found that (i) substitution number can only exert slight influence on chemical׳s toxicity, but low-substituted benzenes seem to have higher toxicity than those of high-substituted entities, and (ii) benzenes substituted by nitro group and halogens exhibit high acute toxicity as compared to other substituents such as methyl and carboxyl groups. Subsequently, several promising candidates suggested by computational prediction were assayed by using a standard algal growth inhibition test. Consequently, four substituted benzenes, namely 2,3-dinitrophenol, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 1,2,3-trinitrobenzene and 3-bromophenol, were determined to have high acute toxicity to Scenedesmus obliquus, with their EC50 values of 2.5±0.8, 10.5±2.1, 1.4±0.2 and 42.7±5.4μmol/L, respectively.

  13. Implementing Lecane quadridentata acute toxicity tests to assess the toxic effects of selected metals (Al, Fe and Zn).

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Félix Torres; González, Francisco Javier Avelar; Martínez, Roberto Rico

    2010-03-01

    An environmental study revealed that three metals (Al, Fe and Zn) are common in the San Pedro River (SPR) (Aguascalientes, Mexico). Regrettably, in many samples the concentrations of these metals exceeded the maximum allowed toxicant concentrations levels as defined in by Mexican legislation. The highest concentrations of the three metals were found during the 2005 dry season, with elevated Al concentrations present along the entire river. Not surprisingly, the highest concentrations for all three metals came from locations adjacent to industrial areas. Estimates of the contribution of these metals to total toxicity revealed that these three metals are important contaminants of the river and responsible for most of the lethal toxicity found in environmental samples. To assess the importance of these reports, we conducted acute toxicity tests to determine LC50 for Al, Fe and Zn on the freshwater rotifer Lecane quadridentata. This permitted us to estimate the contribution of these metals to total toxicity during 2005-2006. Based on LC50 values, all three metals should be considered very toxic, with the zinc LC50 value (0.12 mg L(-1)) making it the most toxic metal for L. quadridentata. This approach can be applied to other sites with similar concentrations of these metals.

  14. A case of life-threatening acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy caused by Dioscorea quinqueloba.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Sik; Heo, Sang Taek

    2015-01-01

    Some herbal medications induce acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injuries caused by herbal medications are mild and commonly treated by palliative care. A 51-years-old man who drank the juice squeezed from the raw tubers of Dioscorea quinqueloba (D. quinqueloba) was admitted with nausea, vomiting and chilling. He developed a seizure with decreased level of consciousness. He was diagnosed with acute kidney injury, which was cured by continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration. Non-detoxified D. quinqueloba can cause severe acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy. It is critical to inform possible adverse effects of the medicinal herbs and to implement more strict regulation of these products.

  15. Chronic toxicity of heavy fuel oils to fish embryos using multiple exposure scenarios.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jonathan D; Adams, Julie; Hollebone, Bruce; King, Thomas; Brown, R Stephen; Hodson, Peter V

    2014-03-01

    The chronic toxicity to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos of heavy fuel oil (HFO) 6303, weathered HFO 6303, HFO 7102, and medium South American (MESA) crude oil was assessed by different exposure regimes. These included water accommodated fractions (WAF; water in contact with floating oil), chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF; oil dispersed with Corexit 9500), and effluent from columns of gravel coated with stranded oil. Heavy fuel oil WAF was nontoxic and did not contain detectable concentrations of hydrocarbons, likely because the high density and viscosity of HFO prevented droplet formation. In contrast, chemically dispersed HFO and effluent from columns of stranded HFO contained measurable concentrations of alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), coincident with embryo toxicity. These exposure regimes enhanced the surface area of oil in contact with water, facilitating oil-water partitioning of hydrocarbons. Heavy fuel oil was consistently more toxic to fish than crude oil and the rank order of alkyl PAH concentrations in whole oil were sufficient to explain the rank order of toxicity, regardless of exposure method. Thus, the propensity of HFO to sink and strand in spawning shoals creates a long-term risk to developing fish because of the sustained release of PAHs from HFO to interstitial waters. Further, PAH monitoring is key to accurate risk assessment.

  16. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-01-06

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants.

  17. Toxic metals in tissues of fishes from the Black Sea and associated human health risk exposure.

    PubMed

    Plavan, Gabriel; Jitar, Oana; Teodosiu, Carmen; Nicoara, Mircea; Micu, Dragos; Strungaru, Stefan-Adrian

    2017-01-27

    The anthropogenic activities in the Black Sea area are responsible for toxic metal contamination of sea food products. In this study, several toxic metals: cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium, and copper were quantified in different tissues (digestive tract, muscle, skeleton, skin) of nine fish species (Neogobius melanostomus, Belone belone, Solea solea, Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus, Sardina pilchardus, Engraulis encrasicolus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Sprattus sprattus, Scorpaena porcus) by using atomic absorption spectrometer with a high-resolution continuum source and graphite furnace technique (HR-CS GF-AAS), and the risk of fish meat consumption by the young human population was evaluated. These metals are used in high amounts in industries located near the coastline such as shipyard construction and industrial plants. Toxic metal accumulation depends on fish feeding behavior, abiotic conditions, metal chemistry, and animal physiology. For instance, cadmium was measured in the muscle of the investigated species and average values of 0.0008-0.0338 mg kg(-1) were obtained. The lowest average value of this metal was measured at benthic species N. melanostomus and the highest at the pelagic predator T. mediterraneus ponticus. Generally, the highest metal concentration was measured in the digestive tract that has the role of biofilter for these contaminants. The risk of contamination is significantly reduced by avoiding the consumption of certain fish tissues (digestive tract and skin for copper and skeleton for nickel). An estimation of the dietary metal intake to young consumers was realized for each of the studied species of fish from Romanian, Bulgarian, and Turkish waters, during the period 2001-2014 in order to evaluate the risks of chronic exposure in time due to metal toxicity. This estimation is important for the prevention of chronic exposure due to metal toxicity. Food exposure to studied metals showed a negative trend for Romania, Turkey, and Bulgaria

  18. Comparison of methods for evaluating acute and chronic toxicity in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Greenstein, Darrin; Bay, Steven; Anderson, Brian; Chandler, G Thomas; Farrar, J Daniel; Keppler, Charles; Phillips, Bryn; Ringwood, Amy; Young, Diana

    2008-04-01

    Sublethal test methods are being used with increasing frequency to measure sediment toxicity, but little is known about the relative sensitivity of these tests compared to the more commonly used acute tests. The present study was conducted to compare the sensitivity of several acute and sublethal methods and to investigate their correlations with sediment chemistry and benthic community condition. Six sublethal methods (amphipod: Leptocheirus plumulosus survival, growth, and reproduction; polychaete: Neanthes arenaceodentata survival and growth; benthic copepod: Amphiascus tenuiremis life cycle; seed clam: Mercenaria mercenaria growth; oyster: Crassostrea virginica lysosome destabilization; and sediment-water interface testing with mussel embryos, Mytilus galloprovincialis) and two acute methods (amphipod survival with Eohaustorius estuarius and L. plumulosus) were used to test split sediment samples from stations in California. The test with Amphiascus proved to be the most sensitive sublethal test and the most sensitive overall, identifying 90% of the stations as toxic. The Leptocheirus 10-d test was the most sensitive of the acute tests, identifying 60% of the stations as toxic. In general, the sublethal tests were not more sensitive to sediments than the acute tests, with the sublethal tests finding an average of 35% of the stations to be toxic while the acute found 44%. Of the sublethal tests, only the Amphiascus endpoints and Neanthes growth significantly (p toxicity endpoints and the indicators of benthic community condition. Differences in test characteristics such as mode of exposure, species-specific contaminant sensitivity, changes in contaminant bioavailability, and influence of noncontaminant stressors on the benthos may have been responsible for variation in response among the tests and low correspondence with benthic community condition. The

  19. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) harmonized test guideline 870.1100 (August... of test substance per unit weight of test animal (milligrams per kilogram). (d) Alternative.... EPA will accept three alternative Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)...

  20. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) harmonized test guideline 870.1100 (August... of test substance per unit weight of test animal (milligrams per kilogram). (d) Alternative.... EPA will accept three alternative Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)...

  1. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) harmonized test guideline 870.1100 (August... of test substance per unit weight of test animal (milligrams per kilogram). (d) Alternative.... EPA will accept three alternative Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)...

  2. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) harmonized test guideline 870.1100 (August... of test substance per unit weight of test animal (milligrams per kilogram). (d) Alternative.... EPA will accept three alternative Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)...

  3. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) harmonized test guideline 870.1100 (August... of test substance per unit weight of test animal (milligrams per kilogram). (d) Alternative.... EPA will accept three alternative Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)...

  4. Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity of Periodate in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-17

    sodium periodate via oral gavage resulted in a cascade of effects that were secondary to kidney toxicity. Decreased mass of ovaries and epididymides and...testicular degeneration were observed in sodium periodate groups with signs of kidney toxicity. These groups also exhibited decreased T3 and T4 in the...presence of decreased TSH, a pattern associated with uremia. Sodium periodate exposed rats exhibited both activation of the innate immune system and

  5. PRN 2001-2: Acute Toxicity Data Requirements For Granular Pesticide Products, Including Those With Granular Fertilizers in the Product.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This PR Notice announces guidance intended to streamline the acute toxicity review and classification process for certain granular pesticide products, including those products that contain granular fertilizers.

  6. Mitigation of malathion's acute toxicity by four submersed macrophyte species.

    PubMed

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2013-07-01

    Some submersed macrophyte species rapidly sorb some insecticides from the water, potentially reducing exposure for aquatic species. The rates at which macrophytes remove insecticides, however, can differ widely among plant species. Furthermore, few studies have examined how much macrophytes actually influence insecticide toxicity to sensitive animals. The authors quantified the ability of several macrophyte species to mitigate insecticide toxicity by comparing the survival of the aquatic herbivore, Daphnia magna, following exposure to a factorial combination of 3 malathion concentrations (0 µg/L, 3 µg/L, and 24 µg/L) and 7 macrophyte treatments (no macrophytes, 4 different macrophyte monocultures, and 2 inert substrates: plastic plants and polypropylene rope). The authors also quantified the rate that different macrophytes reduced malathion's toxicity by exposing D. magna to water samples collected from each treatment after 2 h, 8 h, and 48 h of exposure. The results revealed that whereas 3 µg/L and 24 µg/L of malathion decimated D. magna in the no-macrophyte, plastic plant, and rope treatments, all 4 macrophyte species strongly mitigated these effects. When the authors compared the rate at which malathion's toxicity decreased, they found that all macrophytes negated malathion's toxicity within 2 h, whereas it took more than 8 h in the absence of macrophytes or in the presence of inert substrates. These results demonstrate that numerous macrophyte species can equally and strongly mitigate insecticide toxicity, whereas inert substrates cannot.

  7. Toxicity of TNT Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms. Volume 1. Acute Toxicity of LAP Wastewater and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    used to assess the adequacy of current pollution abatement technologies and thus influence research and development in this area. This report...wastewater samples, was defined as a 1.6-to-I mixture o! TNT and RDX. "The results of flow-through acute toxicity terzs with the inverte - brate Daphniamagna...The "unadjusted" confidence interval for the LCSO is derived by inverting the likelihood ratio test for determining whether any specified

  8. Acute to chronic ratios in aquatic toxicity--variation across trophic levels and relationship with chemical structure.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Jan; Riedhammer, Caroline; Vogliano, Michaela; Ebert, Ralf-Uwe; Kühne, Ralph; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2006-11-01

    For fish, daphnids, and algae, acute to chronic ratios (ACRs) have been determined from experimental data regarding new and existing chemicals. Only test results in accord with the European Union Technical Guidance Document (TGD) and validated by authorities were considered. Whereas the median ACRs of 10.5 (fish), 7.0 (daphnids), and 5.4 (algae) are well below the ACR safety factor of 100 as implied by the TGD, individual ACRs vary considerably and go up to 4400. The results suggest that a safety factor of 100 is not protective for all chemicals and trophic levels. Neither a correlation between ACR and baseline toxicity as modeled through the logarithmic octanol-water partition coefficient nor an ACR correlation across trophic levels exists. Narcosis is associated with a preference for a low ACR; nevertheless, low ACRs are frequently obtained for nonnarcotics. Analysis of chemical structures led to the derivation of structural alerts to identify compounds with a significantly increased potential for a high ACR, which may prove to be useful in setting test priorities. At present, however, life-cycle tests are the only way to conservatively predict long-term toxicity.

  9. Effect of acute stresses on zebra fish (Danio rerio) metabolome measured by NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Mian Yahya; Marçal, Rosilene Moretti; Champagne, Danielle L; van der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2014-09-01

    We applied an acute stress model to zebra fish in order to measure the changes in the metabolome due to biological stress. This was done by submitting the fish to fifteen minutes of acute confinement (netting) stress, and then five minutes for the open field and light/dark field tests. A polar extract of the zebra fish was then subjected to (1)H nuclear magnetic spectroscopy. Multivariate data analysis of the spectra showed a clear separation associated to a wide range of metabolites between zebra fish that were submitted to open field and light/dark field tests. Alanine, taurine, adenosine, creatine, lactate, and histidine were high in zebra fish to which the light/dark field test was applied, regardless of stress, while acetate and isoleucine/lipids appeared to be higher in zebra fish exposed to the open field test. These results show that any change in the environment, even for a small period of time, has a noticeable physiological impact. This research provides an insight of how different mechanisms are activated under different environments to maintain the homeostasis of the body. It should also contribute to establish zebra fish as a model for metabolomics studies.

  10. Acute toxicity of Headline® fungicide to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi).

    PubMed

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2016-04-01

    Previous laboratory studies have suggested that pyraclostrobin-containing fungicide formulations are toxic to amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, it is unknown if all pyraclostrobin formulations have similar toxicity and if toxicity occurs in different amphibian species. We investigated the acute toxicity of two formulations, Headline(®) fungicide and Headline AMP(®) fungicide, to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) based on a direct overspray scenario. In addition, we examined body residues of fungicide active ingredients in A. blanchardi following direct exposure to Headline AMP fungicide. Headline fungicide and Headline AMP fungicide had similar toxicity to A. blanchardi with calculated median lethal doses of 2.1 and 1.7 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively, which are similar to the suggested maximum label rate in North American corn (2.2 and 1.52 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively). Tissue concentrations of pyraclostrobin were lower than predicted based on full uptake of a direct dose, and did not drop during the first 24 h after exposure. Headline fungicides at corn application rates are acutely toxic to cricket frogs, but acute toxicity in the field will depend on worst-case exposure.

  11. Responding to Pfiesteria piscicida (the fish killer): phantomatic ontologies, indeterminacy, and responsibility in toxic microbiology.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Astrid

    2010-04-01

    Based on an analysis of an ongoing scientific-political controversy over the toxicity of a fish-killing microorganism, this paper explores the relationship between responsibility and nonhuman contributions to agency in experimental practices. Research into the insidious effects of the dinoflagellates Pfiesteria piscicida (the fish killer) that thrive in waters over-enriched with nutrients, has received considerable attention by both the media and government agencies concerned with public and environmental health. After nearly two decades of research, the question of whether Pfiesteria can be regarded the 'causative agent' of massive fish kills in the estuaries of the US mid-Atlantic could not be scientifically settled. In contrast to policymakers, who attribute the absence of a scientific consensus to gaps in scientific knowledge and uncertainties regarding the identity and behavior of the potentially toxic dinoflagellates, I propose that an inseparable entanglement of Pfiesteria's identities and their toxic activities challenges conventional notions of causality that seek to establish a connection between independent events in linear time. Building on Karen Barad's framework of agential realism, I argue for a move from epistemological uncertainties to ontological indeterminacies that follow from Pfiesteria's contributions to agency, as the condition for responsible and objective science. In tracking discrepant experimental enactments of Pfiesteria that have been mobilized as evidence for and against their toxicity, I investigate how criteria for what counts as evidence get built into the experimental apparatuses and suggest that the joint possibilities of causality and responsibility vary with the temporalities of the objects enacted. This discussion seeks to highlight a thorough entanglement of epistemic/ontological concerns with the ecological/political relevance of particular experiments. Finally, I introduce a new kind of scientific object that--borrowing from

  12. Comparative toxicity of copper and acridine to fish, Daphnia and algae

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison was made of the sensitivity of fish, Daphnia and algae to the toxic effects of copper and acridine. A series of toxicity tests was conducted with these organisms, and the following biological endpoints determined: LC50s for fish, LC50s and effects on reproduction of Daphnia and 50% inhibition of the growth rate of algae. The 96-h LCO50s for bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and Daphnia magna exposed to copper were 2.2 and 0.13 mg/L, respectively. A chronic exposure to 0.03 mg/L of copper for 14 d significantly decreased reproduction in Daphnia. Exposure to 0.4 and 0.2 mg/L copper inhibited the growth rate of Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella vulgaris, respectively, by 50%. The 96-h LC50s for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and D. magna exposed to acridine were 2.3 and 3.1 mg/L, respectively. A chronic exposure to 1.25 mg/L acridine for 14 d significantly inhibited reproduction in Daphnia, and an exposure to 0.9 mg/L inhibited the growth rate of S. capricornutum by 50%. Based on the biological endpoints determined in these tests, Daphnia were more sensitive to copper than were fish or algae. In contrast, the most sensitive biological endpoint in tests with acridine was the inhibition of algal growth. Comparison of these test results indicates that short-term toxicity tests used for screening toxicants for possible environmental effects should include both plant and animal species. 16 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  13. PHOTO-INDUCED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON TOXIC POTENTIALS OF NEAR SHORE LARVAL FISH HABITAT IN THE GREAT LAKES, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photo-induced toxicity (PIT) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has been documented in laboratory studies for both invertebrate and vertebrate aquatic organisms. PIT has not been verified in field studies for larval fish to date. Filtered water samples and larval fish were...

