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Sample records for acute gastric anisakiasis

  1. Anisakiasis and intestinal endometriosis: under-recognized conditions in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Justicia, Carlos; Granero Peiró, Lucia; Arabe Paredes, Jorge Ali

    2017-01-01

    Anisakiasis and endometriosis is rare cause of intestinal obstruction and even perforation, the latter being extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with intestinal obstruction that progress to perforation and whose differential diagnosis is complex. The interest in this clinical case lies in the unexpected histology of the surgical specimen after the intervention of the patient, because the intestinal endometriosis as intestinal anisakiasis are rare entities that make diagnosis difficult.

  2. Two cases of gastric Anisakiasis for which oral administration of a medicine containing wood creosote (Seirogan) was effective.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Nagano, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Taro; Katsu, Kenichi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    Anisakiasis is a disease characterized by an abrupt onset of sharp epigastric pain, which occurs typically a few hours after eating raw or undercooked seafood. Anisakiasis was a Japanese localized disease in the past, however has become an illness of concern in many countries where eating Japanese style raw or undercooked seafood has become popular. At present, the only effective treatment is an endoscopic removal of the nematode. Development of an effective medicine is expected. We report two cases of Anisakiasis, the symptoms of which were ameliorated after the administration of an over-the-counter (OTC) medicine containing wood creosote (Seirogan). Also, we examined the in vitro effect of the Seirogan on the viability of the nematode. In the two cases, the strong epigastric pain was subdued promptly after oral intake of the Seirogan. The exposure of Seirogan suppressed the viability of Anisakis Larva in vitro dose dependently. The oral administration of medicine containing wood creosote might be effective as a first aid to ameliorate the symptoms of Anisakiasis.

  3. Common Symptoms from an Uncommon Infection: Gastrointestinal Anisakiasis.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Yuto; Muwanwella, Niroshan; Chandran, Sujievvan; Kandel, Gabor; Marcon, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians can be forgiven for thinking of anisakiasis as a rare condition low in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. Gastrointestinal anisakiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by consumption of raw or undercooked seafood infected with nematodes of the genus Anisakis. Even though the reported cases indicate that this is a rare disease, the true incidence of the disease could be potentially higher than what is reported in the literature as cases can go undiagnosed. Diagnosis and treatment of gastric anisakiasis are made by a compatible dietary history, direct visualization, and removal of the larvae via gastroscopy. Serologic testing and imaging studies are useful in the diagnosis of intestinal anisakiasis and conservative management should be considered. This disease may mimic other diseases and lead to unnecessary surgery. This emphasizes the importance of suspecting gastrointestinal anisakiasis by history taking and by other diagnostic modalities.

  4. Common Symptoms from an Uncommon Infection: Gastrointestinal Anisakiasis

    PubMed Central

    Muwanwella, Niroshan; Chandran, Sujievvan; Kandel, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians can be forgiven for thinking of anisakiasis as a rare condition low in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. Gastrointestinal anisakiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by consumption of raw or undercooked seafood infected with nematodes of the genus Anisakis. Even though the reported cases indicate that this is a rare disease, the true incidence of the disease could be potentially higher than what is reported in the literature as cases can go undiagnosed. Diagnosis and treatment of gastric anisakiasis are made by a compatible dietary history, direct visualization, and removal of the larvae via gastroscopy. Serologic testing and imaging studies are useful in the diagnosis of intestinal anisakiasis and conservative management should be considered. This disease may mimic other diseases and lead to unnecessary surgery. This emphasizes the importance of suspecting gastrointestinal anisakiasis by history taking and by other diagnostic modalities. PMID:27800471

  5. Anisakiasis ('herring worm disease') as a cause of acute abdominal crisis.

    PubMed

    Kark, A E; McAlpine, J C

    1994-01-01

    A hazard associated with eating raw fish is presented. The larval nematode Anisakis marina ('herring worm') is a recognised public health problem in Japan, and cases have been reported in the UK. The intestinal burrowing of the larval form causes acute abdominal symptoms clinically resembling acute appendicitis. Operation is required; no antiparasitic agent is available.

  6. Acute Small-Bowel Obstruction From Intestinal Anisakiasis After the Ingestion of Raw Clams; Documenting a New Method of Marine-to-Human Parasitic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Rittenhouse, David W.; Ochoa, Joana E.; Punja, Viren P.; Zubair, Muhammad H.; Baliff, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Enteric anisakiasis is a known parasitic infection. To date, human infection has been reported as resulting from the inadvertent ingestion of the anisakis larvae when eating raw/undercooked fish, squid, or eel. We present a first reported case of intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis, after the ingestion of raw clams. PMID:25734153

  7. [Anisakiasis in Spain. Report of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    López-Vélez, R; García, A; Barros, C; Manzarbeitia, F; Oñate, J M

    1992-03-01

    We reported here three cases of non-imported anisakiasis in Spanish patients. Eating raw sardines was the only common epidemiological feature. Two of the cases presented clinically as a bowel obstruction, and underwent an emergency surgical procedure. In the intestinal biopsy a larva of Anisakiasis simplex was found in the abdominal wall, surrounded by a eosinophilic granuloma and large edema. The third case presented as a peptic ulcer disease with longer evolution time, and a larva of Pseudoterranova decipiens (Phocanema) was found during an upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedure.

  8. Prevention of acute gastric mucosal lesions by Solcoseryl.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, T; Radecki, T; Sendur, R; Gustaw, P; Konturek, S J

    1987-04-01

    Solcoseryl, a deproteinized extract from calf blood containing various biologically active substances, has been reported to promote the healing of skin wounds and gastric ulceration In this study, the gastroprotective effects of Solcoseryl vis-a-vis acute gastric mucosal damage were examined in rats. Solcoseryl significantly reduced the formation of acute lesions induced by intragastric application of absolute ethanol or acidified taurocholate and by water immersion and restraint stress, but failed to affect those caused by acidified aspirin. Since Solcoseryl did not offer protection in the absence of mucosal prostaglandins (PG) e.g. in aspirin-induced gastric damage, it is likely that PG may be involved in the observed gastroprotective activity of the drug. Solcoseryl failed to affect gastric acid or pepsin secretion, but increased mucosal blood flow. Thus PG generated by Solcoseryl might contribute to the maintenance of the observed mucosal microcirculation and the prevention of lesion formation by corrosive substances and stress conditions.

  9. Chronic anisakiasis of the ascending colon associated with carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mineta, Sho; Shimanuki, Kimiyoshi; Sugiura, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Yoshikazu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Yoshihiko; Akimaru, Koho; Tajiri, Takashi

    2006-06-01

    Chronic anisakiasis of the colon is rare and difficult to diagnose. We report a case of chronic anisakiasis associated with advanced colonic carcinoma. A 69-year-old man was admitted for abdominal pain, diarrhea, and urticaria. Right hemicolectomy was performed because of an obstruction of the ascending colon and a palpable tumor of the right lower abdomen. The lesion was thought to be located in the deeper layers of the ascending colon. Preoperative examinations failed to detect the coexistence of anisakiasis and carcinoma of the colon. The anisakis was identified morphologically in the intestinal wall of the resected specimen and by an elevated titer of an IgE antibody specific to the parasite. Seventy-five cases of colonic and rectal anisakiasis, including the present case, have been reported in Japan. This is the only reported case of anisakiasis to appear in association with colonic carcinoma.

  10. Gastric perforation due to foreign body ingestion mimicking acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Henneman, Daniel; Bosman, Willem-Maarten; Ritchie, Ewan D; van den Bremer, Jephta

    2015-03-04

    An 82-year-old man presented with signs and symptoms that were suggestive of acute cholecystitis. He underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. During the intervention, a wooden foreign body was removed from the infiltrated omentum, probably after it had perforated the gastric antrum. The gastric perforation had led to a secondary infection of the gallbladder. The presumed gastric perforation was treated conservatively, and the patient recovered well and was discharged after 7 days. Secondary inflamed gallbladders are rare; the current case is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case reporting a secondary infection of the gallbladder due to a gastric perforation. Clinicians should be aware of possible ingestion of foreign bodies in elderly patients wearing dental prosthetic devices.

  11. Gastric perforation due to foreign body ingestion mimicking acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Henneman, Daniel; Bosman, Willem-Maarten; Ritchie, Ewan D; van den Bremer, Jephta

    2015-01-01

    An 82-year-old man presented with signs and symptoms that were suggestive of acute cholecystitis. He underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. During the intervention, a wooden foreign body was removed from the infiltrated omentum, probably after it had perforated the gastric antrum. The gastric perforation had led to a secondary infection of the gallbladder. The presumed gastric perforation was treated conservatively, and the patient recovered well and was discharged after 7 days. Secondary inflamed gallbladders are rare; the current case is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case reporting a secondary infection of the gallbladder due to a gastric perforation. Clinicians should be aware of possible ingestion of foreign bodies in elderly patients wearing dental prosthetic devices. PMID:25739796

  12. Activity of Matricaria chamomilla essential oil against anisakiasis.

    PubMed

    Romero, Maria del Carmen; Valero, Adela; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina; Navarro-Moll, María Concepción

    2012-04-15

    The increase in diagnosed cases of anisakiasis and the virtual absence of effective treatments have prompted the search for new active compounds against Anisakis L(3) larvae. The biocidal efficacy against different pathogens shown by various essential oils (EO) led us to study the Matricaria chamomilla EO and two of its main components (chamazulene and α-bisabolol) against the L(3) larvae of Anisakis type I. The activity of M. chamomilla EO, chamazulene and α-bisabolol was established by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The EO (125μg/ml) caused the death of all nematodes, which showed cuticle changes and intestinal wall rupture. In the in vivo assays, only 2.2%±1.8 of infected rats treated with M. chamomilla EO showed gastric wall lesions in comparison to 93.3%±3.9 of control. Chamazulene was ineffective, while α-bisabolol showed a high activity to that of the EO in vitro tests but proved less active in vivo. These findings suggest that the larvicidal activity may result from the synergistic action of different compounds of M. chamomilla EO. Neither of the tested products induces irritative damage in the intestinal tissues. In conclusion, M. chamomilla EO is a good candidate for further investigation as a biocidal agent against Anisakis type I.

  13. Gastric acid response to acute exposure to hypergravity

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Gun; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2017-01-01

    The influence of environmental stressors on the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disease has received increased awareness. Stress affects different physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract, including gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow. Repeated exposures of rapid-onset, highly-sustained hypergravity cause severe physical stress in the pilot. Although the effects of exposure to hypergravity on cardiovascular and cerebral functions have been the subjects of numerous studies, crucial information regarding pathophysiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract following hypergravity exposure is lacking. In this study, we investigated the effects of acute exposure to hypergravity on gastric secretory activity and gastrin release. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to +10Gz three times for 3 min. Gastric juice and blood were collected. The volume and total acidity of gastric juice, and the plasma gastrin level was measured. Acute exposure to +10Gz significantly decreased the gastric juice parameters. The gastric juice volume and total acidity of hypergravity-exposed rats were 3.54 ± 0.32 mL/100 g and 84.90 ± 5.17 mEq/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of the nonexposed rats (4.62 ± 0.39 mL/100 g and 97.37 ± 5.42 mEq/L; P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). In contrast, plasma gastrin level was not significantly altered following hypergravity exposure. We demonstrated that acute exposure to hypergravity led to a significant decrease in the gastric juice volume and acidity but did not alter the plasma gastrin level. PMID:27992379

  14. Delayed diaphragmatic rupture presenting with acute gastric volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, R; Hollowood, A

    2014-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare complication of diaphragmatic rupture. We report the case of an 82-year-old man who presented following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Chest radiography and thoracic computed tomography revealed an acute gastric volvulus and a chronic diaphragmatic hernia containing transverse colon and abdominal viscera. He had complained of retching and associated epigastric pain prior to collapse, and had sustained a motorcycle accident approximately 60 years earlier. Insertion of a nasogastric tube was unsuccessful (completing Borchardt’s diagnostic triad) and his condition prevented both operative and endoscopic reduction of his volvulus. He died soon afterwards. PMID:25245717

  15. First molecular identification of the zoonotic parasite Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in a paraffin-embedded granuloma taken from a case of human intestinal anisakiasis in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anisakiasis is an important fish-borne zoonosis provoked by larval stages of nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis. The detection and identification of human infections is difficult. This is due to: a) the low specificity of the clinical features and symptomatology related to human infections; b) the paucity of diagnostic features of larvae found in granulomatous lesions characteristic of "invasive anisakiasis"; and c) the lack morphological characters diagnostic at the specific level when larvae of Anisakis are detected. Thus, molecular-based diagnostic approaches are warranted. Method We have developed a PCR method that amplifies the DNA of Anisakis spp. in fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. This method was applied to a granuloma removed from a human case of intestinal anisakiasis in Italy. Specific primers of the mtDNA cox2 gene were used and sequence analysis was performed according to the procedures already established for species of Anisakis. Results The sequence obtained (629 bp) was compared with those of the other species of Anisakis which have so far been genetically characterized and with sequences obtained from larval stages of Anisakis collected from the Mediterranean fish Engraulis encrasicolus. This enabled the genetic identification of the larva in the human tissue as A. pegreffii. This is the first instance of human intestinal anisakiasis diagnosed using PCR of DNA purified from a fixed eosinophilic granuloma embedded in paraffin. Conclusion The case of human anisakiasis presented reinforces the pathological significance of the species A. pegreffii to humans. The molecular/genetic methodological approach based on mtDNA cox2 sequence analysis, described here, can allow easy and rapid identification of Anisakis spp. in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissues removed from cases of either gastric or intestinal human anisakiasis. PMID:21453522

  16. Acute gastric changes after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Smelley, Christopher; Specian, Robert D; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2005-03-21

    Severe intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) produces gastric pathology in about 30% of the patient population, even after the standard treatment of H2 receptor blockers or proton pump inhibitors. This study was undertaken to establish a rat model of ICH-induced gastric ulcer. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were divided into two hemorrhage groups and a sham control group. ICH was produced either by injection of 100 microl of autologous arterial blood or by injection of 4 microl saline containing 0.6 unit of bacterial collagenase VII into the right basal ganglia. Rats were sacrificed at 24, 48, 72 h, and 7 days after ICH to harvest brains and stomachs. Greater degrees of hemorrhage and brain edema were observed in collagenase-induced ICH. Motor behavior decreased significantly after 24 h in both models. The incidence of acute ulceration with destruction of the forestomach epithelium was extremely low at 8.7% in the collagenase injection model and 4.8% in the blood injection rats. Small, pinpoint hemorrhages (petechiae) were noticed in 38% of rats after blood injection and 22% after collagenase injection, in the glandular portion of the gastric mucosa with penetration of red blood cells and inflammatory cells into the gastric mucosa. Enhanced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expressions were observed in gastric tissues after ICH with more intense staining occurring at 24 and 48 h. Due to the low incidence of ulceration, ICH-induced gastric ulceration in rodents may not appropriate for evaluating the potential human risk of gastric ulceration after ICH.

  17. Intestinal anisakiasis as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Gotaro; Usuki, Shinichiro; Mizokami, Ken; Tanabe, Marianne; Machi, Junji

    2013-09-01

    Anisakiasis, a parasitic infection by larvae of the nematode Anisakis found in raw or undercooked saltwater fish, mostly involves stomach but rarely small intestine. We report a rare case of a 61-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain and developed small bowel obstruction caused by intestinal anisakiasis. Abdominal computed tomography revealed segmental edema of the intestinal wall with proximal dilatation. The patient underwent urgent laparotomy because strangulated small bowel obstruction was suspected. A localized portion of the intestine around jejunoileal junction was found to be erythematous, edematous, and hardened, which was resected. The resected specimen showed a linear whitish worm, Anisakis simplex, penetrating into the intestinal mucosa. It is often clinically challenging to consider intestinal anisakiasis in the differential diagnosis because of its nonspecific abdominal symptoms and findings. Although gastrointestinal anisakiasis is still rare in the United States, the incidence is expected to rise given the growing popularity of Japanese cuisine such as sushi or sashimi. Anisakiasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in patients with nonspecific abdominal symptoms after consumption of raw or undercooked fish.

