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Sample records for acute gastric anisakiasis

  1. Anisakiasis.

    PubMed

    Sakanari, J A; McKerrow, J H

    1989-07-01

    Anisakiasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ingestion of larval nematodes in raw seafood dishes such as sushi, sashimi, ceviche, and pickled herring. Symptoms of anisakiasis include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Because symptoms are vague, this disease is often misdiagnosed as appendicitis, acute abdomen, stomach ulcers, or ileitis. Endoscopic examination with biopsy forceps has facilitated the diagnosis of gastric anisakiasis. Worms can be removed and identified, and a definitive diagnosis can be made. Patients generally recover with no further evidence of disease. Worms can become invasive, however, and migrate beyond the stomach, penetrating the intestine, omentum, liver, pancreas, and probably the lungs. Surgery is often necessary for treatment of invasive anisakiasis. With the increase in popularity of eating lightly cooked or raw fish dishes, the number of cases of anisakiasis may be expected to increase. PMID:2670191

  2. Acute intestinal anisakiasis: CT findings.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, H N; Avcu, S; Pauwels, W; Mortelé, K J; De Backer, A I

    2012-09-01

    Small bowel anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease that results from consumption of raw or insufficiently pickled, salted, smoked, or cooked wild marine fish infected with Anisakis larvae. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis in a 63-year-old woman presenting with acute onset of abdominal complaints one day after ingestion of raw wild-caught herring from the Northsea. Computed tomography (CT) scanning demonstrated thickening of the distal small bowel wall, mucosa with hyperenhancement, mural stratification, fluid accumulation within dilated small-bowel loops and hyperemia of mesenteric vessels. In patients with a recent history of eating raw marine fish presenting with acute onset of abdominal complaints and CT features of acute small bowel inflammation the possibility of anisakiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal syndromes.

  3. Anisakiasis Causing Acute Dysentery in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Amir, Amirah; Ngui, Romano; Ismail, Wan Hafiz Wan; Wong, Kum T; Ong, Jaxinthe S K; Lim, Yvonne A L; Lau, Yee-Ling; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-08-01

    Human anisakiasis is a zoonosis acquired by eating raw or undercooked infected seafood. Herein, we report a case of acute dysentery caused by anisakiasis in a 64-year-old man in Malaysia. A colonoscopy was performed and a nematode larva was found penetrating the mucosa of the ascending colon. Bleeding was observed at the site of penetration. Y-shaped lateral epidermal cords were seen from the cross section of the worm, which is a prominent feature of Anisakis larva. Molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction of cytochrome oxidase 2 (cox2) gene confirmed the specimen to be larva of Anisakis simplex. PMID:27325803

  4. Anisakiasis Causing Acute Dysentery in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Amir, Amirah; Ngui, Romano; Ismail, Wan Hafiz Wan; Wong, Kum T; Ong, Jaxinthe S K; Lim, Yvonne A L; Lau, Yee-Ling; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-08-01

    Human anisakiasis is a zoonosis acquired by eating raw or undercooked infected seafood. Herein, we report a case of acute dysentery caused by anisakiasis in a 64-year-old man in Malaysia. A colonoscopy was performed and a nematode larva was found penetrating the mucosa of the ascending colon. Bleeding was observed at the site of penetration. Y-shaped lateral epidermal cords were seen from the cross section of the worm, which is a prominent feature of Anisakis larva. Molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction of cytochrome oxidase 2 (cox2) gene confirmed the specimen to be larva of Anisakis simplex.

  5. Acute abdomen due to small bowel anisakiasis.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, M; Occhini, R; Tordini, G; Vindigni, C; Russo, S; Marzocca, G

    2005-01-01

    The popularity in Western countries of dishes based on raw fish has led to an increased incidence of anisakiasis, a human parasitic disease caused by the ingestion of live anisakid larvae. The entire digestive tract may be involved, but the stomach and the small intestine are the most frequently affected sites. We report a case of acute abdomen due to Anisakis simplex infection that caused small bowel obstruction. PMID:15702863

  6. Comparison of the Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Small Bowel and Gastric Anisakiasis in Jeju Island

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeyun; Jeong, Seung Uk; Choi, Eun Kwang; Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Kim, Heung Up; Song, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Kwang Sig; Kim, Bong Soo; Kim, Young Ree

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Anisakiasis is frequent in Jeju Island because of the people's habit of ingesting raw fish. This study evaluated the clinical characteristics of patients with small bowel anisakiasis and compared them with those of patients with gastric anisakiasis. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 109 patients diagnosed with anisakiasis between May 2003 and November 2011. Results Of the 109 patients diagnosed with anisakiasis, those with suspicious anisakiasis (n=38) or possible anisakiasis (n=12) were excluded. The age and gender distributions did not differ between patients with small bowel anisakiasis (n=30; age, 45±13 years) and those with gastric anisakiasis (n=29; age, 46±10 years). The mean duration of hospitalization was 5.4±4.3 days for patients with small bowel anisakiasis and 0.5±1.7 days for patients with gastric anisakiasis. Small bowel anisakiasis was accompanied by leukocytosis (76.7% vs 25.5%, p=0.003) and elevated C-reactive protein levels (3.4±3.2 mg/dL vs 0.5±0.3 mg/dL, p=0.009). Contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography showed small bowel wall thickening with dilatation in 93.3% (28/30) of patients and a small amount of ascites in 80.0% (24/30) of patients with small bowel anisakiasis. Conclusions Compared with gastric anisakiasis patients, small bowel anisakiasis patients had a longer hospitalization time, higher inflammatory marker levels, and small bowel wall thickening with ascites. PMID:23423474

  7. Anisakiasis: Report of 15 Gastric Cases Caused by Anisakis Type I Larvae and a Brief Review of Korean Anisakiasis Cases

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kim, Tae Hyo; Park, Tae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to report 15 anisakiasis cases in Korea and to review the Korean cases reported in the literature. Total 32 Anisakis type I larvae were detected in the stomach of 15 patients by the endoscopy. Single worm was detected from 12 cases, and even 9 larvae were found from 2 cases. Epigastric pain was most commonly manifested in almost all cases, and hemoptysis and hematemesis were seen in 1 case each. Symptom manifestations began at 10-12 hr after eating fish in 73.3% cases. Endoscopy was performed 1-2 days after the symptom onset in most cases. The common conger, Conger myriaster, was the probable infection source in 7 cases. In the review of Korean anisakiasis cases, thus far, total 645 cases have been reported in 64 articles. Anisakis type I larva was the most frequently detected (81.3%). The favorable infection site of larvae was the stomach (82.4%). The common conger was the most probable source of human infections (38.6%). Among the total 404 cases which revealed the age and sex of patients, 185 (45.8%) were males, and the remaining 219 (54.2%) were female patients. The age prevalence was the highest in forties (34.7%). The seasonal prevalence was highest in winter (38.8%). By the present study, 15 cases of gastric anisakiasis are added as Korean cases, and some epidemiological characteristics of Korean anisakiasis were clarified. PMID:26323845

  8. Intestinal Anisakiasis Treated Successfully with Prednisolone and Olopatadine Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, Hideki; Tanaka, Kyosuke

    2016-01-01

    The clinical characteristic of gastrointestinal anisakiasis is severe abdominal pain after eating raw fish. Intestinal anisakiasis is more uncommon than gastric anisakiasis. Most patients with intestinal anisakiasis need hospitalization because anisakiasis can cause intestinal obstruction, ileus, peritonitis or intestinal perforation. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis. A 43-year-old woman presented with symptoms of intermittent abdominal pain 2 days after eating raw fish. Her brother had eaten the same food and had been suffering from gastric anisakiasis. Abdominal ultrasonography in this patient showed localized jejunal wall thickening with dilated lumen of proximal jejunum and ascites. According to the clinical course and examinations, she was diagnosed with intestinal anisakiasis. Administration of prednisolone 5 mg/day and olopatadine hydrochloride 10 mg/day improved her symptoms quickly without hospitalization. Prednisolone was administered for 10 days, and olopatadine hydrochloride was administered for a total of 6 weeks according to ultrasonographic findings. Six months after the treatment, the abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated normal findings. This case demonstrates that ultrasonography was quite useful for the diagnosis and surveillance of intestinal anisakiasis. Furthermore, treatment with corticosteroid and an antiallergic agent could be an option for patients with intestinal anisakiasis. PMID:27403099

  9. Intestinal Anisakiasis Treated Successfully with Prednisolone and Olopatadine Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Hideki; Tanaka, Kyosuke

    2016-01-01

    The clinical characteristic of gastrointestinal anisakiasis is severe abdominal pain after eating raw fish. Intestinal anisakiasis is more uncommon than gastric anisakiasis. Most patients with intestinal anisakiasis need hospitalization because anisakiasis can cause intestinal obstruction, ileus, peritonitis or intestinal perforation. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis. A 43-year-old woman presented with symptoms of intermittent abdominal pain 2 days after eating raw fish. Her brother had eaten the same food and had been suffering from gastric anisakiasis. Abdominal ultrasonography in this patient showed localized jejunal wall thickening with dilated lumen of proximal jejunum and ascites. According to the clinical course and examinations, she was diagnosed with intestinal anisakiasis. Administration of prednisolone 5 mg/day and olopatadine hydrochloride 10 mg/day improved her symptoms quickly without hospitalization. Prednisolone was administered for 10 days, and olopatadine hydrochloride was administered for a total of 6 weeks according to ultrasonographic findings. Six months after the treatment, the abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated normal findings. This case demonstrates that ultrasonography was quite useful for the diagnosis and surveillance of intestinal anisakiasis. Furthermore, treatment with corticosteroid and an antiallergic agent could be an option for patients with intestinal anisakiasis. PMID:27403099

  10. Common Symptoms from an Uncommon Infection: Gastrointestinal Anisakiasis

    PubMed Central

    Muwanwella, Niroshan; Chandran, Sujievvan; Kandel, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians can be forgiven for thinking of anisakiasis as a rare condition low in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. Gastrointestinal anisakiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by consumption of raw or undercooked seafood infected with nematodes of the genus Anisakis. Even though the reported cases indicate that this is a rare disease, the true incidence of the disease could be potentially higher than what is reported in the literature as cases can go undiagnosed. Diagnosis and treatment of gastric anisakiasis are made by a compatible dietary history, direct visualization, and removal of the larvae via gastroscopy. Serologic testing and imaging studies are useful in the diagnosis of intestinal anisakiasis and conservative management should be considered. This disease may mimic other diseases and lead to unnecessary surgery. This emphasizes the importance of suspecting gastrointestinal anisakiasis by history taking and by other diagnostic modalities. PMID:27800471

  11. Small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis.

    PubMed

    Takano, Yuichi; Gomi, Kuniyo; Endo, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Reika; Hayashi, Masashi; Nakanishi, Toru; Tateno, Ayumi; Yamamura, Eiichi; Asonuma, Kunio; Ino, Satoshi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Nagahama, Masatsugu; Inoue, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi) ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST) was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:24455340

  12. Foodborne anisakiasis and allergy.

    PubMed

    Baird, Fiona J; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-08-01

    Human anisakiasis, a disease caused by Anisakis spp. (Nematoda), is often associated with clinical signs that are similar to those associated with bacterial or viral gastroenteritis. With the globalisation of the seafood industry, the risk of humans acquiring anisakiasis in developed countries appears to be underestimated. The importance of this disease is not only in its initial manifestation, which can often become chronic if the immune response does not eliminate the worm, but, importantly, in its subsequent sensitisation of the human patient. This sensitisation to Anisakis-derived allergens can put the patient at risk of an allergic exacerbation upon secondary exposure. This article reviews some aspects of this food-borne disease and explains its link to chronic, allergic conditions in humans. PMID:24583228

  13. Foodborne anisakiasis and allergy.

    PubMed

    Baird, Fiona J; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-08-01

    Human anisakiasis, a disease caused by Anisakis spp. (Nematoda), is often associated with clinical signs that are similar to those associated with bacterial or viral gastroenteritis. With the globalisation of the seafood industry, the risk of humans acquiring anisakiasis in developed countries appears to be underestimated. The importance of this disease is not only in its initial manifestation, which can often become chronic if the immune response does not eliminate the worm, but, importantly, in its subsequent sensitisation of the human patient. This sensitisation to Anisakis-derived allergens can put the patient at risk of an allergic exacerbation upon secondary exposure. This article reviews some aspects of this food-borne disease and explains its link to chronic, allergic conditions in humans.

  14. [A rare etiology of acute occlusion of the small intestine: anisakiasis. Review of the literature apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Morlier, D; Thiebault, S; Dalcher, G; Zeyer, B; Muller, J; Bader, R

    1989-05-01

    The authors report a case of acute small bowel occlusion related to anisakis. This parasitis is due to ingestion by man, an unusual host, of a nematode of "anisakis" type at larva stage, a parasite to be found in numerous species of raw or home-processed fish. The parasite whose symptomatology is aspecific, can be located on the whole digestive tube. Diagnosis suggested by medical inquiry along with eosinophily, can be confirmed by serology and discovery of the parasite after anatomo-pathologic analysis. Medical treatment consisting in associating anti-parasite medicines with corticoids in certain cases, is recommended in diffuse forms and allergic signs of disease. Surgical complications make the laparotomy necessary for appropriate diagnosis and curing of the patient. Increasing frequency of this pathology shows the importance of prophylactic measures such as: abstaining from raw or home-processed fish, cooking fish at a temperature of 60 degrees C, deep-freezing fish at a temperature of -20 degrees C for 24 h at least, before eating it raw. PMID:2673000

  15. Acute gastric ulcer perforation in a 35 weeks' nulliparous patient with gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Erez, Offer; Maymon, Eli; Mazor, Moshe

    2004-11-01

    We present a case of a primiparous patient at 35 weeks' gestation who had had laparoscopic gastric banding, and who presented to labor and delivery with protracted vomiting followed by an acute abdomen and fetal distress. An emergency surgery revealed acute gastric ulcer perforation. This complication, although rare, should be considered.

  16. Anisakiasis - is the sushi bar guilty?

    PubMed

    Oshima, T

    1987-02-01

    Since 1972, Japan and some other countries such as the USA have seen a sudden increase in cases of anisakiasis (infection with Anisakis sp.) and codworm an isakiasis (infection with the codworm, Pseudoterranova [= Phocanema] decipiens). Larval stages of these nematodes occur in the muscles of a variety of fish and squid, and ingestion of raw and undercooked fish or squid is the prime route of human infection. Thus the Japanese style of eating sashimi (sliced raw fish fillet) and the increasing popularity of sushi bars where such dishes are served, has often been suggested as contributing to the spread of anisakid infections. In this article, Tomoo Oshima discusses the current status of anisakiasis and codworm anisakiasis, showing that the apparent increase in human cases is related more to advances in diagnosis than to the commercialization of sushi.

  17. Immune reactions and allergy in experimental anisakiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haneul Nari

    2006-01-01

    The third-stage larvae (L3) of the parasitic nematode, Anisakis simplex, have been implicated in the induction of hyperimmune allergic reactions in orally infected humans. In this work, we have conducted a review of an investigation into immune reactions occurring in animals experimentally infected with A. simplex L3. The patterns of serum antibody productions in the experimental animals against excretory-secretory products (ESP) of A. simplex L3 contributed to our current knowledge regarding specific humoral immune reactions in humans. In our review, we were able to determine that L3 infection of experimental animals may constitute a good model system for further exploration of immune mechanisms and allergy in anisakiasis of humans. PMID:17170569

  18. [Acute gastric lesions induced by drinking water, in rats].

    PubMed

    Laudano, O M

    1994-01-01

    The ability of certain beverages and drinking waters to induce acute gastric lesions was studied and the measurement of their pH was performed. 1) Saline; 2) tap water; 3) well-water; 4) well water plus puritabs; 5) saline plus 2 Cl drips; 6) saline plus 4 Cl drops; 7) saline plus 8 Cl drops; 8) boiled water after 30 min; 9) apartment deposit water; 10) WC bowl water; 11) ice water; 12) Paraná river water (Northern Rosario); 13) Paraná river water (Southern Rosario); 14) rain water (Rosario); 15) rain water) countryside); 16) carbonated mineral water; 17) non-carbonated mineral water; 18) soda; 19) flavored electrolytic water I; 20) flavored electrolytic water II; and 21) cola drink. We can conclude that: 1) a remarkable variance in saline and tap water pH is observed. 2) Rain water and Paraná river water were slightly acid, in contrast electrolytic carbonated beverages and cola drink were strongly acid (pH 2.5). 3) Saline, pH 6.68; saline plus 2 Cl drops; and non-carbonated mineral water were the only beverages that did not induce acute gastric lesions in rats.

  19. Spontaneous Acute Mesenteroaxial Gastric Volvulus Diagnosed by Computed Tomography Scan in a Young Man

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Gaby; Afifi, Ibrahim; Ellabib, Mohamed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Acute spontaneous gastric volvulus Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Acute gastric volvulus is a surgical emergency that requires early recognition and treatment. Acute idiopathic mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is a rare sub-type and there are few cases reported in children and there are even fewer reports in adults. Case Report: We report a rare case of a 23-year-old man who presented with a 1-day history of vomiting, epigastric pain, distention, and constipation. The diagnosis for mesenteroaxial type gastric volvulus was confirmed by abdominal radiography and computed tomography. The patient was successfully treated by laparotomy with resection of the ischemic stomach wall and anastomosis. Acute spontaneous mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is rare in adults and early diagnosis is challenging due to non-specific symptoms. A missed or delayed diagnosis may result in serious complications due to gastric obstruction. Conclusions: A patient presenting with severe epigastric pain and clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction should be considered as a surgical emergency to rule out gastric volvulus. High index of suspicion, early diagnosis and prompt surgical management are important for favorable outcome in patients with acute spontaneous gastric volvulus. PMID:27112797

  20. The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Sadiq; Agunu, Abdulkarim; Diana, Mshelia

    2004-07-01

    The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6 M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats, respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe vera, dose dependently inhibited gastric acid secretion. The plant was more active as a gastroprotective agent at lower concentration against mucosal injury induced by 0.6 M HCl. In conclusion, Aloe vera is endowed with gastric acid anti-secretory activity and could protect the gastric mucosa at low concentrations against injurious agents.

  1. Human anisakiasis transmitted by marine food products.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, T L; Kayes, S G; Fukumura, T

    1991-01-01

    Seafood-transmitted parasitic diseases represent an emerging area of interest to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Human infections with marine parasites are generally the result of ingesting uncooked seafood products. Over 50 species of helminthic parasites are known to infect humans worldwide. Recently, the number of infections with one of these helminths, the juvenile stage of the marine nematode, Anisakis simplex, has increased in the United States. Raw fish dishes such as lomi lomi salmon and sashimi are known to transmit the parasite to unsuspecting citizens and the most frequently implicated fish in the transmission of this zoonotic disease is the Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). The risk of infection from fishes caught in Hawaiian waters is slight; however, a juvenile Anisakis simplex infected one patient from either locally caught aku or ahi. We report 4 new cases, which brings the total number of known cases in Hawaii to 7. Five of the 7 cases were diagnosed and treated by means of an endoscope and biopsy forceps. Serological profiles are presented in several of these cases. One case represents the first known instance of reinfection; the initial infection occurred 2 years prior. The second infection gave an opportunity to compare the human response to a challenge infection and to investigate the validity of the "double hit" theory. Increased awareness by physicians to the clinical features of this disease is warranted. The zoonotic disease, anisakiasis, should be considered in patients presenting with intense abdominal pain, if these patients admit they have recently eaten raw or undercooked seafoods. PMID:2022472

  2. Acute Helicobacter pylori infection: clinical features, local and systemic immune response, gastric mucosal histology, and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Sobala, G M; Crabtree, J E; Dixon, M F; Schorah, C J; Taylor, J D; Rathbone, B J; Heatley, R V; Axon, A T

    1991-01-01

    The symptomatology of a case of acute infection with Helicobacter pylori is described, together with the accompanying changes in gastric mucosal histology, local and systemic humoral immune response, and gastric ascorbic acid concentration. The patient was an endoscopist, previously negative for the carbon-14 urea breath test, who had a week of epigastric pain and then became asymptomatic. H pylori was detected by culture of antral biopsy specimens and was still present after 74 days. Five days after infection the histological findings showed acute neutrophilic gastritis; by day 74 changes of chronic gastritis were evident. The patient seroconverted by IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay by day 74, but a mucosal IgM and IgA response was evident as early as day 14. Infection was accompanied by a transient hypochlorhydria but a sustained fall in gastric juice ascorbic acid concentration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1752479

  3. A rare case of acute on chronic gastric volvulus with Borchardt's triad.

    PubMed

    Senior, Andrew; Hari, Churunal

    2014-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare condition with two forms of presentation, either acute or chronic. Since its discovery, there have been no cases of acute on chronic volvulus discussed in the literature. Its vague presentation makes diagnosis and subsequent management difficult. The diagnosis of acute gastric volvulus is made on clinical grounds via Borchardt's triad; however, barium swallow and oesophagogastroduodenoscopy have been shown to play a role. We describe a case of a 95-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with worsening dysphagia, epigastric pain, retching without vomiting and hiccups of 5 months. Initially diagnosed as a hiatus hernia, the patient subsequently died following an acute on chronic gastric volvulus. This rare, life-threatening diagnosis provides an opportunity to discuss characteristics of gastric volvulus and the difficulties in management. PMID:25413999

  4. Ganoderma lucidum Pharmacopuncture for the Treatment of Acute Gastric Ulcers in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Heung; Jang, Kyung-Jun; kim, Cheol-Hong; Lee, Yoo-Hwan; Lee, Soo-Jung; kim, Bum-Hoi; Yoon, Hyun-Min

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the stomach and duodenum. The basic physiopathology of a gastric ulcer results from an imbalance between some endogenous aggressive and cytoprotective factors. This study examined whether Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP) would provide protection against acute gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 8 rats each: normal, control, normal saline (NP) and GLP groups. The experimental acute gastric ulcer was induced by using an EtOH/HCl solution and the normal group received the same amount of normal saline instead of ethanol. The NP and the GLP groups were treated once with injections of saline and GLP, respectively. Two local acupoints were used: CV12 (中脘) which is the alarm point of the Stomach Meridian, and ST36 (足三里), which is the sea point of the Stomach Meridian. The stomachs from the rats in each group were collected and analyzed for gross appearance and histology. Also, immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1 was performed. Results: Histological observations of the gastric lesions in the control group showed comparatively extensive damage of the gastric mucosa and necrotic lesions had penetrated deeply into the mucosa. The lesions were long, hemorrhagic, and confined to the glandular portions. The lesions were measured microscopically by using the clear depth of penetration into the gastric mucosal surface. The length and the width of the ulcer were measured and the inhibition percentage was calculated. Wound healing of the acute gastric ulcer was promoted by using GLP, and significant alterations of indices in gastric mucosa were observed. Such protection was shown by gross appearance, histology and immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1. Conclusion: These results suggest that GLP administered at CV12 and ST36 can provide significant protection to the gastric mucosa against an ethanol-induced acute

  5. Sodium bicarbonate treatment prevents gastric emptying delay caused by acute exercise in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Moisés T B; Palheta-Junior, Raimundo C; Sousa, Daniel F; Fonseca-Magalhães, Patrícia A; Okoba, Willy; Campos, Caio P S; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Magalhães, Pedro J C; Santos, Armenio A

    2014-05-01

    Physical exercise, mainly after vigorous activity, may induce gastrointestinal dysmotility whose mechanisms are still unknown. We hypothesized that physical exercise and ensuing lactate-related acidemia alter gastrointestinal motor behavior. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of short-term exercise on gastric emptying rate in awake rats subjected to 15-min swimming sessions against a load equivalent to 5% of their body weight. After 0, 10, or 20 min of exercise testing, the rats were gavage fed with 1.5 ml of a liquid test meal (0.5 mg/ml of phenol red in 5% glucose solution) and euthanized 10 min postprandially to measure fractional gastric dye recovery. In addition to inducing acidemia and increasing blood lactate levels, acute exercise increased (P < 0.05) gastric retention. Such a phenomenon presented a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between blood lactate levels and fractional gastric dye recovery. Gastric retention and other acidbase-related changes were all prevented by NaHCO3 pretreatment. Additionally, exercise enhanced (P < 0.05) the marker's progression through the small intestine. In anesthetized rats, exercise increased (P < 0.05) gastric volume, measured by a balloon catheter in a barostat system. Compared with sedentary control rats, acute exercise also inhibited (P < 0.05) the contractility of gastric fundus strips in vitro. In conclusion, acute exercise delayed the gastric emptying of a liquid test meal by interfering with the acid-base balance. PMID:24557800

  6. Gastric Duplication Cyst Presenting as Acute Abdomen: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal

    2010-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts are rare variety of gastrointestinal duplications. Sometimes they may present with complications like hemorrhage, infection, perforation, volvulus, intussusception and rarely neoplastic changes in the gastric duplication cyst. We present one and half year old male child who developed sudden abdominal distension with pain and fever for two days. Ultrasound revealed a cystic mass in the hypochondrium and epigastric regions. On exploration an infected and perforated gastric duplication cyst was found. Surgical excision of most part of cyst wall with mucosal stripping of the rest was performed. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of gastric duplication cyst. Early surgical intervention can result in good outcome. PMID:22953249

  7. Abdominal aortic occlusion and vascular compromise secondary to acute gastric dilatation in a patient with bulimia.

    PubMed

    Elsharif, M; Doulias, T; Aljundi, W; Balchandra, S

    2014-11-01

    Acute gastric dilation is a rare but recognised complication in patients with bulimia and anorexia following binge episodes owing to decreased bowel motility. We present a rare case of acute gastric dilation secondary to bulimia in an otherwise healthy 18-year-old female patient that resulted in compression and complete occlusion of the abdominal aorta, leading to acute mesenteric and bilateral lower limb ischaemia. This resolved immediately following a laparotomy and gastric decompression. Management of these patients is very challenging owing to the lack of a successful precedent. To our knowledge, such a catastrophic complication has only ever been reported once in the literature and the outcome was fatal. Our case is of additional importance as it offers a successful management strategy for these patients.

  8. Gastroprotective Effects of Astragaloside IV against Acute Gastric Lesion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shuai; Yang, Guang; Li, Winny; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Hailong; Li, Jian; Zhang, Minzhou

    2016-01-01

    Background Protection of the gastric mucosa from acute lesions induced by various irritants is a pertinent issue in the field of critical care medicine. In this study, we investigated the gastroprotective effects of astragaloside IV on acute gastric lesions in rats under stressful conditions. Methods Rats were randomized into six groups. Group 1 and 2 received 10% Tween 80 (vehicle). Group 3 received 20 mg/kg of omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor. Groups 4, 5 and 6 received astragaloside IV at concentration of 1, 10, and 50 mg/kg, respectively. As a means to induce gastric lesions, Groups 2–6 were subjected to water immersion and restraint stress for 12 hours after treatment. Results Our present studies show that compared to rats in group 2, treatment with 1 to 50 mg/kg astragaloside IV significantly decreased the size of gastric lesions, MDA, TNFα and MCP1 levels, in addition to normalizing gastric pH, gastric mucus and SOD levels (P<0.05). Histomorphological examination confirmed that treatment with astragaloside IV elicited a dosage-dependent protective effect on the gastric mucosa. Furthermore, pretreatment with astragaloside IV resulted in significant elevations in HSP70 and reduction in Bax, along with over-expression of PLCγ response level, which was further confirmed via immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusions The acute gastric lesions induced are attenuated by pretreatment with astragaloside IV which is possibly due to the enhancing of the expression of HSP70 with concomitant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic capacity. PMID:26845156

  9. [Long-term nasogastric feeding and complications of acute gastric ulcer in two elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Yoshimine, N; Miura, S; Funaki, C; Hayashi, T; Goto, T; Ando, F; Kuzuya, F

    1992-09-01

    Some elderly patients with chronic illness such as stroke, or Parkinsonism cannot take food orally because of dysphagia. In such cases, tube feeding can be used as a supplement to oral intake when malnutrition is present. This route allows for easier nursing care and decreases the frequency of aspiration pneumonia. Complications of tube feeding include nutrient deficiency states, pulmonary aspiration, gastrointestinal and metabolic disorders. We report two cases with complications of acute gastric ulcer which was thought to be induced with long-term tube feeding. Case 1 was a 61-year-old male patient with Parkinson's disease for ten years. L-DOPA had been administered with good control of his condition. However, his ability to swallow has deteriorated gradually. As he often suffered from aspiration pneumonia, nasogastric tube feeding was performed. After three years of tube feeding, he suddenly vomited much bloody material. He died from massive bleeding with acute gastric dilatation. Autopsy showed giant acute gastric ulcer covered with coagulated blood. UL3, 50 mm in maximum diameter, was observed in the middle portion of the greater curvature, where the top of tube probably came in contact with the gastric wall. Case 2 was an 83-year-old female patient with stroke and chronic heart failure. She had been hospitalized for about one year because of the intermittent deterioration of her cardiac condition. Furthermore, her inability to swallow increased during her hospitalization. She also suffered from aspiration pneumonia. Nasogastric tube feeding was performed to prevent aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. She died of acute heart failure after twelve months. Autopsy revealed heart dilatation, old myocardial infarction and stroke. In addition, two acute gastric ulcers (UL3.10 and 30 mm in diameter) were recognized; one was in the upper portion of the greater curvature, the other in the lower portion of the greater curvature. The location of these gastric ulcers

  10. Spontaneous gastric ulcer perforation and acute spleen infarction caused by invasive gastric and splenic mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Alharthi, Bandar N; Dewanjee, Nancy; Bhat, Nadeem A; Fagih, Mosa

    2014-07-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening fungal infection mostly affecting immunocompromised hosts. The main categories of human disease with the Mucorales are sinusitis/rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous/subcutaneous, gastrointestinal and disseminated disease. Other disease states occur with a much lower frequency and include cystitis, vaginitis; external otitis and allergic disease. We report a diabetic patient with comorbidities, who developed gastric perforation clinically indistinguishable from perforated peptic ulcer due to invasive gastric mucormycosis complicated by spleen infarction.

  11. Acute acalculous cholecystitis immediately after gastric operation: Case report and literatures review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng-Lin; Li, He; Wang, Xue-Fei; Shen, Kun-Tang; Shen, Zhen-Bin; Sun, Yi-Hong; Qin, Xin-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is a rare complication of gastric surgery. The most commonly accepted concepts regarding its pathogenesis are bile stasis, sepsis and ischemia, but it has not been well described how to identify and manage this disease in the early stage. We report three cases of AAC in elderly patients immediately after gastric surgery, which were treated with three different strategies. One patient died 42 d after emergency cholecystectomy, and the other two finally recovered through timely cholecystostomy and percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage, respectively. These cases informed us of the value of early diagnosis and proper treatment for perioperative AAC after gastric surgery. We further reviewed reported cases of AAC immediately after gastric operation, which may expand our knowledge of this disease. PMID:25132787

  12. Protective Effects of the Traditional Herbal Formula Oryeongsan Water Extract on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the protective effect and safety of Oryeongsan water extract (OSWE) on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury and an acute toxicity study in rats. Acute gastric lesions were induced via intragastric oral administration of absolute ethanol at a dose of 5 mL/kg. OSWE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered to rats 2 h prior to the oral administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of animal models was opened and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Gastric mucosal injuries were evaluated by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the acute toxicity study, no adverse effects of OSWE were observed at doses up to 2000 mg/kg/day. Administration of OSWE reduced the damage by conditioning the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, which included hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cells. The level of MDA was reduced in OSWE-treated groups compared with the ethanol-induced group. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the OSWE-treated groups. Our findings suggest that OSWE has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury via the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23118790

  13. Acute Pancreatitis and Gastroduodenal Intussusception Induced by an Underlying Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Ahmet; Koparan, Ibrahim Halil; Adin, Mehmet Emin

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare tumors of the gastrointestinal system and comprise only 1% to 3% of all gastrointestinal tract tumors, with the majority of them arising in the stomach. In this report, we present the unique findings of a case of gastroduodenal intussusception caused by an underlying gastric GIST and complicated with severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:27104028

  14. [Prognostication of malignization and acute complications of gastric ulcer disease, using multiparametric neuronet clasterization].

    PubMed

    Dzyubanovskiy, I Ya; Selskiy, P R; Viytovych, L E

    2015-03-01

    Results of examination of 20 gastric ulcer disease patients were analyzed for delineation of a high risk group for an acute complications occurrence, and in whom the conduction of organ preserving preventive operative interventions is expedient. For prognostication such following indices were applied: quantity of cells-producents of various immunoglobulins, mitotic and apoptotic indices, relative volume of damaged epitheliocytes, the patients' age.

  15. Splenic infarction – A rare cause of acute abdominal pain following gastric surgery: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Pinar; Kaya, Cemal; Isil, Gurhan; Bozkurt, Emre; Mihmanli, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The dissection of splenic hilar lymph nodes in gastric cancer surgery is indispensable for treating gastric cancers located in the proximal third of the stomach. Splenic vascular injury is a matter of debate resulting on time or delayed splenectomy. We aimed to share our experience and plausible mechanisms causing this complication in two case reports. Case presentations Two male patients with gastric cancer were diagnosed with acute splenic infarction following gastric surgery in the early postoperative period. Both underwent emergent exploratory laparotomy. Splenectomy was performed due to splenic infarction. Discussion Because we observed this rare complication in recent patients whose surgery was performed using vessel-sealing device for splenic hilar dissection, we suggested that extensive mobilization of the surrounding tissues of splenic vascular structures hilum using the vessel sealer could be the reason. Conclusion In case of acute abdominal pain radiating to left shoulder, splenic complications should be taken into consideration in gastric cancer patients performed radical gastrectomy. Meticulous dissection of splenic hilar lymph nodes should be carried out to avoid any splenic vascular injury. PMID:25818369

  16. 'Cebiche'--a potential source of human anisakiasis in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Laffon-Leal, S M; Vidal-Martínez, V M; Arjona-Torres, G

    2000-06-01

    Five fish species used for preparation of a popular dish (cebiche) made with raw fish flesh in Mexico were obtained from five localities of the coast of Yucatan. Lutjanus synagris, Gerres cinereus, Sphyraena barracuda, Epinephelus morio and Haemulon plumieriwere examined for the presence of larvae of anisakid nematodes, causative agents of human anisakiasis. The nematode Pseudoterranova sp. was found in E. morio and S. barracuda with a total prevalence of 83% and 6.5 +/- 6.2 worms per fish for E. morio, and a prevalence of 33% and 10.2 +/- 30.0 worms per fish for S. barracuda. Contracaecumsp. was found to infect G. cinereus with a prevalence of 57% and 7.6 +/- 11.4 worms per fish. The relatively high prevalence of Pseudoterranova sp. indicates that this parasite is a potential causal agent of anisakiasis on the coast of Yucatan. Although all larvae were found only in the mesentery of the fish host, their importance as a potential source of human infection cannot be excluded as larval migration to the muscles in dead fish is possible. PMID:10881286

  17. Acute gastric volvulus: a deadly but commonly forgotten complication of hiatal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Brandon; Vincentelli, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare condition resulting from rotation of the stomach beyond 180 degrees. It is a difficult condition to diagnose, mostly because it is rarely considered. Furthermore, the imaging findings are often subtle resulting in many cases being diagnosed at the time of surgery or, as in our case, at autopsy. We present the case of a 76-year-old man with an extensive medical history, including coronary artery disease with multiple bypass grafts, who became diaphoretic and nauseated while eating. His presumptive diagnosis at arrival to the hospital was an acute coronary event; however, his initial cardiac work-up was negative. A computed tomography scan revealed a type III hiatal hernia. The following day, after consistent complaints of nausea and episodes of nonbloody emesis, he suddenly became hypotensive, tachycardic and had an episode of coffee-ground emesis. Subsequently, the patient's condition suddenly deteriorated and resuscitation attempts were unsuccessful. The autopsy revealed a partially sliding hiatal hernia, which was consistent with the radiologic impression. Additionally, a gastric volvulus was present with extensive, focally transmural necrosis involving the body/fundus. Gastric volvulus is a rare entity with variable, nonspecific clinical presentations, which requires a high level of suspicion for radiologic diagnosis. Acute cases have a high mortality rate and require emergency surgery. This case highlights the value of autopsy in the diagnosis of unsuspected cases of gastric volvulus when death occurs prior to surgical intervention. PMID:27284537

  18. Anti-Inflammation Property of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels on Indomethacin-Induced Acute Gastric Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Chanudom, Lanchakon; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

    2015-01-01

    Indomethacin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs), induced gastric damage and perforation through the excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels is commonly used as a medicinal plant and is claimed to have antioxidant activities. The effects of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels aqueous extract (SCC) on antifree radical, anti-inflammation, and antiulcer of SCC on indomethacin induced acute gastric ulceration were determined in our study. Scavenging activity at 50% of SCC is higher than ascorbic acid in in vitro study. Mice treated with indomethacin revealed mucosal hemorrhagic lesion and inhibited mucus content. Pretreatment with SCC caused discernible decrease in indomethacin induced gastric lesion and lipid peroxide content. In addition, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and gastric wall mucus were restored on acute treated mice model. Indomethacin induced inflammation by activated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) proinflammatory cytokines to release large amount of ROS/RNS which were ameliorated in mice pretreatment with SCC. SCC showed restoration of the imbalance of oxidative damage leading to amelioration of cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX). In conclusion, SCC acts as an antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and antiulcer against indomethacin. PMID:26633969

  19. Anti-Inflammation Property of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels on Indomethacin-Induced Acute Gastric Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Chanudom, Lanchakon; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

    2015-01-01

    Indomethacin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs), induced gastric damage and perforation through the excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels is commonly used as a medicinal plant and is claimed to have antioxidant activities. The effects of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels aqueous extract (SCC) on antifree radical, anti-inflammation, and antiulcer of SCC on indomethacin induced acute gastric ulceration were determined in our study. Scavenging activity at 50% of SCC is higher than ascorbic acid in in vitro study. Mice treated with indomethacin revealed mucosal hemorrhagic lesion and inhibited mucus content. Pretreatment with SCC caused discernible decrease in indomethacin induced gastric lesion and lipid peroxide content. In addition, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and gastric wall mucus were restored on acute treated mice model. Indomethacin induced inflammation by activated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) proinflammatory cytokines to release large amount of ROS/RNS which were ameliorated in mice pretreatment with SCC. SCC showed restoration of the imbalance of oxidative damage leading to amelioration of cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX). In conclusion, SCC acts as an antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and antiulcer against indomethacin. PMID:26633969

  20. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; de Almeida, Eros Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Objective Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Methods Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. Results No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Conclusion Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN. PMID:25494017

  1. Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) Protects Against Stress-Induced Acute Gastric Lesions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800–1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:23062184

  2. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production.

  3. Gastrojejunostomy for pyloric stenosis after acute gastric dilatation due to overeating.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akiharu; Masuda, Norihiro; Haga, Norihiro; Ito, Tomokazu; Otsuka, Kichirou; Takita, Jyunko; Satomura, Hitoshi; Kumakura, Yuji; Kato, Hiroyuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented at our hospital with abdominal distention due to overeating. Acute gastric dilatation was diagnosed. The patient was hospitalized, and nasogastric decompression was initiated. On hospitalization day 3, she developed shock, and her respiratory state deteriorated, requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Nasogastric decompression contributed to the improvement in her clinical condition. She was discharged 3 mo after admission. During outpatient follow-up, her dietary intake decreased, and her body weight gradually decreased by 14 kg. An upper gastrointestinal series and endoscopy revealed pyloric stenosis; therefore, we performed gastrojejunostomy 18 mo after her initial admission. The patient was discharged from the hospital with no postoperative complications. Gastric necrosis and perforation due to overeating-induced gastric dilatation are life-threatening conditions. Surgical intervention may be required if delayed pyloric stenosis occurs after conservative treatment. We report a case of pyloric stenosis due to overeating-induced gastric dilatation treated by gastrojejunostomy 18 mo after the initial presentation.

  4. Gastrojejunostomy for pyloric stenosis after acute gastric dilatation due to overeating

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Akiharu; Masuda, Norihiro; Haga, Norihiro; Ito, Tomokazu; Otsuka, Kichirou; Takita, Jyunko; Satomura, Hitoshi; Kumakura, Yuji; Kato, Hiroyuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented at our hospital with abdominal distention due to overeating. Acute gastric dilatation was diagnosed. The patient was hospitalized, and nasogastric decompression was initiated. On hospitalization day 3, she developed shock, and her respiratory state deteriorated, requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Nasogastric decompression contributed to the improvement in her clinical condition. She was discharged 3 mo after admission. During outpatient follow-up, her dietary intake decreased, and her body weight gradually decreased by 14 kg. An upper gastrointestinal series and endoscopy revealed pyloric stenosis; therefore, we performed gastrojejunostomy 18 mo after her initial admission. The patient was discharged from the hospital with no postoperative complications. Gastric necrosis and perforation due to overeating-induced gastric dilatation are life-threatening conditions. Surgical intervention may be required if delayed pyloric stenosis occurs after conservative treatment. We report a case of pyloric stenosis due to overeating-induced gastric dilatation treated by gastrojejunostomy 18 mo after the initial presentation. PMID:25663789

  5. Cyanoacrylate Injection Versus Band Ligation in the Endoscopic Management of Acute Gastric Variceal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Weiguang; Ren, Yutang; Bai, Yang; Liu, Side; Zhang, Qiang; Zhi, Fachao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The evidence for optimal endoscopic management of bleeding gastric varices is lacking. The clinical outcome is controversial in trials comparing cyanoacrylate injection and band ligation. To help guide endoscopic decisions regarding acute gastric variceal bleeding, a meta-analysis was conducted. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect were searched for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing the 2 interventions. The main outcomes evaluated in the meta-analysis were active bleeding control, blood transfusion, rebleeding, recurrence of varices, complications, and survival. Three RCTs were identified, which included 194 patients with active gastric variceal bleeding from Taiwan and Romania. Active bleeding control was achieved in 46 of 49 (93.9%) patients in the cyanoacrylate injection group, compared with 35 of 44 (79.5%) in the band ligation group (P = 0.032), for a pooled odds ratio of 4.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.14–17.30). Rebleeding rate was comparable in type 2 gastroesophageal varices (GOV2) between the 2 interventions (35.7% vs 34.8%, P = 0.895), but cyanoacrylate injection seemed superior for reducing rebleeding rate in type 1 gastroesophageal varices (GOV1, 26.1% vs 47.7%, P = 0.035) and type 1 isolated gastric varices (IGV1, 17.6% vs 85.7%, P = 0.015). Cyanoacrylate injection was also superior in controlling recurrence of gastric varices to band ligation (36.0% vs 66.0%, P = 0.002). There was no difference in complications or mortality between the 2 interventions. The major limitation of this meta-analysis is the small number of studies/patients included. Compared with band ligation, injection cyanocrylate have an advantage in the control of acute gastric variceal bleeding, also with lower recurrence rate and rebleeding (except GOV2). The limited amount of studies included attenuates the strength of this meta-analysis; therefore, more high-quality RCTs are needed. PMID

  6. The influence of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic ethanol administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Blagaic, Alenka Boban; Blagaic, Vladimir; Romic, Zeljko; Sikiric, Predrag

    2004-09-24

    The stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W.1419), which was promising in inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL-14736, Pliva) trials, protects against both acute and chronic alcohol-induced lesions in stomach and liver, but also, given peripherally, affects various centrally mediated disturbances. Now, in male NMRI mice BPC 157 (10 pg intraperitoneally, 10 ng and 10 microg, intraperitoneally or intragastrically) (i) strongly opposed acute alcohol (4 g/kg intraperitoneally) intoxication (i.e., quickly produced and sustained anesthesia, hypothermia, increased ethanol blood values, 25% fatality, 90-min assessment period) given before or after ethanol, and (ii) when given after abrupt cessation of ethanol (at 0 or 3 or 7 h withdrawal time), attenuated withdrawal (assessed through 24 hours) after 20%-alcohol drinking (7.6 g/kg) through 13 days, with provocation on the 14th day. PMID:15381050

  7. Gastroprotective Effects of PMK-S005 against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Ju Yup; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Seo, Ji Hyung; Lee, Seonmin; Kim, Hee Jin; Choi, Yoon Jin; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to examine the gastroprotective effects of PMK-S005, which is a synthetic S-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC; a sulfur-containing amino acid), against acute ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups, including a nonethanol group, groups treated with absolute ethanol 1 hour after pretreatment with various doses of PMK-S005 (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) or rebamipide (50 mg/kg), and an absolute ethanol-only group. Ethanol-induced gross ulcer and mucus levels were measured. Myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, PGE2, LTB4, cPLA2, COX-1, and COX-2 levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of antioxidant enzymes, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1), GCLC, and GCLM, were assessed. Results PMK-S005 significantly attenuated the ethanol-induced gastric damage; it reduced mucosal inflammatory cytokine production and increased mucus levels. The expression levels of cPLA2, COX-1, and COX-2 were decreased by PMK-S005. PMK-S005 did not affect PGE2 synthesis, but LTB4 production was significantly suppressed. In addition, long-term administration of PMK-S005 significantly increased the expression of HO-1, NQO-1, GCLC, and GCLM. Conclusions These results strongly suggest that PMK-S005 prevents gastric mucosal damage and that these gastroprotective activities are due to anti-inflammatory effects and enhancement of the gastric defense system, including antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26347516

  8. IgG4-related disease manifesting as an acute gastric-pericardial fistula.

    PubMed

    Frydman, James; Grunner, Shahar; Kluger, Yoram

    2014-11-28

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized entity linked initially to autoimmune pancreatitis and has been subsequently described in nearly every organ system. Men over the age of 50 represent the most affected demographic group and a comprehensive set of diagnostic criteria has been developed to aid treating clinicians. Though elevated levels of IgG4 in the serum are suggestive of the disease, definitive diagnosis is made on histopathology. Treatment is tailored to the clinical presentation with corticosteroid therapy known to have proven efficacy. Gastric manifestations of the IgG4-related disease primarily come in two varieties, notably chronic ulceration or pseudotumor formation. Autoimmune pancreatitis conveys increased risk for IgG4-related disease of the stomach, which is independent of Helicobacter pylori status. In this case report, we present an acute gastric-pericardial fistula secondary to IgG4-related disease that required urgent operative management. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the medical literature describing this complication of IgG4-related disease. PMID:25469052

  9. IgG4-related disease manifesting as an acute gastric-pericardial fistula

    PubMed Central

    Frydman, James; Grunner, Shahar; Kluger, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized entity linked initially to autoimmune pancreatitis and has been subsequently described in nearly every organ system. Men over the age of 50 represent the most affected demographic group and a comprehensive set of diagnostic criteria has been developed to aid treating clinicians. Though elevated levels of IgG4 in the serum are suggestive of the disease, definitive diagnosis is made on histopathology. Treatment is tailored to the clinical presentation with corticosteroid therapy known to have proven efficacy. Gastric manifestations of the IgG4-related disease primarily come in two varieties, notably chronic ulceration or pseudotumor formation. Autoimmune pancreatitis conveys increased risk for IgG4-related disease of the stomach, which is independent of Helicobacter pylori status. In this case report, we present an acute gastric-pericardial fistula secondary to IgG4-related disease that required urgent operative management. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the medical literature describing this complication of IgG4-related disease. PMID:25469052

  10. Acute effects of Helicobacter pylori extracts on gastric mucosal blood flow in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Henriksnäs, Johanna; Atuma, Christer; Phillipson, Mia; Sandler, Stellan; Engstrand, Lars; Holm, Lena

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the reduction in gastric blood flow induced by a luminal water extract of Helicobacter pylori (HPE). METHODS: The stomachs of isoflurane-anesthetized mice were exteriorized, and the mucosal surface exposed. Blood flow was measured with the laser-Doppler technique, and systemic arterial blood pressure monitored. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to water extract produced from H pylori strain 88-23. To investigate the role of a nerve- or iNOS-mediated pathway, we used intraluminal lidocaine and iNOS-/- mice. Blood flow response to the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) was also assessed. RESULTS: In wild-type mice, HPE decreased mucosal blood flow by approximately 30%. This reduction was abolished in iNOS-deficient mice, and by pre-treatment with lidocaine. Luminally applied ADMA resulted in reduction in blood flow similar to that observed in wild-type mice exposed to HPE. CONCLUSION: A H pylori water extract reduces gastric mucosal blood flow acutely through iNOS- and nerve-mediated pathways. PMID:19132773

  11. Acute chylous peritonitis mimicking ovarian torsion in a patient with advanced gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang Moo; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Bub Woo; Kim, Kyung Sik; Choi, Jin Sub; Lee, Woo Jung; Kim, Byong Ro

    2007-09-01

    The extravasation of chyle into the peritoneal space usually does not accompany an abrupt onset of abdominal pain with symptoms and signs of peritonitis. The rarity of this condition fails to reach preoperative diagnosis prior to laparotomy. Here, we introduce a case of chylous ascites that presented with acute abdominal pain mimicking peritonitis caused by ovarian torsion in a 41-yr-old female patient with advanced gastric carcinoma. An emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed but revealed no evidence of ovarian torsion. Only chylous ascites was discovered in the operative field. She underwent a complete abdominal hysterectomy and salphingo-oophorectomy. Only saline irrigation and suction-up were performed for the chylous ascites. The postoperative course was uneventful. Her bowel movement was restored within 1 week. She was allowed only a fat-free diet, and no evidence of re-occurrence of ascites was noted on clinical observation. She now remains under consideration for additional chemotherapy.

  12. [Bleeding gastric ulcers and acute hepatitis: 2 simultaneous adverse reactions due to nimesulide in a case].

    PubMed

    Tejos, S; Torrejón, N; Reyes, H; Meneses, M

    2000-12-01

    A 66 year-old obese woman with arthrosis, self-medicated with oral nimesulide, 200 mg daily. After 6 weeks she developed nausea, jaundice and dark urine. Two weeks later she had recurrent hematemesis and was hospitalized. Besides obesity and anemia her physical examination was unremarkable. An upper GI endoscopy revealed 3 acute gastric ulcers and a 4th one in the pyloric channel. Abdominal ultrasonogram showed a slightly enlarged liver with diffuse reduction in ecogenicity; the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. Blood tests demonstrated a conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (maximal total value: 18.4 mg/dl), ALAT 960 U/l, ASAT 850 U/l, GGT 420 U/l, alkaline phosphatases mildly elevated, pro-time 49% and albumin 2.7 mg/dl. Serum markers for hepatitis A, B and C viruses were negative. ANA, AMA, anti-SmA, were negative. Ceruloplasmin was normal. A liver biopsy showed bridging necrosis and other signs of acute toxic liver damage. Gastric ulcers healed after conventional treatment and hepatitis subsided after 2 months leaving no signs of chronic liver damage. The diagnosis of toxic hepatitis due to nimesulide was supported by the time-course of drug usage, sex, age, absence of other causes of liver disease, a compatible liver biopsy and the improvement after drug withdrawal. Peptic ulcers or toxic hepatitis have been previously described as independent adverse reactions in patients taking nimesulide or other NSAIDs but their simultaneous occurrence in a single patient is a unique event that deserves to be reported.

  13. The caspase-1 inhibitor AC-YVAD-CMK attenuates acute gastric injury in mice: involvement of silencing NLRP3 inflammasome activities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jun-jie; Luo, Peng-fei; Wang, Xing-tong; Xia, Zhao-fan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of inhibiting caspase-1 activity or gastric acid secretion on acute gastric injury in mice. AC-YVAD-CMK, omeprazole, or vehicle were administered to mice before cold-restraint stress- or ethanol-induced gastric injury. Survival rates and histological evidence of gastric injury of mice pretreated with AC-YVAD-CMK or omeprazole, and exposed to cold-restraint stress, improved significantly relative to the vehicle group. The increased levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-18 following cold-stress injury were decreased by AC-YVAD-CMK, but not omeprazole, pretreatment. The increased expression of CD68 in gastric tissues was inhibited significantly by AC-YVAD-CMK pretreatment. Inhibiting caspase-1 activity in the NLRP3 inflammasome decreased gastric cell apoptosis, and the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3. AC-YVAD-CMK pretreatment significantly inhibited cold-restraint stress-induced increases in the expression of phosphorylated IκB-alpha and P38. General anatomy and histological results showed the protective effect of AC-YVAD-CMK on ethanol-induced acute gastric injury. Overall, our results showed that the caspase-1 inhibitor AC-YVAD-CMK protected against acute gastric injury in mice by affecting the NLRP3 inflammasome and attenuating inflammatory processes and apoptosis. This was similar to the mechanism associated with NF-κB and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways. PMID:27053298

  14. The caspase-1 inhibitor AC-YVAD-CMK attenuates acute gastric injury in mice: involvement of silencing NLRP3 inflammasome activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jun-jie; Luo, Peng-fei; Wang, Xing-tong; Xia, Zhao-fan

    2016-04-07

    This study evaluated the protective effects of inhibiting caspase-1 activity or gastric acid secretion on acute gastric injury in mice. AC-YVAD-CMK, omeprazole, or vehicle were administered to mice before cold-restraint stress- or ethanol-induced gastric injury. Survival rates and histological evidence of gastric injury of mice pretreated with AC-YVAD-CMK or omeprazole, and exposed to cold-restraint stress, improved significantly relative to the vehicle group. The increased levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-18 following cold-stress injury were decreased by AC-YVAD-CMK, but not omeprazole, pretreatment. The increased expression of CD68 in gastric tissues was inhibited significantly by AC-YVAD-CMK pretreatment. Inhibiting caspase-1 activity in the NLRP3 inflammasome decreased gastric cell apoptosis, and the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3. AC-YVAD-CMK pretreatment significantly inhibited cold-restraint stress-induced increases in the expression of phosphorylated IκB-alpha and P38. General anatomy and histological results showed the protective effect of AC-YVAD-CMK on ethanol-induced acute gastric injury. Overall, our results showed that the caspase-1 inhibitor AC-YVAD-CMK protected against acute gastric injury in mice by affecting the NLRP3 inflammasome and attenuating inflammatory processes and apoptosis. This was similar to the mechanism associated with NF-κB and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways.

  15. Successful Resolution of Gastric Outlet Obstruction Caused by Pancreatic Pseudocyst or Walled-Off Necrosis After Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Shao-Yang; Gao, Shun-Liang; Liang, Zhong-Yan; Yu, Wen-Qiao; Liang, Ting-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) can be caused by gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction, which may occur when pancreatic pseudocyst (PP) or walled-off necrosis (WON) compresses the stomach. The aim of the study was to explore a proper surgical treatment. Methods From June 2010 to June 2013, 25 of 148 patients with AP suffered DGE. Among them, 12 were caused by gastroparesis, 1 was a result of obstruction from a Candida albicans plug, and 12 were gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) compressed by PP (n = 8) or WON (n = 4), which were treated by percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD). Results All 12 cases of compressing GOO achieved resolution by PCD after 6 [1.86] and 37.25 [12.02] days for PP and WON, respectively. Five cases developed intracystic infection, 3 cases had pancreatic fistulae whereas 2 achieved resolution and 1 underwent a pseudocyst jejunostomy. Conclusions Gastric outlet obstruction caused by a PP or WON is a major cause of DGE in patients with AP. Percutaneous catheter drainage with multiple sites, large-bore tubing, and lavage may be a good therapy due to high safety and minimal invasiveness. PMID:26465954

  16. Gastroprotective effect of 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate against acute gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol.

    PubMed

    Amirshahrokhi, Keyvan; Khalili, Ali-Reza

    2016-05-01

    Gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol is a serious medical problem. Recent evidences suggest that reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators play a key role in the destruction of gastric mucosa. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effect of MESNA (2-mercaptoethane sulfonate) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in mice. The animals were orally pretreated with vehicle or MESNA and then treated with acidified ethanol to induce gastric mucosal damage. One hour after ethanol ingestion mice were euthanized and stomach samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Macroscopic and histopathological evaluation of gastric mucosa showed that pretreatment with MESNA attenuated gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Administration of MESNA significantly increased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the gastric tissues. In addition, MESNA markedly reduced ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels. These findings suggest that the thiol-containing compound MESNA is able to decrease alcohol-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in the gastric tissue. It seems that MESNA may have a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. PMID:26967742

  17. Use of a venting PEG tube in the management of recurrent acute gastric dilatation associated with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Ahmed M A; Dennis, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    A patient with Prader-Willi Syndrome was admitted to the ICU with features of recurrent acute gastric dilatation, aspiration pneumonia and a massive pulmonary embolus. He was initially managed with intubation, assisted ventilation, intravenous fluids and anticoagulation. Decompression of the stomach was achieved with a nasogastric tube. After ventilator weaning, he did not tolerate the nasogastric intubation that led to a further episode of aspiration pneumonia as a result of non-resolving gastric dilatation. He required readmission to intensive care for a further period of ventilatory support. While the patient was sedated and ventilated, a venting percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) with a jejunal feeding extension was placed, permitting both continued decompression of the stomach and enteral feeding. The patient tolerated the PEG-J well and his nutritional needs were successfully addressed. Oral intake was slowly re-established with ongoing decompression of the stomach with the PEG. He was discharged from hospital with the PEG in place. PMID:26763981

  18. Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A, a novel gastroprotective compound from Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, against ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sidahmed, Heyam M A; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Amir, Junaidah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hadi, A Hamid A; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Teh, Xinsheng; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Rahmani, Mawardi; Mohan, Syam

    2013-07-15

    Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (PA), a xanthone derived from the Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, belongs to the Moraceae family which is native to the tropical forest of Malaysia. In this study, the efficacy of PA as a gastroprotective compound was examined against ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. The rats were pretreated with PA and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol. The ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content, histological analysis, glutathione (GSH) levels, malondialdehyde level (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NP-SH) contents were evaluated in vivo. The activities of PA as anti-Helicobacter pylori, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor and free radical scavenger were also investigated in vitro. The results showed that the oral administration of PA protects gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced gastric lesions. PA pretreatment significantly (p<0.05) restored the depleted GSH, NP-SH and NO levels in the gastric homogenate. Moreover, PA significantly (p<0.05) reduced the elevated MDA level due to ethanol administration. The gastroprotective effect of PA was associated with an over expression of HSP70 and suppression of Bax proteins in the ulcerated tissue. In addition, PA exhibited a potent FRAP value and significant COX-2 inhibition. It also showed a significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against H. pylori bacterium. The efficacy of PA was accomplished safely without the presence of any toxicological parameters. The results of the present study indicate that the gastroprotective effect of PA might contribute to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the anti-apoptotic mechanism and antibacterial action against Helicobacter pylori.