  14. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Inhaled Toluene in Male ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The effects of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are of concern to the EPA, are poorly understood, in part because of insufficient characterization of how human exposure duration impacts VOC effects. Two inhalation studies with multiple endpoints, one acute and one subchronic, were conducted to seek effects of the VOC, toluene, in rats and to compare the effects between acute and subchronic exposures. Adult male Long-Evans rats were exposed to toluene vapor (n = 6 per group) at a concentration of 0 or l 019 ± 14 ppm for 6 h in the acute study and at 0 ± 0, 10 ± 1.4, 97 ± 7, or 995 ± 43 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/week for 13 weeksin the subchronic study. For the acute study, brains were dissected on ice within 30 min of the end of exposure, while for the subchronic study, brains were dissected 18 h after the last exposure. Frontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and striatum were assayed for a variety of oxidative stress (OS) parameters including total aconitase (TA), protein carbonyls, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione transferase (GST), y-­glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidants (TAS), NADPH quinone oxidoreductase- 1 (NQO1 ), and NADH ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD) activities using commercially available kits. Following acute exposure, UBIQ-RD, GCS and GRD were increased significantly only in the cerebellum, while TAS was increased in frontal cortex. On the other

  15. Case of acute lead toxicity associated with Ayurvedic supplements.

    PubMed

    Breyre, Amelia; Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2016-06-30

    Use of traditional folkloric remedies not disclosed to the physician may be difficult to identify as a source of lead toxicity. This report illustrates the presentation of a 26-year-old man who, during his 1 month vacation in India, was treated for low back pain with Ayurvedic herbal medicine. On his return to the USA, he presented to the emergency department with epigastric pain, weight loss, dark stools, nausea and vomiting. He was admitted and noted to be anaemic with a blood lead level (BLL) of 94.8 µg/dL. Peripheral blood smear demonstrated basophilic stippling. Chelation therapy with succimer was initiated. The patient became asymptomatic within months. Three years later, he remained asymptomatic with BLL <20 µg/dL. Physicians should be cognisant of potential toxicity from these Ayurvedic medications and have a heightened level of suspicion for lead toxicity in the face of anaemia and abdominal pain without obvious cause.

  16. Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures.

  17. Optimisation of the supercritical extraction of toxic elements in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S; Shakibazadeh, Sh; Afsah-Hejri, L; Mohebbi, G H; Zaidul, I S M

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to optimise the operating conditions for the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of toxic elements from fish oil. The SFE operating parameters of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and extraction time were optimised using a central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). High coefficients of determination (R²) (0.897-0.988) for the predicted response surface models confirmed a satisfactory adjustment of the polynomial regression models with the operation conditions. The results showed that the linear and quadratic terms of pressure and temperature were the most significant (p < 0.05) variables affecting the overall responses. The optimum conditions for the simultaneous elimination of toxic elements comprised a pressure of 61 MPa, a temperature of 39.8ºC, a CO₂ flow rate of 3.7 ml min⁻¹ and an extraction time of 4 h. These optimised SFE conditions were able to produce fish oil with the contents of lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury reduced by up to 98.3%, 96.1%, 94.9% and 93.7%, respectively. The fish oil extracted under the optimised SFE operating conditions was of good quality in terms of its fatty acid constituents.

  18. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  19. Acute toxicity assessment of ANAMMOX substrates and antibiotics by luminescent bacteria test.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuang; Wu, Junwei; Zhang, Meng; Lu, Huifeng; Mahmood, Qaisar; Zheng, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Acute toxicities of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) substrates and four antibiotics from pharmaceutical wastewaters on ANAMMOX process were reported. Individual and joint acute toxicity assays were performed using 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Results showed that IC50 values and their 95% confidence interval of ammonium chloride (A), sodium nitrite (B), penicillin G-Na (C), polymyxin B sulfate (D), chloramphenicol (E) and kanamycin sulfate (F) were 2708.9 (2247.9-3169.9), 1475.4 (1269.9-1680.9), 5114.4 (4946.4-5282.4), 10.2 (1.8-18.6), 409.9 (333.7-486.1) and 5254.1 (3934.4-6573.8) mgL(-1) respectively, suggesting toxicities were in the order of D>E>B>A>C>F. Joint acute toxicities of bicomponent mixtures A and B, C and D, C and F, D and F were independent; D and E, E and F were additive while C and E were synergistic. Joint acute toxicities of multicomponent mixtures were synergistic or additive. Luminescent bacteria test is an easy and robust method for forecasting the feasibility of ANAMMOX process for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment.

  20. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Sonja; Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin; Sterzing, Florian; Habl, Gregor; Edler, Lutz; Debus, Juergen; Herfarth, Klaus

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.

  1. Acute Toxicity and Cytotoxicity of Pereskia aculeata, a Highly Nutritious Cactaceae Plant.

    PubMed

    Silva, Debora O; Seifert, Mauricio; Nora, Fabiana R; Bobrowski, Vera L; Freitag, Rogerio A; Kucera, Heidi R; Nora, Leonardo; Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2017-04-01

    Pereskia aculeata is a Cactaceae plant with valuable nutritional properties, including terrific amounts of protein, minerals, vitamins, and fiber. However, P. aculeata is reported to contain antinutrients and alkaloids in its leaves. In addition, in a study on growth and development, Wistar rats fed with P. aculeata and casein as protein source grew less than the control group (fed with casein only). Therefore, in this study, we evaluated, for the first time, the oral acute toxicity of P. aculeata in rats and also the cytotoxicity behavior of the plant on lettuce seeds. The acute toxicity research was carried out using dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract, in three different doses, administered by gavage to 24 female Wistar rats. The rats were then examined for signs of toxicity, food intake, body weight, and fecal excretion fluctuations, as well as histopathological alterations, using eight different body tissues. The acute toxicity study did not show any difference among the groups in either clinical evaluation or histopathological analyses. For the cytotoxicity study, dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract was applied on lettuce seeds in five different concentrations. These seeds were evaluated for germination, root and shoot length, and mitotic index. The results show that P. aculeata extract affects lettuce root and shoot growth, but not germination or mitotic index. In conclusion, the acute toxicity on rats and the cytogenotoxicity on lettuce of P. aculeata are neglectable, validating the potential of this plant to be used as a functional food.

  2. Evaluation of the importance of astrocytes when screening for acute toxicity in neuronal cell systems.

    PubMed

    Woehrling, E K; Hill, E J; Coleman, M D

    2010-02-01

    Reliable, high throughput, in vitro preliminary screening batteries have the potential to greatly accelerate the rate at which regulatory neurotoxicity data is generated. This study evaluated the importance of astrocytes when predicting acute toxic potential using a neuronal screening battery of pure neuronal (NT2.N) and astrocytic (NT2.A) and integrated neuronal/astrocytic (NT2.N/A) cell systems derived from the human NT2.D1 cell line, using biochemical endpoints (mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarisation and ATP and GSH depletion). Following exposure for 72 h, the known acute human neurotoxicants trimethyltin-chloride, chloroquine and 6-hydroxydopamine were frequently capable of disrupting biochemical processes in all of the cell systems at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Astrocytes provide key metabolic and protective support to neurons during toxic challenge in vivo and generally the astrocyte containing cell systems showed increased tolerance to toxicant insult compared with the NT2.N mono-culture in vitro. Whilst there was no consistent relationship between MMP, ATP and GSH log IC(50) values for the NT2.N/A and NT2.A cell systems, these data did provide preliminary evidence of modulation of the acute neuronal toxic response by astrocytes. In conclusion, the suitability of NT2 neurons and astrocytes as cell systems for acute toxicity screening deserves further investigation.

  3. Towards global QSAR model building for acute toxicity: Munro database case study.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Swapnil; Nicholls, Ian A; Karlsson, Björn C G; Rosengren, Annika M; Ballabio, Davide; Consonni, Viviana; Todeschini, Roberto

    2014-10-09

    A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER) equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity.

  4. The Applicability of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Assessing Chromium Induced Toxicity in the Fish Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Ankur; Dange, Swati

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of metal's toxicity in freshwater is one of the imperative areas of research and there is an emergent concern on the development of techniques for detecting toxic effects in aquatic animals. Oxidative stress biomarkers are very useful in assessing the health of aquatic life and more in depth studies are necessary to establish an exact cause effect relationship. Therefore, to study the effectiveness of this approach, a laboratory study was conducted in the fish Labeo rohita as a function of hexavalent chromium and the toxicity indices using a battery of oxidative stress biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver, muscle, gills, and brain have been studied along with biometric parameters, behavioral changes, and Cr bioaccumulation. A significant increased HSI was observed in contrast to CF which reduced significantly. SOD, CAT, and GR activity increased significantly in all the tissues of treated fishes. The bioaccumulation of Cr was highest in liver followed by gills, muscle, and brain. This study highlights the significance of using a set of integrated biomarker and advocate to include these parameters in National Water Quality Monitoring Program in areas potentially polluted with metals to assess the health of the ecosystem. PMID:25302308

  5. In vitro cytotoxicity testing for prediction of acute human toxicity.

    PubMed

    Barile, F A; Dierickx, P J; Kristen, U

    1994-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the cytotoxic concentrations of chemicals, determined with three independent in vitro cytotoxicity testing protocols, with each other and with established animal LD50 values, and against human toxic concentrations for the same chemicals. Ultimately, these comparisons allow us to evaluate the potential of in vitro cell culture methods for the ability to screen a variety of chemicals for prediction of human toxicity. Each laboratory independently tested 50 chemicals with known human lethal plasma concentrations and LD50 values. Two of the methods used monolayer cell cultures to measure the incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids into newly synthesized proteins and cellular protein content, while the third technique used the pollen tube growth test. The latter is based on the photometric quantification of pollen tube mass production in suspension culture. Experiments were performed in the absence or presence of increasing doses of the test chemical, during an 18- to 24-h incubation. Inhibitory concentrations were extrapolated from concentration-effect curves after linear regression analysis. Comparison of the cytotoxic concentrations confirms previous independent findings that the experimental IC50 values are more accurate predictors of human toxicity than equivalent toxic blood concentrations (HETC values) derived from rodent LD50s. In addition, there were no conclusive statistical differences among the methods. It is anticipated that, together, these procedures can be used as a battery of tests to supplement or replace currently used animal protocols for human risk assessment.

  6. Acute toxicity of pesticides in adult and weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Gaines, T B; Linder, R E

    1986-08-01

    LD50 values were determined for 57 pesticides administered by the oral or dermal route to adult male and female Sherman rats. Thirty-six of the chemicals were also tested by the oral route in one sex of weanlings. Nine pesticides tested by the oral route (bufencarb, cacodylic acid, dialifor, deltamethrin, dicamba, diquat, quintozene, phoxim, pyrazon) and four tested by the dermal route (bufencarb, chlordimeform, dichlofenthion, leptophos) were more toxic to females than to males whereas famphur and 2,4,5-T (oral route) were less toxic to females. Eighteen of the test chemicals were more toxic to the adult than to the weanling and four compounds (leptophos, methidathion, pyrazon, and sulfoxide) were more toxic to the weanling. In additional studies the variability of the LD50 value over a 1-year period was examined for two typical insecticides. Six consecutive bimonthly oral LD50 determinations for parathion and DDT in adults of both sexes indicated that the LD50 values were little affected by the time of year that the tests were done.

  7. Draft Test Guideline: Oyster Acute Toxicity Test (Shell Deposition)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  8. Draft Test Guideline: Bivalve Acute Toxicity Test (Embryo Larval)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  9. Draft Test Guideline: Whole Sediment Acute Toxicity Invertebrates, Marine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  10. Draft Test Guideline: Aquatic Invetebrate Acute Toxicity, Test, Freshwater Daphnids

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  11. Draft Test Guideline: Whole Sediment Acute Toxicity Invertebrates, Freshwater

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  12. Support Vector Machine (SVM) as Alternative Tool to Assign Acute Aquatic Toxicity Warning Labels to Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Michielan, Lisa; Pireddu, Luca; Floris, Matteo; Moro, Stefano

    2010-01-12

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis has been frequently utilized as a computational tool for the prediction of several eco-toxicological parameters including the acute aquatic toxicity. In the present study, we describe a novel integrated strategy to describe the acute aquatic toxicity through the combination of both toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic behaviors of chemicals. In particular, a robust classification model (TOXclass) has been derived by combining Support Vector Machine (SVM) analysis with three classes of toxicokinetic-like molecular descriptors: the autocorrelation molecular electrostatic potential (autoMEP) vectors, Sterimol topological descriptors and logP(o/w) property values. TOXclass model is able to assign chemicals to different levels of acute aquatic toxicity, providing an appropriate answer to the new regulatory requirements. Moreover, we have extended the above mentioned toxicokinetic-like descriptor set with a more toxicodynamic-like descriptors, as for example HOMO and LUMO energies, to generate a valuable SVM classifier (MOAclass) for the prediction of the mode of action (MOA) of toxic chemicals. As preliminary validation of our approach, the toxicokinetic (TOXclass) and the toxicodynamic (MOAclass) models have been applied in series to inspect both aquatic toxicity hazard and mode of action of 296 chemical substances with unknown or uncertain toxicodynamic information to assess the potential ecological risk and the toxic mechanism.

  13. Acute toxicity of diphacinone in Northern bobwhite: Effects on survival and blood clotting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Johnston, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was slightly toxic (acute oral LD50 2014 mg/kg) to Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) in a 14-day acute toxicity trial. Precise and sensitive assays of blood clotting (prothrombin time, Russell?s Viper venom time, and thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in quail, and this combination of assays is recommended to measure the effects of anticoagulant rodenticides. A single oral sublethal dose of diphacinone (434 mg/kg body weight) prolonged clotting time at 48 h post-dose compared to controls. At 783 mg/kg (approximate LD02), clotting time was prolonged at both 24 and 48 h post-dose. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and was detected before overt signs of toxicity were apparent at the greatest dosages (2868 and 3666 mg/kg) in the acute toxicity trial. These clotting time assays and toxicity data will assist in the development of a pharmacodynamic model to predict toxicity, and also facilitate rodenticide hazard and risk assessments in avian species.

  14. Acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and estrogenicity of bisphenol-A and other bisphenols.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Yu; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2002-02-01

    Although abundant data are available on the toxicity of bisphenol-A (2,2-bis (4-hydroxydiphenyl)propane; BPA), little is known about the toxicities of the structurally similar compounds, namely bisphenols (BPs). A variety of BPs were examined for their acute toxicity against Daphnia magna, mutagenicity, and estrogenic activity using the Daphtoxkit (Creasel Ltd.), the umu test system, and the yeast two-hybrid system, respectively, in comparison with BPA. BPA was moderately toxic to D. magna (48-h EC50 was 10 mg/l) according to the current U.S. EPA acute toxicity evaluation standard, and it was weakly estrogenic with 5 orders of magnitude lower activity than that of the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol in the yeast screen, while no mutagenicity was observed. All seven BPs tested here showed moderate to slight acute toxicity, no mutagenicity, and weak estrogenic activity as well as BPA. Some of the BPs showed considerably higher estrogenic activity than BPA, and others exhibited much lower activity. Among the tested BPs, two compounds, i.e., bisphenol-S (bis(4-hydroxydiphenyl)sulfone) and bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)sulfide, have never been reported for their estrogenic activity previously.

  15. Acute and subchronic toxicity of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil in mallards and ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) were assessed in a battery of acute and subchronic toxicity tests using mallards, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferrets, Mustela putorius. Adult mallard acute oral toxicity study results indicated no mortalities or signs o toxicity, i.e., no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and median lethal dose (LD50) > 5,000 mg/kg. Acute oral feeding and food avoidance tests with ducklings also indicated no toxicity (NOAEL and LC50 > 50,000 mg/kg diet) with no evidence of food avoidance (FAC50 > 20,000 mg/kg diet). No mortalities or toxic signs were noted in a 14-d feeding study with adult birds at dietary concentrations up to 100,000 mg WEVC/kg diet. Among clinical and physiological end points evaluated, the only significant difference noted was an increase in liver: body weight ratios in the 100,000-mg WEVC/kg diet dose group. No differences in clinical chemistry or hematological parameters were noted, and there were no consistent differences in histological evaluations of organ tissues. Daily oral doses of up to 5,000 mg/kg of WEVC over 5 d resulted in minimal effects on ferrets. Increased serum albumin concentrations were observed in the 5,000-mg/kg dose group females and decreased spleen weights were noted in females of all WEVC treatment groups. No other significant observations were noted.