  18. Acute esophageal and gastric injury: complication of Lugol's solution.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Myung; Seok Lee, In; Young Kang, Ji; Nyol Paik, Chang; Kyung Cho, Yu; Woo Kim, Sang; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Chung, In-Sik

    2007-01-01

    Several new technologies have been developed to improve the diagnostic capability of conventional endoscopic techniques. One of these most frequently used methods is chromoendoscopy with Lugol's solution in the esophagus to detect malignant lesions. This method has been used for several decades and is generally considered as a safe method, only a few cases of side effects having been reported. We describe a case of acute esophageal and gastric mucosal damage after application of Lugol's solution during endoscopy in an 84-year-old woman. Endoscopists should be aware of the potential for adverse reactions to iodine staining.

  19. Delayed Pneumoperitoneum and Acute Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Acute Gastric Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jae Yun; Kim, Jong Kun

    2015-01-01

    Pneumoperitoneum caused by acute gastric dilatation (AGD) is a very rare complication. We report a case of pneumoperitoneum and acute pulmonary edema caused by AGD in a patient with Parkinson’s disease. A 78-year-old woman presented with pneumonia and AGD. We inserted a nasogastric tube and administered empirical antibiotics. We performed an endoscopy, and perforation or necrosis of the stomach and pyloric stenosis were not observed. Thirty-six hours after admission, the patient suddenly developed dyspnea and shock, and eventually died. We suspected the cause of death was pneumoperitoneum and acute pulmonary edema caused by AGD during the conservative treatment period. Immunocompromised patients with chronic illness require close observation even if they do not show any symptoms suggestive of complications. Even if the initial endoscopic or abdominal radiologic findings do not show gastric necrosis or perforation, follow-up with endoscopy is essential to recognize complications of AGD early. PMID:26668807

  20. [Acute gastric lesions induced by drinking water, in rats].

    PubMed

    Laudano, O M

    1994-01-01

    The ability of certain beverages and drinking waters to induce acute gastric lesions was studied and the measurement of their pH was performed. 1) Saline; 2) tap water; 3) well-water; 4) well water plus puritabs; 5) saline plus 2 Cl drips; 6) saline plus 4 Cl drops; 7) saline plus 8 Cl drops; 8) boiled water after 30 min; 9) apartment deposit water; 10) WC bowl water; 11) ice water; 12) Paraná river water (Northern Rosario); 13) Paraná river water (Southern Rosario); 14) rain water (Rosario); 15) rain water) countryside); 16) carbonated mineral water; 17) non-carbonated mineral water; 18) soda; 19) flavored electrolytic water I; 20) flavored electrolytic water II; and 21) cola drink. We can conclude that: 1) a remarkable variance in saline and tap water pH is observed. 2) Rain water and Paraná river water were slightly acid, in contrast electrolytic carbonated beverages and cola drink were strongly acid (pH 2.5). 3) Saline, pH 6.68; saline plus 2 Cl drops; and non-carbonated mineral water were the only beverages that did not induce acute gastric lesions in rats.

  1. Spontaneous Acute Mesenteroaxial Gastric Volvulus Diagnosed by Computed Tomography Scan in a Young Man

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Gaby; Afifi, Ibrahim; Ellabib, Mohamed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Acute spontaneous gastric volvulus Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Acute gastric volvulus is a surgical emergency that requires early recognition and treatment. Acute idiopathic mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is a rare sub-type and there are few cases reported in children and there are even fewer reports in adults. Case Report: We report a rare case of a 23-year-old man who presented with a 1-day history of vomiting, epigastric pain, distention, and constipation. The diagnosis for mesenteroaxial type gastric volvulus was confirmed by abdominal radiography and computed tomography. The patient was successfully treated by laparotomy with resection of the ischemic stomach wall and anastomosis. Acute spontaneous mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is rare in adults and early diagnosis is challenging due to non-specific symptoms. A missed or delayed diagnosis may result in serious complications due to gastric obstruction. Conclusions: A patient presenting with severe epigastric pain and clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction should be considered as a surgical emergency to rule out gastric volvulus. High index of suspicion, early diagnosis and prompt surgical management are important for favorable outcome in patients with acute spontaneous gastric volvulus. PMID:27112797

  2. A rare case of acute on chronic gastric volvulus with Borchardt's triad.

    PubMed

    Senior, Andrew; Hari, Churunal

    2014-11-20

    Gastric volvulus is a rare condition with two forms of presentation, either acute or chronic. Since its discovery, there have been no cases of acute on chronic volvulus discussed in the literature. Its vague presentation makes diagnosis and subsequent management difficult. The diagnosis of acute gastric volvulus is made on clinical grounds via Borchardt's triad; however, barium swallow and oesophagogastroduodenoscopy have been shown to play a role. We describe a case of a 95-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with worsening dysphagia, epigastric pain, retching without vomiting and hiccups of 5 months. Initially diagnosed as a hiatus hernia, the patient subsequently died following an acute on chronic gastric volvulus. This rare, life-threatening diagnosis provides an opportunity to discuss characteristics of gastric volvulus and the difficulties in management.

  3. Ganoderma lucidum Pharmacopuncture for the Treatment of Acute Gastric Ulcers in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Heung; Jang, Kyung-Jun; kim, Cheol-Hong; Lee, Yoo-Hwan; Lee, Soo-Jung; kim, Bum-Hoi; Yoon, Hyun-Min

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the stomach and duodenum. The basic physiopathology of a gastric ulcer results from an imbalance between some endogenous aggressive and cytoprotective factors. This study examined whether Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP) would provide protection against acute gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 8 rats each: normal, control, normal saline (NP) and GLP groups. The experimental acute gastric ulcer was induced by using an EtOH/HCl solution and the normal group received the same amount of normal saline instead of ethanol. The NP and the GLP groups were treated once with injections of saline and GLP, respectively. Two local acupoints were used: CV12 (中脘) which is the alarm point of the Stomach Meridian, and ST36 (足三里), which is the sea point of the Stomach Meridian. The stomachs from the rats in each group were collected and analyzed for gross appearance and histology. Also, immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1 was performed. Results: Histological observations of the gastric lesions in the control group showed comparatively extensive damage of the gastric mucosa and necrotic lesions had penetrated deeply into the mucosa. The lesions were long, hemorrhagic, and confined to the glandular portions. The lesions were measured microscopically by using the clear depth of penetration into the gastric mucosal surface. The length and the width of the ulcer were measured and the inhibition percentage was calculated. Wound healing of the acute gastric ulcer was promoted by using GLP, and significant alterations of indices in gastric mucosa were observed. Such protection was shown by gross appearance, histology and immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1. Conclusion: These results suggest that GLP administered at CV12 and ST36 can provide significant protection to the gastric mucosa against an ethanol-induced acute

  4. Acute Gastric Injury Caused by Undissolved Sodium Picosulfate/Magnesium Citrate Powder

    PubMed Central

    Ze, Eun Young; Choi, Chang Hwan; Kim, Jeong Wook

    2017-01-01

    Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (SPMC) is a widely used oral bowel cleansing agent considered to be relatively safe. However, partially dissolved or undissolved SPMC powder may cause severe injuries of the esophagus and stomach. We report a very rare case of acute gastric injury without esophageal damage caused by the ingestion of undissolved SPMC powder. A 69-year-old man experienced epigastric pain after swallowing SPMC powder without dissolving it in water in preparation for a screening colonoscopy. He realized his mistake immediately and subsequently drank 2 L of water. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy conducted after 12 hours indicated an acute gastric ulceration without injury of the esophagus or duodenum. The endoscopy conducted after 6 weeks of oral proton pump inhibitor treatment showed healing of the gastric injury. This suggested that drinking large amounts of water after ingesting partially dissolved or undissolved SPMC powder can prevent serious esophageal injury, but offers no preventive benefit for acute gastric injury. PMID:27732774

  5. Acute gastric dilatation in a patient with anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype.

    PubMed

    Tweed-Kent, Ailis M; Fagenholz, Peter J; Alam, Hasan B

    2010-10-01

    Acute gastric dilatation is a rare complication of anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype that results from gastrointestinal abnormalities, including decreased gastric motility and delayed gastric emptying. Early diagnosis and intervention is critical since delay may result in gastric necrosis, perforation, shock, and death. We report a 26-year-old female with anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype, who presented with abdominal pain and nausea after a binge episode. Abdominal radiography and computed tomography showed a grossly dilated stomach measuring 32 cm × 17.9 cm consistent with acute gastric dilatation. She underwent exploratory laparotomy with gastrotomy and gastric decompression, and recovered uneventfully. Initially, the patient denied the binge episode, as many patients with eating disorders do, but later revealed an extensive history of anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype. This case stresses the importance of obtaining a thorough history of eating disorders and maintaining a high index of suspicion for acute gastric dilatation in young women who present with abdominal pain and distention.

  6. Acute Gastric Volvulus and Atrial Fibrillation with RVR: A Coincidence or Association

    PubMed Central

    Salh, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare and life-threatening condition that involves the abnormal rotation of the stomach around its axis by more than 180°. The association between acute gastric volvulus and atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response is rare with only few cases that have been reported. Our patient was an 86-year-old female who presented with upper abdominal pain, distension, nausea, and shortness of breath. Clinical and laboratory workup revealed acute gastric volvulus with diaphragmatic hernia. On presentation, she was also in atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. She was successfully treated by laparotomy with reduction of the gastric volvulus and repair of the diaphragmatic hernia, with significant improvement. PMID:28373916

  7. Augmenting Effect of DA-9601 on Ghrelin in an Acute Gastric Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Yoo Hum; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Jun, Dae Won; Yoon, Byung Chul; Kim, Ju Mi; Oh, Tae Young

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Acute gastric injury by alcohol or indomethacin has been reported to be prevented by DA-9601, an extract of the herb Artemisia asiatica. Ghrelin, an endogenously produced gastrointestinal peptide hormone, has also been demonstrated to play a role in gastric mucosal defense. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DA-9601 on ghrelin in an acute gastric injury model induced by alcohol or indomethacin. Methods A total of 140 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups, a placebo group and a DA-9601-pretreated group. Thirty minutes later, half of the rats in each group received ethanol injury and the other half received indomethacin injury. Levels of serum ghrelin and gastric mucosal ghrelin mRNA were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. Results Immediately after ethanol administration, ghrelin increased in both groups pretreated with DA-9601 and placebo. However, the increase occurred more rapidly and was higher in the DA-9601-pretreated rats than in the controls that did not receive DA-9601-pretreatment. Similarly, from 30 minutes to 2 hours after indomethacin administration, the DA-9601-pretreated rats showed a significant increase in serum and gastric mucosal ghrelin concentrations, whereas placebo-pretreated rats showed only a mild increase. Conclusions DA-9601 potentiates the endogenous production and secretion of ghrelin in acute gastric injury models induced by ethanol or indomethacin. PMID:21461072

  8. Abdominal aortic occlusion and vascular compromise secondary to acute gastric dilatation in a patient with bulimia.

    PubMed

    Elsharif, M; Doulias, T; Aljundi, W; Balchandra, S

    2014-11-01

    Acute gastric dilation is a rare but recognised complication in patients with bulimia and anorexia following binge episodes owing to decreased bowel motility. We present a rare case of acute gastric dilation secondary to bulimia in an otherwise healthy 18-year-old female patient that resulted in compression and complete occlusion of the abdominal aorta, leading to acute mesenteric and bilateral lower limb ischaemia. This resolved immediately following a laparotomy and gastric decompression. Management of these patients is very challenging owing to the lack of a successful precedent. To our knowledge, such a catastrophic complication has only ever been reported once in the literature and the outcome was fatal. Our case is of additional importance as it offers a successful management strategy for these patients.

  9. 'Cebiche'--a potential source of human anisakiasis in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Laffon-Leal, S M; Vidal-Martínez, V M; Arjona-Torres, G

    2000-06-01

    Five fish species used for preparation of a popular dish (cebiche) made with raw fish flesh in Mexico were obtained from five localities of the coast of Yucatan. Lutjanus synagris, Gerres cinereus, Sphyraena barracuda, Epinephelus morio and Haemulon plumieriwere examined for the presence of larvae of anisakid nematodes, causative agents of human anisakiasis. The nematode Pseudoterranova sp. was found in E. morio and S. barracuda with a total prevalence of 83% and 6.5 +/- 6.2 worms per fish for E. morio, and a prevalence of 33% and 10.2 +/- 30.0 worms per fish for S. barracuda. Contracaecumsp. was found to infect G. cinereus with a prevalence of 57% and 7.6 +/- 11.4 worms per fish. The relatively high prevalence of Pseudoterranova sp. indicates that this parasite is a potential causal agent of anisakiasis on the coast of Yucatan. Although all larvae were found only in the mesentery of the fish host, their importance as a potential source of human infection cannot be excluded as larval migration to the muscles in dead fish is possible.

  10. Gastroprotective Effects of Astragaloside IV against Acute Gastric Lesion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shuai; Yang, Guang; Li, Winny; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Hailong; Li, Jian; Zhang, Minzhou

    2016-01-01

    Background Protection of the gastric mucosa from acute lesions induced by various irritants is a pertinent issue in the field of critical care medicine. In this study, we investigated the gastroprotective effects of astragaloside IV on acute gastric lesions in rats under stressful conditions. Methods Rats were randomized into six groups. Group 1 and 2 received 10% Tween 80 (vehicle). Group 3 received 20 mg/kg of omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor. Groups 4, 5 and 6 received astragaloside IV at concentration of 1, 10, and 50 mg/kg, respectively. As a means to induce gastric lesions, Groups 2–6 were subjected to water immersion and restraint stress for 12 hours after treatment. Results Our present studies show that compared to rats in group 2, treatment with 1 to 50 mg/kg astragaloside IV significantly decreased the size of gastric lesions, MDA, TNFα and MCP1 levels, in addition to normalizing gastric pH, gastric mucus and SOD levels (P<0.05). Histomorphological examination confirmed that treatment with astragaloside IV elicited a dosage-dependent protective effect on the gastric mucosa. Furthermore, pretreatment with astragaloside IV resulted in significant elevations in HSP70 and reduction in Bax, along with over-expression of PLCγ response level, which was further confirmed via immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusions The acute gastric lesions induced are attenuated by pretreatment with astragaloside IV which is possibly due to the enhancing of the expression of HSP70 with concomitant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic capacity. PMID:26845156

  11. Acute gastric pH changes alter intraluminal but not plasma peptide levels.

    PubMed

    Mueller, C R; Ure, T; O'Dorisio, T M; Barrie, R J; Woltering, E A

    1991-12-01

    Gastric acidity is influenced by systemic and local peptide effects. Previous work by others has shown that intraluminally secreted peptides may have a role in local control of gastric acidity; however, the response of these peptides to acute changes in gastric pH is unknown. To determine the effects of acute changes in pH on systemic and intraluminal peptide levels, 14 normal volunteers underwent placement of a nasogastric tube after an overnight fast. Blood and gastric fluid were analyzed on a control day, 2 hours after completion of 24 hours of aluminum-magnesium antacid therapy and after 24 hours of H2 blockade. Plasma and acid-alcohol-extracted gastric peptide levels were measured with specific radioimmunoassays. Specimens were subdivided into two groups: 28 gastric fluid specimens with a pH less than 4 and 10 specimens with a pH greater than 4. In the patients with a pH greater than 4, the luminal peptides, motilin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin, substance P, and gastrin, were decreased by 50% to 90% and gastrin-releasing peptide was decreased by 36% compared with specimens with a pH less than 4. Conversely, intraluminal vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and calcitonin levels were elevated by 60% and 27%, respectively, in the samples with a pH greater than 4. Intraluminal peptide concentrations are responsive to changes in intragastric pH; however, this response was not seen in plasma peptide levels.