  19. Modeling Murine Gastric Metaplasia Through Tamoxifen-Induced Acute Parietal Cell Loss.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Jose B; Burclaff, Joseph; Mills, Jason C

    2016-01-01

    Parietal cell loss represents the initial step in the sequential progression toward gastric adenocarcinoma. In the setting of chronic inflammation, the expansion of the mucosal response to parietal cell loss characterizes a crucial transition en route to gastric dysplasia. Here, we detail methods for using the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen as a novel tool to rapidly and reversibly induce parietal cell loss in mice in order to study the mechanisms that underlie these pre-neoplastic events. PMID:27246044

  20. Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection against acute gastric lesions: role of prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and KATP+ channels.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, S B; Leal, L K A M; Nogueira, N A P; Pinto, N A N; Campos, A R

    2009-12-01

    The effects of Matricaria recutita and alpha-bisabolol, a bioactive component from Chamomile species, were investigated against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol (96%, 1 mL per animal) in rats. The effects of M. recutita extract and alpha-bisabolol on gastric mucosal damage were assessed by determination of changes in mean gastric lesion area. Mechanistic studies were carried out at with 100 mg=kg alpha-bisabolol. We further examined the possible participation of prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and KATP+ channels in its mechanism. M. recutita reduced gastric damage in all doses tested. Alpha-bisabolol at oral doses of 50 and 100 mg=kg markedly attenuated the gastric lesions induced by ethanol to the extent of 87% and 96%, respectively. Pretreatments with the nitric oxide antagonist N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (10 mg=kg, i.p.) or with indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, failed to block effectively the gastroprotective effect of alpha-bisabolol. Furthermore, the alpha-bisabolol effect was significantly reduced in rats pretreated with glibenclamide, an inhibitor of KATP+ channel activation. Thus we provide evidence that alpha-bisabolol reduces the gastric damage induced by ethanol, at least in part, by the mechanism of activation of KATP+ channels. PMID:20041801

  1. Acute Toxicity and Gastroprotection Studies of a New Schiff Base Derived Copper (II) Complex against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hassandarvish, Pouya; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; A. Hadi, A. Hamid; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper is an essential element in various metabolisms. The investigation was carried out to evaluate acute gastroprotective effects of the Copper (II) complex against ethanol-induced superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Rats were divided into 7 groups. Groups 1 and 2 were orally administered with Tween 20 (10% v/v). Group 3 was orally administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (10% Tween 20). Groups 4–7 received 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg of the complex (10% Tween 20), respectively. Tween 20 (10% v/v) was given orally to group 1 and absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2–7, respectively. Rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Group 2 exhibited severe superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. Gastric wall mucus was significantly preserved by the pre-treatment complex. The results showed a significant increase in glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO), and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) activities and a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Histology showed marked reduction of hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in groups 4–7. Immunohistochemical staining showed up-regulation of Hsp70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins. PAS staining of groups 4–7 showed intense stain uptake of gastric mucosa. The acute toxicity revealed the non-toxic nature of the compound. Conclusions/Significance The gastroprotective effect of the Copper (II) complex may possibly be due to preservation of gastric wall mucus; increase in PGE2 synthesis; GSH, SOD, and NO up-regulation of Hsp70 protein; decrease in MDA level; and down-regulation of Bax protein. PMID:23251568

  2. [Anisakiasis in a patient with a small hiatal hernia. Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Mercado P, Rubén; Torres H, Patricio; Gil L, Luis Carlos; Goldin G, Luis

    2006-12-01

    We describe the presence of anisakiasis in a patient who had a small hiatal hernia. A 60 year-old women presented general malaise, burning pain, flatulence, persistent nausea and abdominal distension during five days before consulting. She referred that she ate a dish of marinated raw fish with lemon and pepper ("cebiche") and after a few hours the symptoms began. An esophagogastroscopy showed a white colour larva of approximately three cm with the cephalic end partially adhered and localized in the mucosa of the hiatal hernia. During the procedure the worm was easily extracted. The morphologic study of the specimen identified it as a stage IV larva of Pseudoterranova sp. The clinical condition of the patient improved after the extraction of the parasite. PMID:17277874

  3. Schiff Base Metal Derivatives Enhance the Expression of HSP70 and Suppress BAX Proteins in Prevention of Acute Gastric Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M. Jamil; Soleimani, A. F.; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdul Majid, Nazia

    2013-01-01

    Schiff base complexes have appeared to be promising in the treatment of different diseases and disorders and have drawn a lot of attention to their biological activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the regulatory effect of Schiff base metal derivatives on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 and BAX in protection against acute haemorrhagic gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were assigned to 6 groups of 6 rats: the normal control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg), the positive control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg), and four Schiff base derivative groups named Schiff_1, Schiff_2, Schiff_3, and Schiff_4 (25 mg/kg). After 1 h, all of the groups received ethanol 95% (5 mL/kg) but the normal control received Tween 20 (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg). The animals were euthanized after 60 min and the stomachs were dissected for histology (H&E), immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis against HSP70 and BAX proteins. The results showed that the Schiff base metal derivatives enhanced the expression of HSP70 and suppressed the expression of BAX proteins during their gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats. PMID:24298554

  4. Acute Kidney Disease Due to Excessive Vitamin C Ingestion and Remote Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Superimposed on CKD.

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Vasu; Pelkowski, Timothy D; Dreyfus, Darren; Satoskar, Anjali

    2015-10-01

    A 69-year-old woman presented with acute kidney failure of unknown cause that ultimately required dialysis. Kidney biopsy revealed the diagnosis of oxalate nephropathy. In retrospect, the patient had several risk factors for this entity, including excessive vitamin C intake, a remote history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for weight loss, and chronic kidney disease. This presentation of multiple risk factors for oxalate nephropathy is especially relevant to patients and physicians considering the increase in the United States of vitamin C supplementation use and gastric bypass surgery. It is important for physicians to maintain an awareness of this diagnosis and its risk factors.

  5. Gastroprotective Effect of Cochinchina momordica Seed Extract in Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Acute Gastric Damage in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji Hwan; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Byoung Hwan; Seo, Pyoung Ju; Kang, Jung Mook; Jo, So Young; Park, Ji Hyun; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Chang, Hyun; Kwon, Jin-Won; Lee, Dong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The major compounds of Cochinchina momordica seed extract (SK-MS10) include momordica saponins. We report that the gastroprotective effect of SK-MS10 in an ethanol-induced gastric damage rat model is mediated by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and downregulating cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and the activation of calcitonin gene-related peptide. In this study, we evaluated the gastroprotective effects of SK-MS10 in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric damage rat model. Methods The pretreatment effect of SK-MS10 was evaluated in the NSAID-induced gastric damage rat model using aspirin, indomethacin, and diclofenac in 7-week-old rats. Gastric damage was evaluated based on the gross ulcer index by gastroenterologists, and the damage area (%) was measured using the MetaMorph 7.0 video image analysis system. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting was used to analyze the levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, cPLA2, and 5-LOX. Results All NSAIDs induced gastric damage based on the gross ulcer index and damage area (p<0.05). Gastric damage was significantly attenuated by SK-MS10 pretreatment compared with NSAID treatment alone (p<0.05). The SK-MS10 pretreatment group exhibited lower MPO levels than the diclofenac group. The expression of cPLA2 and 5-LOX was decreased by SK-MS10 pretreatment in each of the three NSAID treatment groups. Conclusions SK-MS10 exhibited a gastroprotective effect against NSAID-induced acute gastric damage in rats. However, its protective mechanism may be different across the three types of NSAID-induced gastric damage models in rats. PMID:24516701

  6. Gastric band connection tube results in small bowel obstruction: an acute emergency

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Katherine J. L.; Rajasagaram, Niruben; Nottle, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) is a widely performed procedure for the morbid obesity epidemic. Despite its low mortality compared with other mainstream bariatric surgeries, it is not without its complications. The authors report a late and rare complication of a small bowel obstruction in a 52-year-old woman from an LAGB placed for 2 years. She was diagnosed clinically and radiologically with a small bowel obstruction. However, in the setting of an LAGB, this became a closed-loop obstruction. She proceeded to an emergency laparoscopy, which revealed that the port connection tube had formed dense adhesions to the jejunum causing an obstructive band. This is only the fifth reported case in Australia; as bariatric surgery continues to rise, these patients may present unannounced to any emergency department and as such should be treated as a closed-loop obstruction with immediate resuscitative and surgical management instituted. PMID:27170704

  7. Acute gastric dilatation causing fatal outcome in a young female with eating disorder: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Seung-Mok; Kim, Ji Young

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old female with a history of bulimia nervosa came to the emergency room due to severe abdominal pain after excessive eating five hours previously. On arrival at the emergency room, extreme abdominal distension was detected and the patient's legs changed color. Computed tomography suggested severe gastric dilatation, so abdominal compartment syndrome was suspected and an emergent laparotomy was supposed to be conducted. Though anesthesia was induced without event, abrupt hemodynamic collapse developed just after the operation started. In spite of active resuscitation for 29 min, the patient did not recover and expired. As the incidence of eating disorders is increasing, anesthesiologists should keep in mind the possibility of abdominal compartment syndrome in patients with a recent history of binge eating, and prepare optimal anesthetic and resuscitation remedies against sudden deteriorations of a patient's condition. PMID:25844140

  8. Hydroethanolic extract of Baccharis trimera promotes gastroprotection and healing of acute and chronic gastric ulcers induced by ethanol and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Ferreira, Daniele Maria; Galuppo, Larissa Favaretto; Borato, Debora Gasparin; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Acco, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is a psychoactive substance highly consumed around the world whose health problems include gastric lesions. Baccharis trimera is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, few studies have evaluated its biological and toxic effects. To validate the popular use of B. trimera and elucidate its possible antiulcerogenic and cytotoxic mechanisms, a hydroethanolic extract of B. trimera (HEBT) was evaluated in models of gastric lesions. Rats and mice were used to evaluate the protective and antiulcerogenic effects of HEBT on gastric lesions induced by ethanol, acetic acid, and chronic ethanol consumption. The effects of HEBT were also evaluated in a pylorus ligature model and on gastrointestinal motility. The LD50 of HEBT in mice was additionally estimated. HEBT was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and a high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis was performed. Oral HEBT administration significantly reduced the lesion area and the oxidative stress induced by acute and chronic ethanol consumption. However, HEBT did not protect against gastric wall mucus depletion and did not alter gastric secretory volume, pH, or total acidity in the pylorus ligature model. Histologically, HEBT accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats, reflected by contractions of the ulcer base. Flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids were detected in HEBT, which likely contributed to the therapeutic efficacy of HEBT, preventing or reversing ethanol- and acetic acid-induced ulcers, respectively. HEBT antiulcerogenic activity may be partially attributable to the inhibition of free radical generation and subsequent prevention of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that HEBT has both gastroprotective and curative activity in animal models, with no toxicity. PMID:27314669

  9. Band ligation vs. N-Butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection in acute gastric variceal bleeding: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tantau, Marcel; Crisan, Dana; Popa, Daniel; Vesa, Stefan; Tantau, Alina

    BACKGROUND. Treatment of gastric varices (GV) implies a number of several difficulties and sometimes entails complications. The best endoscopic success rate was attributed until now to the use of tissue adhesives(N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate) and band ligation. AIM. To assess the therapeutic efficacy and safety of cyanoacrylate injection compared to band ligation in patients with acute GV hemorrhage. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Thirty-seven patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding from GV were included in the study, treated with cyanoacrylate injection (GVO)-19 patients or band ligations (GVL)-18 patients. They were followed up for overall results, complications and survival rate. RESULTS. The mean age of the study group was 60.22 ± 9.34 years, with a male/female ratio of 21:16. The mean follow-up period was 427.26 ± 214.16 days in the GVO group and 406.21 ± 213.23 days in the GVL group (p = 0.76). Initial hemostasis was achieved in all patients treated with cyanoacrylate and in 88.88% from the GVL group (p = 0.43). Rebleeding occurred in 72.22% of the GVL group and in 31.57% of the GVO patients (p = 0.03). Patients in the GVO group had a significantly larger rebleeding-free period(p = 0.006). No difference was found in survival rates(p = 0.75). The Child Class (p = 0.003 for Class C) and treatment method (p = 0.01) were independently associated with the rate of rebleeding. No differences were found regarding the rate of complications. CONCLUSION. The use of cyanoacrylate in acute GV bleeding had better results when compared with band ligation in terms of controlling the hemorrhage and recurrence of bleeding. The overall survival rate was not influenced by the method used for the treatment of complicated GV.

  10. Cytomegalovirus Reactivation Induced Acute Hepatitis and Gastric Erosions in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis under Treatment with an Anti-IL-6 Receptor Antibody, Tocilizumab.

    PubMed

    Komura, Takuya; Ohta, Hajime; Nakai, Ryotaro; Seishima, Jun; Yamato, Masatoshi; Miyazawa, Masaki; Kaji, Kiichiro; Marukawa, Yohei; Kagaya, Takashi; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Kawashima, Atsuhiro; Kaneko, Shuichi; Unoura, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Tocilizumab, an anti-human interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6R) monoclonal antibody, is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is expected to exhibit clinical efficacy when used to treat other autoimmune diseases. However, a risk of opportunistic infection is occasionally recognized. A 54-year-old woman had received an oral corticosteroid and methotrexate to treat RA. Despite receiving these treatments, she received additional treatment with tocilizumab due to poor control of the disease activity. She presented at our hospital with a high fever and epigastralgia 19 days after receiving this treatment. A laboratory evaluation revealed liver injury and cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) revealed hepatosplenomegaly, but no ascites. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastric erosions induced by CMV, which were confirmed immunohistochemically. Hence, we diagnosed the patient with CMV reactivation-induced acute hepatitis and gastric erosions under tocilizumab treatment. She received an anti-cytomegalovirus drug, ganciclovir, for 14 days due to her viremia and impaired general condition, which was suggestive of a severe infection. Her general condition subsequently improved, the liver function test results normalized, and the gastric erosions disappeared. In conclusion, although tocilizumab is very useful for treating certain autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and will be prescribed more widely in the future, associated CMV infections must be closely monitored, as these can be lethal. PMID:27432105

  11. Antioxidant Properties and Gastroprotective Effects of 2-(Ethylthio)Benzohydrazones on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ariffin, Azhar; Abdulla, Mahmood A.; Abdullah, Zanariah

    2016-01-01

    A series of new 2-(ethylthio)benzohydrazone derivatives (1–6) were prepared and characterised by IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The newly prepared compounds were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activities using free radical scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Among them, most powerful antioxidant, compound 1 has been selected in order to illustrate anti-ulcer effect on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were respectively treated with 10% Tween 20 as ulcer control group, 20 mg/kg omeprazole as reference group, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg compound 1 as experimental animals. Macroscopically, ulcer control group showed extensive hemorrhagic lesions of gastric mucosa compared with omeprazole or compound 1. Rats pre-treated with compound 1 showed increased in gastric pH and gastric mucus. Histologically, ulcer control group showed severe damage to gastric mucosa with edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer. In immunohistochemical analysis, rats which were pre-treated with compound 1 showed up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins. In conclusion, the gastroprotective effect of compound 1 may be due to its antioxidant activity, and/or due to up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax protein in stained tissue section. PMID:27272221

  12. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus

  13. Protective effects of alginate-chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in "Danxi's experiential therapy" for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus, these

  14. Acute toxicity and gastroprotective role of M. pruriens in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats.

    PubMed

    Golbabapour, Shahram; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Hadi, A Hamid A; Nordin, Noraziah; Abdulla, Mahmood A

    2013-01-01

    The investigation was to evaluate gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. Forty-eight rats were divided into 8 groups: negative control, extract control, ulcer control, reference control, and four experimental groups. As a pretreatment, the negative control and the ulcer control groups were orally administered carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The reference control was administered omeprazole orally (20 mg/kg). The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves was given orally to the extract control group (500 mg/kg) and the experimental groups (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg). After 1 h, CMC was given orally to the negative and the extract control groups. The other groups received absolute ethanol. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. The ulcer control group exhibited significant mucosal injuries with decreased gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa. The extract caused upregulation of Hsp70 protein, downregulation of Bax protein, and intense periodic acid schiff uptake of glandular portion of stomach. Gastric mucosal homogenate showed significant antioxidant properties with increase in synthesis of PGE2, while MDA was significantly decreased. The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves was nontoxic (<5 g/kg) and could enhance defensive mechanisms against hemorrhagic mucosal lesions.

  15. Acute Toxicity and Gastroprotective Role of M. pruriens in Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hassandarvish, Pouya; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Nordin, Noraziah; Abdulla, Mahmood A.

    2013-01-01

    The investigation was to evaluate gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. Forty-eight rats were divided into 8 groups: negative control, extract control, ulcer control, reference control, and four experimental groups. As a pretreatment, the negative control and the ulcer control groups were orally administered carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The reference control was administered omeprazole orally (20 mg/kg). The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves was given orally to the extract control group (500 mg/kg) and the experimental groups (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg). After 1 h, CMC was given orally to the negative and the extract control groups. The other groups received absolute ethanol. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. The ulcer control group exhibited significant mucosal injuries with decreased gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa. The extract caused upregulation of Hsp70 protein, downregulation of Bax protein, and intense periodic acid schiff uptake of glandular portion of stomach. Gastric mucosal homogenate showed significant antioxidant properties with increase in synthesis of PGE2, while MDA was significantly decreased. The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves was nontoxic (<5 g/kg) and could enhance defensive mechanisms against hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. PMID:23781513

  16. Acute in vivo effect of octreotide acetate, a somatostatin analogue on the cellular function of gastric mucosa in the rat.

    PubMed

    Motegi, M; Nagamachi, Y; Kaneko, T; Matsuzaki, S

    1998-02-01

    Somatostatin is known to suppress various cellular functions of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, octreotide acetate, a synthetic long-acting somatostatin analogue was tested for its effects on some cellular functions of gastric mucosa. Octreotide raised the gastric mucosal pH within 1 h after a single subcutaneous injection to rats at doses of 1-100 microg/kg bodyweight. Serum gastrin levels increased transiently at a dose of 10 microg/kg bodyweight but not at 100 microg/kg. Basal levels of serum gastrin were not affected, while famotidine-induced gastrin secretion was suppressed by octreotide at a single dose of 100 microg/kg. The increase in the intragastric acidity and histidine decarboxylase activity following pentagastrin treatment was significantly reduced by octreotide. These results suggested that this somatostatin analogue inhibits the function of not only the parietal cell and G cell but also the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell, resulting in intraluminal hypoacidity.

  17. Acute Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol blocks gastric hemorrhages induced by the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, Steven G.; Cole, Erica C.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are among the most widely used analgesics in the world, cause gastrointestinal inflammation that is potentially life-threatening. Although inhibitors of endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes protect against gastropathy in fasted NSAID-treated mice, the gastroprotective effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of marijuana, have yet to be investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice were fasted, administered vehicle or Δ9-THC (.01–50 mg/kg; oral or intraperitoneal), and then treated with the NSAID diclofenac sodium (100 mg/kg, p.o.) to induce gastric lesions. In separate groups of mice, the cannabimimetic behavioral effects of Δ9-THC given via each route of administration were compared using a battery of tests, consisting of assessment of locomotor activity, nociception in the tail withdrawal test, catalepsy in the bar test, and hypothermia. Δ9-THC dose-dependently attenuated diclofenac-induced gastric hemorrhagic streaks through both p.o. and i.p. routes of administration (ED50 (95% confidence interval) = 0.64 (0.26 – 1.55) mg/kg and 0.06 (0.01 – 0.34) mg/kg, respectively). Δ9-THC given i.p. was 2–3 orders of magnitude more potent in reducing diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers than in producing locomotor immobility, antinociception, hypothermia, and catalepsy, while the potency of ratio of p.o. Δ9-THC between each behavior measure was 7–18. These data indicate that the phytocannabinoid Δ9-THC protects against diclofenac-induced gastric inflammatory tissue damage at doses insufficient to cause common cannabinoid side effects. PMID:23769745

  18. Acute Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol blocks gastric hemorrhages induced by the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium in mice.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Steven G; Cole, Erica C

    2013-09-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are among the most widely used analgesics in the world, cause gastrointestinal inflammation that is potentially life-threatening. Although inhibitors of endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes protect against gastropathy in fasted NSAID-treated mice, the gastroprotective effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of marijuana, have yet to be investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice were fasted, administered vehicle or Δ(9)-THC (.01-50mg/kg; oral or intraperitoneal), and then treated with the NSAID diclofenac sodium (100mg/kg, p.o.) to induce gastric lesions. In separate groups of mice, the cannabimimetic behavioral effects of Δ(9)-THC given via each route of administration were compared using a battery of tests, consisting of assessment of locomotor activity, nociception in the tail withdrawal test, catalepsy in the bar test, and hypothermia. Δ(9)-THC dose-dependently attenuated diclofenac-induced gastric hemorrhagic streaks through both p.o. and i.p. routes of administration (ED50 (95% confidence interval)=0.64 (0.26-1.55)mg/kg and 0.06 (0.01-0.34) mg/kg, respectively). Δ(9)-THC given i.p. was 2-3 orders of magnitude more potent in reducing diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers than in producing locomotor immobility, antinociception, hypothermia, and catalepsy, while the potency of ratio of p.o. Δ(9)-THC between each behavior measure was 7-18. These data indicate that the phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-THC protects against diclofenac-induced gastric inflammatory tissue damage at doses insufficient to cause common cannabinoid side effects.

  19. Gastroprotective effects of thymol on acute and chronic ulcers in rats: The role of prostaglandins, ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, and gastric mucus secretion.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Roseli S; Diniz, Polyana B F; Pinheiro, Malone S; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L C; Thomazzi, Sara M

    2016-01-25

    Thymol, a monoterpene phenol derivative of cymene, is found in abundance in the essential oils of Thymus, Origanum, and Lippia species. The present study investigated the gastroprotective actions of thymol (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in the acute (ethanol- and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced ulcers) and chronic (acetic acid-induced ulcers) ulcer models in rats. Some of the mechanisms underlying to the gastroprotective effect of thymol were investigated in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. Gastric secretion parameters (volume, pH, and total acidity) were also evaluated by the pylorus ligature model, and the mucus in the gastric content was determined. The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of thymol was performed using the agar-well diffusion method. Thymol (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) produced dose dependent reduction (P < 0.01) on the total lesion area in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The gastroprotective response caused by thymol (30 mg/kg) was significantly attenuated (P < 0.001) by intraperitoneal treatment of rats with indomethacin (a non-selective inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, 10 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker, 10 mg/kg), but not by DL-Propargylglycine (PAG, a cystathionine-γ-lyase inhibitor, 25 mg/kg) and Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, a non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, 70 mg/kg). Thymol (30 and 100 mg/kg) also reduced the ulcer index (P < 0.05) and the total lesion area (P < 0.001) in the indomethacin- and acetic-acid-induced ulcer models, respectively. In the model pylorus ligature, the treatment with thymol failed to significantly change the gastric secretion parameters. However, after treatment with thymol (30 and 100 mg/kg), there was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in mucus production. Thymol no showed anti-H. pylori activity in vitro. Collectively, the present results provide convincing evidence that thymol displays gastroprotective actions on the acute and chronic

  20. Gastroprotective effects of thymol on acute and chronic ulcers in rats: The role of prostaglandins, ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, and gastric mucus secretion.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Roseli S; Diniz, Polyana B F; Pinheiro, Malone S; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L C; Thomazzi, Sara M

    2016-01-25

    Thymol, a monoterpene phenol derivative of cymene, is found in abundance in the essential oils of Thymus, Origanum, and Lippia species. The present study investigated the gastroprotective actions of thymol (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in the acute (ethanol- and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced ulcers) and chronic (acetic acid-induced ulcers) ulcer models in rats. Some of the mechanisms underlying to the gastroprotective effect of thymol were investigated in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. Gastric secretion parameters (volume, pH, and total acidity) were also evaluated by the pylorus ligature model, and the mucus in the gastric content was determined. The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of thymol was performed using the agar-well diffusion method. Thymol (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) produced dose dependent reduction (P < 0.01) on the total lesion area in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The gastroprotective response caused by thymol (30 mg/kg) was significantly attenuated (P < 0.001) by intraperitoneal treatment of rats with indomethacin (a non-selective inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, 10 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker, 10 mg/kg), but not by DL-Propargylglycine (PAG, a cystathionine-γ-lyase inhibitor, 25 mg/kg) and Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, a non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, 70 mg/kg). Thymol (30 and 100 mg/kg) also reduced the ulcer index (P < 0.05) and the total lesion area (P < 0.001) in the indomethacin- and acetic-acid-induced ulcer models, respectively. In the model pylorus ligature, the treatment with thymol failed to significantly change the gastric secretion parameters. However, after treatment with thymol (30 and 100 mg/kg), there was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in mucus production. Thymol no showed anti-H. pylori activity in vitro. Collectively, the present results provide convincing evidence that thymol displays gastroprotective actions on the acute and chronic

  1. A study of antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of a polyherbal extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The decoction of the aerial parts of Rhynchosia recinosa (A.Rich.) Bak. [Fabaceae] is used in combination with the stem barks of Ozoroa insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Excell. [Celastraceae] Entada abyssinica Steud. ex A.Rich [Fabaceae] and Lannea schimperi (Hochst.)Engl. [Anacardiaceae] as a traditional remedy for managing peptic ulcers. However, the safety and efficacy of this polyherbal preparation has not been evaluated. This study reports on the phytochemical profile and some biological activities of the individual plant extracts and a combination of extracts of the five plants. Methods A mixture of 80% ethanol extracts of R. recinosa, O. insignis, M. senegalensis, E. abyssinica and L. schimperi at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt were evaluated for ability to protect Sprague Dawley rats from gastric ulceration by an ethanol-HCl mixture. Cytoprotective effect was assessed by comparison with a negative control group given 1% tween 80 in normal saline and a positive control group given 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The individual extracts and their combinations were also tested for antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella typhi (NCTC 8385), Vibrio cholerae (clinical isolate), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate) using the microdilution method. In addition the extracts were evaluated for brine shrimp toxicity and acute toxicity in mice. Phytochemical tests were done using standard methods to determine the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids in the individual plant extracts and in the mixed extract of the five plants. Results The combined ethanolic extracts of the 5 plants caused a dose-dependent protection against ethanol/HCl induced ulceration of rat gastric mucosa, reaching 81.7% mean protection as compared to 87.5% protection by 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. Both the individual

  2. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) measurement by GC-MS in blood, urine and gastric contents, following an acute intoxication in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bodson, Q; Denooz, R; Serpe, P; Charlier, C

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, sodium oxybate) is a compound related to neuromodulator gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), emerging as a recreational drug of abuse and as a rape drug. GHB-related emergencies have dramatically increased in the 1990s, but a decrease is observed since 2000. We describe the case of an acute GHB intoxication in a 28-year-old male who fell unconscious after ingestion of a mouthful of an unknown beverage, and required medical support for 2 days. A cocaine abuse was also detected by preliminary toxicological screening, but the clinical presentation was not typical of cocaine intoxication. A simple liquid-liquid extraction was used for quantitation of GHB, followed by disilyl-derivatization and analysis in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using GHB-d6 as internal standard. High concentrations of GHB were detected in urine (3020 mg/L) and gastric contents (71487 mg/L) at admission. After a 6-hours delay, GHB was still present in urine at 2324 mg/L and in blood at 43 mg/L. The clinical symptoms of cocaine intoxication were diminished by GHB consumption, and the cerebral scan was modified. Attention must thus be paid to acute intoxications with surprising clinical symptoms, and GHB has probably to be added to the preliminary toxicological screening. Data available regarding GHB are briefly reviewed, and our results are compared with previously published reports of non-fatal GHB intoxication.

  3. Aberrant Left Inferior Bronchial Artery Originating from the Left Gastric Artery in a Patient with Acute Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Sen Sun, Xi-Wen Yu, Dong Jie, Bing

    2013-10-15

    Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening condition, and the major source of bleeding in this condition is the bronchial circulation. Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective treatment for controlling hemoptysis. However, the sites of origin of the bronchial arteries (BAs) have numerous anatomical variations, which can result in a technical challenge to identify a bleeding artery. We present a rare case of a left inferior BA that originated from the left gastric artery in a patient with recurrent massive hemoptysis caused by bronchiectasis. The aberrant BA was embolized, and hemoptysis has been controlled for 8 months.

  4. [Effects of aloe extracts, aloctin A, on gastric secretion and on experimental gastric lesions in rats].

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Imanishi, K; Okabe, S

    1989-05-01

    Effect of aloctin A, glycoprotein isolated from leaves of Aloe arborescens MILL, on gastric secretion and on acute gastric lesions in rats were examined. Aloctin A given intravenously dose-dependently inhibited the volume of gastric juice, acid and pepsin output in pylorus-ligated rats. Aloctin A given intravenously significantly inhibited the development of Shay ulcers and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats. It also inhibited water-immersion stress lesions induced in pylorus-ligated rats.

  5. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls.

  6. Gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, H.O. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  7. Acute small bowel obstruction due to a large intraluminal blood clot after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Green, Jessica; Ikuine, Tomoko; Hacker, Shoshana; Urrego, Hernan; Tuggle, Karleena

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel obstructions (SBOs) are a known perioperative complication of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and common etiologies include internal hernia, port site hernia, jejunojejunostomy stricture, ileus and adhesions. Less commonly, SBO can be caused by superior mesenteric artery syndrome, intussusception and intraluminal blood clot. We present a case of SBO caused by intraluminal blood clot from jejunojejunostomy staple line bleeding in a patient with a normal coagulation profile. Computed tomography was used to elucidate the cause of perioperative SBO, and diagnostic laparoscopy was used to both diagnose and treat the complication. In this case, the intraluminal clot was evacuated laparoscopically by enterotomy, thrombectomy and primary closure without anastomotic revision since there was no evidence of continued bleeding. Administration of enoxaparin and Toradol post-operatively may have exacerbated mild intraluminal bleeding occurring at the stapled jejunojejunal anastomosis. Prompt recognition and treatment of perioperative SBO can prevent catastrophic consequences related to bowel perforation. PMID:27554828

  8. Acute small bowel obstruction due to a large intraluminal blood clot after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jessica; Ikuine, Tomoko; Hacker, Shoshana; Urrego, Hernan; Tuggle, Karleena

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel obstructions (SBOs) are a known perioperative complication of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and common etiologies include internal hernia, port site hernia, jejunojejunostomy stricture, ileus and adhesions. Less commonly, SBO can be caused by superior mesenteric artery syndrome, intussusception and intraluminal blood clot. We present a case of SBO caused by intraluminal blood clot from jejunojejunostomy staple line bleeding in a patient with a normal coagulation profile. Computed tomography was used to elucidate the cause of perioperative SBO, and diagnostic laparoscopy was used to both diagnose and treat the complication. In this case, the intraluminal clot was evacuated laparoscopically by enterotomy, thrombectomy and primary closure without anastomotic revision since there was no evidence of continued bleeding. Administration of enoxaparin and Toradol post-operatively may have exacerbated mild intraluminal bleeding occurring at the stapled jejunojejunal anastomosis. Prompt recognition and treatment of perioperative SBO can prevent catastrophic consequences related to bowel perforation. PMID:27554828

  9. [THE INFLUENCE OF MELANIN ON THE GASTRIC MUCOSA AND HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENOCORTICAL AXIS UNDER ACUTE STRESS CONDITIONS].

    PubMed

    Golyshkin, D V; Falalyeyeva, T M; Neporada, K S; Beregova, T V

    2015-01-01

    We studied the influence of melanin from yeast-like fungi Nadsoniella nigra strain X1 on the changes of the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in blood serum of rats, adrenal glands weight ratio and lesions of the gastric mucosa (GM) caused by neuromuscular tension by Selye. Melanin administration restored functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that was evident by an increase of ACTH concentration by 42% and a decrease of cortisol concentration by 19% compared to the rats injected with water (group 2). In rats treated with melanin, the adrenal glands weight ratio, didn't differ from intact control group of the rats. Melanin decreased ulcers area by 64% and reduced the content of free hydroxyproline by 29%, the free fucose by 16% and the free hexuronic acids by 24% in the GM compared to the group 2 of the rats. It is established that the mechanism of melanin stress-protective properties are based on its regulation of the glucocorticoids secretion and prevention of GM collagen and extracellular matrix substances depolymerization. Melanin possesses gastroprotective properties and is a perspective agent for preventing and treatment of consequences of the stress influence on the organism.

  10. Gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves against acute gastric lesion models in rodents.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Hélio B; Silva, Francilene V; Passos, Flávia Franceli B; Bezerra, Roosevelt D S; Chaves, Mariana H; Oliveira, Francisco A; Oliveira, Rita C Meneses

    2010-01-01

    Parkia platycephala Benth. (Leguminosae--Mimosoideae), popularly known as "visgueira", fava bean tree or "fava-de-bolota", is widely found in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil. Its pods are used as cattle food supplement in the drought period. Compounds with a gastroprotective activity were obtained from the genus Parkia. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves (Pp-EtOH), as well as evaluating its possible mechanisms of action in experimental ulcer induction models. Lesions were induced by absolute ethanol, ethanol-HCl, ischemia-reperfusion and indomethacin in rodents. Pp-EtOH showed a protective effect in the lesion models (66, 48 and 52%, respectively), but it was not able to protect gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced lesions. Results show a possible participation of the NO-synthase pathway in the gastroprotection and an antioxidant activity, by the increase of the catalase activity. The participation of prostaglandins and potassium channels sensitive to ATP in the gastroprotective effect of Pp-EtOH seems less likely to occur. More comprehensive studies, therefore, should be carried out to elucidate the antiulcerative effects of this promising natural product against this gastrointestinal disorder.

  11. Gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves against acute gastric lesion models in rodents.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Hélio B; Silva, Francilene V; Passos, Flávia Franceli B; Bezerra, Roosevelt D S; Chaves, Mariana H; Oliveira, Francisco A; Oliveira, Rita C Meneses

    2010-01-01

    Parkia platycephala Benth. (Leguminosae--Mimosoideae), popularly known as "visgueira", fava bean tree or "fava-de-bolota", is widely found in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil. Its pods are used as cattle food supplement in the drought period. Compounds with a gastroprotective activity were obtained from the genus Parkia. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves (Pp-EtOH), as well as evaluating its possible mechanisms of action in experimental ulcer induction models. Lesions were induced by absolute ethanol, ethanol-HCl, ischemia-reperfusion and indomethacin in rodents. Pp-EtOH showed a protective effect in the lesion models (66, 48 and 52%, respectively), but it was not able to protect gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced lesions. Results show a possible participation of the NO-synthase pathway in the gastroprotection and an antioxidant activity, by the increase of the catalase activity. The participation of prostaglandins and potassium channels sensitive to ATP in the gastroprotective effect of Pp-EtOH seems less likely to occur. More comprehensive studies, therefore, should be carried out to elucidate the antiulcerative effects of this promising natural product against this gastrointestinal disorder. PMID:21526272

  12. [A Case of Gastro-Gastric Intussusception Secondary to Primary Gastric Lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyeong Ho; Kang, Sun Mi; Kim, Si Hye; Ra, Moni; Park, Byeong Kyu; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Jin Tae; Kim, Ho Gak; Ryoo, Hun Mo; Kang, Ung Rae

    2016-07-25

    In adults, most intussusceptions develop from a lesion, usually a benign or malignant neoplasm, and can occur at any site in the gastrointestinal tract. Intussusception in the proximal gastrointestinal tract is uncommon, and gastro-gastric intussusception is extremely rare. We present a case of gastro-gastric intussusception secondary to a primary gastric lymphoma. An 82-year-old female patient presented with acute onset chest pain and vomiting. Abdominal CT revealed a gastro-gastric intussusception. We performed upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, revealing a large gastric mass invaginated into the gastric lumen and distorting the distal stomach. Uncomplicated gastric reposition was achieved with endoscopy of the distal stomach. Histological evaluation of the gastric mass revealed a diffuse large B cell lymphoma that was treated with chemotherapy.

  13. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  14. Antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of Crassocephalum vitellinum (Benth.) S. Moore extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A decoction of Crassocephallum vitellinum (Benth.) S. Moore (Asteraceae) is used in Kagera Region to treat peptic ulcers. This study seeks to evaluate an aqueous ethanol extract of aerial parts of the plant for safety and efficacy. Methods An 80% ethanolic extract of C. vitellinum at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt was evaluated for ability to protect Sprague Dawley rats from acidified ethanol gastric ulceration in comparison with 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The extract and its dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions were also evaluated for acute toxicity in mice, brine shrimp toxicity, and antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella typhi (NCTC 8385), Vibrio cholera (clinical isolate), and Streptococcus faecalis (clinical isolate). The groups of phytochemicals present in the extract were also determined. Results The ethanolic extract of C. vitellinum dose-dependently protected rat gastric mucosa against ethanol/HCl insult to a maximum of 88.3% at 800 mg/kg body wt, affording the same level of protection as by 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The extract also exhibited weak antibacterial activity against S. typhi and E. coli, while its ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and aqueous fractions showed weak activity against K. pneumonia, S.typhi, E. coli and V. cholera. The extract was non-toxic to mice up to 5000 mg/kg body wt, and the total extract (LC50 = 37.49 μg/ml) and the aqueous (LC50 = 87.92 μg/ml), ethyl acetate (LC50 = 119.45 μg/ml) and dichloromethane fractions (88.79 μg/ml) showed low toxicity against brine shrimps. Phytochemical screening showed that the extract contains tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids. Conclusion The results support the claims by traditional healers that a decoction of C.vitellinum has antiulcer activity. The mechanism of cytoprotection is yet to be determined but the phenolic compounds present in the

  15. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Y gastric bypass; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y; Weight-loss surgery - gastric bypass; Obesity surgery - gastric bypass ... Weight-loss surgery may be an option if you are very obese and have not been able to ...

  16. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  17. Gastric suction

    MedlinePlus

    ... al. Position paper update: gastric lavage for gastrointestinal decontamination. Clin Toxicol (Phila) . 2013;51(3); 140-146. ... 2012:chap 49. Zeringe M, Fowler GC. Gastrointesinal decontamination. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. Pfenninger & Fowler's ...

  18. Acute Toxicity and Gastroprotection Studies of a New Schiff Base Derived Manganese (II) Complex against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcerations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Dhiyaaldeen, Summaya M.; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M.Jamil; El-Ferjani, Rashd M.; Adam, Hoyam; Alkotaini, Bassam; Batran, Rami Al; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Manganese is a crucial element for health. In this study, the gastroprotective efficacy of Mn (II) complex (MDLA) against acidified ethanol (HCl/Ethanol)-induced gastric ulceration in rats was evaluated. The animals were distributed into 5 groups. Groups 1 and 2 received carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), group 3 was pretreated with omeprazole, and groups 4 and 5 were given 10 and 20 mg/kg of MDLA, respectively. After one hour, CMC and HCl/Ethanol were given to groups 2–5 whilst the animals in group 1 were ingested with CMC. After sacrifice, gastric lesions were evaluated by wall mucus, gross appearance, histology, antioxidant enzymes and immunohistochemistry. Group 2 displayed severe gastric damage with a significant reduction in wall mucus. Conversely, gastric lesions were reduced in groups 3–5 by 85.72%, 56.51% and 65.93%, respectively. The rats in groups 3–5 showed up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) with down-regulation of Bcl-2-associated protein x (Bax). Pretreatment with omeprazole or MDLA led to an increase in the uptake of Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain in the glandular part of the gastric tissue, raised levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. These results suggested the gastroprotective action of Mn (II) complex. PMID:27229938

  19. Acute Toxicity and Gastroprotection Studies of a New Schiff Base Derived Manganese (II) Complex against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcerations in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Dhiyaaldeen, Summaya M; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; El-Ferjani, Rashd M; Adam, Hoyam; Alkotaini, Bassam; Batran, Rami Al; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Manganese is a crucial element for health. In this study, the gastroprotective efficacy of Mn (II) complex (MDLA) against acidified ethanol (HCl/Ethanol)-induced gastric ulceration in rats was evaluated. The animals were distributed into 5 groups. Groups 1 and 2 received carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), group 3 was pretreated with omeprazole, and groups 4 and 5 were given 10 and 20 mg/kg of MDLA, respectively. After one hour, CMC and HCl/Ethanol were given to groups 2-5 whilst the animals in group 1 were ingested with CMC. After sacrifice, gastric lesions were evaluated by wall mucus, gross appearance, histology, antioxidant enzymes and immunohistochemistry. Group 2 displayed severe gastric damage with a significant reduction in wall mucus. Conversely, gastric lesions were reduced in groups 3-5 by 85.72%, 56.51% and 65.93%, respectively. The rats in groups 3-5 showed up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) with down-regulation of Bcl-2-associated protein x (Bax). Pretreatment with omeprazole or MDLA led to an increase in the uptake of Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain in the glandular part of the gastric tissue, raised levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. These results suggested the gastroprotective action of Mn (II) complex.

  20. Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959). While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients), vomiting (54.2%), diarrhea (21.9%), and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%). Respiratory (23.0%) and cardiocirculatory (16.7%) symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%), medium chain triglycerides (54.2%) or enhanced caloric density (65.6%) of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%), dehydration (27.5%) and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly demonstrable on repeat

  1. Rare Case of Primary Gastric Burkitt Lymphoma in a Child.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon Chul; Hwang, Jung Won; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Pyoung Han

    2016-08-25

    Primary gastric tumors are very rare in children. Burkitt lymphoma is a common type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and gastric Burkitt lymphoma usually occurs in the aged. When involving the gastrointestinal tract, primary gastric Burkitt lymphoma is very rare in younger childhood. Many gastric lymphomas including mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma are associated with Helicobacter pylori infection or acute bleeding symptom. We report a seven-year-old boy who presented with only some vomiting and postprandial pain. His upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy revealed a large primary Burkitt lymphoma with no acute bleeding and no evidence of H. pylori infection. After chemotherapy, he remains in remission. PMID:27554215

  2. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Belén Fraile, M; Serra Bartual, M; Segarra Sánchez, J; Richart Rufino, M J

    1991-11-01

    Gastric cancer represents a disorder which incidence has come down last years. Its etiology is unknown, but diet is the principal determinant risk of suffering it. Clinic history is not much useful, because in the early stage symptoms can fail and in the late stage are inespecific. Election diagnosis is endoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment. By these features, it would be useful to left under vigilance to: a) patients 40 years older with dispepsia; b) patients following gastric operations; c) patients with disorders presenting aclorhidria. The authors report a clinic case that can be of frequent presentation in primary assistance.

  3. Gastric mycosis following gastric resection and vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Rehnberg, O; Faxen, A; Haglund, U; Kewenter, J; Stenquist, B; Olbe, L

    1982-01-01

    In a prospective five-year follow-up study of 289 consecutive patients subjected to antrectomy and gastroduodenostomy with or without vagotomy, 130 patients underwent gastroscopy. Gastric mycosis was present almost exclusively in patients subjected to combined antrectomy and vagotomy (36%). Gastric acidity seemed to be of only minor or no importance in the development of the mycosis. The residual volume in the gastric remnant was significantly higher in patients with gastric mycosis. The impaired emptying of the gastric remnant is most likely a vagotomy effect and may be the main reason for the development of gastric mycosis. A simple but effective method was developed to evacuate gastric yeast cell aggregates. Gastric mycosis seems to give rise to only slight symptoms, mainly nausea and foul-smelling belching, whereas the reflux of duodenal contents that often occurred in combination with gastric mycosis was more likely to cause gastritis and substantial discomfort. PMID:7092348

  4. Laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge; Obesity gastric banding discharge; Weight loss - gastric banding discharge ... as your body gets used to your weight loss and your weight becomes stable. Weight loss may be slower after ...

  5. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y - discharge; Obesity gastric bypass discharge; Weight loss - gastric bypass discharge ... al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised ...

  6. Vagal nerve and the gastric mucosal defense.

    PubMed

    Mózsik, G; Karádi, O; Király, A; Matus, Z; Sütö, G; Tóth, G; Vincze, A

    1993-01-01

    An essential role for an intact vagal nerve has been proven in the development of gastric mucosal cyto- and general protection. On the other hand, chemically-induced (ethanol, HCl, indomethacin) gastric mucosal damage is enhanced after acute surgical vagotomy. The aims of this paper were to study the possible mechanisms of the vagal nerve in the development of gastric mucosal defense. The following questions were addressed: 1) effect of surgical vagotomy on the development of ethanol- (ETOH), HCl-, and indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric mucosal damage: 2) changes in the gastric mucosal defense by scavengers, prostacyclin and other compounds (small doses of atropine and cimetidine; 3) changes in the gastric mucosal vascular permeability due to chemicals; 4) effect of indomethacin in the ETOH and HCl models with and without surgical vagotomy; 5) changes in the gastric mucosal content of prostacyclin and PGE2 in the ETOH and HCl models after surgical vagotomy; and 6) changes in the role of SH-groups in gastric mucosal defense after surgical vagotomy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Spontaneous Gastric Perforation in Two Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Akalonu, Amaka; Yasrebi, Mona; Rios, Zarela Molle

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patients: Female, 11 • Male, 15 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous gastric perforation Symptoms: Abdominal pain • distention • vomiting • leukocytosis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Both patients had surgery Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Rare etiology Background: Spontaneous gastric perforation is a rare clinical disorder. The majority of the available data have been reported in the neonatal age group. There are a few cases of spontaneous gastric perforation in preschool children. To our knowledge, there is no published information on spontaneous gastric perforation in older children and adolescents. Case Report: We describe the presentation and clinical course of two adolescent children who presented with spontaneous gastric perforation. Both children presented with acute onset abdominal pain, which progressively worsened. In both cases, the patient were taken urgently to the operating room after imaging studies had shown pneumoperitoneum. In both cases, surgery revealed gastric perforation with no obvious etiology, specifically no ulcer, inflammation, or other pathology. Conclusions: These two cases highlight the importance of including spontaneous gastric perforation, not just the typical duodenal/gastric ulcer, in the differential of a patient with severe abdominal pain and distension, who has imaging showing pneumoperitoneum. PMID:27686129

  8. [Preventive effects of troxipide on a newly developed model of acute gastric mucosal lesion (AGML) induced by ischemia/reperfusion plus ammonia in the rat].

    PubMed

    Momo, K; Hoshina, K; Ishibashi, Y; Saito, T

    1994-10-01

    We have developed a unique rat AGML model produced by ischemia/reperfusion plus 0.2% ammonia (I/R.NH3), either treatment which would not induce mucosal injury when used alone. The effects of troxipide and other gastric mucosal defensive drugs were investigated with this I/R.NH3-induced AGML model and other AGML models in rats. The following results were obtained: 1) Like allopurinol, troxipide at 50-200 mg/kg, p.o. dose-dependently prevented I/R.NH3-induced development of AGML and also the ischemia/reperfusion-induced increase of gastric mucosal thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive substances; 2) Troxipide at 10(-6)-10(-4) M, like allopurinol, inhibited concentration-dependently in vitro xanthine oxidase activity in gastric mucosal homogenates; 3) Troxipide at 50-200 mg/kg, p.o. inhibited AGMLs induced by bleeding plus 0.2% ammonia and by 1.0% ammonia alone; and 4) Troxipide and sofalcone were similar in preventing all AGMLs tested and also the increase of mucosal TBA-reactive substances, but somewhat differed from teprenone, cetraxate hydrochloride, azulene plus L-glutamine and sucralfate. These findings suggest that troxipide may inhibit I/R.NH3-induced AGML development by preventing generation of oxygen free radicals and by protecting against mucosal fragility due to reduced energy metabolism from poor blood flow and also against ammonia-induced disruption of the gastric mucosal barrier. Therefore, troxipide may be highly effective for various AGMLs with multifactor involvement.

  9. Role of an indole-thiazolidine molecule PPAR pan-agonist and COX inhibitor on inflammation and microcirculatory damage in acute gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Santin, José Roberto; Daufenback Machado, Isabel; Rodrigues, Stephen F P; Teixeira, Simone; Muscará, Marcelo N; Lins Galdino, Suely; da Rocha Pitta, Ivan; Farsky, Sandra H P

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to show the in vivo mechanisms of action of an indole-thiazolidine molecule peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor pan-agonist (PPAR pan) and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, LYSO-7, in an ethanol/HCl-induced (Et/HCl) gastric lesion model. Swiss male mice were treated with vehicle, LYSO-7 or Bezafibrate (p.o.) 1 hour before oral administration of Et/HCl (60%/0.03M). In another set of assays, animals were injected i.p. with an anti-granulocyte antibody, GW9962 or L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) before treatment. One hour after Et/HCl administration, neutrophils were quantified in the blood and bone marrow and the gastric microcirculatory network was studied in situ. The gastric tissue was used to quantify the percentage of damaged area, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein and PPARγ protein and gene expression. Acid secretion was evaluated by the pylorus ligation model. LYSO-7 or Bezafibrate treatment reduced the necrotic area. LYSO-7 treatment enhanced PPARγ gene and protein expression in the stomach, and impaired local neutrophil influx and stasis of the microcirculatory network caused by Et/HCl administration. The effect seemed to be due to PPARγ agonist activity, as the LYSO-7 effect was abolished in GW9962 pre-treated mice. The reversal of microcirculatory stasis, but not neutrophil influx, was mediated by nitric oxide (NO), as L-NAME pre-treatment abolished the LYSO-7-mediated reestablishment of microcirculatory blood flow. This effect may depend on enhanced eNOS protein expression in injured gastric tissue. The pH and concentration of H(+) in the stomach were not modified by LYSO-7 treatment. In addition, LYSO-7 may induce less toxicity, as 28 days of oral treatment did not induce weight loss, as detected in pioglitazone treated mice. Thus, we show that LYSO-7 may be an effective treatment for gastric lesions by controlling neutrophil

  10. Role of an Indole-Thiazolidine Molecule PPAR Pan-Agonist and COX Inhibitor on Inflammation and Microcirculatory Damage in Acute Gastric Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Santin, José Roberto; Daufenback Machado, Isabel; Rodrigues, Stephen F. P.; Teixeira, Simone; Muscará, Marcelo N.; Lins Galdino, Suely; da Rocha Pitta, Ivan; Farsky, Sandra H. P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to show the in vivo mechanisms of action of an indole-thiazolidine molecule peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor pan-agonist (PPAR pan) and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, LYSO-7, in an ethanol/HCl-induced (Et/HCl) gastric lesion model. Swiss male mice were treated with vehicle, LYSO-7 or Bezafibrate (p.o.) 1 hour before oral administration of Et/HCl (60%/0.03M). In another set of assays, animals were injected i.p. with an anti-granulocyte antibody, GW9962 or L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) before treatment. One hour after Et/HCl administration, neutrophils were quantified in the blood and bone marrow and the gastric microcirculatory network was studied in situ. The gastric tissue was used to quantify the percentage of damaged area, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein and PPARγ protein and gene expression. Acid secretion was evaluated by the pylorus ligation model. LYSO-7 or Bezafibrate treatment reduced the necrotic area. LYSO-7 treatment enhanced PPARγ gene and protein expression in the stomach, and impaired local neutrophil influx and stasis of the microcirculatory network caused by Et/HCl administration. The effect seemed to be due to PPARγ agonist activity, as the LYSO-7 effect was abolished in GW9962 pre-treated mice. The reversal of microcirculatory stasis, but not neutrophil influx, was mediated by nitric oxide (NO), as L-NAME pre-treatment abolished the LYSO-7-mediated reestablishment of microcirculatory blood flow. This effect may depend on enhanced eNOS protein expression in injured gastric tissue. The pH and concentration of H+ in the stomach were not modified by LYSO-7 treatment. In addition, LYSO-7 may induce less toxicity, as 28 days of oral treatment did not induce weight loss, as detected in pioglitazone treated mice. Thus, we show that LYSO-7 may be an effective treatment for gastric lesions by controlling neutrophil

  11. Surrounding Gastric Mucosa Findings Facilitate Diagnosis of Gastric Neoplasm as Gastric Adenoma or Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miike, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Shojiro; Miyata, Yoshifumi; Hirata, Tomoya; Noda, Yuko; Noda, Takaho; Suzuki, Sho; Takeda, Sachiko; Natsuda, Shuichiro; Sakaguchi, Mai; Maemura, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Kanna; Yamaji, Takumi; Abe, Hiroo; Iwakiri, Hisayoshi; Tahara, Yoshihiro; Hasuike, Satoru; Nagata, Kenji; Kitanaka, Akira; Shimoda, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. It is difficult to master the skill of discriminating gastric adenoma from early gastric cancer by conventional endoscopy or magnifying endoscopy combined with narrow-band imaging, because the colors and morphologies of these neoplasms are occasionally similar. We focused on the surrounding gastric mucosa findings in order to determine how to discriminate between early gastric cancer and gastric adenoma by analyzing the characteristics of the gastric background mucosa. Methods. We retrospectively examined 146 patients who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric neoplasm between October 2009 and January 2015. The boundary of atrophic gastritis was classified endoscopically according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification system. Of 146 lesions, 63 early gastric cancers and 21 gastric adenomas were ultimately evaluated and assessed. Results. Almost all gastric adenomas were accompanied by open-type gastritis, whereas 47 and 16 early gastric cancers were accompanied by open-type and closed-type gastritis, respectively (p = 0.037). Conclusions. The evaluation of the boundary of atrophic gastritis associated with gastric neoplasms appears to be useful for discrimination between early gastric cancer and gastric adenoma. When gastric neoplasm is present in the context of surrounding localized gastric atrophy, gastric cancer is probable but not certain. PMID:26858751

  12. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach’s extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition. PMID:27200168

  13. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Acutely Decreases Protein Carbonylation and Increases Expression of Mitochondrial Biogenesis Genes in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Jahansouz, Cyrus; Serrot, Federico J.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Foncea, Rocio E.; Dorman, Robert B.; Slusarek, Bridget; Leslie, Daniel B.; Bernlohr, David A.; Ikramuddin, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue has been implicated as a pathogenic step in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In adipose tissue, chronic nutrient overload results in mitochondria driven increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to carbonylation of proteins that impair mitochondrial function and downregulation of key genes linked to mitochondrial biogenesis. In patients with T2DM, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery leads to improvements in glycemic profile prior to significant weight loss. Consequently, we hypothesized that improved glycemia early after RYGB would be paralleled by decreased protein carbonylation and increased expression of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis in adipose tissue. Methods To evaluate this hypothesis, 16 obese individuals were studied before and 7–8 days following RYGB and adjustable gastric banding (AGB). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained pre- and post-bariatric surgery as well as from eight healthy, non-obese individual controls. Results Prior to surgery, adipose tissue expression of PGC1α, NRF1, Cyt C, and eNOS (but not Tfam) showed significantly lower expression in the obese bariatric surgery group when compared to lean controls (p<0.05). Following RYGB, but not after AGB, patients showed significant decrease in HOMA-IR, reduction in adipose protein carbonylation, and increased expression of genes linked to mitochondrial biogenesis. Conclusions These results suggest that rapid reduction in protein carbonylation and increased mitochondrial biogenesis may explain postoperative metabolic improvements following RYGB. PMID:25975200

  14. Gastric leiomyoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bose, B.; Candy, J.

    1970-01-01

    This paper describes two cases of gastric leiomyoblastoma (bizarre smooth muscle tumour), one of them having evidence of metastases. Both patients remain well after seven years and three and a half years respectively. The literature is reviewed, and the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed. The histological appearances are described in detail and an attempt is made to assess the criteria for the diagnosis of malignancy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:5485837

  15. Acute lead arsenate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tallis, G A

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of acute lead arsenate poisoning which occurred in South Australia during a 12 month interval are described. The case reports demonstrate a number of features of the characteristic clinical syndrome which may follow ingestion of lead arsenate. The recommended management is immediate gastric lavage and subsequent chelation therapy with calcium EDTA and dimercaprol. Early gastric lavage may prevent significant lead absorption. However, arsenic acid (produced in the stomach when lead arsenate reacts with hydrochloric acid) is relatively water soluble and prompt gastric lavage is unlikely to prevent extensive arsenic absorption. It remains controversial as to whether chelation with dimercaprol prevents arsenical neuropathy.

  16. Complex histopathological and surgical aspects in a case of giant malignant gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Serban, D; Branescu, C; Savlovschi, C; El-Khatib, A; Tudor, C; Nica, A; Kraft, A; Dascalu, A M

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 52-year-old male patient, hospitalized on an emergency basis in the University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest, after being diagnosed with pneumoperitoneum acute abdomen, for which emergency surgery was mandatory. A 3,5-4 cm malignant gastric perforation, ascitis and peritoneal carcinomatosis were found. The histopathological exam revealed infiltrative mucinous gastric carcinoma with epiploic metastasis. Due to the lack of available gastric material, an atypical surgical solution was performed: gastric packing with epiploic material by means of transgastric traction. The solution proved to be successful for short-term recovery. The underlying condition was not focused on, the patient being directed to the Oncology Department. Acute gastric perforation is a rare complication of gastric cancer, and the association with gastric linitis is uncommon. This specific histopathological condition made the classical surgical repair techniques unsuitable for the presented case and an atypical solution had to be performed. PMID:27453758

  17. Complex histopathological and surgical aspects in a case of giant malignant gastric perforation

    PubMed Central

    Serban, D; Branescu, C; Savlovschi, C; El-Khatib, A; Tudor, C; Nica, A; Kraft, A; Dascalu, AM

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 52-year-old male patient, hospitalized on an emergency basis in the University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest, after being diagnosed with pneumoperitoneum acute abdomen, for which emergency surgery was mandatory. A 3,5-4 cm malignant gastric perforation, ascitis and peritoneal carcinomatosis were found. The histopathological exam revealed infiltrative mucinous gastric carcinoma with epiploic metastasis. Due to the lack of available gastric material, an atypical surgical solution was performed: gastric packing with epiploic material by means of transgastric traction. The solution proved to be successful for short-term recovery. The underlying condition was not focused on, the patient being directed to the Oncology Department. Acute gastric perforation is a rare complication of gastric cancer, and the association with gastric linitis is uncommon. This specific histopathological condition made the classical surgical repair techniques unsuitable for the presented case and an atypical solution had to be performed. PMID:27453758

  18. FATAL GASTRIC DILATION IN TWO ADULT BLACK-FOOTED FERRETS (MUSTELA NIGRIPES).

    PubMed

    Hinton, Jenna D; Aitken-Palmer, Copper; Joyner, Priscilla H; Ware, Lisa; Walsh, Timothy F

    2016-03-01

    Acute gastric dilation resulting in death was identified in two adult black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) housed at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute in Front Royal, Virginia. Both individuals were adult males (3 and 5 yr) and previously clinically healthy prior to the event. The etiology of gastric dilation in both cases could not be definitively determined, and necropsy revealed severe cardiovascular compromise secondary to bloat. Limited literature is available regarding a syndrome of this type in adult black-footed ferrets. Differential diagnoses considered included gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV), severe gastric distention of unknown origin, and gastric outflow obstruction. Given the severity of this syndrome and the findings in these two cases, acute gastric dilation should be considered in black-footed ferrets presenting with acute abdominal distention, respiratory distress, and cardiovascular compromise. PMID:27010305

  19. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  20. Gastric zygomycosis (mucormycosis) in 4 suckling pigs.