  16. Acute toxicity during external-beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: Comparison of different techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, S.; Awan, A.; Karrison, T.; Culbert, H.; Chan, S.; Kolker, J.; Low, N.; Halpern, H.; Rubin, S.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Weicheselbaum, R.R. )

    1993-01-15

    The chronic and acute toxicities associated with conventional radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer are well documented. However, the degree and incidence of toxicities with conformal techniques are not known. Studying side effects associated with modern radiotherapeutic techniques is more important now since there has been a general trend to use computerized tomography-based techniques in recent years; beam's eye view-based conformal techniques are also becoming more commonplace. It is possible that the local disease control can be improved with the delivery of higher doses than currently used. Conformation of the treatment volume to the target volume may facilitate such dose-escalation. However, prior to such dose-escalation, it is important to know the toxicities associated with such techniques with conventional doses. We have compared week-by-week acute toxicities associated with conventional (Group A, 16 patients), computerized tomography-based, manual (Group B, 57 patients) and beam's eye view-based (Group C, 43 patients) techniques during 7 weeks of radiotherapy. Group B and C patients were treated contemporaneously (1988-1990). The incidence of acute toxicities was significantly less with the beams eye view-based technique than with the other two methods. A trend suggesting increased severity of toxicity with increase in the volume of treatment was seen.

  17. Toxicity of ammonia to three marine fish and three marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Gregory D; Starbuck, Steven M; Hudgins, Douglas B; Li, Xiayoun; Kuhn, David D

    2004-04-01

    Laboratory toxicity tests were performed to obtain more data on the toxicity of ammonia to saltwater organisms. The standards for in-stream ammonia limits in marine environments presently are based on toxicity tests involving both freshwater and saltwater organisms. Acute tests (48 and 96 h) were performed at 20 degrees C, and chronic tests (7 days) were performed at 25 degrees C. Synthetic seawater and natural seawater from the Chesapeake Bay were used and compared. Included among the organisms tested were sheepshead minnow (14 days old), summer flounder (2 months old), Atlantic silverside (14 days old), mysid shrimp (less than 2 days old), ghost shrimp (10 days old), and quahog clam (9 months old). Based on these results, it seems the chronic criterion for ammonia in marine environments could be increased from 0.035 to 0.081 mg/L un-ionized ammonia, which would, of course, increase the chronic limit for total ammonia under typical saltwater conditions by a factor of 2.31. No difference was observed in the toxicity of ammonia in natural water compared to synthetic water for both the summer flounder and Atlantic silverside. Furthermore, the Atlantic silverside became more sensitive to ammonia as the salinity was increased from 14 to 22 ppt, but exhibited no change in toxicity response from 22 to 30 ppt.

  18. Toxic Metals in Pelagic, Benthic and Demersal Fish Species from Mediterranean FAO Zone 37.

    PubMed

    Naccari, Clara; Cicero, Nicola; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Vella, Antonio; Macaluso, Andrea; Naccari, Francesco; Dugo, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    Fish represents a nutrient-rich food but, at the same time, is one of the most important contributor to the dietary intake of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to assess residual levels of Pb, Cd and Hg in different species, caught from FAO zones 37 1.3 and 37 2.2, particularly small pelagic, benthic and demersal fishes. The results obtained showed the absence of toxic metal in fishes from FAO zone 37 1.3. Relating to FAO zone 37 2.2, instead, in all samples we observed the absence of Pb, small concentrations of Cd (0.081±0.022 mg/kg) and higher Hg residual levels (0.252±0.033 mg/kg). Particularly, the trend of Cd contamination was similar in all species whereas Hg showed high levels in demersal, intermediate in pelagic and low in benthic species. However, only Cd concentrations exceed the MRL in mackerel, mullet, sea-bream fishes, according to Regulation CE n. 629/2008 and n. 488/2014.

  19. The fish gill: site of action and model for toxic effects of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D H

    1987-01-01

    The gill epithelium is the site of gas exchange, ionic regulation, acid-base balance, and nitrogenous waste excretion by fishes. The last three processes are controlled by passive and active transport of various solutes across the epithelium. Various environmental pollutants (e.g., heavy metals, acid rain, and organic xenobiotics) have been found to affect the morphology of the gill epithelium. Associated with these morphological pathologies, one finds alterations in blood ionic levels, as well as gill Na,K-activated ATPase activity and ionic fluxes. Such physiological disturbances may underly the toxicities of these pollutants. In addition, the epithelial transport steps which are affected in the fish gill model resemble those described in the human gut and kidney, sites of action of a variety of environmental toxins. Images FIGURE 1. a FIGURE 1. b FIGURE 3. PMID:3297663

  20. The evaluation of 3 diets for rearing Hyalella azteca and the influence of diet on acute ammonia toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Lisa M; Watson-Leung, Trudy L; Poirier, David G

    2016-10-01

    Three Hyalella azteca cultures were reared on different diets since birth, reflecting the recommended diets of various investigators. The 3 diets consisted of fish flakes (FF), a mixture of fish flakes supplemented with the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii (FF-D), and a mixture of fish flakes supplemented with yeast, cereal grass media, and trout chow (FF-YCT). The 3 diets were evaluated by comparing 20 wk of culturing data, along with the organism's response to standard 96-h toxicity testing with ammonium chloride over a range of pH and temperature. Hyalella azteca fed the FF-D diet had the highest overall survival rate (96.6%, standard deviation [SD] 4.3%) compared to those fed the FF diet (92.0%, SD 12.7%), or the FF-YCT diet (91.1%, SD 14.8%), although difference in survival was not statistically significant. Organisms fed the FF-D diet produced a higher number of young per week per adult (6.1, SD 2.8) than the FF diet (5.1, SD 2.2), or the FF-YCT diet (4.0, SD 1.2), although differences were not statistically significant. Of the diets evaluated, H. azteca reared on the FF-D diet were often significantly more resistant to total and un-ionized ammonia toxicity in acute 96-h testing than those reared on the other 2 diets across the 2 temperatures and 5 pHs tested, suggesting this may be the most optimal diet for this species. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2416-2424. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Mixtures of benzo(a)pyrene, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and tributyltin are more toxic to neotropical fish Rhamdia quelen than isolated exposures.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Heloísa H P; Liebel, Samuel; Rossi, Stéfani C; Azevedo, Ana C B; Barrera, Ellie A L; Garcia, Juan Ramon Esquivel; Grötzner, Sônia Regina; Neto, Francisco Filipak; Randi, Marco A F; Ribeiro, Ciro A O

    2015-12-01

    The effects of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and tributyltin (TBT) association were investigated through a multi-biomarker approach. Ten Rhamdia quelen fish per group were exposed through intraperitoneal injections either to BaP (0.3; 3 or 30 mg kg(-1)), DDT or TBT (0.03; 0.3 or 3 mg kg(-1)) or BaP/DDT, BaP/TBT, DDT/TBT or BaP/DDT/TBT on their lowest doses. The experiments were divided in acute (one dose, 5-day) and sub-chronic (3 doses, 15-day). Control groups received an equal volume of PBS or canola oil (1 ml kg(-1)). The three tested contaminants altered AChE activity in brain and muscle in similar ways; the mixtures antagonized the increase evoked by the contaminants alone. BaP and TBT increased GSH content and mixtures reduced it. GPx activity was increased by DDT and TBT in the 15-day experiment and reduced by the mixtures. BaP increased GST activity in sub-chronic experiment while TBT reduced it in the acute experiment. BaP/TBT increased GST activity compared to all groups; the other mixtures reduced it compared to BaP or DDT in the 5-day experiment. BaP, DDT and TBT increased δ-ALAd activity mainly in acute exposure; the mixtures also increased δ-ALAd compared to DDT or TBT in 5 and 15-day. BaP, TBT and BaP/DDT decreased LPO in the acute experiment. In the sub-chronic experiment DDT/TBT increased LPO when compared to TBT. None of the contaminants alone altered PCO, but all mixtures increased it compared to one or another contaminant. Contaminants isolated had a more acute effect in ALT plasma level; their lowest dose, which had no effect alone, in combination has led to an increase of this enzyme, especially after 15 days. DDT increased AST in the acute and sub-chronic experiments, while TBT did the same in the latter. DDT/TBT decreased AST opposing the effect of the contaminants alone in the 5-day experiment. Hepatic lesions index could be explained by a more acute effect of the contaminants alone or combined and by

  2. A system for conducting flow-through toxicity tests with larval fish

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, S.A.; Oris, J.T.; Guttman, S.I.

    1995-08-01

    Assessment of toxicological effects in aquatic systems commonly include larval fish 96-h LC50 determinations. The LC50 tests are conducted using static renewal as well as flow-through methods. However, in the case of chemicals with high vapor pressures or fugacity, static renewal methods may produce inconsistent results arising from the pulsed nature of exposure. In addition, in exposures involving these types of compounds, the fluctuation in concentration that can occur between renewals is unlike most exposure scenarios in nature. For these reasons, flow-through systems are often preferable. The authors report here on an inexpensive, easily constructed, flow-through system for toxicant exposure of small organisms. Data are presented to illustrate the capacity of the system to maintain uniform toxicant concentrations relative to static renewal methods.

  3. Acute tellurium toxicity from ingestion of metal-oxidizing solutions.

    PubMed

    Yarema, Mark C; Curry, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    Tellurium is an element used in the vulcanization of rubber and in metal-oxidizing solutions to blacken or tarnish metals. Descriptions of human toxicity from tellurium ingestion are rare. We report the clinical course of 2 children who ingested metal-oxidizing solutions containing substantial concentrations of tellurium. Clinical features included vomiting, black discoloration of the oral mucosa, and a garlic odor to the breath. One patient developed corrosive injury to the esophagus secondary to the high concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution. Both patients recovered without serious sequelae, which is typical of tellurium toxicity. An awareness of situations in which children may be exposed to tellurium and its clinical presentation may assist clinicians in the diagnosis of this rare poisoning.

  4. Acute Toxicity of Sodium Fluorescein to Ashy Pebblesnails Fluminicola fuscus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockton, Kelly A.; Moffitt, Christine M.; Blew, David L.; Farmer, C. Neil

    2011-01-01

    Water resource agencies and groundwater scientists use fluorescein dyes to trace ground water flows that supply surface waters that may contain threatened or endangered mollusk species. Since little is known of the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to mollusks, we tested the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to the ashy pebblesnail Fluminicola fuscus. The pebblesnail was selected as a surrogate test species for the threatened Bliss Rapid snail Taylorcocha serpenticola that is endemic to the Snake River and its tributaries in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. In laboratory tests, we expose replicated groups of snails to a series of concentrations of fluorescein in a static 24 h exposure at 15 degrees C. Following the exposure, we removed snails, rinsed them, and allowed a 48 h recovery in clean water before recording mortality. We estimated 377 mg/L as the median lethal dose. Mortality to snails occurred at concentrations well above those expected in test wells during the monitoring efforts.

  5. Determination of acute toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to photobactrium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.; Xu, X.; He, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners. PCBs were discovered before the turn of the century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The distribution of PCBs in the environment was not noticed until Jensen and his colleagues found PCBs in wildlife samples. Since then, investigations in many parts of the world have revealed the widespread distribution of PCBs in environmental samples and PCVs are persistent and accumulate in food webs. Thus, determination of toxicities of commercial PCB mixtures and PCB congeners are required. Toxicity tests using luminous bacteria have shown high correlation to traditional bioassays. This study compared the EC50 values of the commercial mixtures, PCB3 and PCB5, with those of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Artola-Garicano, Elsa; Sinnige, Theo L; van Holsteijn, Ineke; Vaes, Wouter H J; Hermens, Joop L M

    2003-05-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methylcyclopenta[gamma]-2-benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two benthic organisms. Polycyclic musks are frequently used fragrances, and they have been detected in different compartments of the environment. The aim of this study was to fill some empirical data gaps for AHTN and HHCB for benthic organisms. Results show that differences exist between both organisms. Chironomus riparius exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for AHTN and HHCB substantially lower than predicted for nontransformed organics. The BCFs for both chemicals increased after coexposure of the organism to the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide. Thus, the low BCF values were the result of rapid biotransformation of AHTN and HHCB in the midge larvae. Bioconcentration kinetics indicated that both chemicals induced their own cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism. Acute toxicity of AHTN to midge larvae was reduced compared to predicted baseline toxicity and was similar for HHCB. Bioconcentration of AHTN and HHCB in the worm (Lumbriculus variegatus) is in agreement with predictions based on the octanol-water partition coefficients of these chemicals. Acute toxicity was found to be similar to predicted values for baseline toxicity. Summarizing, for AHTN and HHCB, acute toxicity and bioconcentration behavior in L. variegatus was in accordance with predicted data for nontransformed organics. In C. riparius, bioconcentration as well as toxicity were reduced.

  7. The Acute, Aquatic Toxicity of Selected Mineral Particles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Graphite; Daphnia magna " 06 1i Nickel...whiskers, nickel-graphite fibers, and synthetic graphite Micro-260 (M-260). Each compound was tested against the cladoceran, Daphnia magna (D. Magna ...graphite fibers, polycrystalline iron whiskers, and graphite Micro-260 (M-260) were tested to determine their toxicities to Daphnia mag . The

  8. Assessment of Acute Toxicity of Hexachloroethane in Laboratory Animals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-09

    camphoraceous odor, readily sublimes without meltinq and is solubl,: in alcohol. benzene, chloroform, ether and oil: insoluble in water. It is used as a solvent...in explosives, as ý camphor suostitute in celluloid, and as a rubber vulcanizing accelerator.’ It is used in veterinary practice as an anthelminthic...moderately toxic orally, produced reversible eye irritation and little or no skin irritation. Although it sublimes at room temperature

  9. Primary chemical and physical characterization of acute toxic components in wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Svenson, A.; Linlin, Z.; Kaj, L. )

    1992-10-01

    A chemical and physical primary characterization work sheet was developed based on the Microtox test, a bacterial bioluminescence system used as a rapid estimate of acute aquatic toxic effects. Measurements of the variation in light reduction upon different pretreatments provided information about the chemical and physical properties of the main toxic component(s) in test wastewater samples. This primary characterization of a wastewater sample was performed within 1 day. Tests of pure toxic chemical compounds and wastewaters with known and unknown primary toxicants are presented. Outlines to the chemical analysis and identification of toxic components may be deduced from the primary characterization. The provisional characterization may also provide information on wastewater treatment techniques.

  10. AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  11. T cell abundance in blood predicts acute organ toxicity in chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reichardt, Sybille D.; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Schirmer, Markus A.; Stadelmann, Christine; Canis, Martin; Wolff, Hendrik A.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) often results in high-grade acute organ toxicity (HGAOT). As these adverse effects impair the patients' quality of life and the feasibility of the planned therapy, we sought to analyze immunological parameters in tumor material and blood samples obtained from 48 HNSCC patients in order to assess the potential to predict the individual acute organ toxicity. T cells in the tumor stroma were enriched in patients developing HGAOT whereas levels of soluble factors in the plasma and gene expression in whole blood did not coincide with the occurrence of acute organ toxicity. In contrast, the frequency and absolute numbers of selected leukocyte subpopulations measured in samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) directly before the beginning of CRT were significantly different in patients with HGAOT as compared to those without. When we validated several potential markers including the abundance of T cells in a small prospective study with 16 HNSCC patients, we were able to correctly predict acute organ toxicity in up to 81% of the patients. We conclude that analysis of PBMCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) might be a convenient strategy to identify patients at risk of developing HGAOT caused by CRT, which might allow to adapt the treatment regimen and possibly improve disease outcome. PMID:27589568

  12. EVALUATION OF MINIMUM DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY VALUE EXTRAPOLATION WITH AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buckler, Denny R., Foster L. Mayer, Mark R. Ellersieck and Amha Asfaw. 2003. Evaluation of Minimum Data Requirements for Acute Toxicity Value Extrapolation with Aquatic Organisms. EPA/600/R-03/104. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Re...

  13. Partial Life-Cycle and Acute Toxicity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids to Freshwater Mussels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater mussels are among the most sensitive aquatic organisms to many contaminants and have complex life-cycles that include several distinct life stages with unique contaminant exposure pathways. Standard acute (24–96 h) and chronic (28 d) toxicity tests with free larva (glo...

  14. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  15. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  16. WEB-BASED INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATION (WEB-ICE) FOR ACUTE TOXICITY: USER MANUAL V2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictive toxicological models are integral to environmental risk Assessment where data for most species are limited. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) models are least square regressions that predict acute toxicity (LC50/LD50) of a chemical to a species, ...