  12. Role of endogenous gastric mucosal prostaglandins in the formation of acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by aspirin, ethanol, HCl and CH3COOH.

    PubMed

    Amioka, I; Arima, T; Nagashima, H

    1987-06-01

    The role of endogenous mucosal prostaglandins (PGs) in the production of acute gastric mucosal lesions (AGML) was examined in rats. Aspirin, ethanol or 0.6 N-HCl was given intragastrically and 20% acetic acid was injected into the gastric wall. Endogenous gastric mucosal PG (A + B), PGE and PGF were determined by radioimmunoassay. Their gastric contents were markedly reduced by aspirin administration (p less than 0.001). The level of gastric mucosal PGs still remained low (p less than 0.001) after the aspirin-induced AGML began to heal. Furthermore, rats with AGML induced by ethanol, HCl or acetic acid, showed no decrease in endogenous gastric mucosal PGs compared with the controls. These findings indicated that endogenous PGs are not necessary for either the induction or healing of experimental AGML.

  13. Transcutaneous Intraluminal Impedance Measurement for Minimally Invasive Monitoring of Gastric Motility: Validation in Acute Canine Models

    PubMed Central

    Poscente, Michael D.; Wang, Gang; Filip, Dobromir; Ninova, Polya; Muench, Gregory; Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Mintchev, Martin P.; Andrews, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    Transcutaneous intraluminal impedance measurement (TIIM) is a new method to cutaneously measure gastric contractions by assessing the attenuation dynamics of a small oscillating voltage emitted by a battery-powered ingestible capsule retained in the stomach. In the present study, we investigated whether TIIM can reliably assess gastric motility in acute canine models. Methods. Eight mongrel dogs were randomly divided into 2 groups: half received an active TIIM pill and half received an identically sized sham capsule. After 24-hour fasting and transoral administration of the pill (active or sham), two force transducers (FT) were sutured onto the antral serosa at laparotomy. After closure, three standard cutaneous electrodes were placed on the abdomen, registering the transluminally emitted voltage. Thirty-minute baseline recordings were followed by pharmacological induction of gastric contractions using neostigmine IV and another 30-minute recording. Normalized one-minute baseline and post-neostigmine gastric motility indices (GMIs) were calculated and Pearson correlation coefficients (PCCs) between cutaneous and FT GMIs were obtained. Statistically significant GMI PCCs were seen in both baseline and post-neostigmine states. There were no significant GMI PCCs in the sham capsule test. Further chronic animal studies of this novel long-term gastric motility measurement technique are needed before testing it on humans. PMID:25574163

  14. Acute effects of N-terminal progastrin fragments on gastric acid secretion in man.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Jens P; Hansen, Carsten P; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2017-03-01

    We previously identified an N-terminal fragment of progastrin in human antrum and plasma, where it circulates in high concentrations. In this study, we examined the effects of N-terminal progastrin fragments on gastric acid secretion by infusion in healthy individuals. Increasing doses of progastrin fragment 1-35 were infused intravenously during constant gastric acid stimulation by gastrin-17. In addition, the effects of progastrin fragment 1-35, fragment 6-35, and fragment 1-19 on gastrin-17 stimulated acid secretion were tested. The gastrin-17 stimulated acid secretion decreased 30% after administration of a high dose of progastrin fragment 1-35 (P < 0.05). In extension, a 1-h infusion of fragment 1-35 also decreased gastric acid output. In contrast, fragment 6-35 did not affect acid secretion, and a single infusion of gastrin-17 alone did not reveal fading of gastric acid output during the time course of the experiments. The results show that N-terminal fragments of progastrin may acutely affect gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in vivo. Structure-function analysis suggests that the N-terminal pentapeptide of progastrin is required for the effect.

  15. Anti-Inflammation Property of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels on Indomethacin-Induced Acute Gastric Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Chanudom, Lanchakon; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

    2015-01-01

    Indomethacin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs), induced gastric damage and perforation through the excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels is commonly used as a medicinal plant and is claimed to have antioxidant activities. The effects of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels aqueous extract (SCC) on antifree radical, anti-inflammation, and antiulcer of SCC on indomethacin induced acute gastric ulceration were determined in our study. Scavenging activity at 50% of SCC is higher than ascorbic acid in in vitro study. Mice treated with indomethacin revealed mucosal hemorrhagic lesion and inhibited mucus content. Pretreatment with SCC caused discernible decrease in indomethacin induced gastric lesion and lipid peroxide content. In addition, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and gastric wall mucus were restored on acute treated mice model. Indomethacin induced inflammation by activated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) proinflammatory cytokines to release large amount of ROS/RNS which were ameliorated in mice pretreatment with SCC. SCC showed restoration of the imbalance of oxidative damage leading to amelioration of cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX). In conclusion, SCC acts as an antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and antiulcer against indomethacin. PMID:26633969

  16. Anti-Inflammation Property of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels on Indomethacin-Induced Acute Gastric Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Chanudom, Lanchakon; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

    2015-01-01

    Indomethacin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs), induced gastric damage and perforation through the excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels is commonly used as a medicinal plant and is claimed to have antioxidant activities. The effects of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels aqueous extract (SCC) on antifree radical, anti-inflammation, and antiulcer of SCC on indomethacin induced acute gastric ulceration were determined in our study. Scavenging activity at 50% of SCC is higher than ascorbic acid in in vitro study. Mice treated with indomethacin revealed mucosal hemorrhagic lesion and inhibited mucus content. Pretreatment with SCC caused discernible decrease in indomethacin induced gastric lesion and lipid peroxide content. In addition, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and gastric wall mucus were restored on acute treated mice model. Indomethacin induced inflammation by activated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) proinflammatory cytokines to release large amount of ROS/RNS which were ameliorated in mice pretreatment with SCC. SCC showed restoration of the imbalance of oxidative damage leading to amelioration of cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX). In conclusion, SCC acts as an antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and antiulcer against indomethacin.

  17. Binge Eating Leading to Acute Gastric Dilatation, Ischemic Necrosis and Rupture –A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Sumanta; Marhual, Jogesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Acute gastric dilatation is a rarely encountered clinical scenario in our day to day practice. This is very rapidly progressing condition and can lead to ischemic necrosis and perforation/rupture of the stomach. It could be fatal if not timely intervened. We report such a case of a 17-year-old, otherwise healthy boy, who presented with pain and distension of abdomen following binge eating episode after 24 hours of prolonged fasting. On exploration, stomach was dilated with necrosis and perforation at fundus near greater curvature. He was managed with excision of all the devitalized area and primary repair with feeding jejunostomy. The case is presented due to its rarity. Acute gastric dilatation (AGD) leading to ischemic necrosis and perforation because of binge eating episode in an otherwise healthy person is an exceptional occurrence with only few cases reported in literature. The clinician should be aware of this condition for prompt and appropriate management. PMID:27134932

  18. Laparoscopic repair of a late-presenting Bochdalek diaphragmatic hernia with acute gastric volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Hadjittofi, Christopher; Matter, Ibrahim; Eyal, Ori; Slijper, Nadav

    2013-01-01

    An otherwise healthy 17-year-old boy presented to the paediatric emergency department with acute severe epigastric pain. An admission abdominal radiograph demonstrated gastric dilation, associated with an elevated left hemidiaphragm. Subsequent barium contrast imaging confirmed the diagnosis of organoaxial acute gastric volvulus (AGV). Emergent exploratory laparoscopy revealed AGV with migration of the stomach, spleen, pancreatic tail, splenic flexure, left kidney and adrenal through a left-sided Bochdalek diaphragmatic hernia. Following careful mobilisation of the displaced structures, a mesh closure of the diaphragmatic defect was performed. The patient's postoperative chest radiograph was unremarkable, and he was discharged on the sixth postoperative day after an uneventful recovery. At 2 months the patient was well and asymptomatic, with normal barium contrast imaging results. PMID:23519514

  19. [Microflora of gastric mucosa, its properties and role in the development of acute and chronic gastritis].

    PubMed

    Tsimmerman, Ia S; Zakharova, Iu A; Vedernikov, V E

    2012-01-01

    Gastric microflora was studied in 28 patients suffering acute and chronic gastritis with reference to the factors of pathogenicity and sensitivity to antibacterial preparations. A total of 55 bacterial species were isolated The microflora was dominated by streptoccoci while Helicobacter pylori occurred rather rarely 27.3 +/- 6.5% of the isolated strains showed urease activity 36.3 +/- 6.5% natural or acquired virulence, 45.5 +/- 6.7% resistance to eradication therapy.

  20. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; de Almeida, Eros Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Objective Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Methods Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. Results No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Conclusion Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN. PMID:25494017

  1. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production.

  2. Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) Protects Against Stress-Induced Acute Gastric Lesions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800–1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:23062184

  3. Impact of Transient and Persistent Acute Kidney Injury on Chronic Kidney Disease Progression and Mortality after Gastric Surgery for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Seong; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Kim, Soo Wan

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and associated with adverse outcomes. However, the impact of transient or persistent AKI on clinical outcomes after gastric surgery for gastric cancer has not been described. We performed a retrospective study of 4,886 patients with normal renal function who underwent partial or total gastrectomy for gastric cancer between June 2002 and December 2012. AKI patients were classified as transient and persistent AKI based on the return of serum creatinine to the level indicating no AKI within 7 days. Our outcomes included occurrence of new-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) and mortality 1 year after gastric surgery. AKI occurred in 638 (13.1%) after gastric surgery. Transient AKI was documented in 574 (90%). Use of diuretics and contrast agents was a common risk factor for persistent and transient AKI. Length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay, and ICU admission rate were higher in patients with transient AKI than in those without AKI. Although patients with persistent AKI had a higher new-onset CKD 1 year after gastric surgery after adjusting for multiple covariates, transient AKI was not associated with new-onset CKD. The 1-year mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with transient and persistent AKI. Not only persistent AKI but transient AKI is associated with increased risk of hospital complications and a significantly higher risk of long-term mortality than patients without AKI after gastric surgery. Moreover, persistent AKI, but not transient AKI, is associated with CKD progression at 1 year. PMID:27936153

  4. Acute gastric incarceration from thoracic herniation in pregnancy following laparoscopic antireflux surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brygger, Louise; Fristrup, Claus Wilki; Harbo, Frederik Severin Gråe; Jørgensen, Jan Stener

    2013-01-01

    Diaphragmatic hernia is a rare complication in pregnancy which due to misdiagnosis or management delays may be life-threatening. We report a case of a woman in the third trimester of pregnancy who presented with sudden onset of severe epigastric and thoracic pain radiating to the back. Earlier in the index pregnancy, she had undergone laparoscopic antireflux surgery (ARS) for a hiatus hernia because of severe gastro-oesophageal reflux. Owing to increasing epigastric pain a CT scan was carried out which diagnosed wrap disruption with gastric herniation into the thoracic cavity and threatened incarceration. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of severe adverse outcome after ARS during pregnancy, with acute intrathoracic gastric herniation. We recommend the avoidance of ARS in pregnancy, and the need to advise women undergoing ARS of the postoperative risks if pregnancy occurs within a few years of ARS. PMID:23378556

  5. Assessing the risk of an emerging zoonosis of worldwide concern: anisakiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Miguel; Pierce, Graham J.; Pascual, Santiago; González-Muñoz, Miguel; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Mladineo, Ivona; Cipriani, Paolo; Bušelić, Ivana; Strachan, Norval J. C.

    2017-03-01

    Anisakiasis is an emerging zoonosis caused by the fish parasitic nematode Anisakis. Spain appears to have the highest reported incidence in Europe and marinated anchovies are recognised as the main food vehicle. Using data on fishery landings, fish infection rates and consumption habits of the Spanish population from questionnaires, we developed a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model for the anchovy value chain. Spaniards were estimated to consume on average 0.66 Anisakis per untreated (non-frozen) raw or marinated anchovy meal. A dose-response relationship was generated and the probability of anisakiasis was calculated to be 9.56 × 10‑5 per meal, and the number of annual anisakiasis cases requiring medical attention was predicted between 7,700 and 8,320. Monte Carlo simulations estimated post-mortem migration of Anisakis from viscera to flesh increases the disease burden by >1000% whilst an education campaign to freeze anchovy before consumption may reduce cases by 80%. However, most of the questionnaire respondents who ate untreated meals knew how to prevent Anisakis infection. The QRA suggests that previously reported figures of 500 anisakiasis per year in Europe is a considerable underestimate. The QRA tool can be used by policy makers and informs industry, health professionals and consumers about this underdiagnosed zoonosis.

  6. Assessing the risk of an emerging zoonosis of worldwide concern: anisakiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Miguel; Pierce, Graham J.; Pascual, Santiago; González-Muñoz, Miguel; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Mladineo, Ivona; Cipriani, Paolo; Bušelić, Ivana; Strachan, Norval J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Anisakiasis is an emerging zoonosis caused by the fish parasitic nematode Anisakis. Spain appears to have the highest reported incidence in Europe and marinated anchovies are recognised as the main food vehicle. Using data on fishery landings, fish infection rates and consumption habits of the Spanish population from questionnaires, we developed a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model for the anchovy value chain. Spaniards were estimated to consume on average 0.66 Anisakis per untreated (non-frozen) raw or marinated anchovy meal. A dose-response relationship was generated and the probability of anisakiasis was calculated to be 9.56 × 10−5 per meal, and the number of annual anisakiasis cases requiring medical attention was predicted between 7,700 and 8,320. Monte Carlo simulations estimated post-mortem migration of Anisakis from viscera to flesh increases the disease burden by >1000% whilst an education campaign to freeze anchovy before consumption may reduce cases by 80%. However, most of the questionnaire respondents who ate untreated meals knew how to prevent Anisakis infection. The QRA suggests that previously reported figures of 500 anisakiasis per year in Europe is a considerable underestimate. The QRA tool can be used by policy makers and informs industry, health professionals and consumers about this underdiagnosed zoonosis. PMID:28287609

  7. The influence of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic ethanol administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Blagaic, Alenka Boban; Blagaic, Vladimir; Romic, Zeljko; Sikiric, Predrag

    2004-09-24

    The stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W.1419), which was promising in inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL-14736, Pliva) trials, protects against both acute and chronic alcohol-induced lesions in stomach and liver, but also, given peripherally, affects various centrally mediated disturbances. Now, in male NMRI mice BPC 157 (10 pg intraperitoneally, 10 ng and 10 microg, intraperitoneally or intragastrically) (i) strongly opposed acute alcohol (4 g/kg intraperitoneally) intoxication (i.e., quickly produced and sustained anesthesia, hypothermia, increased ethanol blood values, 25% fatality, 90-min assessment period) given before or after ethanol, and (ii) when given after abrupt cessation of ethanol (at 0 or 3 or 7 h withdrawal time), attenuated withdrawal (assessed through 24 hours) after 20%-alcohol drinking (7.6 g/kg) through 13 days, with provocation on the 14th day.