    PubMed

    Sanford, S E

    1985-02-15

    Acute gastric zygomycosis (mucormycosis) was diagnosed in four 6- to 7-day-old pigs with large venous infarcts in the gastric fundus. Two pigs were from one farm where several dams had developed fever at parturition and most of their litters had died. The other 2 pigs, from separate farms, had diarrhea that was unresponsive to broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Histologically there was severe hemorrhagic, ulcerative gastritis associated with numerous transmurally invading, mucoraceous fungi. The discussion includes speculation on the pathogenesis of this lesion in neonatal pigs.

  1. Anti-Ulcerogenic Effect of Methanolic Extracts from Enicosanthellum pulchrum (King) Heusden against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Noraziah; Salama, Suzy Munir; Golbabapour, Shahram; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Omar, Hanita; Fadaienasab, Mehran; Karimian, Hamed; Taha, Hairin; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    A natural source of medicine, Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant which belongs to the family Annonaceae. In this study, methanol extract from the leaves and stems of this species was evaluated for its gastroprotective potential against mucosal lesions induced by ethanol in rats. Seven groups of rats were assigned, groups 1 and 2 were given Tween 20 (10% v/v) orally. Group 3 was administered omeprazole 20 mg/kg (10% Tween 20) whilst the remaining groups received the leaf and stem extracts at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. After an additional hour, the rats in groups 2–7 received ethanol (95% v/v; 8 mL/kg) orally while group 1 received Tween 20 (10% v/v) instead. Rats were sacrificed after 1 h and their stomachs subjected to further studies. Macroscopically and histologically, group 2 rats showed extremely severe disruption of the gastric mucosa compared to rats pre-treated with the E. pulchrum extracts based on the ulcer index, where remarkable protection was noticed. Meanwhile, a significant percentage of inhibition was shown with the stem extract at 62% (150 mg/kg) and 65% (300 mg/kg), whilst the percentage with the leaf extract at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg was 63% and 75%, respectively. An increase in mucus content, nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, protein and catalase, and a decrease in malondialdehyde level compared to group 2 were also obtained. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of groups 4–7 exhibited down-regulation of Bax and up-regulation of Hsp70 proteins. The methanol extract from the leaves and the stems showed notable gastroprotective potential against ethanol. PMID:25379712

  2. Anti-ulcerogenic effect of methanolic extracts from Enicosanthellum pulchrum (King) Heusden against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesion in animal models.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Noraziah; Salama, Suzy Munir; Golbabapour, Shahram; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Omar, Hanita; Fadaienasab, Mehran; Karimian, Hamed; Taha, Hairin; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    A natural source of medicine, Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant which belongs to the family Annonaceae. In this study, methanol extract from the leaves and stems of this species was evaluated for its gastroprotective potential against mucosal lesions induced by ethanol in rats. Seven groups of rats were assigned, groups 1 and 2 were given Tween 20 (10% v/v) orally. Group 3 was administered omeprazole 20 mg/kg (10% Tween 20) whilst the remaining groups received the leaf and stem extracts at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. After an additional hour, the rats in groups 2-7 received ethanol (95% v/v; 8 mL/kg) orally while group 1 received Tween 20 (10% v/v) instead. Rats were sacrificed after 1 h and their stomachs subjected to further studies. Macroscopically and histologically, group 2 rats showed extremely severe disruption of the gastric mucosa compared to rats pre-treated with the E. pulchrum extracts based on the ulcer index, where remarkable protection was noticed. Meanwhile, a significant percentage of inhibition was shown with the stem extract at 62% (150 mg/kg) and 65% (300 mg/kg), whilst the percentage with the leaf extract at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg was 63% and 75%, respectively. An increase in mucus content, nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, protein and catalase, and a decrease in malondialdehyde level compared to group 2 were also obtained. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of groups 4-7 exhibited down-regulation of Bax and up-regulation of Hsp70 proteins. The methanol extract from the leaves and the stems showed notable gastroprotective potential against ethanol.

  3. Guilty as charged: bugs and drugs in gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Sontag, S J

    1997-08-01

    Gastric ulcer disease remains a cause of hemorrhage, perforation, outlet obstruction, and death. Recent advances in the understanding of peptic ulcer disease indicate that infection with Helicobacter pylori and ingestion of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the cause of almost all gastric and duodenal ulcers. Our therapy, therefore, is in a state of transition: the old acid-suppressive temporary therapy that allows frequent ulcer recurrences and complications is being replaced by curative therapies. The old therapy, by reducing gastric acid secretion or enhancing gastric mucosal defenses, inhibited the cofactors needed for ulcer development. Acid suppression relieved symptoms and healed ulcers, while defense enhancers, such as prostaglandin analogs healed and prevented acute NSAID-induced gastric ulcers. These benefits were maintained, however, only as long as acid-reducing agents or mucosal defense enhancers were continued. On the other hand, curative therapies (such as eradicating H. pylori infection and/or stopping the use of NSAIDs) eliminate the causes of ulcer. Curative combination regimens consisting of antibiotics, ranitidine bismuth citrate, bismuth, and proton pump inhibitors have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. These new regimens can cure benign gastric ulcer. Unfortunately, we cannot always determine which gastric ulcers are benign, and concern about gastric cancer remains. All gastric ulcers therefore still require biopsy and histological examination. With new treatment regimens, the time may be rapidly approaching when ulcer disease will be "history."

  4. Primary gastric tuberculosis mimicking gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eray, İsmail Cem; Rencüzoğulları, Ahmet; Yalav, Orçun; Dalcı, Kubilay; Kakil, Erdem; Bağır, Emine; Parsak, Cem Kaan

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old female patient with no previous known diseases who had complaints of postprandial epigastric pain and weight loss and who could not be diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy, although gastric cancer was suspected radiologically and endoscopically, was diagnosed with primary gastric tuberculosis by laparotomy and frozen section. Following anti-tuberculosis treatment, a complete clinical, radiological, and endoscopic response was achieved. PMID:26504425

  5. Gastric syphilis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Novis, Camila Freitas Lobo; Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2016-01-01

    Gastric syphilis is an uncommon extracutaneous manifestation of syphilis, occurring in less than 1% of patients, presenting nonspecific clinical manifestations. In general, it occurs on secondary stage. The critical point is the recognition of the syphilitic gastric involvement, without which there may be incorrect diagnosis of malignancy of the digestive tract. In this report, a case of secondary syphilis with gastric involvement that had complete remission with benzathine penicillin will be described.

  6. [Gastric cancer in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Wu, M S; Lin, J T; Lee, W J; Yu, S C; Wang, T H

    1994-09-01

    The study of gastric cancer is important in clinical medicine as well as in public health. Environmental factors play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis and thus primary prevention is feasible after improvement of these factors. The 5-year survival rate of resected early gastric cancer is over 90% and this provides an excellent paradigm for secondary prevention. Though its mortality rate has declined since 1970, gastric cancer remains common and carries a high mortality in Taiwan where about 2,000 patients die of gastric cancer annually. The age-adjusted mortality is 16.54 and 8.16/100,000 for male and female, ranking the third and fourth cancer death respectively. Epidemiologic data disclose a positive association between gastric cancer and some dietary factors in Taiwan. However, the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and hereditary susceptibility should be elucidated in the future. Endoscopy with biopsy is an excellent method of the diagnosis of gastric cancer. However, its invasiveness makes it impractical as a screening tool and thus the proportion of early gastric cancer to gastric cancer remains as low as 30% in most reports. The value of lymph node dissection remains controversial although surgery is one of the most effective methods of eradicating gastric cancer. Overall, the 5 year survival rate is 24.5% to 54%. Laser therapy is usually reserved for patients with high operative risk and specific types of gastric cancer. To improve the survival results, development of a simple and economic screening program based on the epidemiologic results and utilization of noninvasive examinations such as serologic markers to diagnose and treat gastric cancer at its earliest stage deserves further study.

  7. "Gastric cytoprotection" is still relevant.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Sandor

    2014-12-01

    Although Andre Robert's historic article on "gastric cytoprotection" in 1979 introduced this new name and concept, gastroprotective drugs (e.g. sofalcone, sucralfate), which prevent and/or accelerate healing of gastric ulcers without inhibiting acid secretion, were known in Japan before or around that time. But since Robert's studies were solely focused on prostaglandins (PG), they became the center of gastrointestinal research for more than 30 years. As endogenous products, PG were implicated in mediating the gastroprotective effect of other drugs such as sofalcone and sucralfate, despite that the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin diminished but never abolished gastroprotection by other drugs. Another group of endogenous substances, that is, sulfhydryls (SH), investigated in parallel with PG, also seem to play a mechanistic role in gastroprotection, especially since SH alkylators like N-ethylmaleimide counteract virtually any form of gastroprotection. In Robert's terms of "prevention of chemically induced acute mucosal lesions," so far no single mechanism could explain the beneficial effects of diverse protective agents, but I argue that these two endogenous substances (i.e. PG, SH), in addition to histamine, are the main mechanistic mediators of acute gastroprotection: PG and histamine, because as mediators of acute inflammation, they increase vascular permeability (VP), and SH scavenge free radicals. This is contrary to the search for a single mechanism of action, long focused on enhanced secretion of mucus and/or bicarbonate that may contribute but cannot explain all forms of gastroprotection. Nevertheless, based on research work of the last 30 years, in part from our lab, a new mechanistic explanation of gastroprotection may be formulated: it's a complex but orderly and evolution-based physiologic response of the gastric mucosa under pathologic conditions. Namely, one of the first physiologic defense responses of any organ is inflammation that starts with

  8. Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Westphalen, Christoph B.; Andersen, Gøran T.; Flatberg, Arnar; Johannessen, Helene; Friedman, Richard A.; Renz, Bernhard W.; Sandvik, Arne K.; Beisvag, Vidar; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Quante, Michael; Li, Zhishan; Gershon, Michael D.; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.; Chen, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis. In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion. In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer. Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptor–mediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer. PMID:25143365

  9. Influence of thyroid states on stress gastric ulcer formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Walker, C.H.; Mason, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that thyroid states may affect the acute development of gastric lesions induced by cold-resistant stress. Normal (euthyroid), hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats were used. Gastric lesion incidence and severity was significantly increased in hypothyroid rats, whereas in contrast hyperthyroid rats developed significantly less gastric lesions. As anticipated, plasma levels of thyroxin (T/sub 4/) were significantly elevated in hyperthyroid rats, and undetectable in hypothyroid rats. Acute pretreatment with i.p. cimetidine, but not T/sub 4/ 1 h prior to stress completely prevented gastric lesions formation in hypothyroid rats. Finally, binding of /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol to ..beta..-adrenergic receptors on brain membranes prepared from frontal cortex was reduced by 20% in hypothyroid rats after 3 h of stress. These and other data contained herein suggest that thyroid hormones contribute to modulate the responsiveness of the gastric mucosa to stress. The increase rate of ulcerogenesis observed in hypothyroid rats appears to be mediated by gastric acid secretion. The central mechanism for this response may involve decreased brain nonadrenergic receptor function.

  10. Ramucirumab for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shitara, Kohei; Ohtsu, Atsushi

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, various molecular target agents have been investigated for gastric cancer. VEGF is one of the most potent angiogenic factors and is a signaling molecule secreted by many solid tumors. High VEGF expression is one of the characteristic features of gastric carcinomas, thus targeting VEGF is considered a promising strategy for gastric cancer. Ramucirumab, an anti-VEGF receptor antibody, has proven to be effective for previously treated advanced gastric cancer. Details of ramucirumab, including two pivotal Phase III studies, will be discussed in this review. Ramucirumab, with or without chemotherapy, improved survival in gastric cancer after previous systemic chemotherapy, thus becoming the standard of care for this patient population. Optimal timing of ramucirumab use and adequate biomarkers for patient selection as well as mechanism of resistance should be explored in future research.

  11. [Intermediate gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Fontán, A N; Marzano, C A; Martínez, M M; Palau, G; Rubio, H H

    1980-01-01

    Gastric Cancer comprises two basic types: Advanced Gastric Cancer (A.G.C.) and Early Gastric Cancer (E.G.C.). A.G.C. extends beyond the proper muscle layer with a 5 to 17%, five years survival rate after surgery. E.G.C. does not extend beyond the submucosa (with or without metastasis to regional lymph nodes) and has a 80 - 95% five years survival rate. Intermediate Gastric Cancer, PM G.C. (Gastric cancer of the proper muscle layer) does not surpass the proper muscle layer and offers a five years life expectance of near 60% after adequate surgical treatment, with peculiar features in radiology, endoscopy and evolutivity. We report a case of PM G.C., "depressed" and "protruded". The proper muscle layer was invaded by the depressed lesion". Both lesions were continguous.

  12. Not all gastric masses are gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Rosario, Michael; Tsai, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer metastasising to the gastrointestinal tract normally does not occur. However, as clinicians, we must be aware that lung adenocarcinoma, as in all cancers, can and will metastasise to any part of the body. We describe a case of a patient with a presumed primary gastric adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath due to pleural effusion. Pathology from the pleural effusion was positive for primary lung adenocarcinoma. Further investigation revealed that the patient's gastric mass was misdiagnosed as gastric adenocarcinoma. We correctly diagnosed the mass as metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. This was very significant because the patient was transitioning to palliative care with possible tube feeding. After the correct diagnosis, her management drastically changed and her health improved. Clinical, pathological and medical management of lung cancer metastasis to the stomach are discussed. PMID:26976833

  13. Thoracoscopic pericardial drainage for gastric tube ulcer penetrated into the pericardium.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masayuki; Matsuura, Koki; Baba, Hideo; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Ikegami, Toru; Soejima, Yuji; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Yamashita, Yo-ichi; Morita, Masaru; Oki, Eiji; Mimori, Koshi; Sugimachi, Keishi; Saeki, Hiroshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-01

    Peptic ulcer occurring in the gastric conduit for esophageal reconstruction sometimes penetrates into the mediastinal structures. We herein reported a case of pericardial penetration of gastric tube ulcer successfully treated with thoracoscopic pericardial drainage. A 66-year-old Japanese man, who had undergone esophagectomy for esophageal cancer 20 months before, visited our emergency room complaining severe back pain. Computed tomography revealed gastric tube ulcer penetrated into the pericardial space. Thoracoscopic pericardiotomy and drainage was performed and the patient made an uneventful recovery. Thoracoscopic pericardial drainage is useful to manage acute pyogenic pericarditis due to penetration of peptic ulcer which occurred in the gastric tube.

  14. Tests of gastric neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Parkman, Henry P; Jones, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Tests of gastric neuromuscular function are used to evaluate patients with symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract. These symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical function and contractility. Management of gastric neuromuscular disorders requires an understanding of pathophysiology and treatment options as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. These tests include measures of gastric emptying; contractility; electrical activity; regional gastric motility of the fundus, antrum, and pylorus; and tests of sensation and compliance. Tests are also being developed to improve our understanding of the afferent sensory pathways from the stomach to the central nervous system that mediate gastric sensation in health and gastric disorders. This article reviews tests of gastric function and provides a basic description of the tests, the methodologies behind them, descriptions of the physiology that they assess, and their clinical utility. PMID:19293005

  15. Gastric Mucormycosis with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Raviraj, K Sunil; Miglani, P; Garg, A; Agarwal, P K

    2015-10-01

    Mucormycosis, is an emerging fungal infection in immunocompromised and diabetic individuals, usually affects rhino-orbito-cerebral, cutaneous and pulmonary regions. But mucormycosis in immunocompetent environment is rare and occurrence of gastric mucormycosis is unusual. We report a case of 19 year old female, with no pre-existing co-morbidities, presented with fever, dysentery, vomiting, and melena for 4 days. On evaluation she was found to have pancytopenia, acute kidney injury, hemolytic anemia, coagulopathy and hepatic derangement and treated with hemodialysis, plasmapheresis along with antibiotics and packed cell RBC transfusion. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed presence of extensive esophageal and gastric ulcer. In view of persistent bleeding despite endoscopic sclerotherapy, repetition of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and CT abdomen with oral contrast was done, which revealed perforated gastric ulcer. Exploratory laparotomy and excision of ulcer was done. The biopsy of gastric ulcer had shown the presence of granulomatous necrotic areas positive for mucormycosis. Then she was managed with amphotericin-B, posoconazole with which she improved. PMID:27608699

  16. Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori in gastric brushing cytology.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, P R; Carrozza, M J; Ruggiero, F M; Calafati, S A; Jann, R C

    1992-01-01

    Helicobacter (formerly Campylobacter) pylori is frequently associated with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and has been implicated as an etiologic agent. Identification of H. pylori is important for specific treatment with antibiotics and bismuth compounds. We studied 27 patients who presented with symptoms of gastritis or peptic ulcer on whom paired gastric biopsies and gastric brushings for cytology had been performed. Biopsies were stained with H & E and Warthin-Starry or Giemsa for H. pylori. Previously, Papanicolaou-stained brushings were restained with Giemsa and reviewed blindly by two cytologists. Cytologic examination revealed the characteristic 1-3 mu curved or spiral gram-negative bacilli embedded in mucus in 12 of 27 (44%) of cases. Biopsies showed H. pylori in 13 of 27 (48%) of cases. Cytology and histology were concordant in 22 of 27 (81%) of cases. Three cases were positive on biopsy, negative on cytology; two of these were unsatisfactory cytology specimens. Two cases were positive on cytology, negative on biopsy, apparently sampling artifacts. Papanicolaou-stained slides were scored for several morphologic parameters; numbers of acute and chronic inflammatory cells and degree of cytologic atypia. None of these were predictive of the presence of H. pylori. We conclude that Giemsa-stained gastric brushings are a useful complement to gastric biopsies in establishing the diagnosis of H. pylori.

  17. Gastric conduit perforation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nilesh; Kaushal, Arvind; Jain, Amit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2014-08-16

    As patients with carcinoma of the esophagus live longer, complications associated with the use of a gastric conduit are increasing. Ulcers form in the gastric conduit in 6.6% to 19.4% of patients. There are a few reports of perforation of a gastric conduit in the English literature. Almost all of these were associated with serious complications. We report a patient who developed a tension pneumothorax consequent to spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the gastric conduit 7 years after the index surgery in a patient with carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. He responded well to conservative management. Complications related to a gastric conduit can be because of multiple factors. Periodic endoscopic surveillance of gastric conduits should be considered as these are at a higher risk of ulcer formation than a normal stomach. Long term treatment with proton pump inhibitors may decrease complications. There are no guidelines for the treatment of a perforated gastric conduit ulcer and the management should be individualized.

  18. Laparoscopic removal of gastric band after laparoscopic gastric bypass and following placement of adjustable gastric band

    PubMed Central

    Lanaia, Andrea; Zizzo, Maurizio; Cartelli, Concetto M.; Fumagalli, Matteo; Bonilauri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Banded gastric bypass is a bariatric surgical intervention that has been regularly performed in many centers. According to some series, banded gastric bypass is safe and feasible. We describe the case of a 42-year-old woman undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass in 2008. Subsequently, she underwent surgery in order to place adjustable gastric banding on previous bypass because of gastric pouch dilatation. Five months later, patient showed anorexia and signs of malnutrition. For this reason, she underwent laparoscopic removal of gastric banding. In our opinion, placing a device to restrict an already dilated gastric pouch must be avoided. PMID:26232597

  19. Gastric cancer detection in gastric ulcer disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mountford, R A; Brown, P; Salmon, P R; Alvarenga, C; Neumann, C S; Read, A E

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective study has been performed of all cases of gastric ulcer diagnosed or investigated within the Endoscopy Unit of the Department of Medicine, Bristol, over a three year period (1974-76). The average length of follow-up was two years. Two hundred and sixty five cases of gastric ulcer were studied of which 37 proved to be malignant (14%). Presenting complaints of anorexia, weight loss, nausea and/or vomiting, and multiple (greater than 3) symptoms, were commoner in the malignant ulcer group. Ulcer site and the presence of coexisting duodenal ulceration were largely unhelpful in deciding the status of an ulcer. Malignant ulcers tended to be large (greater than 1 cm diameter). Radiology was highly unreliable in distinguishing benign from malignant ulcers. Visual inspection at endoscopy was more reliable, but associated with a tendency to over-diagnose malignancy. False positive biopsies were uncommon (two cases). Three cases of clinically unsuspected superficial gastric carcinoma were revealed. Repeated endoscopy and biopsy of all gastric ulcers until they are completely healed is advised. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7364322

  20. [Elevated gastric lesions].

    PubMed

    de Careaga, B; Villagómez, G; Pabón, J; Calderón, O; Elío, D; Pérez, J; Martínez, M; Patiño, F; Ponce, R; Lora, J

    1986-01-01

    Elevated gastric lesions, represent an important group among gastric pathology. To establish its incidence in our experience, we studied the endoscopic reports of two important hospitals in La Paz city: Instituto de Gastroenterología Boliviano Japonés and Hospital Obrero No. 1. In order to make a good endoscopic diagnosis among different elevated lesions we use some parameters like: location, shape, size, diameter, surface of the lesion and surrounding mucosa and characteristics of the falls. 10.472 endoscopic reports were reviewed, 497 elevated gastric lesions were found, 475 corresponded to mucosal lesions (352 benign lesions and 123 malignant lesions), 11 to submucosal and 11 extragastric lesions.

  1. Spontaneous Gastric Perforation in a Case of Collagenous Gastritis.

    PubMed

    Appelman, Marly H; de Meij, Tim G J; Neefjes-Borst, E Andra; Kneepkens, C M F

    2016-01-01

    Collagenous gastritis is an extremely rare disease, both in children and adults. Symptoms vary depending on the extent of collagenous changes in the bowel. In most of the children, iron deficiency anemia and abdominal pain are the presenting symptoms. We present a 15-year-old boy with acute abdomen due to gastric perforation the cause of which was collagenous gastritis. PMID:26816680

  2. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    León-Barúa, R; Recavarren-Arce, S; Berendson, R; Gilman, R H

    1995-01-01

    A review is done on the evidence in favor of a link between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer of the intestinal type. In countries at high risk of gastric cancer, like Perú, Hp infection begins early in life and is highly frequent and persistent. When Hp colonizes the gastric mucosa, it causes active chronic gastritis. Initially, the gastritis is of the superficial type. With time, and probably as a result of the concurrent action of nutritional, epidemiologic and immunologic modulating factors, chronic superficial gastritis may give rise to a progressive gastric pathology that leads to gastric premalignant lesions (chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of the gastric mucosa) and increases the predisposition to gastric cancer. The principal modulating factors are described. The epidemiology of gastric premalignant lesions in Perú is also described. Finally, a discussion is done on the effect that eradication of Hp infection might have on the prevalence of gastric cancer.

  3. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the syndrome is recommended. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with HDGC? Not everyone who ... the lifetime risk for diffuse gastric cancer is estimated to be 70% to 80% for men and ...

  4. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  5. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  6. Previous Exposure to the Fish Parasite Anisakis as a Potential Risk Factor for Gastric or Colon Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Perez, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Perez, Rosa; Ballestero, Araceli; Zuloaga, Jaime; Fernandez-Puntero, Belen; Arias-Díaz, Javier; Caballero, María Luisa

    2015-10-01

    Anisakiasis is a global disease caused by consumption of raw or lightly cooked fish contaminated with L3 Anisakis spp. larvae. High rates of parasitization of fish worldwide make Anisakis a serious health hazard. In fact, anisakiasis is a growing disease in countries such as Spain, Italy, and Japan, where consumption of raw/marinated fish is high. Some parasitic infections have been recognized as a causative factor for human cancer. Suggested mechanisms include chronic inflammation elicited by the parasite, and a possible tumorigenic effect from certain parasitic secretions. Anisakis can produce persistent local inflammation and granuloma, and larvae have been incidentally found in gastrointestinal (GI) tumors. Our aim was to discover possible differences in the prevalence of unnoticed or asymptomatic previous Anisakis infection in GI cancer patients compared with healthy individuals. Serum levels of specific antibodies against Anisakis antigens were used as a reliable marker of previous contact with their larvae. Ninety-four participants without a previous history of Anisakis infection were prospectively allocated into 1 of 2 groups: 47 patients with GI cancer and 47 controls. Specific IgE, IgA1, and IgG1 against the Anisakis recombinant antigens Ani s 1, Ani s 5, Ani s 9, and Ani s 10 were determined by an ELISA assay. The ratio of positivity to sIgA1, rAni s 1, or rAni s 5 was significantly higher in the cancer patients than in the controls (38.30% vs 6.38%, P < 0.001) and (42.55% vs 10.64%, P < 0.001, respectively). When disaggregated by type of tumor, the patients with gastric cancer showed a higher proportion of positive results for sIgA1 to rAni s 1 (P < 0.001), whereas a higher proportion of colon cancer patients were shown to be positive for sIgA1 to both rAni s 1 (P < 0.05) and rAni s 5 (P < 0.01). Earlier Anisakis infection might be a risk factor for the development of stomach or colon cancer. PMID:26448021

  7. Previous Exposure to the Fish Parasite Anisakis as a Potential Risk Factor for Gastric or Colon Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Perez, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Perez, Rosa; Ballestero, Araceli; Zuloaga, Jaime; Fernandez-Puntero, Belen; Arias-Díaz, Javier; Caballero, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Anisakiasis is a global disease caused by consumption of raw or lightly cooked fish contaminated with L3 Anisakis spp. larvae. High rates of parasitization of fish worldwide make Anisakis a serious health hazard. In fact, anisakiasis is a growing disease in countries such as Spain, Italy, and Japan, where consumption of raw/marinated fish is high. Some parasitic infections have been recognized as a causative factor for human cancer. Suggested mechanisms include chronic inflammation elicited by the parasite, and a possible tumorigenic effect from certain parasitic secretions. Anisakis can produce persistent local inflammation and granuloma, and larvae have been incidentally found in gastrointestinal (GI) tumors. Our aim was to discover possible differences in the prevalence of unnoticed or asymptomatic previous Anisakis infection in GI cancer patients compared with healthy individuals. Serum levels of specific antibodies against Anisakis antigens were used as a reliable marker of previous contact with their larvae. Ninety-four participants without a previous history of Anisakis infection were prospectively allocated into 1 of 2 groups: 47 patients with GI cancer and 47 controls. Specific IgE, IgA1, and IgG1 against the Anisakis recombinant antigens Ani s 1, Ani s 5, Ani s 9, and Ani s 10 were determined by an ELISA assay. The ratio of positivity to sIgA1, rAni s 1, or rAni s 5 was significantly higher in the cancer patients than in the controls (38.30% vs 6.38%, P < 0.001) and (42.55% vs 10.64%, P < 0.001, respectively). When disaggregated by type of tumor, the patients with gastric cancer showed a higher proportion of positive results for sIgA1 to rAni s 1 (P < 0.001), whereas a higher proportion of colon cancer patients were shown to be positive for sIgA1 to both rAni s 1 (P < 0.05) and rAni s 5 (P < 0.01). Earlier Anisakis infection might be a risk factor for the development of stomach or colon cancer. PMID:26448021

  8. Oxyntic atrophy, metaplasia and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goldenring, James R.; Nam, Ki Taek

    2015-01-01

    The process of gastric carcinogenesis involves the loss of parietal cells (oxyntic atrophy) and subsequent replacement of the normal gastric lineages with metaplastic lineages. In humans, two metaplastic lineages develop as sequelae of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection: intestinal metaplasia and Spasmolytic Polypeptide-expressing Metaplasia (SPEM). Mouse models of both chronic Helicobacter infection and acute pharmacological oxyntic atrophy have led to the recognition that SPEM arises from transdifferentiation of mature chief cells. The presence of inflammation promotes the expansion of SPEM in mice. Furthermore, studies in Mongolian gerbils as well as increasing evidence from human studies indicates that SPEM likely represents a precursor for development of intestinal metaplasia. These findings indicate that loss of parietal cells, augmented by chronic inflammation, leads to a cascade of metaplastic events. Identification of specific biomarkers for SPEM and intestinal metaplasia hold promise for providing both early detection of pre-neoplasia as well as information on prognostic outcome following curative resection. PMID:21075342

  9. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; AlGhamdi, Salem; Al-Kasim, Fawaz; Habib, Zakaria; Ourfali, Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. PMID:24707411

  10. Gastric cancer and trastuzumab: first biologic therapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gunturu, Krishna S.; Woo, Yanghee; Beaubier, Nike; Remotti, Helen E.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains difficult to cure and has a poor overall prognosis. Chemotherapy and multimodality therapy has shown some benefit in the treatment of gastric cancer. Current therapies for gastric cancer have their limitations; thus, we are in need of newer treatment options including targeted therapies. Here, we review the biologic therapy with trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ gastric cancer. PMID:23450234

  11. Perforated peptic ulcer following gastric bypass for obesity.

    PubMed

    Macgregor, A M; Pickens, N E; Thoburn, E K

    1999-03-01

    Peptic ulcer in the excluded segment of a gastric bypass performed in the management of morbid obesity has only rarely been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study is to review our experience with the condition in a series of 4300 patients who underwent gastric-restrictive surgery between 1978 and 1997. Eleven patients presented with acute perforation of a peptic ulcer in the excluded gastric segment. Nine ulcers were duodenal, one was gastric, and one patient had both gastric and duodenal perforations. The time between primary gastric-restrictive surgery and ulcer perforation varied from 20 days to 12 years. All patients presented with upper abdominal pain. The classical radiological sign of perforated peptic ulcer, free air under the diaphragm, did not occur in any patient. Nine patients were initially treated by primary closure of the perforation with subsequent definitive ulcer therapy by vagotomy, pyloroplasty, or gastrectomy. One case, initially treated elsewhere, was managed by placement of a Malecot catheter through the duodenal perforation, gastrostomy, and peritoneal drainage. One recent case remains symptom-free on H2 blockers after simple closure. There was no mortality. Six cases were previously reported in the literature with a 33 per cent mortality rate.

  12. Acute arsenic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J P; Alvarez, J A

    1989-12-01

    The diagnosis of acute arsenic poisoning should be considered in any patient presenting with severe gastrointestinal complaints. Signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, colicky abdominal pain and profuse, watery diarrhea. Hypotension, fluid and electrolyte disturbances, mental status changes, electrocardiographic abnormalities, respiratory failure and death can result. Quantitative measurement of 24-hour urinary arsenic excretion is the only reliable laboratory test to confirm arsenic poisoning. Treatment includes gastric emesis or lavage, chelation therapy, electrolyte and fluid replacement, and cardiorespiratory support.

  13. General Information about Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Gastric Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  14. Gastritis and gastric blood flow in hyperdynamic septic pigs.

    PubMed

    Lucas, C E; Ravikant, T; Walt, A J

    1976-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the gastric hemodynamics in a septic model that causes both a hyperdynamic state and acute erosive gastritis. Sepsis was established in twelve pigs by the intramuscular shank injection of Pastuerella multocida (42 X 10(8) colonies) in triptose phosphate broth; four pigs received sterile broth injections (shams) and eight received sterile saline injections (controls). After 18 hours, cardiac output was measured by both the cardiogreen dilution technic and the radioactive microsphere dilution technic; cardiac output was then compared to total and regional gastric blood flow measured by the raioactive microsphere entrapment technic. Acute erosive gastritis developed in septic pigs in the fundus and body of the stomach; the antrum was spared. Cardiac output was significantly increased in septic pigs compared with sham and control pigs. Total gastric blood flow and regional blood flow to the fundus, body, and antrum were also increased in direct proportion to the increase in cardiac output. These data suggest that acute erosive gastritis is primarily due to an end-organ cellular insult from sepsis and is not primarily due to a decrease or redistribution in gastric blood flow.

  15. Ruptured Gastric Aneurysm in α-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jaruvongvanich, Veeravich; Spanuchart, Ittikorn; Scott Gallacher, T

    2016-07-01

    We present a unique vascular complication of α-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) in a patient with an acute onset of epigastric pain and hemodynamic instability. Abdominal computed tomography angiography detected hemoperitoneum and hematoma within the gastrohepatic ligament with active extravasation. Abdominal angiography revealed left gastric aneurysms. An association between AATD and vascular aneurysms has been suggested to be secondary to unopposed proteolytic activity against arterial structural proteins. The aneurysm formation in aortic, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, and splenic arteries has been reported. We report the first case with ruptured gastric artery aneurysm as a complication of AATD. PMID:27622197

  16. Ruptured Gastric Aneurysm in α-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Spanuchart, Ittikorn; Scott Gallacher, T.

    2016-01-01

    We present a unique vascular complication of α-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) in a patient with an acute onset of epigastric pain and hemodynamic instability. Abdominal computed tomography angiography detected hemoperitoneum and hematoma within the gastrohepatic ligament with active extravasation. Abdominal angiography revealed left gastric aneurysms. An association between AATD and vascular aneurysms has been suggested to be secondary to unopposed proteolytic activity against arterial structural proteins. The aneurysm formation in aortic, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, and splenic arteries has been reported. We report the first case with ruptured gastric artery aneurysm as a complication of AATD. PMID:27622197

  17. Late presenting Bochdalek hernia with gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Aybars; Bozkurter Cil, Asudan Tugce; Kaya, Murat; Etcioglu, Inci; Okur, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Late-onset congenital diaphragmatic hernias that give symptoms beyond the neonatal period are rare and are difficult to diagnose. The diagnosis is usually made in case of complications such as intestinal obstruction, strangulation, and perforation, which further necessitate immediate surgical repair. The case of a 5-year-old child presenting with acute respiratory distress with gastric strangulation and perforation secondary to Bochdalek hernia is reported here. Although presentation in the latter ages is less common, congenital diaphragmatic hernia should be included in the differential diagnosis of respiratory distress in children. Symptoms and diagnostic tools should truly be interpreted. Gastrointestinal complications must urgently be recognized, and early surgical intervention must be performed.

  18. [Tumor markers in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Hisanao

    2002-04-01

    There are two markers, pepsinogen isoenzymes and antibody against Helicobactor pyroli, for screening of high-risk group for gastric cancer. Most of markers are used in diagnosis, staging, monitoring and differentiating subgroups of gastric cancer. Markers in ascitic fluid are used for diagnosing peritoneal invasion of gastric cancer. PMID:11977555

  19. Antiulcerogenic effect of Securigera securidaca L. seed extract on various experimental gastric ulcer models in rats.

    PubMed

    Mard, S A; Bahari, Z; Eshaghi, N; Farbood, Y

    2008-12-01

    Securigera securidaca belongs to the family Fabaceae is used in Iranian folk medicine to treat gastric disturbances. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the Securigera securidaca seed hydroalcoholic extract (SSE) and its subfractions for their gastroprotective effect in rat. Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by oral administration of ethanol (100%; 1 mL/200 g of body weight) or water immersion restraint-stress (5 h, water immersion restraint stress at 20-22 degrees C). Ranitidine (100 mg kg(-1), p.o.) was used as the reference antiulcer drug. After ethanol administration, the gastric wall mucus was examined. Chronic gastric ulceration was produced by injection of acetic acid in rat gastric subserosa. The antisecretory effect of the extract and its subfractions (ethyl acetate, chloroform and aqueous fractions) were investigated in pylorus-ligated rats. Administration of SSE significantly inhibited gastric mucosa damage induced by ethanol, water immersion restraint-stress and acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. In pylorus ligature rats, SSE and its subfractions significantly reduced the basal gastric acid secretion and total acidity; moreover, it inhibited the increase in total acidity induced by carbachol. However, the antisecretory effect of the chloroform fraction was more potent than two other fractions. Administration of SSE did not affect the gastric mucus production. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the SSE has gastroprotective and antisecretory effects on gastric mucosa in rats. PMID:19630213

  20. Effect of gastric acid suppressants on human gastric motility

    PubMed Central

    Parkman, H; Urbain, J; Knight, L; Brown, K; Trate, D; Miller, M; Maurer, A; Fisher, R

    1998-01-01

    Background—The effect of histamine H2 receptor antagonists on gastric emptying is controversial. 
Aims—To determine the effects of ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole on gastric motility and emptying. 
Patients and methods—Fifteen normal subjects underwent simultaneous antroduodenal manometry, electrogastrography (EGG), and gastric emptying with dynamic antral scintigraphy (DAS). After 30 minutes of fasting manometry and EGG recording, subjects received either intravenous saline, ranitidine, or famotidine, followed by another 30 minutes recording and then three hours of postprandial recording after ingestion of a radiolabelled meal. Images were obtained every 10-15 minutes for three hours to measure gastric emptying and assess antral contractility. Similar testing was performed after omeprazole 20 mg daily for one week. 
Results—Fasting antral phase III migrating motor complexes (MMCs) were more common after ranitidine (9/15 subjects, 60%), famotidine (12/15, 80%), and omeprazole (8/12, 67%) compared with placebo (4/14, 29%; p<0.05). Postprandially, ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole slowed gastric emptying, increased the amplitude of DAS contractions, increased the EGG power, and increased the antral manometric motility index. 
Conclusions—Suppression of gastric acid secretion with therapeutic doses of gastric acid suppressants is associated with delayed gastric emptying but increased antral motility. 

 Keywords: gastric motility; gastric emptying; histamine H2 receptor antagonists; proton pump inhibitors; gastric acid secretion; scintigraphy PMID:9536950

  1. Computed tomography of gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Buy, J N; Moss, A A

    1982-05-01

    The CT features in 12 patients with gastric lymphoma, four primary and eight secondary, were analyzed, correlated with other diagnostic studies, surgery, and pathologic features, and compared with the CT findings in 22 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. An abnormally thickened gastric wall (mean, 4.0 cm) was found in all patients with gastric lymphoma. Lymphomas of the stomach often involved more than one region of the stomach (83%). The contour of the outer gastric wall was smooth or lobulated in 42%, perigastric lymph adenopathy was common (58%), extension into adjacent organs was found in 42%, and 42% had lymphadenopathy at or below the renal pedicle.

  2. Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

  3. Helicobacter pylori: Bacterial Strategy for Incipient Stage and Persistent Colonization in Human Gastric Niches

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kwang-Ho; Park, Jin-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) undergoes decades long colonization of the gastric mucosa of half the population in the world to produce acute and chronic gastritis at the beginning of infection, progressing to more severe disorders, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Prolonged carriage of H. pylori is the most crucial factor for the pathogenesis of gastric maladies. Bacterial persistence in the gastric mucosa depends on bacterial factors as well as host factors. Herein, the host and bacterial components responsible for the incipient stages of H. pylori infection are reviewed and discussed. Bacterial adhesion and adaptation is presented to explain the persistence of H. pylori colonization in the gastric mucosa, in which bacterial evasion of host defense systems and genomic diversity are included. PMID:25323880

  4. Gastric Emphysema a Spectrum of Pneumatosis Intestinalis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    López-Medina, Guillermo; Castillo Díaz de León, Roxana; Heredia-Salazar, Alberto Carlos; Hernández-Salcedo, Daniel Ramón

    2014-01-01

    The finding of gas within the gastric wall is not a disease by itself, rather than a sign of an underlying condition which could be systemic or gastric. We present the case of a woman identified with gastric emphysema secondary to the administration of high doses of steroids, with the purpose of differentiating emphysematous gastritis versus gastric emphysema due to the divergent prognostic implications. Gastric emphysema entails a more benign course, opposed to emphysematous gastritis which often presents as an acute abdomen and carries a worse prognosis. Owing to the lack of established diagnostic criteria, computed tomography is the assessment method of choice. Currently no guidelines are available for the management of this entity, since the evidence is limited to a few case series and a considerable number of single case reports. PMID:25093129

  5. Protective Effect of Flos Lonicerae against Experimental Gastric Ulcers in Rats: Mechanisms of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Action

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Yun, Nari; Han, Hae-Jung; Kim, Jeom-Yong; Kim, Joo-Young; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2014-01-01

    Flos Lonicerae is one of the oldest and most commonly prescribed herbs in Eastern traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Flos Lonicerae (GC-7101) on experimental gastric ulcer models and its mechanisms of action in gastric ulcer healing. The pharmacological activity of GC-7101 was investigated in rats on HCl/EtOH, indomethacin, water immersion restraint stress induced acute gastric ulcer, and acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. To determine its gastroprotective mechanisms, gastric wall mucus secretion, mucosal PGE2, mucosal NO content, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation and glutathione content, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. GC-7101 significantly attenuated development of acute gastric ulcer and accelerated the healing of acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. In HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer, GC-7101 markedly enhanced gastric wall mucus content which was accompanied by increased mucosal PGE2 and NO production. Furthermore, treatment of GC-7101 exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as evidenced by decreased myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB translocation, inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, and lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These results demonstrated that GC-7101 possesses strong antiulcerogenic effect by modulating oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators. PMID:25610477

  6. Unusual presentation and treatment of isolated spontaneous gastric artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Choi, Yoon Hee; Lee, Sun Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Epigastric pain is a common symptom in the emergency department. Most epigastric pain is not fatal, except in acute myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, and abdominal aneurysm rupture. Epigastric pain can also be the only symptom of isolated spontaneous gastric artery dissection. We report the case of a 51-year-old woman diagnosed with neurofibromatosis who initially presented with only epigastric pain. She was initially misdiagnosed with gastritis, treated conservatively, and discharged. Two hours later, she returned to the emergency department with persistent epigastric pain and rebound tenderness in the epigastric area. Angiography revealed a left hepatic arterial aneurysm and right gastric artery dissection, which were subsequently embolized. Although extremely rare, patients presenting with epigastric pain at risk of vasculopathies should be considered for isolated spontaneous gastric artery dissection. Early recognition and definitive therapy lead to a favorable outcome. PMID:27752628

  7. Melanoma with gastric metastases

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Katherine; Serafi, Sam W.; Bhatia, Abhijit S.; Ibarra, Irene; Allen, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations. PMID:27609722

  8. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  9. Melanoma with gastric metastases.

    PubMed

    Wong, Katherine; Serafi, Sam W; Bhatia, Abhijit S; Ibarra, Irene; Allen, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations. PMID:27609722

  10. Gastric calcifying fibrous tumour

    PubMed Central

    Attila, Tan; Chen, Dean; Gardiner, Geoffrey W; Ptak, Theadore W; Marcon, Norman E

    2006-01-01

    Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours); however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases. PMID:16858502

  11. Embolization of Large Gastric Varices Using Vena Cava Filter and Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Jason M.; Shah, Himanshu Stecker, Michael S.; Namyslowski, Jan

    2004-08-15

    A 40-year-old male with alcoholic cirrhosis and portal hypertension presented with acute variceal hemorrhage. Abdominal CT scan and endoscopy revealed large gastric varices. The patient underwent a TIPS procedure. Portal venography demonstrated persistent filling of the large gastric varices with associated high-flow spontaneous splenorenal shunt. Because of the large size of the varices, a Simon-Nitinol filter was used in conjunction with multiple embolization coils to enable successful occlusion of the varices.

  12. Primary intrathoracic gastric volvulus in the neonatal period: a differential diagnosis of esophageal atresia

    PubMed Central

    El Azzouzi, Driss

    2014-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in the neonatal period is a rare surgical emergency. Delays in diagnosis and treatment are life-threatening due to progressive deterioration of the gastric walls. Presentation in this period can be confused with the possibility of esophageal atresia or esophageal web. The upper gastrointestinal tract contrast study is diagnostic in this disease. The authors report a case of acute intrathoracic gastric volvulus diagnosis by radiologic-contrast-study in 1-day-old girl that was confirmed at surgery. The physiopathology, classification and different presentations of this entity are briefly reviewed. PMID:25309661

  13. Gastric cancer and family history

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Identifying individuals at high risk is important for surveillance and prevention of gastric cancer. Having first-degree relatives diagnosed with gastric cancer is a strong and consistent risk factor for gastric cancer, but the pathogenic mechanisms behind this familial aggregation are unclear. Against this background, we reviewed the risk factors for gastric cancer in those with a first-degree relative with gastric cancer, and the possible causes for familial clustering of gastric cancer including bacterial factors, inherited genetic susceptibility, environmental factors or a combination thereof. Among individuals with a family history, current or past Helicobacter pylori infection, having two or more first-degree affected relatives or female gender was associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. To date, no specific single nucleotide polymorphism has been shown to be associated with familial clustering of gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is the most important strategy for preventing gastric cancer in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients, particularly those in their 20s and 30s. Early H. pylori eradication could prevent the progression to intestinal metaplasia and reduce the synergistic effect on gastric carcinogenesis in individuals with both H. pylori infection and a family history. Endoscopic surveillance is also expected to benefit individuals with a family history. Further large-scale, prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and optimal time point for endoscopy in this population. Moreover, genome-wide association studies that incorporate environmental and dietary factors on a ‘big data’ basis will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:27809451

  14. The Role of Sonic Hedgehog Reemergence During Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jason; Donnelly, Jessica M.; Houghton, JeanMarie

    2016-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been extensively studied for its role in developmental biology and cancer biology. The association between Shh and cancer development in general is well established but the functional role of Shh in the development and progression of gastric cancer specifically is largely unknown. Bone marrow-derived stem cells, specifically mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) infiltrate and engraft into the gastric mucosa in response to the chronic inflammatory environment of Helicobacter infection. In this review, MSC infiltration and changes in the cytokine and cellular profiles of later-stage chronic environments will be tied into their interactions with the Shh pathway. We will discuss how these changes shape tumorigenesis and tumor progression in the gastric mucosa. The current review focuses on the Shh signaling pathway and its role in the development of gastric cancer, specifically in response to Helicobacter pylori infection. We follow with an in-depth discussion of the regulation of the Hedgehog pathway during acute and chronic gastric inflammation with a focus on signaling within the MSC compartment. PMID:20437100

  15. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists ... stomach (gastric) cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Cyramza (Ramucirumab) Docetaxel ...

  16. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  17. Outcome after emergency surgery in patients with a free perforation caused by gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Hironori; Hiraki, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Yaguchi, Yoshihisa; Horio, Takuya; Kumano, Isao; Akase, Takayoshi; Sugasawa, Hidekazu; Aiko, Satoshi; Ono, Satoshi; Ichikura, Takashi; Kazuo, Hase

    2010-01-01

    Perforation of gastric cancer is rare and it accounts for less than 1% of the incidences of an acute abdomen. In this study, we reviewed cases of benign or malignant gastric perforation in terms of the accuracy of diagnosis and investigated the clinical outcome after emergency surgery in patients with a free perforation caused by gastric cancer. On the basis of pathological examination, gastric cancer was diagnosed in 8 patients and benign ulcer perforation in 32 patients. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis by pathological examination were 50, 93.8 and 85%, respectively. Except for age, there were no differences in the other demographic characteristics between patients with gastric cancer and benign ulcer perforation. The median survival time of patients with perforated gastric cancer was 195 days after surgery. Patients with gastric cancer perforation had a poorer overall survival rate than those who had T3 tumors without perforation. In addition, in patients with perforation, recurrence of peritoneum occurred more frequently. In conclusion, to improve the survival rate of patients with perforated gastric cancer and to improve the accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis, endoscopic examination and/or pathological examination of the frozen section should be performed, if possible. A balanced surgical strategy using laparoscopic local repair as the first-step of surgery, followed by radical open gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy may be considered.

  18. [Gastric emptying and functional dyspepsia].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Aros, S

    2006-01-01

    Dyspeptic syndrome includes symptoms such as upper abdominal pain, nausea and/or vomiting. These symptoms are common to highly diverse processes such as duodenal ulcer, pancreatitis and even intestinal ischemia, among many others. However, most patients who consult for this syndrome do not have any of these well known processes. New mechanisms have been proposed that could explain the symptoms presented by these patients. Among these mechanisms are those relating to an alteration of normal gastroduodenal motor function, such as alterations of gastric compliance, antral distension, gastric accommodation to anomalous ingestion, and alterations of gastric emptying. The present review evaluates the role of gastric emptying in producing dyspeptic symptoms according to the evidence available to date. We discuss gastric emptying in patients with functional or idiopathic dyspepsia compared with that in the healthy population, the correlation between gastric emptying and dyspeptic symptoms, and the response of dyspeptic symptoms to the prokinetic therapies carried out to date.

  19. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  20. Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)

    PubMed Central

    Neilsen, Colleen; Mans, Christoph; Colopy, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was evaluated for acute onset inappetance, staggering, collapse, and tachypnea. Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) was diagnosed by radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and exploratory celiotomy. Torsion of the stomach was corrected and an incisional gastropexy performed to prevent recurrence. No organs were devitalized, no other abnormalities detected, and the red panda recovered fully within 72 hours. PMID:24467661

  1. Gastric cancer review

    PubMed Central

    Carcas, Lauren Peirce

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC) staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease. PMID:25589897

  2. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  3. Laparoscopic Gastric Banding

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Michel; Giusti, Vittorio; Worreth, Marc; Héraief, Eric; Calmes, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of laparoscopic gastric banding using 2 different bands (the Lapband [Bioenterics, Carpinteria, CA] and the SAGB [Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band; Obtech Medical, 6310 Zug, Switzerland]) in terms of weight loss and correction of comorbidities, short-and long-term complications, and improvement of quality of life in morbidly obese patients Summary Background Data: During the past 10 years, gastric banding has become 1 of the most common bariatric procedures, at least in Europe and Australia. Weight loss can be excellent, but it is not sufficient in a significant proportion of patients, and a number of long-term complications can develop. We hypothesized that the type of band could be of importance in the outcome. Methods: One hundred eighty morbidly obese patients were randomly assigned to receive the Lapband or the SAGB. All the procedures were performed by the same surgeon. The primary end point was weight loss, and secondary end points were correction of comorbidities, early- and long-term complications, importance of food restriction, and improvement of quality of life. Results: Initial weight loss was faster in the Lapband group, but weight loss was eventually identical in the 2 groups. There was a trend toward more early band-related complications and more band infections with the SAGB, but the study had limited power in that respect. Correction of comorbidities, food restriction, long-term complications, and improvement of quality of life were identical. Only 55% to 60% of the patients achieved an excess weight loss of at least 50% in both groups. There was no difference in the incidence of long-term complications. Conclusions: Gastric banding can be performed safely with the Lapband or the SAGB with similar short- and midterm results with respect to weight loss and morbidity. Only 50% to 60% of the patients will achieve sufficient weight loss, and close to 10% at least will develop severe

  4. Effects of Pithecellobium jiringa ethanol extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz; Qader, Suhailah Wasmn; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Nimir, Amal R; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Al-Bayaty, Fouad Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Current anti-gastric ulcer agents have side effects, despite the progression and expansion of advances in treatment. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective mechanisms of Pithecellobium jiringa ethanol extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal ulcers in rats. For this purpose, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Group 1 (normal control) rats were orally administered with vehicle (carboxymethyl cellulose), Group 2 (ulcer control) rats were also orally administered with vehicle. Group 3 (positive control) rats were orally administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole, Groups 4 and 5 (experimental groups) received ethanol extract of Pithecellobium jiringa ethanol extract at a concentration of 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Sixty minutes later, vehicle was given orally to the normal control group, and absolute ethanol was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control and experimental groups to generate gastric mucosal injury. The rats were sacrificed an hour later. The effect of oral administration of plant extract on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury was studied grossly and histology. The level of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde-MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gastric wall mucus were measured from gastric mucosal homogenate. The ulcer control group exhibited severe gastric mucosal injury, and this finding was also confirmed by histology of gastric mucosa which showed severe damage to the gastric mucosa with edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer. Pre-treatment with plant extract significantly reduced the formation of ethanol-induced gastric lesions, and gastric wall mucus was significantly preserved. The study also indicated a significant increase in SOD activity in gastric mucosal homogenate, whereas a significant decrease in MDA was observed. Acute toxicity tests did not show any signs of toxicity and mortality up to 5 g/kg. The ulcer protective effect of this plant may possibly be due to its

  5. Pattern-recognition receptors and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with an increased risk of several human malignancies, a classic example being gastric adenocarcinoma (GC). Development of GC is known to result from infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, which initially induces acute inflammation and, in a subset of patients, progresses over time to chronic inflammation, gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and finally intestinal-type GC. Germ-line encoded receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical for generating mature pro-inflammatory cytokines that are crucial for both Th1 and Th2 responses. Given that H. pylori is initially targeted by PRRs, it is conceivable that dysfunction within genes of this arm of the immune system could modulate the host response against H. pylori infection, and subsequently influence the emergence of GC. Current evidence suggests that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) (NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3), a C-type lectin receptor (DC-SIGN), and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA-5), are involved in both the recognition of H. pylori and gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, polymorphisms in genes involved in the TLR (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD14) and NLR (NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, NLRP12, NLRX1, CASP1, ASC, and CARD8) signaling pathways have been shown to modulate the risk of H. pylori infection, gastric precancerous lesions, and/or GC. Further, the modulation of PRRs has been suggested to suppress H. pylori-induced inflammation and enhance GC cell apoptosis, highlighting their potential relevance in GC therapeutics. In this review, we present current advances in our understanding of the role of the TLR and NLR signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of GC, address the involvement of other recently identified PRRs in GC, and discuss the potential implications of PRRs in GC immunotherapy.

  6. Pattern-Recognition Receptors and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with an increased risk of several human malignancies, a classic example being gastric adenocarcinoma (GC). Development of GC is known to result from infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, which initially induces acute inflammation and, in a subset of patients, progresses over time to chronic inflammation, gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and finally intestinal-type GC. Germ-line encoded receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical for generating mature pro-inflammatory cytokines that are crucial for both Th1 and Th2 responses. Given that H. pylori is initially targeted by PRRs, it is conceivable that dysfunction within genes of this arm of the immune system could modulate the host response against H. pylori infection, and subsequently influence the emergence of GC. Current evidence suggests that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) (NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3), a C-type lectin receptor (DC-SIGN), and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA-5), are involved in both the recognition of H. pylori and gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, polymorphisms in genes involved in the TLR (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD14) and NLR (NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, NLRP12, NLRX1, CASP1, ASC, and CARD8) signaling pathways have been shown to modulate the risk of H. pylori infection, gastric precancerous lesions, and/or GC. Further, the modulation of PRRs has been suggested to suppress H. pylori-induced inflammation and enhance GC cell apoptosis, highlighting their potential relevance in GC therapeutics. In this review, we present current advances in our understanding of the role of the TLR and NLR signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of GC, address the involvement of other recently identified PRRs in GC, and discuss the potential implications of PRRs in GC immunotherapy

  7. Protective effect of chelerythrine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Feng; Hao, Ding-Jun; Fan, Ting; Huang, Hui-Min; Yao, Huan; Niu, Xiao-Feng

    2014-02-01

    The quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid, chelerythrine (CHE), is of great practical and research interest because of its pronounced, widespread physiological effects, primarily antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, arising from its ability to interact with proteins and DNA. Although CHE was originally shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, its effects on acute gastric ulcer have not been previously explored. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of CHE on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in mice. Administration of CHE at doses of 1, 5 and 10mg/kg bodyweight prior to ethanol ingestion dose-dependently inhibited gastric ulcer. The gastric mucosal lesion was assessed by ulcer area, gastric juice acidity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, macroscopic and histopathological examinations. CHE significantly reduced the gastric ulcer index, myeloperoxidase activities, macroscopic and histological score in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CHE also significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) concentration, pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level in serum and gastric mucosal in the mice exposed to ethanol induced ulceration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHE markedly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in gastric mucosa of mice. It was concluded that CHE represents a potential therapeutic option to reduce the risk of gastric ulceration. In addition, acute toxicity study revealed no abnormal sign to the mice treated with CHE (15mg/kg). These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of CHE might contribute in adjusting the inflammatory cytokine by regulating the NF-κB signalling pathway.

  8. Gastric distention exacerbates ischemia in a rodent model of partial gastric devascularization.

    PubMed

    Urschel, J D; Antkowiak, J G; Takita, H

    1997-11-01

    Occult ischemia of the mobilized gastric fundus is an important etiologic factor for esophagogastric anastomotic leaks after esophagectomy. Postoperative gastric distention is another possible predisposing factor for anastomotic leakage. We hypothesized that gastric distention could worsen gastric ischemia. To test this hypothesis, gastric tissue perfusion was studied in 20 Sprague-Dawley rats. Baseline serosal gastric tissue perfusion was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry at a point 10 mm distal to the gastroesophageal junction. Perfusion was measured after left gastric artery occlusion, gastric distention to 20 cm water pressure, and combined left gastric artery occlusion and gastric distention. Gastric tissue perfusion (in tissue perfusion units, TPU) was 64.2 +/- 9.1 TPU at baseline measurement, 18.6 +/- 4.3 TPU after left gastric artery occlusion, 22.0 +/- 4.1 TPU after gastric distention, and 7.8 +/- 1.8 TPU after combined left gastric artery occlusion and gastric distention. Distention (P < 0.0001) and arterial occlusion (P < 0.0001) both reduced gastric tissue perfusion; of the two, arterial occlusion produced the greatest reduction in perfusion (P < 0.021). The combination of distention and arterial occlusion caused greater reduction in gastric perfusion than either factor alone (P < 0.0001). In this model, gastric distention exacerbated the ischemia produced by partial gastric devascularization. In clinical esophageal surgery, postoperative gastric distention may similarly potentiate the ischemic effects of gastric transposition for esophageal reconstruction.

  9. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  10. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcer].

    PubMed

    Maaroos, H I

    1994-01-01

    In connection with longitudinal ulcer studies and the demonstration of Helicobacter pylori as the main cause of chronic gastritis, new aspects of gastric ulcer recurrences and healing become evident. This extends the possibilities to prognosticate the course of gastric ulcer and to use more effective treatment. PMID:7937016

  11. Gastric vagal motoneuron function is maintained following experimental spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Emily M.; Holmes, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical reports indicate that spinal cord injury (SCI) initiates profound gastric dysfunction. Gastric reflexes involve stimulation of sensory vagal fibers, which engage brainstem circuits that modulate efferent output back to the stomach, thereby completing the vago-vagal reflex. Our recent studies in a rodent model of experimental high thoracic (T3-) SCI suggest that reduced vagal afferent sensitivity to gastrointestinal (GI) stimuli may be responsible for diminished gastric function. Nevertheless, derangements in efferent signals from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) to the stomach may also account for reduced motility. Methods: We assessed the anatomical, neurophysiological and functional integrity of gastric-projecting DMV neurons in T3-SCI rats using: 1) retrograde labeling of gastric-projecting DMV neurons; 2) whole cell recordings from gastric-projecting neurons of the DMV; and, 3) in vivo measurements of gastric contractions following unilateral microinjection of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) into the DMV. Key Results: Immunohistochemical analysis of gastric-projecting DMV neurons demonstrated no difference between control and T3-SCI rats. Whole cell in vitro recordings showed no alteration in DMV membrane properties and the neuronal morphology of these same, neurobiotin-labeled, DMV neurons were unchanged after T3-SCI with regard to cell size and dendritic arborization. Central microinjection of TRH induced a significant facilitation of gastric contractions in both control and T3-SCI rats and there were no significant dose-dependent differences between groups. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the acute, 3 day to 1 week post-SCI, dysfunction of vagally-mediated gastric reflexes do not include derangements in the efferent DMV motoneurons. PMID:25316513

  12. Gastric antiulcer, antisecretory and cytoprotective properties of celery (Apium graveolens) in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Howiriny, Tawfeq; Alsheikh, Abdulmalik; Alqasoumi, Saleh; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; ElTahir, Kamal; Rafatullah, Syed

    2010-07-01

    In the present investigation, an ethanol extract of celery [Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae/Umbelliferae)], at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, was evaluated for antigastric ulcer activity using various experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. Ulcers were induced by indomethacin, cytodestructive agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and 25% NaCl) and cold restraint stress. Gastric secretory studies were undertaken by using pylorus ligation (Shay rat model). In addition to gastric wall mucus (GWM), non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also estimated in gastric tissues after 80% ethanol treatment. Pretreatment of celery extract produced dose-dependent reduction in all experimentally induced gastric lesions. Ethanol (80%) decreased the levels of GWM, NP-SH and increase in MDA concentration in gastric tissue. Celery extract showed the ability to significantly replenish the ethanol-induced depleted levels of GWM and gastric mucosal NP-SH. The gastric mucosal MDA level was also significantly lowered in extract pretreated rats. The celery extract showed stomach protection against the models used for ulcerogenesis. Results were further confirmed by using histopathological assessment. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of various chemical constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, volatile oils, alkaloids, sterols and/or triterpenes. Acute toxicity test revealed no deleterious or toxic symptoms or mortality over a period of 14 days. However, the LD(50) was found to be 7.55 g/kg, and showed a large margin of safety. The results suggest that Apium graveolens extract significantly protects the gastric mucosa and suppresses the basal gastric secretion in rats, possibly through its antioxidant potential.