  17. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid (PAA) formulations to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis theronts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an antimicrobial disinfectant used in agriculture, food processing and medical facilities. It has recently been suggested as a means to control infestations of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of two products contai...

  18. Acute and chronic toxicity of lead in water and diet to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of waterborne and dietary lead (Pb) exposure on the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test solutions were generated by a modified diluter with an extended (24-h) equilibration period. Acute (96-h) toxicity of Pb varied with water hardness in the range of 71 to 275 mg/L as CaCO3, despite similar dissolved Pb concentrations. Acute toxicity was greatest in soft test water, with less than 50% survival at the lowest dissolved Pb concentration (151 ??g/L). Survival also was significantly reduced in medium-hardness water but not in hard test water. In chronic (42-d) studies, amphipods were exposed to waterborne Pb and fed either a control diet or a diet equilibrated with waterborne Pb levels. For animals fed the control diet, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Pb was 24 ??g/L (as dissolved Pb), and significant reductions in survival occurred at 16 ??g/L. Exposure to Pb-treated diets significantly increased toxicity across a wide range of dissolved Pb concentrations, with a LC50 of 16 ??g/L and significant reductions in growth and reproduction at 3.5 ??g/L. Significant effects on growth and reproduction occurred at dissolved Pb concentrations close to the current U.S. chronic water-quality criterion. Our results suggest that both aqueous- and dietary-exposure pathways contribute significantly to chronic Pb exposure and toxic effects in aquatic biota. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  19. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days.

  20. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  1. Measured Copper Toxicity to Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces: Poeciliidae) and Predicted by Biotic Ligand Model in Pilcomayo River Water: A Step for a Cross-Fish-Species Extrapolation.

    PubMed

    Casares, María Victoria; de Cabo, Laura I; Seoane, Rafael S; Natale, Oscar E; Castro Ríos, Milagros; Weigandt, Cristian; de Iorio, Alicia F

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine copper toxicity (LC50) to a local species (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus) in the South American Pilcomayo River water and evaluate a cross-fish-species extrapolation of Biotic Ligand Model, a 96 h acute copper toxicity test was performed. The dissolved copper concentrations tested were 0.05, 0.19, 0.39, 0.61, 0.73, 1.01, and 1.42 mg Cu L(-1). The 96 h Cu LC50 calculated was 0.655 mg L(-1) (0.823 - 0.488). 96-h Cu LC50 predicted by BLM for Pimephales promelas was 0.722 mg L(-1). Analysis of the inter-seasonal variation of the main water quality parameters indicates that a higher protective effect of calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulphate, and chloride is expected during the dry season. The very high load of total suspended solids in this river might be a key factor in determining copper distribution between solid and solution phases. A cross-fish-species extrapolation of copper BLM is valid within the water quality parameters and experimental conditions of this toxicity test.

  2. Measured Copper Toxicity to Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces: Poeciliidae) and Predicted by Biotic Ligand Model in Pilcomayo River Water: A Step for a Cross-Fish-Species Extrapolation

    PubMed Central

    Casares, María Victoria; de Cabo, Laura I.; Seoane, Rafael S.; Natale, Oscar E.; Castro Ríos, Milagros; Weigandt, Cristian; de Iorio, Alicia F.

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine copper toxicity (LC50) to a local species (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus) in the South American Pilcomayo River water and evaluate a cross-fish-species extrapolation of Biotic Ligand Model, a 96 h acute copper toxicity test was performed. The dissolved copper concentrations tested were 0.05, 0.19, 0.39, 0.61, 0.73, 1.01, and 1.42 mg Cu L−1. The 96 h Cu LC50 calculated was 0.655 mg L−1 (0.823 − 0.488). 96-h Cu LC50 predicted by BLM for Pimephales promelas was 0.722 mg L−1. Analysis of the inter-seasonal variation of the main water quality parameters indicates that a higher protective effect of calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulphate, and chloride is expected during the dry season. The very high load of total suspended solids in this river might be a key factor in determining copper distribution between solid and solution phases. A cross-fish-species extrapolation of copper BLM is valid within the water quality parameters and experimental conditions of this toxicity test. PMID:22523491

  3. [Clinical and immunological features of acute hepatitis B in patients with concomitant chronic toxic liver damage].

    PubMed

    Furyk, E; Ryabokon, E

    2013-02-01

    The article presents information obtained during the survey in 64 patients with acute hepatitis B. We show that acute hepatitis B in patients with concomitant chronic toxic liver characterized by a marked imbalance of cytokine status due to a lower level of interleukin-2 and a higher content of interleukin-8, the highest levels of nitrite content, spontaneous oxidative modifications of blood proteins and the lowest content of L -arginine in the blood serum in the dynamics of disease compared with patients without this concomitant factor. In the period of convalescence these changes in patients with acute hepatitis B with concomitant chronic toxic liver characterized combined with higher cytolysis of liver cells, often circulating in the blood of HBsAg seroconversion and less frequently with the advent of anti-HBeAg.

  4. Acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sim, K. S.; Sri Nurestri, A. M.; Sinniah, S. K.; Kim, K. H.; Norhanom, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, belonging to the botanical family Cactaceae, have been traditionally used by the locals in Malaysia for treatment of various ailments. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, on ICR mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in ICR mice following acute oral administration at the highest dose of 2500 mg/ kg crude extracts of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia. This is the first report on the acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia and the findings of this study are in agreement with those of in vitro experiments and thus provide scientific validation on the use of the leaves of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia. PMID:20548939

  5. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Time Varying Toxic Plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-12

    package, which we are calling EAGLE, in the sections below. The package contains the tabulated AEGL data for chlorine (CL2) and ammonia (NH3) at...200C. The molecular weight for chlorine (CL2) is MW = 70.9 and for ammonia (NH3), MW = 17.03. Figure 1 just below reproduces the chlorine table...below shows the same information as Table 1, but for ammonia . The toxicity levels are 50 or 60 times lower than for chlorine, but the behavior with

  6. Acute Oral Toxicity Potential of 4-Nitrophenyl Methkyl Phenyl Phosphinate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    methyl phenyl phosphinate Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: None Molecular structure: C Ii NO P 13 12 4 .0 0~ NO., CH3 o o...C 56.33 56.17 H 4.36 4.28 N 5.05 5.14 P 11.17 11.25 2. Chemical Name: Polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 9005-65-6...administration particularly in chronic toxicity studies in experimental data. 3. Chemical Name: Citric Acid, monohydrate Chemical Abstract Service

  7. Glutathione and its dependent enzymes' modulatory responses to toxic metals and metalloids in fish--a review.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, K; Pereira, E; Duarte, A C; Ahmad, I

    2013-04-01

    Toxic metals and metalloid are being rapidly added from multiple pathways to aquatic ecosystem and causing severe threats to inhabiting fauna including fish. Being common in all the type of aquatic ecosystems such as freshwater, marine and brackish water fish are the first to get prone to toxic metals and metalloids. In addition to a number of physiological/biochemical alterations, toxic metals and metalloids cause enhanced generation of varied reactive oxygen species (ROS) ultimately leading to a situation called oxidative stress. However, as an important component of antioxidant defence system in fish, the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) directly or indirectly regulates the scavenging of ROS and their reaction products. Additionally, several other GSH-associated enzymes such as GSH reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2), GSH peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9), and GSH sulfotransferase (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), EC 2.5.1.18) cumulatively protect fish against ROS and their reaction products accrued anomalies under toxic metals and metalloids stress conditions. The current review highlights recent research findings on the modulation of GSH, its redox couple (reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione), and other GSH-related enzymes (GR, glutathione peroxidase, GST) involved in the detoxification of harmful ROS and their reaction products in toxic metals and metalloids-exposed fish.

  8. Acute and chronic toxicity toward the bacteria Vibrio fischeri of organic narcotics and epoxides: structural alerts for epoxide excess toxicity.

    PubMed

    Blaschke, Ulrike; Paschke, Albrecht; Rensch, Ines; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2010-12-20

    The acute and chronic bacterial toxicity of 34 organic compounds comprising 19 baseline narcotics and 15 epoxides has been determined with regard to 30-min bioluminescence and 24-h growth inhibition in terms of EC50 (effective concentration 50%) values employing Vibrio fischeri. For the narcotics, linear regression of log EC50 on log Kow (octanol/water partition coefficient) yields r2 (squared correlation coefficient) and rms (root-mean-square error) values of 0.95 and 0.44 (30-min), and 0.94 and 0.34 (24-h), respectively. Employing the resultant baseline narcosis models, toxicity enhancement (Te) values were derived as a ratio of narcosis-predicted over experimental EC50 for the epoxides. For seven aliphatic epoxides, log Te was below 1 in both assays, indicating narcosis-range toxicity with regard to 30-min bioluminescence and 24-h growth inhibition. Concerning eight nonaliphatic epoxides, log Te values up to 2.4 were observed, reflecting excess toxicity through an enhanced electrophilic reactivity of the compounds. Here, however, the intercorrelation between both assays was very low (r2 = 0.09). The results are discussed in terms of electronic substituent effects activating an SN2-type epoxide reaction with nucleophilic protein sites and side-chain activation offering alternative electrophile-nucleophile reaction routes at side-chain sites, leading to respective structural alerts as indicators of excess toxicity. Surprisingly, 30-min bioluminescence appears to be slightly more sensitive to chemical stress than 24-h growth, which holds both for baseline narcotics and for most of the epoxides. This is also reflected by effective narcosis doses 50%, ED50, of 7.1 mmol/kg (30-min) and 7.7 mmol/kg (24-h) estimated from narcosis theory. Keeping in mind the different end points (bioluminescence vs growth) involved, this finding demonstrates that chronic toxicity is not always more sensitive than acute toxicity, calling for analyses with regard to further respective

  9. Selected chemical characteristics and acute toxicity of urban stormwater, streamflow, and bed material, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Fossum, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical analyses indicated that urban stormwater could degrade the quality of streamflow because of oil and grease, pesticides, dissolved trace metals, and ammonia in stormwater. Ammonia, lead, cadmium, and zinc are released by urban activities and accumulate in bed material. Ammonia could be from fertilizers, fecal matter, and other sources. Lead is probably from vehicles that use leaded gasoline. Cadmium and zinc could be from particulate metal in oil, brake pads, and other sources. Samples of the initial runoff from urban drainage basins appeared to be more toxic than flow-weighted composite samples, and stormwater was more harmful to fathead minnows than to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Streamflow samples from the Salt River were not toxic to either species. The sensitivity of fathead minnows to urban stormwater from most urban drainage basins indicated that the toxicants were detrimental to fish and could be present in stormwater throughout Phoenix. Results of toxicity identification evaluations indicated the toxicity was mostly due to organic constituents. Mortality, however, did not correlate with organophosphate pesticide concentrations. Surfactants and (or) other constituents leached from asphalt could be toxic. The most toxic bed-material samples were collected from an undeveloped drainage basin. Within urban-drainage basins, bed-material samples collected where stormwater accumulates appeared to be more toxic than samples collected from areas unaffected by stormwater. Mortality rates correlated with recoverable concentrations of zinc, copper, and cadmium; however these rates correlated poorly with pesticide concentrations. The bioavailability of trace metals appeared to be controlled by the adsorption properties of bed material.

  10. Prediction of acute toxicity of chemicals in mixtures: worms Tubifex tubifex and gas/liquid distribution.

    PubMed

    Tichý, M; Borek-Dohalský, V; Matousová, D; Rucki, M; Feltl, L; Roth, Z

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this contribution is to support our proposal of the procedure for predicting acute toxicity of binary mixtures by QSAR analysis techniques. The changes of a mixture composition are described by molar ratio R and visualized in the R-plot (QCAR--quantitative composition-activity relationships). The approach was inspired by Rault and Dalton's laws, their positive and negative deviations in the behavior of a mixture of real gases, by Loewe and Muischnek isoboles and by the Finney test of additivity. Acute toxicity was determined by the laboratory test with woms Tubifex tubifex. The additivity of the acute toxicity in the binary mixture benzene + nitrobenzene was confirmed and a new interaction is described: "mixed interaction" with the binary mixture aniline + ethanol. The "mixed interaction" means that depending on mixture composition, both potentiation and inhibition can occur. As the first physicochemical descriptor of the changes caused by the changing composition of binary mixtures, the gas/liquid equilibrium was studied and a composition of the gaseous phase was determined by a gas chromatographic method. The method for determination of concentrations in the gaseous phase was described. The gaseous phase composition of benzene + nitrobenzene. benzene + ethanol, benzene + aniline and ethanol + aniline mixtures was analyzed. It was found that if the concentrations of the mixture's components in the gaseous phase behave nonideally (they are not additive), the acute toxicity of the same mixture is not additive as well. Another descriptor to distinguish between potentiation and inhibition will be, however, necessary. The properties, both gaseous phase composition and the acute toxicity, of the benzene + nitrobenzene mixture are additive. In mixtures with the mixed interaction, the R-plot of the composition of the gaseous phase is complex with a large variation of results.

  11. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats*

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Siti Balkis; Siti Nor Ain, Seri Masran; Omar, Baharuddin; Taib, Izatus Shima; Hidayatulfathi, Othman

    2012-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache, fever, and stomach ulcer, and has also been used as an insect repellent. The acute and subacute toxicities of L. elliptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats. For the acute toxicity study, L. elliptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4 000 mg/kg (single dose), and in the subacute toxicity test, the following doses were used: 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, for 28 consecutive days. In the acute toxicity study, L. elliptica essential oil caused dose-dependent adverse behaviours and mortality. The median lethal dose value was 3 488.86 mg/kg and the acute non-observed-adversed-effect level value was found to be 500 mg/kg. The subacute toxicity study of L. elliptica essential oil did not reveal alterations in body weight, and food and water consumptions. The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences between control and treated groups in most of the parameters examined, except for the hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, serum albumin, and serum sodium. However, these differences were still within the normal range. No abnormalities or histopathological changes were observed in the liver, pancreatic islet of Langerhans, and renal glomerulous and tubular cells of all treated groups. In conclusion, L. elliptica essential oil can be classified in the U group, which is defined as a group unlikely to present an acute hazard according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification. PMID:23024045

  12. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study (P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  13. Acute toxicity of hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Drodge, C.S.; Boychak, O.; Patel, S.; Usmani, N.; Amanie, J.; Parliament, M.B.; Murtha, A.; Field, C.; Ghosh, S.; Pervez, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dose-escalated hypofractionated radiotherapy (hfrt) using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt), with inclusion of the pelvic lymph nodes (plns), plus androgen suppression therapy (ast) in high-risk prostate cancer patients should improve patient outcomes, but acute toxicity could limit its feasibility. Methods Our single-centre phase ii prospective study enrolled 40 high-risk prostate cancer patients. All patients received hfrt using imrt with daily mega-voltage computed tomography imaging guidance, with 95% of planning target volumes (ptv68 and ptv50) receiving 68 Gy and 50 Gy (respectively) in 25 daily fractions. The boost volume was targeted to the involved plns and the prostate (minus the urethra plus 3 mm and minus 3 mm from adjacent rectal wall) and totalled up to 75 Gy in 25 fractions. Acute toxicity scores were recorded weekly during and 3 months after radiotherapy (rt) administration. Results For the 37 patients who completed rt and the 3-month follow-up, median age was 65.5 years (range: 50–76 years). Disease was organ-confined (T1c–T2c) in 23 patients (62.1%), and node-positive in 5 patients (13.5%). All patients received long-term ast. Maximum acute genitourinary (gu) and gastrointestinal (gi) toxicity peaked at grade 2 in 6 of 36 evaluated patients (16.6%) and in 4 of 31 evaluated patients (12.9%) respectively. Diarrhea and urinary frequency were the chief complaints. Dose–volume parameters demonstrated no correlation with toxicity. The ptv treatment objectives were met in 36 of the 37 patients. Conclusions This hfrt dose-escalation trial in high-risk prostate cancer has demonstrated the feasibility of administering 75 Gy in 25 fractions with minimal acute gi and gu toxicities. Further follow-up will report late toxicities and outcomes. PMID:25908924

  14. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-03-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study ( P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  15. Toxicity of vanadium to different freshwater organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Beusen, J.M.; Neven, B.

    1987-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the acute and subchronic toxicity of vanadium for various species of freshwater fish. The long-term toxicity and the effect of vanadium on the reproduction of Daphnia magna is also evaluated and compared with the toxicity of other metals.