  8. Gastroprotective Effects of PMK-S005 against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Ju Yup; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Seo, Ji Hyung; Lee, Seonmin; Kim, Hee Jin; Choi, Yoon Jin; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to examine the gastroprotective effects of PMK-S005, which is a synthetic S-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC; a sulfur-containing amino acid), against acute ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups, including a nonethanol group, groups treated with absolute ethanol 1 hour after pretreatment with various doses of PMK-S005 (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) or rebamipide (50 mg/kg), and an absolute ethanol-only group. Ethanol-induced gross ulcer and mucus levels were measured. Myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, PGE2, LTB4, cPLA2, COX-1, and COX-2 levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of antioxidant enzymes, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1), GCLC, and GCLM, were assessed. Results PMK-S005 significantly attenuated the ethanol-induced gastric damage; it reduced mucosal inflammatory cytokine production and increased mucus levels. The expression levels of cPLA2, COX-1, and COX-2 were decreased by PMK-S005. PMK-S005 did not affect PGE2 synthesis, but LTB4 production was significantly suppressed. In addition, long-term administration of PMK-S005 significantly increased the expression of HO-1, NQO-1, GCLC, and GCLM. Conclusions These results strongly suggest that PMK-S005 prevents gastric mucosal damage and that these gastroprotective activities are due to anti-inflammatory effects and enhancement of the gastric defense system, including antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26347516

  9. Asymptomatic anisakiasis of the colon incidentally diagnosed and treated during colonoscopy by retroflexion in the ascending colon

    PubMed Central

    Tsukui, Mamiko; Morimoto, Naoki; Kurata, Hidekazu; Sunada, Fumiko

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old man with diabetes underwent colonoscopy as routine screening for colon cancer. An Anisakis larva was found incidentally during colonoscopy using the retroflexion technique in the ascending colon, and was removed using a forceps. Asymptomatic colonic anisakiasis is very rare, and few reports have described diagnosis and treatment of anisakiasis during colonoscopy by the retroflexion technique in the ascending colon. We have reported this rare case along with a literature review. PMID:27928460

  10. IgG4-related disease manifesting as an acute gastric-pericardial fistula.

    PubMed

    Frydman, James; Grunner, Shahar; Kluger, Yoram

    2014-11-28

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized entity linked initially to autoimmune pancreatitis and has been subsequently described in nearly every organ system. Men over the age of 50 represent the most affected demographic group and a comprehensive set of diagnostic criteria has been developed to aid treating clinicians. Though elevated levels of IgG4 in the serum are suggestive of the disease, definitive diagnosis is made on histopathology. Treatment is tailored to the clinical presentation with corticosteroid therapy known to have proven efficacy. Gastric manifestations of the IgG4-related disease primarily come in two varieties, notably chronic ulceration or pseudotumor formation. Autoimmune pancreatitis conveys increased risk for IgG4-related disease of the stomach, which is independent of Helicobacter pylori status. In this case report, we present an acute gastric-pericardial fistula secondary to IgG4-related disease that required urgent operative management. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the medical literature describing this complication of IgG4-related disease.

  11. Acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in an adult treated laparoscopically after endoscopic reduction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Omata, Jiro; Utsunomiya, Katsuyuki; Kajiwara, Yoshiki; Takahata, Risa; Miyasaka, Nobuo; Sugasawa, Hidekazu; Sakamoto, Naoko; Yamagishi, Yoji; Fukumura, Makiko; Kitagawa, Daiki; Konno, Mitsuhiko; Okusa, Yasushi; Murayama, Michinori

    2016-12-01

    A 43-year-old female was referred to our hospital for sudden onset of abdominal pain, fullness, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension with mild epigastric tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed massive gastric distension and plain computed tomography (CT) a markedly enlarged stomach filled with gas and fluid. A large volume of gastric contents was suctioned out via a nasogastric (NG) tube. Contrast-enhanced CT showed a grossly distended stomach with displacement of the antrum above the gastroesophageal junction, and the spleen was dislocated inferiorly. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) series showed the greater curvature to be elevated and the gastric fundus to be lower than normal. Acute mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus was diagnosed. GI endoscopy showed a distortion of the gastric anatomy with difficulty intubating the pylorus. Various endoscopic maneuvers were required to reposition the stomach, and the symptoms showed immediate and complete solution. GI fluoroscopy was performed 3 days later. Initially, most of the contrast medium accumulated in the fundus, which was drawn prominently downward, and then began flowing into the duodenum with anteflexion. Elective laparoscopic surgery was performed 1 month later. The stomach was in its normal position, but the fundus was folded posteroinferiorly. The spleen attached to the fundus was normal in size but extremely mobile. We diagnosed a wandering spleen based on the operative findings. Gastropexy was performed for the treatment of gastric volvulus and wandering spleen. The patient remained asymptomatic, and there was no evidence of recurrence during a follow-up period of 24 months. This report describes a rare adult case of acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen. Because delay in treatment can result in lethal complications, it is critical to provide a prompt and correct diagnosis and surgical intervention. We advocate laparoscopic surgery after endoscopic reduction because

  12. Pancreatic Volvulus with Wandering Spleen and Gastric Volvulus: An Unusual Triad for Acute Abdomen in a Surgical Emergency

    PubMed Central

    Gorsi, Ujjwal; Bhatia, Anmol; Gupta, Rajesh; Bharathi, Saranga; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare clinical condition which occurs due to laxity or absence of the normal intraperitoneal ligaments that hold the spleen in place. Gastric volvulus and wandering spleen share a common etiology of absence or laxity of intraperitoneal ligaments. The occurrence of simultaneous pancreatic volvulus has never been described before in adolescence. Herein, we report a case having wandering spleen with torsion, and gastric and distal pancreatic volvulus, an unusual triad in acute abdomen in an emergency setting, which has never been described before to the best of our knowledge. PMID:24976284

  13. Pancreatic volvulus with wandering spleen and gastric volvulus: an unusual triad for acute abdomen in a surgical emergency.

    PubMed

    Gorsi, Ujjwal; Bhatia, Anmol; Gupta, Rajesh; Bharathi, Saranga; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare clinical condition which occurs due to laxity or absence of the normal intraperitoneal ligaments that hold the spleen in place. Gastric volvulus and wandering spleen share a common etiology of absence or laxity of intraperitoneal ligaments. The occurrence of simultaneous pancreatic volvulus has never been described before in adolescence. Herein, we report a case having wandering spleen with torsion, and gastric and distal pancreatic volvulus, an unusual triad in acute abdomen in an emergency setting, which has never been described before to the best of our knowledge.

  14. Gastric sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Emmanuel; Rohewal, Upinder; Tangorra, Matthew; Abdullah, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    A 58-year-old Jamaican male presented with acute-onset, right-sided facial droop and slurred speech. He had an episode of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleed on the second day of admission and endoscopy with biopsy of antral ulcer revealed gastric sarcoidosis. This case demonstrates the rare entity of gastric sarcoidosis presenting acutely with an upper GI bleed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16775918

  15. Protective effect of Matricaria chamomilla on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Cemek, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Ezgi; Büyükokuroğlu, Mehmet Emin

    2010-07-01

    The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant properties of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Compositae) hydroalcoholic extract (MCE) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury were investigated in rats. After the induction of gastric mucosal injury, all groups were sacrificed; the gastric ulcer index was calculated, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in whole blood and gastric tissue, and serum ascorbic acid, retinol, and beta-carotene levels were measured in all groups. Pretreatment with MCE at some doses significantly reduced gastric lesions. Again, some doses of MCE significantly reduced the MDA, and significantly increased GSH levels in gastric tissue or whole blood. Serum beta-carotene and retinol levels were significantly higher in the 200 mg/kg MCE-administered group with respect to control. As a result, MCE clearly has a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions, and this effect, at least in part, depends upon the reduction in lipid peroxidation and augmentation in antioxidant activity.

  16. Administration of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, improves the decrease in postprandial gastric motility in an acute restraint stress mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Nahata, M; Saegusa, Y; Sadakane, C; Yamada, C; Nakagawa, K; Okubo, N; Ohnishi, S; Hattori, T; Sakamoto, N; Takeda, H

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical or psychological stress causes functional disorders in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study aims to elucidate the ameliorating effect of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, a Kampo medicine which acts as a ghrelin enhancer, on gastric dysfunction during acute restraint stress in mice. Methods Fasted and postprandial motor function of the gastric antrum was wirelessly measured using a strain gauge force transducer and solid gastric emptying was detected in mice exposed to restraint stress. Plasma corticosterone and ghrelin levels were also measured. To clarify the role of ghrelin on gastrointestinal dysfunction in mice exposed to stress, exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito was administered, then the mice were subjected to restraint stress. Key Results Mice exposed to restraint stress for 60 min exhibited delayed gastric emptying and increased plasma corticosterone levels. Gastric motility was decreased in mice exposed to restraint stress in both fasting and postprandial states. Restraint stress did not cause any change in plasma acylated ghrelin levels, but it significantly increased the plasma des-acyl ghrelin levels. Administration of acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito improved the restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying and decreased antral motility. Ameliorating effects of rikkunshito on stress-induced gastric dysfunction were abolished by simultaneous administration of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Conclusions & Inferences Plasma acylated/des-acyl ghrelin imbalance was observed in acute restraint stress. Supplementation of exogenous acylated ghrelin or enhancement of endogenous ghrelin signaling may be useful in the treatment of decreased gastric function caused by stress. PMID:24684160

  17. Successful Resolution of Gastric Outlet Obstruction Caused by Pancreatic Pseudocyst or Walled-Off Necrosis After Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Shao-Yang; Gao, Shun-Liang; Liang, Zhong-Yan; Yu, Wen-Qiao; Liang, Ting-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) can be caused by gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction, which may occur when pancreatic pseudocyst (PP) or walled-off necrosis (WON) compresses the stomach. The aim of the study was to explore a proper surgical treatment. Methods From June 2010 to June 2013, 25 of 148 patients with AP suffered DGE. Among them, 12 were caused by gastroparesis, 1 was a result of obstruction from a Candida albicans plug, and 12 were gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) compressed by PP (n = 8) or WON (n = 4), which were treated by percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD). Results All 12 cases of compressing GOO achieved resolution by PCD after 6 [1.86] and 37.25 [12.02] days for PP and WON, respectively. Five cases developed intracystic infection, 3 cases had pancreatic fistulae whereas 2 achieved resolution and 1 underwent a pseudocyst jejunostomy. Conclusions Gastric outlet obstruction caused by a PP or WON is a major cause of DGE in patients with AP. Percutaneous catheter drainage with multiple sites, large-bore tubing, and lavage may be a good therapy due to high safety and minimal invasiveness. PMID:26465954

  18. Formation of a fibrin based gelatinous coat over repairing rat gastric epithelium after acute ethanol damage: interaction with adherent mucus.

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, L A; Allen, A; Bennett, M K

    1987-01-01

    A gelatinous coat, heterogeneous in appearance, was formed over damaged rat gastric mucosa recovering from acute ethanol injury. This coat, in places 1.6 mm thick (median thickness 680 microns), was 10 times thicker than the translucent layer of adherent mucus (median thickness 70 microns) covering the undamaged mucosa. Immunohistochemistry and periodic acid Schiff staining showed this gelatinous coat to be predominantly a fibrin gel with an exterior layer rich in mucus and necrotic cells. The plasma clotting time was significantly decreased in vitro by pig gastric mucus gel and soluble mucus glycoprotein (90% and 13% respectively) suggesting that in vivo the mucus layer remaining after epithelial damage could act as a template for fibrinogen-fibrin conversion. These results show that a fibrin based gelatinous coat, quite distinct from the adherent mucus layer and with considerable protective potential could be formed over the repairing rat gastric mucosa after acute ethanol damage. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3653751

  19. Use of a venting PEG tube in the management of recurrent acute gastric dilatation associated with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Ahmed M A; Dennis, Robert J

    2016-01-12

    A patient with Prader-Willi Syndrome was admitted to the ICU with features of recurrent acute gastric dilatation, aspiration pneumonia and a massive pulmonary embolus. He was initially managed with intubation, assisted ventilation, intravenous fluids and anticoagulation. Decompression of the stomach was achieved with a nasogastric tube. After ventilator weaning, he did not tolerate the nasogastric intubation that led to a further episode of aspiration pneumonia as a result of non-resolving gastric dilatation. He required readmission to intensive care for a further period of ventilatory support. While the patient was sedated and ventilated, a venting percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) with a jejunal feeding extension was placed, permitting both continued decompression of the stomach and enteral feeding. The patient tolerated the PEG-J well and his nutritional needs were successfully addressed. Oral intake was slowly re-established with ongoing decompression of the stomach with the PEG. He was discharged from hospital with the PEG in place.

  20. Use of a venting PEG tube in the management of recurrent acute gastric dilatation associated with Prader-Willi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Ahmed M.A.; Dennis, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    A patient with Prader-Willi Syndrome was admitted to the ICU with features of recurrent acute gastric dilatation, aspiration pneumonia and a massive pulmonary embolus. He was initially managed with intubation, assisted ventilation, intravenous fluids and anticoagulation. Decompression of the stomach was achieved with a nasogastric tube. After ventilator weaning, he did not tolerate the nasogastric intubation that led to a further episode of aspiration pneumonia as a result of non-resolving gastric dilatation. He required readmission to intensive care for a further period of ventilatory support. While the patient was sedated and ventilated, a venting percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) with a jejunal feeding extension was placed, permitting both continued decompression of the stomach and enteral feeding. The patient tolerated the PEG-J well and his nutritional needs were successfully addressed. Oral intake was slowly re-established with ongoing decompression of the stomach with the PEG. He was discharged from hospital with the PEG in place. PMID:26763981

  1. Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A, a novel gastroprotective compound from Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, against ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sidahmed, Heyam M A; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Amir, Junaidah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hadi, A Hamid A; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Teh, Xinsheng; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Rahmani, Mawardi; Mohan, Syam

    2013-07-15

    Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (PA), a xanthone derived from the Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, belongs to the Moraceae family which is native to the tropical forest of Malaysia. In this study, the efficacy of PA as a gastroprotective compound was examined against ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. The rats were pretreated with PA and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol. The ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content, histological analysis, glutathione (GSH) levels, malondialdehyde level (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NP-SH) contents were evaluated in vivo. The activities of PA as anti-Helicobacter pylori, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor and free radical scavenger were also investigated in vitro. The results showed that the oral administration of PA protects gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced gastric lesions. PA pretreatment significantly (p<0.05) restored the depleted GSH, NP-SH and NO levels in the gastric homogenate. Moreover, PA significantly (p<0.05) reduced the elevated MDA level due to ethanol administration. The gastroprotective effect of PA was associated with an over expression of HSP70 and suppression of Bax proteins in the ulcerated tissue. In addition, PA exhibited a potent FRAP value and significant COX-2 inhibition. It also showed a significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against H. pylori bacterium. The efficacy of PA was accomplished safely without the presence of any toxicological parameters. The results of the present study indicate that the gastroprotective effect of PA might contribute to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the anti-apoptotic mechanism and antibacterial action against Helicobacter pylori.