  13. Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.

  14. Gastric band migration following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB): two cases of endoscopic management using a gastric band cutter.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, Pawel; Hady, Hady Razak; Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Kaminski, Fabian; Dadan, Jacek

    2012-06-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is one of the most frequently used minimally invasive and reversible procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity. Migration of the gastric band into the gastric lumen is a rare late complication of LAGB. Previous attempts at endoscopic removal of migrated bands have included the use of endoscopic scissors, laser ablation and argon plasma coagulation (APC). We report two cases of successful endoscopic management of gastric band migration using a gastric band cutter. PMID:23256012

  15. Update on gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma is an uncommon entity that can often present like classic adenocarcinoma. The most common organ site involved is the stomach. Important prognostic indicators include location of lymph node involvement, histologic subtype, lymphocyte lineage, gross size, and location of the tumor. Surgical resection is the mainstay of curative therapy. Combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have a role either separately or as part of a multimodality treatment program. Clinicians are encouraged to enter patients with primary gastric lymphoma into multi-institutional, cooperative group clinical trials to more clearly define the best treatment strategy. PMID:1956083

  16. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A; Al Kharusi, Suad S; Al Bahrani, Bassim J; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-09-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  17. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A.; Al Kharusi, Suad S.; Al Bahrani, Bassim J.; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-01-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  18. Curcumin-induced histone acetylation inhibition improves stress-induced gastric ulcer disease in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Zhou, Renmin; Hu, Guorui; Liu, Zhifeng; Jin, Yu; Yang, Guang; Li, Mei; Lin, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin is known to possess anti‑inflammatory properties. Despite the fact that curcumin is known to be a strong inhibitor of H+, K+‑ATPase activity, the mechanism underlying the curcumin‑induced inhibition of the transcription of the H+, K+‑ATPase α subunit in gastric mucosal parietal cells remains unclear. The present study investigated the possible mechanism by which curcumin inhibits stomach H+, K+‑ATPase activity during the acute phase of gastric ulcer disease. A rat model of stress‑induced gastric ulcers was produced, in which the anti‑ulcer effects of curcumin were examined. Curcumin‑induced inhibition of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter via histone acetylation, was verified using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The results showed that curcumin improved stress‑induced gastric ulcer disease in rats, as demonstrated by increased pH values and reduced gastric mucosal hemorrhage and ulcer index. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in the level of histone H3 acetylation at the site of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter and in the expression of the gastric H+,K+‑ATPase α subunit gene and protein. In conclusion, curcumin downregulated the acetylation of histone H3 at the site of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter gene, thereby inhibiting the transcription and expression of the H+, K+‑ATPase gene. Curcumin was shown to have a preventive and therapeutic effect in gastric ulcer disease.

  19. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) offers protection against gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin in rats.

    PubMed

    Campos, A R; Barros, A I S; Santos, F A; Rao, V S N

    2003-12-01

    The effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract were analyzed in rats on acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin and were compared to those produced by caffeine, a methylxanthine. Guarana (50 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) pretreated animals showed a significant reduction in the severity of gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol in a manner similar to caffeine (20 and 30 mg/kg p.o.). Against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, guarana at a higher dose offered significant protection but caffeine was ineffective at the doses tested. In 4 h pylorus-ligated rats, both guarana and caffeine caused significant diminution in the gastric secretory volume as well as the total acidity. Gastrointestinal transit in mice was not significantly affected by either of these agents. These findings indicate that guarana has a gastroprotective property that needs further elucidation as regards to its mechanism.

  20. [Role of animal gastric Helicobacter species in human gastric pathology].

    PubMed

    Pozdeev, O K; Pozdeeva, A O; Pozdnyak, A O; Saifutdinov, R G

    2015-01-01

    Animal Helicobacter species other than Helicobacter pylori are also able to cause human gastritis, gastric ulcers, and MALT lymphomas. Animal Helicobacter species are presented with typical spiral fastidious microorganisms colonizing the gastric mucosa of different animals. Bacteria initially received their provisional name Helicobacter heilmannii, and out of them at least five species colonizing the gastric mucosa of pigs, cats, and dogs were isolated later on. A high proportion of these diseases are shown to be zoonotic. Transmission of pathogens occurs by contact. The factors of bacterial pathogenicity remain little studied.

  1. Rapunzel syndrome resulting in gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Parakh, J S; McAvoy, A; Corless, D J

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of an 18-year-old female patient with no past medical history who presented to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain and vomiting on the background of a long history of ingesting hair (trichophagia). Computed tomography revealed pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in keeping with visceral perforation. In addition, a large hair bolus was seen extending in contiguity from the stomach to the jejunum. A laparotomy was performed, revealing an anterior gastric perforation secondary to a 120cm long trichobezoar, which had formed a cast of the entire stomach, duodenum and proximal jejunum. The bezoar was removed and an omental patch repair to the anterior ulcer was performed. The patient made an excellent postoperative recovery and was discharged home with psychiatric follow-up review.

  2. Photodynamic therapy of gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzin, N. M.; Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Sclyanskaya, Olga A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Torshina, Nadezgda L.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1996-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the use of laser endoscopic spectrum analyzer (LESA-5), the spectral-analyzing video-imaging system, Kr laser and various types of catheters for different tumor localizations, and Phthalocyanine aluminum photosensitizers in patients with gastric cancer was discussed. PDT was carried out in fifteen patients with gastric cancer. There were the following indications for PDT: early gastric cancer (3 patients), malignant stenosis of the cardia or pyloric portion of the stomach (4 patients), cancer of gastric stump with stenosis of gastrojejunal anastomosis (1 patient), preoperative treatment of patients with large but probably resectable gastric tumor size (7 patients). Usually we used 3 - 4 seances of laser treatment 10 - 30 minutes long. Concentration of photosensitizer in normal and malignant tissue was controlled by LESA-5. Treatment was monitored by spectral-analyzing video- imaging system in fluorescent light. The results show high efficiency of PDT especially in patients with early gastric cancer (necrosis of all tumor mass, i.e. complete regression of tumor). For all other patients we obtained partial regression of gastric cancer.

  3. Other Helicobacters and gastric microbiota.

    PubMed

    De Witte, Chloë; Schulz, Christian; Smet, Annemieke; Malfertheiner, Peter; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2016-09-01

    This article aimed to review the literature from 2015 dealing with gastric and enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). A summary of the gastric microbiota interactions with H. pylori is also presented. An extensive number of studies were published during the last year and have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of infections with NHPH. These infections are increasingly reported in human patients, including infections with H. cinaedi, mainly characterized by severe bacteremia. Whole-genome sequencing appears to be the most reliable technique for identification of NHPH at species level. Presence of NHPH in laboratory animals may influence the outcome of experiments, making screening and eradication desirable. Vaccination based on UreB proteins or bacterial lysate with CCR4 antagonists as well as oral glutathione supplementation may be promising strategies to dampen the pathogenic effects associated with gastric NHPH infections. Several virulent factors such as outer membrane proteins, phospholipase C-gamma 2, Bak protein, and nickel-binding proteins are associated with colonization of the gastric mucosae and development of gastritis. The development of high-throughput sequencing has led to new insights in the gastric microbiota composition and its interaction with H. pylori. Alterations in the gastric microbiota caused by the pH-increasing effect of a H. pylori infection may increase the risk for gastric cancer. PMID:27531542

  4. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Ramos, Alberto; Sánchez Sánchez, Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Since its discovery and identification in gastric tissue by Marshall and Warren in 1983, our knowledge about the effects of Helicobacter pylori infection has grown considerably. Its role in the multifactorial pathology of peptic ulcer disease (gastrodudodenal ulcer disease), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma is now widely accepted while its involvement in extraintestinal disease is still controversial.The correlation between the colonization of the stomach by H. pylori and gastric lymphoma has been demonstrated in multiple studies. Between 65 and 80% of distal gastric adenocarcinomas are attributed to H. pylori infection. However, gastric carcinogenesis cannot be explained by H. pylori infection alone. Among those individuals infected by this bacteria, only a small percentage (2-5%) ever develops gastric cancer, the majority exhibit benign lesions. There is a wide individual variation in the outcome of this infection in patients. This individual and population specific variation is due to the intricate relationship between genetics, the environment, bacterial virulence, diet, and socio-economic status and it explains the multiple outcomes of this infection. In this article, we conduct a review of the widely accepted theories regarding gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori, the correlations and enigmas between them, the reported geographical variations, and the various proposed hypotheses on the carcinogenic mechanism of Helicobacter pylori.

  5. [Micro-organism translocation and acute anastomosis inflammation after stomach resection].

    PubMed

    Gulov, M K; Kurbonov, K M

    2003-10-01

    The results of examination of 42 patients with an acute anastomositis after performance of gastric resection were analyzed. Clinical classification was elaborated for detailed interpretation of the anastomosits diagnosis and choice of therapy. Close correlative inter-relatioship between severity of anastomositis and degree of gastric mucosa colonization by micro-organisms was established basing on analysis of the laboratory and bacteriological investigations results.

  6. Yogurt containing Lactobacillus gasseri OLL 2716 (LG21 yogurt) accelerated the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Masayuki; Shimizu, Kimiko; Kurakazu, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    We have reported that LG21 yogurt containing Lactobacillus gasseri OLL 2716 (LG21 yogurt) inhibits the formation of HCl-induced acute gastric lesions through the generation of prostaglandin E₂. This study aimed to determine the role of viable Lactobacillus in the healing of acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer. LG21 yogurt or γ-ray radiated LG21 yogurt was administered orally twice a day for 10 d at a dose of 5 ml/kg. LG21 yogurt significantly accelerated the healing of the ulcer, but γ-ray radiated LG21 yogurt did not. However, both yogurts significantly inhibited HCl-induced gastric erosive lesions and enhanced the generation of gastric mucosal prostaglandin E₂. From the above results, it was found that viable bacteria are needed to accelerate the healing of chronic gastric ulcer, but not to inhibit gastric lesions.

  7. Analysis of gastric emptying data

    SciTech Connect

    Elashoff, J.D.; Reedy, T.J.; Meyer, J.H.

    1982-12-01

    How should gastric emptying data be summarized to allow comparisons between males or between groups of subjects within a study, and to facilitate comparisons of results from study to study. We review standardization issues for reporting gastric emptying data, discuss criteria for choosing a method of analysis, review methods which have been used to describe gastric emptying data, recommend trial of the power exponential curve, and illustrate its use in the analysis and interpretation of data from several studies involving different types of meals and different types of subjects. We show why nonlinear curves should be fit using nonlinear least squares.

  8. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 ...

  9. Life-threatening upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric Dieulafoy's lesion: Successful minimally-invasive management.

    PubMed

    Bondade, Nikhil; Bhandari, Suryaprakash; Rao, Prashant; Shah, Rahul; Bothara, Vishal; Maydeo, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Dieulafoy's lesion (DL) is a relatively rare, but potentially life-threatening condition. It accounts for 1-2% of acute gastrointestinal bleedings. Its serious nature makes it necessary for early diagnosis and treatment. This is a case report of a patient who presented with life-threatening haematemesis due to gastric Dieulafoy's that was successfully treated laparoscopically after failed endotherapy. PMID:27251825

  10. Life-threatening upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric Dieulafoy's lesion: Successful minimally-invasive management

    PubMed Central

    Bondade, Nikhil; Bhandari, Suryaprakash; Rao, Prashant; Shah, Rahul; Bothara, Vishal; Maydeo, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Dieulafoy's lesion (DL) is a relatively rare, but potentially life-threatening condition. It accounts for 1-2% of acute gastrointestinal bleedings. Its serious nature makes it necessary for early diagnosis and treatment. This is a case report of a patient who presented with life-threatening haematemesis due to gastric Dieulafoy's that was successfully treated laparoscopically after failed endotherapy. PMID:27251825

  11. Biomarkers in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mokra, Daniela; Kosutova, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its milder form acute lung injury (ALI) may result from various diseases and situations including sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, acute pancreatitis, aspiration of gastric contents, near-drowning etc. ALI/ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar injury, lung edema formation, neutrophil-derived inflammation, and surfactant dysfunction. Clinically, ALI/ARDS is manifested by decreased lung compliance, severe hypoxemia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Severity and further characteristics of ALI/ARDS may be detected by biomarkers in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (or tracheal aspirate) of patients. Changed concentrations of individual markers may suggest injury or activation of the specific types of lung cells-epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, etc.), and thereby help in diagnostics and in evaluation of the patient's clinical status and the treatment efficacy. This chapter reviews various biomarkers of acute lung injury and evaluates their usefulness in diagnostics and prognostication of ALI/ARDS.

  12. The gender difference of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine in adult rats with stress-induced gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sater, Khaled A; Abdel-Daiem, Wafaa M; Sayyed Bakheet, Mohamad

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the gender difference of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine in adult rats with stress-induced gastric ulcer. The rats were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, control males and group II, control females; group III, acute cold restraint stressed males and group IV, acute cold restraint stressed females; group V, fluoxetine-treated stressed males and group VI, fluoxetine-treated stressed females. Acute cold restraint stress was established by fixing the four limbs of the rat and placing it in a refrigerator at 4°C for 3h. Fluoxetine was given intraperitoneal in a single dose of 10mg/kg/day. After 2 weeks, stomach and brain tissues were collected for the assay of gastric malonaldehyde (MDA), catalase, nitric oxide (NO) and cortical gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Stressed animals exhibited increased total acidity in association with decreased gastric secretion volume. Gastric MDA was increased while gastric catalase, NO, and cortical GABA were decreased in stressed male rats when compared to stressed females. However, fluoxetine administration attenuated these stress-induced changes especially in stressed male animals. Stressed male rats were more responsive to the antiulcer effect of fluoxetine more than stressed females. However, fluoxetine might be considered to be the first-choice drug in depressive patients with gastric ulcers in the future.

  13. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management. PMID:27126070

  14. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management.

  15. Syzygium aromaticum water extract attenuates ethanol‑induced gastric injury through antioxidant effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seong Eun; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Jeon, Woo-Young; Ha, Hyekyung

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Syzygium aromaticum water extract (SAWE) has a protective effect against ethanol‑induced gastric injury in rats. Acute gastric injury was induced via intragastric administration of absolute ethanol at a dose of 5 ml/kg. SAWE (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) or cimetidine (100 mg/kg/day), which was used as a positive control, were administered to the rats 2 h prior to ethanol administration for 3 days. All rats were sacrificed 24 h following the final ethanol administration. To examine whether SAWE has a gastroprotective effect, assays were performed to assess the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), the activities of catalase, glutathione‑S‑transferase and superoxide dismutase, and an immune-linked immunosorbent assay was performed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in gastric tissues by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining. Histological assessment of the gastric wall was performed. Compared with ethanol treatment alone, treatment with SAWE at a dose of 250 mg/kg/day significantly decreased the gastric MDA content and increased the GSH content, catalase activity, and production of gastric PGE2. Histological assessment showed that SAWE attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration and the loss of epithelial cells. These findings suggested that SAWE protected against ethanol‑induced gastric mucosal injury in the rats. These effects appeared to be associated with antioxidant activity, activation of the production of PGE2, suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration and loss of epithelial cells in the gastric mucosa. Collectively, SAWE may be beneficial in the prevention of gastric disease associated to oxidative stress. PMID:27177078

  16. Protective effects of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on gastric ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiao-Chang; Wu, Yong-Jie; Gao, Ming-Tang; Li, Wen-Guang; Zhao, Ning; Wang, Zeng-Lu; Bao, Chun-Jie; Yan, Zhen; Zhang, Ying-Qi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effects of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic gastric ulcers in rats and to compare the results in therapy of human gastric ulcers by different administration methods. METHODS: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was administered (initial single or continuous administration) into rats either intragastrically or intramuscularly before (induced acute gastric ulcer) or after (induced chronic gastric ulcer) the applications of inducing agents, and each animal was sacrificed to observe the protective effects of BPC 157 on gastric ulcers. RESULTS: Both intramuscular (im) and intragastric (ig) administration of BPC 157 could apparently reduce the ulcer area and accelerate the healing of induced ulcer in different models and the effect of im administered BPC 157 was better than that of ig. The rats treated with higher dosages (400 ng/kg, 800 ng/kg) of BPC 157 (im and ig) showed significantly less lesion (P < 0.01 vs excipient or saline control), the inhibition ratio of ulcer formation varied between 45.7% and 65.6%, from all measurements except 400 ng/kg BPC 157 in pylorus ligation induced model (P < 0.05), in which the inhibition rate was 54.2%. When im administered (800 ng/kg BPC 157) in three models, the inhibition ratio of ulcer formation was 65.5%, 65.6% and 59.9%, respectively, which was better than that of famotidine (its inhibition rate was 60.8%, 57.2% and 34.3%, respectively). Continuous application of BPC 157 (in chronic acetate induced gastric ulcer) could accelerate rebuilding of glandular epithelium and formation of granulation tissue (P < 0.05 at 200 ng/kg and P < 0.01 at 400 ng/kg and 800 ng/kg vs excipient or saline control). CONCLUSION: Both im and ig administered gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 can apparently ameliorate acute gastric ulcer in rats and antagonize the protracted effect of acetate challenge on chronic ulcer. The effect of im administration of BPC 157 is better than that of ig, and the

  17. Gastric cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Berger, Hilmar; Marques, Miguel S; Zietlow, Rike; Meyer, Thomas F; Machado, Jose C; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) results from a multistep process that is influenced by Helicobacter pylori infection, genetic susceptibility of the host, as well as of other environmental factors. GC results from the accumulation of numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, leading to dysregulation of multiple signaling pathways, which disrupt the cell cycle and the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. For this special issue, we have selected to review last year's advances related to three main topics: the cell of origin that initiates malignant growth in GC, the mechanisms of direct genotoxicity induced by H. pylori infection, and the role of aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs in GC transformation. The understanding of the molecular basis of GC development is of utmost importance for the identification of novel targets for GC prevention and treatment. PMID:27531537

  18. Eriobotrya japonica seed extract and deep sea water protect against indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Junko; Kitaoka, Taisuke; Jobu, Kohei; Takuma, Daisuke; Hamada, Atsuhide; Onogawa, Masahide; Yoshioka, Saburo; Kyotani, Shojiro; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported that Eriobotrya japonica seed extract (ESE) is effective for the treatment of various gastric mucosal injuries. For the pharmaceutical preparation of ESE, we are evaluating deep sea water (DSW), which contains trace elements and has a homeostasis-enhancing effect, as the solvent. In this study, we prepared DSW containing ESE (ESE + DSW) and evaluated its usefulness for the prevention of gastric mucosal injuries using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced acute gastric mucosal injury models in male Wistar/ST rats. Gastric mucosal injury models were prepared by administering indomethacin at 30 mg/kg orally to the rats after a 24-h fast. ESE was prepared by a routine procedure and administered at the same concentration as in the administration to humans. The rats were divided into the following 6 groups: ESE, DSW, ESE + DSW, tap water (control), rebamipide (positive control), or untreated. Gastric mucosal injuries were evaluated by measuring the injury area, lipid peroxide (LPO) level, antioxidative enzyme level, and volume of mucus. The injury area and LPO levels in plasma and gastric tissue were significantly reduced in the ESE and ESE + DSW groups compared with the control and DSW group. The plasma and gastric tissue antioxidative enzyme levels were significantly higher in the ESE and ESE + DSW groups than in the control group. These results suggest that DSW, when combined with ESE, inhibits antioxidative enzymes, and enhances the gastric mucosal protecting effect of ESE.

  19. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do. PMID:26566288

  20. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do.

  1. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system relation.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Suran, Jelena; Barisic, Ivan; Dzidic, Senka; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system-relation, its close participation in Moncada's (maintained vascular integrity, platelets control) homeostatic healing response of NO-system to injury. Namely, BPC 157's particular healing effect also affects all events after vascular integrity loss (dependent on circumstances, it reduces either thrombosis (abdominal aorta anastomosis) or bleeding/thrombocytopenia (amputation, heparin, warfarin, aspirin)) and in a series of different injurious models, acute and chronic, BPC 157 consistently advances healing after severe injuries in various tissues spontaneously unable to heal; stimulates egr-1 and naB2 genes; exhibits high safety (LD1 not achieved)). Hypothesis, that BPC 157 (since formed constitutively in the gastric mucosa, stable in human gastric juice, along with significance of NO-synthase and the basal formation of NO in stomach mucosa, greater than that seen in other tissues) exhibits a general, effective competing both with L-arginine analogues (i. e., L-NAME) and L-arginine, and that this has some physiologic importance (NO-generation), later, practically supports its beneficial effects illustrating BPC 157 and NOsystem mutual (with L-NAME/L-arginine; alone and together) relations in (i) gastric mucosa and mucosal protection, following alcohol lesions, in cytoprotection course, NO-generation, and blood pressure regulation; (ii) alcohol acute/chronic intoxication, and withdrawal; (iii) cardiovascular disturbances, chronic heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and arrhythmias; (iv) disturbances after hypokalemia and hyperkalemia, and potassium-cell membrane dysfunction; and finally, in (v) complex healing failure, proved by the fistulas healing, colocutaneous and esophagocutaneous. However, how this advantage of modulating NO-system (i. e., particular effect on eNOS gene), may be practically translated into an enhanced clinical performance remains to be determined. PMID:23755725

  2. Pembrolizumab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery in Treating Adult Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cardia Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-27

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer

  3. Banhabaekchulchunma-tang, a traditional herbal formula attenuates absolute ethanol-induced gastric injury by enhancing the antioxidant status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Banhabaekchulchunma-tang (hange-byakujutsu-tenma-to in Japanese and banxia-baizhu-tianma-tang in Chinese) is a mixture of fourteen herbs. It is used traditionally for the treatment of anemia, anorexia, general weakness, and female infertility in China, Japan, and Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a Banhabaekchulchunma-tang water extract (BCT) against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury in rats. Methods Gastric injury was induced by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol to each rat. The positive control group and the BCT group were given oral doses of omeprazole (50 mg/kg) or BCT (400 mg/kg), respectively, 2 h prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of each animal was excised and examined for gastric mucosal lesions. To confirm the protective effects of BCT, we evaluated the degree of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the stomach. In addition, we conducted an acute toxicity study to evaluate the safety of BCT according to OECD guideline. Results BCT reduced ethanol-induced hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cell in the gastric mucosa. BCT reduced the increased lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions, and increased the mucosal GSH content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, BCT did not cause any adverse effects at up to 5000 mg/kg. Conclusions These results indicate that BCT protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric injury by increasing the antioxidant status. We suggest that BCT could be developed as an effective drug for the treatment of gastric injury caused by alcohol intake. PMID:23844748

  4. Rare case of Helicobacter pylori-related gastric ulcer: malignancy or pseudomorphism?

    PubMed

    Li, Ting-Ting; Qiu, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Lu; Wan, Jun

    2013-03-28

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogen and the most frequent cause of gastric ulcers. There is also a close correlation between the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the incidence of gastric cancer. We present the case of a 38-year-old woman referred by her primary care physician for screening positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), which showed a nodular strong accumulation point with standardized uptake value 5.6 in the gastric fundus. Gastroscopy was then performed, and a single arched ulcer, 12 mm in size, was found in the gastric fundus. Histopathological examination of the lesion revealed chronic mucosal inflammation with acute inflammation and H. pylori infection. There was an obvious mitotic phase with widespread lymphoma. Formal anti-H. pylori treatment was carried out. One month later, a gastroscopy showed a single arched ulcer, measuring 10 mm in size in the gastric fundus. Histopathological examination revealed chronic mucosal inflammation with acute inflammation and a very small amount of H. pylori infection. The mitotic phase was 4/10 high power field, with some heterotypes and an obvious nucleolus. Follow-up gastroscopy 2 mo later showed the gastric ulcer in stage S2. The mucosal swelling had markedly improved. The patient remained asymptomatic, and a follow-up PET-CT was performed 6 mo later. The nodular strong accumulation point had disappeared. Follow-up gastroscopy showed no evidence of malignant cancer. H. pylori-associated severe inflammation can lead to neoplastic changes in histiocytes. This underscores the importance of eradicating H. pylori, especially in those with mucosal lesions, and ensuring proper follow-up to prevent or even reverse early gastric cancer.

  5. [The Soupault-Bucaillle operation in the treatment of Billroth II gastric resection syndrome].

    PubMed

    Marchesi, M; Biffoni, M; Tartaglia, F; Nobili-Benedetti, R; Picchi, P; Pugliese, F R; Lentini, A; Stocco, F; Campana, F P

    1992-04-01

    The study analyzes the benefits related to the gastroduodenojejunoplasty (GDJP) according to Soupault & Bucaille, adopted as the corrective treatment of the Billroth II gastric resection syndrome in those cases resistant to the dieting-pharmacological supports. Our experience is based on 18 cases (13 males, 5 females, mean age 39 yrs), treated from 1982 to 1987 with GDJP for a gastric resection syndrome. The patients were observed 5 years after their resection: 10 presented with an atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy and all had a diffuse acute phlogosis in presence of biliary storage. Manual anastomoses were performed in the first 8 cases, while staplers were used in the remaining cases. Results were quite satisfying; no operative mortality or specific complications, nor pain and biliary vomiting were registered; 14 patients over 18 (77%) gained weight significantly; only 1 patient reported low-intense early "dumping-like" symptoms easily controlled by medical therapy. Endoscopy showed no biliary reflux in all cases. Biopsies of the stump, carried on before and after the GDJP intervention, showed a marked reduction of the inflammatory aspects in 76% (13) of the patients. Among the 10 patients with atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy, only 2 (20%) presented a significant increase in the number of gastric parietal cells and gastric principal cells.

  6. Molecular detection and corelation of Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque and gastric biopsies of dyspeptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bharath, T Sreenivasa; Reddy, M Sesha; Dhanapal, Raghu; Raj Kumar, N Govind; Neeladri Raju, PV; Saraswathi, TR

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic organism, which colonizes in the gastric mucosa. Its role in etiology and development of acute and chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer diseases is scientifically proved. Oral cavity especially supragingival, subgingival plaque and so forth simulate the same microaerophilic environment favorable for the growth of this bacterium. Aim: Detection of H. pylori simultaneously in the oral cavity and gastric mucosa of patients suffering from gastric pathologies. Objectives: To detect H. pylori in the oral cavity and gastric mucosa using endoscopy, urease test and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (urease A gene). Determining its association and corelation with patient demographics, oral hygiene maintenance and periodontal disease status. Materials and Methods: Endoscopic examination, oral findings oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) and community periodontal index and treatment needs (CPITN) indices were recorded. Antral biopsies and supragingival plaque samples were taken from 56 dyspeptic adult patients. The collected samples were subjected to histological examination, urease broth test and urease A gene amplification using real-time PCR. Result: H. pylori was detected in the supragingival plaque of individuals with H. pylori-induced gastric diseases using rapid urease test and real-time PCR analysis. Occurrence of same strain of H. pylori simultaneously in plaque and gastric mucosa was observed. Positive correlation was obtained between the collected indices and quantity of H. pylori colonization. PMID:24959032

  7. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  8. Aldioxa improves delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance, pathophysiologic mechanisms of functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Tahara, Kayoko; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation (decreased gastric compliance) play important roles in functional dyspepsia (FD). Here we screen for a clinically used drug with an ability to improve delayed gastric emptying in rats. Oral administration of aldioxa (dihydroxyaluminum allantoinate) partially improved clonidine- or restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying. Administration of allantoin, but not aluminium hydroxide, restored the gastric emptying. Both aldioxa and allantoin inhibited clonidine binding to the α-2 adrenergic receptor, suggesting that antagonistic activity of the allantoin moiety of aldioxa on this receptor is involved in the restoration of gastric emptying activity. Aldioxa or aluminium hydroxide but not allantoin restored gastric compliance with restraint stress, suggesting that aluminium hydroxide moiety is involved in this restoration. We propose that aldioxa is a candidate drug for FD, because its safety in humans has already been confirmed and its ameliorating effect on both of delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance are confirmed here. PMID:26620883

  9. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-16

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  10. Acute corrosive injuries of the stomach: a single unit experience of thirty years.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, N; Parthasarathy, G; Kate, Vikram

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. The spectrum of gastric injury due to corrosives can vary. This paper presents a single center experience of over 30 years of corrosive gastric injuries of 39 patients with acute gastric injuries from 1977 till 2006. Patients and Methods. Two thirds of the patients in the acute injury group had a concomitant esophageal injury. The age of the patients ranged from 4 years to 65 years with a slight preponderance of males. (M : F ratio 22 : 17). Results. 36 out of 39 acute gastric injuries were due to ingestion of acids. Three patients had history of caustic soda ingestion. Oral hyperemia or ulcers of varying extent were seen in all patients. The stomach showed hyperemia in 10, extensive ulcers in 13, and mucosal necrosis in 10 patients. Fifteen patients (15/39, 38.5%) were managed conservatively. Twenty four patients (24/39, 61.5%) underwent laparotomy: one for frank peritonitis, 10 for gastric mucosal necrosis, and 13 others for extensive gastric ulcerations. Overall the mortality rate was 29.6 %. Conclusion. Although the mortality and morbidity of acute corrosive gastric injuries is high, the key to improve the survival is early identification of perforation, maintenance of nutrition and control of sepsis.

  11. Complications of banded laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in a 33-week pregnant woman

    PubMed Central

    de Raaff, Christel A.L.; Eshuis, Wietse J.; van Wagensveld, Bart A.; van Veen, Ruben N.

    2016-01-01

    Women desiring pregnancy might fail to conceive due to their obesity. Bariatric surgery has shown to reduce this infertility up to 58% and is therefore considered a successful strategy for morbidly obese infertile women. Nevertheless, when pregnancy has succeeded, surgery-related complications might occur. Banded laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (B-LRYGB) is a relatively new technique in which a band is placed around the small gastric pouch. We report a case of a 30-year-old woman who succeeded to become pregnant after weight loss due to B-LRYGB, but presented with acute abdominal pain in Week 33 of her pregnancy. PMID:27562576

  12. Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Papia; Mitra, Subhashis; Resnick, Jeffrey M.; Torbey, Camille F.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia is the source of up to 4% of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. It can present with occult bleeding requiring transfusions or with acute gastrointestinal bleeding. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and has been associated with such underlying chronic diseases as scleroderma, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Approximately 30% of cases are associated with cirrhosis. We report two cases of gastric antral vascular ectasia with two strikingly different endoscopic appearances. We further describe the clinical, endoscopic, histologic, and therapeutic aspects of this entity. PMID:23262190

  13. Complications of banded laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in a 33-week pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    de Raaff, Christel A L; Eshuis, Wietse J; van Wagensveld, Bart A; van Veen, Ruben N

    2016-01-01

    Women desiring pregnancy might fail to conceive due to their obesity. Bariatric surgery has shown to reduce this infertility up to 58% and is therefore considered a successful strategy for morbidly obese infertile women. Nevertheless, when pregnancy has succeeded, surgery-related complications might occur.Banded laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (B-LRYGB) is a relatively new technique in which a band is placed around the small gastric pouch. We report a case of a 30-year-old woman who succeeded to become pregnant after weight loss due to B-LRYGB, but presented with acute abdominal pain in Week 33 of her pregnancy. PMID:27562576

  14. [Unusual cause of gastric bleeding: leiomyoma].

    PubMed

    Alberti, P; Pruneri, U; Bianchi, P; Cerra, V

    1996-10-01

    The gastric leiomyoma is a rare non-epithelial tumor of the stomach that can either be asymptomatic (autoptical diagnosis) or, on the contrary, suddenly appear with severe gastric hemorrhage. The authors review the literature and report their own experience concerning 6 cases of gastric leiomyoma observed during 5 years. They discuss the clinical presentation, the difficulties of diagnosis and the therapeutic choices.

  15. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1), pepsinogen 2 (PG2) and gastrin 17 (G17) offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation), degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy) and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status). Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003). The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058). The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p < 0.01). Laurén-specific analysis revealed that this is only true for intestinal type tumors. Univariate ANOVA revealed atrophy and CagA-status as the only independent factors for low PG1 and a low PG1/2-ratio. Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer. PMID:22289789

  16. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when ...

  17. Lack of rearranged Tpr-met mRNA expression in human gastric cancer cell lines and gastric mucosa and carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Osaki, M; Miyata, H; Hayashi, A; Gomyo, Y; Tatebe, S; Ito, H

    1996-01-01

    The met protooncogene was activated by a rearrangement involving the fusion of tpr (1q25) and met (7q21-31) gene sequence in a human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS) incubated in vitro with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). We examined the expression of tpr-met mRNA by means of the reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) in human two gastric cell lines (MKN-1 and MKN-45), T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia cell line (MOLT-4), and in gastric tissue samples including normal mucosa, intestinal metaplasia and carcinoma from three surgical specimens. A DNA fragment of 88-bp was amplified in MKN-1 and MOLT-4, 96-bp in MKN-45 and of 58-bp in all nine tissue samples including gastric carcinomas. The amplified DNA sequences were not homologous with the rearranged tpr-met gene. Our study indicated that rearranged tpr-met mRNA is not expressed either in human gastric carcinoma cell lines or in gastric mucosa and carcinoma.

  18. [Genetic factors in gastric carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Ohgaki, H

    1983-02-01

    Genetic control of susceptibility of rats to gastro-carcinogenesis by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was studied in susceptible ACI strain rats, resistant Buffalo strain rats, and their F1 and F2 offsprings. Rats were given MNNG at a concentration of 83 micrograms/ml in drinking water for 32 weeks and sacrificed on week 72. The incidence of gastric adenocarcinomas in F1 was as low as that in Buffalo rats. The results showed that susceptibility to MNNG was controlled genetically and that the resistance of Buffalo strain rats was autosomal dominant. To clarify the mechanisms which determine susceptibility to MNNG, some biochemical parameters such as pH of gastric juice, glutathione content in the gastric mucosa and the binding of MNNG to DNA, were analysed. No difference was observed between ACI and Buffalo strains in regard to the events leading to the binding of MNNG to DNA.

  19. Etiology and Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous malignant disease associated with environmental and genetic predisposing factors. While gastric cancer incidence and mortality fell greatly globally over the past decades, it remains the fourth cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Thus, prevention of gastric cancer is still a major strategy for improvement of gastric cancer prognosis. Summary Helicobacter pylori infection has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Unhealthy diet and lifestyle, including high-salt food, smoking and drinking, are able to induce genotypic and phenotypic transformation of gastric epithelial cells. Gene mutations (such as E-cadherin) in stomach epithelial cells are major genetic causes for gastric cancer. The eradication of H. pylori has been demonstrated to be an effective approach for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Increased intake of a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits as well as smoking cessation have been shown to reduce the incidence of gastric cancer. The secondary prevention strategy is to screen premalignant gastric lesions by endoscopy. Biomarker tests are also reliable methods to identify gastric precancerous lesions. Endoscopy screening is still the gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. Key Message H. pylori infection, a diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, as well as gene mutations are major risk factors for the development of gastric cancer. Practical Implications The eradication of H. pylori is a major primary preventive strategy of gastric cancer. A healthy lifestyle, including increased intake of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, reduced intake of salted and smoked food and red meat, a reduction of alcohol intake as well as smoking cessation will be effective approaches for the prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:27722154

  20. Effect of Several Drugs on Gastric Potential Difference in Man

    PubMed Central

    Murray, H. S.; Strottman, M. P.; Cooke, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Measurement of gastric mucosal potential difference was used to study the effect on the gastric mucosal barrier in six volunteer subjects of several drugs known to provoke ulcers. Potential differences were also recorded in nine patients with rheumatoid arthritis being treated with long-term aspirin and five patients on long-term prednisone. Unbuffered aspirin and ethanol “broke” the barrier as shown by a rapid fall in potential difference. The effects of aspirin were dose related, with 600 mg causing a greater reduction than 300 mg. The effects of aspirin and ethanol given together were additive and caused the greatest fall in potential difference. Sodium acetylsalicylate did not alter the normal potential difference. Indomethacin, phenylbutazone, and prednisone all failed to cause any change in potential difference. The patients on long-term aspirin and prednisone had readings within the normal range and responded the same as normal subjects to an acute challenge. These studies show that aspirin and ethanol will damage the gastric mucosal barrier but that indomethacin, phenylbutazone, and prednisone do not. PMID:4808815

  1. A Burkholderia pseudomallei Colony Variant Necessary for Gastric Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Austin, C. R.; Goodyear, A. W.; Bartek, I. L.; Stewart, A.; Sutherland, M. D.; Silva, E. B.; Zweifel, A.; Vitko, N. P.; Tuanyok, A.; Highnam, G.; Mittelman, D.; Keim, P.; Schweizer, H. P.; Vázquez-Torres, A.; Dow, S. W. C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Diverse colony morphologies are a hallmark of Burkholderia pseudomallei recovered from infected patients. We observed that stresses that inhibit aerobic respiration shifted populations of B. pseudomallei from the canonical white colony morphotype toward two distinct, reversible, yet relatively stable yellow colony variants (YA and YB). As accumulating evidence supports the importance of B. pseudomallei enteric infection and gastric colonization, we tested the response of yellow variants to hypoxia, acidity, and stomach colonization. Yellow variants exhibited a competitive advantage under hypoxic and acidic conditions and alkalized culture media. The YB variant, although highly attenuated in acute virulence, was the only form capable of colonization and persistence in the murine stomach. The accumulation of extracellular DNA (eDNA) was a characteristic of YB as observed by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of gastric tissues, as well as in an in vitro stomach model where large amounts of eDNA were produced without cell lysis. Transposon mutagenesis identified a transcriptional regulator (BPSL1887, designated YelR) that when overexpressed produced the yellow phenotype. Deletion of yelR blocked a shift from white to the yellow forms. These data demonstrate that YB is a unique B. pseudomallei pathovariant controlled by YelR that is specifically adapted to the harsh gastric environment and necessary for persistent stomach colonization. PMID:25650400

  2. Gastric adenocarcinoma with prostatic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Roshni, S; Anoop, Tm; Preethi, Tr; Shubanshu, G; Lijeesh, Al

    2014-06-01

    Metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma to the prostate gland is extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of gastric adenocarcinoma in a 56-year-old man with prostatic metastasis diagnosed through the analysis of biopsy specimens from representative lesions in the stomach and prostate gland. Immunohistochemistry of the prostatic tissue showed positive staining for cytokeratin 7 and negative staining for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), whereas the serum PSA level was normal, confirming the diagnosis of prostatic metastasis from carcinoma of the stomach. PMID:25061542

  3. Gastric Adenocarcinoma with Prostatic Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Roshni, S; Preethi, TR; Shubanshu, G; Lijeesh, AL

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma to the prostate gland is extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of gastric adenocarcinoma in a 56-year-old man with prostatic metastasis diagnosed through the analysis of biopsy specimens from representative lesions in the stomach and prostate gland. Immunohistochemistry of the prostatic tissue showed positive staining for cytokeratin 7 and negative staining for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), whereas the serum PSA level was normal, confirming the diagnosis of prostatic metastasis from carcinoma of the stomach. PMID:25061542

  4. Gastric lymphoma: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, Claudio; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Savio, Antonella

    2011-03-01

    The diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma is frequently difficult for the general histopathologist. During recent years there have been relevant changes in the therapeutic approach to gastric MALT lymphoma and our knowledge about its pathogenesis has greatly improved. The management of this disease actually requires a close cooperation between the histopathologist and the clinicians. The histology report of biopsies of a newly diagnosed or of an already treated case implies information of clinical and therapeutical relevance. This paper aims at giving the histopathologist a general knowledge about the state of art of this disease and its management. The diagnostic process leading to a complete and competent report is then described step by step.

  5. Pharmacological profile of gastric mucosal protection by marmin and nobiletin from a traditional herbal medicine, Aurantii fructus immaturus.

    PubMed

    Takase, H; Yamamoto, K; Hirano, H; Saito, Y; Yamashita, A

    1994-09-01

    We studied the effects of marmin and nobiletin on the experimental acute gastric lesions, gastric transmucosal potential difference (PD) and gastric motor activity in rats and the contractions of isolated guinea pig ileum. Oral administration of marmin and nobiletin inhibited both the appearance of ethanol-induced gastric hemorrhagic lesions dose-dependently in a dose range of 10-50 mg/kg, with ED50 values for marmin and nobiletin being 17.2 and 8.0 mg/kg, respectively. However, marmin and nobiletin had minimal effects on aspirin-induced gastric lesions at a dose of 50 mg/kg, respectively. Marmin and nobiletin had no significant influence on the basal PD. Intragastrical administration of marmin and nobiletin at a dose of 25 mg/kg significantly prevented the PD reduction induced by ethanol. Both marmin and nobiletin given intragastrically at 25 mg/kg significantly inhibited gastric motor activity measured as intraluminal pressure recordings. Marmin and nobiletin exhibited concentration-dependent relaxations of contractions induced by acetylcholine, transmural electrical stimulation and histamine in isolated guinea pig ileum, respectively. These findings suggest that the anti-ulcer effects of marmin and nobiletin are ascribed primarily to the maintenance of the mucosal barrier integrity and inhibition of gastric motor activity and secondarily due to the prevention of the effects of endogenous acetylcholine and histamine.

  6. A rare cause of gastric perforation-Candida infection: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nalini

    2012-11-01

    Fungal microorganisms as a cause of gastric perforation, is very rare. Most of the cases of gastric perforation are seen as the complications of peptic ulcer disease, the intake of NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs), neoplastic diseases, etc. We are reporting a case of a 50 year old male who presented with a sudden onset of abdominal pain and shock and was diagnosed as acute peritonitis which was caused by a gastrointestinal perforation. An emergency exploratory laporotomy was performed and a gastric perforation repair with omentoplexy was done. However, the patient died in the post operative period due to a sudden cardiac arrest. A gastric perforation edge biopsy revealed the presence of fungal hyphae. The peritoneal fluid culture revealed Candida albicans colonies.

  7. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad; Merchant, Juanita L

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the various experimental models to study gastric cancer pathogenesis, with the role of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) used as the major examples. We review differences in human stomach anatomy compared to the stomachs of the experimental models, including the mouse and invertebrate models such as Drosophila and C. elegans. The contribution of major signaling pathways, e.g., Notch, Hedgehog, AKT/PI3K is discussed in the context of their potential contribution to foregut tumorigenesis. We critically examine the rationale behind specific GEMMs, chemical carcinogens, dietary promoters, Helicobacter infection, and direct mutagenesis of relevant oncogenes and tumor suppressor that have been developed to study gastric cancer pathogenesis. Despite species differences, more efficient and effective models to test specific genes and pathways disrupted in human gastric carcinogenesis have yet to emerge. As we better understand these species differences, "humanized" versions of mouse models will more closely approximate human gastric cancer pathogenesis. Towards that end, epigenetic marks on chromatin, the gut microbiota, and ways of manipulating the immune system will likely move center stage, permitting greater overlap between rodent and human cancer phenotypes thus providing a unified progression model. PMID:27573785

  8. Delayed gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marrinan, Sarah; Emmanuel, Anton V; Burn, David J

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are evident in all stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Most of the gastrointestinal abnormalities associated with PD are attributable to impaired motility. At the level of the stomach, this results in delayed gastric emptying. The etiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD is probably multifactorial but is at least partly related to Lewy pathology in the enteric nervous system and discrete brainstem nuclei. Delayed gastric emptying occurs in both early and advanced PD but is underdetected in routine clinical practice. Recognition of delayed gastric emptying is important because it can cause an array of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, but additionally it has important implications for the absorption and action of levodopa. Delayed gastric emptying contributes significantly to response fluctuations seen in people on long-term l-dopa therapy. Neurohormonal aspects of the brain-gut axis are pertinent to discussions regarding the pathophysiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD and are also hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD itself. Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone with potential as a therapeutic agent for delayed gastric emptying and also as a novel neuroprotective agent in PD. Recent findings relating to ghrelin in the context of PD and gastric emptying are considered. This article highlights the pathological abnormalities that may account for delayed gastric emptying in PD. It also considers the wider relevance of abnormal gastric pathology to our current understanding of the etiology of PD. PMID:24151126

  9. CEUS and strain elastography in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Vito; Rubini, Antonello; Miniagio, Guglielmo

    2013-07-18

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer, but diagnosis is often delayed. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy is currently the gold standard for evaluating gastric cancer. Also other imaging modalities, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are employed for identifying gastric cancer, but particularly for cancer staging. Ultrasound (US) is a first-line imaging modality used to examine organs in the abdomen, and during these examinations gastric cancer may be incidentally detected. Very few studies in the literature have investigated the role of US in gastric disease. However, more recently, some authors have reported on the use of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) and US-elastography in gastric disease using both endoscopic and transabdominal approach. In this paper, we present a case of gastric cancer studied by CEUS and transabdominal US-elastography.

  10. Functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic pathway responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins and damaged intracellular organelles. Perturbations in autophagy are found in gastric cancer. In host gastric cells, autophagy can be induced by Helicobacter pylori (or H. pylori) infection, which is associated with the oncogenesis of gastric cancer. In gastric cancer cells, autophagy has both pro-survival and pro-death functions in determining cell fate. Besides, autophagy modulates gastric cancer metastasis by affecting a wide range of pathological events, including extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor angiogenesis, and tumor microenvironment. In addition, some of the autophagy-related proteins, such as Beclin 1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3), and p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) have certain prognostic values for gastric cancer. In this article, we review the recent studies regarding the functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer. PMID:26910278

  11. An unusual case showing fatal rupture of a gastric ulcer or gastromalacia? The importance/role of histology for differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    De-Giorgio, Fabio; Lodise, Maria; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Spagnolo, Antonio G; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Arena, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Gastromalacia is the acute autolytic erosion of the gastric wall. It generally occurs postmortem, and it appears as a slimy brownish black region of the wall which occurs principally in the gastric fundus. A 59-year-old woman died in the Emergency Department following a 2-day period of mild abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. A forensic autopsy was performed which revealed a rupture of the gastric fundus that had caused leakage of gastric content into the abdominal cavity. There was no macroscopic evidence of peritonitis, and the stomach wall adjacent to the rupture site showed marked thinning. The gross appearance was typical of gastromalacia. In contrast, histological observations revealed the presence of an ulcer at the site of perforation and a severe acute inflammatory reaction indicating a robust reaction with an antemortem rupture.

  12. Endoscopic pyloroplasty for severe gastric outlet obstruction due to alkali ingestion in a child.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Aldaghi, Mitra; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    A common belief is that alkali ingestion causes severe esophageal damage and limited gastric injury due to the buffering action of acid. Gastric injury has been observed in patients who ingested alkali. Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) secondary to caustic ingestion occurs due to fibrosis after resolution of the acute injury and inflammation, most commonly 6 to 12 weeks after initial ingestion. The traditional treatment for GOO related to ingestion of corrosive agents is surgery. Experience with endoscopic balloon dilation of corrosive-induced GOO is limited in children. This is the first report of endoscopic pyloroplasty in a child with GOO due to caustic alkalis ingestion that was treated with balloon dilation (using TTS balloon ranging from 6-15 mm) in Iran. Four dilation sessions were required for symptomatic relief of dysphagia. After one year of follow up, weight gain was normal. PMID:26744617

  13. Endoscopic pyloroplasty for severe gastric outlet obstruction due to alkali ingestion in a child

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Aldaghi, Mitra; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    A common belief is that alkali ingestion causes severe esophageal damage and limited gastric injury due to the buffering action of acid. Gastric injury has been observed in patients who ingested alkali. Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) secondary to caustic ingestion occurs due to fibrosis after resolution of the acute injury and inflammation, most commonly 6 to 12 weeks after initial ingestion. The traditional treatment for GOO related to ingestion of corrosive agents is surgery. Experience with endoscopic balloon dilation of corrosive-induced GOO is limited in children. This is the first report of endoscopic pyloroplasty in a child with GOO due to caustic alkalis ingestion that was treated with balloon dilation (using TTS balloon ranging from 6-15 mm) in Iran. Four dilation sessions were required for symptomatic relief of dysphagia. After one year of follow up, weight gain was normal. PMID:26744617

  14. Gastric trichobezoar associated with perforated peptic ulcer and Candida glabrata infection

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Héctor Losada; Catalán, Cecilia Huenchullán; Demetrio, Rodrigo Arriagada; Rivas, Macarena Espinoza; Parraguez, Natalia Castagnoli; Alvarez, Martín Alanis

    2014-01-01

    Bezoars are accumulations of human or plant fiber located in the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. Patients remain asymptomatic for several years, and the symptoms develop as these accumulations increase in size to the point of obstruction or perforation. We report the case of a 21-year-old patient at 10 d postpartum, who presented with acute abdomen associated with sepsis. Given the urgency of the clinical picture, at no point was the presence of a giant bezoar at gastric level suspected, specifically a trichobezoar. The emergency abdominal and pelvic ultrasound revealed only unspecific signs of perforated hollow viscus. Diagnosis was therefore made intraoperatively. A complete gastric trichobezoar was found with gastric perforation and secondary peritonitis. The peritoneal fluid culture revealed Candida glabrata. PMID:25516871

  15. Gastric dilitation-volvulus in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Schlanser, Justin R; Agnew, Dalen; Paperd, Deborah W; Harrison, Tara M

    2014-06-01

    A 10-year-old male red panda presented acutely with symptoms of shock due to acute abdominal distress and respiratory compromise. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed a severely distended stomach for which passage of an orogastric tube for relief was unsuccessful. Intra-operatively, the stomach was found to be distended and torsed around its long axis supporting the diagnosis of Gastric dilitation-volvulus (GDV). The animal arrested and died intra-operatively and was submitted for necropsy with lesions supportive of the diagnosis of GDV. No risk factors for GDV were found to correlate between the panda and those described in domestic dogs. This case suggests that red pandas can be susceptible to this condition in captive settings.

  16. Gastric dilitation-volvulus in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Schlanser, Justin R; Agnew, Dalen; Paperd, Deborah W; Harrison, Tara M

    2014-06-01

    A 10-year-old male red panda presented acutely with symptoms of shock due to acute abdominal distress and respiratory compromise. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed a severely distended stomach for which passage of an orogastric tube for relief was unsuccessful. Intra-operatively, the stomach was found to be distended and torsed around its long axis supporting the diagnosis of Gastric dilitation-volvulus (GDV). The animal arrested and died intra-operatively and was submitted for necropsy with lesions supportive of the diagnosis of GDV. No risk factors for GDV were found to correlate between the panda and those described in domestic dogs. This case suggests that red pandas can be susceptible to this condition in captive settings. PMID:24521795

  17. Gastric Dilitation-Volvulus in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)

    PubMed Central

    SCHLANSER, Justin R.; AGNEW, Dalen; PAPERD, Deborah W.; HARRISON, Tara M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 10-year-old male red panda presented acutely with symptoms of shock due to acute abdominal distress and respiratory compromise. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed a severely distended stomach for which passage of an orogastric tube for relief was unsuccessful. Intra-operatively, the stomach was found to be distended and torsed around its long axis supporting the diagnosis of Gastric dilitation-volvulus (GDV). The animal arrested and died intra-operatively and was submitted for necropsy with lesions supportive of the diagnosis of GDV. No risk factors for GDV were found to correlate between the panda and those described in domestic dogs. This case suggests that red pandas can be susceptible to this condition in captive settings. PMID:24521795

  18. Gluing Gastric Varices in 2012: Lessons Learnt Over 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Saraswat, Vivek A; Verma, Abhai

    2012-01-01

    Bleeding from gastric varices (GV) continues to pose a challenge to the endoscopist and no consensus has been reached on the best way for treating these patients. Gastric variceal obturation (GVO) with the tissue adhesive, N-2-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBC), is considered the treatment of first-choice for this condition in most parts of the world. The liquid monomer polymerizes into a solid cast, obturating the vessel within 10–20 s of coming in contact with ionic solutions such as blood. Gastric variceal obturation achieves hemostasis in over 90% of patients with active bleeding, eradicates GV in over 80% of these patients, and re-bleeding occurs in 3–30%. These results are comparable with those of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS; over 90% hemostasis in acute bleeding with re-bleeding in 15–30%). Though, there has been no direct comparison with GVO, balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of GV (BRTO) achieves near 100% obliteration with recurrence in 0–10% and is superior to TIPS for hemostasis in active bleeding when used in combination with transcatheter sclerotherapy. Several complications have been described for GVO including thromboembolic complications which occur in 0.5–4.3% and may be devastating in some. Many of the complications and the variability in results of GVO can be attributed to variations in injection technique. The use of a standardized injection technique has been reported to achieve 100% hemostasis and obliteration with 6.9% re-bleeding and no embolic complications. Gastric variceal obturation with NBC continues to be the first-choice therapy for GV bleeding outside Japan. Adherence to a standard injection technique will maximize hemostasis and eradication of GV while minimizing complications of therapy. PMID:25755406

  19. Gastric stimulation for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Meir; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Ilan, Yaron

    2012-05-21

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions, and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss. Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term, but the durability of the weight loss is limited. Although promising obesity drugs are in development, the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects. Surgery leads to long-term weight loss, but it is associated with morbidity and mortality. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders. GES is a promising, minimally invasive, safe, and effective method for treating obesity. External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time. In addition, data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES. This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety. Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment's outcome. Here, we review the current status, potential mechanisms of action, and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity. PMID:22654422

  20. Neural invasion in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, M; Adachi, Y; Kamakura, T; Ikeda, Y; Maehara, Y; Sugimachi, K

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To determine whether neural invasion in advanced gastric cancer is of clinicopathological significance. METHODS--The study population comprised 121 cases of primary advanced gastric carcinoma. Two paraffin wax embedded blocks taken from the central tissue slice in each primary tumour were used. For definitive recognition of neural invasion, immunostaining for S-100 protein was applied to one slide; the other slide was stained with haematoxylin and eosin. RESULTS--Neural invasion was recognised in 34 of 121 (28%) primary gastric carcinomas. There were significant differences in tumour size, depth of tumour invasion, stage, and curability between patients with and without neural invasion. The five year survival rates of patients with and without neural invasion were 10 and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis, however, demonstrated that neural invasion was not an independent prognostic factor. CONCLUSIONS--Neural invasion could be an additional useful factor for providing information about the malignant potential of gastric carcinoma. This may be analogous to vessel permeation which is thought to be important, but is not an independent prognostic factor. Images PMID:7745113

  1. Acute phlegmonous gastritis complicated by delayed perforation.

    PubMed

    Min, Sun Young; Kim, Yong Ho; Park, Won Seo

    2014-03-28

    Here, we report on a case of acute phlegmonous gastritis (PG) complicated by delayed perforation. A 51-year-old woman presented with severe abdominal pain and septic shock symptoms. A computed tomography scan showed diffuse thickening of the gastric wall and distention with peritoneal fluid. Although we did not find definite evidence of free air on the computed tomography (CT) scan, the patient's clinical condition suggested diffuse peritonitis requiring surgical intervention. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a thickened gastric wall with suppurative intraperitoneal fluid in which Streptococcus pyogenes grew. There was no evidence of gastric or duodenal perforation. No further operation was performed at that time. The patient was conservatively treated with antibiotics and proton pump inhibitor, and her condition improved. However, she experienced abdominal and flank pain again on postoperative day 10. CT and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a large gastric ulcer with perforation. Unfortunately, although the CT showed further improvement in the thickening of the stomach and the mucosal defect, the patient's condition did not recover until a week later, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy taken on postoperative day 30 showed suspected gastric submucosal dissection. We performed total gastrectomy as a second operation, and the patient recovered without major complications. A pathological examination revealed a multifocal ulceration and necrosis from the mucosa to the serosa with perforation.