  16. The acute toxicity of major ion salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia: I. ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ions Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, and HCO3-/CO32- (referred to as “major ions”) are present in all fresh waters and are physiologically required by aquatic organisms, but can be increased to harmful levels by a variety of anthropogenic activities that speed geochemical weathering or otherwise introduce or concentrate ions. While toxicity of these ions to aquatic organisms has been previously shown, it is also known that their toxicity can vary depending on the concentrations of other co-occurring anions, and understanding these relationships is key to predicting toxicity and establishing appropriate environmental limits. In this paper we conduct a series of experiments with Ceriodaphnia dubia to evaluate the acute toxicity of all twelve major ionsalts (pairing one of the cations with one of the anions) and to determine how toxicity of these salts varies as a function of background water chemistry. All salts except CaSO4 and CaCO3 were acutely toxic to C. dubia below saturation, with the lowest LC50s found for K salts. Of the remaining salts, all but CaCl2 showed some degree of decreased toxicity as the ionic content of the background water increased. Experiments that independently varied Ca:Mg ratio, Na:K ratio, Cl:SO4 ratio, and alkalinity/pH were used to show that Ca concentration was the primary factor influencing the toxicities of Na and Mg salts. In contrast, the toxicities of K salts were primarily influenced by the concentration of Na. Th

  17. Acute lethal toxicity following passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis.

    PubMed Central

    Savoy, A C; Lupan, D M; Manalo, P B; Roberts, J S; Schlageter, A M; Weinhold, L C; Kozel, T R

    1997-01-01

    Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans alters the course of murine cryptococcosis. During studies of passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis, we noted the occurrence of an acute, lethal toxicity. Toxicity was characterized by scratching, lethargy, respiratory distress, collapse, and death within 20 to 60 min after injection of antibody. The toxic effect was observed only in mice with a cryptococcal infection and was reduced or absent in the early and late stages of disease. The clinical course and histopathology were consistent with those for shock. There was considerable variation between mouse strains in susceptibility to toxicity. Swiss Webster mice from the Charles River colony were most susceptible, followed by C3H/He, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. DBA/2 mice and Swiss Webster mice from the Simonsen colony were resistant. Acute toxicity was mimicked by injection of preformed complexes of MAb and purified polysaccharide. The toxic effect was also produced by injection of MAbs into mice that were preloaded with polysaccharide. The toxic effect was not blocked by treatment of mice with chloropheniramine or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies or by depletion of complement components via pretreatment with cobra venom factor. Toxicity was reduced by treatment of mice with high doses of epinephrine, dexamethasone, or chlorpromazine. Finally, the toxic effect was completely blocked by treatment of mice with the platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB 2170 BS or by pretreatment of mice with the liposome-encapsulated drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate, a procedure which depletes macrophages from the spleen and liver. PMID:9125564

  18. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic toxicity of the herbicide picloram to the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Fairchild, J F; Feltz, K P; Sappington, L C; Allert, A L; Nelson, K J; Valle, J

    2009-05-01

    We conducted acute and chronic toxicity studies of the effects of picloram acid on the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard coldwater surrogate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile fish were chronically exposed for 30 days in a proportional flow-through diluter to measured concentrations of 0, 0.30, 0.60, 1.18, 2.37, and 4.75 mg/L picloram. No mortality of either species was observed at the highest concentration. Bull trout were twofold more sensitive to picloram (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 0.80 mg/L) compared to rainbow trout (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 1.67 mg/L) based on the endpoint of growth. Picloram was acutely toxic to rainbow trout at 36 mg/L (96-h ALC50). The acute:chronic ratio for rainbow trout exposed to picloram was 22. The chronic toxicity of picloram was compared to modeled and measured environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) using a four-tiered system. The Tier 1, worst-case exposure estimate, based on a direct application of the current maximum use rate (1.1 kg/ha picloram) to a standardized aquatic ecosystem (water body of 1-ha area and 1-m depth), resulted in an EEC of 0.73 mg/L picloram and chronic risk quotients of 0.91 and 0.44 for bull trout and rainbow trout, respectively. Higher-tiered exposure estimates reduced chronic risk quotients 10-fold. Results of this study indicate that picloram, if properly applied according to the manufacturer's label, poses little risk to the threatened bull trout or rainbow trout in northwestern rangeland environments on either an acute or a chronic basis.

  19. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic toxicity of the herbicide picloram to the threatened bull trout (salvelinus confluentus) and the rainbow trout (onchorhyncus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, J.F.; Feltz, K.P.; Sappington, L.C.; Allert, A.L.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted acute and chronic toxicity studies of the effects of picloram acid on the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard coldwater surrogate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile fish were chronically exposed for 30 days in a proportional flow-through diluter to measured concentrations of 0, 0.30, 0.60, 1.18, 2.37, and 4.75 mg/L picloram. No mortality of either species was observed at the highest concentration. Bull trout were twofold more sensitive to picloram (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 0.80 mg/L) compared to rainbow trout (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 1.67 mg/L) based on the endpoint of growth. Picloram was acutely toxic to rainbow trout at 36 mg/L (96-h ALC50). The acute:chronic ratio for rainbow trout exposed to picloram was 22. The chronic toxicity of picloram was compared to modeled and measured environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) using a four-tiered system. The Tier 1, worst-case exposure estimate, based on a direct application of the current maximum use rate (1.1 kg/ha picloram) to a standardized aquatic ecosystem (water body of 1-ha area and 1-m depth), resulted in an EEC of 0.73 mg/L picloram and chronic risk quotients of 0.91 and 0.44 for bull trout and rainbow trout, respectively. Higher-tiered exposure estimates reduced chronic risk quotients 10-fold. Results of this study indicate that picloram, if properly applied according to the manufacturer's label, poses little risk to the threatened bull trout or rainbow trout in northwestern rangeland environments on either an acute or a chronic basis. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Effect of cytochrome P450 inhibitors and anticonvulsants on the acute toxicity of acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Benz, Frederick W; Nerland, Donald E

    2005-10-01

    Some of the more striking expressions of toxicity are the tremors and seizures observed approximately 100 min after exposure of rats to an acutely toxic dose of acrylonitrile (AN). These early events are followed by a second wave of severe clonic convulsions that occur just prior to death at about 3-4 h. For AN, at least two chemical entities could produce these toxic effects, namely the parent AN molecule, the metabolically-released cyanide, or both. Which of these two agents is responsible for each of the symptoms of acute intoxication is not known. To help dissect the toxicity, it was anticipated that an effective inhibitor of the oxidative metabolism of AN to cyanide could help us to understand which toxic symptoms might be associated with each agent. Three inhibitors of oxidative metabolism were tested, namely SKF-525A, 1-benzylimidazole and metyrapone and one alternative substrate, ethanol. As compared to SKF-525A and metyrapone, both 1-benzylimidazole and ethanol were highly effective in reducing blood cyanide levels to insignificant levels in rats treated with an LD90 dose of AN. In addition, both agents abolished the early seizure activity, suggesting that this first phase of seizures is due to cyanide and not the parent molecule. 1-Benzylimidazole did not prevent the severe clonic convulsive phase preceding death, suggesting that these terminal convulsions are due to the toxic effects of the parent AN molecule. The CNS depressant ethanol was only partially effective in attenuating the terminal convulsions. None of these agents affected the incidence of AN-induced mortality, clearly establishing that, even in the absence of cyanide, the parent AN molecule is acutely toxic. The partial effectiveness of ethanol suggested that anticonvulsants might be of benefit. Both phenobarbital and phenytoin protected rats from both the early and terminal convulsions, while valproic acid was ineffective. These effects were not related to a reduction in blood cyanide

  1. Development of a salinity/toxicity relationship to predict acute toxicity of saline waters to freshwater organisms. Interim final report, June 1990-March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, D.R.; Gulley, D.D.

    1992-04-01

    Discharge of produced water to surface waters is generally regulated as part of the NPDES permit problem and, therefore, may be subject to discharge limits for aquatic toxicity. Most produced waters contain elevated (relative to fresh water) concentrations of major ions (e.g., sodium, chloride) that can be toxic to fresh water organisms regardless of other organic and inorganic constituents. The objective of the research was to develop a Salinity/Toxicity Relationship (STR) that predicts the acute toxicity of saline waters to freshwater organisms based on the concentrations of major ions in solution. Laboratory toxicity tests were conducted to measure the acute toxicity of major ions to three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and fathead minnows). These laboratory toxicity data were then incorporated into multi-variate logistic regression equations that predict the acute toxicity of any combination of major ions. Logistic regression equations represented the toxicity data quite well, generally explaining in excess of 80 percent of the overall variance in survival. Application of the Ceriodaphnia STR to field data collected from surface waters receiving produced water discharges showed very strong correlation of STR predictions with the results of toxicity tests conducted on field-collected samples.

  2. Acute aquatic toxicity of nine alcohol ethoxylate surfactants to fathead minnow and Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.C.L.; Dorn, P.B.; Chai, E.Y.

    1995-12-31

    The aquatic toxicity of nine commercial-grade alcohol ethoxylate surfactants was studied in acute exposures to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. All studies were conducted in accordance with USEPA TSCA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. Mean measured surfactant concentrations in exposure solutions showed good agreement with nominal concentrations for both fathead minnow and daphnid tests. Surfactant recoveries ranged from 59 to 97% and 67 to 106% in the fathead minnow and daphnid solutions, respectively. The response of both species to the surfactants was generally similar with the daphnids being slightly more sensitive to a few surfactants. Surfactant toxicity tended to increase with increasing alkyl chain lengths. The effect of low average EO groups on increased surfactant toxicity was more evident in the daphnid exposures. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed form the data which relates surfactant structure to toxicity. The models predict increasing toxicity with decreasing EO number and increasing alkyl chain length. The models also indicate that alkyl chain length has a greater effect on toxicity than EO groups. Further, the models indicate that both species did not differ markedly in their sensitivity to alkyl chain length effects, while the number of EO groups had a stronger effect on daphnids than fathead minnow. Good agreement was found between QSAR model-predicted toxicity and reported toxicity values from the literature for several surfactants previously studied.

  3. Comparative and combined acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos on earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong

    2014-04-01

    Various pesticides have become widespread contaminants of soils due to their large applications in agriculture and homes. An earthworm assay was used to assess the acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos with different modes of action. Ecotoxicities of these pesticides were compared for earthworm Eisenia fetida separately and in combination in artificial soil and contact filter paper tests. Imidacloprid was the most toxic for E. fetida with LC₅₀ (lethal concentration 50) values three orders magnitude lower than that of butachlor and chlorpyrifos in both tests. The toxicity of the mixtures was compared to that predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. According to the CA model, the observed toxicities of all binary mixtures were less than additive. However, for all the mixtures in 14 d artificial soil test, and mixtures of butachlor plus chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid plus chlorpyrifos in 48 h contact filter paper test, the difference in toxicity was less than 30%, hence it was concluded that the mixtures conformed to CA. The combined effects of the pesticides in contact filter paper tests were not consistent with the results in artificial soil toxicity tests, which may be associated with the interaction of soil salts with the pesticides. The CA model provides estimates of mixture toxicity that did not markedly underestimate the measured toxicity, and therefore the CA model is the most suitable to use in ecological risk assessments of the pesticides.

  4. Acute acetaminophen toxicity in transgenic mice with elevated hepatic glutathione.

    PubMed

    Rzucidlo, S J; Bounous, D I; Jones, D P; Brackett, B G

    2000-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that elevation of hepatic glutathione (GSH) concentrations protect against acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity in mice. Employing transgenic mice overexpressing glutathione synthetase, this study was conducted to determine if sustained elevation of hepatic GSH concentrations could ameliorate or prevent APAP toxicity. International Cancer Research transgenic mouse males and matched (ie same strain, sex, and age) control nontransgenic mice were pretreated ip with GSH synthetase substrate gamma-glutamylcysteinyl ethyl ester (gamma-GCE) or with saline. After a 16-h fast, mice received a single dose of 500 mg APAP/kg bw in saline ip and were sacrificed 4 h later. Other mice similarly pretreated were killed without APAP challenge. The elevated GSH concentrations in transgenic mice livers did not lessen APAP hepatotoxicity. Instead higher degrees of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were observed in transgenic mice than in controls as indicated by higher serum alanine aminotransferase activity and more severe histopathological lesions in transgenic mice livers and kidneys. Pretreatment with gamma-GCE did not affect either initial or post-APAP treatment tissue GSH concentrations or observed degrees of toxicity. Detection of a higher level of serum APAP in transgenic mice and the histopathological lesions found in transgenic mice kidneys together with no observable nephrotoxicity in control mice indicated early kidney damage in transgenic mice. Our findings suggest that high levels of GSH-APAP conjugates resulting from increased GSH concentrations in the livers of transgenic mice caused rapid kidney damage. Compromised excretory ability may have caused retention of APAP, which, in effect, elicited higher hepatotoxicity than that observed in nontransgenic mice.

  5. Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Eriobotrya japonica Leaf Triterpene Acids in ICR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xianai

    2017-01-01

    The interest focusing on Eriobotrya japonica leaf triterpene acid (ELTA) has increased recently because of its beneficial effects on health. However, there has been a lack of experimental data on its toxicity. The present study therefore was conducted to evaluate its toxicity in ICR mice. The results showed that ELTA produced neither mortality nor toxicity of the main organs in ICR male and female mice in both acute (0.30, 0.65, 1.39, and 3.00 g·kg−1 body weight) and subacute (150, 300, and 600 mg·kg−1 BW) 28-day toxicity studies. Because of lacking apparently adverse effects found in the hematology, clinical biochemistry, and histopathology evaluation, results of the present study together with the beneficial effects make ELTA as a promising dietary supplement and indicated that ELTA administered orally might have a large safety margin for human.

  6. Nrf2-dependent protection against acute sodium arsenite toxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Yuji; Nguyen, Vu Thanh; Kobayashi, Makoto

    2016-08-15

    Transcription factor Nrf2 induces a number of detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant proteins to confer protection against the toxic effects of a diverse range of chemicals including inorganic arsenicals. Although a number of studies using cultured cells have demonstrated that Nrf2 has a cell-protective function against acute and high-dose arsenic toxicity, there is no clear in vivo evidence of this effect. In the present study, we genetically investigated the protective role of Nrf2 against acute sodium arsenite toxicity using the zebrafish Nrf2 mutant, nrf2a(fh318). After treatment with 1mM sodium arsenite, the survival of nrf2a(fh318) larvae was significantly shorter than that of wild-type siblings, suggesting that Nrf2 protected the zebrafish larvae against high-dose arsenite exposure. To understand the molecular basis of the Nrf2-dependent protection, we analyzed the gene expression profiles after arsenite exposure, and found that the genes involved in the antioxidative function (prdx1 and gclc), arsenic metabolism (gstp1) and xenobiotic elimination (abcc2) were induced in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Furthermore, pre-treatment with sulforaphane, a well-known Nrf2 activator improved the survival of zebrafish larvae after arsenic exposure. Based on these results, we concluded that Nrf2 plays a fundamental and conserved role in protection against acute sodium arsenite toxicity.

  7. Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract from fruits of Schinus molle in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Adriana; Minetti, Alejandra; Bras, Cristina; Zanetti, Noelia

    2007-09-25

    Ethanolic and hexanic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle showed ability to control several insect pests. Potential vertebrate toxicity associated with insecticidal plants requires investigation before institutional promotion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of ethanolic extracts from fruits of Schinus molle in rats. The plant extract was added to the diet at 2g/kg body weight/day during 1 day to evaluate acute toxicity and at 1g/kg body weight/day during 14 days to evaluate subacute toxicity. At the end of the exposure and after 7 days, behavioral and functional parameters in a functional observational battery and motor activity in an open field were assessed. Finally, histopathological examinations were conducted on several organs. In both exposures, an increase in the arousal level was observed in experimental groups. Also, the landing foot splay parameter increased in the experimental group after acute exposure. Only the subacute exposure produced a significant increase in the motor activity in the open field. All these changes disappeared after 7 days. None of the exposures affected the different organs evaluated. Our results suggest that ethanolic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle should be relatively safe to use as insecticide.

  8. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control.

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity of six anticancer drugs on rotifers and crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Parrella, Alfredo; Lavorgna, Margherita; Criscuolo, Emma; Russo, Chiara; Fiumano, Vittorio; Isidori, Marina

    2014-11-01

    The growing use of cytostatic drugs is gaining relevance as an environmental concern. Environmental and distribution studies are increasing due to the development of accurate analytical methods, whereas ecotoxicological studies are still lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute and chronic toxicity of six cytostatics (5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, and imatinib) belonging to five classes of Anatomical Therapeutic Classification (ATC) on primary consumers of the aquatic chain (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Brachionus calyciflorus, and Thamnocephalus platyurus). Acute ecotoxicological effects occurred at concentrations in the order of mgL(-)(1), higher than those predicted in the environment, and the most acutely toxic drugs among those tested were cisplatin and doxorubicin for most aquatic organisms. For chronic toxicity, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil showed the highest toxic potential in all test organisms, inducing 50% reproduction inhibition in crustaceans at concentrations on the order of μgL(-)(1). Rotifers were less susceptible to these pharmaceuticals. On the basis of chronic results, the low effective concentrations suggest a potential environmental risk of cytostatics. Thus, this study could be an important starting point for establishing the real environmental impact of these substances.