  2. Modeling Murine Gastric Metaplasia Through Tamoxifen-Induced Acute Parietal Cell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Saenz, Jose B.; Burclaff, Joseph; Mills, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Parietal cell loss represents the initial step in the sequential progression toward gastric adenocarcinoma. In the setting of chronic inflammation, the expansion of the mucosal response to parietal cell loss characterizes a crucial transition en route to gastric dysplasia. Here, we detail methods for using the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen as a novel tool to rapidly and reversibly induce parietal cell loss in mice in order to study the mechanisms that underlie these pre-neoplastic events. PMID:27246044

  3. Effect of acid secretion blockade on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Melo, Júnio Rios; de Araújo, Gnana Keith Marques; da Luz, Magda Maria Profeta; da Conceição, Sérgio Alexandre; Lisboa, Felipe Assis; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Cunha-Melo, José Renan

    2006-10-01

    Scorpion venom (TX) promotes gastric acid and pepsin secretion leading to acute gastric mucosal lesions (AGML), when injected in animals. The goal of the present study was to observe the effects of acid gastric secretion blockers over the incidence of TX-induced AGML in vivo. To verify this model, we used male albino rats, fasted 18-20 h (n=122) and anaesthetized with urethane (1.4 g/kg, i.p.). Their trachea and left femoral vein were both cannulated; the first to avoid airway obstructions during scorpion intoxication and the second for administration of saline, TX and acid blockers. Following the surgical procedure, the animals were divided in 10 groups of at least 10 animals each. Control groups were injected with NaCl 0.9% 1 ml/kg (n=10) or TX 375 microg/kg (n=32). Test groups (n=10, each) received atropine 5 mg/kg, cimetidine 10mg/kg, ranitidine 2.5mg/kg, ranitidine 5mg/kg, omeprazol 1 mg/kg, omeprazol 4 mg/kg, octreotide 80 and octreotide 100 microg/kg 10 min before the TX was injected. After 1h of intoxication, the stomach was resected for macroscopic study and the gastric secretion was collected for volume, pH and acid output assessment. We observed that all blockers were able to completely or partially prevent the TX-induced acid secretion as well as the AGML (p<0.05). Our data suggest the TX-induced AGML can be prevented by different class of acid blockers injected before the intoxication.

  4. Acute Toxicity and Gastroprotection Studies of a New Schiff Base Derived Copper (II) Complex against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hassandarvish, Pouya; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; A. Hadi, A. Hamid; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper is an essential element in various metabolisms. The investigation was carried out to evaluate acute gastroprotective effects of the Copper (II) complex against ethanol-induced superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Rats were divided into 7 groups. Groups 1 and 2 were orally administered with Tween 20 (10% v/v). Group 3 was orally administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (10% Tween 20). Groups 4–7 received 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg of the complex (10% Tween 20), respectively. Tween 20 (10% v/v) was given orally to group 1 and absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2–7, respectively. Rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Group 2 exhibited severe superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. Gastric wall mucus was significantly preserved by the pre-treatment complex. The results showed a significant increase in glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO), and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) activities and a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Histology showed marked reduction of hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in groups 4–7. Immunohistochemical staining showed up-regulation of Hsp70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins. PAS staining of groups 4–7 showed intense stain uptake of gastric mucosa. The acute toxicity revealed the non-toxic nature of the compound. Conclusions/Significance The gastroprotective effect of the Copper (II) complex may possibly be due to preservation of gastric wall mucus; increase in PGE2 synthesis; GSH, SOD, and NO up-regulation of Hsp70 protein; decrease in MDA level; and down-regulation of Bax protein. PMID:23251568

  5. Differential effects of grape juice on gastric emptying and renal function from cisplatin-induced acute adverse toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ko, J-L; Tsai, C-H; Liu, T-C; Lin, M-Y; Lin, H-L; Ou, C-C

    2016-08-01

    Grape skin and seeds contain large amounts of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, resveratrol, and proanthocyanidins, which possess antioxidant activities. Cisplatin is widely used in the treatment of cancer. High doses of cisplatin have also been known to produce acute adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of antioxidant properties of whole grape juice (with skin and seeds) on cisplatin-induced acute gastrointestinal tract disorders and nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Gastric emptying is significantly increased in whole grape juice-pretreated rats when compared to cisplatin treatment alone. The expression of ghrelin mRNA of stomach is increased in rats with whole grape juice. However, pretreatment with whole grape juice did not reduce renal function markers in acute renal toxicity. No significant changes were recorded in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status parameters of any study group. In contrast, pretreatment with whole grape juice slightly improved tubular cell vacuolization, tubular dilatation, and cast formation in renal tubules. These results show that consumption of whole grape juice induces somewhat beneficial effects in preventing cisplatin-mediated dyspepsia but does not offer protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal toxicity.

  6. Schiff Base Metal Derivatives Enhance the Expression of HSP70 and Suppress BAX Proteins in Prevention of Acute Gastric Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M. Jamil; Soleimani, A. F.; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdul Majid, Nazia

    2013-01-01

    Schiff base complexes have appeared to be promising in the treatment of different diseases and disorders and have drawn a lot of attention to their biological activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the regulatory effect of Schiff base metal derivatives on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 and BAX in protection against acute haemorrhagic gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were assigned to 6 groups of 6 rats: the normal control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg), the positive control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg), and four Schiff base derivative groups named Schiff_1, Schiff_2, Schiff_3, and Schiff_4 (25 mg/kg). After 1 h, all of the groups received ethanol 95% (5 mL/kg) but the normal control received Tween 20 (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg). The animals were euthanized after 60 min and the stomachs were dissected for histology (H&E), immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis against HSP70 and BAX proteins. The results showed that the Schiff base metal derivatives enhanced the expression of HSP70 and suppressed the expression of BAX proteins during their gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats. PMID:24298554

  7. Acute Kidney Disease Due to Excessive Vitamin C Ingestion and Remote Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Superimposed on CKD.

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Vasu; Pelkowski, Timothy D; Dreyfus, Darren; Satoskar, Anjali

    2015-10-01

    A 69-year-old woman presented with acute kidney failure of unknown cause that ultimately required dialysis. Kidney biopsy revealed the diagnosis of oxalate nephropathy. In retrospect, the patient had several risk factors for this entity, including excessive vitamin C intake, a remote history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for weight loss, and chronic kidney disease. This presentation of multiple risk factors for oxalate nephropathy is especially relevant to patients and physicians considering the increase in the United States of vitamin C supplementation use and gastric bypass surgery. It is important for physicians to maintain an awareness of this diagnosis and its risk factors.

  8. An unusual diaphragmatic hernia with gastric perforation and sub-acute presentation.

    PubMed

    Vinnicombe, Z; Little, M; Wan, A

    2016-11-01

    Gastric perforation into the thoracic cavity through a diaphragmatic hernia is rare but, when it occurs, patients present in severe distress, with mortality approaching 50%. We present a unique case in which a fibrotic reaction between the stomach and the parietal pleura led to a subacute presentation upon perforation. The extra time that this afforded led to more effective multidisciplinary team management and ultimately an excellent outcome for the patient.

  9. The antiulcer effect of Cibotium barometz leaves in rats with experimentally induced acute gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    AL-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Al-Henhena, Nawal; Kamran, Sareh; Bagheri, Elham; Zahedifard, Maryam; Saremi, Kamelia; Noor, Suzita Mohd; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2017-01-01

    Cibotium barometz is a pharmaceutical plant customarily used in traditional medicine in Malaysia for the treatment of different diseases, such as gastric ulcer. The gastroprotective effect of C. barometz leaves against ethanol-induced gastric hemorrhagic abrasions in Sprague Dawley rats has been evaluated in terms of medicinal properties. Seven groups of rats (normal control and ulcerated control groups, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of C. barometz correspondingly) were used in antiulcer experiment and pretreated with 10% Tween 20. After 1 hour, the normal group was orally administered 10% Tween 20, whereas absolute alcohol was fed orally to ulcerated control, omeprazole, and experimental groups. Gastric’s homogenate were assessed for endogenous enzymes activities. Stomachs were examined macroscopically and histologically. Grossly, the data demonstrated a significant decrease in the ulcer area of rats pretreated with plant extract in a dose-dependent manner with respect to the ulcerated group. Homogenates of the gastric tissue exhibited significantly increased endogenous enzymes activities in rats pretreated with C. barometz extract associated with the ulcerated control group. Histology of rats pretreated with C. barometz extract group using hematoxylin and eosin staining exhibited a moderate-to-mild disruption of the surface epithelium with reduction in submucosal edema and leucocyte infiltration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, it showed heat shock protein70 protein up-expression and BCL2-associated X protein downexpression. These outcomes might be attributed to the gastroprotective and antioxidative effects of the plant.

  10. Influence of acute copper deficiency, cold-restraint stress and the H2 blocker ranitidine on the severity of acute gastric mucosal lesions and lipid peroxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Velinov, H; Mileva, M; Nachev, C

    2001-09-01

    Acute copper deficiency produces disturbances in the microcirculation and structure of extracellular matrix proteins, causes an increase in mast cell population, which is followed by an increased content of their degranulation products, produces disturbances in histamine metabolism and decreases the activity of some antioxidant enzymes. These pathogenic mechanisms are similar to the processes underlying stress ulcer formation. The histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine, a drug with the highest application for stress ulcer prophylaxis, has the ability to helate the copper ion and to influence its tissue distribution and the processes of generation and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In order to determine the interrelation between the disturbances of copper homeostasis, stress ulcers and ranitidine, we investigated the impact of a short-term diet with powdered milk in combination with cold-restraint stress with or without ranitidine on the severity of acute gastric mucosal lesions, copper content, lipid peroxidation and the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the stomachs of rats.

  11. Gas in Hepatic Portal Veins with Gastric Massive Dilatation and Pneumatosis in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Nadeem; Pateria, Vibhor; Ahmad, Imtiyaz; Kulshreshtha, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Gas in portal veins is a rare phenomenon observed secondary to bowel ischaemia and necrosis. A young girl with history of pica ingestion presented with acute abdomen with huge distension. Investigation revealed air in hepatic portal veins, air within stomach wall, and massive distension of stomach secondary to acute pancreatitis. Successful conservative treatment confirmed the current concept that all cases of hepatic portal venous gas do not warrant immediate surgical intervention. PMID:26557565

  12. Effect of central and peripheral actions of histamine and its metabolite N-alpha methyl histamine on gastric secretion and acute gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, S; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, P C; Konturek, S J; Pawlik, M; Pajdo, R; Drozdowicz, D; Ptak, A; Hahn, E G

    2001-12-01

    N alpha-methylhistamine (N alpha-MH) is one of unusual metabolite of histamine that was found in Helicobacter pylori-infected stomach and is believed to interact with specific histamine H1, H2 and H3-receptors to stimulate gastric acid secretion and gastrin release from isolated G-cells but the effects of N alpha-MH on gastric mucosal integrity have been little studied. This study was designed; 1) to compare the effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.), intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and gastric topical (intragastric i.g.) application of exogenous N alpha-MH with that of standard histamine on gastric secretion in rats equipped with gastric fistula (series A) and 2) to compare the effect of i.c.v. administration of histamine and N alpha-MH with that of peripheral (i.p. and i.g.) application of these amines on gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol (series B) in rats with or without capsaicin-induced deactivation of sensory nerves. The area of gastric lesions was determined planimetrically, gastric blood flow (GBF) was assessed by H2-gas clearance method and venous blood was collected for determination of plasma gastrin levels by RIA. N alpha-MH and histamine (0.1-10 mg/kg i.p. or i.g.) dose-dependently increased gastric acid output (series A); whereas i.c.v. administration of histamine or N alpha-MH inhibited dose-dependently this secretion; the dose attenuating gastric acid output by 50% (ED50) being 4 and 6 microg/kg i.c.v. Both, N alpha-MH and histamine (2 mg/kg i.p. and i.g.) attenuated significantly the area of gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol (series B) while producing significant rise in the GBF and plasma immunoreactive gastrin increments. Central application of N alpha-MH and histamine (0.01-5 microg/kg i.c.v.) inhibited ethanol-induced gastric damage whereas higher doses ranging from 10-100 microg/kg of histamine and N alpha-MH were significantly less effective. Capsaicin-induced deactivation of sensory nerves by itself augmented significantly ethanol

  13. Acute gastric dilatation and volvulus in a free-living polar bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Nielsen, Carol A.

    1989-01-01

    A large, adult male polar bear (Ursus maritimus) was found dead on a barrier island north of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska (USA), in June 1987. There were no external signs of trauma. A twisted distended stomach, distinctive parenchymal and fascial congestion, and significant difficulty in repositioning the anterior abdominal organs, indicated that gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) was the proximate cause of death. Polar bears frequently consume large quantities of food at one time and have large stomachs that are well adapted to periodic gorging. The scarcity of food in winter and early spring, combined with voluntary fasting and protracted vigorous activity during the breeding season in late spring may have predisposed this bear to GDV. The relationship between GDV and postprandial exercise emphasizes the need for a better understanding of how the present human invasion of arctic habitats may influence polar bear activities.

  14. [Bouveret's syndrome: biliary ileus manifested by acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and impaired gastric emptying].

    PubMed

    Simonek, J; Lischke, R; Drábek, J; Pafko, P

    2002-05-01

    The authors present a very rare case of impaired gastric evacuation, known as Bouveret's syndrome, caused by a large biliary concrement wedged in the duodenum as a result of the development of a cholecystoduodenal fistula in a 77-year-old man. The condition was manifested clinically by developed high ileus and subsequent haemorrhage into the upper GIT. The diagnosis was established on the background of the clinical picture, passage through the upper GIT and endoscopy. As the attempt to remove the concrement endoscopically failed, laparotomy had to be used. In the conclusion of this case-record the authors discuss the method of assessment of the correct diagnosis endoscopically and possibilities of therapeutic strategy.

  15. Hydroethanolic extract of Baccharis trimera promotes gastroprotection and healing of acute and chronic gastric ulcers induced by ethanol and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Ferreira, Daniele Maria; Galuppo, Larissa Favaretto; Borato, Debora Gasparin; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Acco, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is a psychoactive substance highly consumed around the world whose health problems include gastric lesions. Baccharis trimera is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, few studies have evaluated its biological and toxic effects. To validate the popular use of B. trimera and elucidate its possible antiulcerogenic and cytotoxic mechanisms, a hydroethanolic extract of B. trimera (HEBT) was evaluated in models of gastric lesions. Rats and mice were used to evaluate the protective and antiulcerogenic effects of HEBT on gastric lesions induced by ethanol, acetic acid, and chronic ethanol consumption. The effects of HEBT were also evaluated in a pylorus ligature model and on gastrointestinal motility. The LD50 of HEBT in mice was additionally estimated. HEBT was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and a high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis was performed. Oral HEBT administration significantly reduced the lesion area and the oxidative stress induced by acute and chronic ethanol consumption. However, HEBT did not protect against gastric wall mucus depletion and did not alter gastric secretory volume, pH, or total acidity in the pylorus ligature model. Histologically, HEBT accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats, reflected by contractions of the ulcer base. Flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids were detected in HEBT, which likely contributed to the therapeutic efficacy of HEBT, preventing or reversing ethanol- and acetic acid-induced ulcers, respectively. HEBT antiulcerogenic activity may be partially attributable to the inhibition of free radical generation and subsequent prevention of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that HEBT has both gastroprotective and curative activity in animal models, with no toxicity.

  16. Effects of acute administration of omeprazole or ranitidine on basal and vagally stimulated gastric acid secretion and alkalinization of the duodenum in anaesthetized cats.

    PubMed

    Fändriks, L; Jönson, C

    1990-02-01

    Experiments were performed on acutely vagotomized cats during chloralose anaesthesia. In order to avoid sympathoadrenergic influences, the adrenal glands were ligated and the splanchnic nerves were cut bilaterally in all animals. The gastric lumen was perfused with saline and the H+ secretion was calculated from pH measurements in the perfusate. HCO3- secretion by the duodenal mucosa was titrated in situ. Omeprazole (4 mg kg-1 i.v., dissolved in PEG400, 40% w/v) did not influence basal or vagally induced HCO3- secretions, but inhibited by about 80% the H+ secretory response induced by electric vagal stimulation. Acute administration of ranitidine (5 mg kg-1 i.v.) transiently lowered arterial pressure, an effect which was followed by a sustained compensatory tachycardia. Ranitidine raised basal duodenal HCO3- secretion by 50% and inhibited vagally induced gastric H+ secretion by about 70%, whereas vagally induced HCO3- secretion was not influenced. The results suggest that vagal nerve stimulation raises the duodenal bicarbonate secretion via a mechanism independent of the level of gastric H+ secretion.