  2. No Mortality Difference Following Treatment with Terlipressin or Somatostatin in Cirrhotic Patients with Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Tsai, Chen-Chi; Tseng, Kuo-Chih; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Tseng, Chih-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of terlipressin versus somatostatin as adjuvants to endoscopic treatment in cirrhotic patients with gastric variceal bleeding. Patients and Methods: The National Health Insurance Database, derived from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, was used to enroll patients who were discharged with International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnoses of cirrhosis and who underwent gastric variceal sclerotherapy for gastric variceal bleeding between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2007. We observed treatment outcomes and identified clinical factors associated with mortality. Results: In total, we enrolled 311 cirrhosis patients who underwent sclerotherapy for active gastric variceal bleeding. Among them, 218 patients received terlipressin, and 93 patients received somatostatin. The overall 30 day mortality rate was 13.2% (41/311). A total of 78 (25.1%) patients underwent second-look endoscopy, but only 12 (7%) needed a second course of gastric variceal sclerotherapy. The overall 30-day mortality rates for patients treated with terlipressin and somatostatin were 13.3% and 12.9%, respectively, showing no statistically significant differences between outcomes in the two treatment groups (P = 0.672). The risk of 30-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HR: 3.257, 95% CI: 1.640-6.469, P= 0.001), acute renal failure (HR: 6.261, 95% CI: 2.376-16.499, P < 0.001), or hepatic encephalopathy (HR: 3.091, 95% CI: 1.430-6.680, P= 0.004). Conclusions: Mortality rates did not differ significantly between cirrhosis patients with acute gastric variceal bleeding who received somatostatin or terlipressin as adjuvants to endoscopy. PMID:27184641

  3. Advances in gastric cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Antonio; Cito, Letizia

    2012-09-10

    Gastric cancer is a multifactorial neoplastic pathology numbering among its causes both environmental and genetic predisposing factors. It is mainly diffused in South America and South-East Asia, where it shows the highest morbility percentages and it is relatively scarcely diffused in Western countries and North America. Although molecular mechanisms leading to gastric cancer development are only partially known, three main causes are well characterized: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) mutations. Unhealthy diet and H. pylori infection are able to induce in stomach cancer cells genotypic and phenotypic transformation, but their effects may be crossed by a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits. Various authors have recently focused their attention on the importance of a well balanced diet, suggesting a necessary dietary education starting from childhood. A constant surveillance will be necessary in people carrying E-cadherin mutations, since they are highly prone in developing gastric cancer, also within the inner stomach layers. Above all in the United States, several carriers decided to undergo a gastrectomy, preferring changing their lifestyle than living with the awareness of the development of a possible gastric cancer. This kind of choice is strictly personal, hence a decision cannot be suggested within the clinical management. Here we summarize the key points of gastric cancer prevention analyzing possible strategies referred to the different predisposing factors. We will discuss about the effects of diet, H. pylori infection and E-cadherin mutations and how each of them can be handled. PMID:23061031

  4. Overexpression of neuritin in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, MING; LI, YONGJUN; ZHONG, CHEN; LI, YONGKANG; NIU, JIANHUA; GONG, JIANPING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of neuritin in gastric cancer tissues, in order to explore the association between the expression of neuritin and the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. Tissue specimens were collected from 58 patients with gastric cancer. Immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to determine the expression of neuritin in the gastric cancer and corresponding adjacent normal gastric tissues. The expression rate of neuritin in gastric cancer tissues was 96.55% (56/58), demonstrating no statistically significant difference from the expression rate in the adjacent normal tissues (94.83%) (P>0.05). However, the rate of strong neuritin expression in gastric cancer tissues (82.76%) was significantly increased compared with the rate in the adjacent normal tissues (15.52%) (P<0.05). Neuritin expression exhibited no correlation with the gender or age of patients, tumor-node-metastasis staging, tumor depth, presence of lymph node metastasis, histological or pathological type of the tumor or presence of distant metastasis (P>0.05). As determined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis, the mRNA expression of neuritin in gastric cancer tissues was markedly increased compared with the expression in the adjacent normal tissues. In conclusion, neuritin is highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues, suggesting that neuritin may act as a novel potential target for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26788217

  5. Non-coding RNAs and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Fei; Chen, Sheng-Can; Xia, Tian; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Shao, Yong-Fu; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

    2014-05-14

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play key roles in development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered ncRNA expression is associated with gastric cancer occurrence, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is significantly related to gastric cancer tumor stage, size, differentiation and metastasis. MiRNAs interrupt cellular signaling pathways, inhibit the activity of tumor suppressor genes, and affect the cell cycle in gastric cancer cells. Some miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-106a and miR-421, could be potential markers for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new research hotspot among cancer-associated ncRNAs, play important roles in epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Several gastric cancer-associated lncRNAs, such as CCAT1, GACAT1, H19, and SUMO1P3, have been explored. In addition, Piwi-interacting RNAs, another type of small ncRNA that is recognized by gastroenterologists, are involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and piR-651/823 represents an efficient diagnostic biomarker of gastric cancer that can be detected in the blood and gastric juice. Small interfering RNAs also function in post-transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer and might be useful in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833871

  6. Effects of celecoxib on acid-challenged gastric mucosa of rats: comparison with metamizol and piroxicam.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Bettina; Alarcón De La Lastra, Catalina; Motilva, Virginia; La Casa, Carmen; Herrerias, Juan Manuel; Pozo, David; Calero, María José Martin

    2004-06-01

    Selective COX-2 inhibitors have been shown to produce fewer gastrointestinal adverse reactions than classical NSAIDs. Nevertheless, these new agents may worsen and delay the healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in animals. In this study, we compared the effects of a selective COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib), a preferential COX-1 inhibitor (piroxicam), and a nonnarcotic analgesic (metamizol) on normal gastric mucosa of rats and, on the other hand, in a setting of preexisting acute gastric lesions induced by 0.6 N hydrochloric acid. Under normal conditions, only piroxicam produced appreciable gastric lesions. However, after acid challenge the three assayed drugs induced significant macroscopic and microscopic damage. Myeloperoxidase activity as an index of neutrophil infiltration was elevated with celecoxib and piroxicam on normal gastric mucosa. On inflamed mucosa, celecoxib augmented enzymatic activity at the lower dose, which was parallelled by an increase in the interleukin 1beta level. Acid instillaton produced a significant rise in PGE2 content at 7 hr. Drug treatment after acid challenge decreased prostaglandin values in all cases, although to a lesser extent than after single drug dose administration. COX-2 mRNA expression was visible 1 hr after acid application, whereas COX-2 protein could only be detected at 7 hr. Piroxicam increased both expression levels. All NSAIDs enhanced transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor immunoreactivity around the acid-induced lesions. It is concluded that selective COX-2 inhibitors, like conventional NSAIDs, impair the healing of gastric damage, and therefore special attention should be paid in patients with gastric pathologies.

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric MALTomas: an up-to-date and therapy highlight.

    PubMed

    Santacroce, L; Cagiano, R; Del Prete, R; Bottalico, L; Sabatini, R; Carlaio, R G; Prejbeanu, R; Vermesan, H; Dragulescu, S I; Vermesan, D; Motoc, A; Losacco, T

    2008-01-01

    During the last 20 years Helicobacter pylori (Hp) has been, undoubtly, the star of gastroenterology and microbiology, so much to deserve the "Nobel prize 2005" for biology and medicine to its discoverers. More recently, an increased interest arised on Hp and its linkages with other medical fi elds such as immunology, surgery and dentistry. The outcome of the pathologies due to such bacterium is dependent on many factors, including bacterial genotype, host physiology and genetics, and environmental factors such as diet. In spite of its clear involvement in some pathologies like acute and chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, very little is known about another pathology recently proved to be closely associated to the infection by Hp: the gastric MALToma, which account for 7% of all newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The chronic infection of the gastric mucosa from Helicobacter pylori primes a complex pathogenic process which could determine the onset of the gastric cancer through some intermediary steps. On these bases, in 1994, the International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC) defined this bacterium a "class I carcinogenic agent" for gastric cancer. The MALT lymphomas are the most frequent lymphoid neoplasms of the digestive tract; we can also observe other and more rare lymphomatous tumours with specific clinical patterns, like the T-lymphoma associated with lymphomatous polyposis and enteropathy. The development of gastric lymphomas is usually preceded by the acquisition of lymphatic tissue, after inflammatory stimuli and particularly after the infection from Hp, which organizes itself with the characteristics of the MALT. Recently, a number of papers have highlighted the remarkable efficacy of Hp eradicating therapy in patients with low-grade MALT lymphoma of the stomach without other modalities, e.g. surgery and systemic chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to be helpful for a comprehensive understanding the possible connections between Hp

  8. Tuberculous gastric perforation: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deborshi; Gupta, Arun; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Agrawal, Vivek; Dargan, Puneet; Upreti, Lalendra; Arora, Vinod

    2004-01-01

    A 21-year-old woman presented with a 2-day history of acute abdominal pain. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a perforation in the lesser curve of the stomach. The patient suffered a bout of hematemesis, following which an endoscopy showed a bleeding blood vessel at the edge of the perforation. We performed an emergency distal gastrectomy, including the ulcer site. Histopathological examination revealed tuberculous granulation tissue and acid-fast bacilli in the ulcer. The patient was given antituberculosis therapy (ATT) postoperatively, and was well when last seen 1 year 5 months after surgery. We analyzed the clinical data of five cases of tuberculous gastric perforation (TGP), reported between 1948 and 2003, including our patient. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 45 years, with a mean age of 36.8 years (SD +/- 10.21), and a male to female ratio of 3 : 2. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgery or autopsy. Abdominal lymphadenopathy was present in all patients. Gastrectomy was performed in four patients, and two were given ATT. All four patients in the previous reports died of their disease.

  9. Percutaneous implantation of gastric electrodes - a novel technique applied in animals and in patients.

    PubMed

    Elfvin, A; Andersson, S; Abrahamsson, H; Edebo, A; Simrén, M; Lönroth, H

    2007-02-01

    Temporary electrodes implanted under general anaesthesia, or via an oral or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy route have been used for testing of gastric electrical stimulation (GES). We have developed a principle for percutaneous electrode implantation. Leads were constructed so that the tip could be anchored to the gastric submucosa under gastroscopic control. Acute experiments were performed in anaesthetized pigs. Three patients referred for nausea and/or vomiting and non-established indications for GES (chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, functional dyspepsia without gastroparesis) were evaluated. Electrode function was tested by recording and stimulation techniques. In the pigs, a slow-wave (SW) rhythm (3 min(-1)) was recorded with decrease in frequency at the end of the experiments. In the patients, implantation time from start of gastroscopy to end of electrode placement was 12-20 min. Electrode distance varied from 12 to 45 mm. Gastric electromyography showed a regular SW rhythm of about 3 min(-1). Antral pressure waves had intervals being multiples of the SW-to-SW time. With temporary GES for 7-9 days, weekly frequency of the referral symptoms decreased >80% in two patients and 33% in one patient. Temporary percutaneous gastric leads can easily be implanted and may be used for testing of GES and study of gastric electrophysiology. PMID:17244164

  10. Trop2 marks transient gastric fetal epithelium and adult regenerating cells after epithelial damage

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez Vallone, Valeria; Leprovots, Morgane; Strollo, Sandra; Vasile, Gabriela; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frederick; Vassart, Gilbert; Garcia, Marie-Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mouse fetal intestinal progenitors lining the epithelium prior to villogenesis grow as spheroids when cultured ex vivo and express the transmembrane glycoprotein Trop2 as a marker. Here, we report the characterization of Trop2-expressing cells from fetal pre-glandular stomach, growing as immortal undifferentiated spheroids, and their relationship with gastric development and regeneration. Trop2+ cells generating gastric spheroids differed from adult glandular Lgr5+ stem cells, but appeared highly related to fetal intestinal spheroids. Although they shared a common spheroid signature, intestinal and gastric fetal spheroid-generating cells expressed organ-specific transcription factors and were committed to intestinal and glandular gastric differentiation, respectively. Trop2 expression was transient during glandular stomach development, being lost at the onset of gland formation, whereas it persisted in the squamous forestomach. Undetectable under homeostasis, Trop2 was strongly re-expressed in glands after acute Lgr5+ stem cell ablation or following indomethacin-induced injury. These highly proliferative reactive adult Trop2+ cells exhibited a transcriptome displaying similarity with that of gastric embryonic Trop2+ cells, suggesting that epithelium regeneration in adult stomach glands involves the partial re-expression of a fetal genetic program. PMID:26989172

  11. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paulo Humberto M.; Martins, Maria do Carmo C.; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia M.; Chaves, Mariana H.; Sousa, Elcilene A.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Véras, Leiz Maria; Almeida, Fernanda Regina C.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall. PMID:24900960

  12. Phase II Study of Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan, and Capecitabine in Advanced Gastric/Gastroesophageal Junction Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  13. Irinotecan, Cisplatin, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  14. Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Early Gastric Cancer in the West: A Changing Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Justin M.

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains the fifth leading cancer diagnosis worldwide, and it is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The incidence of gastric cancer within the United States, however, has remained substantially lower than elsewhere, which has led to a lack of screening and surveillance in clinical practice. Patients with known premalignant lesions, such as gastric intestinal metaplasia, which can increase the risk of gastric cancer by as much as 6-fold, might benefit from surveillance guidelines to detect gastric cancer at an earlier, potentially curative stage. Chro-moendoscopy with optical magnification, narrow-band imaging, and other image-enhanced endoscopic techniques are commercially available to assist in the diagnosis of premalignant gastric lesions and early gastric cancer. Furthermore, endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection have become more widely available and offer potentially curative endoscopic resection for dysplastic lesions of the stomach and early gastric cancers, which is an alternative to traditional surgical resection. PMID:25013389

  15. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intended to measure the acidity of gastric fluid. Measurements of gastric acidity are used in the diagnosis...-secreting tumor of the pancreas), and related gastric disorders. (b) Classification. Class I...

  16. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brachycephalic dog with hiatal hernia.

    PubMed

    Aslanian, M E; Sharp, C R; Garneau, M S

    2014-10-01

    A brachycephalic dog was presented with an acute onset of retching and abdominal discomfort. The dog had a chronic history of stertor and exercise intolerance suggestive of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Radiographs were consistent with a Type II hiatal hernia. The dog was referred and within hours of admission became acutely painful and developed tympanic abdominal distension. A right lateral abdominal radiograph confirmed gastric dilatation and volvulus with herniation of the pylorus through the hiatus. An emergency exploratory coeliotomy was performed, during which the stomach was derotated, and an incisional gastropexy, herniorrhaphy and splenectomy were performed. A staphylectomy was performed immediately following the exploratory coeliotomy. The dog recovered uneventfully. Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in dogs with Type II hiatal hernia and should be considered a surgical emergency.

  17. THE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF GASTRIC CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Charles D.; Johnson, William D.; Wilbur, Richard S.; Lack, Arthur J.

    1961-01-01

    Established centers find that cytological study of gastric washings with saline or chymotrypsin, adequately performed, is a valuable diagnostic tool in the detection of early and curable gastric carcinoma. Our experience with a small series of 150 patients, studied by saline gastric washing, has emphasized the difficulties of collection and the particular importance of obtaining, by repeated washings if necessary, an adequate specimen of gastric epithelial cells for diagnosis, before an opinion is given. It seems likely that the cytological method will be of future value in study of the natural history of gastric malignant disease and in detection of its surface lesions in their earliest form in asymptomatic, known-susceptible persons. Further, it should become a complementary part of the “stomach profile” in gastric diagnostic problems, where roentgenologic and gastroscopic studies may be expected to reveal the older, necrotic, or infiltrative lesions; cytological study, the earlier and more superficial stages of disease. PMID:13862364

  18. Gastric Hamartomatous Polyps—Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Monika; Yang, Xiu; Zhang, Xuchen

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps are frequently encountered on endoscopic examinations. While many of these represent true epithelial lesions, some of the polyps may result from underlying stromal or lymphoid proliferations or even heterotopic tissue. Histologic examination is essential for accurate typing of the polyps to predict malignant potential and underlying possible genetic abnormalities. The focus of this review is on gastric hamartomatous polyps, which are relatively rare and diagnostically challenging. Though most of the gastric hamartomatous polyps are benign, certain types are associated with increased malignant potential. These include certain polyps associated with specific genetic familial polyposis syndromes and gastric inverted hamartomatous polyps. Identification of these polyps can result in the prevention or early diagnosis of gastric carcinoma and also help in the identification of family members with polyposis syndromes. The aim of this review is to categorize gastric hamartomatous polyps and aid in the identification of high-risk categories. PMID:27081323

  19. [Early gastric cancer--two case reports].

    PubMed

    Neziha, Belkahla; Houneida, Bouzi; Mohamed, Jouini; Hajer, Ouerghi; Nadia, Maamouri; Imed, Cheikh; Faouzi, Chebbi; Saadia, Bouraoui; Nidhameddine, Kchir; Ahmed, Ben Ammar

    2005-11-01

    Gastric cancer is a serious disease with a high mortality rate. Early diagnosis of the disease improves its prognosis. We report two cases of early gastric cancer and we specify the clinical, endoscopic, histologic and therapeutic aspects of the disease. This study is about two female patients, respectively, 36 and 70 years old. The diagnosis of early gastric cancer was based on pathologic examination of the resected stomach. The two patients are in remission 2 years and 6 months later, respectively. The diagnosis of early gastric cancer is often made on nonspecific symptoms. Oeso-gastro-duodenoscopy shows gastric mucosal anomalies. Pathologic examination of gastric biopsies confirm the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic ultrasound is essential; it specifies the submucosal infiltration and evaluates the lymph node invasion. Surgery is the primary treatment but in some cases endoscopic mucosal resection provides good long-term results. Early diagnosis of adenocarcinoma improves the prognosis of the disease, which remains poor nowadays.

  20. [Gastric magnetic resonance study (methods, semiotics)].

    PubMed

    Stashuk, G A

    2003-01-01

    The paper shows the potentialities of gastric study by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The methodic aspects of gastric study have been worked out. The MRI-semiotics of the unchanged and tumor-affected wall of the stomach and techniques in examining patients with gastric cancer of various sites are described. Using the developed procedure, MRI was performed in 199 patients, including 154 patients with gastric pathology and 45 control individuals who had no altered gastric wall. Great emphasis is placed on the role of MRI in the diagnosis of endophytic (diffuse) gastric cancer that is of priority value in its morphological structure. MRI was found to play a role in the diagnosis of the spread of a tumorous process both along the walls of the stomach and to its adjacent anatomic structures.

  1. Diversity of the Gastric Microbiota in Thoroughbred Racehorses Having Gastric Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Ho, Hungwui; Hwang, Hyeshin; Kim, Yongbaek; Han, Janet; Lee, Inhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2016-04-28

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is one of the most frequently reported diseases in thoroughbred racehorses. Although several risk factors for the development of gastric ulcers have been widely studied, investigation of microbiological factors has been limited. In this study, the presence of Helicobacter spp. and the gastric microbial communities of thoroughbred racehorses having mild to severe gastric ulcers were investigated. Although Helicobacter spp. were not detected using culture and PCR techniques from 52 gastric biopsies and 52 fecal samples, the genomic sequences of H. pylori and H. ganmani were detected using nextgeneration sequencing techniques from 2 out of 10 representative gastric samples. The gastric microbiota of horses was mainly composed of Firmicutes (50.0%), Proteobacteria (18.7%), Bacteroidetes (14.4%), and Actinobacteria (9.7%), but the proportion of each phylum varied among samples. There was no major difference in microbial composition among samples having mild to severe gastric ulcers. Using phylogenetic analysis, three distinct clusters were observed, and one cluster differed from the other two clusters in the frequency of feeding, amount of water consumption, and type of bedding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the gastric microbiota of thoroughbred racehorses having gastric ulcer and to evaluate the microbial diversity in relation to the severity of gastric ulcer and management factors. This study is important for further exploration of the gastric microbiota in racehorses and is ultimately applicable to improving animal and human health.

  2. Ruptured Left Gastric Artery Aneurysm: Unique Presentation with Hemothorax and Hemomediastinum

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Michael K.S. Vrazas, John I.

    2006-06-15

    Although splanchnic artery aneurysms are uncommon and remain mostly asymptomatic, they are associated with a high mortality rate when they rupture. We discuss the case of a 66-year-old woman who had successful embolization of a left gastric artery aneurysm after presenting with acute chest pain and the unusual computed tomography findings of hemothorax and hemomediastinum. To our knowledge, only one other similar case has been published in the literature.

  3. Molecular Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-Related Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Marusawa, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Norihiko; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection plays a crucial role in gastric carcinogenesis. H pylori exerts oncogenic effects on gastric mucosa through complex interaction between bacterial virulence factors and host inflammatory responses. On the other hand, gastric cancer develops via stepwise accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in H pylori-infected gastric mucosa. Recent comprehensive analyses of gastric cancer genomes indicate a multistep process of genetic alterations as well as possible molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis. Both genetic processes of gastric cancer development and molecular oncogenic pathways related to H pylori infection are important to completely understand the pathogenesis of H pylori-related gastric cancer.

  4. Gastric cancer: new genetic developments.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Henry T; Grady, William; Suriano, Gianpaolo; Huntsman, David

    2005-06-01

    Gastric cancer's (GC) incidence shows large geographic differences worldwide with the lowest rates occurring in most Western industrialized countries including the United States and the United Kingdom; in contrast, relatively high rates of GC occur in Japan, Korea, China, and South America, particularly Chile. The Laurén classification system classifies GC under two major histopathological variants: 1) an intestinal type and 2) a diffuse type. The intestinal type is more common in the general population, more likely to be sporadic and related to environmental factors such as diet, particularly salted fish and meat as well as smoked foods, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use. It exhibits components of glandular, solid, or intestinal architecture, as well as tubular structures. On the other hand, the diffuse type is more likely to have a primary genetic etiology, a subset of which, known as hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), is due to the E-cadherin (CDH1) germline mutation. The diffuse type pathology is characterized by poorly cohesive clusters of cells which infiltrate the gastric wall, leading to its widespread thickening and rigidity of the gastric wall, known as linitis plastica. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with risk for both the intestinal and diffuse varieties of gastric cancer. Germline truncating mutations of the CDH1 gene, which codes for the E-cadherin protein, were initially identified in three Maori families from New Zealand that were predisposed to diffuse GC. Since then, similar mutations have been described in more than 40 additional HDGC families of diverse ethnic backgrounds. It is noteworthy that two-thirds of HDGC families reported to date have proved negative for the CDH1 germline mutation. A number of candidate genes have been identified through analysis of the molecular biology of E-cadherin. Patients with evidence of the CDH1 germline mutation in the context of a family history of HDGC must be considered as candidates

  5. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Saleh; Lahav, Ziv; Rmeileh, Ayman Abu; Mizrahi, Meir

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk. PMID:27579191

  6. Oral bioavailability, efficacy and gastric tolerability of P2026, a novel nitric oxide-releasing diclofenac in rat.

    PubMed

    Pathan, Asif R; Karwa, Manoj; Pamidiboina, Venu; Deshattiwar, Jagannath J; Deshmukh, Nitin J; Gaikwad, Parikshit P; Mali, Sunil V; Desai, Dattatraya C; Dhiman, Mini; Thanga Mariappan, T; Sharma, Somesh D; Satyam, Apparao; Nemmani, Kumar V S

    2010-08-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate, P2026 [(2-((2-(nitrooxy)ethyl)disulfanyl)ethyl 2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenylamino)phenyl)acetate)], a novel NO (nitric oxide) donor prodrug of diclofenac for its ability to release NO and diclofenac, and whether P2026 provides advantage of improved activity/gastric tolerability over diclofenac. Oral bioavailability of P2026 was estimated from plasma concentration of diclofenac and nitrate/nitrite (NOx). Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in three different models of inflammation: acute (carrageenan-induced paw oedema), chronic (adjuvant-induced arthritis), and systemic (lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock). Gastric tolerability was evaluated from compound's propensity to cause gastric ulcers. P2026 exhibited dose-dependent diclofenac and NOx release. Similar to diclofenac, P2026 showed potent anti-inflammatory activity in acute and chronic model, whereas it improved activity in systemic model. Both diclofenac and P2026 inhibited gastric prostaglandin, but only diclofenac produced dose-dependent haemorrhagic ulcers. Thus, the results suggest that coupling of NO and diclofenac contribute to improved gastric tolerability while retaining the anti-inflammatory properties of diclofenac.

  7. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography comparison of gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Fu, Qiang; Dong, You-Wen; Liu, Jian-Jing; Song, Xiu-Yu; Dai, Dong; Zuo, Cong; Xu, Wen-Gui

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) features in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. METHODS Patients with newly diagnosed gastric lymphoma or gastric carcinoma who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment were included in this study. We reviewed and analyzed the PET/CT features of gastric wall lesions, including FDG avidity, pattern (focal/diffuse), and intensity [maximal standard uptake value: (SUVmax)]. The correlation of SUVmax with gastric clinicopathological variables was investigated by χ2 test, and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the differential diagnostic value of SUVmax-associated parameters in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. RESULTS Fifty-two patients with gastric lymphoma and 73 with gastric carcinoma were included in this study. Abnormal gastric FDG accumulation was found in 49 patients (94.23%) with gastric lymphoma and 65 patients (89.04%) with gastric carcinoma. Gastric lymphoma patients predominantly presented with type I and type II lesions, whereas gastric carcinoma patients mainly had type III lesions. The SUVmax (13.39 ± 9.24 vs 8.35 ± 5.80, P < 0.001) and SUVmax/THKmax (maximal thickness) (7.96 ± 4.02 vs 4.88 ± 3.32, P < 0.001) were both higher in patients with gastric lymphoma compared with gastric carcinoma. ROC curve analysis suggested a better performance of SUVmax/THKmax in the evaluation of gastric lesions between gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma in comparison with that of SUVmax alone. CONCLUSION PET/CT features differ between gastric lymphoma and carcinoma, which can improve PET/CT evaluation of gastric wall lesions and help differentiate gastric lymphoma from gastric carcinoma. PMID:27678362

  8. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography comparison of gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Fu, Qiang; Dong, You-Wen; Liu, Jian-Jing; Song, Xiu-Yu; Dai, Dong; Zuo, Cong; Xu, Wen-Gui

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) features in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. METHODS Patients with newly diagnosed gastric lymphoma or gastric carcinoma who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment were included in this study. We reviewed and analyzed the PET/CT features of gastric wall lesions, including FDG avidity, pattern (focal/diffuse), and intensity [maximal standard uptake value: (SUVmax)]. The correlation of SUVmax with gastric clinicopathological variables was investigated by χ2 test, and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the differential diagnostic value of SUVmax-associated parameters in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. RESULTS Fifty-two patients with gastric lymphoma and 73 with gastric carcinoma were included in this study. Abnormal gastric FDG accumulation was found in 49 patients (94.23%) with gastric lymphoma and 65 patients (89.04%) with gastric carcinoma. Gastric lymphoma patients predominantly presented with type I and type II lesions, whereas gastric carcinoma patients mainly had type III lesions. The SUVmax (13.39 ± 9.24 vs 8.35 ± 5.80, P < 0.001) and SUVmax/THKmax (maximal thickness) (7.96 ± 4.02 vs 4.88 ± 3.32, P < 0.001) were both higher in patients with gastric lymphoma compared with gastric carcinoma. ROC curve analysis suggested a better performance of SUVmax/THKmax in the evaluation of gastric lesions between gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma in comparison with that of SUVmax alone. CONCLUSION PET/CT features differ between gastric lymphoma and carcinoma, which can improve PET/CT evaluation of gastric wall lesions and help differentiate gastric lymphoma from gastric carcinoma.

  9. The psyche and gastric functions.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Gerardo; Compare, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Although the idea that gastric problems are in some way related to mental activity dates back to the beginning of the last century, until now it has received scant attention by physiologists, general practitioners and gastroenterologists. The major breakthrough in understanding the interactions between the central nervous system and the gut was the discovery of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the 19th century. ENS (also called 'little brain') plays a crucial role in the regulation of the physiological gut functions. Furthermore, the identification of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the development of specific CRF receptor antagonists have permitted to characterize the neurochemical basis of the stress response. The neurobiological response to stress in mammals involves three key mechanisms: (1) stress is perceived and processed by higher brain centers; (2) the brain mounts a neuroendocrine response by way of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and (3) the brain triggers feedback mechanisms by HPA and ANS stimulation to restore homeostasis. Various stressors such as anger, fear, painful stimuli, as well as life or social learning experiences affect both the individual's physiologic and gastric function, revealing a two-way interaction between brain and stomach. There is overwhelming experimental and clinical evidence that stress influences gastric function, thereby outlining the pathogenesis of gastric diseases such as functional dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. A better understanding of the role of pathological stressors in the modulation of disease activity may have important pathogenetic and therapeutic implications. PMID:24732184

  10. Imaging gastric pennies in children.

    PubMed

    Lane, Joshua E; Boltri, John M

    2005-04-01

    Pennies are among the most common foreign objects ingested by children. This occurrence has traditionally been managed conservatively. However, more recent studies indicate that the higher zinc composition of pennies produced after 1982 may be more dangerous than previously believed. We reported earlier the in situ reaction of such pennies following immersion in hydrochloric acid at gastric pH. The present study examines the utility of radiographic examination of such pennies.

  11. Sensitive and Specific Detection of Early Gastric Cancer Using DNA Methylation Analysis of Gastric Washes

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Kim, Hyun Soo; Castoro, Ryan J.; Chung, Woonbok; Estecio, Marcos R. H.; Kondo, Kimie; Guo, Yi; Ahmed, Saira S.; Toyota, Minoru; Itoh, Fumio; Suk, Ki Tae; Cho, Mee-Yon; Shen, Lanlan; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Aberrant DNA methylation is an early and frequent process in gastric carcinogenesis and could be useful for detection of gastric neoplasia. We hypothesized that methylation analysis of DNA recovered from gastric washes could be used to detect gastric cancer. Methods We studied 51 candidate genes in 7 gastric cancer cell lines and 24 samples (training set) and identified 6 for further studies. We examined the methylation status of these genes in a test set consisting of 131 gastric neoplasias at various stages. Finally, we validated the 6 candidate genes in a different population of 40 primary gastric cancer samples and 113 non-neoplastic gastric mucosa samples. Results 6 genes (MINT25, RORA, GDNF, ADAM23, PRDM5, MLF1) showed frequent differential methylation between gastric cancer and normal mucosa in the training, test and validation sets. GDNF and MINT25 were most sensitive molecular markers of early stage gastric cancer while PRDM5 and MLF1 were markers of a field defect. There was a close correlation (r=0.5 to 0.9, p=0.03 to 0.001) between methylation levels in tumor biopsy and gastric washes. MINT25 methylation had the best sensitivity (90%), specificity (96%), and area under the ROC curve (0.961) in terms of tumor detection in gastric washes. Conclusions These findings suggest MINT25 is a sensitive and specific marker for screening in gastric cancer. Additionally we have developed a new methodology for gastric cancer detection by DNA methylation in gastric washes. PMID:19375421

  12. The gastroprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Monolluma quadrangula against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Bader, Ammar; Shahzad, Naiyer; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed S; Gushash, Ahmad S; Hasanpourghadi, Mohadeseh

    2016-01-01

    Monolluma quadrangula (Forssk.) Plowes is used in Saudi traditional medicines to treat gastric ulcers. The hydroalcoholic extract of M. quadrangula (MHAE) was used in an in vivo model to investigate its gastroprotective effects against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. Five groups of Sprague Dawley rats were used. The first group was treated with 10% Tween 20 as a control. The other four groups included rats treated with absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg) to induce an ulcer, rats treated with 20 mg/kg omeprazole as a reference drug, and rats treated with 150 or 300 mg/kg MHAE. One hour later, the rats were administered absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg) orally. Animals fed with MHAE exhibited a significantly increased pH, gastric wall mucus, and flattening of the gastric mucosa, as well as a decreased area of gastric mucosal damage. Histology confirmed the results; extensive destruction of the gastric mucosa was observed in the ulcer control group, and the lesions penetrated deep into the gastric mucosa with leukocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer and edema. However, gastric protection was observed in the rats pre-fed with plant extracts. Periodic acid–Schiff staining of the gastric wall revealed a remarkably intensive uptake of magenta color in the experimental rats pretreated with MHAE compared to the ulcer control group. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed an upregulation of the Hsp70 protein and a downregulation of the Bax protein in rats pretreated with MHAE compared with the control rats. Gastric homogenate showed significantly increased catalase and superoxide dismutase, and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced in the rats pretreated with MHAE compared to the control group. In conclusion, MHAE exhibited a gastroprotective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. The mechanism of this gastroprotection included an increase in pH and gastric wall mucus, an increase in endogenous enzymes, and a decrease in the level of

  13. The gastroprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Monolluma quadrangula against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Bader, Ammar; Shahzad, Naiyer; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed S; Gushash, Ahmad S; Hasanpourghadi, Mohadeseh

    2016-01-01

    Monolluma quadrangula (Forssk.) Plowes is used in Saudi traditional medicines to treat gastric ulcers. The hydroalcoholic extract of M. quadrangula (MHAE) was used in an in vivo model to investigate its gastroprotective effects against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. Five groups of Sprague Dawley rats were used. The first group was treated with 10% Tween 20 as a control. The other four groups included rats treated with absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg) to induce an ulcer, rats treated with 20 mg/kg omeprazole as a reference drug, and rats treated with 150 or 300 mg/kg MHAE. One hour later, the rats were administered absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg) orally. Animals fed with MHAE exhibited a significantly increased pH, gastric wall mucus, and flattening of the gastric mucosa, as well as a decreased area of gastric mucosal damage. Histology confirmed the results; extensive destruction of the gastric mucosa was observed in the ulcer control group, and the lesions penetrated deep into the gastric mucosa with leukocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer and edema. However, gastric protection was observed in the rats pre-fed with plant extracts. Periodic acid-Schiff staining of the gastric wall revealed a remarkably intensive uptake of magenta color in the experimental rats pretreated with MHAE compared to the ulcer control group. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed an upregulation of the Hsp70 protein and a downregulation of the Bax protein in rats pretreated with MHAE compared with the control rats. Gastric homogenate showed significantly increased catalase and superoxide dismutase, and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced in the rats pretreated with MHAE compared to the control group. In conclusion, MHAE exhibited a gastroprotective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. The mechanism of this gastroprotection included an increase in pH and gastric wall mucus, an increase in endogenous enzymes, and a decrease in the level of MDA

  14. Gastric Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Tarun; Alekshun, Todd J.

    2010-01-01

    Case: A 63-year-old male presented with unintentional weight loss of 20 pounds over a 4-month duration. He reported loss of appetite, intermittent post-prandial nausea, bloating and early satiety. He also complained of dyspepsia and had been treated for reflux during the previous 2 years. He denied vomiting, dysphagia, odynophagia, abdominal pain, melena, hematochezia, or alterations in bowel habits. Additionally, he denied fevers, night sweats, cough, or dyspnea. He quit smoking 25 years ago, and denied alcohol use. His past medical history was significant for basal cell carcinoma treated with local curative therapy and he was without recurrence on surveillance. Pertinent family history included a paternal uncle with lung cancer at the age of 74. Physical examination was unremarkable except for occult heme-positive stools. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated liver enzymes (ALT-112, AST-81, AlkPhos-364). CT scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis showed diffuse heterogeneous liver with extensive nodularity, raising the concern for metastases. Serum tumor-markers: PSA, CEA, CA 19-9, and AFP were all within normal limits. Screening colonoscopy was normal, but esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a malignant-appearing ulcerative lesion involving the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric cardia. Pathology confirmed an invasive gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of a hepatic lesion revealed malignant cells with cytologic features consistent with large-cell type carcinoma and positive immunostaining for synaptophysin favoring neuroendocrine differentiation. A PET-CT demonstrated intense diffuse FDG uptake of the liver, suggesting diffuse hepatic parenchymal infiltration by tumor. There were multiple foci of intense osseous FDG uptake with corresponding osteolytic lesions seen on CT scan. The remaining intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic structures were unremarkable. The patient will receive palliative systemic therapy

  15. Gastric Adenocarcinoma after Gastric Bypass for Morbid Obesity: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maxwel Capsy Boga; Lopes, Luiz Roberto; Coelho Neto, João de Souza; Tercioti, Valdir; Andreollo, Nelson Adami

    2013-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma after gastric bypass for morbid obesity is rare but has been described. The diet restriction, weight loss, and difficult assessment of the bypassed stomach, after this procedure, hinder and delay its diagnosis. We present a 52-year-old man who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass 2 years ago and whose previous upper digestive endoscopy was considered normal. He presented with weight loss, attributed to the procedure, and progressive dysphagia. Upper digestive endoscopy revealed stenosing tumor in gastric pouch whose biopsy showed diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma. He underwent total gastrectomy, left lobectomy, distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, segmental colectomy, and bowel resection with esophagojejunal anastomosis. The histopathological analysis confirmed the presence of gastric cancer. The pathogenesis of gastric pouch adenocarcinoma is discussed with a literature review. PMID:23509467

  16. [Perforated duodenal ulcer in a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operated patient can be a diagnostic challenge].

    PubMed

    Wied, Christian; Akralið, Guðny B; Lauritsen, Morten Laksáfoss; Naver, Lars Peter Skat

    2013-02-25

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is an increasingly used procedure when treating morbid obesity. Due to the extensive gastrointestinal rearrangement, diagnostic evaluation of patients with gastric bypass and acute abdominal pain can be difficult. We present a case of a perforated duodenal ulcer in a RYGBP operated patient, where free abdominal fluid, but hardly any pneumoperitoneum was seen on a computed tomography. Free intraperitoneal fluid is an important finding and should give suspicion of the need for emergency surgery in RYGBP operated patients with abdominal pain.

  17. Role of GP82 in the selective binding to gastric mucin during oral infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Staquicini, Daniela I; Martins, Rafael M; Macedo, Silene; Sasso, Gisela R S; Atayde, Vanessa D; Juliano, Maria A; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2010-03-02

    Oral infection by Trypanosoma cruzi has been the primary cause of recent outbreaks of acute Chagas' diseases. This route of infection may involve selective binding of the metacyclic trypomastigote surface molecule gp82 to gastric mucin as a first step towards invasion of the gastric mucosal epithelium and subsequent systemic infection. Here we addressed that question by performing in vitro and in vivo experiments. A recombinant protein containing the complete gp82 sequence (J18), a construct lacking the gp82 central domain (J18*), and 20-mer synthetic peptides based on the gp82 central domain, were used for gastric mucin binding and HeLa cell invasion assays, or for in vivo experiments. Metacyclic trypomastigotes and J18 bound to gastric mucin whereas J18* failed to bind. Parasite or J18 binding to submaxillary mucin was negligible. HeLa cell invasion by metacyclic forms was not affected by gastric mucin but was inhibited in the presence of submaxillary mucin. Of peptides tested for inhibition of J18 binding to gastric mucin, the inhibitory peptide p7 markedly reduced parasite invasion of HeLa cells in the presence of gastric mucin. Peptide p7*, with the same composition as p7 but with a scrambled sequence, had no effect. Mice fed with peptide p7 before oral infection with metacyclic forms developed lower parasitemias than mice fed with peptide p7*. Our results indicate that selective binding of gp82 to gastric mucin may direct T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes to stomach mucosal epithelium in oral infection.

  18. Laparoscopic gastric band removal complicated by splenosis.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Gregory; Schoucair, Ramy; Shimlati, Rasha; Rached, Linda; Khoury, George

    2016-08-01

    In any patient, the occurrence of postsplenectomy splenosis can complicate the planning of further surgeries. In our case, the gastric sleeve procedure was aborted, as it would have put the patient's life in danger. Therefore, only the gastric band was removed, eliminating future erosion. PMID:27525091

  19. The journey of personalizing gastric cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer ranks the fourth most prevalent malignancy yet it is the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Every year, gastric cancer adds nearly 1 million new cancer cases, and 723,000 or 10% of cancer deaths to the global cancer burden. Approximately, 405,000 or 43% of the new cases and 325,000 or 45% of the deaths are in China, making gastric cancer a particularly challenging malignancy. This thematic series discusses the molecular classifications of gastric cancer by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG) as well as the implications in personalized therapeutic choices; discusses the evolution of gastric surgery and presents perspectives on surgical techniques in treating gastric cancer; and reviews current and emerging targeted agents as well as immunotherapies in treating gastric cancer. With these advancements in molecular characterization, surgical intervention, and targeted and immunotherapies, gastric cancer will enter a personalized medicine era in the next 5 years. PMID:27581614

  20. Ramucirumab: successfully targeting angiogenesis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Javle, Milind; Smyth, Elizabeth C; Chau, Ian

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer globally and represents the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality. Early detection, aggressive surgical resection, and postoperative adjuvant therapy have led to survival improvement for early-stage gastric cancer, particularly in Asian countries. Unfortunately, advanced gastric cancer continues to pose a formidable challenge with few gains being reported recently. Trastuzumab was the first targeted agent to be approved for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer in 2010. The failure of the AVAGAST trial was a setback for antiangiogenic therapy for this disease. Ramucirumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-R2 and prevents its activation. The recent REGARD trial was a randomized phase III trial of ramucirumab vs. placebo for patients with advanced, pretreated gastric cancer that met its primary endpoint of increased overall survival. The toxicity of ramucirumab was modest in this setting, with an increased risk of grade 3 or higher hypertension (8% vs. 3%, with ramucirumab and placebo, respectively). The subsequent RAINBOW trial of paclitaxel plus ramucirumab vs. paclitaxel plus placebo for advanced pretreated gastric cancer confirmed the survival advantage of this antiangiogenic agent in gastric cancer. Ramucirumab is the first FDA-approved therapy for advanced gastric cancer after prior chemotherapy.

  1. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed. PMID:26814181

  2. Laparoscopic gastric band removal complicated by splenosis.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Gregory; Schoucair, Ramy; Shimlati, Rasha; Rached, Linda; Khoury, George

    2016-08-01

    In any patient, the occurrence of postsplenectomy splenosis can complicate the planning of further surgeries. In our case, the gastric sleeve procedure was aborted, as it would have put the patient's life in danger. Therefore, only the gastric band was removed, eliminating future erosion.

  3. Polyamines are Inhibitors of Gastric Acid Secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Tushar K.; Nandi, Jyotirmoy; Pidhorodeckyj, Nykolai; Meng-Ai, Zhou

    1982-03-01

    The naturally occurring organic polycations such as spermine and spermidine inhibit histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion by bullfrog gastric mucosa in vitro; spermine is much more potent than spermidine. Unlike the H2 receptor antagonists, the polyamines are completely ineffective from the nutrient side and are effective only from the secretory side of the chambered mucosa. The polyamine effects could be reversed by increasing K+ concentration in the secretory solution. Studies with isolated gastric microsomal vesicles demonstrate that the polyamines do not inhibit the gastric H+,K+-ATPase but greatly decrease the ATPase-mediated uptake of H+ under appropriate conditions. For the latter effects the presence of polyamine within the vesicle interior was found to be essential. Our data strongly suggest an uncoupling of the gastric H+,K+-ATPase system by the polyamines. The therapeutic potential of these and similar compounds in the treatment of hyperacidity and peptic ulcer is discussed.

  4. Helicobacter pylori, Cancer, and the Gastric Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Lydia E; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this disease. Although the stomach was once thought to be a sterile environment, it is now known to house many bacterial species leading to a complex interplay between H. pylori and other residents of the gastric microbiota. In addition to the role of H. pylori virulence factors, host genetic polymorphisms, and diet, it is now becoming clear that components of the gastrointestinal microbiota may also influence H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss emerging data regarding the gastric microbiota in humans and animal models and alterations that occur to the composition of the gastric microbiota in the presence of H. pylori infection that may augment the risk of developing gastric cancer. PMID:27573782

  5. Cate's Story: Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Megan

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and is thought to be responsible for about 10% of cancer-related deaths across the globe. A small proportion of all gastric cancers arise because of a known hereditary syndrome, the most common of which is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). This is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an increased risk of developing diffuse gastric cancer at a young age. The gene responsible for HDGC is CDH1, also known as E-cadherin, a germline mutation conferring an 80% risk of developing gastric cancer during the lifetime of the carrier. Females with germline CDH1 mutations face an additional risk of developing lobular breast cancer, with a reported cumulative risk of 60% by the age of 80 years.
.

  6. Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbino, Andrea; Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa; Curci, Silvana; Colella, Matilde

    2010-06-01

    Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

  7. Isoprenaline Induces Periostin Expression in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-Xiao; Xi, Hong-Qing; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Geng, Zhi-Jun; Yang, Shao-Wei; Lu, Yan-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Periostin mediates critical steps in gastric cancer and is involved in various signaling pathways. However, the roles of periostin in promoting gastric cancer metastasis are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance between periostin expression and gastric cancer progression and the role of stress-related hormones in the regulation of cancer development and progression. Materials and Methods Normal, cancerous and metastatic gastric tissues were collected from patients diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer. The in vivo expression of periostin was evaluated by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescent staining. Meanwhile, human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines MKN-45 and BGC-803 were used to detect the in vitro expression of periostin by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting. Results Periostin is expressed in the stroma of the primary gastric tumors and metastases, but not in normal gastric tissue. In addition, we observed that periostin is located mainly in pericryptal fibroblasts, but not in the tumor cells, and strongly correlated to the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA). Furthermore, the distribution patterns of periostin were broader as the clinical staging of tumors progressed. We also identified a role of stress-related signaling in promoting cancer development and progression, and found that isoprenaline upregulated expression levels of periostin in gastric cancer cells. Conclusion These findings suggest that the distribution pattern of periostin was broader as the clinical staging of the tumor progressed and found that isoprenaline upregulated expression levels of periostin in gastric cancer cells. PMID:26996552

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection induced gastric cancer; advance in gastric stem cell research and the remaining challenges

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of gastric cancer, which remains an important health care challenge. Recent investigation in gastric stem cell or progenitor cell biology has uncovered valuable information in understanding the gastric gland renewal and maintenance of homeostasis, they also provide clues for further defining the mechanisms by which gastric cancer may originate and progress. Lgr5, Villin-promoter, TFF2-mRNA and Mist have recently been identified as gastric stem/progenitor cell markers; their identification enriched our understanding on the gastric stem cell pathobiology during chronic inflammation and metaplasia. In addition, advance in gastric cancer stem cell markers such as CD44, CD90, CD133, Musashi-1 reveal novel information on tumor cell behavior and disease progression implicated for therapeutics. However, two critical questions remain to be of considerable challenges for future exploration; one is how H. pylori or chronic inflammation affects gastric stem cell or their progenitors, which give rise to mucus-, acid-, pepsinogen-, and hormone-secreting cell lineages. Another one is how bacterial infection or inflammation induces oncogenic transformation and propagates into tumors. Focus on the interactions of H. pylori with gastric stem/progenitor cells and their microenvironment will be instrumental to decipher the initiation and origin of gastric cancer. Future studies in these areas will be critical to uncover molecular mechanisms of chronic inflammation-mediated oncogenic transformation and provide options for cancer prevention and intervention. We review recent progress and discuss future research directions in these important research fields. PMID:23217022

  9. Current Perspectives on Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Marqués-Lespier, Juan M; González-Pons, María; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is third leading cause of cancer-related death. Only 28.3% of new GC cases survive more than 5 years. Although incidence has declined in the United States, an increase is estimated for 2016. Risk factors include sex (risk is higher in men), Helicobacter pylori infection, heredity, and lifestyle. GC is usually diagnosed between the ages of 60-80 years. Prognosis of GC is largely dependent on the tumor stage at diagnosis and classification as intestinal or diffuse type; diffuse-type GC has worse prognosis. Chemoprevention has been shown to decrease risk, but is currently not used clinically. PMID:27546840

  10. Triple gastric peptic ulcer perforation.

    PubMed

    Radojkovic, Milan; Mihajlovic, Suncica; Stojanovic, Miroslav; Stanojevic, Goran; Damnjanovic, Zoran

    2016-03-01

    Patients with advanced or metastatic cancer have compromised nutritional, metabolic, and immune conditions. Nevertheless, little is known about gastroduodenal perforation in cancer patients. Described in the present report is the case of a 41-year old woman with stage IV recurrent laryngeal cancer, who used homeopathic anticancer therapy and who had triple peptic ulcer perforation (PUP) that required surgical repair. Triple gastric PUP is a rare complication. Self-administration of homeopathic anticancer medication should be strongly discouraged when evidence-based data regarding efficacy and toxicity is lacking.

  11. Biphasic nature of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J A; Urbain, J L; Adler, L P; Charkes, N D; Maurer, A H; Krevsky, B; Knight, L C; Fisher, R S; Malmud, L S

    1988-01-01

    The existence of a lag phase during the gastric emptying of solid foods is controversial. It has been hypothesised that among other early events, the stomach requires a period of time to process solid food to particles small enough to be handled as a liquid. At present no standardised curve fitting techniques exist for the characterisation and quantification of the lag phase or the emptying rate of solids and liquids. We have evaluated the ability of a modified power exponential function to define the emptying parameters of two different solid meals. Dual labelled meals were administered to 24 normal volunteers. The subjects received meals consisting of either Tc-99m in vivo labelled chicken liver or Tc-99m-egg, which have different densities, and In-111-DTPA in water. The emptying curves were biphasic in nature. For solids, this represented an initial delay in emptying or lag phase followed by an equilibrium emptying phase characterised by a constant rate of emptying. The curves were analysed using a modified power exponential function of the form y(t) = 1-(1-e-kt)beta, where y(t) is the fractional meal retention at time t, k is the gastric emptying rate in min-1, and beta is the extrapolated y-intercept from the terminal portion of the curve. The length of the lag phase and half-emptying time increased with solid food density (31 +/- 8 min and 77.6 +/- 11.2 min for egg and 62 +/- 16 min and 94.1 +/- 14.2 min for chicken liver, respectively). After the lag phase, both solids had similar emptying rates, and these rates were identical to those of the liquids. In vitro experiments indicated that the egg meal disintegrated much more rapidly than the chicken liver under mechanical agitation in gastric juice, lending further support to the hypothesis that the initial lag in emptying of solid food is due to the processing of food into particles small enough to pass the pylorus. We conclude that the modified power exponential model permits characterisation of the biphasic

  12. Gastritis, nitrosamines, and gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stemmermann, G.N.; Mower, H.

    1981-01-01

    Gastritis is associated with peptic ulcer, gastroenterostomy, pernicious anemia, and exposure to nitrosamines. Once established, the process may be self-perpetuating, resulting in atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. This can be explained by the process of endogenous nitrosation of amines in the inflamed gastric mucosa. Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Several drugs given parenterally have been identified as mutagenic nitroso compounds in homogenates of human and canine antral mucosa. Nitrite for this process is apparently derived from the inflamed mucosa. Different amines appear to be nitrosated at different places in the antrum, suggesting the presence of site-specific enzymes that control these reactions.

  13. Molecular events in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mahu, C; Purcarea, AP; Gheorghe, CM; Purcarea, MR

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer represents an important problem for the public health, being one of the main causes of mortality. At present, it represents the second cause of mortality due to cancer, after the bronchopulmonary cancer in men and the fourth cause of mortality in women. Important progresses have been made in the last couple of years in determining the neoplastic etiopathogenesis, but it cannot be affirmed that the genetic mutations chain, which leads to the appearance of the malignant cell, has been fully understood. PMID:25408758

  14. Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia in Systemic Sclerosis: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Parrado, Raphael Hernando; Lemus, Hernan Nicolas; Coral-Alvarado, Paola Ximena; Quintana López, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is a rare entity with unique endoscopic appearance described as “watermelon stomach.” It has been associated with systemic sclerosis but the pathophysiological changes leading to GAVE have not been explained and still remain uncertain. Methods. Databases Medline, Scopus, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane were searched for relevant papers. The main search words were “Gastric antral vascular ectasia,” “Watermelon Stomach,” “GAVE,” “Scleroderma,” and “Systemic Sclerosis.” Fifty-four papers were considered for this review. Results. GAVE is a rare entity in the spectrum of manifestations of systemic sclerosis with unknown pathogenesis. Most patients with systemic sclerosis and GAVE present with asymptomatic anemia, iron deficiency anemia, or heavy acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Symptomatic therapy and endoscopic ablation are the first-line of treatment. Surgical approach may be recommended for patients who do not respond to medical or endoscopic therapies. Conclusion. GAVE can be properly diagnosed and treated. Early diagnosis is key in the management of GAVE because it makes symptomatic therapies and endoscopic approaches feasible. A high index of suspicion is critical. Future studies and a critical review of the current findings about GAVE are needed to understand the role of this condition in systemic sclerosis. PMID:26633973

  15. Current concepts in gastric motility in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    De Block, Christophe E M; De Leeuw, Ivo H; Pelckmans, Paul A; Van Gaal, Luc F

    2006-02-01

    This review addresses the current concepts in our understanding of the epidemiology, mechanisms, symptoms, clinical consequences, diagnosis and treatment of delayed gastric emptying in patients with diabetes. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly postprandial fullness, nausea, vomiting and abdominal bloating, occur in 30-50% of patients with diabetes. The use of scintigraphic techniques, and more recently breath test, has shown that as many as 50% of diabetic patients have gastroparesis. Diabetic gastroparesis comprises a decrease in fundic and antral motor activity, a reduction or a lack of the interdigestive migrating motor complex, gastric dysrhythmias, and pylorospasms. The mechanisms involved include: autonomic neuropathy, acute hyperglycaemia, and abnormalities in gastrointestinal hormones and neuropeptides. Other possible contributing factors such as hypothyroidism and H. pylori infection are discussed as well. Because treatment is possible by means of dietary advise, prokinetics or surgical procedures, it is important to identify risk factors for and to diagnose gastroparesis to prevent morbidity by controlling gastrointestinal symptoms, and to enhance glucoregulation. Understanding the current advances is key to the development of novel therapeutic strategies and for making rational choices in the management of diabetic gastroparesis. PMID:18220621

  16. Gastroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Leaf against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab.; Tayyab, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5 mL/kg) orally, positive control was administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug) and 2 groups were received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5 mL/kg) was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2 g/kg and 5 g/kg). PMID:24783203

  17. Gastroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Golbabapour, Shahram; Ismail, Salmah; Tayyab, Saad; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5 mL/kg) orally, positive control was administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug) and 2 groups were received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5 mL/kg) was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2 g/kg and 5 g/kg).

  18. Bochdalek Hernia With Gastric Volvulus in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Atef, Mejri; Emna, Trigui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bochdalek hernias in adulthood are rare. Symptomatic Bochdalek hernias in adults are rarer, but may lead to fatal complications. Patients with acute gastric volvulus on diaphragmatic hernia are a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency. Here, we report a case of a 56-year-old woman diagnosed with epigastric pain, cough, vomiting since 2 weeks and shortness of breath. Complicated Bochdalek hernia was an incidental finding, diagnosed by chest radiograph, computed tomography (CT), and barium swallow study. Stomach was within the thorax in the left side due to left diaphragmatic hernia of a nontraumatic cause. The patient was prepared for the laparoscopic surgical repair, to close the defect. The patient recovered with accepted general condition and was discharged 9 days later. Diagnoses of Bochdalek hernias in adulthood are challenging. However, although rare, this possibility should be kept in mind to avoid fatal complications. PMID:26705205

  19. Effects of phenylalaninol on centrally induced gastric acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, H; Miyamae, T; Morikawa, T; Hagiwara, M

    1992-11-01

    The effects of phenylalaninol (D-isomer) on gastric acid secretion and gastric ulcer were studied in rats. The compound reduced the gastric acid secretion stimulated by intracisternal thyrotropin releasing hormone and intravenous 2-deoxy-D-glucose, but not that stimulated by subcutaneous carbachol or histamine. Phenylalaninol prevented stress- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers. We conclude that phenylalaninol inhibits ulcer formation mainly by central inhibition of gastric acid secretion. PMID:1477931

  20. A foreign body granuloma after gastric perforation mimicking peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Akita, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Yasunori; Ishida, Hideyuki; Nakaguchi, Kazunori; Okino, Tsuyoshi; Kabuto, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the case of a 58-year-old man who was found to have foreign body granulomas (FBGs) that mimicked disseminated gastric cancer. The patient presented with a severe attack of acute upper abdominal pain, was admitted to the hospital, and thereafter underwent an immediate laparotomy due to a diagnosis of an upper gastrointestinal perforation. Follow-up endoscopy revealed an ulcer scar measuring 2 cm in size in the anterior wall of the middle stomach. The pathological examination of biopsy specimens taken around the scar revealed well to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. At the time of reoperation performed 2 months after the first operation, many small white granulomas were observed which were thought to be the result of peritoneal dissemination of the gastric cancer. However, both the cytology of the Douglas washing and pathological examination of frozen section specimens were negative for carcinoma, and therefore a distal gastrectomy was performed. The pathological examination revealed the presence of FBGs. In this rare case, the FBGs formed shortly after surgery and were difficult to distinguish from disseminated cancer.

  1. Effects of ebrotidine on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage and blood flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Konturek, S J; Kwiecien, N; Sito, E; Obtulowicz, W; Kaminski, K; Oleksy, J

    1993-12-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) such as aspirin (ASA) damage the gastric mucosa both in normal subjects and in arthritic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective action of a new H2-receptor antagonist, ebrotidine, in the prevention of ASA-induced acute mucosal injury in the stomach of healthy volunteers. In a double-blind randomized crossover study 10 male volunteers received treatment with either placebo plus ASA (500 mg) or ebrotidine (800 mg) plus ASA twice daily for 3 days with 10 days' washout period between treatments. The mean number of gastric erosions seen at endoscopy after treatment with ebrotidine plus ASA (2.0 +/- 0.3) was significantly lower than that after placebo plus ASA (3.7 +/- 0.2). This reduction in lesion core by ebrotidine was accompanied by a significant increase in gastric blood flow (by 15% in corpus and 26% in antrum), by a rise in transmucosal potential difference (by 12%), and by a decrease of mucosal microbleeding. Ebrotidine afforded substantial protection from ASA-induced injury to the gastric mucosa, and this was accompanied by increase of the mucosal blood flow. We conclude that ebrotidine provides mucosal protection for patients taking NSAIDs.

  2. Role of neutrophilic elastase in ethanol induced injury to the gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Kvietys, P.R.; Carter, P.R. )

    1990-02-26

    Intragastric administration of ethanol (at concentrations likely to be encountered by the mucosa during acute intoxication) produces gastritis. Recent studies have implicated neutrophils in the gastric mucosal injury induced by luminal ethanol. The objective of the present study was to assess whether neutrophilic elastase contributes to the ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented for perfusion of the gastric lumen with saline or ethanol. Mucosal injury was quantitated by continuously measuring the blood-to-lumen clearance of {sup 51}Cr-EDTA. The experimental protocol consisted of a 40 minute control period (saline perfusion) followed by three successive 40 minute experimental periods (ethanol perfusion). During the three experimental periods the concentration of ethanol was progressively increased to 10, 20, and 30%. The experiments were performed in untreated animals and in animals pretreated with either Eglin c (an inhibitor of elastase and cathepsin G activity) or L 658 (a specific inhibitor of elastase activity). The effects of ethanol on EDTA clearance (x control) in untreated (n = 9) and L658 treated (n = 5) animals are shown in the Table below. Pretreatment with L 658 significantly attenuated the ethanol-induced increases in EDTA clearance. Pretreatment with Eglin c (n = 6) also provided some protection against ethanol-induced injury, but not to the extent as that provided by L658. The results of the authors studies suggest that neutrophilic elastase contributes to a gastric mucosal injury induced by luminal perfusion of the stomach with physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol.

  3. Dietary, non-microbial intervention to prevent Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Yoo, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Won-Hee; Shin, Seok-Pyo; Ko, Weon-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as the major cause of gastroduodenal disorders including acute and chronic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer, chronic atrophic gastritis, and gastric cancer almost three decades ago, the possibility of preventing these clinical diseases through eradicating H. pylori has been the focus of active research, but soon debate in the scientific community, though eradication opens the feasibility of cancer prevention and the removal of bacteria significantly prevents development or recurrence of peptic ulcer diseases and some clinical diseases, was proposed due to uncertainty in either achievement of complete eradication or inefficacy in cancer prevention with eradication alone. Still its linkage to gastric cancer is incontestable. Since the multiple combination of bacterial factors, environmental insults, and the host immune response that drives the initiation and progression of mucosal atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia toward gastric cancer is intervened, simple eradication deemed the feasibility of cancer prevention. Therefore, our group open strong hypothesis that non-microbial, dietary approach might be the alternate, for which several interventions of nutritional components can highlight rejuvenation of chronic atrophic gastritis as well as amelioration of H. pylori-associated procarcinogenic inflammation. In this review article, the experience and outcome regarding nutritional application to rejuvenate gastric atrophy will be introduced, using Korean red ginseng, garlic extracts, cancer preventive Korea kimchi, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), special form of licorice, and probiotics. The detailed influence of dietary intervention and bacterial eradication therapy on disease progression and reversibility of premalignant lesions are discussed. PMID:26207250

  4. Dietary, non-microbial intervention to prevent Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Yoo, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Won-Hee; Shin, Seok-Pyo; Ko, Weon-Jin; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as the major cause of gastroduodenal disorders including acute and chronic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer, chronic atrophic gastritis, and gastric cancer almost three decades ago, the possibility of preventing these clinical diseases through eradicating H. pylori has been the focus of active research, but soon debate in the scientific community, though eradication opens the feasibility of cancer prevention and the removal of bacteria significantly prevents development or recurrence of peptic ulcer diseases and some clinical diseases, was proposed due to uncertainty in either achievement of complete eradication or inefficacy in cancer prevention with eradication alone. Still its linkage to gastric cancer is incontestable. Since the multiple combination of bacterial factors, environmental insults, and the host immune response that drives the initiation and progression of mucosal atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia toward gastric cancer is intervened, simple eradication deemed the feasibility of cancer prevention. Therefore, our group open strong hypothesis that non-microbial, dietary approach might be the alternate, for which several interventions of nutritional components can highlight rejuvenation of chronic atrophic gastritis as well as amelioration of H. pylori-associated procarcinogenic inflammation. In this review article, the experience and outcome regarding nutritional application to rejuvenate gastric atrophy will be introduced, using Korean red ginseng, garlic extracts, cancer preventive Korea kimchi, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), special form of licorice, and probiotics. The detailed influence of dietary intervention and bacterial eradication therapy on disease progression and reversibility of premalignant lesions are discussed.