  10. Relative oral efficacy and acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.B.; Morgan, J.; Hoyes, K.P.; Burke, L.C.; Huehns, E.R.; Hider, R.C. )

    1990-12-01

    The relationship between the oral efficacy and the acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators has been investigated to clarify structure-function relationships of these compounds in vivo and to identify compounds with the maximum therapeutic safety margin. By comparing 59Fe excretion following oral or intraperitoneal administration of increasing doses of each chelator to iron-overloaded mice, the most effective compounds have been identified. These have partition coefficients (Kpart) above 0.3 in the iron-free form with a trend of increasing oral efficacy with increasing Kpart values (r = .6). However, this is achieved at a cost of increasing acute toxicity, as shown by a linear correlation between 59Fe excretion increase per unit dose and 1/LD50 (r = .83). A sharp increase in the LD50 values is observed for compounds with Kpart values above 1.0, suggesting that such compounds are unlikely to possess a sufficient therapeutic safety margin. Below a Kpart of 1.0, acute toxicity is relatively independent of lipid solubility. All the compounds are less toxic by the oral route than by the intraperitoneal route, although iron excretion is not significantly different by these two routes. At least five compounds (CP51, CP94, CP93, CP96, and CP21) are more effective orally than the same dose of intraperitoneal desferrioxamine (DFO) (P less than or equal to .02) or orally administered L1(CP20) (P less than or equal to .02).

  11. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Yovino, Susannah; Poppe, Matthew; Jabbour, Salma; David, Vera; Garofalo, Michael; Pandya, Naimesh; Alexander, Richard; Hanna, Nader; Regine, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  12. Estimation of acute oral toxicity in rat using local lazy learning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute toxicity means the ability of a substance to cause adverse effects within a short period following dosing or exposure, which is usually the first step in the toxicological investigations of unknown substances. The median lethal dose, LD50, is frequently used as a general indicator of a substance’s acute toxicity, and there is a high demand on developing non-animal-based prediction of LD50. Unfortunately, it is difficult to accurately predict compound LD50 using a single QSAR model, because the acute toxicity may involve complex mechanisms and multiple biochemical processes. Results In this study, we reported the use of local lazy learning (LLL) methods, which could capture subtle local structure-toxicity relationships around each query compound, to develop LD50 prediction models: (a) local lazy regression (LLR): a linear regression model built using k neighbors; (b) SA: the arithmetical mean of the activities of k nearest neighbors; (c) SR: the weighted mean of the activities of k nearest neighbors; (d) GP: the projection point of the compound on the line defined by its two nearest neighbors. We defined the applicability domain (AD) to decide to what an extent and under what circumstances the prediction is reliable. In the end, we developed a consensus model based on the predicted values of individual LLL models, yielding correlation coefficients R2 of 0.712 on a test set containing 2,896 compounds. Conclusion Encouraged by the promising results, we expect that our consensus LLL model of LD50 would become a useful tool for predicting acute toxicity. All models developed in this study are available via http://www.dddc.ac.cn/admetus. PMID:24959207

  13. Metal uptake and acute toxicity in zebrafish: common mechanisms across multiple metals.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M

    2011-10-01

    Zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were used to examine the mechanisms of action and acute toxicities of metals. Larvae had similar physiological responses and sensitivities to waterborne metals as adults. While cadmium and zinc have previously been shown to reduce Ca(2+) uptake, copper and nickel also decreased Ca(2+) uptake, suggesting that the epithelial transport of all these metals is through Ca(2+) pathways. However, exposure to cadmium, copper or nickel for up to 48 h had little or no effect on total whole body Ca(2+) levels, indicating that the reduction of Ca(2+) uptake is not the acute toxic mechanism of these metals. Instead, mortalities were effectively related to whole body Na(+), which decreased up to 39% after 48 h exposures to different metals around their respective 96 h LC50s. Decreases in whole body K(+) were also observed, although they were not as pronounced or frequent as Na(+) losses. None of the metals tested inhibited Na(+) uptake in zebrafish (Na(+) uptake was in fact increased with exposure) and the observed losses of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were proportional to the ionic gradients between the plasma and water, indicating diffusive ion loss with metal exposure. This study has shown that there is a common pathway for metal uptake and a common mechanism of acute toxicity across groups of metals in zebrafish. The disruption of ion uptake accompanying metal exposure does not appear to be responsible for the acute toxicity of metals, as has been previously suggested, but rather the toxicity is instead due to total ion loss (predominantly Na(+)).

  14. Acute toxicity of mixture of acetaminophen and ibuprofen to Green Neon Shrimp, Neocaridina denticulate.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hung-Hung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wang, Shu-Yin; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Da-Ji

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have indicated that various long-term use drugs, such as antibiotics or analgesics, not only cannot be completely decomposed via sewage treatment but also exhibit biological toxicity if they enter the environment; thus, the release of these drugs into the environment can damage ecological systems. This study sought to investigate the acute toxicity of two commonly utilized analgesics, ibuprofen (IBU) and acetaminophen (APAP), to aquatic organisms after these drugs have entered the water. To address this objective, the acute toxicity (median lethal concentration, LC₅₀, for a 96-h exposure) of IBU alone, APAP alone, and mixtures containing different ratios of IBU and APAP in green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata) were measured. The results of four tests revealed that the 96-h LC₅₀ values for IBU and APAP alone were 6.07 mg/L and 6.60 mg/L, respectively. The 96-h LC₅₀ for a 1:1 mixture of IBU and APAP was 6.23 mg/L, and the toxicity of this mixture did not significantly differ from the toxicity of either drug alone (p<0.05). The experimental results for mixtures containing unequal ratios of IBU and APAP indicated that mixtures with high APAP concentrations and low IBU concentrations exhibited markedly greater toxicity in N. denticulata (LC₅₀=4.78 mg/L) than APAP or IBU alone. However, mixtures with high IBU concentrations and low APAP concentrations exhibited lower toxicity in N. denticulata (LC₅₀=6.78 mg/L) than IBU or APAP alone. This study demonstrated that different mixtures of IBU and APAP were associated with different toxic effects in green neon shrimp.

  15. [Acute toxicity by methotrexate used for abortion purpose. Case report].

    PubMed

    Estrada-Altamirano, Ariel; Chacón-Solís, Rogerio Armando; Hernández-Pacheco, José Antonio; Belmont-Gómez, Aurora; Valenzuela-Jirón, Arlen; Carvajal-Valencia, Javier Andrés; Maya-Quiñones, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 16 years old female patient, with a pregnancy history of 11.4 weeks by ultrasound and intrauterine fetal death. In a private clinic were prescribed methotrexate 500 mg intramuscular single dose, and vaginal misoprostol. She had a clinical feature of five days of evolution characterized by fever of 39 degrees C, nausea, general attack and vomiting. The initial diagnosis was severe sepsis secondary to septic abortion, oral candidiasis and acute poisoning by methotrexate. After that, she was referred to the Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, where stayed with fever for four days, and was managed with hydration, antibiotics, folinic acid and alkalizing. Her recovery was gradual. She was discharged after 12 days with significant clinical improvement. The literature review describes that the use of methotrexate for abortion purpose with therapeutic-dose presents a similar adverse effects to those found in our patient, however there are no case reports that describe the use of this drug in macrodosis for the same purpose, and their cytotoxic effects. We present this case because the patient used a macrodosis of this antimetabolite and due to the premature and empirical management with folinic acid, joined with alkalinization of urine, is the ideal treatment and as it is illustrated in our case.

  16. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  17. Antagonistic effects of Spirulina platensis against sub-acute deltamethrin toxicity in mice: Biochemical and histopathological studies.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; El-Bialy, Badr E; Rahman, Haidy G Abdel; Radi, Abeer M; Hefny, Hany A; Hassan, Ahmed M

    2016-02-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP); a microalga with high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, acts as a food supplement in human and as many animal species. Deltamethrin (DLM) is a synthetic pyrethroid with broad spectrum activities against acaricides and insects and widely used for veterinary and agricultural purposes. Exposure to DLM leads to hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects for human and many species, including birds and fish. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of SP against sub-acute DLM toxicity in male mice. DLM intoxicated animals revealed a significant increase in serum hepatic and renal injury biomarkers as well as TNF-α level and AChE activity. Moreover, liver, kidney and brain lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress markers were altered due to DLM toxicity. Spirulina normalized the altered serum levels of AST, ALT, APL, LDH, γ-GT, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, creatinine AChE and TNF-α. Furthermore, it reduced DLM-induced tissue lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, that Spirulina supplementation could overcome DLM-induced hepatotoxicty, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity by abolishing oxidative tissue injuries.

  18. Antidotal treatment of the acute cardiovascular toxicity of verapamil.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O

    1984-09-01

    Rats anaesthetized with pentobarbital and ventilated artificially were infused with 0.15 mg/kg/min. verapamil; without antidotal treatment, they died after 51.1+/-7.1 min. The survival time more than trebled upon an additional infusion with calcium chloride, epinephrine, isoprenaline, orciprenaline or prenalterol and nearly doubled upon administration of a plasma expander. It was not increased, however, by treatment with angiotensin or atropine. The infusion of verapamil declined the arterial blood pressure by 75%, and heart rate, cardiac output and peripheral resistance by about 50%; in the ECG, sinus bradycardia followed by AV-dissociation with nodal rhythm occurred. All antidotes that raised the lethal dose of verapamil increased the cardiac output. Calcium and the sympathomimetics with alpha-adrenergic activity also counteracted the verapamil-induced hypotension. Calcium did not influence the ECG alterations produced by verapamil, while the sympathomimetics restored the sinus rhythm or accelerated the nodal pacemaker. Calcium, epinephrine and isoprenaline also antagonized the strong decrease of left-ventricular dp/dt max. induced by verapamil. In conclusion, calcium as well as sympathomimetic amines are potent antidotes against the cardiovascular toxicity of verapamil, the latter being superior to calcium in their ability to improve pacemaker activity and AV-conduction.

  19. Acute ecological toxicity and environmental persistence of simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Li, S.W.; Van Voris, P.; Wentsel, R.S.

    1988-06-01

    The objectives of these studies are to establish the comparative environmental behavior and chemical fate of chemical simulants. Laboratory studies were undertaken to establish: (1) deposition efficiency (deposition velocities, Vd) for receptor surfaces including plant foliage and soils; (2) dose/response relationships for important environmental components including plants and soil microflora; and (3) the environmental persistence of the simulants. Chemical agent simulants are employed for a range of testing and training activities where use of chemical agents is less than suitable from a safety and environmental standpoint. A variety of chemical simulant materials are used to simulate either nerve agents or blister agents. The following research describes the environmental effects and persistence of four simulants. These are the nerve agent stimulants diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), and bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphonate (BIS), and the mustard stimulant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). The vapor pressures for DIMP, DFP, and CEES are relatively high, reported to be 0.17, 0.58 and 3.4 mm Hg, respectively; while that of BIS is substantially less at 5.8 /times/ 10/sup /minus/5/ mm Hg at 25/degree/C. The chemical characteristics of DFP and CEES are very similar to G/VX-agents and mustard, respectively, and are employed for materials evaluation under controlled conditions. However, their toxicity precludes their use in the environment. DIMP and BIS are currently used for testing in the open air. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Essential, trace and toxic element concentrations in the liver of the world's largest bony fish, the ocean sunfish (Mola mola).

    PubMed

    Perrault, Justin R; Buchweitz, John P; Lehner, Andreas F

    2014-02-15

    No studies document essential (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium), trace (barium, boron, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, zinc) or toxic element (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, thallium) concentrations in any members of the family Molidae, including the world's largest bony fish, the ocean sunfish (Mola mola). Here, we analyzed 21 elements in the liver of one M. mola. These values were compared to liver concentrations in multiple species with spatial and dietary overlap. Concentrations of calcium (3339 ppm wet weight) and iron (2311 ppm wet weight) were extremely elevated in comparison to a number of other fish species, indicating that calcium and/or iron toxicity may have occurred in this animal. Concentrations of toxic elements were generally low, with the exception of cadmium (3.5 ppm). This study represents the first report of essential, trace and toxic elements in this species.

  1. Risk and toxicity assessments of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jie; Hu, Xin; Tao, Xiancong; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2013-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serous environmental issues globally. To evaluate the metal pollution in Jiangsu Province of China, the total concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake were analyzed. Ecological risk of sediments and human health risk of fish consumption were assessed respectively. Furthermore, toxicity of samples on expression of the stress responsive genes was evaluated using microbial live cell-array method. The results showed that the heavy metals concentrations in sediments from the Yangtze River were much higher than those in sediments from the Taihu Lake. However, the fishes from the Taihu Lake had higher concentrations of heavy metals than fishes from the Yangtze River. Ecological risk evaluation showed that the heavy metal contaminants in sediments from the Yangtze River posed higher risk of adverse ecological effects, while sediments from the study areas of Taihu Lake were relatively safe. Health risk assessment suggested that the heavy metals in fishes of both Yangtze River and Taihu Lake might have risk of adverse health effects to human. The toxicity assessment indicated that the heavy metals in these sediments and fishes showed transcriptional effects on the selected 21 stress responsive genes, which were involved in the pathways of DNA damage response, chemical stress, and perturbations of electron transport. Together, this field investigation combined with chemical analysis, risk assessment and toxicity bioassay would provide useful information on the heavy metal pollution in Jiangsu Province.

  2. Acute effects of mercuric chloride on glycogen and protein content of zebra fish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Vutukuru, S S; Basani, Kalpana

    2013-03-01

    Presence of mercury and other heavy metals above permissible levels in water bodies across the globe is posing a serious threat to aquatic biota and public health. Occurrence of mercury above the permissible limits in the aquatic ecosystem of Hyderabad city is well established. In this context, we carried out static- renewal bioassays on the zebra fish, Danio rerio exposed to different concentrations of mercuric chloride, and the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) was found to be 0.077 mgl(-1). Behavioral manifestations like loss of scales, hyper secretion of mucus, surfacing and darting movements, loss of balance, irregular swimming patterns were noticed in the fish exposed to 0.077 mgl(-1). The present study also examined the toxic effects of mercuric chloride on vital biochemical constituent's total glycogen and total protein. Significant decrease (p < 0.001) in glycogen and protein content of fish exposed to 0.077 mgl(-1).

  3. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelian, Jason M.; Callister, Matthew D.; Ashman, Jonathan B.; Young-Fadok, Tonia M.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Gunderson, Leonard L.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  4. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  5. Acute toxicity of eight oil spill response chemicals to temperate, boreal, and Arctic species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Bonaunet, Kristin; Overjordet, Ida Beathe

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity of selected shoreline washing agents (SWA) and dispersants, and (2) assess interspecies differences in sensitivity to the products. Eight shoreline washing agents (Hela saneringsvæske, Bios, Bioversal, Absorrep K212, and Corexit 9580) and chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500, Dasic NS, and Gamlen OD4000) were tested on five marine species, algae Skeletonema costatum, planktonic copepod species Acartia tonsa (temperate species), Calanus finmarchicus (boreal species) and Calanus glacialis (Arctic species), and benthic amphipod Corophium volutator. For most products, A. tonsa was the most sensitive species, whereas C. volutator was the least sensitive; however, these species were exposed through different media (water/sediment). In general, all copepod species displayed a relatively similar sensitivity to all products. However, A. tonsa was somewhat more sensitive than other copepods to most of the tested products. Thus, A. tonsa appears to be a candidate species for boreal and Arctic copepods for acute toxicity testing, and data generated on this species may be used as to provide conservative estimates. The benthic species (C. volutator) had a different sensitivity pattern relative to pelagic species, displaying higher sensitivity to solvent-based SWA than to water-based SWA. Comparing product toxicity, the dispersants were in general most toxic while the solvent-based SWA were least toxic to pelagic species.

  6. Acute and subchronic (13-week) toxicity of fermented Acanthopanax koreanum extracts in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Cho, MyoungLae; Shin, Gi-Hae; Kim, Jae-Min; Lee, Jin-Ha; Park, Sun-Ok; Lee, Sang-Jong; Shin, HyunMu; Lee, Boo-Yong; Kang, Il-Jun; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    The biological fermentation of plants is usually used to improve their product properties, including their biological activity. Acanthopanax koreanum is a plant indigenous to Jeju, Korea; however, fermented A. koreanum (FAK) has not been guaranteed to be safe. Therefore, in this study, a safety evaluation of aqueous extracts of FAK was performed using Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity of FAK did not influence animal mortality, body weight changes or the animals' clinical appearance at a concentration of 5000 mg/kg body weight. Using doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day in a subchronic (13-week) toxicity study, the administration of FAK in male rats increased their body weight, food consumption, absolute liver weight, liver-associated enzymes and total cholesterol content. However, these effects of FAK were not considered toxic because the changes were not accompanied by any evidence of clinical signs or any change in the histopathological examination. On the other hand, the FAK-treated female rats did not exhibit significant changes in their body weight, food consumption, absolute and relative organ weights or liver enzymes. These results suggest that the acute oral administration of FAK is non-toxic to rats, and 13 weeks of repeated dosing demonstrated no FAK-related toxicity at a concentration of 2000 mg/kg. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of FAK was determined to be 2000 mg/kg/day for both male and female rats.