  17. Acute thrombosis of a transplanted renal artery after gastric ulcer bleeding in a patient with a long-term well-functioning renal allograft

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chung-Kuan; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Wei, Cheng-Chun; Hsieh, Shih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Acute thrombosis of a transplanted renal artery is a serious vascular complication following renal allograft transplantation, which usually occurs within the first month after transplantation and often results in graft loss. It rarely occurs beyond the first month, except in a rejected kidney or in a kidney with high-grade transplant renal artery stenosis. Result: A 65-year-old male with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, pulmonary tuberculosis, and end-stage renal disease was previously treated with hemodialysis (HD). He received a kidney transplant and had a well-functioning graft for 2 years. He presented to our emergency department with gastric ulcer bleeding and received treatment involving an endoscopic submucosal epinephrine injection, a proton pump inhibitor, and blood transfusions. Nine days later, he complained of sudden lower abdominal pain and had acute anuric kidney failure. Renal ultrasonography revealed an absence of blood flow to the allograft kidney. Renal artery angiogram demonstrated complete occlusion of the transplanted renal artery. After thrombectomy and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with stent placement, 60% stenosis of the proximal renal artery with distal perfusion was noted. However, his graft function did not improve, and he received HD again. Histopathology of the transplanted kidney revealed ischemic tubular nephropathy with focal infarction without rejection. Conclusion: This is the first case of acute thrombosis of the transplanted renal artery following gastric ulcer bleeding in a patient with a long-term well-functioning graft kidney. PMID:27472705

  18. Changes in cardiovascular performance, biochemistry, gastric motility and muscle temperature induced by acute exercise on a treadmill in healthy military dogs.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, R W; Silva, V L; Rocha, D R; Costa, D S; Turco, S H N; Silva, M T B; Santos, A A; Oliveira, M B L; Pereira, A S R; Palheta-Junior, R C

    2016-12-29

    Changes in physiological parameters that are induced by acute exercise on a treadmill in healthy military dogs have not been thoroughly investigated, especially with regard to age. This study investigated the effects of acute exercise on a treadmill on cardiovascular function, biochemical parameters and gastric antral motility in military dogs. Thermography was used to assess variations in superficial hindlimb muscle temperature. Nine healthy dogs were distributed into three groups according to their age (Group I: 25 ± 7 months; Group II: 51 ± 12 months; Group III: 95 ± 10 months) and sequentially subjected to running exercise on a treadmill for 12 min (3.2 km/h at 0° incline for 4 min, 6.4 km/h at 0° incline for 4 min and 6.4 km/h at 10° incline for 4 min). Heart rate, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), gastric motility, haematocrit and biochemical analyses were performed at rest and after each session of treadmill exercise. Infrared thermographic images of muscles in the pelvic member were taken. Exercise decreased DAP in Group I, increased systolic arterial pressure in Groups II and III and increased mean arterial pressure in Group III (all p < 0.05). After the exercise protocol, plasma creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels increased only in Group I (p < 0.05). Exercise increased heart rate and decreased the gastric motility of a solid meal at 180 min in all groups (all p < 0.05). Exercise also elevated temperature in the femoral biceps muscles in Group I compared with the older dogs. The results indicate that acute exercise decreased gastric motility in dogs, regardless of age, and caused more pronounced cardiovascular changes in older dogs than in younger dogs. Acute exercise also altered biochemical parameters and superficial hindlimb muscle temperature in younger military dogs.

  19. Cytomegalovirus Reactivation Induced Acute Hepatitis and Gastric Erosions in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis under Treatment with an Anti-IL-6 Receptor Antibody, Tocilizumab.

    PubMed

    Komura, Takuya; Ohta, Hajime; Nakai, Ryotaro; Seishima, Jun; Yamato, Masatoshi; Miyazawa, Masaki; Kaji, Kiichiro; Marukawa, Yohei; Kagaya, Takashi; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Kawashima, Atsuhiro; Kaneko, Shuichi; Unoura, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Tocilizumab, an anti-human interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6R) monoclonal antibody, is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is expected to exhibit clinical efficacy when used to treat other autoimmune diseases. However, a risk of opportunistic infection is occasionally recognized. A 54-year-old woman had received an oral corticosteroid and methotrexate to treat RA. Despite receiving these treatments, she received additional treatment with tocilizumab due to poor control of the disease activity. She presented at our hospital with a high fever and epigastralgia 19 days after receiving this treatment. A laboratory evaluation revealed liver injury and cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) revealed hepatosplenomegaly, but no ascites. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastric erosions induced by CMV, which were confirmed immunohistochemically. Hence, we diagnosed the patient with CMV reactivation-induced acute hepatitis and gastric erosions under tocilizumab treatment. She received an anti-cytomegalovirus drug, ganciclovir, for 14 days due to her viremia and impaired general condition, which was suggestive of a severe infection. Her general condition subsequently improved, the liver function test results normalized, and the gastric erosions disappeared. In conclusion, although tocilizumab is very useful for treating certain autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and will be prescribed more widely in the future, associated CMV infections must be closely monitored, as these can be lethal.

  20. Reducing Length of Hospital Stay Does Not Increase Readmission Rates in Early-Stage Gastric, Colon, and Lung Cancer Surgical Cases in Japanese Acute Care Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Kunisawa, Susumu; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Background The Japanese government has worked to reduce the length of hospital stay by introducing a per-diem hospital payment system that financially incentivizes the timely discharge of patients. However, there are concerns that excessively reducing length of stay may reduce healthcare quality, such as increasing readmission rates. The objective of this study was to investigate the temporal changes in length of stay and readmission rates as quality indicators in Japanese acute care hospitals. Methods We used an administrative claims database under the Diagnosis Procedure Combination Per-Diem Payment System for Japanese hospitals. Using this database, we selected hospitals that provided data continuously from July 2010 to March 2014 to enable analyses of temporal changes in length of stay and readmission rates. We selected stage I (T1N0M0) gastric, colon, and lung cancer surgical patients who had been discharged alive from the index hospitalization. The outcome measures were length of stay during the index hospitalization and unplanned emergency readmissions within 30 days after discharge. Results From among 804 hospitals, we analyzed 42,585, 15,467, and 40,156 surgical patients for gastric, colon, and lung cancer, respectively. Length of stay was reduced by approximately 0.5 days per year. In contrast, readmission rates were generally stable at approximately 2% or had decreased slightly over the 4-year period. Conclusions In early-stage gastric, colon, and lung cancer surgical patients in Japan, reductions in length of stay did not result in increased readmission rates. PMID:27832182

  1. Antioxidant Properties and Gastroprotective Effects of 2-(Ethylthio)Benzohydrazones on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ariffin, Azhar; Abdulla, Mahmood A.; Abdullah, Zanariah

    2016-01-01

    A series of new 2-(ethylthio)benzohydrazone derivatives (1–6) were prepared and characterised by IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The newly prepared compounds were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activities using free radical scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Among them, most powerful antioxidant, compound 1 has been selected in order to illustrate anti-ulcer effect on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were respectively treated with 10% Tween 20 as ulcer control group, 20 mg/kg omeprazole as reference group, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg compound 1 as experimental animals. Macroscopically, ulcer control group showed extensive hemorrhagic lesions of gastric mucosa compared with omeprazole or compound 1. Rats pre-treated with compound 1 showed increased in gastric pH and gastric mucus. Histologically, ulcer control group showed severe damage to gastric mucosa with edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer. In immunohistochemical analysis, rats which were pre-treated with compound 1 showed up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins. In conclusion, the gastroprotective effect of compound 1 may be due to its antioxidant activity, and/or due to up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax protein in stained tissue section. PMID:27272221

  2. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus

  3. Protective effects of alginate-chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in "Danxi's experiential therapy" for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus, these

  4. Acute Toxicity and Gastroprotective Role of M. pruriens in Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hassandarvish, Pouya; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Nordin, Noraziah; Abdulla, Mahmood A.

    2013-01-01

    The investigation was to evaluate gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. Forty-eight rats were divided into 8 groups: negative control, extract control, ulcer control, reference control, and four experimental groups. As a pretreatment, the negative control and the ulcer control groups were orally administered carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The reference control was administered omeprazole orally (20 mg/kg). The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves was given orally to the extract control group (500 mg/kg) and the experimental groups (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg). After 1 h, CMC was given orally to the negative and the extract control groups. The other groups received absolute ethanol. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. The ulcer control group exhibited significant mucosal injuries with decreased gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa. The extract caused upregulation of Hsp70 protein, downregulation of Bax protein, and intense periodic acid schiff uptake of glandular portion of stomach. Gastric mucosal homogenate showed significant antioxidant properties with increase in synthesis of PGE2, while MDA was significantly decreased. The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves was nontoxic (<5 g/kg) and could enhance defensive mechanisms against hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. PMID:23781513

  5. Detrimental effects of nicotine on the acute gastric mucosal injury induced by ethanol: role of asymmetric dimethylarginine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Zhou, Yuan; Zou, Yi-You; Wang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Chun; Guo, Ren; Li, Dai; Peng, Jun; Li, Yuan-Jian

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is responsible for the detrimental effects of nicotine on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury and its underlying mechanisms. Gastric mucosal injury was induced by an injection of ethanol in the stomach in rats. Animals were pretreated with nicotine for 28 days before ethanol injection. The gastric mucosal ulcer index (UI) and the levels of ADMA and NO in gastric juice were determined. In vitro, the cultured mucosal epithelial cells were treated with nicotine in the presence or absence of ethanol. The concentration of ADMA in the culture medium and the ratio of cell apoptosis were measured, and the effect of nicotine or ADMA alone on cell apoptosis was also examined. In rats treated with ethanol, the UI and ADMA levels were increased and the NO level was decreased, and these effects of ethanol were augmented by pretreatment with nicotine. Administration of nicotine alone did not show significant impact on UI, ADMA level, or NO level. In vitro, incubation of human epithelial cells with ethanol induced cell injury accompanied by increased ADMA levels in the culture medium, an effect which was amplified in the presence of nicotine. Similarly, ethanol was able to induce epithelial cell apoptosis that was exacerbated by nicotine. Incubation of epithelial cells with nicotine alone did not induce cell apoptosis, but administration of ADMA alone did induce cell apoptosis. The results suggest that the gastric mucosal injury induced by ethanol is augmented by nicotine, which is related to the increased ADMA level.

  6. Acute Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol blocks gastric hemorrhages induced by the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium in mice.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Steven G; Cole, Erica C

    2013-09-05

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are among the most widely used analgesics in the world, cause gastrointestinal inflammation that is potentially life-threatening. Although inhibitors of endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes protect against gastropathy in fasted NSAID-treated mice, the gastroprotective effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of marijuana, have yet to be investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice were fasted, administered vehicle or Δ(9)-THC (.01-50mg/kg; oral or intraperitoneal), and then treated with the NSAID diclofenac sodium (100mg/kg, p.o.) to induce gastric lesions. In separate groups of mice, the cannabimimetic behavioral effects of Δ(9)-THC given via each route of administration were compared using a battery of tests, consisting of assessment of locomotor activity, nociception in the tail withdrawal test, catalepsy in the bar test, and hypothermia. Δ(9)-THC dose-dependently attenuated diclofenac-induced gastric hemorrhagic streaks through both p.o. and i.p. routes of administration (ED50 (95% confidence interval)=0.64 (0.26-1.55)mg/kg and 0.06 (0.01-0.34) mg/kg, respectively). Δ(9)-THC given i.p. was 2-3 orders of magnitude more potent in reducing diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers than in producing locomotor immobility, antinociception, hypothermia, and catalepsy, while the potency of ratio of p.o. Δ(9)-THC between each behavior measure was 7-18. These data indicate that the phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-THC protects against diclofenac-induced gastric inflammatory tissue damage at doses insufficient to cause common cannabinoid side effects.

  7. Acute Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol blocks gastric hemorrhages induced by the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, Steven G.; Cole, Erica C.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are among the most widely used analgesics in the world, cause gastrointestinal inflammation that is potentially life-threatening. Although inhibitors of endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes protect against gastropathy in fasted NSAID-treated mice, the gastroprotective effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of marijuana, have yet to be investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice were fasted, administered vehicle or Δ9-THC (.01–50 mg/kg; oral or intraperitoneal), and then treated with the NSAID diclofenac sodium (100 mg/kg, p.o.) to induce gastric lesions. In separate groups of mice, the cannabimimetic behavioral effects of Δ9-THC given via each route of administration were compared using a battery of tests, consisting of assessment of locomotor activity, nociception in the tail withdrawal test, catalepsy in the bar test, and hypothermia. Δ9-THC dose-dependently attenuated diclofenac-induced gastric hemorrhagic streaks through both p.o. and i.p. routes of administration (ED50 (95% confidence interval) = 0.64 (0.26 – 1.55) mg/kg and 0.06 (0.01 – 0.34) mg/kg, respectively). Δ9-THC given i.p. was 2–3 orders of magnitude more potent in reducing diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers than in producing locomotor immobility, antinociception, hypothermia, and catalepsy, while the potency of ratio of p.o. Δ9-THC between each behavior measure was 7–18. These data indicate that the phytocannabinoid Δ9-THC protects against diclofenac-induced gastric inflammatory tissue damage at doses insufficient to cause common cannabinoid side effects. PMID:23769745

  8. Aberrant Left Inferior Bronchial Artery Originating from the Left Gastric Artery in a Patient with Acute Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Sen Sun, Xi-Wen Yu, Dong Jie, Bing

    2013-10-15

    Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening condition, and the major source of bleeding in this condition is the bronchial circulation. Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective treatment for controlling hemoptysis. However, the sites of origin of the bronchial arteries (BAs) have numerous anatomical variations, which can result in a technical challenge to identify a bleeding artery. We present a rare case of a left inferior BA that originated from the left gastric artery in a patient with recurrent massive hemoptysis caused by bronchiectasis. The aberrant BA was embolized, and hemoptysis has been controlled for 8 months.