  5. Antiulcer properties of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract on experimental models of gastric ulcer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Najarnezhad, Vahid; Anassori, Ehsan; Mostafavi, Mostafa; Keshipour, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. is used in folk medicine for treatment of stomach disorders including peptic ulcers. The hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (HEGG) was evaluated for antiulcerogenic activity and acute toxicity profile in mice. Various doses of HEGG (50-200 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals of different groups. Omeprazole and cimetidine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg were used as positive controls, respectively. Stomach was opened along the greater curvature then ulceration index was determined examining the inner lining of stomach. Oral administration of the extract at 1600 mg/kg did not produce toxic symptoms and mortality in mice. 2950 mg/kg was determined as the oral LD50. The HEGG (50–200 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in ulcer index in HCl/Ethanol-induced ulcer. G. glabra extract (50-150 mg/kg) showed antiulcer activity against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions dose dependently. The extract effectively inhibited formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol. The extract (200 mg/kg) was more potent than omeprazole (30 mg/kg). HEGG reduced the ulcer index in hypothermic stress induced gastric ulcers in mice and the antiulcer effect was comparable to that of cimetidine. The results indicated that G. glabra hydroalcoholic extract exerted an antiulcergenic effect that could be associated with increase in gastric mucosal defensive factors. PMID:26664383

  6. Prevention of experimentally-induced gastric ulcers in rats by an ethanolic extract of "Parsley" Petroselinum crispum.

    PubMed

    Al-Howiriny, Tawfeq; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; El-Tahir, Kamal; Rafatullah, Syed

    2003-01-01

    An ethanolic extract of Parsley, Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym.ex A.W. Hill (Umbelliferae), was tested for its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and to protect gastric mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, indomethacin and cytodestructive agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and 25% NaCl) in rats. The extract in doses of 1 and 2 g/kg body weight had a significant antiulcerogenic activity on the models used. Besides, ethanol-induced depleted gastric wall mucus and non-protein sulfhydryl contents were replenished by pretreatment with Parsley extract. Acute toxicity tests showed a large margin of safety for the extract. The phytochemical screening of Parsley leaves revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, sterols and/or triterpenes.

  7. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: Indian enigma.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vatsala; Pandey, Renu; Misra, Sri Prakash; Dwivedi, Manisha

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium which resides in the mucous linings of the stomach. It has been implicated in the causation of various gastric disorders including gastric cancer. The geographical distribution and etiology of gastric cancer differ widely in different geographical regions and H. pylori, despite being labeled as a grade I carcinogen, has not been found to be associated with gastric cancer in many areas. Studies in Asian countries such as Thailand, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabian countries, Israel and Malaysia, have reported a high frequency of H. pylori infection co-existing with a low incidence of gastric cancer. In India, a difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer has been noted even in different regions of the country leading to a puzzle when attempting to find the causes of these variations. This puzzle of H. pylori distribution and gastric cancer epidemiology is known as the Indian enigma. In this review we have attempted to explain the Indian enigma using evidence from various Indian studies and from around the globe. This review covers aspects of epidemiology, the various biological strains present in different parts of the country and within individuals, the status of different H. pylori-related diseases and the molecular pathogenesis of the bacterium. PMID:24587625

  8. Current status of proximal gastric vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, B D

    1989-01-01

    Proximal gastric vagotomy is nearing its twentieth year in clinical use as an operation for peptic ulcer disease. No other acid-reducing operation has undergone as much scrutiny or study. At this time, the evidence of such studies and long-term follow-up strongly supports the use of proximal gastric vagotomy as the treatment of choice for chronic duodenal ulcer in patients who have failed medical therapy. Its application in treating the complications of peptic ulcer disease, which recently have come to represent an increasingly greater percentage of all operations done for peptic ulcer disease, is well-tested. However, initial series suggest that it should probably occupy a prominent role in treating some of these complications, particularly in selected patients, in the future. The operation has the well-documented ability to reduce gastric acid production, not inhibit gastric bicarbonate production, and also minimally inhibit gastric motility. The combination of these physiologic results after proximal gastric vagotomy, along with preservation of the normal antropyloroduodenal mechanism of gastrointestinal control, serve to allow patients with proximal gastric vagotomy the improved benefits of significantly fewer severe gastrointestinal side effects than are seen after other operations for peptic ulcer disease. PMID:2644897

  9. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: Indian enigma.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vatsala; Pandey, Renu; Misra, Sri Prakash; Dwivedi, Manisha

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium which resides in the mucous linings of the stomach. It has been implicated in the causation of various gastric disorders including gastric cancer. The geographical distribution and etiology of gastric cancer differ widely in different geographical regions and H. pylori, despite being labeled as a grade I carcinogen, has not been found to be associated with gastric cancer in many areas. Studies in Asian countries such as Thailand, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabian countries, Israel and Malaysia, have reported a high frequency of H. pylori infection co-existing with a low incidence of gastric cancer. In India, a difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer has been noted even in different regions of the country leading to a puzzle when attempting to find the causes of these variations. This puzzle of H. pylori distribution and gastric cancer epidemiology is known as the Indian enigma. In this review we have attempted to explain the Indian enigma using evidence from various Indian studies and from around the globe. This review covers aspects of epidemiology, the various biological strains present in different parts of the country and within individuals, the status of different H. pylori-related diseases and the molecular pathogenesis of the bacterium.

  10. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  11. Targeting receptor tyrosine kinases in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Asahiro; Gong, Jian; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Molecularly targeted therapeutic agents are constantly being developed and have been shown to be effective in various clinical trials. One group of representative targeted oncogenic kinases, the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), has been associated with gastric cancer development. Trastuzumab, an inhibitor of ERBB2, has been approved for the treatment of gastric cancer, although other receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, c-Met, IGF-1R and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, are also activated in gastric cancer. The promising results of the trastuzumab clinical trial for gastric cancer resulted in the approval of trastuzumab-based therapy as a first-line treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive patients. On the other hand, the trial examining bevacizumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy did not meet its primary goal of increasing the overall survival time of gastric cancer patients; however, a significantly higher response rate and a longer progression-free survival were observed in the bevacizumab arm of the trial. Other clinical trials, especially phase III trials that have tested drugs targeting RTKs, such as cetuximab, panitumumab, gefitinib, erlotinib, figitumumab, sorafenib, sunitinib and lapatinib, have shown that these drugs have modest effects against gastric cancer. This review summarizes the recent results from the clinical trials of molecularly targeted drugs and suggests that further improvements in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer can be achieved through the combination of conventional drugs with the new molecularly targeted therapies. PMID:24782606

  12. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Danquechin Dorval, E.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.; Dubois, A.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive beta-endorphin.

  13. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  14. Gastric Cancer: New Drugs – New Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Nadine; Ebert, Matthias P.; Härtel, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. There are large geographic variations in the incidence of these tumors, with 60% occurring in East Asia. For patients with resectable disease, surgery and perioperative treatment can be effective. For patients with advanced gastric cancer, chemotherapy regimens result in a median survival of 9-11 months. In general, the prognosis for advanced disease is poor and 5-year overall survival rates are around 15%. Combination therapies yield better survival rates, albeit with increased toxicity. Therefore, more effective and less toxic treatment regimens are needed. Summary The molecular aberrations that characterize the different subgroups of gastric cancer have been used as therapeutic targets. However, the heterogeneity and complexity of gastric cancers is a major challenge for the development of effective targeted therapies. This review examines the main molecular targets in the treatment of gastric cancer, namely the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways. Key Message The molecular aberrations characteristic of gastric cancer are being explored for the development of targeted therapies, including the VEGF, HER2, HGF/c-Met, EGFR and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Practical Implications Trastuzumab, an antibody which targets HER2, is the first approved targeted therapy for the treatment of gastric cancer. However, trastuzumab is only effective in HER2-positive tumors (about 10-20% of all gastric cancers). Ramucirumab, which targets the VEGF receptor 2, has yielded benefits with respect to overall survival in a phase III trial and is an effective treatment for advanced gastric cancer with approval in second-line treatment. Apatinib and rilotumumab are another two promising new agents currently under

  15. The gastroprotective effect of pogostone from Pogostemonis Herba against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Hai-Ming; Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Zheng, Yi-Feng; Su, Zu-Qing; Zhang, Xie; Xie, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yong-Zhuo; Fu, Lu-Di; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Xiao-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Pogostemonis Herba, known as “Guang-Huo-Xiang” in Chinese, has been widely used in the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction. Pogostone is one of the major constituents of Pogostemonis Herba. The aim was to scientifically evaluate the possible gastroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of pogostone against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were orally treated with vehicle, lansoprazole (30 mg/kg) or pogostone (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by indomethacin. Gross evaluation, histological observation, gastric mucosal superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione content, catalase activity, malonaldehyde level and prostaglandin E2 production were performed. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, as well as terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for heat-shock protein 70, B-cell lymphoma-2 and Bax were conducted. Results indicated that rats pretreated with pogostone showed remarkable protection from the gastric mucosa damage compared to vehicle-treated rats based on the ulcer index and inhibition percentage. Histologically, oral administration of pogostone resulted in observable improvement of gastric injury, characterized by reduction of necrotic lesion, flattening of gastric mucosa and alleviation of submucosal edema with hemorrhage. Pogostone pretreatment significantly raised the depressed activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase, while reduced the elevated malonaldehyde level compared with indomethacin-induced group. Pogostone-pretreated group induced a significant increase in gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 level and obvious up-regulation of protein levels and mRNA expressions of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. Furthermore, antiapoptotic effect of pogostone was verified by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated d

  16. Up-regulation of CLDN1 in gastric cancer is correlated with reduced survival

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    -operative prognosis, and may have important prognostic value. IL-8 and CLDN1 may represent central links between the gene response seen in acute H. pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells, and ultimately gastric cancer. PMID:24321518

  17. The gastroprotective effect of pogostone from Pogostemonis Herba against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Hai-Ming; Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Zheng, Yi-Feng; Su, Zu-Qing; Zhang, Xie; Xie, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yong-Zhuo; Fu, Lu-Di; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Su, Zi-Ren; Huang, Xiao-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pogostemonis Herba, known as "Guang-Huo-Xiang" in Chinese, has been widely used in the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction. Pogostone is one of the major constituents of Pogostemonis Herba. The aim was to scientifically evaluate the possible gastroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of pogostone against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were orally treated with vehicle, lansoprazole (30 mg/kg) or pogostone (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by indomethacin. Gross evaluation, histological observation, gastric mucosal superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione content, catalase activity, malonaldehyde level and prostaglandin E2 production were performed. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, as well as terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for heat-shock protein 70, B-cell lymphoma-2 and Bax were conducted. Results indicated that rats pretreated with pogostone showed remarkable protection from the gastric mucosa damage compared to vehicle-treated rats based on the ulcer index and inhibition percentage. Histologically, oral administration of pogostone resulted in observable improvement of gastric injury, characterized by reduction of necrotic lesion, flattening of gastric mucosa and alleviation of submucosal edema with hemorrhage. Pogostone pretreatment significantly raised the depressed activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase, while reduced the elevated malonaldehyde level compared with indomethacin-induced group. Pogostone-pretreated group induced a significant increase in gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 level and obvious up-regulation of protein levels and mRNA expressions of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. Furthermore, antiapoptotic effect of pogostone was verified by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated d

  18. [Lymphoma of the residual gastric stump].

    PubMed

    La Torre, F; Nicastro, A; Crescenzi, U; Persico Stella, L; Clarioni, A; Pontone, P; Montori, A

    1993-03-01

    The authors report a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (lymphoplasmocytoid type) arisen on the gastric stump of a patient operated 18 years before according to Billroth II gastric resection for peptic ulcer. They underline the extraordinary rarity of the event because this type of neoplasia never arises on the gastric stump, where would be more likely to find, due to irritative chemical stimuli of the biliary reflux, phenomena of intestinal metaplasia or severe dysplasia highly predisposing to adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, they stress the importance of a "deep" bioptic examination for a diagnosis as early as possible of this type of pathology.

  19. Updates on esophageal and gastric cancers

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Amy; Cha, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancers are both common and deadly. Patients present most often after disease progression and survival is therefore poor. Due to demographic variability and recent changes in disease incidence, much emphasis has been placed on studying risk factors for both esophageal and gastric cancers. However, with increasing understanding of these diseases, low survival rates persist and continued intensive studies are necessary to optimize treatment plans. This review article discusses updates in the evolving epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, and diagnostic and treatment modalities of esophageal and gastric cancers. PMID:16718845

  20. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Shogo

    2002-01-01

    Findings in epidemiological studies of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer have been inconsistent: many studies have yielded a positive relationship, whereas several studies have shown no relationship. The inconsistency arises because of the occurrence of seroreversion during the period between the time that H. pylori exerts a carcinogenic effect and the time of blood sampling. When this seroreversion is taken into account, there is an epidemiologically positive association between H. pylori status and the risk for gastric cancer. In addition to the epidemiological evidence, experimental studies using Mongolian gerbils have shown that H. pylori infection elevates the risk for gastric cancer. It is concluded that H. pylori is a causal factor for gastric cancer. In the creation of preventive strategies against gastric cancer by the eradication of H. pylori, determination of the time at which H. pylori plays a role as a carcinogen is important. Three hypotheses have been proposed in regard to this timing: that H. pylori infection in childhood or the teenage years acts as a factor that produces precancerous lesions with irreversible damage in the gastric mucosa, that in adulthood it acts as an initiator, and also in adulthood, that it acts as a promoter. As these hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, the extent to which each hypothesis plays a part in explaining gastric carcinogenesis should be evaluated. Only a small proportion of subjects infected with H. pylori have gastric cancer during their lifetime. Interleukin-1 polymorphism, a host factor, and CagA, a virulence factor of H. pylori, are suspected to be risk factors for gastric cancer in subjects with H. pylori infection. Dietary factors, especially vitamin C, and patterns of precancerous lesions also seem to influence the relationship between H. pylori and gastric cancer. H. pylori seems to reduce the risk for esophageal and for some gastric cardia adenocarcinomas. This finding, as

  1. Gastric hyperplastic polyps coexisting with early gastric cancers, adenoma and neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, K; Lewandowska, M; Białek, A; Ławniczak, M; Urasińska, E

    2016-03-01

    Gastric hyperplastic polyps (GHP) constitute up to 93% of all benign epithelial polyps of the stomach. The average probability of malignant transformation in GHP is 0.6-22% in large series. The aim of the study was to present the coexistence of GHP with early gastric cancer (EGC), gastric adenoma (GA), neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (NH) and well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour (NET G1). Three cases were studied to reveal clinical data and morphological changes and to assess the relationship between GHP and accompanying gastric neoplastic lesions. PMID:27179272

  2. Seatbelt syndrome with gastric mucosal breaks and intra-gastric wall air leakage.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hirohito; Tsushimi, Takaaki; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Matsunaga, Tae; Ayaki, Maki; Chiyo, Taiga; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    As numerous reports were published regarding the so-called seatbelt syndrome involved in car crashes, most of them were mentioned about small intestine, duodenum and colon perforations and solid organ bleeding. No reports have been published regarding multiple gastric mucosal tears with intra-gastric wall air leakage with massive bleeding. A 65-year-old woman was admitted after a motor vehicle crash. She vomited massive fresh blood. Gastric mucosal breaks, approximately 5 cm in length, were observed. Computed tomography imaging revealed multiple gastric mucosal breaks. We report a rare case wherein a traffic accident caused a serious condition associated with massive digestive bleeding. PMID:26466695

  3. Pretreatment Gastric Lavage Reduces Postoperative Bleeding after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Gastric Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yuka; Itakura, Jun; Ueda, Ken; Suzuki, Shoko; Yasui, Yutaka; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Nakakuki, Natsuko; Takada, Hitomi; Ueda, Masako; Hayashi, Tsuguru; Kuwabara, Konomi; Takaura, Kenta; Higuchi, Mayu; Komiyama, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Tsubasa; Izumi, Namiki

    2016-01-01

    Aim For patients receiving endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), there is urgent need pertaining to the prevention of postoperative bleeding. We conducted a retrospective propensity score-matched study that evaluated whether pre-ESD gastric lavage prevents postoperative bleeding after ESD for gastric neoplasms. Methods From September 2002 to October 2015, the 760 consecutive patients receiving ESD for gastric neoplasm were enrolled and data regarding them were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received conventional preventive treatment against delayed bleeding after ESD, including the administration of proton pump inhibitor and preventive coagulation of visible vessels, at the end of the ESD procedure. Results Pre-ESD risk factors for postoperative bleeding included tumor size and no gastric lavage. Using multivariate analysis tumor size >2.0 cm (HR 2.90, 95% CI 1.65–5.10, p = 0.0002) and no gastric lavage (HR 3.20, 95% CI 1.13–9.11, p = 0.029) were found to be independent risk factors. Next, we evaluated the effect of gastric lavage on the prevention of post-ESD bleeding using a propensity score-matching method. A total of 284 subjects (142 per group) were selected. Adjusted odds ratio of gastric lavage for post-ESD bleeding was 0.25 (95% CI 0.071–0.886, p = 0.032). Conclusion Pretreatment gastric lavage reduced postoperative bleeding in patients receiving ESD for gastric neoplasm. PMID:26871449

  4. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy as Preoperative Treatment for Localized Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarty, Twisha; Crane, Christopher H.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Mansfield, Paul F.; Briere, Tina M.; Beddar, A. Sam; Mok, Henry; Reed, Valerie K.; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E.; Das, Prajnan

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate dosimetric parameters, acute toxicity, pathologic response, and local control in patients treated with preoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for localized gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods: Between November 2007 and April 2010, 25 patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma were treated with induction chemotherapy, followed by preoperative IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy and, finally, surgical resection. The median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in 18 patients, capecitabine in 3, and other regimens in 4. Subsequently, resection was performed with total gastrectomy in 13 patients, subtotal gastrectomy in 7, and other surgeries in 5. Results: Target coverage, expressed as the ratio of the minimum dose received by 99% of the planning target volume to the prescribed dose, was a median of 0.97 (range, 0.92-1.01). The median V{sub 30} (percentage of volume receiving at least 30 Gy) for the liver was 26%; the median V{sub 20} (percentage of volume receiving at least 20 Gy) for the right and left kidneys was 14% and 24%, respectively; and the median V{sub 40} (percentage of volume receiving at least 40 Gy) for the heart was 18%. Grade 3 acute toxicity developed in 14 patients (56%), including dehydration in 10, nausea in 8, and anorexia in 5. Grade 4 acute toxicity did not develop in any patient. There were no significant differences in the rates of acute toxicity, hospitalization, or feeding tube use in comparison to those in a group of 50 patients treated with preoperative three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. R0 resection was obtained in 20 patients (80%), and pathologic complete response occurred in 5 (20%). Conclusions: Preoperative IMRT for gastric adenocarcinoma was well tolerated, accomplished excellent target coverage and normal structure sparing, and led to appropriate

  5. Perforated Carcinoma in the Gastric Remnant: A Case of Conservative Treatment Prior to Successful Curative R0 Resection

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Sho; Okumura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kansuke; Mizumura, Naoto; Ito, Aya; Maehira, Hiromitsu; Imagawa, Atsuo; Ogawa, Masao; Kawasaki, Masayasu; Kameyama, Masao

    2016-01-01

    An 80-year-old man who had undergone distal gastrectomy and Billroth-II gastrojejunostomy 38 years previously, for a benign gastric ulcer, was diagnosed with remnant gastric cancer based on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings. He presented at our emergency department with acute-onset epigastric pain due to perforated remnant gastric cancer. Conservative medical management was selected, including nasogastric tube insertion, antibiotics, and proton pump inhibitors, because his peritonitis was limited to his epigastrium and his general condition was stable. Twenty-one days after the perforation occurred, curative total remnant gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy were performed. Adhesion between the lateral segment of the liver and the dissected lesser curvature of the gastric remnant may have contributed to the peritonitis in this case, which was limited to the epigastrium. This is the first report of perforated remnant gastric cancer in which conservative treatment was effective prior to curative resection. The protocol reported here may be of use to other clinicians who may encounter this clinical entity in their practices.

  6. Perforated Carcinoma in the Gastric Remnant: A Case of Conservative Treatment Prior to Successful Curative R0 Resection.

    PubMed

    Yuu, Ken; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Sho; Okumura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kansuke; Mizumura, Naoto; Ito, Aya; Maehira, Hiromitsu; Imagawa, Atsuo; Ogawa, Masao; Kawasaki, Masayasu; Kameyama, Masao

    2016-01-01

    An 80-year-old man who had undergone distal gastrectomy and Billroth-II gastrojejunostomy 38 years previously, for a benign gastric ulcer, was diagnosed with remnant gastric cancer based on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings. He presented at our emergency department with acute-onset epigastric pain due to perforated remnant gastric cancer. Conservative medical management was selected, including nasogastric tube insertion, antibiotics, and proton pump inhibitors, because his peritonitis was limited to his epigastrium and his general condition was stable. Twenty-one days after the perforation occurred, curative total remnant gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy were performed. Adhesion between the lateral segment of the liver and the dissected lesser curvature of the gastric remnant may have contributed to the peritonitis in this case, which was limited to the epigastrium. This is the first report of perforated remnant gastric cancer in which conservative treatment was effective prior to curative resection. The protocol reported here may be of use to other clinicians who may encounter this clinical entity in their practices. PMID:27651972

  7. Perforated Carcinoma in the Gastric Remnant: A Case of Conservative Treatment Prior to Successful Curative R0 Resection

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Sho; Okumura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kansuke; Mizumura, Naoto; Ito, Aya; Maehira, Hiromitsu; Imagawa, Atsuo; Ogawa, Masao; Kawasaki, Masayasu; Kameyama, Masao

    2016-01-01

    An 80-year-old man who had undergone distal gastrectomy and Billroth-II gastrojejunostomy 38 years previously, for a benign gastric ulcer, was diagnosed with remnant gastric cancer based on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings. He presented at our emergency department with acute-onset epigastric pain due to perforated remnant gastric cancer. Conservative medical management was selected, including nasogastric tube insertion, antibiotics, and proton pump inhibitors, because his peritonitis was limited to his epigastrium and his general condition was stable. Twenty-one days after the perforation occurred, curative total remnant gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy were performed. Adhesion between the lateral segment of the liver and the dissected lesser curvature of the gastric remnant may have contributed to the peritonitis in this case, which was limited to the epigastrium. This is the first report of perforated remnant gastric cancer in which conservative treatment was effective prior to curative resection. The protocol reported here may be of use to other clinicians who may encounter this clinical entity in their practices. PMID:27651972

  8. Silencing of polo-like kinase 2 increases cell proliferation and decreases apoptosis in SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li Ying; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Ling Yu; Guo, Bo; Yang, Juan; Zhao, Xiao Ge; Song, Tu Sheng; Huang, Chen; Xu, Ji Ru

    2015-04-01

    Polo‑like kinase 2 (PLK2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase, which has vital roles during mitosis and the centrosome cycle. In acute myeloblastic leukemia and hepatocarcinogenesis, PLK2 acts as a tumor suppressor; however, the function of PLK2 in gastric cancer remains to be elucidated. In the present study, PLK2 was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues and three types of gastric cancer cells, SGC‑7901, MKN‑45 and BGC‑823. Transfection of SGC‑7901 gastric cancer cells with small interfering (si)RNA against PLK2 exerted no effect on the ratio of cells at different stages of the cell cycle compared with that of the untransfected and control siRNA‑transfected cells. In addition, silencing of PLK2 significantly enhanced the growth of SGC‑7901 cells through inhibiting apoptosis. Furthermore, apoptosis‑associated genes Bax and caspase 3 were found to be downregulated at the protein level. In conclusion, these results suggested that PLK2 may act as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer, therefore indicating its therapeutic potential. PMID:25501818

  9. Primary gastric rupture in 47 horses (1995–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Winfield, Laramie S.; Dechant, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case-control study was to identify factors associated with primary gastric rupture and to investigate if there were differences between etiologies of primary gastric rupture. Compared to the general colic population, Quarter horses were under-represented and Friesians and draft breeds were over-represented in 47 cases of primary gastric ruptures. Horses with primary gastric rupture typically presented with severe clinical and clinicopathological derangements. There were 24 idiopathic gastric ruptures, 20 gastric impaction associated ruptures, and 3 perforating gastric ulcers. Thoroughbred horses were over-represented in the idiopathic gastric rupture group compared to other breeds and etiologies. This study suggests the presence of important breed predispositions for development of gastric rupture. Further study is necessary to identify if these predispositions are associated with management factors or breed-specific disorders. PMID:26345205

  10. Protein profiling of alpha-fetoprotein producing gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Liang; Ye, Fei; Qu, Linlin; Wang, Daguang; Cui, Miao; Wei, Chengguo; Xing, Yanpeng; Lee, Peng; Suo, Jian; Zhang, David Y.

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) producing gastric adenocarcinoma is considered as a rare subtype of gastric adenocarcinoma. Compared with AFP non-producing gastric adenocarcinoma, our study and other previous studies showed that AFP producing gastric adenocarcinoma is more aggressive and prone to liver metastasis. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 11 of out of 286 proteins tested were found to be differentially expressed between AFP producing (n=32) and AFP non-producing (n=45) gastric adenocarcinoma tissues. In addition, the high level expression of XIAP and IGF-Irβ in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues was independent factors for poor prognosis in AFP producing gastric adenocarcinoma patients. A risk model based on the XIAP and IGF-Irβ expression levels can separate AFP producing gastric adenocarcinoma patients into 2 subgroups and each subgroup had a distinct set of signaling pathways involved. In conclusion, AFP producing gastric adenocarcinoma is a heterogeneous cancer with different clinical outcomes, biological behaviors and underlying molecular alterations. PMID:27057629

  11. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... JT, van Hillegersberg R, Dekker E, Oliveira C, Cats A, Hoogerbrugge N; Dutch Working Group on Hereditary ... JH, van Hillegersberg R, Ligtenberg M, Bleiker E, Cats A; Dutch Working Group on Hereditary Gastric Cancer. ...

  12. [Cancer of the gastric stump: our experience].

    PubMed

    Vecchioni, R; Rossi, M

    1990-01-01

    The experienced gained over the past few years in the Verona University Institute of Surgical Pathology has revealed a slow, though progressive, increase in the number of gastric stump cancers, reflecting a trend emerging in the literature. There can be no doubt that an important factor in the enhanced detection of such cancers is the adoption of digestive endoscopy in routine clinical practice. Silent symptoms, barely noticeable clinical signs and the particular aggressiveness of the tumours often lead to an excessively late diagnosis, which, unfortunately, limits the efficacy of surgical therapy. We therefore recommend, as a single solution to the problem, the endoscopic screening of all patients who have undergone gastric resection ten or more years ago in order to detect early stump cancer. Obviously, and fortunately, in a few years time gastric stump cancer will be a rare phenomenon, in view of the exponential drop in gastric resections for ulcer disease over the past decade.

  13. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stomach (gastric) cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  14. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric bypass surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after bypass; Weight loss - diet after bypass ... lot of calories. Avoid drinks that have sugar, fructose, or corn syrup in them. Avoid carbonated drinks ( ...

  15. Gastric polyposis caused by multifocal histiocytosis X.

    PubMed Central

    Wada, R; Yagihashi, S; Konta, R; Ueda, T; Izumiyama, T

    1992-01-01

    A rare case of gastric polyposis caused by infiltration of Langerhans' cells is reported. A 53 year old Japanese woman complaining of vague abdominal discomfort, was found at endoscopy to have numerous polyps all over the gastric wall. An endoscopic biopsy specimen showed characteristic infiltration of Langerhans' cells in the lamina propria of the mucosa. Functional abnormalities such as impaired gastric acid secretion or malabsorption were not associated with this lesion and the patient was treated conservatively. During follow up over two years, she had a cutaneous eruption with infiltration of histiocytes and osteolytic lesions in the skull. However, no progressive changes occurred in the stomach. This probably benign self-limiting lesion of gastric histiocytosis X may be one of the manifestations of multifocal histiocytosis X, but its aetiology and appropriate treatment have not yet been determined. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1644344

  16. Diagnosis and management of gastric dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jae Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Gastric dysplasia is a neoplastic lesion and a precursor of gastric cancer. The Padova, Vienna, and World Health Organization classifications were developed to overcome the discrepancies between Western and Japanese pathologic diagnoses and to provide a universally accepted classification of gastric epithelial neoplasia. At present, the natural history of gastric dysplasia is unclear. Much evidence suggests that patients with high-grade dysplasia are at high risk of progression to carcinoma or synchronous carcinoma. Therefore, endoscopic resection is required. Although patients with low-grade dysplasia have been reported to be at low risk of progression to carcinoma, due to the marked histologic discrepancies between forceps biopsy and endoscopic specimens, endoscopic resection for this lesion is recommended, particularly in the presence of other risk factors (large size; depressed gross type; surface erythema, unevenness, ulcer, or erosion; and tubulovillous or villous histology). Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with dysplasia after endoscopic resection appear to reduce the incidence of metachronous lesions. PMID:26932397

  17. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  18. Molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen-Jia; Gao, Jin-Bo

    2016-09-15

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of the major treatments for gastric cancer, but drug resistance limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy, which results in treatment failure. Resistance to chemotherapy can be present intrinsically before the administration of chemotherapy or it can develop during chemotherapy. The mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in gastric cancer are complex and multifactorial. A variety of factors have been demonstrated to be involved in chemoresistance, including the reduced intracellular concentrations of drugs, alterations in drug targets, the dysregulation of cell survival and death signaling pathways, and interactions between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer and on recent studies that have sought to overcome the underlying mechanisms of chemoresistance. PMID:27672425

  19. Molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wen-Jia; Gao, Jin-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of the major treatments for gastric cancer, but drug resistance limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy, which results in treatment failure. Resistance to chemotherapy can be present intrinsically before the administration of chemotherapy or it can develop during chemotherapy. The mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in gastric cancer are complex and multifactorial. A variety of factors have been demonstrated to be involved in chemoresistance, including the reduced intracellular concentrations of drugs, alterations in drug targets, the dysregulation of cell survival and death signaling pathways, and interactions between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer and on recent studies that have sought to overcome the underlying mechanisms of chemoresistance.

  20. Hematogenous Gastric Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sasajima, Junpei; Okamoto, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Masato

    2016-01-01

    While the gastric involvement of pancreatic cancer is occasionally observed as the result of direct invasion, hematogenous gastric metastasis is rare. A 72-year-old Japanese male presented with general fatigue, pollakiuria, and thirst. Computed tomography revealed a 4.6-cm solid mass in the pancreatic tail and a 4.2-cm multilocular cystic mass in the pancreatic head with multiple liver and lymphatic metastasis. Notably, two solid masses were detected in the gastric wall of the upper body and the antrum; both were separated from the primary pancreatic cancer and seemed to be located in the submucosal layer. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor with a normal mucosa in the posterior wall of the upper body of the stomach, suggesting the gastric hematogenous metastasis of pancreatic cancer. The suspected diagnosis was unresectable pancreatic cancer with multiple metastases that was concomitant with the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas. PMID:27403106

  1. Hematogenous Gastric Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sasajima, Junpei; Okamoto, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Masato

    2016-01-01

    While the gastric involvement of pancreatic cancer is occasionally observed as the result of direct invasion, hematogenous gastric metastasis is rare. A 72-year-old Japanese male presented with general fatigue, pollakiuria, and thirst. Computed tomography revealed a 4.6-cm solid mass in the pancreatic tail and a 4.2-cm multilocular cystic mass in the pancreatic head with multiple liver and lymphatic metastasis. Notably, two solid masses were detected in the gastric wall of the upper body and the antrum; both were separated from the primary pancreatic cancer and seemed to be located in the submucosal layer. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor with a normal mucosa in the posterior wall of the upper body of the stomach, suggesting the gastric hematogenous metastasis of pancreatic cancer. The suspected diagnosis was unresectable pancreatic cancer with multiple metastases that was concomitant with the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas. PMID:27403106

  2. Revision operations after primary gastric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W Weatherston

    1982-01-01

    A single surgeon working in a district general hospital gives his experience over 31 years of 179 reoperations after a primary gastric operation has failed to relieve symptoms of duodenal ulcer. PMID:7092089

  3. Immunotherapy for gastric premalignant lesions and cancer.

    PubMed

    Zorzetto, Valerio; Maddalo, Gemma; Basso, Daniela; Farinati, Fabio

    2012-06-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous change for gastric cancer, shows a loss of appropriate glands, Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune gastritis being the two main etiologic factors. While H. pylori eradication is the mandatory treatment for the former, no etiologic treatment is available for the latter, in which a Th1-type response, modulated by Tregs and Th17 cells, is involved. H. pylori-related atrophic gastritis is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, while autoimmune atrophic gastritis is also linked to a substantial risk of gastric type I carcinoid, related to the chronic stimulus exerted by hypergastrinemia on enterochromaffin-like cells. Several studies have been published on gastric cancer treatment through an active specific immunotherapy, aimed at improving the immunoregulatory response and increasing the circulating tumor-specific T cells. No study on immunotherapy of carcinoids is available but, in our experience, the administration of an antigastrin 17 vaccine induced carcinoid regression in two out of three patients treated.

  4. Multidisciplinary management for esophageal and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Boniface, Megan M; Wani, Sachin B; Schefter, Tracey E; Koo, Phillip J; Meguid, Cheryl; Leong, Stephen; Kaplan, Jeffrey B; Wingrove, Lisa J; McCarter, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The management of esophageal and gastric cancer is complex and involves multiple specialists in an effort to optimize patient outcomes. Utilizing a multidisciplinary team approach starting from the initial staging evaluation ensures that all members are in agreement with the plan of care. Treatment selection for esophageal and gastric cancer often involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and palliative interventions (endoscopic and surgical), and direct communication between specialists in these fields is needed to ensure appropriate clinical decision making. At the University of Colorado, the Esophageal and Gastric Multidisciplinary Clinic was created to bring together all experts involved in treating these diseases at a weekly conference in order to provide patients with coordinated, individualized, and patient-centered care. This review details the essential elements and benefits of building a multidisciplinary program focused on treating esophageal and gastric cancer patients.

  5. Multidisciplinary management for esophageal and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boniface, Megan M; Wani, Sachin B; Schefter, Tracey E; Koo, Phillip J; Meguid, Cheryl; Leong, Stephen; Kaplan, Jeffrey B; Wingrove, Lisa J; McCarter, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The management of esophageal and gastric cancer is complex and involves multiple specialists in an effort to optimize patient outcomes. Utilizing a multidisciplinary team approach starting from the initial staging evaluation ensures that all members are in agreement with the plan of care. Treatment selection for esophageal and gastric cancer often involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and palliative interventions (endoscopic and surgical), and direct communication between specialists in these fields is needed to ensure appropriate clinical decision making. At the University of Colorado, the Esophageal and Gastric Multidisciplinary Clinic was created to bring together all experts involved in treating these diseases at a weekly conference in order to provide patients with coordinated, individualized, and patient-centered care. This review details the essential elements and benefits of building a multidisciplinary program focused on treating esophageal and gastric cancer patients. PMID:27217796

  6. Molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wen-Jia; Gao, Jin-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of the major treatments for gastric cancer, but drug resistance limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy, which results in treatment failure. Resistance to chemotherapy can be present intrinsically before the administration of chemotherapy or it can develop during chemotherapy. The mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in gastric cancer are complex and multifactorial. A variety of factors have been demonstrated to be involved in chemoresistance, including the reduced intracellular concentrations of drugs, alterations in drug targets, the dysregulation of cell survival and death signaling pathways, and interactions between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer and on recent studies that have sought to overcome the underlying mechanisms of chemoresistance. PMID:27672425

  7. Severe gastric dilatation due to superior mesenteric artery syndrome in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Mascolo, Margherita; Dee, Elizabeth; Townsend, Ronald; Brinton, John T; Mehler, Philip S

    2015-07-01

    Forty-seven year old female, with a history of anorexia nervosa, was admitted to a medical stabilization unit (ACUTE) complaining of abdominal pain exacerbated by oral intake, associated with nausea, and relieved by emesis. Admission body mass index was 10.6. Labs were notable for hepatitis and hypoglycemia. On her progressive oral refeeding plan, she suddenly developed severe abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) revealed gastric dilatation and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome. SMA syndrome is a rare complication of severe malnutrition resulting from compression of the duodenum between the aorta and the SMA. It is diagnosed by an upper gastrointestinal series or an abdominal CT. Gastric dilatation, in turn, is a rare complication of SMA syndrome to be included in the differential diagnoses of abdominal pain in severely malnourished patients as it is potentially life-threatening. The patient was switched to an oral liquid diet, began weight restoring, and had resolution of symptoms.

  8. Gastric perforation following endoscopic removal of a Bravo pH capsule in a cat.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, M Katherine; Odunayo, Adesola; Craig, Linden E

    2015-06-01

    A 7-year-old domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for hyporexia and weight loss following endoscopic placement of an intragastric pH monitoring device. Physical examination of the cat was unremarkable, and its blood work was notable for a mild hypoalbuminemia. The cat's acute hyporexia and weight loss was attributed to discomfort associated with the intragastric pH monitoring device, as has been reported in humans. Endoscopic removal of the intragastric pH monitoring device resulted in gastric perforation. The cat underwent exploratory laparotomy for surgical resection and repair of the perforated area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of gastric perforation secondary to removal of a Bravo pH capsule. Caution may be advised when considering intragastric pH capsule removal in cats.

  9. The relationship between gastric motility and nausea: gastric prokinetic agents as treatments.

    PubMed

    Sanger, Gareth J; Broad, John; Andrews, Paul L R

    2013-09-01

    Nausea is one of a cluster of symptoms described subjectively by patients with delayed gastric emptying. The mechanisms and treatments are unclear (anti-emetic drugs are not fully effective against nausea). Can nausea be relieved by stimulating gastric emptying? Physostigmine (together with atropine) has been shown experimentally to stimulate gastric motility, relieve nausea and restore normal gastric motility. Is this mimicked by gastric prokinetic drugs? The answer is complicated by mixed pharmacology. Metoclopramide increases gastric motility by activating myenteric 5-HT4 receptors but also directly inhibits vomiting via D2 and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism; relationships between increased gastric motility and relief from nausea are therefore unclear. Similarly, the D2 receptor antagonist domperidone has direct anti-emetic activity. Nevertheless, more selective 5-HT4 and motilin receptor agonists (erythromycin, directly stimulating gastric motility) inhibit vomiting in animals; low doses of erythromycin can also relieve symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. Ghrelin stimulates gastric motility and appetite mostly via vagus-dependent pathways, and inhibits vomiting in animals. To date, ghrelin receptor activation has failed to consistently improve gastric emptying or symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. We conclude that nausea can be relieved by gastric prokinetic drugs, but more clinical studies are needed using drugs with selective activity. Other mechanisms (e.g. ghrelin, vagal and central pathways, influencing a mechanistic continuum between appetite and nausea) also require exploration. These and other issues will be further explored in a forthcoming special issue of the European Journal of Pharmacology, which focusses on mechanisms of nausea and vomiting.

  10. [Semiautomatic potentiometric titration of gastric juice].

    PubMed

    Mnuskina, M M; Meerov, G I; Nadezhina, L S; Semenov, V P; Chekanina, M I; Savchenko, V P; Grinzaĭd, E L

    1990-01-01

    Using commercial equipment manufactured in this country, the authors have assembled a unit for semiautomatic potentiometric titration and developed a method for such titration, permitting a rapid determination of free and bound HCl and the total acidity of the gastric juice. The equipment and method are recommended for wide use at laboratories of therapeutic institutions, of biologic factories manufacturing medicinal commercial gastric juice, and of research institutes.

  11. Robot-assisted surgery for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Procopiuc, Livia; Tudor, Ştefan; Mănuc, Mircea; Diculescu, Mircea; Vasilescu, Cătălin

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer is a relatively new research field, with convincing results mostly stemming from Asian countries. The use of the robotic surgery platform, thus far assessed as a safe procedure, which is also easier to learn, sets the background for a wider spread of minimally invasive technique in the treatment of gastric cancer. This review will cover the literature published so far, analyzing the pros and cons of robotic surgery and highlighting the remaining study questions. PMID:26798433

  12. Familial Clustering of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung; Jang, Woncheol; Seo, Bochang; Oh, Sooyeon; Shin, Cheol Min; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This comprehensive cross-sectional study aimed to identify factors contributing to familial aggregation of gastric cancer (GC). A total of 1058 GC patients and 1268 controls were analyzed separately according to the presence or absence of a first-degree relative of GC (GC-relative). Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, residence during childhood, smoking, alcohol intake, monthly income, spicy food ingestion, Helicobacter pylori status and host cytokine polymorphisms was performed. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) positivity was a distinctive risk factor for GC in the family history (FH)-positive group (odds ratio [OR], 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42–4.00), while current/ex-smoker, moderate to strong spicy food ingestion, and non-B blood types were more closely associated with GC in the FH-negative group. Among the FH-positive group, alcohol consumption showed a synergistic carcinogenic effect in the at least 2 GC-relatives group compared to the 1 GC-relative group (1.71 vs. 9.58, P for interaction = 0.026), and this was dose-dependent. In the subjects with ≥2 GC-relatives, TGFB1-509T/T was a risk factor for GC (OR 23.74; 95% CI 1.37–410.91), as were rural residency in childhood, alcohol consumption, spicy food ingestion, and cagA positivity. These results suggest that subjects with FH may be a heterogeneous group in terms of gastric cancer susceptibility. Especially, subjects with ≥2 GC-relatives should undergo risk stratification including TGFB1-509T/T and alcohol consumption. PMID:27196462

  13. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Estenssoro, Elisa; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute respiratory failure produced by an inflammatory edema secondary to increased lung capillary permeability. This causes alveolar flooding and subsequently deep hypoxemia, with intrapulmonary shunt as its most important underlying mechanism. Characteristically, this alteration is unresponsive to high FIO2 and only reverses with end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP). Pulmonary infiltrates on CXR and CT are the hallmark, together with decreased lung compliance. ARDS always occurs within a week of exposition to a precipitating factor; most frequently pneumonia, shock, aspiration of gastric contents, sepsis, and trauma. In CT scan, the disease is frequently inhomogeneous, with gravitational infiltrates coexisting with normal-density areas and also with hyperaerated parenchyma. Mortality is high (30-60%) especially in ARDS associated with septic shock and neurocritical diseases. The cornerstone of therapy lies in the treatment of the underlying cause and in the use mechanical ventilation which, if inappropriately administered, can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. Tidal volume = 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight to maintain an end-inspiratory (plateau) pressure = 30 cm H2O ("protective ventilation") is the only variable consistently associated with decreased mortality. Moderate-to-high PEEP levels are frequently required to treat hypoxemia, yet no specific level or titration strategy has improved outcomes. Recently, the use of early prone positioning in patients with PaO2/FIO2 = 150 was associated with increased survival. In severely hypoxemic patients, it may be necessary to use adjuvants of mechanical ventilation as recruitment maneuvers, pressure-controlled modes, neuromuscular blocking agents, and extracorporeal-membrane oxygenation. Fluid restriction appears beneficial. PMID:27576283

  14. Acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Graves, Nancy S

    2013-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a common infectious disease syndrome, causing a combination of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. There are more than 350 million cases of acute gastroenteritis in the United States annually and 48 million of these cases are caused by foodborne bacteria. Traveler's diarrhea affects more than half of people traveling from developed countries to developing countries. In adult and pediatric patients, the prevalence of Clostridium difficile is increasing. Contact precautions, public health education, and prudent use of antibiotics are necessary goals in decreasing the prevalence of Clostridium difficle. Preventing dehydration or providing appropriate rehydration is the primary supportive treatment of acute gastroenteritis.

  15. Worldwide practice in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brenkman, Hylke JF; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current status of gastric cancer surgery worldwide. METHODS: An international cross-sectional survey on gastric cancer surgery was performed amongst international upper gastro-intestinal surgeons. All surgical members of the International Gastric Cancer Association were invited by e-mail to participate. An English web-based survey had to be filled in with regard to their surgical preferences. Questions asked included hospital volume, the use of neoadjuvant treatment, preferred surgical approach, extent of the lymphadenectomy and preferred anastomotic technique. The invitations were sent in September 2013 and the survey was closed in January 2014. RESULTS: The corresponding specific response rate was 227/615 (37%). The majority of respondents: originated from Asia (54%), performed > 21 gastrectomies per year (79%) and used neoadjuvant chemotherapy (73%). An open surgical procedure was performed by the majority of surgeons for distal gastrectomy for advanced cancer (91%) and total gastrectomy for both early and advanced cancer (52% and 94%). A minimally invasive procedure was preferred for distal gastrectomy for early cancer (65%). In Asia surgeons preferred a minimally invasive procedure for total gastrectomy for early cancer also (63%). A D1+ lymphadenectomy was preferred in early gastric cancer (52% for distal, 54% for total gastrectomy) and a D2 lymphadenectomy was preferred in advanced gastric cancer (93% for distal, 92% for total gastrectomy) CONCLUSION: Surgical preferences for gastric cancer surgery vary between surgeons worldwide. Although the majority of surgeons use neoadjuvant chemotherapy, minimally invasive techniques are still not widely adapted. PMID:27099448

  16. Gastric cáncer: Overview

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Pelayo

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer ranks fourth in incidence and second in mortality among all cancers worldwide. Despite the decrease in incidence in some regions of the world, gastric cancer continues to present a major clinical challenge due to most cases being diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The development of gastric cancer is a complex and multifactorial process involving a number of etiological factors and multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. Among the predisposing factors are: Helicobacter pylori infection, high salt intake, smoking, and in a small percentage of patients, a familial genetic component. More than 95% of stomach cancer cases are adenocarcinomas, which are classified into two major histologic types: intestinal and diffuse. Intestinal type adenocarcinoma is preceded by a sequence of gastric lesions known as Correa´s cascade and is the histologic type associated with the global decrease in gastric cancer rates. Diffuse type adenocarcinomas have a more aggressive behavior and worse prognosis than those of the intestinal type. According to the anatomical location, adenocarcinomas are classified as proximal (originating in the cardia) and distal (originating in the body and antrum). This classification seems to recognize two different clinical entities. Surgical resection of the tumor at an early stage is the only effective treatment method. Therefore, the identification and surveillance of patients at risk may play a significant role in survival rates. Anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy has been shown to be an effective measure in the prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:24892619

  17. Laparoscopic Proximal Gastrectomy With Gastric Tube Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Norio; Toujigamori, Manabu; Shiroshita, Hidefumi; Etoh, Tsuyoshi; Inomata, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: There is no standardized method of reconstruction in laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG). We present a novel technique of reconstruction with a long, narrow gastric tube in LPG for early gastric cancer (EGC). Methods: During the laparoscopic procedure, the upper part of the stomach is fully mobilized with perigastric and suprapancreatic lymphadenectomy, and then the abdominal esophagus is transected. After a minilaparotomy is created, the entire stomach is pulled outside. A long, narrow gastric tube (20 cm long, 3 cm wide) is created with a linear stapler. The proximal part of the gastric tube is formed into a cobra head shape for esophagogastric tube anastomosis, which is then performed with a 45-mm linear stapler under laparoscopic view. The end of the esophagus is fixed on the gastric tube to prevent postoperative esophageal reflux. Results: Thirteen patients with early proximal gastric cancer underwent the procedure. The mean operative time was 283 min, and median blood loss was 63 ml. There were no conversions to open surgery, and no intraoperative complications. Conclusion: This new technique of reconstruction after LPG is simple and feasible. The procedure has the potential of becoming a standard reconstruction technique after LPG for proximal EGC. PMID:27547027

  18. Epigenetic alterations in gastric cancer (Review).

    PubMed

    Fu, Du-Guan

    2015-09-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common types of cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. An increasing number of recent studies have confirmed that gastric cancer is a multistage pathological state that arises from environmental factors; dietary factors in particulary are considered to play an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. Improper dietary habits are one of the primary concerns as they influence key molecular events associated with the onset of gastric carcinogenesis. In the field of genetics, anticancer research has mainly focused on the various genetic markers and genetic molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of this of this disease. Some of this research has proven to be very fruitful, providing insight into the possible mechamisms repsonsible for this disease and into possible treatment modalities. However, the mortality rate associated with gastric cancer remains relatively high. Thus, epigenetics has become a hot topic for research, whereby genetic markers are bypassed and this research is directed towards reversible epigenetic events, such as methylation and histone modifications that play a crucial role in carcinogenesis. The present review focuses on the epigenetic events which play an important role in the development and progression of this deadly disease, gastric cancer.

  19. Gastric cáncer: Overview.

    PubMed

    Piazuelo, M Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2013-07-01

    Gastric cancer ranks fourth in incidence and second in mortality among all cancers worldwide. Despite the decrease in incidence in some regions of the world, gastric cancer continues to present a major clinical challenge due to most cases being diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The development of gastric cancer is a complex and multifactorial process involving a number of etiological factors and multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. Among the predisposing factors are: Helicobacter pylori infection, high salt intake, smoking, and in a small percentage of patients, a familial genetic component. More than 95% of stomach cancer cases are adenocarcinomas, which are classified into two major histologic types: intestinal and diffuse. Intestinal type adenocarcinoma is preceded by a sequence of gastric lesions known as Correa´s cascade and is the histologic type associated with the global decrease in gastric cancer rates. Diffuse type adenocarcinomas have a more aggressive behavior and worse prognosis than those of the intestinal type. According to the anatomical location, adenocarcinomas are classified as proximal (originating in the cardia) and distal (originating in the body and antrum). This classification seems to recognize two different clinical entities. Surgical resection of the tumor at an early stage is the only effective treatment method. Therefore, the identification and surveillance of patients at risk may play a significant role in survival rates. Anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy has been shown to be an effective measure in the prevention of gastric cancer.

  20. Pulmonary Resection for Metastatic Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Hirohiko; Atari, Maiko; Fukuhara, Mitsuro; Nakajima, Yuki; Kinosita, Hiroyasu; Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary metastasectomy has come to be recognized as an effective treatment for selected patients with some malignancies. On the other hand, the role of pulmonary metastasectomy for gastric cancer is still unknown. Metastasectomy is rarely indicated in cases of pulmonary metastasis from gastric cancer, because in most cases, the metastasis occurs in the form of lymphangitic carcinomatosis and the lesions are numerous. The purpose of this study was to determine the surgical outcomes and prognostic factors for survival after pulmonary metastasectomy. Methods: From 1985 to 2012, 10 patients underwent pulmonary metastasectomy for gastric cancer at Saitama Cancer Center, Japan. The overall survival rate was examined by the Kaplan-Meier method and univariate analysis was carried out to identify prognostic factors. Results: The overall 3-year survival rate was 30.0%. The median follow-up period was 26.8 months (range, 6.5–96.6) after the pulmonary metastasectomy. Univariate analysis revealed an advanced pathological stage of the gastric cancer and occurrence of extrapulmonary metastasis before the pulmonary metastasectomy as unfavorable prognostic factors. Conclusion: Pulmonary metastasectomy should be considered in selected patients with lung metastasis from gastric cancer. An advanced pathological stage of gastric cancer and occurrence of extrapulmonary metastasis before the pulmonary metastasectomy are unfavorable prognostic factors. PMID:27118522

  1. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors affecting gastric proton pump expression and acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Charles E; Beeson, Craig; Suarez, Giovanni; Peek, Richard M; Backert, Steffen; Smolka, Adam J

    2015-08-01

    Acute Helicobacter pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells and human gastric biopsies represses H,K-ATPase α subunit (HKα) gene expression and inhibits acid secretion, causing transient hypochlorhydria and supporting gastric H. pylori colonization. Infection by H. pylori strains deficient in the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI) genes cagL, cagE, or cagM, which do not transfer CagA into host cells or induce interleukin-8 secretion, does not inhibit HKα expression, nor does a cagA-deficient strain that induces IL-8. To test the hypothesis that virulence factors other than those mediating CagA translocation or IL-8 induction participate in HKα repression by activating NF-κB, AGS cells transfected with HKα promoter-Luc reporter constructs containing an intact or mutated NF-κB binding site were infected with wild-type H. pylori strain 7.13, isogenic mutants lacking cag PAI genes responsible for CagA translocation and/or IL-8 induction (cagA, cagζ, cagε, cagZ, and cagβ), or deficient in genes encoding two peptidoglycan hydrolases (slt and cagγ). H. pylori-induced AGS cell HKα promoter activities, translocated CagA, and IL-8 secretion were measured by luminometry, immunoblotting, and ELISA, respectively. Human gastric biopsy acid secretion was measured by microphysiometry. Taken together, the data showed that HKα repression is independent of IL-8 expression, and that CagA translocation together with H. pylori transglycosylases encoded by slt and cagγ participate in NF-κB-dependent HKα repression and acid inhibition. The findings are significant because H. pylori factors other than CagA and IL-8 secretion are now implicated in transient hypochlorhydria which facilitates gastric colonization and potential triggering of epithelial progression to neoplasia.

  2. Plug-Assisted Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for the Treatment of Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Min-Yung; Kim, Taehwan; Shin, Wonseon; Shin, Minwoo; Kim, Gyoung Min; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) to treat gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. Materials and Methods From May 2012 to June 2014, 19 patients (11 men and 8 women, median age; 61, with history of gastric variceal hemorrhage; 17, active bleeding; 2) who underwent PARTO using a vascular plug and a gelfoam pledget were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were examined to evaluate primary (technical and clinical success, complications) and secondary (worsening of esophageal varix [EV], change in liver function) end points. Median follow-up duration was 11 months, from 6.5 to 18 months. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare laboratory data before and after the procedure. Results Technical success (complete occlusion of the efferent shunt and complete filling of gastric varix [GV] with a gelfoam slurry) was achieved in 18 of 19 (94.7%) patients. The embolic materials could not reach the GV in 1 patient who had endoscopic glue injection before our procedure. The clinical success rate (no recurrence of gastric variceal bleeding) was the same because the technically failed patient showed recurrent bleeding later. Acute complications included fever (n = 2), fever and hypotension (n = 2; one diagnosed adrenal insufficiency), and transient microscopic hematuria (n = 3). Ten patients underwent follow-up endoscopy; all exhibited GV improvement, except 2 without endoscopic change. Five patients exhibited aggravated EV, and 2 of them had a bleeding event. Laboratory findings were significantly improved after PARTO. Conclusion PARTO is technically feasible, safe, and effective for gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. PMID:26957908

  3. Severe gastric impaction secondary to a gastric polyp in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Snyman, Heindrich Nicolaas; Abrahams, Miranda; Moore, Alison; Vince, Andrew; Anderson, Maureen E.C.

    2013-01-01

    A 13-year-old Percheron gelding was presented for refractory gastric impaction. At necropsy a pedunculated 10 cm × 11 cm × 14 cm mass, histologically identified as an inflammatory polyp, was suspected to have been partly obstructing the pylorus. This is the first report of a polyp resulting in gastric outflow obstruction in a horse. PMID:24155420

  4. Long-Term Effects of Gastric Stimulation on Gastric Electrical Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Patrick A.; Nikitina, Yana; Kedar, Archana; Lahr, Christopher J.; Helling, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluates the modeling of gastric electrophysiology tracings during long-term gastric electrical stimulation for gastroparesis. We hypothesized that serosal electrogastrogram may change over time representing gastric remodeling from gastric stimulation. Patients Sixty-five patients with gastroparesis underwent placement of gastric stimulator for refractory symptoms. Mean age at initial stimulator placement was 44 years (range, 8–76), current mean age was 49, and the majority of the subjects were female (n = 51, 78 %). Only a minority had diabetes-induced gastroparesis (n = 16, 25 %); the remainder were either idiopathic or postsurgical. Methods At the time of stimulator placement, electrogastrogram was performed after the gastric leads were placed but before stimulation was begun. Patients underwent continuous stimulation until pacer batteries depleted. At the time of replacement, before the new pacemaker was attached, electrogastrogram was again performed. Results After a mean of 3.9 years of stimulation therapy, the mean of baseline frequency before stimulation therapy was 5.06 cycles/min and declined to 3.66 after replacement (p = 0.0000002). The mean amplitude was 0.33 mV before stimulation therapy and decreased to 0.31 mV (p = 0.73). The frequency/amplitude ratio was 38.4 before stimulation therapy and decreased to 21.9 (p = 0.001). Conclusion Long-term gastric electrical stimulation causes improvement in basal unstimulated gastric frequency to near normal. PMID:22956404

  5. Gastric bezoar after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Ertugrul, Ismail; Tardum Tardu, Ali; Tolan, Kerem; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Karagul, Servet; Kirmizi, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to present a patient with gastric pouch bezoar after having a bariatric surgery. Presentation of case Sixty-three years old morbid obese female had a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery 14 months ago. She has lost 88% of her excess body mass index; but started to suffer from nausea, abdominal distention and vomiting lately, especially for the last two months. The initial evaluation by endoscopy, computed tomography (CT) and an upper gastrointestinal contrast series overlooked the pathology in the gastric pouch and did not display any abnormality. However, a second endoscopy revealed a 5 cm in diameter phytobezoar in the gastric pouch which was later endoscopically removed. After the bezoar removal, her complaints relieved completely. Discussion The gastric bezoars may be confused with the other pathologies because of the dyspeptic complaints of these patients. The patients that had a bariatric surgery; are more prone to bezoar formation due to their potential eating disorders and because of the gastro-enterostomy made to a small gastric pouch after the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Conclusion Possibility of a bezoar formation should be kept in mind in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients who has nausea and vomiting complaints. Removal of the bezoar provides a dramatic improvement in the complaints of these patients. PMID:27107501

  6. Anethole restores delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation in rodents.

    PubMed

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2016-03-25

    Functional dyspepsia (FD), a functional gastrointestinal disorder, is characterized by persistent or recurrent postprandial upper abdominal discomfort and epigastric pain. The high prevalence of FD and associated healthcare costs suggests that treatment of this condition by methods other than prescribed medicines, such as natural products, could be beneficial. Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation play important roles in the development of FD. Anethole (1-methoxy-4-((E)-propenyl)-benzene), a major component of essential fennel oil, has been used as a flavoring, in alcoholic beverage production and in pharmaceutical formulations for many years. In this study, we examined the effects of anethole on delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation in rodents. Oral administration of anethole improved clonidine-induced delayed gastric emptying but did not affect normal gastric emptying in mice. Fennel oil and Anchu-san (a Japanese herbal medicine containing anethole) also restored delayed gastric emptying. Furthermore, oral administration of anethole stimulated gastric accommodation in rats. These results suggest that anethole could be beneficial for the treatment of FD. PMID:26915803

  7. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  8. Acute Pericarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large pericardial effusions). Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen ) taken ... reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. ...