  7. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  8. Acute Dermal Toxicity of CHF1, CHR2 and Saline in Rabbits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    yellowish-white foci in the liv*-r that are typical (f lecions caused by Eimeria stiedae , a coccidia that infects in-rahentic bile ducts of rabbits . Thene...AD-A12i 944 ACUTE DERI1ALTTOXICITY OF CHFi CHR2 AND SALINE IN / RABBITS (U) LETTERMAN ARMY INST OF RESEARCH PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO CA M A HANES ET...NdATIONiAL 3SPIA OF SITiOAM - 963 -A - INSTITUTE REPORT NO. 130 S ACUTE DERMAL TOXICITY OF CHF 1, CHR 2 AND SALINE IN RABBITS MARTHA A. HANES, DVM, CPT VC JOHN

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity of buprofezin on Daphnia magna and the recovery evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Qi, Suzhen; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xuefeng; Qiu, Lihong; Wang, Chengju

    2012-11-01

    The toxic effects of buprofezin on Daphnia magna after both chronic and acute exposures were evaluated according to OECD guidelines. A 48-h acute exposure of buprofezin resulted in daphnid immobility at an EC(50) of 0.44 mg/L. In a 14 days chronic exposure of buprofezin (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg/L), the development and reproduction of daphnids were all significantly affected and the body length was more sensitive than other observed parameters. However, the adverse effects of buprofezin on parental daphnids can be passed on to their offspring and cannot be recovered in a short time.

  10. Evaluation of the annual killifish Nothobranchius guentheri as a tool for rapid acute toxicity screening

    SciTech Connect

    Shedd, T.R.; Widder, M.W.; Toussaint, M.W.; Sunkel, M.C.; Hull, E.

    1999-10-01

    This study evaluated the use of Nothobranchius guentheri as a novel organism for rapid acute toxicity screening. A major advantage of the species is that there is no need to maintain a continuous culture to have organisms immediately available for testing. Rather, the embryos are viable under long-term storage conditions and can be hatched within a few hours. The tests require only 24 h with standard laboratory equipment. Sensitivity levels for 11 representative toxicants were comparable to those reported for five of the standard US Environmental Protection Agency test species requiring continuous culture.

  11. Acute toxicity of PCB congeners to Daphnia magma and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, T.M. ); Burton, W.D.S. )

    1991-02-01

    The acute toxicity (EC50/LC50) of commercial PCB mixtures has been reported to range from 2.0 to 283 ug/L. Because PCBs are very hydrophobic most biological studies have utilized a carrier solvent to facilitate introduction of PCBs into aqueous solution. As a result, biological effects are often reported at exposure concentrations exceeding water solubility. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the comparative toxicity of selected PCB congeners without carrier solvents. These tests were conducted on early life stages of two sensitive freshwater organisms, Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas.

  12. Acute toxicity of cypermethrin to the non target organism Hyalella curvispina.

    PubMed

    Mugni, Hernán; Paracampo, Ariel; Marrochi, Natalia; Bonetto, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cypermethrin to the amphipod Hyalella curvispina was evaluated by means of a toxicity test under laboratory conditions. Cypermethrin is one of the most widely used insecticides in Argentina. H. curvispina is a widely distributed and commonly abundant component of the invertebrate assemblages in shallow waters of southern South America. The experiments were repeated three times. The mean 48-h LC(50) value for H. curvispina was estimated at 0.066μg/l. H. curvispina represents a good model for exotoxicological risk assessment.

  13. HMX: Analysis of Dosing Formulations Used in Acute, Sub-Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-31

    14.72 - 1 50 78 1 79 1 1 I I 72 15.30 1 I 50 781 I I I 3 1 1 1 1 5 0 1 1 1 I i 15.07 -5 1 112 1 ,? 3 1 4,3 74 15.251 " 1 1 50 1 114 1 113 0 I I I 75...NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO 3 . RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (end Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED HMX: Analysis of dosing formulations...HMX: Analysis of Dosing Formulations Used in Acute, Sub-acute and Sub-chronic Toxicity Studies Final Report by: M.S. Henderson 3 , July,, 1985 Supported

  14. Natural sunlight and residual fuel oils are an acutely lethal combination for fish embryos.

    PubMed

    Hatlen, Kristin; Sloan, Catherine A; Burrows, Douglas G; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Incardona, John P

    2010-08-01

    The majority of studies characterizing the mechanisms of oil toxicity in fish embryos and larvae have focused largely on unrefined crude oil. Few studies have addressed the toxicity of modern bunker fuels, which contain residual oils that are the highly processed and chemically distinct remains of the crude oil refinement process. Here we use zebrafish embryos to investigate potential toxicological differences between unrefined crude and residual fuel oils, and test the effects of sunlight as an additional stressor. Using mechanically dispersed oil preparations, the embryotoxicity of two bunker oils was compared to a standard crude oil from the Alaska North Slope. In the absence of sunlight, all three oils produced the stereotypical cardiac toxicity that has been linked to the fraction of tricyclic aromatic compounds in an oil mixture. However, the cardiotoxicity of bunker oils did not correlate strictly with the concentrations of tricyclic compounds. Moreover, when embryos were sequentially exposed to oil and natural sunlight, the bunker oils produced a rapid onset cell-lethal toxicity not observed with crude oil. To investigate the chemical basis of this differential toxicity, a GC/MS full scan analysis was used to identify a range of compounds that were enriched in the bunker oils. The much higher phototoxic potential of chemically distinct bunker oils observed here suggests that this mode of action should be considered in the assessment of bunker oil spill impacts, and indicates the need for a broader approach to understanding the aquatic toxicity of different oils.

  15. Acute toxicity of endosulfan to crab: effect on transport property of haemocyanin

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumari, P.; Reddy, D.C.; Ramamurthi, R.

    1987-05-01

    It is well known that organochlorine insecticides interfere with axonic transmission causing nervous dysfunction. The toxic effects of endosulfan (Thiodan (R) 6,7,8,9,10-hexachloro 1,5,5a,6,9a-hexahydro-6, 9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepine-3 oxide) -an organochlorine insecticide used extensively for crop protection in this part of India - to various fish species have been documented. However the toxicity of endosulfan to a freshwater field crab, Oziotelphusa senex senex - another nontarget organism of aquatic ecosystem - has not been fully evaluated. In view of this it would be interesting to examine the toxic effects of endosulfan on the transport property of crab haemocyanin since the respiratory pigments provide a prime example of a link between molecular and whole organ biology.

  16. Testing nanomaterial toxicity in unicellular eukaryotic algae and fish cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Alexandra; Kühnel, Dana; Schirmer, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Nanoecotoxicology as a sub-discipline of ecotoxicology aims to identify and predict effects elicited on ecosystems by nano-sized materials (NM). Two key groups of model organisms in this context are algae and fish. In this chapter, we present considerations for testing NM with respect to their impact on unicellular algae and cell lines derived from various organs of fish.Based on currently available literature on NM effects in unicellular algae and fish cell lines, and our own experience, we provide guidance on test design, including principle test considerations, materials, NM presentation to cells, exposure, bioavailability, and effect assessment. Assessment needs to be based on a meaningful choice of exposure scenario(s) related to the research question. As a first step, one needs to address whether effects of NMs are to be investigated under environmentally relevant or probable conditions, which may include processes such as agglomeration, or whether NM effects from mono-dispersed particles are of interest, which may require special steps to ensure stable NM suspension. Moreover, whether effects on cells are to be studied in the short- or long-term is important with regard to experimental design. Preparation of NM suspensions, which can be done in aqueous media different from the exposure medium, is addressed with regard to energy input, sterility (as required for algae and fish cell exposure) and particle purity.Specified for the two model systems, algae and fish cell lines, availability and choice of culture media are presented and discussed with regard to impact on NM behavior. Light, temperature, and agitation, which are variables during exposure, are discussed. We further provide guidance on the characterization of the NM in the chosen aqueous exposure media regarding size, zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility. The state of NM in exposure media is decisive for their bioavailability and therefore for potential particle effects. Therefore, we present

  17. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day.

  18. Acute Toxicity in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Androgen Suppression and Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pervez, Nadeem; Small, Cormac; MacKenzie, Marc; Yee, Don; Parliament, Matthew; Ghosh, Sunita; Mihai, Alina; Amanie, John; Murtha, Albert; Field, Colin; Murray, David; Fallone, Gino; Pearcey, Robert

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To report acute toxicity resulting from radiotherapy (RT) dose escalation and hypofractionation using intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) treatment combined with androgen suppression in high-risk prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients with a histological diagnosis of high-risk prostatic adenocarcinoma (having either a clinical Stage of >=T3a or an initial prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of >=20 ng/ml or a Gleason score of 8 to 10 or a combination of a PSA concentration of >15 ng/ml and a Gleason score of 7) were enrolled. RT prescription was 68 Gy in 25 fractions (2.72 Gy/fraction) over 5 weeks to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles. The pelvic lymph nodes and distal seminal vesicles concurrently received 45 Gy in 25 fractions. The patients were treated with helical TomoTherapy-based IMRT and underwent daily megavoltage CT image-guided verification prior to each treatment. Acute toxicity scores were recorded weekly during RT and at 3 months post-RT, using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity scales. Results: All patients completed RT and follow up for 3 months. The maximum acute toxicity scores were as follows: 21 (35%) patients had Grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity; 4 (6.67%) patients had Grade 3 genitourinary (GU) toxicity; and 30 (33.33%) patients had Grade 2 GU toxicity. These toxicity scores were reduced after RT; there were only 8 (13.6%) patients with Grade 1 GI toxicity, 11 (18.97%) with Grade 1 GU toxicity, and 5 (8.62%) with Grade 2 GU toxicity at 3 months follow up. Only the V60 to the rectum correlated with the GI toxicity. Conclusion: Dose escalation using a hypofractionated schedule to the prostate with concurrent pelvic lymph node RT and long-term androgen suppression therapy is well tolerated acutely. Longer follow up for outcome and late toxicity is required.

  19. Toxic effects of sewage sludges on freshwater edible fish Cirrhina mrigala

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, L.; Coutinho, C.; Rao, C.V.

    1996-03-01

    Municipal sewage sludges have been advocated by several investigators as a suitable dietary supplement in aquaculture because of the protein contained in it. Other researchers discourage their usage for a variety of reasons, the most common being the presence of heavy metals and pesticides that accumulate in various organs, thereby hampering growth in fish. Settled sewage, if palatable however, would prove to be an excellent low-cost nutrient in intensive aquaculture farms. Sludges may be administered in the aqueous or dehydrated condition, and in either case would be suitable for even fry and fingerlings, if consumed soon after application because of the small particle size. The absence of reports on the effect of sewage sludges from the wastewater treatment plant on animals prompted this investigation, though heavy metal analysis revealed the presence of appreciable quantities of Zn, Cu, Pb and moderate amounts of Ni, Cr, Cd in aqueous activate-sludge. In this study the effect of activated sludge (AcS), raw sludge (RS) in acute and chronic bioassays and hydrated digested sludge (DS) and dehydrated (sun-dried) digested sludge (KS) in chronic feeding experiment on survival, behavior and whole body acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity of Cirrhina mrigala, a freshwater edible fish, were investigated.

  20. [Acute toxicity of 10 Moroccan plants reported to be hypoglycemic agents].

    PubMed

    Jaouhari, J T; Lazrek, H B; Jana, M

    1999-01-01

    An acute toxicity study of twelve medicinal plants on Swiss albino mice has been carried out. The extracts were administered orally at a dose of 1 g/kg body weight. Animals were observed for 7 days and changes in weight and behaviour were noted. On the eighth day, the animals were sacrificed and an anatomo-histopathologic survey was undertaken. The results showed a change in behaviour and some histologic modifications following the administration of certain plant extracts.

  1. The acute aquatic toxicity of a series of acrylate and methacrylate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, C.A.; McLaughlin, J.E.; Hamilton, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Acute aquatic toxicity data for several acrylate and methacrylate esters were reviewed. Acrylates included acrylic acid, ethyl-, and butyl-acrylate. Methacrylates included methacrylic acid, methyl-, and butyl-methacrylate. Tests were 48 hr or 96 hr standard flow through (invertebrates and fish) assays (measured exposure concentrations). These data are currently used in a risk assessment of acrylate/methacrylate environmental safety. Algal growth (Selanastrum capricomutum) 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.17 mg/L (NOEC < 0.13 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 11.0 mg/L (NOEC < 6.5 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC < 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Invertebrate (Daphnia magna) 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were 95.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 7.9 mg/L (NOEC 3.4 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 8.2 mg/L (NOEC 2.4 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 27.0 mg/L (NOEC 6.3 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 4.6 mg/L (NOEC 0.78 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Algae 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.59 mg/L (NOEC 0.38 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 170.0 mg/L (NOEC 100.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 130.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate. Daphnia magna 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were > 130.0 mg/L (NOEC 130.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 69.0 mg/L (NOEC 48.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 32.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for butyl methacrylate. Trout 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 85.0 mg/L (NOEC 12.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid and > 79.0 mg/L (NOEC 40.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate. The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 96 hr LC{sub 50} was 11.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate.

  2. Mode of photo-induced toxic action of PAH in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, J.E.; Oris, J.T.; Taylor, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to 0, 6, and 12 {micro}g/L fluoranthene in the presence of ultraviolet (US) light for 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours. Ultrastructural pathology of the secondary gill lamellae was examined using transmission electron microscopy. Following 12 hours of exposure to 12 {micro}g/L fluoranthene and UV light, epithelial cells appeared highly vacuolated and swollen. Following 48 hours, additional morphological alterations in epithelial cells included multivesiculated blebbing of the plasma membrane into intercellular gaps, numerous cytolysosomes, myelinoid bodies, and enlarged lysosomes with lipid-like contents. The staining characteristics of these cytoplasmic inclusions were consistent with that of phospholipid autodigestion. In addition, an inflammatory-type reaction occurred in the secondary lamellae following 24 hours of exposure. This reaction was characterized by large areas of intercellular edema, which produced a lifting of the epithelium, and the occasional presence of macrophages and granulocytes within the edematous areas and the lamellar blood sinuses. No morphological changes were observed in chloride cells, mucous cells, or pillar cells. In those fish exposed to 6 {micro}g/L fluoranthene and UV light, a similar progression compared to 12 {micro}g/L exposure of epithelial cell damage and inflammatory-type reaction was evident beginning at 24 hours of exposure. The results of this study suggest that the mode of action of photo-induced fluoranthene toxicity in fish is respiratory stress.

  3. Evaluation of the global impacts of mitigation on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants in marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    Although persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (PBTs) are well-studied individually, their distribution and variability on a global scale are largely unknown, particularly in marine fish. Using 2,662 measurements collected from peer-reviewed literature spanning 1969–2012, we examined variability of five classes of PBTs, considering effects of geography, habitat, and trophic level on observed concentrations. While we see large-scale spatial patterning in some PBTs (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls), habitat type and trophic level did not contribute to significant patterning, with the exception of mercury. We further examined patterns of change in PBT concentration as a function of sampling year. All PBTs showed significant declines in concentration levels through time, ranging from 15–30% reduction per decade across PBT groups. Despite consistent evidence of reductions, variation in pollutant concentration remains high, indicating ongoing consumer risk of exposure to fish with pollutant levels exceeding EPA screening values. The temporal trends indicate that mitigation programs are effective, but that global levels decline slowly. In order for monitoring efforts to provide more targeted assessments of risk to PBT exposure, these data highlight an urgent need for improved replication and standardization of pollutant monitoring protocols for marine finfish. PMID:26839747

  4. Chronic toxicity evaluation of wastewater treatment plant effluents with bioluminescent bacteria: A comparison with invertebrates and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, L.I.; Travers, D.F.; Meier, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    The use of bioluminescent bacteria in chronic toxicity testing is a potentially useful yet unexplored tool in whole effluent biomonitoring. The purpose of this study was to determine the chronic toxicity of 14 different wastewater treatment plant effluents to Chronic Microtox{reg_sign} bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), and a minnow (Pimephales promelas). The invertebrate and fish have been utilized extensively for the evaluation of effluents and in establishing water quality criteria. The results of this study suggest that the 22-h Microtox Chronic Toxicity Test may correlate well with the most sensitive chronic no-observed-effect concentration value of the three-brood C. dubia test.

  5. The acute whole effluent toxicity of storm water from an international airport

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.J.; Turley, S.D.; Turley, B.S.; Yonkos, L.T.; Ziegler, G.P.; Knott, M.H.