  9. Gastric giardiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, C.; De Boni, M.; Cielo, R.; Laurino, L.; Pelosio, P.; Braidotti, P.; Viale, G.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of gastric giardiasis in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and to define the clinicopathological correlates of gastric Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: Consecutive gastric biopsy specimens (n = 15,023) from 11,085 patients, taken at Feltre City Hospital (north eastern Italy) from January 1986 to December 1991, were histologically and immunocytochemically examined for the occurrence of G lamblia trophozoites. Three gastric biopsy specimens from patients harbouring G lamblia infection, who repeated endoscopy before treatment, were also examined electron microscopically. RESULTS: Forty one patients (0.37% of the population study) harboured gastric giardiasis. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of dyspepsia, epigastric pain, or abdominal distension. Only two patients had diarrhoea at the time of investigation. Giardiasis was clinically unsuspected in all cases, although the nine patients who also had duodenal biopsies performed had concomitant intestinal giardiasis. Gastric giardiasis was invariably associated with chronic atrophic gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa and Helicobacter pylori infection were found in 32 and 37 of the 41 patients with gastric giardiasis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The invariable association of gastric giardiasis with chronic atrophic gastritis, most often showing intestinal metaplasia and H pylori infection, indicates that a decreased gastric acidity is a prerequisite for localisation of G lamblia to the gastric mucosa. Though its possible role as a gastric pathogen remains to be elucidated, these findings suggest that trophozoites should be carefully searched for when examining gastric biopsy specimens showing chronic atrophic gastritis. Images PMID:1452790

  10. Gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, H.O. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  11. Gastric Microbiome and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Kyle M.; Morrow, Casey D.; Smith, Phillip D.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the stomach is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. The single strongest risk factor for gastric cancer is Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastric inflammation. Among persons with H. pylori infection, strain-specific components, host immune responses, and environmental factors influence the risk for gastric disease, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach, although only a small proportion of infected persons develop the malignancy. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have uncovered a complex community of non-cultivatable inhabitants of the human stomach. The interaction between these inhabitants, collectively referred to as the gastric microbiota, and H. pylori likely impacts gastric immunobiology and possibly the sequelae of H. pylori infection. Thus, characterization of the gastric microbiota in subjects with and without H. pylori infection could provide new insight into gastric homeostasis and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated disease, including gastric cancer. PMID:24855010

  12. Acute small bowel obstruction due to a large intraluminal blood clot after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jessica; Ikuine, Tomoko; Hacker, Shoshana; Urrego, Hernan; Tuggle, Karleena

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel obstructions (SBOs) are a known perioperative complication of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and common etiologies include internal hernia, port site hernia, jejunojejunostomy stricture, ileus and adhesions. Less commonly, SBO can be caused by superior mesenteric artery syndrome, intussusception and intraluminal blood clot. We present a case of SBO caused by intraluminal blood clot from jejunojejunostomy staple line bleeding in a patient with a normal coagulation profile. Computed tomography was used to elucidate the cause of perioperative SBO, and diagnostic laparoscopy was used to both diagnose and treat the complication. In this case, the intraluminal clot was evacuated laparoscopically by enterotomy, thrombectomy and primary closure without anastomotic revision since there was no evidence of continued bleeding. Administration of enoxaparin and Toradol post-operatively may have exacerbated mild intraluminal bleeding occurring at the stapled jejunojejunal anastomosis. Prompt recognition and treatment of perioperative SBO can prevent catastrophic consequences related to bowel perforation. PMID:27554828

  13. Gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves against acute gastric lesion models in rodents.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Hélio B; Silva, Francilene V; Passos, Flávia Franceli B; Bezerra, Roosevelt D S; Chaves, Mariana H; Oliveira, Francisco A; Oliveira, Rita C Meneses

    2010-01-01

    Parkia platycephala Benth. (Leguminosae--Mimosoideae), popularly known as "visgueira", fava bean tree or "fava-de-bolota", is widely found in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil. Its pods are used as cattle food supplement in the drought period. Compounds with a gastroprotective activity were obtained from the genus Parkia. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves (Pp-EtOH), as well as evaluating its possible mechanisms of action in experimental ulcer induction models. Lesions were induced by absolute ethanol, ethanol-HCl, ischemia-reperfusion and indomethacin in rodents. Pp-EtOH showed a protective effect in the lesion models (66, 48 and 52%, respectively), but it was not able to protect gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced lesions. Results show a possible participation of the NO-synthase pathway in the gastroprotection and an antioxidant activity, by the increase of the catalase activity. The participation of prostaglandins and potassium channels sensitive to ATP in the gastroprotective effect of Pp-EtOH seems less likely to occur. More comprehensive studies, therefore, should be carried out to elucidate the antiulcerative effects of this promising natural product against this gastrointestinal disorder.

  14. [THE INFLUENCE OF MELANIN ON THE GASTRIC MUCOSA AND HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENOCORTICAL AXIS UNDER ACUTE STRESS CONDITIONS].

    PubMed

    Golyshkin, D V; Falalyeyeva, T M; Neporada, K S; Beregova, T V

    2015-01-01

    We studied the influence of melanin from yeast-like fungi Nadsoniella nigra strain X1 on the changes of the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in blood serum of rats, adrenal glands weight ratio and lesions of the gastric mucosa (GM) caused by neuromuscular tension by Selye. Melanin administration restored functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that was evident by an increase of ACTH concentration by 42% and a decrease of cortisol concentration by 19% compared to the rats injected with water (group 2). In rats treated with melanin, the adrenal glands weight ratio, didn't differ from intact control group of the rats. Melanin decreased ulcers area by 64% and reduced the content of free hydroxyproline by 29%, the free fucose by 16% and the free hexuronic acids by 24% in the GM compared to the group 2 of the rats. It is established that the mechanism of melanin stress-protective properties are based on its regulation of the glucocorticoids secretion and prevention of GM collagen and extracellular matrix substances depolymerization. Melanin possesses gastroprotective properties and is a perspective agent for preventing and treatment of consequences of the stress influence on the organism.

  15. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  16. Acute effect of alginate-based preload on satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Georg Jensen, Morten; Kristensen, Mette; Belza, Anita; Knudsen, Jes C; Astrup, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Viscous dietary fibers such as sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed have received much attention lately for their potential role in energy regulation through the inhibition of energy intake and increase of satiety feelings. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect on postprandial satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate (GER), by the paracetamol method, of two different volumes of an alginate-based preload in normal-weight subjects. In a four-way placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 20 subjects (age: 25.9 ± 3.4 years; BMI: 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive a 3% preload concentration of either low volume (LV; 9.9 g alginate in 330 ml) or high volume (HV; 15.0 g alginate in 500 ml) alginate-based beverage, or an iso-volume placebo beverage. The preloads were ingested 30 min before a fixed breakfast and again before an ad libitum lunch. Consumption of LV-alginate preload induced a significantly lower (8.0%) energy intake than the placebo beverage (P = 0.040) at the following lunch meal, without differences in satiety feelings or paracetamol concentrations. The HV alginate significantly increased satiety feelings (P = 0.038), reduced hunger (P = 0.042) and the feeling of prospective food consumption (P = 0.027), and reduced area under the curve (iAUC) paracetamol concentrations compared to the placebo (P = 0.05). However, only a 5.5% reduction in energy intake was observed for HV alginate (P = 0.20). Although they are somewhat contradictory, our results suggest that alginate consumption does affect satiety feelings and energy intake. However, further investigation on the volume of alginate administered is needed before inferring that this fiber has a possible role in short-term energy regulation.

  17. Diagnosing Human Anisakiasis: Recombinant Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 Allergens versus the UniCAP 100 Fluorescence Enzyme Immunoassay ▿

    PubMed Central

    Anadón, A. M.; Rodríguez, E.; Gárate, M. T.; Cuéllar, C.; Romarís, F.; Chivato, T.; Rodero, M.; González-Díaz, H.; Ubeira, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    Commercially available serological methods for serodiagnosis of human anisakiasis either are poorly specific or do not include some of the most relevant Anisakis allergens. The use of selected recombinant allergens may improve serodiagnosis. To compare the diagnostic and clinical values of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods based on Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 recombinant allergens and of the UniCAP 100 fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (CAP FEIA) system, we tested sera from 495 allergic and 25 non-food-related allergic patients. The decay in specific IgE antibodies in serum was also investigated in 15 positive patients over a period of 6 to 38 months. Considering sera that tested positive by either Ani s 1 or Ani s 7 ELISA, the CAP FEIA classified 25% of sera as falsely positive, mainly in the group of patients with the lowest levels of anti-Anisakis IgE antibodies, and 1.28% of positive sera as falsely negative. Considering allergens individually, the overall sensitivities of Ani s 7 ELISA and Ani s 1 ELISA were 94% and 61%, respectively. The results also showed that anti-Anisakis IgE antibodies can be detected in serum for longer with Ani s 1 ELISA than with Ani s 7 ELISA and CAP FEIA (P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that ELISA methods with Ani s 7 and Ani s 1 allergens as targets of IgE antibodies are currently the best option for serodiagnosis of human anisakiasis, combining specificity and sensitivity. The different persistence of anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 7 antibodies in serum may help clinicians to distinguish between recent and old Anisakis infections. PMID:20107002

  18. Gastric stenosis following the ingestion of car battery acid.

    PubMed

    Phelps, G; Srinivasa, A; Sengupta, S K

    1991-03-01

    The acute consequences of the ingestion of corrosive substances include acute necrosis of the upper gastrointestinal tract, haemorrhage and perforation. Late complications include the development of stenotic lesions. A case of fibrous gastric stenosis following the ingestion of car battery acid is presented. Endoscopically, the appearances were consistent with gastric carcinoma.

  19. Massive gastric dilatation and anuria resolved with naso-gastric tube decompression.

    PubMed

    Peces, Ramón; Vega, Cristina; Peces, Carlos; Trébol, Julio; González, Juan A

    2010-09-01

    We report for the first time a case of acute kidney injury associated with severe gastric distention after a laparoscopic Nissen-Rossetti fundoplication of the stomach for hiatal hernia. An abdominal compartment syndrome secondary to intra-abdominal hypertension was suspected. Naso-gastric tube decompression resulted in immediate resaturation of the diuresis and progressive recovery of renal function.

  20. Gastric suction

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric lavage; Stomach pumping; Nasogastric tube suction; Bowel obstruction - suction ... A tube is inserted through your nose or mouth, down the food pipe (esophagus), and into the stomach. Your ...

  1. Acute Toxicity and Gastroprotection Studies of a New Schiff Base Derived Manganese (II) Complex against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcerations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Dhiyaaldeen, Summaya M.; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M.Jamil; El-Ferjani, Rashd M.; Adam, Hoyam; Alkotaini, Bassam; Batran, Rami Al; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Manganese is a crucial element for health. In this study, the gastroprotective efficacy of Mn (II) complex (MDLA) against acidified ethanol (HCl/Ethanol)-induced gastric ulceration in rats was evaluated. The animals were distributed into 5 groups. Groups 1 and 2 received carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), group 3 was pretreated with omeprazole, and groups 4 and 5 were given 10 and 20 mg/kg of MDLA, respectively. After one hour, CMC and HCl/Ethanol were given to groups 2–5 whilst the animals in group 1 were ingested with CMC. After sacrifice, gastric lesions were evaluated by wall mucus, gross appearance, histology, antioxidant enzymes and immunohistochemistry. Group 2 displayed severe gastric damage with a significant reduction in wall mucus. Conversely, gastric lesions were reduced in groups 3–5 by 85.72%, 56.51% and 65.93%, respectively. The rats in groups 3–5 showed up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) with down-regulation of Bcl-2-associated protein x (Bax). Pretreatment with omeprazole or MDLA led to an increase in the uptake of Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain in the glandular part of the gastric tissue, raised levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. These results suggested the gastroprotective action of Mn (II) complex. PMID:27229938

  2. [Gastric lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Ruskoné-Fourmestraux, A

    1997-04-15

    The stomach is the most common site involved in primary gastrointestinal lymphoma. Gastric lymphoma originates from the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue so called MALT. It comprises a group of distinctive clinicopathological entities which are important to take in account for clinical behavior. In recent years, new diagnostic tools and modern modes of treatment have improved their overall prognosis. One of the most exciting recent discoveries is the hypothesis that an infection by a bacterium. Helicobacter pylori has a decisive role in gastric lymphoma.

  3. [Gastric volvulus].

    PubMed

    Solórzano, J; Acosta, D; Morales, H; Vásquez, F; Mora, G; Chávez, M; Andrade, D; Joutteaux, R; Sánchez, I; García, D; Valenzuela, E

    2006-10-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare condition in pediatric population in which there is an abnormal rotation of one part of the stomach around itself. It's a surgical emergency. We report a six year old female admitted in the emergency due to upper abdominal distention, nausea without vomiting, physical exam revealed upper abdominal distention and abdominal tenderness, no bowel sounds. Laparotomy was performed and a gastric volvulus with occlusive vascular involvement was found. In the post operative period she required a second laparotomy due to adhesions in small bowel.

  4. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Belén Fraile, M; Serra Bartual, M; Segarra Sánchez, J; Richart Rufino, M J

    1991-11-01

    Gastric cancer represents a disorder which incidence has come down last years. Its etiology is unknown, but diet is the principal determinant risk of suffering it. Clinic history is not much useful, because in the early stage symptoms can fail and in the late stage are inespecific. Election diagnosis is endoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment. By these features, it would be useful to left under vigilance to: a) patients 40 years older with dispepsia; b) patients following gastric operations; c) patients with disorders presenting aclorhidria. The authors report a clinic case that can be of frequent presentation in primary assistance.

  5. [Gastric cleansing].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann Serret, Alina; Alcaraz Bravo, Judit; Carballo Alvarez, Montse; Fernández Vargas, Carmen

    2006-10-01

    Numerous cases in emergency wards are due to the ingestion of potentially toxic substances. One of the most utilized procedures under these circumstances is gastric cleansing. This procedure is a technique habitually practiced by nursing personnel but is not without its risks. Therefore, the motive of this article is to make known the indications, contraindications, related complications of gastric cleansing and its integral patient care process in order to offer quality care methods which enable their being performed in an effective and efficient manner, under the maximum security conditions with the minimum inconveniences for the patient while at the same time describing the system most commonly used by our service.

  6. Pharmacokinetic interaction between ϵ-acetamidocaproic acid (AACA) and cimetidine in indomethacin-induced acute gastric ulcer and control rats: inhibition of active renal secretion of AACA by cimetidine.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y H; Lee, U; Suh, J H; Kim, Y G; Lee, M; Oh, E; Lee, M G

    2011-05-01

    After both the intravenous and oral administration of zinc acexamate [ZAC; ion-pairing between zinc and ϵ-acetamidocaproic acid (AACA)] and cimetidine together, the areas under the curve (AUCs) of AACA were significantly greater [by 28.2 and 98.9% after the intravenous and oral administration, respectively, for control rats and 13.5 and 16.9% for indomethacin-induced acute gastric ulcer (IAGU) rats, respectively] than those of ZAC alone due to the significantly slower renal clearance (CL(R)). The significantly greater AUCs of AACA after both the intravenous and oral administration of ZAC and cimetidine together in control and IAGU rats could have been due to the inhibition of active renal tubular secretion of AACA by cimetidine. After the intravenous and oral administration of both drugs together, the AUCs of cimetidine in control and IAGU rats were not different compared with those with cimetidine alone.

  7. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Bariatric surgery - gastric bypass - discharge; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y - discharge; Obesity ... Gloy VL, Briel M, Bhatt DL, et al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic ...

  8. Spontaneous Gastric Perforation in Two Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Akalonu, Amaka; Yasrebi, Mona; Rios, Zarela Molle

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patients: Female, 11 • Male, 15 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous gastric perforation Symptoms: Abdominal pain • distention • vomiting • leukocytosis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Both patients had surgery Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Rare etiology Background: Spontaneous gastric perforation is a rare clinical disorder. The majority of the available data have been reported in the neonatal age group. There are a few cases of spontaneous gastric perforation in preschool children. To our knowledge, there is no published information on spontaneous gastric perforation in older children and adolescents. Case Report: We describe the presentation and clinical course of two adolescent children who presented with spontaneous gastric perforation. Both children presented with acute onset abdominal pain, which progressively worsened. In both cases, the patient were taken urgently to the operating room after imaging studies had shown pneumoperitoneum. In both cases, surgery revealed gastric perforation with no obvious etiology, specifically no ulcer, inflammation, or other pathology. Conclusions: These two cases highlight the importance of including spontaneous gastric perforation, not just the typical duodenal/gastric ulcer, in the differential of a patient with severe abdominal pain and distension, who has imaging showing pneumoperitoneum. PMID:27686129

  9. [Preventive effects of troxipide on a newly developed model of acute gastric mucosal lesion (AGML) induced by ischemia/reperfusion plus ammonia in the rat].