  9. Molecular Genotyping of Anisakis Larvae in Middle Eastern Japan and Endoscopic Evidence for Preferential Penetration of Normal over Atrophic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Toshio; Akao, Nobuaki; Seki, Takenori; Kumagai, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hirofumi; Ohta, Nobuo; Hirata, Nobuto; Nakaji, So; Yamauchi, Kenji; Hirai, Mitsuru; Shiratori, Toshiyasu; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Eiji; Naito, Mikio; Saitoh, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Shibata, Nobumitsu; Shimo, Masamune; Tokiwa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused primarily by Anisakis spp. larvae in Asia and in Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype of Anisakis larvae endoscopically removed from Middle Eastern Japanese patients and to determine whether mucosal atrophy affects the risk of penetration in gastric anisakiasis. Methods In this study, 57 larvae collected from 44 patients with anisakiasis (42 gastric and 2 colonic anisakiasis) were analyzed retrospectively. Genotyping was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of ITS regions and by sequencing the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) region. In the cases of gastric anisakiasis, correlation analyses were conducted between the frequency of larval penetration in normal/atrophic area and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. Results Nearly all larvae were A. simplex seusu stricto (s.s.) (99%), and one larva displayed a hybrid genotype. The A. simplex larvae penetrated normal mucosa more frequently than atrophic area (p = 0.005). Finally, patients with normal mucosa infection were more likely to exhibit clinical symptoms than those with atrophic mucosa infection (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.52–31.8). Conclusions In Japan, A. simplex s.s. is the main etiological agent of human anisakiasis and tends to penetrate normal gastric mucosa. Careful endoscopic examination of normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the greater curvature of the stomach will improve the detection of Anisakis larvae. PMID:24586583

  10. Protective activity of salidroside against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer via the MAPK/NF-κB pathway in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiayun; Luo, Fen; Jiang, Wenjiao; Zhu, Lingpeng; Gao, Jin; He, He; Wei, Tingting; Gong, Shilin; Yan, Tianhua

    2015-09-01

    Salidroside (Sal) is a traditional Chinese medicine with various pharmacological effects. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Sal on ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer and H2O2-induced gastric epithelial cell damage. 0.2 ml ethanol and 400 μM H2O2 were applied to establish a gastric ulcer model in vivo and in vitro respectively. The production of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was analyzed, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). MTT assay was used to detect cell viability. In addition, MAPK/NF-κB signal pathway-related proteins p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p38, p-IκBα and p-NF-κBp65 were analyzed to determine the underlying protective mechanism. Downstream genes such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and leukotrienes B4 (LTB4) were also measured. Obtained data indicated that Sal inhibited the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhanced antioxidant activity. Collectively, it is assumed that Sal could alleviate ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer and H2O2-induced gastric epithelial cell damage through the MAPK/NF-κB pathway.

  11. Immunohistochemical expression of tenascin in normal stomach tissue, gastric carcinomas and gastric carcinoma in lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Y.; Mori, M.; Kajiyama, K.; Haraguchi, Y.; Sasaki, O.; Sugimachi, K.

    1995-01-01

    The immunohistochemical expression of tenascin was examined in the normal adult mucosa of the stomach, primary tumours and lymph node metastases of gastric cancer patients. In normal gastric tissue tenascin was expressed in the muscularis mucosae, muscularis propria and vessel walls, however it was not expressed in either the mucosal connective tissue or the stromal tissue in the submucosal layer. In gastric cancer, tenascin was expressed in 35 of 85 primary tumours, and in 8 of 25 metastases in lymph nodes. Tenascin was located in the fibrous stroma surrounding foci of cancer. The expression of tenascin in the primary tumour did not correlate with the depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis or prognosis. Tenascin appears during the process of either malignant transformation or tumour progression in gastric cancer, and the positive expression of tenascin may be useful as a stromal marker for the early detection of gastric cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:7541237

  12. Gastric Cancer in the Excluded Stomach 10 Years after Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Tinoco, Augusto; Gottardi, Lorena F.; Boechat, Eduardo D.

    2015-01-01

    According to the Brazilian health authorities, around 2,000 new cases of gastric cancer emerge in Brazil per year (Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, 2014). Indeed, gastric cancer constitutes the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and 95% of such malignancies are adenocarcinomas (De Roover et al., 2006, and Clark et al., 2006). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a procedure frequently employed in bariatric surgery but restricted access to the excluded stomach means that discovery of gastric lesions is difficult, and diagnosis and treatment may be delayed. We report herein a case of gastric adenocarcinoma in the excluded stomach of a patient submitted to RYGB with the purpose of illustrating the difficulty of diagnosing and treating this rare condition. PMID:26229705

  13. Intermittent gastric outlet obstruction caused by a prolapsing antral gastric polyp

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Mehul; Kelley, Brian; Rendon, Gabriel; Abraham, Bincy

    2010-01-01

    Most gastric polyps have an asymptomatic presentation and are an incidental finding on upper endoscopy. Symptomatic presentations can range from an ulcerated polyp leading to anemia and occult bleed to complete gastric outlet obstruction. We report a case of an 89-year-old woman who presented with postprandial nausea and early satiety. Her upper endoscopy revealed a 2 cm pedunculated hyperplastic polyp arising from the antrum of the stomach which was seen prolapsing into the pylorus causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. In the present report, we statistically analyzed 39 prolapsing gastric polyps previously reported in the English literature and demonstrate the current utility of monopolar snare polypectomy in establishing a histological diagnosis while offering simultaneous treatment. Additionally, we review the literature for the management of all hyperplastic gastric polyps in relation to advancements in digestive endoscopy. PMID:21160624

  14. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori

  15. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases.

  16. Does orlistat cause acute kidney injury?

    PubMed

    Beyea, Michael M; Garg, Amit X; Weir, Matthew A

    2012-04-01

    Orlistat is an inhibitor of gastric and pancreatic lipase with proven efficacy in the augmentation and maintenance of weight loss. Although its use has been limited by troublesome but benign gastrointestinal side effects, it has more recently been associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). In this review, we summarize orlistat's benefits and drawbacks and discuss the body of evidence supporting its role as a cause of AKI. Although we cannot yet draw an unequivocal causal link between orlistat and AKI, there is enough evidence to include orlistat exposure in the clinical assessment of patients with AKI. PMID:25083225

  17. Does orlistat cause acute kidney injury?

    PubMed Central

    Beyea, Michael M.; Garg, Amit X.

    2012-01-01

    Orlistat is an inhibitor of gastric and pancreatic lipase with proven efficacy in the augmentation and maintenance of weight loss. Although its use has been limited by troublesome but benign gastrointestinal side effects, it has more recently been associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). In this review, we summarize orlistat’s benefits and drawbacks and discuss the body of evidence supporting its role as a cause of AKI. Although we cannot yet draw an unequivocal causal link between orlistat and AKI, there is enough evidence to include orlistat exposure in the clinical assessment of patients with AKI. PMID:25083225

  18. Recent developments and innovations in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mihmanli, Mehmet; Ilhan, Enver; Idiz, Ufuk Oguz; Alemdar, Ali; Demir, Uygar

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer has an important place in the worldwide incidence of cancer and cancer-related deaths. It can metastasize to the lymph nodes in the early stages, and lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor. Surgery is a very important part of gastric cancer treatment. A D2 lymphadenectomy is the standard surgical treatment for cT1N+ and T2-T4 cancers, which are potentially curable. Recently, the TNM classification system was reorganized, and the margins for gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy were revised. Endoscopic, laparoscopic and robotic treatments of gastric cancer have progressed rapidly with development of surgical instruments and techniques, especially in Eastern countries. Different endoscopic resection techniques have been identified, and these can be divided into two main categories: endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection. Minimally invasive surgery has been reported to be safe and effective for early gastric cancer, and it can be successfully applied to advanced gastric cancer with increasing experience. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermıc intraperıtoneal chemotherapy were developed as a combined treatment modality from the results of experimental and clinical studies. Also, hyperthermia increases the antitumor activity and penetration of chemotherapeutics. Trastuzumab which is a monoclonal antibody interacts with human epidermal growth factor (HER) 2 and is related to gastric carcinoma. The anti-tumor mechanism of trastuzumab is not clearly known, but mechanisms such as interruption of the HER2-mediated cell signaling pathways and cell cycle progression have been reported previously. H. pylori is involved in 90% of all gastric malignancies and Japanese guidelines strongly recommend that all H. pylori infections should be eradicated regardless of the associated disease. In this review, we present innovations discussed in recent studies. PMID:27158199

  19. Challenges of deciphering gastric cancer heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Hudler, Petra

    2015-10-01

    Gastric cancer is in decline in most developed countries; however, it still accounts for a notable fraction of global mortality and morbidity related to cancer. High-throughput methods are rapidly changing our view and understanding of the molecular basis of gastric carcinogenesis. Today, it is widely accepted that the molecular complexity and heterogeneity, both inter- and intra-tumour, of gastric adenocarcinomas present significant obstacles in elucidating specific biomarkers for early detection of the disease. Although genome-wide sequencing and gene expression studies have revealed the intricate nature of the molecular changes that occur in tumour landscapes, the collected data and results are complex and sometimes contradictory. Several aberrant molecules have already been tested in clinical trials, although their diagnostic and prognostic utilities have not been confirmed thus far. The gold standard for the detection of sporadic gastric cancer is still the gastric endoscopy, which is considered invasive. In addition, genome-wide association studies have confirmed that genetic variations are important contributors to increased cancer risk and could participate in the initiation of malignant transformation. This hypothesis could in part explain the late onset of sporadic gastric cancers. The elaborate interplay of polymorphic low penetrance genes and lifestyle and environmental risk factors requires additional research to decipher their relative impacts on tumorigenesis. The purpose of this article is to present details of the molecular heterogeneity of sporadic gastric cancers at the DNA, RNA, and proteome levels and to discuss issues relevant to the translation of basic research data to clinically valuable tools. The focus of this work is the identification of relevant molecular changes that could be detected non-invasively. PMID:26457012

  20. Clopidogrel delays gastric ulcer healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Huo, Teh-Ia; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Li, Chung-Pin; Lin, Han-Chieh; Chang, Full-Young; Lee, Fa-Yauh

    2012-11-15

    Clopidogrel is not safe enough for the gastric mucosa in patients with high risk of peptic ulcer. This study aimed to explore if clopidogrel delays gastric ulcer healing and elucidate the involved mechanisms. Gastric ulcer was induced in rats and the ulcer size, mucosal epithelial cell proliferation of the ulcer margin, expression of growth factors [epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor] and their receptors, and signal transduction pathways for cell proliferation were measured and compared between the clopidogrel-treated group and untreated controls. For the in vitro part, rat gastric mucosal epithelial cell line (RGM-1 cells) was used to establish EGF receptor over-expressed cells. Cell proliferation and molecular change under EGF treatment (10ng/ml) with and without clopidogrel (10(-6)M) were demonstrated. Ulcer size was significantly larger in the clopidogrel-treated group compared to the control and mucosal epithelial cell proliferation of the ulcer margin was significantly decreased in the clopidogrel-treated group (P<0.05). Clopidogrel (2mg and 10mg/kg/day) significantly decreased ulcer-induced gastric epithelial cell proliferation and ulcer-stimulated expressions of EGF receptor and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (PERK) at the ulcer margin (P<0.05). Clopidogrel (10(-6)M) also inhibited EGF-stimulated EGF receptor, PERK expression, and cell proliferation in RGM-1 cells (P<0.05), and caused much less inhibition of EGF-stimulated cell proliferation in EGF receptor over-expressed RGM-1 cells than in RGM-1 cells (22% vs. 32% reduction). In conclusion, clopidogrel delays gastric ulcer healing in rats via inhibiting gastric epithelial cell proliferation, at least by inhibition of the EGF receptor-ERK signal transduction pathway.

  1. Challenges of deciphering gastric cancer heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Hudler, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is in decline in most developed countries; however, it still accounts for a notable fraction of global mortality and morbidity related to cancer. High-throughput methods are rapidly changing our view and understanding of the molecular basis of gastric carcinogenesis. Today, it is widely accepted that the molecular complexity and heterogeneity, both inter- and intra-tumour, of gastric adenocarcinomas present significant obstacles in elucidating specific biomarkers for early detection of the disease. Although genome-wide sequencing and gene expression studies have revealed the intricate nature of the molecular changes that occur in tumour landscapes, the collected data and results are complex and sometimes contradictory. Several aberrant molecules have already been tested in clinical trials, although their diagnostic and prognostic utilities have not been confirmed thus far. The gold standard for the detection of sporadic gastric cancer is still the gastric endoscopy, which is considered invasive. In addition, genome-wide association studies have confirmed that genetic variations are important contributors to increased cancer risk and could participate in the initiation of malignant transformation. This hypothesis could in part explain the late onset of sporadic gastric cancers. The elaborate interplay of polymorphic low penetrance genes and lifestyle and environmental risk factors requires additional research to decipher their relative impacts on tumorigenesis. The purpose of this article is to present details of the molecular heterogeneity of sporadic gastric cancers at the DNA, RNA, and proteome levels and to discuss issues relevant to the translation of basic research data to clinically valuable tools. The focus of this work is the identification of relevant molecular changes that could be detected non-invasively. PMID:26457012

  2. Reversal of Gastric Bypass Resolves Hyperoxaluria and Improves Oxalate Nephropathy Secondary to Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Varun; Wilfong, Jonathan B.; Rich, Christopher E.; Gibson, Pamela C.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperoxaluria after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) increases the risk for kidney injury. Medical therapies for hyperoxaluria have limited efficacy. A 65-year-old female was evaluated for acute kidney injury [AKI, serum creatinine (Cr) 2.1 mg/dl, baseline Cr 1.0 mg/dl]. She did not have any urinary or gastrointestinal symptoms or exposure to nephrotoxic agents. Sixteen months prior to this evaluation, she underwent RYGB for morbid obesity. Her examination was unremarkable for hypertension or edema and there was no protein or blood on urine dipstick. Kidney biopsy revealed acute tubulointerstitial nephritis with oxalate crystals in tubules. The concurrent finding of severe hyperoxaluria (urine oxalate 150 mg/day) confirmed the diagnosis of oxalate nephropathy. Despite medical management of hyperoxaluria, her AKI worsened. Laparoscopic reversal of RYGB was performed and within 1 month, her hyperoxaluria resolved (urine oxalate 20 mg/day) and AKI improved (Cr 1.7 mg/dl). Surgical reversal of RYGB may be considered in patients with oxalate nephropathy at high risk of progression who fail medical therapy. Physicians need to be aware of the possibility of oxalate nephropathy after RYGB and promptly treat the hyperoxaluria to halt further kidney damage. PMID:27781207

  3. [Familial gastric cancer: diagnosis, treatment and periodic surveillance].

    PubMed

    Kluijt, Irma; Sijmons, Rolf H; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Vasen, Hans F A; Cats, Anemieke

    2011-01-01

    The only known genetic causes of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) are germline mutations in the CDH1 gene.- CDH1 mutation carriers have a lifetime risk of 70-80% of developing diffuse gastric cancer. As periodic gastric surveillance is of limited value in detecting early stages of HDGC, prophylactic gastrectomy is advised for this patient group. This group is small and little is known about other types of familial gastric cancer. The Dutch Working Group on Hereditary Gastric Cancer has formulated criteria for various aspects of medical care for families and individuals at high risk of developing gastric cancer, including criteria for diagnostics and periodic gastric surveillance. In order to optimize the care and increase the knowledge on hereditary gastric cancer it is important to centralize medical care for these patients.

  4. Symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma successfully treated with enucleation.

    PubMed

    Krasniqi, Avdyl-Selmon; Hoxha, Faton-Tatil; Bicaj, Besnik-Xhafer; Hashani, Shemsedin-Isuf; Hasimja, Shpresa-Mehmet; Kelmendi, Sadik-Mal; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije-Hasan

    2008-10-14

    Gastric lipomas are rare tumors, accounting for 2%-3% of all benign gastric tumors. They are of submucosal or extremely rare subserosal origin. Although most gastric lipomas are usually detected incidentally, they can cause abdominal pain, dyspeptic disorders, obstruction, invagination, and hemorrhages. Subserosal gastric lipomas are rarely symptomatic. There is no report on treatment of subserosal gastric lipomas in the English literature. We present a case of a 50-year-old male with symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma which was successfully managed with removal, enucleation of lipoma, explorative gastrotomy and edge resection for histology check of gastric wall. The incidence of gastric lipoma, advanced diagnostic possibilities and their role in treatment modalities are discussed.

  5. Laparoscopic Management of Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to Rapunzel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koushk Jalali, Bijan; Bingöl, Alperen; Reyad, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    A 17-year-old girl presented with bilious vomiting and abdominal pain to the surgery department. The history was positive for trichotillomania and trichophagia. A CT scan showed a mass in the stomach, which was highly suspicious for a gastric bezoar. Drooping parts of the bezoar caused a duodenal obstruction with secondary acute pancreatitis. The bezoar was removed via a laparoscopically performed gastrotomy. PMID:27144047

  6. Molecular classification of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chia, N-Y; Tan, P

    2016-05-01

    Gastric cancer (GC), a heterogeneous disease characterized by epidemiologic and histopathologic differences across countries, is a leading cause of cancer-related death. Treatment of GC patients is currently suboptimal due to patients being commonly treated in a uniform fashion irrespective of disease subtype. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and other genomic technologies, GCs are now being investigated in great detail at the molecular level. High-throughput technologies now allow a comprehensive study of genomic and epigenomic alterations associated with GC. Gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations, differential gene expression and epigenetic alterations are some of the genetic/epigenetic influences on GC pathogenesis. In addition, integrative analyses of molecular profiling data have led to the identification of key dysregulated pathways and importantly, the establishment of GC molecular classifiers. Recently, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) network proposed a four subtype classification scheme for GC based on the underlying tumor molecular biology of each subtype. This landmark study, together with other studies, has expanded our understanding on the characteristics of GC at the molecular level. Such knowledge may improve the medical management of GC in the future. PMID:26861606

  7. Sustained pectin ingestion delays gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, S E; Levine, R A; Singh, A; Scheidecker, J R; Track, N S

    1982-10-01

    The effects of sustained fiber ingestion on gastric emptying glucose tolerance, hormone responses, and jejunal absorption of glucose and lysine were studied in healthy volunteers. Subjects were placed on a low-fiber (3 g) diet for 2 wk, followed by 4 wk of an isocaloric diet supplemented with 20 g/day of either apple pectin (7 subjects) or alpha-cellulose (6 subjects). At the conclusion of each dietary period subjects ingested a low-fiber breakfast surface-labeled with 99mtechnetium sulfur-colloid. Gastric emptying half-time, plasma glucose, calcium, phosphorus, insulin, glucagon, gastrin, human pancreatic polypeptide, and motilin were determined. Gastric emptying half-time was prolonged approximately twofold after pectin supplementation (p less than 0.005) and returned to normal 3 wk after discontinuing pectin supplementation. Cellulose supplementation did not alter the gastric emptying rate. Plasma glucose, calcium, phosphorus, and hormonal responses to the meal were unchanged after either pectin or cellulose supplementation. Pectin ingestion did not impair intestinal absorption of glucose or lysine. In contrast to sustained cellulose ingestion, sustained pectin ingestion slows the gastric emptying rate; the mechanism underlying this adaptive effect is unknown.

  8. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in gastric serosa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Ae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jeen, Yoon Mi; Kie, Jeong-Hae; Chung, Jae-Joon; Yun, Seong Hyeon

    2004-06-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of peritoneum, especially arising in gastric serosa, is extremely rare. A case of SFT arising in gastric serosa of a 70-year-old man is reported. On abdominal computed tomography scan, an approximate 8.0 x 5.3 cm-sized solid mass with multiple nodular calcifications was noted in the omentomesentery of right upper abdomen, which was abutting to the gastric antral wall. At laparotomy the tumor was tightly attached to the gastric serosa and was completely excised by wedge resection of the stomach. The cut surfaces of the tumor were pale brown to pale yellow, firm, with multifocal yellowish, gritty, stony-hard nodules and cystic changes. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of mildly cellular benign-appearing spindle-shaped cells and bands of hyalinized collagen in varying proportions. The tumor revealed predominantly sclerosing pattern with extensive hyalinized fibrosis and multifocal dystrophic calcifications. The tumor was mainly located at the gastric serosa and subserosa, and its growth pattern was expansile with entrapping of muscularis propria and submucosa in the periphery of the tumor. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD34 and vimentin but negative for cytokeratin, desmin, smooth muscle actin, CD99 and c-kit. Although its occurrence is rare, SFT should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenchymal tumors of the stomach.

  9. Sox2 Suppresses Gastric Tumorigenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Abby; Huebner, Aaron J; Sulahian, Rita; Anselmo, Anthony; Xu, Xinsen; Flattery, Kyle; Desai, Niyati; Sebastian, Carlos; Yram, Mary Anna; Arnold, Katrin; Rivera, Miguel; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Bronson, Roderick; Bass, Adam J; Sadreyev, Ruslan; Shivdasani, Ramesh A; Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2016-08-16

    Sox2 expression marks gastric stem and progenitor cells, raising important questions regarding the genes regulated by Sox2 and the role of Sox2 itself during stomach homeostasis and disease. By using ChIP-seq analysis, we have found that the majority of Sox2 targets in gastric epithelial cells are tissue specific and related to functions such as endoderm development, Wnt signaling, and gastric cancer. Unexpectedly, we found that Sox2 itself is dispensable for gastric stem cell and epithelial self-renewal, yet Sox2(+) cells are highly susceptible to tumorigenesis in an Apc/Wnt-driven mouse model. Moreover, Sox2 loss enhances, rather than impairs, tumor formation in Apc-deficient gastric cells in vivo and in vitro by inducing Tcf/Lef-dependent transcription and upregulating intestinal metaplasia-associated genes, providing a mechanistic basis for the observed phenotype. Together, these data identify Sox2 as a context-dependent tumor suppressor protein that is dispensable for normal tissue regeneration but restrains stomach adenoma formation through modulation of Wnt-responsive and intestinal genes. PMID:27498859

  10. New advances in targeted gastric cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Lazăr, Daniela Cornelia; Tăban, Sorina; Cornianu, Marioara; Faur, Alexandra; Goldiş, Adrian

    2016-08-14

    Despite a decrease in incidence over past decades, gastric cancer remains a major global health problem. In the more recent period, survival has shown only minor improvement, despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment by multidisciplinary teams. Because multiple genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant molecular signalling pathways are involved in the development of gastric cancers, recent research has attempted to determine the molecular heterogeneity responsible for the processes of carcinogenesis, spread and metastasis. Currently, some novel agents targeting a part of these dysfunctional molecular signalling pathways have already been integrated into the standard treatment of gastric cancer, whereas others remain in phases of investigation within clinical trials. It is essential to identify the unique molecular patterns of tumours and specific biomarkers to develop treatments targeted to the individual tumour behaviour. This review analyses the global impact of gastric cancer, as well as the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and the efficacy of bacterial eradication in preventing gastric cancer development. Furthermore, the paper discusses the currently available targeted treatments and future directions of research using promising novel classes of molecular agents for advanced tumours. PMID:27570417

  11. Giant gastric ulcer penetrating into the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Shintaro; Mori, Hirohito; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobara, Hideki; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2012-09-01

    A 57-year-old man developed haematemesis and was referred to our institution. His discomfort had begun 3 weeks earlier and localised to the upper abdomen. Abdominal CT showed a defect of gastric mucosa and gastric wall thickening. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed that he had an active gastric ulcer, 40 mm in diameter, on the lesser curvature in the upper third of the corpus and the presence of a pancreatic body at the ulcer base, penetration to the pancreas. Open gastrectomy was performed with a preoperative diagnosis of localised peritonitis caused by penetration of the stomach into the pancreas. Histopathology of resected specimens showed a benign peptic ulcer, 40×40 mm in size, was found on the lesser curvature in the antrum, and this had penetrated through the pancreas. The most serious complications of PUD include haemorrhage, perforation, penetration, and gastric outlet obstruction. Approximately 7% of patients experience perforation, which occurs when an ulcer erodes through the wall and leaks air and digestive contents into the peritoneal cavity. Antral and duodenal ulcers can penetrate into the pancreas. We report a case of gastric ulcer penetrating into the pancreas.

  12. New advances in targeted gastric cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lazăr, Daniela Cornelia; Tăban, Sorina; Cornianu, Marioara; Faur, Alexandra; Goldiş, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Despite a decrease in incidence over past decades, gastric cancer remains a major global health problem. In the more recent period, survival has shown only minor improvement, despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment by multidisciplinary teams. Because multiple genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant molecular signalling pathways are involved in the development of gastric cancers, recent research has attempted to determine the molecular heterogeneity responsible for the processes of carcinogenesis, spread and metastasis. Currently, some novel agents targeting a part of these dysfunctional molecular signalling pathways have already been integrated into the standard treatment of gastric cancer, whereas others remain in phases of investigation within clinical trials. It is essential to identify the unique molecular patterns of tumours and specific biomarkers to develop treatments targeted to the individual tumour behaviour. This review analyses the global impact of gastric cancer, as well as the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and the efficacy of bacterial eradication in preventing gastric cancer development. Furthermore, the paper discusses the currently available targeted treatments and future directions of research using promising novel classes of molecular agents for advanced tumours. PMID:27570417

  13. Transcriptome Reveals 1400-Fold Upregulation of APOA4-APOC3 and 1100-Fold Downregulation of GIF in the Patients with Polycythemia-Induced Gastric Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Zeng; Gusang, Lamu; Dawa, Ciren; Nie, Yuqiang

    2015-01-01

    High-altitude polycythemia (HAPC) inducing gastric mucosal lesion (GML) is still out of control and molecular mechanisms remain widely unknown. To address the issues, endoscopy and histopathological analyses were performed. Meanwhile, microarray-based transcriptome profiling was conducted in the gastric mucosa from 3 pairs of healthy subjects and HAPC-induced GML patients. HAPC caused morphological changes and pathological damages of the gastric mucosa of GML patients. A total of 10304 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 4941 up-regulated and 5363 down-regulated DEGs in gastric mucosa of GML patients compared with healthy controls (fold change ≥2, P<0.01 and FDR <0.01). Particularly, apolipoprotein genes APOA4 and APOC3 were 1473-fold and 1468-fold up-regulated in GML patients compared with the controls. In contrast, gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) was 1102-fold down-regulated in GML patients compared with the controls. APOA4 (chr11:116691770–116691711), APOC3 (chr11:116703530–116703589) and GIF (chr11:59603362–59603303) genes are all located on chromosome 11. APOA4 and APOC3 act as an inhibitor of gastric acid secretion while gastric acid promotes ulceration. GIF deficiency activates a program of acute anemia, which may antagonize polycythemia while polycythemia raises the risk of GML. Therefore, the present findings reveal that HAPC-induced GML inspires the protection responses by up-regulating APOA4 and APOC3, and down-regulating GIF. These results may offer the basic information for the treatment of HAPC-induced gastric lesion in the future. PMID:26485402

  14. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157: novel therapy in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2011-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, safe in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice and has no reported toxicity. We focused on BPC 157 as a therapy in peridontitis, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and pancreas lesions. Particularly, it has a prominent effect on alcohol-lesions (i.e., acute, chronic) and NSAIDs-lesions (interestingly, BPC 157 both prevents and reverses adjuvant arthritis). In rat esophagitis and failed function of both lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and pyloric sphincters (PS), BPC 157 increased pressure in both sphincters till normal and reduced esophagitis. However, in healthy rats, it may decrease (PS) or increase (LES) the pressure in sphincters. It has strong angiogenic potential, it acts protectively on endothelium, prevents and reverses thrombus formation after abdominal aorta anastomosis, affects many central disturbances (i.e., dopamine and 5-HT system), the NO-system (either L-arginine and L-NAME effects), endothelin, acts as a free radical scavenger (counteracting CCl4-, paracetamol-, diclofenac-injuries) and exhibits neuroprotective properties. BPC 157 successfully heals the intestinal anastomosis, gastrocutaneous, duodenocutaneous and colocutaneous fistulas in rats, as well as interacting with the NO-system. Interestingly, the fistula closure was achieved even when the BPC 157 therapy was postponed for one month. In short-bowel syndrome escalating throughout 4 weeks, the constant weight gain above preoperative values started immediately with peroral and parental BPC 157 therapy and the villus height, crypth depth and muscle thickness (inner (circular) muscular layer) additionally increased. Thus, BPC 157 may improve gastrointestinal tract therapy. PMID:21548867

  15. Influence of age and disease state in nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug associated gastric bleeding.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, J G; Pritchard, M H

    1988-04-01

    In our study of 552 acute admissions for gastrointestinal hemorrhage, 18% were found to be taking nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) at the time of the bleed; 49% of these were found at endoscopy to have a gastric or prepyloric lesion, compared with 20% of the non-NSAID control group. Prescription data was used to calculate the risk added by age and disease state to the NSAID associated bleeding. We found that patients with chronic inflammatory disease had 2-3 times the expected bleeding incidence, but while there was a definite trend towards an age related risk in older patients, this was not statistically significant.

  16. Unilateral Pulmonary Agenesis and Gastric Duplication Cyst: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Skokic, Fahrija; Hotic, Nesad; Husaric, Edin; Radoja, Gordana; Muratovic, Selma; Dedic, Nermina

    2013-01-01

    Lung agenesis and gastric duplication cysts are both rare congenital anomalies. Gastric duplication cysts can present with nausea, vomiting, hematemesis, or vague abdominal pain. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis can present with respiratory distress which usually occurs due to retention of bronchial secretions and inflammations. We report the unique case of right pulmonary agenesis associated with gastric duplication cyst. PMID:23844300

  17. The effect of polycarbophil on the gastric emptying of pellets.

    PubMed

    Khosla, R; Davis, S S

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the putative bioadhesive, polycarbophil, on the gastric emptying of a pellet formulation, has been investigated in three fasted subjects. The pellets were radiolabelled with technetium-99m. Gastric emptying was measured using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. The pellets emptied from the stomach rapidly and in an exponential manner. Polycarbophil did not retard the gastric emptying of the pellets.

  18. Targeting Btk with ibrutinib inhibit gastric carcinoma cells growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin Dao; Chen, Xiao Ying; Ji, Ke Wei; Tao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Tec-family non-receptor tyrosine kinases family. It has previously been reported to be expressed in B cells and has an important role in B-cell malignancies. While the roles of Btk in the pathogenesis of certain B-cell malignancies are well established, the functions of Btk in gastric carcinoma have never been investigated. Herein, we found that Btk is over-expressed in gastric carcinoma tissues and gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of Btk expression selectively inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells, but not that of the normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell, which express very little Btk. Inhibition of Btk by its inhibitor ibrutinib has an additive inhibitory effect on gastric cancer cell growth. Treatment of gastric cancer cells, but not immortalized breast epithelial cells with ibrutinib results in effective cell killing, accompanied by the attenuation of Btk signals. Ibrutinib also induces apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cells as well as is a chemo-sensitizer for docetaxel (DTX), a standard of care for gastric carcinoma patients. Finally, ibrutinib markedly reduces tumor growth and increases tumor cell apoptosis in the tumors formed in mice inoculated with the gastric carcinoma cells. Given these promising preclinical results for ibrutinib in gastric carcinoma, a strategy combining Btk inhibitor warrants attention in gastric cancer. PMID:27508020

  19. Ghrelin stimulates gastric emptying but is without effect on acid secretion and gastric endocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Dornonville de la Cour, Charlotta; Lindström, Erik; Norlén, Per; Håkanson, Rolf

    2004-08-15

    Ghrelin, a recently discovered peptide hormone, is produced by endocrine cells in the stomach, the so-called A-like cells. Ghrelin binds to the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor and releases GH. It is claimed to be orexigenic and to control gastric acid secretion and gastric motility. In this study, we examined the effects of ghrelin, des-Gln14-ghrelin, des-octanoyl ghrelin, ghrelin-18, -10 and -5 (and motilin) on gastric emptying in mice and on gastric acid secretion in chronic fistula rats and pylorus-ligated rats. We also examined whether ghrelin affected the activity of the predominant gastric endocrine cell populations, G cells, ECL cells and D cells. Ghrelin and des-Gln14-ghrelin stimulated gastric emptying in a dose-dependent manner while des-octanoyl ghrelin and motilin were without effect. The C-terminally truncated ghrelin fragments were effective but much less potent than ghrelin itself. Ghrelin, des-Gln14-ghrelin and des-octanoyl ghrelin neither stimulated nor inhibited gastric acid secretion, and ghrelin, finally, did not affect secretion from either G cells, ECL cells or D cells.

  20. Gastric Wall Thickness in Sleeve Gastrectomy Patients: Thickness Variation of the Gastric Wall.

    PubMed

    van Rutte, Pim W J; Naagen, Bertus J; Spek, Marinus; Jakimowicz, Jack J; Nienhuijs, Simon W

    2015-11-01

    The sleeve gastrectomy has been accepted as a primary bariatric procedure. One of the most feared complications is staple line leakage. It is important to use the right staple sizes to minimize the risk of leak. Knowledge of gastric thickness is important. The goal of this study was to measure the thickness of the gastric wall after elimination of the gastric folds in the mucosa. An electronic thickness gauge was developed that measured the anterior and posterior wall of the fresh stomach specimen together at 5 points at a pressure based on the finger pressure necessary to flatten the gastric folds. Thirty-three fresh specimens were measured. The mean compression pressure was 714 grams, and no difference was found between the 5 measure points. There was a significant difference in stomach wall thickness. The gastric antrum was more than 1 mm thicker than the fundus. No difference was found between BMI groups <40 Kg/m2, 40-50 Kg/m2, or >50 Kg/m2. No bleeding occurred, leakage occurred in 1 case. There is a significant difference in thickness of the stomach wall between the gastric fundus and the antrum. A pressure 2.5 times lower than applied in prior studies was necessary to achieve full tissue compression. Choosing thinner staple sizes for the gastric fundus might be the optimal technique for compression. However, there are several additional factors that influence the risk of staple line leaks. PMID:26680415

  1. Pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastric damage: Importance of cyclooxygenase inhibition and gastric hypermotility

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the pathogenic mechanism of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric damage, focusing on the relation between cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition and various functional events. NSAIDs, such as indomethacin, at a dose that inhibits prostaglandin (PG) production, enhance gastric motility, resulting in an increase in mucosal permeability, neutrophil infiltration and oxyradical production, and eventually producing gastric lesions. These lesions are prevented by pretreatment with PGE2 and antisecretory drugs, and also via an atropine-sensitive mechanism, not related to antisecretory action. Although neither rofecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) nor SC-560 (a selective COX-1 inhibitor) alone damages the stomach, the combined administration of these drugs provokes gastric lesions. SC-560, but not rofecoxib, decreases prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and causes gastric hypermotility and an increase in mucosal permeability. COX-2 mRNA is expressed in the stomach after administration of indomethacin and SC-560 but not rofecoxib. The up-regulation of indomethacin-induced COX-2 expression is prevented by atropine at a dose that inhibits gastric hypermotility. In addition, selective COX-2 inhibitors have deleterious influences on the stomach when COX-2 is overexpressed under various conditions, including adrenalectomy, arthritis, and Helicobacter pylori-infection. In summary, gastric hypermotility plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastric damage, and the response, causally related with PG deficiency due to COX-1 inhibition, occurs prior to other pathogenic events such as increased mucosal permeability; and the ulcerogenic properties of NSAIDs require the inhibition of both COX-1 and COX-2, the inhibition of COX-1 upregulates COX-2 expression in association with gastric hypermotility, and PGs produced by COX-2 counteract the deleterious effect of COX-1 inhibition. PMID:22611307

  2. Therapeutic potential of synchronized gastric electrical stimulation for gastroparesis: enhanced gastric motility in dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongbing; Sallam, Hanaa; Chen, Dennis D; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects and mechanism of synchronized gastric electrical stimulation (SGES) on gastric contractions and gastric emptying. The first experiment was designed to study the effects of SGES on antral contractions in four randomized sessions. Sessions 1 (control) and 2 (atropine) were performed in the fasting state, composed of three 30-min periods (baseline, stimulation, and recovery). Sessions 3 (control) and 4 (SGES performed during 2nd 20-min period) were performed in the fed state, consisting of two 20-min periods; glucagon was injected after the first 20-min recording. The second experiment was designed to study the effect of SGES on gastric emptying and consisted of two sessions (control and SGES). SGES was delivered with train duration of 0.5-0.8s, pulse frequency of 40 Hz, width of 2 ms, and amplitude of 4 mA. We found that 1) SGES induced gastric antral contractions in the fasting state. The motility index was 1.3 +/- 0.5 at baseline and 6.1 +/- 0.7 (P = 0.001) during SGES. This excitatory effect was completely blocked by atropine. 2) SGES enhanced postprandial antral contractions impaired by glucagon. 3) SGES significantly accelerated glucagon-induced delayed gastric emptying. Gastric emptying was 25.5 +/- 11.3% without SGES and 38.3 +/- 10.7% with SGES (P = 0.006 vs. control). This novel method of SGES induces gastric antral contractions in the fasting state, enhances glucagon-induced antral hypomotility in the fed state, and accelerates glucagon-induced delayed gastric emptying. The effect of SGES on antral contractions is mediated via the cholinergic pathway. PMID:17881615

  3. A Possible Link between Gastric Mucosal Atrophy and Gastric Cancer after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Horiguchi, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Okubo, Masaaki; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Ohmiya, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of H. pylori eradication in gastric cancer prevention can be attributed to the improvement of atrophic gastritis, which is a known risk of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer has also been diagnosed after long-term H. pylori eradication. This study aimed to clarify the association between gastric atrophy and gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication, including its clinicopathological features. Methods A total of 55 consecutive patients with 64 early gastric cancers (EGCs) diagnosed after H. pylori eradication were enrolled. The degree of endoscopic atrophy and the histological degrees of mononuclear cell infiltration, atrophy, and metaplasia in the corpus and adjacent mucosa of the EGCs were determined and scored. Results The majority of EGCs (63/64) were located within the endoscopically assessed atrophic mucosa or along the atrophic border. The adjacent mucosa of the EGCs presented significantly higher degrees of all histological parameters than in the corpus (mononuclear cell infiltration, 0.86+/-0.09 vs. 0.51+/-0.11, P = 0.016; atrophy, 1.77+/-0.13 vs. 0.65+/-0.14, P<0.0001; metaplasia, 1.68+/-0.13 vs. 0.48+/-0.1, P<0.0001). The degree of endoscopic atrophy improved in the patients with longer post-H. pylori eradication periods; however, this trend was not observed for the histological parameters, and high degrees of atrophy and metaplasia were observed in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs compared with the corpus during all periods (all P<0.05). The histological degrees of atrophy and metaplasia in the adjacent mucosa were particularly higher in the patients who underwent eradication due to gastric ulcers. Conclusions Severe gastric atrophy remained in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs after H. pylori eradication, which may be linked to gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27706195

  4. In Vivo Antioxidant and Antiulcer Activity of Parkia speciosa Ethanolic Leaf Extract against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mazen M.; Abdualkader, Abdualrahman Mohammed; Hadi, Hamid A.; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Background The current study was carried out to examine the gastroprotective effects of Parkia speciosa against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Sprague Dawley rats were separated into 7 groups. Groups 1–2 were orally challenged with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC); group 3 received 20 mg/kg omeprazole and groups 4–7 received 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic leaf extract, respectively. After 1 h, CMC or absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2–7. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Then, the injuries to the gastric mucosa were estimated through assessment of the gastric wall mucus, the gross appearance of ulcer areas, histology, immunohistochemistry and enzymatic assays. Group 2 exhibited significant mucosal injuries, with reduced gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa, whereas reductions in mucosal injury were observed for groups 4–7. Groups 3–7 demonstrated a reversal in the decrease in Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining induced by ethanol. No symptoms of toxicity or death were observed during the acute toxicity tests. Conclusion Treatment with the extract led to the upregulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Significant increases in the levels of the antioxidant defense enzymes glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the gastric mucosal homogenate were observed, whereas that of a lipid peroxidation marker (MDA) was significantly decreased. Significance was defined as p<0.05 compared to the ulcer control group (Group 2). PMID:23724090

  5. Muc-2-deficient mice display a sex-specific, COX-2-related impairment of gastric mucosal repair.

    PubMed

    Wallace, John L; Vong, Linda; Dharmani, Poonam; Srivastava, Vikas; Chadee, Kris

    2011-03-01

    Mucus is known to contribute significantly to the prevention and repair of mucosal damage throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Although not normally expressed in the stomach, mucin-2 (MUC-2, encoded by the MUC2 gene) is expressed in certain disease states. The aim of this study was to determine in a mouse model whether the absence of Muc-2 would result in impaired susceptibility to and healing of gastric mucosal injury. Acute gastric damage was induced in mice deficient in Muc-2 and in wild-type controls, through oral administration of indomethacin. Chronic gastric ulcers were induced by serosal application of acetic acid. The extent of injury and the extent of healing of the damage over time were examined in both models. Indomethacin administration caused similar levels of gastric damage in Muc-2-deficient and wild-type mice, but the erosions healed more slowly in the former. Acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers were initially similar in size in Muc-2-deficient and wild-type mice of both sexes, but ulcer healing was significantly impaired in male Muc-2-deficient mice. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in the stomach, in response to indomethacin- or acetic acid-induced ulceration, was significantly reduced in male Muc-2-deficient mice. This phenomenon, and the sex specificity, was also apparent in bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated with endotoxin. These results demonstrate a marked impairment of gastric mucosal repair in male Muc-2-deficient mice that may be related to an insufficient induction of cyclooxygenase-2, an enzyme known to contribute to mucosal repair. PMID:21356364

  6. Acute pancreatitis caused by intragastric balloon: A case report.

    PubMed

    Issa, Iyad; Taha, Alaa; Azar, Cecilio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity represents a global hazard that predisposes to many serious health problems. Various solutions have been proposed to overcome obesity ranging from dietary balance to bariatric surgery. Intragastric balloons are a widely used measure to decrease weight, although they are advocated as safe devices, some major complications have been reported. We report a case of acute pancreatitis after insertion of a gastric balloon for weight reduction. Abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting maybe due to acute pancreatitis caused by compression of the pancreas by the balloon. It is advisable that physicians recognise these complications early to avoid serious and severe end-results.

  7. Lack of agreement between tonometric and gastric juice partial carbon dioxide tension

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Arnaldo; Badie, Julio; Fernandez, Sofía; Estenssoro, Elisa; Canales, Héctor; Bordoli, Guillermo; Pálizas, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    present results. In vitro performance of the AVL 945 in blood was good. It showed a negative bias less than 1 mmHg and a precision of about 2 mmHg. We cannot infer from the present data the technique that should be the gold standard for measuring PCO2 in gastric mucosa. However, the studies that have established the normal values for pHi, prognostic changes and its uses as a therapeutic index have been performed with tonometry. Hence, more data are needed for the routine measurement of PCO2 in gastric juice. Figure 1 Correlation between gastric juice and tonometric PCO2. We performed 112 pairs of measurements of gastric juice and tonometric PCO2 in 15 critical care patients under different haemodynamic and oxygen transport conditions. The linear regression coefficient is significant. However, the slope value indicates systematic overestimation of gastric juice PCO2 in relation to saline PCO2. Figure 2 Bland-Altman analysis of the differences between gastric juice and tonometric PCO2. The bias calculated as the mean difference of gastric juice and tonometric PCO2 was 51 mmHg. The 95% limits of agreement were 315 mmHg. The bias and the scattering of differences widened as PCO2 increased. Table 1 Clinical characteristics and first value of arterial, tonometer and gastric juice PCO2 PCO2 (mmHg) Age Inotropes Gastric Patient Sex (years) Diagnosis (μg/kg per min) Outcome Arterial Tonometric juice 1 Female 53 Stroke, ARDS Dopamine 32 Survival 30 48 165 2 Female 73 Intestinal obstruction, septic shock Dopamine 40 Death 26 44 92 3 Male 37 Multiple trauma Survival 21 28 41 4 Male 56 Multiple trauma Survival 39 42 49 5 Female 64 Acute pancreatitis, shock, ARDS Dopamine 18 Death 30 34 80 6 Male 17 Multiple trauma Survival 43 60 60 7 Female 18 Fat liver of pregnancy Survival 30 40 44 8 Male 73 Necrotizing celulitis, septic shock, ARDS Epinephrine 1.2 Death 28 33 31 9 Male 64 Multiple trauma, pneumonia, ARDS Death 36 41 57 10 Male 65 Lung cancer postoperatively, ARDS Death 35 51 242

  8. Primary Gastric Burkitt’s Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Swarupa; Mehta, Anurag; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Anila; Louis, A. Robert; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Saxena, Upasna; Simson, David K.; Dewan, Abhinav

    2014-01-01

    The primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, although rare, is among the most common extra-nodal lymphomas, considering that gastric lymphomas are more common than intestinal lymphomas. Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive form of B-cell lymphoma that is typically endemic in Africa, while non-endemic cases are found in the rest of the world. Primary gastric BL is extremely rare and only around 50 cases have been reported worldwide. Here we present the case of a young HIV-negative male, who was referred to our department with a stage IV gastric BL. He was planned for palliative chemotherapy, but after the first cycle of chemotherapy he succumbed to the progression of the disease. PMID:25568743

  9. Helicobacter Pylori associated global gastric cancer burden

    PubMed Central

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M.; Hisada, Michie; El-Omar, Emad M.

    2008-01-01

    1. Abstract Helicobacter pylori infection is ubiquitous, infecting close to one-half of the world's population, but its prevalence is declining in developed countries. Chronic H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to gastric adenocarcinoma, especially non-cardia type (63% of all stomach cancer or ∼5.5% of the global cancer burden: ∼25% of cancers associated with infectious etiology), and to gastric mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, which accounts for up to 8% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Epidemiological, clinical, and animal studies have established a central role for H. pylori in gastric carcinogenesis and provided insights into the mechanisms and biologic relationships between bacterial infection, host genetics, nutrition, and environmental factors. These discoveries invite strategies to prevent infection to be the logical primary goals in a multi-pronged effort to curtail suffering and death from H. pylori infection-associated cancers. PMID:19273142

  10. [Diagnosis of gastric ulcer in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Ashida, Kiyoshi; Fukuchi, Takumi; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    It is well known that gastric ulcers are most often found at anglus and upper corpus in the elderly. The number of gastric ulcer found at upper corpus hold half of all cases in the elderly patients with bleeding ulcer. Sixty percent of the elderly patients with bleeding ulcer took NSAIDs including low-dose aspirin in authors' hospital. Now it is easy to treat and cure bleeding ulcers due to development of endoscopic hemostasis and antiulcer drugs such as proton pump inhibitor(PPI). However, the elderly patients sometimes result in fatal outcome on bleeding from gastric ulcer. Therefore, it is important to prevent ulcer complications by PPI for the high-risk group such as elderly patients taking NSAIDs.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics in gastric cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Masahiko; Eguchi, Hidetaka

    2009-05-20

    Despite extensive efforts, treatment of gastric cancer by chemotherapy, the globally accepted standard, is yet undetermined, and uncertainty remains regarding the optimal regimen. Recent introduction of active "new generation agents" offers hope for improving patient outcomes. Current chemotherapeutic trials provided several regimens that may become a possible standard treatment, including docetaxel/cisplatin/5-FU (TCF) and cisplatin/S-1 for advanced and metastatic cancer and S-1 monotherapy in the adjuvant setting. Along with the development of novel active regimens, individual optimization of cancer chemotherapy has been attempted in order to reduce toxicity and enhance tumor response. Unlike the rare and limited contribution of pharmacokinetic studies, pharmacogenomic studies are increasing the potential to realize the therapeutics against gastric cancer. Despite the limited data, pharmacogenomics in gastric cancer have provided a number of putative biomarkers for the prediction of tumor response to chemotherapies and of toxicity.

  12. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Espinel, Jesús; Pinedo, Eugenia; Ojeda, Vanesa; del Rio, Maria Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC). Endoscopic resection (ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with “standard” criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet “expanded” criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer. PMID:26380052

  13. DNA and histone methylation in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations contribute significantly to the development and progression of gastric cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Epigenetics refers to the number of modifications of the chromatin structure that affect gene expression without altering the primary sequence of DNA, and these changes lead to transcriptional activation or silencing of the gene. Over the years, the study of epigenetic processes has increased, and novel therapeutic approaches that target DNA methylation and histone modifications have emerged. A greater understanding of epigenetics and the therapeutic potential of manipulating these processes is necessary for gastric cancer treatment. Here, we review recent research on the effects of aberrant DNA and histone methylation on the onset and progression of gastric tumors and the development of compounds that target enzymes that regulate the epigenome. PMID:23482412

  14. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer--An overview.

    PubMed

    Gurzu, Simona; Jung, Ioan; Orlowska, Janina; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Kadar, Zoltan; Turdean, Sabin; Bara, Tivadar

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer varies by up to ten fold throughout the world, and the geographic distribution of hereditary cases is not well explored. Familial clustering is seen in 10% of cases, and approximately 3% of all gastric cancers develop due to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). In this review, the characteristics of HDGC are presented according to molecular particularities, geographic distribution, and other parameters. Based on our experience and the data from the literature, we discuss the possibility of applying a mutation signature (spectrum) study and adductomic approaches to a comparative carcinogenesis of HDGC. We also provide a comprehensive, up-to-date review of genetic counseling and criteria for screening and surveillance of eligible families.

  15. Circadian variation in gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kentish, Stephen J; Frisby, Claudine L; Kennaway, David J; Wittert, Gary A; Page, Amanda J

    2013-12-01

    Food intake is coordinated to cellular metabolism by clock gene expression with a master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus synchronized by light exposure. Gastric vagal afferents play a role in regulating food intake, but it is unknown whether they exhibit circadian variation in their mechanosensitivity. We aimed to determine whether gastric vagal afferents express clock genes and whether their response to mechanical stimuli oscillates throughout the light/dark cycle. Nodose ganglia were collected from 8-week-old female C57BL/6 mice every 3 h starting at lights off (1800 h) to quantify Bmal1, Per1, Per2, and Nr1d1 mRNA by qRT-PCR. Additionally in vitro single-fiber recordings of gastric vagal mechanoreceptors were taken at all time points. Per1, Per2, Bmal1, and Nr1d1 mRNA is expressed in the nodose ganglia and levels oscillated over a 24 h period. In mice fed ad libitum, gastric content was 3 times higher at 0000 h and 0300 h than 1200 h. The response of tension receptors to 3 g stretch was reduced by up to 70% at 2100 h, 0000 h, and 0300 h compared with 1200 h. Gastric mucosal receptor response to stroking with a 50 mg von Frey hair was 3 times greater at 1200 h and 1500 h than the response at 0000 h. Similar findings were obtained in mice fasted for 6 h or maintained in darkness for 3 d before study. Therefore, these changes do not result from food intake or the light/dark cycle. Thus, gastric vagal mechanoreceptors display circadian rhythm, which may act to control food intake differentially at different times of the day. PMID:24305819

  16. Potential immunological consequences of pharmacological suppression of gastric acid production in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sangita; Benedict, Stephen H; Lynch, Sharon G; LeVine, Steven M

    2012-06-07

    Corticosteroids are standard treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis experiencing acute relapse. Because dyspeptic pain is a common side effect of this intervention, patients can be given a histamine receptor-2 antagonist, proton pump inhibitor or antacid to prevent or ameliorate this disturbance. Additionally, patients with multiple sclerosis may be taking these medications independent of corticosteroid treatment. Interventions for gastric disturbances can influence the activation state of the immune system, a principal mediator of pathology in multiple sclerosis. Although histamine release promotes inflammation, activation of the histamine receptor-2 can suppress a proinflammatory immune response, and blocking histamine receptor-2 with an antagonist could shift the balance more towards immune stimulation. Studies utilizing an animal model of multiple sclerosis indicate that histamine receptor-2 antagonists potentially augment disease activity in patients with multiple sclerosis. In contrast, proton pump inhibitors appear to favor immune suppression, but have not been studied in models of multiple sclerosis. Antacids, histamine receptor-2 antagonists and proton pump inhibitors also could alter the intestinal microflora, which may indirectly lead to immune stimulation. Additionally, elevated gastric pH can promote the vitamin B12 deficiency that patients with multiple sclerosis are at risk of developing. Here, we review possible roles of gastric acid inhibitors on immunopathogenic mechanisms associated with multiple sclerosis.

  17. Gastric Cancer and Helicobacter pylori: Impact of hopQII Gene.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, E; Kahrizi, D; Moradi, M T; Sohrabi, M; Yari, K

    2016-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium found usually in the stomach and use a number of mechanisms to survive in the stomach lumen. The presence of these bacteria in the stomach can lead to gastritis and reduction in stomach acid production. Acute inflammation can directly damage to the peripheral cells that are responsible for the secretion of acid. The risk of developing gastric carcinoma is associated to heterogeneity of Helicobacter pylori virulence factors. The HopQII is one of the outer membrane proteins involved in bacterial adherence to gastric mucosa and has been suggested to also play a role in the virulence of H. pylori. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between different H. pylori virulence hopQII allele and patients with gastroduodenal disorders. For this purpose 58 stomach biopsies of patients with gastric cancer and 100 saliva samples from healthy individuals were collected. Then genomic DNA was purified and PCR for was done for desired genes via specific primers. The H. pylori infections were diagnosed by PCR for GlmM gene. Then frequencies of hopQII+ and hopQII- genotypes was determined in H. pylori infected cases. Statistical analysis showed that there were not significant differences between healthy and diseased ones for genotype hopQII+. PMID:26950460

  18. Potential immunological consequences of pharmacological suppression of gastric acid production in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Corticosteroids are standard treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis experiencing acute relapse. Because dyspeptic pain is a common side effect of this intervention, patients can be given a histamine receptor-2 antagonist, proton pump inhibitor or antacid to prevent or ameliorate this disturbance. Additionally, patients with multiple sclerosis may be taking these medications independent of corticosteroid treatment. Interventions for gastric disturbances can influence the activation state of the immune system, a principal mediator of pathology in multiple sclerosis. Although histamine release promotes inflammation, activation of the histamine receptor-2 can suppress a proinflammatory immune response, and blocking histamine receptor-2 with an antagonist could shift the balance more towards immune stimulation. Studies utilizing an animal model of multiple sclerosis indicate that histamine receptor-2 antagonists potentially augment disease activity in patients with multiple sclerosis. In contrast, proton pump inhibitors appear to favor immune suppression, but have not been studied in models of multiple sclerosis. Antacids, histamine receptor-2 antagonists and proton pump inhibitors also could alter the intestinal microflora, which may indirectly lead to immune stimulation. Additionally, elevated gastric pH can promote the vitamin B12 deficiency that patients with multiple sclerosis are at risk of developing. Here, we review possible roles of gastric acid inhibitors on immunopathogenic mechanisms associated with multiple sclerosis. PMID:22676575

  19. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  20. Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Pseudoachalasia, and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mizrak, Dilsa; Alkan, Ali; Erdogdu, Batuhan; Utkan, Gungor

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare, inherited skeletal disorder characterized by abnormalities of type 1 collagen. Malignancy is rarely reported in patients with OI and it was suggested that this disease can protect against cancer. Here, we report a 41-year-old woman with symptoms of achalasia where repeated treatment of pneumatic dilation and stent replacement was unsuccessful; therefore, surgery was performed. Pathology showed gastric adenocarcinoma unexpectedly. Chemotherapy was given after assessing dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) enzyme activity, which can be deficient in OI patients. This is the first report of gastric cancer mimicking achalasia in a patient with OI. PMID:25874139

  1. Helicobacter pylori modulation of gastric acid.

    PubMed Central

    Calam, J.

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori plays major causative roles in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Elevated acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcers (DUs) contributes to duodenal injury, and diminished acid secretion in patients with gastric cancer allows carcinogen-producing bacteria to colonize the stomach. Eradication of H. pylori normalizes acid secretion both in hyper-secreting DU patients and hypo-secreting relatives of gastric cancer patients. Therefore, we and others have asked how H. pylori causes these disparate changes in acid secretion. H. pylori gastritis more or less restricted to the gastric antrum in DU patients is associated with increased acid secretion. This is probably because gastritis increases release of the antral acid-stimulating hormone gastrin and diminished mucosal expression of the inhibitory peptide somatostatin. Bacterial products and inflammatory cytokines including TNFalpha may cause these changes in endocrine function. Gastritis involving the gastric corpus tends to diminish acid secretion, probably because bacterial products and cytokines including IL-1 inhibit parietal cells. Pharmacological inhibition of acid secretion increases corpus gastritis in H. pylori-infected subjects, so it is envisaged that gastric hypo-secretion of any cause might become self-perpetuating. H. pylori-associated mucosal atrophy will also contribute to acid hypo-secretion and is more likely in when the diet is high in salt or lacking in antioxidant vitamins. Data on gastric acid secretion in patients with esophagitis are limited but suggest that acid secretion is normal or slightly diminished. Nevertheless, H. pylori infection may be relevant to the management of esophagitis because: (i) H. pylori infection increases the pH-elevating effect of acid inhibiting drugs; (ii) proton pump inhibitors may increase the tendency of H. pylori to cause atrophic gastritis; and (iii) successful eradication of H. pylori is reported to increase the likelihood of

  2. Brain neuropeptides in gastric mucosal protection.

    PubMed

    Gyires, Klára; Zádori, Zoltán S

    2014-12-01

    The centrally induced gastroprotective effect of neuropeptides has been intensively studied. Besides many similarities, however, differences can also be observed in their gastroprotective actions. The gastroprotective dose-response curve proved to be either sigmoid, or bell-shaped. Additional gastrointestinal effects of neuropeptides can contribute to their mucosal protective effect. Part of the neuropeptides induces gastroprotection by peripheral administration as well. Besides vagal nerve the sympathetic nervous system may also be involved in conveying the central effect to the periphery. Better understanding of the complex mechanism of the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity may result in the development of new strategy to enhance gastric mucosal resistance against injury.