    1995-06-01

    In October 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated application requirements with deadlines for storm-water discharges associated with industrial activity and certain municipal systems. Major airports have a number of hydrocarbon-based contaminants that could appear in storm-water runoff. In addition, ethylene, diethylene, and propylene glycol deicing and anti-icing mixtures are used during freezing and near-freezing weather. The objective of this study was to characterize the potential acute impact on aquatic life from industrial storm-water discharges from an international airport. Samples from winter storm events caused acute toxicity to both the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the daphnid (Daphnia magna), with LC50 values for both species as low as 1.0 and 2.0% effluent. The toxicity of the samples was due to the various glycol-based deicer/anti-icer mixtures used during these events. High oxygen demands and elevated total nitrogen levels are other potential problems during anti-icing/deicing activities. Samples from rain events during the nonwinter months at the airport did not cause acute toxicity unless associated with fuel spills. As a result of this study, a new discharge permit has been issued for this airport, requiring the implementation of plans for the collection and recycling and/or disposal of the deicer/anti-icer mixtures.

  6. Enantioselective acute toxicity effects and bioaccumulation of furalaxyl in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida).

    PubMed

    Qin, Fang; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Xu, Peng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2014-06-01

    The enantioselectivities of individual enantiomers of furalaxyl in acute toxicity and bioaccumulation in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were studied. The acute toxicity was tested by filter paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values of the R-form, rac-form, and S-form were 2.27, 2.08, and 1.22 µg cm(-2), respectively. After 72 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values were 1.90, 1.54, and 1.00 µg cm(-2), respectively. Therefore, the acute toxicity of furalaxyl enantiomers was enantioselective. During the bioaccumulation experiment, the enantiomer fraction of furalaxyl in earthworm tissue was observed to deviate from 0.50 and maintained a range of 0.55-0.60; in other words, the bioaccumulation of furalaxyl was enantioselective in earthworm tissue with a preferential accumulation of S-furalaxyl. The uptake kinetic of furalaxyl enantiomers fitted the first-order kinetics well and the calculated kinetic parameters were consistent with the low accumulation efficiency.

  7. Acute toxicity reduction and toxicity identification in pigment-contaminated wastewater during anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) treatment process.

    PubMed

    Deng, Minjie; Zhang, Ying; Quan, Xie; Na, Chunhong; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Wei; Han, Shuping; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2017-02-01

    In China, a considerable part of industrial wastewater effluents are discharged into the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) after pretreatment in their own wastewater treatment plants. Even though the industrial effluents meet the professional emission standards, many micro-pollutants still remained, and they could be resistant in the municipal WWTPs with conventional activated sludge process. Pigment wastewater was chosen in this study, and the acute toxicity reduction and identification of the pigment-contaminated wastewater treated by the conventional anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) process were evaluated. Results indicated that the raw pigment-contaminated wastewater was acutely toxic to Photobacterium phosphoreum (P. phosphoreum), Daphnia magna (D. magna) and Danio rerio (D. rerio). The acute toxicity was decreased in some degree after A/A/O treatment, but the final effluent still exhibited acute toxicity to D. magna and D. rerio with the toxic units (TU) of 1.1 and 2.0, respectively. Chemical analyses showed the presence of various refractory and toxic nitrogen-containing polycyclic and heterocyclic compounds in the pigment-contaminated wastewater. Toxicity identification by combining chemical analyses and correlation analysis showed that N-containing refractory organic toxicants were the main toxicity source for the pigment-contaminated wastewater, and several toxicants showed significant correlation with P. phosphoreum and D. magna. This study indicated that the A/A/O process was not efficient for pigment-contaminated wastewater treatment, and it was irradiative for technology improvement in the WWTPs receiving pretreated industrial wastewater effluents.

  8. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor–Independent Toxicity of Weathered Crude Oil during Fish Development

    PubMed Central

    Incardona, John P.; Carls, Mark G.; Teraoka, Hiroki; Sloan, Catherine A.; Collier, Tracy K.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), derived largely from fossil fuels and their combustion, are pervasive contaminants in rivers, lakes, and nearshore marine habitats. Studies after the Exxon Valdez oil spill demonstrated that fish embryos exposed to low levels of PAHs in weathered crude oil develop a syndrome of edema and craniofacial and body axis defects. Although mechanisms leading to these defects are poorly understood, it is widely held that PAH toxicity is linked to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction. Using zebrafish embryos, we show that the weathered crude oil syndrome is distinct from the well-characterized AhR-dependent effects of dioxin toxicity. Blockade of AhR pathway components with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides demonstrated that the key developmental defects induced by weathered crude oil exposure are mediated by low-molecular-weight tricyclic PAHs through AhR-independent disruption of cardiovascular function and morphogenesis. These findings have multiple implications for the assessment of PAH impacts on coastal habitats. PMID:16330359

  9. Acute photo-induced toxicity and toxicokinetics of single compounds and mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Willis, Alison M; Oris, James T

    2014-09-01

    The present study examined photo-induced toxicity and toxicokinetics for acute exposure to selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in zebrafish. Photo-enhanced toxicity from co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and PAHs enhanced the toxicity and exhibited toxic effects at PAH concentrations orders of magnitude below effects observed in the absence of UV. Because environmental exposure to PAHs is usually in the form of complex mixtures, the present study examined the photo-induced toxicity of both single compounds and mixtures of PAHs. In a sensitive larval life stage of zebrafish, acute photo-induced median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were derived for 4 PAHs (anthracene, pyrene, carbazole, and phenanthrene) to examine the hypothesis that phototoxic (anthracene and pyrene) and nonphototoxic (carbazole and phenanthrene) pathways of mixtures could be predicted from single exposures. Anthracene and pyrene were phototoxic as predicted; however, carbazole exhibited moderate photo-induced toxicity and phenanthrene exhibited weak photo-induced toxicity. The toxicity of each chemical alone was used to compare the toxicity of mixtures in binary, tertiary, and quaternary combinations of these PAHs, and a predictive model for environmental mixtures was generated. The results indicated that the acute toxicity of PAH mixtures was additive in phototoxic scenarios, regardless of the magnitude of photo-enhancement. Based on PAH concentrations found in water and circumstances of high UV dose to aquatic systems, there exists potential risk of photo-induced toxicity to aquatic organisms.

  10. Artemia salina as test organism for assessment of acute toxicity of leachate water from landfills.

    PubMed

    Svensson, B M; Mathiasson, L; Mårtensson, L; Bergström, S

    2005-03-01

    Artemia salina has, for the first time, been used as test organism for acute toxicity of leachate water from three landfills (the municipal landfills at Kristianstad, Sweden and Siauliai, Lithuania, and an industrial landfill at Stena fragmenting AB, Halmstad, as well as for leachate from Kristianstad treated in different ways in a pilot plan). Artemia can tolerate the high concentrations of chloride ions found in such waters. Large differences in toxicities were found, the leachate from Siauliai being the most toxic one. To increase the selectivity in the measurements, a fractionation was done by using ion exchange to separate ammonium/ammonia and metal ions from the leachate, and activated carbon adsorbents for organic pollutants. The influence of some metals and phenol compounds on the toxicity was investigated separately. It was found that most of the toxicity emanated from the ammonium/ammonia components in the leachate. However, there was also a significant contribution n from organic pollutants, other than phenol compounds, since separate experiments had in this latter case indicated negligible impact. The concentrations of metals were at a level, shown by separate experiments, where only small contribution to the toxicity could be expected.

  11. A microfluidic device for continuous sensing of systemic acute toxicants in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyan; Dong, Tao

    2013-12-03

    A bioluminescent-cell-based microfluidic device for sensing toxicants in drinking water was designed and fabricated. The system employed Vibrio fischeri cells as broad-spectrum sensors to monitor potential systemic cell toxicants in water, such as heavy metal ions and phenol. Specifically, the chip was designed for continuous detection. The chip design included two counter-flow micromixers, a T-junction droplet generator and six spiral microchannels. The cell suspension and water sample were introduced into the micromixers and dispersed into droplets in the air flow. This guaranteed sufficient oxygen supply for the cell sensors. Copper (Cu2+), zinc (Zn2+), potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol were selected as typical toxicants to validate the sensing system. Preliminary tests verified that the system was an effective screening tool for acute toxicants although it could not recognize or quantify specific toxicants. A distinct non-linear relationship was observed between the zinc ion concentration and the Relative Luminescence Units (RLU) obtained during testing. Thus, the concentration of simple toxic chemicals in water can be roughly estimated by this system. The proposed device shows great promise for an early warning system for water safety.

  12. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol Extract in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Sreeramanan, Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity. PMID:24386634

  13. Safety Evaluation of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Rhizome Extract: Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Poachanukoon, Orapan; Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Dechatiwongse Na Ayudhya, Thaweephol; Khonsung, Parirat; Jaijoy, Kanjana; Soawakontha, Ruedee; Chanchai, Monraudee

    2014-01-01

    Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. has been used for traditional medicine, but few studies have described its potential toxicity. In this study, the acute and chronic oral toxicity of Z. cassumunar extract granules were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. However, a decrease in body weights was observed in treated males (P < 0.05). The weights of lung and kidney of treated females were increased (P < 0.05). Treated males were increased in spleen and epididymis weights (P < 0.05). In repeated dose 270-day oral toxicity study, the administration of the extracts at concentrations of 0.3, 3, 30, 11.25, 112.5, and 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day revealed no-treatment toxicity. Although certain endpoints among those monitored (i.e., organ weight, hematological parameters, and clinical chemistry) exhibited statistically significant effects, none was adverse. Gross and histological observations revealed no toxicity. Our findings suggest that the Z. cassumunar extract granules are well tolerated for both single and chronic administration. The oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the extract was 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day for males and females. PMID:27379341

  14. Safety Evaluation of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Rhizome Extract: Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies in Rats.

    PubMed

    Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Poachanukoon, Orapan; Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Dechatiwongse Na Ayudhya, Thaweephol; Khonsung, Parirat; Jaijoy, Kanjana; Soawakontha, Ruedee; Chanchai, Monraudee

    2014-01-01

    Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. has been used for traditional medicine, but few studies have described its potential toxicity. In this study, the acute and chronic oral toxicity of Z. cassumunar extract granules were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. However, a decrease in body weights was observed in treated males (P < 0.05). The weights of lung and kidney of treated females were increased (P < 0.05). Treated males were increased in spleen and epididymis weights (P < 0.05). In repeated dose 270-day oral toxicity study, the administration of the extracts at concentrations of 0.3, 3, 30, 11.25, 112.5, and 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day revealed no-treatment toxicity. Although certain endpoints among those monitored (i.e., organ weight, hematological parameters, and clinical chemistry) exhibited statistically significant effects, none was adverse. Gross and histological observations revealed no toxicity. Our findings suggest that the Z. cassumunar extract granules are well tolerated for both single and chronic administration. The oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the extract was 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day for males and females.

  15. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions.

  16. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to yalella azteca (Saussure)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca Saussure (an amphipod) exposed in soft and hard waters to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two foam suppressants (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). The chemicals were slightly to moderately toxic to amphipods. The most toxic chemical to amphipods in soft and hard water was Phos-Chek WD-881 (96-h mean lethal concentration [LC50] equal to 10 mg/L and 22 mg/L, respectively), and the least toxic chemical to amphipods in soft water was Fire-Trol GTS-R (96-h LC50 equal to 127 mg/L) and in hard water was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-h LC50 equal to 535 mg/L). Concentrations of ammonia in tests with the three fire retardants and both water types were greater than reported LC50 values and probably were the major toxic component. Estimated un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the LC50 were frequently less than the reported LC50 ammonia concentrations for amphipods. The three fire retardants were more toxic in soft water than in hard water even though ammonia and un-ionized ammonia concentrations were higher in hard water tests than in soft water tests. The accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect aquatic invertebrates, thereby disrupting ecosystem function.

  17. Binding of nickel and copper to fish gills predicts toxicity when water hardness varies, but free-ion activity does not

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Bobbitt, J.P.; Debrey, L.D.; Boese, C.J.; Bergman, H.L.; Santore, R.C.; Paquin, P.R.; Ditoro, D.M.; Allen, H.E.

    1999-03-15

    Based on a biotic-ligand model (BLM), the authors hypothesized that the concentration of a transition metal bound to fish gills ([M{sub gill}]) will be a constant predictor of mortality, whereas a free-ion activity model is generally interpreted to imply that the chemical activity of the aquo (free) ion of the metal will be a constant predictor of mortality. In laboratory tests, measured [Ni{sub gill}] and calculated [Cu{sub gill}] were constant predictors of acute toxicity of Ni and Cu to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) when water hardness varied up to 10-fold, whereas total aqueous concentrations and free-ion activities of Ni and Cu were not. Thus, the BLM, which simultaneously accounts for (a) metal speciation in the exposure water and (b) competitive binding of transition-metal ions and other cations to biotic ligands predicts acute toxicity better than does free-ion activity of Ni or Cu. Adopting a biotic-ligand modeling approach could help establish a more defensible, mechanistic basis for regulating aqueous discharges of metals.

  18. Acute toxicity assessment of Osthol content in bio-pesticides using two aquatic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Eun-Chae; Kim, Hyeon Joe; Kim, Seong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study focused on the assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol, a major component of environment-friendly biological pesticides, by using two aquatic organisms. Methods The assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol was conducted in Daphnia magna and by examining the morphological abnormalities in Danio rerio embryos. Results The median effective concentration value of Osthol in D. magna 48 hours after inoculation was 19.3 μM. The median lethal concentration of D. rerio embryo at 96 hours was 30.6 μM. No observed effect concentration and predicted no effect concentration values of Osthol in D. magna and D. rerio were calculated as 5.4 and 0.19 μM, respectively. There was an increase in the morphological abnormalities in D. rerio embryo due to Osthol over time. Coagulation, delayed hatching, yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, and pigmentation were observed in embryos at 24–48 hours. Symptoms of scoliosis and head edema occurred after 72 hours. In addition, bent tails, ocular defects, and symptoms of collapse were observed in fertilized embryo tissue within 96 hours. Ocular defects and pigmentation were the additional symptoms observed in this study. Conclusions Because Osthol showed considerable toxicity levels continuous toxicity evaluation in agro-ecosystems is necessary when bio-pesticides containing Osthol are used. PMID:25518842

  19. The Acute Inhalation Toxicity in Rats from the Pyrolysis Products of Four Fluoropolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, V. L., Jr.; Bafus, D. A.; Warrington, H. P.; Harris, E. S.

    1974-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats (225?250 g) were exposed to the thermal degradation products from four fluoropolymers. The three polymers containing vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene (VF2/HFP) were pyrolyzed at 550? and 800?C, whereas polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was pyrolyzed at 625 and 800?C. At the lower temperatures, the pyrolysate from the copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene (VF2/HFP) was less toxic than the pyrolysates from either the terpolymer of vinyidene fluoride, hexafluoropropene, and tetrafluoroethylene (VF2/HFP/TFE) or the copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene with ?additives? (VF2/HFP-A). However, the pyrolysates from the VF2/HFP-containing materials produced less toxic products than the pyrolysate from PTFE at 625?C. When the pyrolysis temperature was increased to 800?C, very little difference was noted between the pyrolysis toxicity for any of the VF2/HFP-containing polymers with the most toxic pyrolysate again produced by PTFE. Carbon monoxide levels were all sublethal. No correlation could be established between hydrolyzable fluoride levels and the lethality of the pyrolysates. Death following exposure occurred within 48 hr due to acute pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Survival of this acute phase was followed by alveolar lymphocytic infiltration and peribronchial tissue proliferation.

  20. Acute and repeated dose toxicity studies of different β-cyclodextrin-based nanosponge formulations.

    PubMed

    Shende, Pravin; Kulkarni, Yogesh A; Gaud, R S; Deshmukh, Kiran; Cavalli, Roberta; Trotta, Francesco; Caldera, Fabrizio

    2015-05-01

    Nanosponges (NS) show promising results in different fields such as medicine, agriculture, water purification, fire engineering and so on. The present study was designed to evaluate toxicity of different NS formulations (namely, S1-S6) synthesized with different cross-linking agents such as carbonyl diimidazole, pyromellitic dianhydride and hexamethylene diisocynate; and preparation methods in experimental animals. Acute and repeated dose toxicity studies of formulations were carried out as per OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively. For acute toxicity study, formulations were administered to female rats at doses of 300 and 2000 mg/kg orally. The general behaviour of the rats was continuously monitored for 1 h after dosing, periodically during the first 24 h and daily thereafter for a total of 14 days. On day 14, animals were fasted overnight, weighed, and sacrificed. After sacrification, animals were subjected to necropsy. For repeated dose toxicity study, rats of either sex were orally administered with formulations at the dose of 300 mg/kg per day for a period of 28 days. The maximally tolerated dose of all formulations was found to be 2000 mg/kg. Repeated administration of formulations for 28 days did not show any significant changes in haematological and biochemical parameters in experimental animals. These results indicate that the formulations are safe, when tested in experimental animals.