  3. HER2 testing in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Albarello, Luca; Pecciarini, Lorenza; Doglioni, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Molecular therapies targeting HER2 are part of the established drug armamentarium in breast carcinoma. Now the ToGA trial, an international multicenter phase III clinical study, involving 24 countries globally, has shown that the anti-HER2 humanized monoclonal antibody Trastuzumab is effective in prolonging survival in HER2-positive carcinoma of the stomach and the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Similarly to breast carcinoma, >20% of gastric cancers show HER2 overexpression and/or amplification, and this percentage increases to 33% in GEJ tumors. Thus, as in breast carcinoma, pathologists are now asked to evaluate HER2 status in gastric carcinoma samples. As validated in the ToGA trial, the HER2 testing criteria that must be used in evaluating both gastric carcinoma biopsies and surgical specimens significantly differ from those routinely applied in breast carcinoma. The main variations with regard to the pattern of reactivity in HER2-expressing cells are as follows: the completeness of membrane staining is not a "conditio sine qua non" and the number of stained cells necessary to consider a case as positive is different. We must also take note of the much more frequent heterogeneity of HER2 positivity in gastric cancer compared with breast carcinoma and the less stringent correlation between HER2 amplification and protein overexpression that is observed in gastric carcinoma, where more than 20% of cases may carry HER2 amplification, although of low level, without HER2 expression. In these patients, in the ToGA trial, there was no apparent benefit from adding Trastuzumab to chemotherapy: for this reason the European Medicines Agency, while approving usage of Trastuzumab for metastatic adenocarcinoma treatment, indicated HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry as first evaluation assay, followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 2+ equivocal cases. HER2 testing in gastric carcinoma is a new field, opening several opportunities: for patients with gastric cancer

  4. Gastric phytobezoar: unusual association and resolution.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, J. P.; Haddock, G.; Aitken, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    A 58 year old man underwent a laparotomy for intestinal obstruction, which proved to be due to intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Following a slow postoperative course, he was discovered to have a gastric phytobezoar. The association between bezoars and pseudo-obstruction has not been previously described, but might be expected. The gastric phytobezoar could not be fragmented mechanically, but it completely disappeared when enteral feeding was commenced. The possibility of a future role of enteral feeding in this situation is suggested. PMID:8234118

  5. [Gastric epithelial polyps (part two)].

    PubMed

    Espejo Romero, Luis Hernán; Navarrete Siancas, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    The following is a statistical report regarding gastric polyps: Frequency determined through endoscopic examinations was 3.6%. The terms hyperplastic polyps and adenomas were used for the classification of epithelial polyps, considering the suprafoveal hyperplasias within the hyperplastic polyps, provided they were elevated lesions. Out of 2,283 polyps, 1,959 were hyperplastic (86%) and 324 were adenomas (14%). When analyzing 780 polyps, 86 (11%) were found to have the Nakamura III category. With regard to topography, in an examination of 2253 polyps, hyperplastic polyps were located as follows: 325 (17%) in the antrum, 1402 (73%) in the body and 202 (10%) in the fundus. Adenomas had a different distribution: 212 (65%) in the antrum, 100 (31%) in the body and 12 (4%) in the fundus. Out of 371 hyperplastic polyps examined, 49% were pediculate and 51% were sessile; on the contrary, 86 % of adenomas were sessile. The average age was 66.2 years in adenoma carriers, 58.5 in those having hyperplastic polyps, and 57.4 for suprafoveal hyperplasias. In 287 adenomas, 94.1% of carriers were over 40 years old. Out of 92 adenomas examined, 21.7% evidenced adenoma metaplasia and 72.8% evidenced metaplasia in adjacent areas. Only 5.5% had no metaplasia. In 105 hyperplastic polyps studied, intestinal metaplasia was found: 16.7% in the polyp and 60% in adjacent areas. No metaplasia was found in the remaining 23.3%. Average size of the adenomas was 14 mm and of hyperplastic polyps, 11 mm. A total of 195 adenomas were smaller than 10 mm. The percentage of malignization in 288 adenomas examined was closely related to their size: 214 (66%) smaller than 20 mm, had a malignization percentage of 7%; 74 (34%) larger than 20 mm, had 51% malignization, and 86.2% malignization was found in adenomas of over 40 mm. Global malignization percentage of adenomas was 18%. However, when adenomas with high grade dysplasia in the 4.1 category of the Viena classification (non-invasive high grade

  6. Gastric lipoma: an unusual cause of dyspeptic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Nasa, Mukesh; Choksey, Ajay; Phadke, Aniruddha; Sawant, Prabha

    2016-01-01

    Gastric lipomas are rare tumours accounting for 2-3% of all benign gastric tumours. These are usually submucosal in origin but in rare cases may be subserosal in origin. Although a majority of gastric lipomas are asymptomatic and usually detected incidentally, occasionally these can cause abdominal pain, dyspeptic disorders, obstruction, invagination and haemorrhages. In the literature, only 200 cases of gastric lipomas have been reported so far. We report a case of a 56-year-old female with a submucosal symptomatic gastric lipoma presenting with disabling dyspeptic symptoms. PMID:27335362

  7. Incidence and surgical importance of the posterior gastric artery.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, K; Prates, J C; DiDio, L J

    1978-01-01

    In a series of 61 adult cadavers, the posterior gastric artery was found in 38 (62.3%), originating from the superior aspect of the mid-third of the splenic artery. The posterior gastric artery, running behind the parietal peritoneum of the omental bursa, produced a peritoneal fold before reaching the posterior wall of the superior portion of the gastric body, near the cardiac region, and the fundus. Its high incidence, hidden origin, deep course, and distribution make this artery very important for surgical procedures relating to the stomach, pancreas, spleen, and celiac region. It may be crucial, especially if partial gastric resection of splenectomy have obliterated other gastric vessels. PMID:629615

  8. Helicobacter pylori Eradication to Eliminate Gastric Cancer: The Japanese Strategy.

    PubMed

    Asaka, Masahiro; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Matsushima, Rumiko; Tsuda, Momoko

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy for chronic gastritis achieved world-first coverage by the Japanese national health insurance scheme in 2013, making a dramatic decrease of gastric cancer-related deaths more realistic. Combining H pylori eradication therapy with endoscopic surveillance can prevent the development of gastric cancer. Even if it develops, most patients are likely to be diagnosed at an early stage, possibly resulting in fewer gastric cancer deaths. Success with the elimination of gastric cancer in Japan could lead other countries with a high incidence to consider a similar strategy, suggesting the potential for elimination of gastric cancer around the world.

  9. Helicobacter pylori and gastric acid: an intimate and reciprocal relationship

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, Helge L.; Kleveland, Per M.; Sørdal, Øystein F.

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the main cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. There are still unanswered questions related to the interaction between Hp and man, like what determines the susceptibility for the initial infection and the mechanisms for the carcinogenic effect. The initial infection seems to require a temporal gastric hypoacidity. For Hp to survive in the gastric mucous layer, some acidity is necessary. Hp itself is probably not directly carcinogenic. Only when inducing oxyntic mucosal inflammation and atrophy with hypoacidity, Hp predisposes for gastric cancer. Gastrin most likely plays a central role in the Hp pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer. PMID:27803738

  10. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  11. Canine gastric mucosal vasodilation with prostaglandins and histamine analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, J.G.; Nies, A.S.

    1982-10-01

    The effect of direct intragastric artery infusion of prostaglandins E2 and I2, arachidonic acid, dimaprit (histamine H2 agonist), and 2',2'-pyridylethylamine (histamine H1 agonist) on gastric mucosal blood flow was examined in dogs to elucidate the relationship between gastric secretory state and mucosal blood flow in dogs. These compounds were chosen because of their diverse effect on gastric acid secretion. Gastric fundus blood flow was measured both electromagnetically with a flow probe around the left gastric artery which supplies the fundus almost exclusively, and by the radioactive microsphere technique. Intraarterial infusion of all the compounds resulted in gastric mucosal vasodilation even though PGE2, PGI2, and arachidonic acid inhibit gastric acid secretion, dimaprit stimulated gastric acid secretion, and 2',2'-pyridylethylamine does not affect gastric acid secretion. There was total agreement in the blood flow measurements by the two different techniques. Our data suggest that gastric acid secretion and gastric vasodilation are independently regulated. In addition, the validity of the studies in which the aminopyrine clearance indicates that prostaglandins are mucosal vasoconstrictors needs to be questioned because of the reliance of those measurements on the secretory state of the stomach.

  12. Gastric acid inhibitory and gastric protective effects of Cannabis and cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar

    2016-05-01

    Cannabis sativa has long been known for its psychotropic effect. Only recently with the discovery of the cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous legends and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation, the role of this 'endocannabinoid system' in different pathophysiologic processes is beginning to be delineated. There is evidence that CB1 receptor stimulation with synthetic cannabinoids or Cannabis sativa extracts rich in Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibit gastric acid secretion in humans and experimental animals. This is specially seen when gastric acid secretion is stimulated by pentagastrin, carbachol or 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Cannabis and/or cannabinoids protect the gastric mucosa against noxious challenge with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ethanol as well as against stress-induced mucosal damage. Cannabis/cannabinoids might protect the gastric mucosa by virtue of its antisecretory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilator properties. PMID:27261847

  13. Gastric acid inhibitory and gastric protective effects of Cannabis and cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar

    2016-05-01

    Cannabis sativa has long been known for its psychotropic effect. Only recently with the discovery of the cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous legends and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation, the role of this 'endocannabinoid system' in different pathophysiologic processes is beginning to be delineated. There is evidence that CB1 receptor stimulation with synthetic cannabinoids or Cannabis sativa extracts rich in Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibit gastric acid secretion in humans and experimental animals. This is specially seen when gastric acid secretion is stimulated by pentagastrin, carbachol or 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Cannabis and/or cannabinoids protect the gastric mucosa against noxious challenge with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ethanol as well as against stress-induced mucosal damage. Cannabis/cannabinoids might protect the gastric mucosa by virtue of its antisecretory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilator properties.

  14. Endoscopic submucosal dissection combined with endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for early gastric cancer on gastric fundal varices.

    PubMed

    Uno, Kaname; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Abe, Yasuhiko; Asano, Naoki; Yokosawa, Satoshi; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2012-08-01

    Currently, there is little report of treatment strategy for early gastric cancer (EGC) on gastric fundal varices (GFVs), because controlling GFVs was more challenging than controlling gastric cardiac varices associated with esophageal varices. We first report effective endoscopic treatment of EGC on GFVs of a 77-year-old man with Child-B cirrhosis. Endoscopic ultrasound and multidetector-row computed tomography studies revealed intramucosal EGC on variceal components, supplied from posterior gastric vein and drained to subphrenic vein without gastrorenal shunt. With informed consent, we performed endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) after eradication of GFVs by endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS). Histologic assessment revealed curability of ESD and inflammation and fibrosis around EIS site. Thereafter, no recurrence and complication had occurred. To avoid life-threatening bleeding from GFVs, we achieved complete resection by ESD under direct visualization of submucosa after eradication of GFVs by EIS based on the examination of hemodynamics and local relationship between EGC and GFVs.

  15. Variation in Gene Expression Patterns in Human Gastric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Leung, Suet Y.; Yuen, Siu T.; Chu, Kent-Man; Ji, Jiafu; Li, Rui; Chan, Annie S.Y.; Law, Simon; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Wong, John; So, Samuel; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the world's second most common cause of cancer death. We analyzed gene expression patterns in 90 primary gastric cancers, 14 metastatic gastric cancers, and 22 nonneoplastic gastric tissues, using cDNA microarrays representing ∼30,300 genes. Gastric cancers were distinguished from nonneoplastic gastric tissues by characteristic differences in their gene expression patterns. We found a diversity of gene expression patterns in gastric cancer, reflecting variation in intrinsic properties of tumor and normal cells and variation in the cellular composition of these complex tissues. We identified several genes whose expression levels were significantly correlated with patient survival. The variations in gene expression patterns among cancers in different patients suggest differences in pathogenetic pathways and potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:12925757

  16. Management of gastric subepithelial tumors: The role of endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Young; Kim, Kyoung Oh

    2016-01-01

    With the wide use of esophagogastroduodenoscopy, the incidence of gastric subepithelial tumor (SET) diagnosis has increased. While the management of large or symptomatic gastric SETs is obvious, treatment of small (≤ 3 cm) asymptomatic gastric SETs remains inconclusive. Moreover, the presence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors with malignant potential is of concern, and endoscopic treatment of gastric SETs remains a subject of debate. Recently, numerous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of endoscopic treatment of gastric SETs, and have proposed various endoscopic procedures including endoscopic submucosal dissection, endoscopic muscularis dissection, endoscopic enucleation, endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and a hybrid approach (the combination of endoscopy and laparoscopy). In this review article, we discuss current endoscopic treatments for gastric SETs as well as the advantages and limitations of this type of therapy. Finally, we predict the availability of newly developed endoscopic treatments for gastric SETs. PMID:27298713

  17. Glucose metabolism in gastric cancer: The cutting-edge

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lian-Wen; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in gastric cancer cells differs from that of normal epithelial cells. Upregulated aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) in gastric cancer meeting the demands of cell proliferation is associated with genetic mutations, epigenetic modification and proteomic alteration. Understanding the mechanisms of aerobic glycolysis may contribute to our knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis. Metabolomic studies offer novel, convenient and practical tools in the search for new biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and chemosensitivity prediction of gastric cancer. Interfering with the process of glycolysis in cancer cells may provide a new and promising therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer. In this article, we present a brief review of recent studies of glucose metabolism in gastric cancer, with primary focus on the clinical applications of new biomarkers and their potential therapeutic role in gastric cancer. PMID:26877609

  18. [Matrix metalloproteases as molecular markers in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    de la Peña, Sol; Sampieri, Clara L; León-Córdoba, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in the world. Prognosis in patients with gastric cancer is difficult to establish because it is commonly diagnosed when gastric wall invasion and metastasis have occurred. Currently, some members of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinases have been identified, whose expression in gastric tumor tissue is significantly elevated compared to healthy gastric tissue. Matrix metalloproteinases are 24 zinc-dependent endopeptidases that catalyze the proteolysis of the extracellular matrix. This degradation allows the cancer cells invade the surrounding stroma and trigger metastasis. Upregulation of certain matrix metalloproteinases in gastric cancer has been associated with a poor prognosis and elevated invasive capacity. This review compiles evidence about the genetic expression of matrix metalloproteinases in gastric cancer and their role in tumour invasion and metastasis, emphasizing their potential as molecular markers of prognosis.

  19. Identifying module biomarkers from gastric cancer by differential correlation network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoping; Chang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (stomach cancer) is a severe disease caused by dysregulation of many functionally correlated genes or pathways instead of the mutation of individual genes. Systematic identification of gastric cancer biomarkers can provide insights into the mechanisms underlying this deadly disease and help in the development of new drugs. In this paper, we present a novel network-based approach to predict module biomarkers of gastric cancer that can effectively distinguish the disease from normal samples. Specifically, by assuming that gastric cancer has mainly resulted from dysfunction of biomolecular networks rather than individual genes in an organism, the genes in the module biomarkers are potentially related to gastric cancer. Finally, we identified a module biomarker with 27 genes, and by comparing the module biomarker with known gastric cancer biomarkers, we found that our module biomarker exhibited a greater ability to diagnose the samples with gastric cancer. PMID:27703371

  20. Gastric zygomycosis in a pig affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome--case report.

    PubMed

    Szeredi, Levente; Szentirmai, Csaba

    2008-06-01

    A postweaning pig died in spite of antibiotic therapy showing wasting in a small herd. Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) was diagnosed on the basis of gross pathological and histological lesions and the presence of moderate amounts of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) antigen in tissue samples. Mycotic gastritis caused by Zygomycetes spp. was found on round areas with a diameter of 1 to 3 cm in the glandular mucosa of the stomach. Moderate amount of PCV2 viral antigen was detected almost evenly in the stomach and mostly in the macrophages. In addition, acute uraemia, revealed by an ammonia-like stink of the gastric mucosa and the presence of acute erosions on the glandular mucosa of the stomach, was observed as a consequence of PCV2-induced interstitial nephritis. Only PCV2 infection could be identified as a cause of secondary mycotic gastritis. The results further support the immunosuppressive ability of PCV2 infection in PMWS-affected pigs.

  1. Gastric carcinoma originating from the heterotopic submucosal gastric gland treated by laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Taisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hiroki; Miyamae, Mahito; Hirajima, Shoji; Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Kubota, Takeshi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Ogiso, Kiyoshi; Yagi, Nobuaki; Yanagisawa, Akio; Ando, Takashi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is derived from epithelial cells in the gastric mucosa. We reported an extremely rare case of submucosal gastric carcinoma originating from the heterotopic submucosal gastric gland (HSG) that was safely diagnosed by laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery (LECS). A 66-year-old man underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, which detected a submucosal tumor (SMT) of 1.5 cm in diameter on the lesser-anterior wall of the upper gastric body. The tumor could not be diagnosed histologically, even by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Local resection by LECS was performed to confirm a diagnosis. Pathologically, the tumor was an intra-submucosal well differentiated adenocarcinoma invading 5000 μm into the submucosal layer. The resected tumor had negative lateral and vertical margins. Based on the Japanese treatment guidelines, additional laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy was curatively performed. LECS is a less invasive and safer approach for the diagnosis of SMT, even in submucosal gastric carcinoma originating from the HSG. PMID:26306144

  2. Effects of trimebutine maleate on gastric motility in patients with gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, T; Nagao, T; Andou, T; Misu, N; Kobayashi, Y; Hirako, M; Hara, M; Fujinami, T

    1998-12-01

    The effects of trimebutine maleate (TM), a prokinetic drug, on gastrointestinal motility in patients with gastric ulcer were investigated. Twenty patients with active gastric ulcers were allocated to two groups; 10 patients received a proton pump inhibitor alone (PPI group), given orally, and 10 patients received oral TM in combination with a PPI (PPI + TM group), each for a period of 8 weeks. Electrogastrography (EGG) and gastric emptying were measured before and after the treatment period. During the active ulcer stage, tachygastria (more than 0.06 Hz) or bradygastria (less than 0.04 Hz) in the EGG frequency were observed in 9 patients either before or after meals. During the healed ulcer stage, tachygastria or bradygastria was observed in 4 of 10 patients in the PPI group, while in the PPI + TM group, 1 patient had tachygastria and none had bradygastria. Postprandial dip (PD) was observed in 3 of the 20 patients during the active stage, while after treatment, PD was observed in 3 patients in the PPI group and in 6 patients in the PPI + TM group, respectively. Gastric emptying in the PPI group did not show any change between before and after treatment, while that in the PPI + TM group improved significantly after treatment. These results suggest that TM may have an ameliorative effect on abnormal gastric motility in patients with gastric ulcer. PMID:9853554

  3. Expression of Pdx-1 in human gastric metaplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Leys, Charles M; Nomura, Sachiyo; Rudzinski, Erin; Kaminishi, Michio; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Washington, Mary Kay; Goldenring, James R

    2006-09-01

    Metaplastic lineages represent critical putative preneoplastic precursors for gastrointestinal metaplasia. Two metaplastic processes are associated with gastric cancer: intestinal metaplasia (the presence of intestinal goblet cell containing lineages in the stomach) and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM; antralization of the gastric fundus). The transcription factor Pdx-1 is expressed in the adult pancreatic islet cells as well as the gastric antrum and duodenum. We have previously noted the increase in Pdx-1 expression in models of TGFalpha overexpression in mice but not in other models of SPEM in rodents. We have therefore sought to examine the presence of Pdx-1 expression in gastric metaplasias and gastric adenocarcinoma in humans. Tissue microarrays containing gastric cancers from the fundus and antrum and samples of SPEM and intestinal metaplasia were immunostained for Pdx-1. Nuclear Pdx-1 expression was observed in only 50% of antral-derived cancers and was present in 40% of fundic tumors. Pdx-1 expression did not correlate with clinical outcome. Although SPEM lineages did not show any staining for Pdx-1, intestinal metaplasia showed strong nuclear staining for Pdx-1. Thus, Pdx-1 expression is not associated with antralizing metaplasia (SPEM) but is associated with intestinal metaplasia. Given the pattern of normal Pdx-1 expression in the duodenum, goblet cell metaplasia in the stomach may reflect the adoption of a duodenal lineage paradigm.

  4. Subtotal nephrectomy inhibits the gastric emptying of liquid in awake rats

    PubMed Central

    da Graça, José Ronaldo Vasconcelos; Parente, Cynara Carvalho; Fiúza, Robério Ferreira; da Silva, Pedro Alberto Freitas; Mota, Bruno Teixeira; Salles, Luiz Derwal; Silva, Camila Meirelles de Souza; da Silva, Moisés Tolentino Bento; de Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; dos Santos, Armenio Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of blood volume (BV) is attained through a functional interaction between the cardiovascular and renal systems. The gastrointestinal tract also adjusts its permeability and motor behavior after acute BV imbalances. We evaluated the effect of progressive nephron loss on gut motility. Male Wistar rats were subjected or not (sham) to 5/6 partial nephrectomy (PNX) in two steps (0 and 7th day). After further 3, 7, or 14 days, PNX and sham operation (control) rats were instrumented to monitor mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), heart rate (HR), and blood collection for biochemical analysis. The next day, they were gavage fed with a liquid test meal (phenol red in glucose solution), and fractional dye recovery determined 10, 20, or 30 min later. The effect of nonhypotensive hypovolemia and the role of neuroautonomic pathways on PNX-induced gastric emptying (GE) delay were also evaluated. Compared with the sham-operated group, PNX rats exhibited higher (P < 0.05) MAP and CVP values as well as increased values of gastric dye recovery, phenomenon proportional to the BV values. Gastric retention was prevented by prior hypovolemia, bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, coelic ganglionectomy + splanchnicectomy, guanethidine, or atropine pretreatment. PNX also inhibited (P < 0.05) the marker's progression through the small intestine. In anesthetized rats, PNX increased (P < 0.05) gastric volume, measured by a balloon catheter in a barostat system. In conclusion, the progressive loss of kidney function delayed the GE rate, which may contribute to gut dysmotility complaints associated with severe renal failure. PMID:25677547

  5. Protective Effect of Tragopogon Graminifolius DC Against Ethanol Induced Gastric Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Farzaei, Mohamad Hosein; Khazaei, Mozafar; Abbasabadei, Zahra; Feyzmahdavi, Maryam; Mohseni, Gholam Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastric ulcer is a serious digestive system problem and affects 5% to 10% of people during their life. Chemical antigastric ulcer drugs have side effect, cannot prevent recurrence of ulcer and also show drug interaction with many other medicaments. Tragopogon graminifolius DC.(TG) is a herb which is widely used in the west of Iran and traditionally consumed for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. TG was introduced as one of the most beneficial plants for digestive ulcer in Iranian traditional medicine. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity and protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of TG (HeTG) against ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Materials and Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 7). HeTG at the doses of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg were administered orally for 15 days and gastric ulcer was induced by pure ethanol (1 ml/200gr body weight). Ulcer index and protective rate were calculated and histological changes were determined. Results HeTG was nontoxic up to 2000 mg/Kg. Ulcer index decreased in extract groups significantly. Protective rates of HeTG were 48.94%, 46.39%, and 43.99% in 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg extract, respectively. 50 mg/kg HeTG group had higher protective effect. There was relatively normal cellular arrangement in HeTG groups. Conclusions TG showed protective effect against ethanol induced gastric ulcer. This study confirmed traditional medicine claims of TG. PMID:24616792

  6. Laparoscopic Gastric Plication: An Emerging Bariatric Procedure with High Surgical Revision Rate

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Alice; Prevedello, Luca; Verdi, Daunia; Nitti, Donato; Vettor, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic gastric plication (LGCP) reduces gastric volume without resecting or implanting a foreign body. Although still considered investigational, it could be appropriate for young patients with a low body mass index (BMI) and for those unwilling to undergo sleeve gastrectomy, gastric banding, or bypass. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the mid-term results (2 years) of LGCP in terms of safety and efficacy. Methods: A total of 56 obese patients (47 female; mean age=30.5±11.7 years; mean BMI=40.31±4.7 kg/m2) were candidates for LGCP from January 2011 to October 2013. Early and late complications, BMI, and excess BMI loss (EBL) were prospectively recorded at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months follow-up. Results: Mean operative time was 72.4±15.6 minutes. No conversion was required. Mean hospital stay was 3 days. Mean %EBL was 34.3±18.40%, 40.1±24.5%, 47.4±30.2%, 46.5±34.6%, 47.8±43.2%, and 55.3±53.6% at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months, respectively. The overall complication rate was 32.14%. Perioperative mortality was zero. Surgical revision was needed in 30 patients: 12 for unsatisfactory weight loss and 18 for gastric prolapse (one acute within 30 days), respectively. Conclusion: LGCP showed high complication rates requiring surgical revision. PMID:26421246

  7. Prevalence and determinants of delayed gastric emptying in hospitalised Type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Kojecky, Vladimir; Bernatek, Jaromir; Horowitz, Michael; Zemek, Stanislav; Bakala, Jiri; Hep, Ales

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of delayed gastric emptying (GE) in older patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: One hundred and forty seven patients with Type 2 diabetes, of whom 140 had been hospitalised, mean age 62.3 ± 8.0 years, HbA1c 9.1% ± 1.9%, treated with either oral hypoglycemic drugs or insulin were studied. GE of a solid meal (scintigraphy), autonomic nerve function, upper gastrointestinal symptoms, acute and chronic glycemic control were evaluated. Gastric emptying results were compared to a control range of hospitalised patients who did not have diabetes. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was delayed (T50 > 85 min) in 17.7% patients. Mean gastric emptying was slower in females (T50 72.1 ± 72.1 min vs 56.9 ± 68.1 min, P = 0.02) and in those reporting nausea (112.3 ± 67.3 vs 62.7 ± 70.0 min, P < 0.01) and early satiety (114.0 ± 135.2 vs 61.1 ± 62.6 min, P = 0.02). There was no correlation between GE with age, body weight, duration of diabetes, neuropathy, current glycemia or the total score for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. CONCLUSION: Prolonged GE occurs in about 20% of hospitalised elderly patients with Type 2 diabetes when compared to hospitalised patients who do not have diabetes. Female gender, nausea and early satiety are associated with higher probability of delayed GE. PMID:18330949

  8. Experimental studies of gastric dysfunction in motion sickness: The effect of gastric and vestibular stimulation on the vagal and splanchnic gastric efferents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niijima, A.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    The experiments were conducted in anaesthetized rats. In the first part of the experiments, the effect of CuSO4 on the afferent activity in the gastric branch of the vagus nerve was investigated. Gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution (0.04 percent and 0.08 percent) provoked an increase in afferent activity. In the second part of the experiments, the reflex effects of gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution, repetitive stimulation of the gastric vagus nerve, and caloric stimulation of the right vestibular apparatus (5-18 C water) on gastric autonomic outflow were investigated. The results of these experiments showed that these three different types of stimulation caused an inhibition in efferent activity of the gastric vagus nerve and a slight activation of the splanchnic gastric efferents. The summation of the effect of each stimulation was also observed. These results, therefore, provide evidence for a possible integrative inhibitory function of the vagal gastric center as well as an excitatory function of gastric sympathetic motoneurons in relation to motion sickness.

  9. PIVKA-II-producing advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Takano, Shigetsugu; Honda, Ichiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Soda, Hiroaki; Nagata, Matsuo; Hoshino, Isamu; Takenouchi, Toshinao; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2004-08-01

    We describe the case of a 68-year-old man with primary advanced adenocarcinoma of the stomach, who displayed extremely high plasma levels of protein induced by vitamin K antagonist (PIVKA)-II (15 600 mAU/ml) and normal levels of alphafetoprotein (AFP) (4 ng/ml). Ultrasonography and dynamic computed tomography ruled out hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or liver metastasis. After preoperative chemotherapy, pancreatico-spleno total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed. Postoperatively, plasma levels of PIVKA-II returned to within the normal range (29 mAU/ml). Microscopic examination revealed stomach adenocarcinoma showing various histological types, such as moderately to poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma, but hepatoid differentiation of gastric adenocarcinoma was not detected. Localization of PIVKA-II and AFP within tumor cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies. These results indicate that tumor cells from gastric cancer may produce PIVKA-II. Some cases of PIVKA-II- and AFP-producing advanced gastric cancer with liver metastasis have been reported, but this is the first report of gastric cancer without liver metastasis producing PIVKA-II alone.

  10. The future of gastric cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Correa, Pelayo; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Camargo, M Constanza

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical treatment and chemotherapy, gastric cancer remains a major global health burden. The most recent estimates show that it is the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Various etiologic factors have been linked with the disease. It is widely accepted that Helicobacter pylori infection and high salt intake are positively associated with this neoplastic process. Controversial associations have been found with smoking or drinking habits. In contrast, there is convincing evidence that the adequate consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of gastric cancer. Prevention intervention trials involving antioxidant supplements and anti- H. pylori treatment have shown beneficial effects in preventing the progression of pathologic changes in the gastric mucosa. On the other hand, recent advances related to differences in the genotypes of the bacteria and in human cytokine polymorphisms would allow the design and implementation of large-scale screening programs to identify subjects at the highest risk of gastric cancer. Curing the infection in such subjects and supplying adequate amounts of antioxidants should prevent a neoplastic outcome, and this intervention should be monitored by endoscopic surveillance. PMID:15052434

  11. Microarray analysis in gastric cancer: A review

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Giovanna; Di Rienzo, Teresa; Ojetti, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common tumors worldwide. Although several treatment options have been developed, the mortality rate is increasing. Lymph node involvement is considered the most reliable prognostic indicator in gastric cancer. Early diagnosis improves the survival rate of patients and increases the likelihood of successful treatment. The most reliable diagnostic method is endoscopic examination, however, it is expensive and not feasible in poorer countries. Therefore, many innovative techniques have been studied to develop a new non-invasive screening test and to identify specific serum biomarkers. DNA microarray analysis is one of the new technologies able to measure the expression levels of a large number of genes simultaneously. It is possible to define the gene expression profile of the tumor and to correlate it with the prognosis and metastasis formation. Several studies in the literature have been published on the role of microarray analysis in gastric cancer and the mechanisms of proliferation and metastasis formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the importance of microarray analysis and its clinical applications to better define the genetic characteristics of gastric cancer and its possible implications in a more decisive treatment. PMID:25232233

  12. Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Güner, Ali; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2014-01-01

    The interest in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has rapidly increased in recent decades and surgeons have adopted minimally invasive techniques due to its reduced invasiveness and numerous advantages for patients. With increased surgical experience and newly developed surgical instruments, MIS has become the preferred approach not only for benign disease but also for oncologic surgery. Recently, robotic systems have been developed to overcome difficulties of standard laparoscopic instruments during complex procedures. Its advantages including three-dimensional images, tremor filtering, motion scaling, articulated instruments, and stable retraction have created the opportunity to use robotic technology in many procedures including cancer surgery. Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While its overall incidence has decreased worldwide, the proportion of early gastric cancer has increased mainly in eastern countries following mass screening programs. The shift in the paradigm of gastric cancer treatment is toward less invasive approaches in order to improve the patient's quality of life while adhering to oncological principles. In this review, we aimed to summarize the operative strategy and current literature in laparoscopic and robotic surgery for gastric cancer.

  13. Gastric rupture secondary to successful Heimlich manoeuvre.

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, A.; Sedman, P. C.

    1998-01-01

    A fatal case of gastric rupture following the Heimlich manoeuvre is reported. This life-threatening complication has only been reported previously in seven patients with a high mortality rate. All patients should be assessed immediately following this manoeuvre for any potentially life-threatening complications. Images Figure PMID:10211358

  14. Ultradian rhythms in walking gastric activity.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, J F; Kripke, D F

    1975-01-01

    Ninety to 120 min ultradian rhythms have been described in physiologic and behavioral functions relating to biologic drives. Gastric contractility rhythms were examined in isolated fasting volunteers to supplement behavioral observations of "oral" drives. A clear ultradian rhythms was observed, indicating inherent physiologic oscillation in stomach contractions.

  15. Invasive mucormycosis in benign gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Al-Rikabi, A C; Al-Dohayan, A D; Al-Boukai, A A

    2000-03-01

    Fungal elements are frequently noted overlying the base of chronic peptic ulcers of the stomach and it has been suggested that the fungi enhance the degree of necrosis and that these cases have protracted disease and deeper ulcers with more perforations. It has also been postulated that the number of fungal elements might be increased in the stomach of patients who are receiving potent medications such as H2-receptor antagonists to reduce gastric acidity, but there have not been adequate control studies, and the deleterious effects from the presence of the fungi in these cases have not been substantiated. We present a very rare case of invasive mucormycosis (phycomycosis) occurring in the base of a chronic gastric ulcer in a 55 years old diabetic male. This case was clinically and radiologically been mistaken for a gastric carcinoma. In addition, the ulcer was complicated by perforation and fungal septicemia with subsequent fatal outcome. The clinical, radiological and histopathological features are described together with a literature review of other reported fungal gastric ulcers.

  16. Gastric Residual Volume: Rethinking the Threshold.

    PubMed

    Emami Zeydi, Amir; Sharafkhani, Mohammad; Armat, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    There are many challenges related to enteral feedings of the mechanically ventilated patient. Among the most often debated issues is the threshold for gastric residual volume before further feeding. This brief article considers the factors to be considered and reviews current thinking on the topic. PMID:27575801

  17. Gastric cancer: current and evolving treatment landscape.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weijing; Yan, Li

    2016-01-01

    Gastric (including gastroesophageal junction) cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. In China, an estimated 420,000 patients were diagnosed with gastric cancer in 2011, ranking this malignancy the second most prevalent cancer type and resulting in near 300,000 deaths. The treatment landscape of gastric cancer has evolved in recent years. Although systemic chemotherapy is still the mainstay treatment of metastatic disease, the introduction of agents targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelia growth factor receptor has brought this disease into the molecular and personalized medicine era. The preliminary yet encouraging clinical efficacy observed with immune checkpoint inhibitors, e.g., anti-programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1, will further shape the treatment landscape for gastric cancer. Molecular characterization of patients will play a critical role in developing new agents, as well as in implementing new treatment options for this disease. PMID:27581465

  18. Gastric MALT lymphoma: old and new insights

    PubMed Central

    Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Ridola, Lorenzo; Repici, Alessandro; Manta, Raffaele; Andriani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The stomach is the most frequent site of extranodal lymphoma. Gastric lymphoma originating from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is typically a low-grade, B-cell neoplasia strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Only certain H. pylori strains in some predisposed patients determine lymphoma development in the stomach, according to a strain-host-organ specific process. The clinical presentation is poorly specific, symptoms ranging from vague dyspepsia to alarm symptoms. Similarly, different endoscopy patterns have been described for gastric lymphoma. H. pylori eradication is advised as first-line therapy in early stage disease, and complete lymphoma remission is achieved in 75% of cases. Neoplasia stage, depth of infiltration in the gastric wall, presence of the API2-MALT1 translocation, localization in the stomach, and patient ethnicity have been identified as predictors of remission. Recent data suggests that H. pylori eradication therapy may be successful for gastric lymphoma treatment also in a small subgroup (15%) of H. pylori-negative patients. The overall 5-year survival and disease-free survival rates are as high as 90% and 75%, respectively. Management of patients who failed to achieve lymphoma remission following H. pylori eradication include radiotherapy, chemotherapy and, in selected cases, surgery. PMID:24714739

  19. Sensor capsule for diagnosis of gastric disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holen, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Motility and pH sensor capsule is developed to monitor gastric acidity, pressure, and temperature. Capsule does not interfere with digestion. Sensor is capsule which includes pH electrode, Pitran pressure transducer, and thermistor temperature sensor all potted in epoxy and enclosed in high density polyethylene sheath.

  20. NCI International EBV-Gastric Cancer Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    A collaboration among NCI and extramural investigators, established by DCEG in 2006, that utilizes data and biospecimens from completed and ongoing case series and observational studies of gastric cancer to replicate and extend findings from previous studies hindered by small numbers of EBV-positive cases, and to stimulate multidisciplinary research in this area.

  1. Recovery of cyclic antidepressants with gastric lavage.

    PubMed

    Watson, W A; Leighton, J; Guy, J; Bergman, R; Garriott, J C

    1989-01-01

    The role of lavage fluid volume in recovery of cyclic antidepressant with gastric lavage was determined in 13 patients treated for moderate to severe cyclic antidepressant intoxication. An orogastric tube was placed, gastric contents aspirated, and gastric lavage performed with 60 to 180 mL aliquots of tap water or 0.9% NaCl for irrigation. A volume of 12.8 +/- 4.4 liters of lavage fluid was instilled, and 97.6 +/- 6.9% of this volume was recovered. The recovered aspirate and lavage fluid were inspected for the presence of particulate matter and saved in 4 to 5 liter collections. Determination of cyclic antidepressant and metabolite concentrations was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the amount of cyclic antidepressant recovered was calculated. The mean total amount recovered was 110 mg and ranged from 2.4 mg to 342 mg. Of the total amount recovered, 88% +/- 13% was recovered in the first 4 to 5 liters of lavage fluid. An estimate of the dose ingested was available in 7 patients, with 8.7% (0.4% to 21.7%) of the estimated dose recovered by lavage. There were no cases of significant drug recovery in clear lavage fluid. We conclude that if gastric lavage is undertaken in cyclic antidepressant intoxications, it should utilize 5 liters initially and then continue only if particulate matter is seen.

  2. Acute Vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835

  3. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection on the Composition of Gastric Microbiota in the Development of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Yu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancer types worldwide. In China, gastric cancer has become one of the major threats for public health, ranking second on incidence and third on cause of cancer death. Despite the common risk factors that promote the development of gastric cancer, the huge quantity of microorganism colonies within the gastrointestinal tract, particularly Helicobacter pylori infection, demonstrates a correlation with chronic inflammation and gastric carcinogenesis, as epidemiological studies have determined that H. pylori infection confers approximately 75% of the attributable risk for gastric cancer. Summary The current article draws an overview on the correlation between the microbiota, inflammation and gastric tumorigenesis. H. pylori infection has been identified as the main risk factor as it triggers epithelial barrier disruption, survival signaling as well as genetic/epigenetic modulation. Apart from H. pylori, the existence of a diverse and complex composition of microbiota in the stomach has been identified, which supports a role of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer. Moreover, metagenomics studies focused on the composition and function of the microbiota have associated microbiota with gastric metabolic diseases and even tumorigenesis. Apart from the gastric microbiota, inflammation is another identified contributor to cancer development as well. Key Message Though H. pylori infection and the non-H. pylori microbiota play a role in gastric cancer, the properties of gastric microbiota and mechanisms by which they participate in the genesis of gastric cancer are still not clearly depicted. Moreover, it remains to be understood how the presence of microbiota along with H. pylori infection affects the progress from gastric disease to cancer. Practical Implications This article summarized a clue of the current studies on microbiota, H. pylori infection and the progression from gastric disease to cancer. PMID

  4. [Acute diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Burgmann, Konstantin; Schoepfer, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Diarrhea, defined as three or more loose or watery stools per day, represents a frequent problem in outpatients as well as inpatients. As most of the patients with acute diarrhea show a self-limiting disease course, the main challenge for the physician is to discriminate patients for whom symptomatic therapy is sufficient from those with severe disease course and threatening complications. This review aims to provide a practical guidance for such decisions.

  5. A model study of the regulation of gastric acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Van Duijn, B; Ypey, D L; de Goede, J; Verveen, A A; Hekkens, W

    1989-07-01

    A computer simulation model is presented of the gastric phase regulation of gastric acid secretion in humans. The model is based on experimental data from the literature and includes terms representing gastric pH and gastric volume-dependent gastrin secretion, gastrin-dependent acid secretion, food storage in the stomach, and gastric emptying. We have explored the predictive value of the model in assessing the relative importance of gastric pH-dependent and gastric volume-dependent acid secretion mechanisms under various conditions. Similarly we have studied the role of gastric acid deregulation in achlorhydria, the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and duodenal ulcer, and the influence of the antacid drugs cimetidine and ranitidine under duodenal ulcer conditions. Model analysis of normal gastric acid regulation suggests that gastric volume-controlled acid secretion is of major importance during eating and predicts that pH-dependent gastrin secretion is of major importance in preventing excessively low pH levels between meals and during the night.

  6. High expression of DEK predicts poor prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background DEK, as an oncoprotein, plays an important role in cancer development and progression. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological significance of DEK overexpression in patients with gastric cancer. Materials and methods The expression of DEK protein was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of 172 gastric cancer samples with complete clinicopathological features, and the correlation between DEK expression and clinicopathological features was examined. Survival rates were also calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method in gastric cancer patients with complete survival data. Results DEK protein showed a strictly nuclear staining pattern in gastric cancers with IHC and immunofluorescence. The strongly positive rate of DEK protein was 60.5% (104/172) in gastric cancers, which was significantly higher than that in either gastric dysplasia (19.4%, 7/36) or adjacent normal mucosa (0%, 0/27). DEK expression in gastric cancer correlated to tumor size, differentiation, clinical stage, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates. Further analysis showed that patients with early-stage gastric cancer and high DEK expression had shorter disease-free survival and overall survival duration than those with low DEK expression. Conclusion High level of DEK protein expression predicts the poor prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. DEK expression might be potentially used as an independent effective biomarker for prognostic evaluation of gastric cancers. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5050145571193097 PMID:24650035

  7. [The diagnostic and surgical treatment characteristics in gastric ulcer].

    PubMed

    Prişcu, A; Palade, R; Medlej, A H; Grigoriu, M

    1994-01-01

    The work analyses a number of 283 patients suffering from gastric ulcer, which were hospitalised and operated between 1981-1991. In 64% of cases the surgical treatment decision was an emergency one for major complications of this disease such as: the upper digestive hemorrhage (27%), penetration (22%), perforation (11%), digestive stenosis (4%). In 36% of cases the decision of operation was taken for different reasons: unsatisfactory evolution under the conservatory treatment, the existence of an irreparable anatomic lesion, the recurrent ulcer or the difficulty of differential diagnosis between gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma. It is important to indicate that the two of the major investigations: the barium transit and the fiber gastroscopy failed in giving a correct relation in 5 to 10% between gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma. In 87% of patients it was performed the gastric resection type Péan. The lifting of the lesion in 7% of our observations needed the gastric resection on type Pochet. In the gastric ulcers Johnson II type, when the duodenal lesion couldn't be lifted we added to the Hoffmeister-Finsterer gastric resection type with truncal vagotomy. In 9% of patients with perforated or hemorrhagic gastric ulcer, the vital rise was a major one, so we performed only suture the lesion. We registered 3 deaths (1.06%).

  8. Decreased Core-Fucosylation Contributes to Malignancy in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; You, Qing; Yi, Chang-Hong; Ji, Jun; Gu, Xing; Zhou, Ping-Ting; Cheng, Cheng; Gao, Chun-Fang

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study is to identify N-glycan profiling changes associated with gastric cancer and explore the impact of core-fucosylation on biological behaviors of human gastric cancer cells. A total of 244 subjects including gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and healthy control were recruited. N-glycan profiling from serum and total proteins in gastric tissues was analyzed by DNA sequencer-assisted fluorophore-assisted capillary electrophoresis. The abundance of total core-fucosylated residues and the expression of enzymes involved in core-fucosylation were analyzed with lectin blot, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot, Immunohistochemical staining and lectin-histochemical staining. The recombinant plasmids of GDP-fucose transporter and α-1,6-fucosyltransferase (Fut8) were constructed and transfected into gastric cancer cell lines BGC-823 and SGC-7901. CCK-8 and wound healing assay were used to assess the functional impact of core-fucosylation modulation on cell proliferation and migration. Characteristic serum N-glycan profiles were found in gastric cancer. Compared with the healthy control, a trianntenary structure abundance, peak 9 (NA3Fb), was increased significantly in gastric cancer, while the total abundance of core-fucosylated residues (sumfuc) was decreased. Core-fucosylated structures, peak6(NA2F) and peak7(NA2FB) were deceased in gastric tumor tissues when compared with that in adjacent non-tumor tissues. Consistently, lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA)-binding proteins were decreased significantly in sera of gastric cancer, and protein level of Fut8 was decreased significantly in gastric tumor tissues compared with that in adjacent non-tumor tissues. Upregulation of GDP-Tr and Fut8 could inhibit proliferation, but had no significant influence on migration of BGC-823 and SGC-7901 cells. Core-fucosylation is down regulated in gastric cancer. Upregulation of core-fucosylation could inhibit proliferation of the human

  9. Mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic and radiographic screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato; Shabana, Michiko; Okada, Katsuo; Okamoto, Mikizo; Osaki, Yoneatsu

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic screening, we undertook a population-based cohort study in which both radiographic and endoscopic screenings for gastric cancer have been carried out. The subjects were selected from the participants of gastric cancer screening in two cities in Japan, Tottori and Yonago, from 2007 to 2008. The subjects were defined as participants aged 40-79 years who had no gastric cancer screening in the previous year. Follow-up of mortality was continued from the date of the first screening to the date of death or up to December 31, 2013. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of gastric cancer incidence, gastric cancer death, all cancer deaths except gastric cancer death, and all-causes death except gastric cancer death. The number of subjects selected for endoscopic screening was 9950 and that for radiographic screening was 4324. The subjects screened by endoscopy showed a 67% reduction of gastric cancer compared with the subjects screened by radiography (adjusted RR by sex, age group, and resident city = 0.327; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.118-0.908). The adjusted RR of endoscopic screening was 0.968 (95%CI, 0.675-1.387) for all cancer deaths except gastric cancer death, and 0.929 (95%CI, 0.740-1.168) for all-causes death except gastric cancer death. This study indicates that endoscopic screening can reduce gastric cancer mortality by 67% compared with radiographic screening. This is consistent with previous studies showing that endoscopic screening reduces gastric cancer mortality.

  10. Safety and efficacy of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate in the management of patients with gastric and duodenal varices who are not candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, James; Trotter, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric variceal bleeding is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with portal hypertension and cirrhosis. Options are limited for patients who are not candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). Cyanoacrylate injections have been reported to be efficacious in previous case series. The aim of this retrospective study was to report our single-center experience with the safety and efficacy of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate in patients who were not TIPS candidates. Electronic medical records were reviewed for 16 patients who underwent a total of 18 esophagogastroduodenoscopies for acute gastric or duodenal variceal bleeding and secondary prophylaxis of gastric varices; 14 patients had cirrhosis with an average Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score of 16, and 2 patients had noncirrhotic portal hypertension. Primary endpoints of the study included early and delayed rebleeding rate, complications, and death or liver transplantation. The rebleeding rate (early or delayed) was 7%, and no complications were found. One death was reported (unrelated to the procedure). In conclusion, 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate is a safe and effective alternative for non-TIPS candidates who present with acute gastric variceal bleeding given its low rebleeding and complication rate. PMID:27695164

  11. Safety and efficacy of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate in the management of patients with gastric and duodenal varices who are not candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, James; Trotter, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric variceal bleeding is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with portal hypertension and cirrhosis. Options are limited for patients who are not candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). Cyanoacrylate injections have been reported to be efficacious in previous case series. The aim of this retrospective study was to report our single-center experience with the safety and efficacy of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate in patients who were not TIPS candidates. Electronic medical records were reviewed for 16 patients who underwent a total of 18 esophagogastroduodenoscopies for acute gastric or duodenal variceal bleeding and secondary prophylaxis of gastric varices; 14 patients had cirrhosis with an average Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score of 16, and 2 patients had noncirrhotic portal hypertension. Primary endpoints of the study included early and delayed rebleeding rate, complications, and death or liver transplantation. The rebleeding rate (early or delayed) was 7%, and no complications were found. One death was reported (unrelated to the procedure). In conclusion, 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate is a safe and effective alternative for non-TIPS candidates who present with acute gastric variceal bleeding given its low rebleeding and complication rate.

  12. Increased gastric PCO2 during exercise is indicative of gastric ischaemia: a tonometric study

    PubMed Central

    Kolkman, J; Groeneveld, A; van der Berg, F G; Rauwerda, J; Meuwissen, S

    1999-01-01

    Background—Diagnosis of gastric ischaemia is difficult and angiography is an invasive procedure. Angiographic findings may not correlate with clinical importance. 
Aims—To investigate whether tonometric measurement of intragastric PCO2 during exercise can be used to detect clinically important gastric ischaemia. 
Methods—Fourteen patients with unexplained abdominal pain or weight loss were studied. Splanchnic angiography served as the gold standard. Three patients were studied again after a revascularisation procedure. Gastric PCO2 was measured from a nasogastric tonometer, with 10 minute dwell times, and after acid suppression. Gastric and capillary PCO2 were measured before, during, and after submaximal exercise of 10 minutes duration. 
Results—Seven patients had normal angiograms; seven had more than 50% stenosis in the coeliac (n=7) or superior mesenteric artery (n=4). Normal subjects showed no changes in tonometry. In patients with stenoses, the median intragastric PCO2 (PiCO2) at rest was 5.2 kPa (range 4.8-11.2) and rose to 6.4 kPa (range 5.7-15.7) at peak exercise; the median intragastric blood PCO2 gradient increased from 0.0 kPa (range −0.8 to 5.9) to 1.7 kPa (range 0.9 to 10.3; p<0.01). Only two subjects had abnormal tonometry at rest; all had supernormal values at peak exercise. The PCO2 gradient correlated with clinical and gastroscopic severity; in patients reexamined after revascularisation (n=3), exercise tonometry returned to normal. 
Conclusion—Gastric tonometry during exercise is a promising non-invasive tool for diagnosing and grading gastrointestinal ischaemia and evaluating the results of revascularisation surgery for symptomatic gastric ischaemia. 

 Keywords: gastric ischaemia; tonometry; carbon dioxide; exercise test PMID:9895373

  13. Eosinophil infiltration, gastric juice and serum eosinophil cationic protein levels in Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Selim A; Tekin, Isak Ozel; Numanoglu, Gamze; Borazan, Ali; Ustundag, Yucel

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori is one of the main causes of gastroduodenal diseases, such as chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer. It has been shown that eosinophils increase in the stomach in H. pylori infection. Eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) is a cytotoxic molecule secreted by the activated eosinophils. However, there are no sufficient data about the role of ECP in H. pylori infection and its effect on ulcer development. In this study we investigated the gastric eosinophilic infiltration, gastric juice and serum ECP levels in patients with chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer associated with H. pylori. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four H. pylori-positive and 20 H. pylori-negative patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy after admitting with dyspeptic complaints were enrolled in the study. Twenty-one of the H. pylori-positive patients had gastric ulcer while 23 patients had none. During endoscopy, multiple gastric biopsies and juices were taken. In gastric biopsies, H. pylori and eosinophilic infiltration were assessed. Additionally, gastric juice and serum ECP levels were measured. RESULTS: Eosinophil infiltration, gastric juice ECP levels, and gastric juice/serum ECP ratios in the H. pylori-positive group were greater than in the H. pylori-negative group (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference regarding serum ECP levels between the two groups (p > 0.05). When H. pylori-positive patients were compared with regard to gastric ulcer presence, however, there was no significant difference in gastric eosinophil infiltration, gastric juice ECP levels, serum ECP levels, and gastric juice/serum ECP ratios (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that eosinophils and eosinophil-released ECP may contribute to inflammatory changes seen in chronic gastritis, whereas there is no proof that they play a role in ulcer development. PMID:15770055

  14. KDM5B is overexpressed in gastric cancer and is required for gastric cancer cell proliferation and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenran; Tang, Fang; Qi, Guangying; Yuan, Shengguang; Zhang, Guangyu; Tang, Bo; He, Songqing

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations such as aberrant expression of histone-modifying enzymes have been implicated in tumorigenesis. KDM5B (also known as JARID1B) is a newly identified histone demethylase that regulates chromatin structure or gene expression by removing methyl residues from trimethylated lysine 4 on histone H3. Recent observations have shown oncogenic activity of KDM5B. However, the role of KDM5B in gastric cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of KDM5B in gastric cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis, western blotting, and qRT-PCR were used to measure the levels of KDM5B in gastric cancer cell lines, 45 pairs of gastric cancer tissues and the adjacent nonneoplastic tissues. KDM5B and shKDM5B were transfected into gastric cancer cells to investigate its role on regulating cell proliferation which was measured by MTT and colony formation assay. Cell’s migration and invasion were measured by Transwell and Matrigel analysis in vitro. PCNA expression was measured by immunofluorescence staining and immunohistochemical analysis. The in vivo tumorigenesis and metastasis assays were performed in SCID mice. In clinical gastric cancer samples, we found that KDM5B expression was significantly up-regulated in cancer lesions compared with paired normal gastric tissues. By silencing or overexpressing KDM5B in gastric cancer cells, we found that KDM5B could promote cell growth and metastasis in vitro. An in vivo assay showed that KDM5B not only dramatically promoted gastric cancer cell xenograft formation and growth but also promoted gastric cancer cell metastasis in a liver metastasis model. Moreover, we demonstrated that KDM5B promoted gastric cancer metastasis via regulation of the Akt pathway. Our study provided evidence that KDM5B functions as a novel tumor oncogene in gastric cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer management. PMID:25628922

  15. Gastric ulcer patients are more susceptible to developing gastric cancer compared with concomitant gastric and duodenal ulcer patients

    PubMed Central

    HONG, JUN-BO; ZUO, WEI; WANG, AN-JIANG; XU, SHAN; TU, LU-XIA; CHEN, YOU-XIANG; ZHU, XUAN; LU, NONG-HUA

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia are precancerous lesions of gastric cancer (GC); however, the prevalence of IM and dysplasia in patients exhibiting single gastric ulcer (GU) and concomitant gastric and duodenal ulcer (CGDU) varies. In the present study consecutive patients who had undergone esophagogastroduodenal endoscopy were retrospectively screened, and those presenting with GU or CGDU were further evaluated for IM and dysplasia. Patients diagnosed with GC or lymphoma and patients with a history of anti-Helicobacter pylori, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicine (NSAIM), H2-receptor antagonist or proton pump inhibitor therapy, were excluded from the present study. Of the 204,073 consecutively screened cases, 8,855 (4.3%) and 2,397 (1.2%) were diagnosed with GU and CGDU, respectively. A total of 1,722 GU and 233 CGDU patients were excluded; thus, 7,133 and 2,164 cases of GU and CGDU, respectively (n=9,297), were included in the present study. IM and dysplasia were observed in 1,348 (14.5%) and 210 (2.3%) patients, respectively. IM was more frequently identified in GU patients compared with CGDU patients (16.4 vs. 8.3%; odds ratio [OR], 2.158; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.830–2.545; χ2=86.932; P<0.001); furthermore, GU patients exhibited significantly more frequent IM compared with CGDU patients at the gastric antrum (14.2 vs. 5.5%; OR, 2.818; 95% CI, 2.199–3.610; χ2=72.299; P<0.001), gastric incisura (24.0 vs. 14.1%; OR, 1.922; 95% CI, 1.502–2.432; χ2=30.402; P<0.001) and gastric corpus (12.6 vs. 3.3%; OR, 4.259; 95% CI, 1.030–17.609; χ2=4.736; P=0.026). Dysplasia was significantly more frequently identified in GU patients compared with CGDU patients (2.7 vs. 0.7%; OR, 4.027; 95% CI, 2.376–6.823; χ2=31.315; P<0.001), with GU patients exhibiting significantly more severe dysplasia at the gastric antrum (2.4 vs. 0.7%; OR, 3.339; 95% CI, 1.735–6.425; χ2=14.652; P<0.001) and the gastric incisura (2.9 vs. 0.7%; OR, 4.255; 95% CI, 1

  16. Treatment of esophageal-gastric double primary cancer by pedunculated remnant gastric interposition, esophageal-gastric anastomosis and gastrojejunal Billroth II anastomosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIAO TIAN; WANG, WEI; ZHU, QIANG; CAO, MING; JIANG, ZHONG MIN; ZANG, QI

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous advancement of clinical diagnostic techniques, including imaging technology, the incidence of confirmed multiple primary cancers or double primary carcinoma increases yearly. However, studies reporting synchronization surgery performed for primary dual esophageal gastric cancer are rare. The present study reports the case of a patient with double primary esophageal-gastric cancer, located in the thoracic cavity segment of the esophagus and gastric antrum of the stomach, respectively. The gastric cancer was diagnosed by endoscopy biopsy with concomitant esophageal cancer. The patient underwent gastric cancer resection, and pedunculated remnant gastric interposition esophagogastric side anastomosis was performed with gastrojejunostomy Billroth II anastomosis behind the colon. Abdominal cavity lymph node dissection was also performed. The esophageal-gastric double primary cancer was simultaneously excised and the gastric regions were used in the construction of the upper gastrointestinal tract: The surgery was successful. However, two weeks after surgery, upper gastrointestinal imaging revealed esophagogastric anastomotic leakage. Subsequently, an esophageal stent was inserted and antibiotics and additional treatment was administered. Follow-up one year after surgery revealed that the patient was well and remained in a stable condition. PMID:26622590

  17. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P < 0.0001). When stratified by age, the prevalence was highest among young patients, and tended to decrease in patients aged 50 years or older. The anti-East-Asian CagA-specific antibody was negative in 99.4% of H. pylori-positive Mongolian patients. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia scores were significantly lower in Mongolian compared to Japanese H. pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001), with the exception of the intestinal

  18. Salt processed food and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Si-Hao; Li, Yuan-Hang; Leung, Kayee; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

  19. Thiocyanate as a marker of saliva in gastric juice?

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, P B; Whitfield, P F; Dave, M; Faber, R G; Hobsley, M

    1980-01-01

    One source of error in gastric secretion studies is swallowed saliva. The possibility that salivary thiocyanate might be used to measure this contamination has been investigated. Thiocyanate concentration was measured in saliva and gastric juice collected simultaneously in 22 duodenal ulcer patients undergoing routine insulin and histamine secretion studies. On stimulation, despite the increase in the rate of gastric secretion this was not matched by an appropriate fall in the concentration of thiocyanate in gastric juice. Moreover, in one-third of the gastric juice specimens, the thiocyanate concentration was greater than in the simultaneous samples of saliva. Thus, contrary to what has been claimed, thiocyanate is present not only in saliva but also in gastric juice. Therefore it cannot be used as a marker of salivary contamination. An adequate marker of this source of error has not yet been found. PMID:6988302

  20. [Research progression of translational medicine in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Li, Maoran; Zhao, Gang; Zhu, Chunchao

    2014-02-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors which is a great threat to human health. In recent years, the reform of surgical mordalities and the optimization of radiation and chemotherapy is still far from reducing morbidity and mortality of gastric cancer. As a new research pattern, translational medicine has emerged in various clinical subjects, which leads to remarkable effects. In this paper, the definition and development of translational medicine, molecular markers and drug treatment of gastric cancer will be discussed and the feasibility of translational medicine in the treatment of gastric cancer will be explained. In our opinion, the intervention of translational medicine could change the current situation that scientific researches is severely disconnected with clinical practice and increase the detection rate of gastric cancer and the effective rate of adjuvant therapy after surgery to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.