    PubMed

    Momo, K; Hoshina, K; Ishibashi, Y; Saito, T

    1994-10-01

    We have developed a unique rat AGML model produced by ischemia/reperfusion plus 0.2% ammonia (I/R.NH3), either treatment which would not induce mucosal injury when used alone. The effects of troxipide and other gastric mucosal defensive drugs were investigated with this I/R.NH3-induced AGML model and other AGML models in rats. The following results were obtained: 1) Like allopurinol, troxipide at 50-200 mg/kg, p.o. dose-dependently prevented I/R.NH3-induced development of AGML and also the ischemia/reperfusion-induced increase of gastric mucosal thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive substances; 2) Troxipide at 10(-6)-10(-4) M, like allopurinol, inhibited concentration-dependently in vitro xanthine oxidase activity in gastric mucosal homogenates; 3) Troxipide at 50-200 mg/kg, p.o. inhibited AGMLs induced by bleeding plus 0.2% ammonia and by 1.0% ammonia alone; and 4) Troxipide and sofalcone were similar in preventing all AGMLs tested and also the increase of mucosal TBA-reactive substances, but somewhat differed from teprenone, cetraxate hydrochloride, azulene plus L-glutamine and sucralfate. These findings suggest that troxipide may inhibit I/R.NH3-induced AGML development by preventing generation of oxygen free radicals and by protecting against mucosal fragility due to reduced energy metabolism from poor blood flow and also against ammonia-induced disruption of the gastric mucosal barrier. Therefore, troxipide may be highly effective for various AGMLs with multifactor involvement.

  10. Cyanoacrylate Injection Compared with Band Ligation for Acute Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Jiaping; Chen, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cyanoacrylate injection (GVO) and band ligation (GVL) are effective treatments for gastric variceal hemorrhage. However, data on the optimal treatment are still controversial. Methods. For our overall analysis, relevant studies were identified from several databases. For each outcome, data were pooled using a fixed-effect or random-effects model according to the result of a heterogeneity test. Results. Seven studies were included. Compared with GVL, GVO was associated with increased likelihood of hemostasis of active bleeding (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19–4.51) and a longer gastric variceal rebleeding-free period (hazard ratio = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.24–0.56). No significant differences were observed between GVL and GVO for mortality (hazard ratio = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.43–1.02), likelihood of variceal obliteration (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.52–1.54), number of treatment sessions required for complete variceal eradication (weighted mean difference = −0.45; 95% CI = −1.14–0.23), or complications (OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.48–2.19). Conclusion. GVO may be superior to GVL for achieving hemostasis and preventing recurrence of gastric variceal rebleeding but has no advantage over GVL for mortality and complications. Additional studies are warranted to enable definitive conclusions. PMID:24868204

  11. Chronic Gastric Ischemia Leading to Gastric Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Lundsmith, Emma; Zheng, Matthew; McCue, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and hypertension presented with 3 months of diffuse abdominal pain that worsened with meals, weight loss, and dysphagia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography revealed findings consistent with chronic gastric ischemia secondary to atherosclerosis. Gastric ischemia eventually led to perforation. We discuss causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of gastric ischemia, an underdiagnosed and potentially fatal condition that requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. PMID:28119945

  12. Iron medication-induced gastric mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuchen; Ouyang, Jie; Wieczorek, Rosemary; DeSoto, Fidelina

    2009-01-01

    Severe gastrointestinal erosion, ulcer, necrosis and strictures after an acute iron overdose are well described. However, gastric mucosal injury in patients receiving therapeutic iron has received only scant recognition despite its wide use. We report a case of iron medication-induced gastric mucosal injury in a 76-year-old male who presented with iron deficiency anemia and had been taking ferrous sulfate tablet for 4 years. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a pale, villous appearing flat lesion along the lesser curvature of gastric body. Histopathologic examination of EGD biopsies of the flat lesion showed brown crystalline materials deposited in the lamina propria of gastric mucosa, which was accompanied with fibrosis, chronic inflammation, and foreign body reaction. The crystalline materials were covered and admixed with gastric epithelium. Prussian blue iron stain confirmed that the brown crystalline materials were iron. The iron and hemosiderin accumulation was also seen in cytoplasm of epithelial cells and lumen of fundic gastric glands. The recognition and reporting by pathologists of iron-induced changes in EGD biopsies will alert clinicians to this underrecognized but easily correctable complication by alternative forms of iron therapy, such as liquid preparation.

  13. Gastric stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Ovali, Gülgün Yilmaz; Tarhan, Serdar; Serter, Selim; Pabuşçu, Yüksel

    2005-06-01

    Gastric stromal tumors are rare neoplasms of the stomach. In this report we present a gastric stromal tumor with an exophytic growth pattern, and describe magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography findings.

  14. Anti-Ulcerogenic Effect of Methanolic Extracts from Enicosanthellum pulchrum (King) Heusden against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Noraziah; Salama, Suzy Munir; Golbabapour, Shahram; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Omar, Hanita; Fadaienasab, Mehran; Karimian, Hamed; Taha, Hairin; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    A natural source of medicine, Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant which belongs to the family Annonaceae. In this study, methanol extract from the leaves and stems of this species was evaluated for its gastroprotective potential against mucosal lesions induced by ethanol in rats. Seven groups of rats were assigned, groups 1 and 2 were given Tween 20 (10% v/v) orally. Group 3 was administered omeprazole 20 mg/kg (10% Tween 20) whilst the remaining groups received the leaf and stem extracts at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. After an additional hour, the rats in groups 2–7 received ethanol (95% v/v; 8 mL/kg) orally while group 1 received Tween 20 (10% v/v) instead. Rats were sacrificed after 1 h and their stomachs subjected to further studies. Macroscopically and histologically, group 2 rats showed extremely severe disruption of the gastric mucosa compared to rats pre-treated with the E. pulchrum extracts based on the ulcer index, where remarkable protection was noticed. Meanwhile, a significant percentage of inhibition was shown with the stem extract at 62% (150 mg/kg) and 65% (300 mg/kg), whilst the percentage with the leaf extract at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg was 63% and 75%, respectively. An increase in mucus content, nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, protein and catalase, and a decrease in malondialdehyde level compared to group 2 were also obtained. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of groups 4–7 exhibited down-regulation of Bax and up-regulation of Hsp70 proteins. The methanol extract from the leaves and the stems showed notable gastroprotective potential against ethanol. PMID:25379712

  15. [Gastric and intestinal bezoars].

    PubMed

    Larbi, Noureddine; Kaâbi, Samarra; Ben Salah, Khiareddine

    2003-12-01

    The authors report a retrospective study of 10 cases of gastric and small bowel bezoars. There was one gastric trichobezoar diagnosed by an abdominal mass and 9 small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoars. All patients underwent surgery: the gastric trichobezoar was removed through a gastrotomy; small bowel bezoars were treated either by enterotomy (n = 3), fragmentation (n = 5) or bowel resection (n = 1). Non operative treatment is efficient in gastric phytobezoars. Surgery is advisable for trichobezoars and small bowel bezoars. Prevention is main and patients who have gastric surgery must be alarmed from consumption of cactus in our country Tunisia.

  16. Gastric vascular lesion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Solej, Mario; Bertoldo, Ugo; Enrico, Stefano; Marci, Valerio; Raggio, Eleonora; Nano, Mario; Gasparri, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations of the gastrointestinal tract are a known but rare cause of bleeding. Those of the stomach are the rarest if compared with other causes of gastric bleeding. The aetiology is still unknown, but senile age is considered an important cause, as are the degenerative processes connected with old age. These lesions are diagnosed by endoscopy which, with a haematostatic intent, often is not sufficient to stop the bleeding. Angiography is necessary for patients with massive bleeding whose endoscopy results are negative. The surgical treatment of gastric arteriovenous malformations requires excision of the lesion and part or all of the stomach. We report the case of a 57-year-old patient admitted to the Casualty Department with haematemesis and anaemia caused by acute gastric bleeding.

  17. Gastric syphilis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Novis, Camila Freitas Lobo; Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2016-01-01

    Gastric syphilis is an uncommon extracutaneous manifestation of syphilis, occurring in less than 1% of patients, presenting nonspecific clinical manifestations. In general, it occurs on secondary stage. The critical point is the recognition of the syphilitic gastric involvement, without which there may be incorrect diagnosis of malignancy of the digestive tract. In this report, a case of secondary syphilis with gastric involvement that had complete remission with benzathine penicillin will be described. PMID:27828649

  18. Gastrin and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, Helge L.; Sagatun, Liv; Mjønes, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer although occurring in reduced frequency is still an important disease, partly because of the bad prognosis when occurring in western countries. This decline in occurrence may mainly be due to the reduced prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, which is the most important cause of gastric cancer. There exist many different pathological classifications of gastric carcinomas, but the most useful seems to be the one by Lauren into intestinal and diffuse types since these types seldom transform into the other and also have different epidemiology. During the nearly 30 years that have passed since the groundbreaking description of Hp as the cause of gastritis and gastric cancer, a continuous search for the mechanism by which Hp infection causes gastric cancer has been done. Interestingly, it is mainly atrophic gastritis of the oxyntic mucosa that predisposes to gastric cancer possibly by inducing hypoacidity and hypergastrinemia. There are many arguments in favor of an important role of gastrin and its target cell, the enterochromaffin-like cell, in gastric carcinogenesis. The role of gastrin in gastric carcinogenesis implies caution in the long-term treatment with inhibitors of gastric acid secretion inducing secondary hypergastrinemia, in a common disease like gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:28144230

  19. The intriguing relationship of Helicobacter pylori infection and acid secretion in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Malfertheiner, P

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection induces chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and thus profoundly affects gastric physiology. In the acute phase of infection, gastric acid secretion is transiently impaired. The morphological damage of the gastric mucosa, changes in gastric hormone release, and disruption of neural pathways all contribute to influence gastric acid secretion in a distinct manner. Changes in gastric acid secretion, whether impaired or increased, are intimately related with the topographic phenotypes of gastritis and the presence of atrophy or absence of corpus atrophy. The interplay of gastritis phenotype and acid secretion are key determinants in disease outcomes. Corpus-predominant gastritis and corpus atrophy are accompanied by hypochlorhydria and carry the highest risk for gastric cancer, whereas antrum-predominant gastritis with little involvement of the corpus-fundic mucosa is associated with hyperchlorhydria and predisposes to duodenal ulcer disease.

  20. Pediatric primary gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Harris, G J; Laszewski, M J

    1992-04-01

    Primary gastric lymphoma in the pediatric population is rare. We have described a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Burkitt's type) manifested as a gastric mass. Despite its rarity in children, this tumor should be treated aggressively, since long-term survival has been reported.

  1. Administration of obestatin accelerates the healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dembiński, Artur; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Dembiński, Marcin; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Kuwahara, Atsukasu; Kato, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Previous studies have shown that administration of obestatin exhibits a protective effect in the pancreas, attenuating the development of acute pancreatitis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of obestatin administration on the healing of chronic gastric ulcers. Material/Methods Chronic gastric ulcers were induced in rats by 100% acetic acid applied to the serosal surface of the gastric wall. Obestatin was given twice a day intraperitoneally at the dose of 4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose for 6 days. Six days after induction of ulcers, rats were anesthetized and the stomach was exposed for measurement of gastric blood flow and ulcer area. Biopsy samples from the gastric mucosa were taken for determination of mucosal DNA synthesis and for measurement of gastric expression of mRNA for interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Results Induction of gastric ulcers alone increased mucosal blood flow and tissue expression of mRNA for TNF-α and IL-1β, whereas gastric mucosal DNA synthesis was reduced. In rats with gastric ulcers, administration of obestatin increased gastric mucosal blood flow, accelerated the healing rate of these ulcers and partly reversed the gastric ulcer-induced reduction in gastric mucosal DNA synthesis. These results were associated with a reduction in gastric mucosal expression of pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNF-α. Conclusions Treatment with obestatin increases gastric mucosal blood flow and cell proliferation, leading to acceleration of healing of gastric ulcers. These effects are associated with a reduction in mucosal expression of pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNF-α. PMID:21804455

  2. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  3. Influence of thyroid states on stress gastric ulcer formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Walker, C.H.; Mason, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that thyroid states may affect the acute development of gastric lesions induced by cold-resistant stress. Normal (euthyroid), hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats were used. Gastric lesion incidence and severity was significantly increased in hypothyroid rats, whereas in contrast hyperthyroid rats developed significantly less gastric lesions. As anticipated, plasma levels of thyroxin (T/sub 4/) were significantly elevated in hyperthyroid rats, and undetectable in hypothyroid rats. Acute pretreatment with i.p. cimetidine, but not T/sub 4/ 1 h prior to stress completely prevented gastric lesions formation in hypothyroid rats. Finally, binding of /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol to ..beta..-adrenergic receptors on brain membranes prepared from frontal cortex was reduced by 20% in hypothyroid rats after 3 h of stress. These and other data contained herein suggest that thyroid hormones contribute to modulate the responsiveness of the gastric mucosa to stress. The increase rate of ulcerogenesis observed in hypothyroid rats appears to be mediated by gastric acid secretion. The central mechanism for this response may involve decreased brain nonadrenergic receptor function.

  4. Genetics of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Strand, Matthew S; Lockhart, Albert Craig; Fields, Ryan C

    2017-04-01

    Gastric cancer represents a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide despite a declining incidence. New molecular classification schemes developed from genomic and molecular analyses of gastric cancer have provided a framework for understanding this heterogenous disease, and early findings suggest these classifications will be relevant for designing and implementing new targeted therapies. The success of targeted therapy and immunotherapy in breast cancer and melanoma, respectively, has not been duplicated in gastric cancer, but trastuzumab and ramucirumab have demonstrated efficacy in select populations. New markers that predict therapeutic response are needed to improve patient selection for both targeted and immunotherapies.

  5. Hydropneumopericardium Presenting as an Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vidi, Venkatesan; Singh, Premranjan P.; Alhumaid, Alia C.; Lee, Richard S.; Kinnunen, Paula M.

    2009-01-01

    Hydropneumopericardium is a very rare complication of long-standing paraesophageal hernia, occurring as a result of rupture of the intrathoracic gastric volvulus into the pericardium. A chronic paraesophageal hernia that is complicated by gastric volvulus can develop into such surgical emergencies as acute gastric obstruction, strangulation, perforation, and rupture into adjacent structures. Subsequent hydropneumopericardium constitutes an acute emergency that requires immediate surgical treatment and pericardial drainage. Herein, we discuss what we believe to be the 1st reported case of hydropneumopericardium that presented as an acute coronary syndrome in a patient who had a chronic paraesophageal hernia (as a result of rupture of the gastric volvulus into the pericardium). The 80-year-old patient did not survive the condition. PMID:19568401

  6. Management of acute upside-down stomach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Upside-down stomach (UDS) is characterized by herniation of the entire stomach or most gastric portions into the posterior mediastinum. Symptoms may vary heavily as they are related to reflux and mechanically impaired gastric emptying. UDS is associated with a risk of incarceration and volvulus development which both might be complicated by acute gastric outlet obstruction, advanced ischemia, gastric bleeding and perforation. Case presentation A 32-year-old male presented with acute intolerant epigastralgia and anterior chest pain associated with acute onset of nausea and vomiting. He reported on a previous surgical intervention due to a hiatal hernia. Chest radiography and computer tomography showed an incarcerated UDS. After immediate esophago-gastroscopy, urgent laparoscopic reduction, repair with a 360° floppy Nissen fundoplication and insertion of a gradually absorbable GORE® BIO-A®-mesh was performed. Conclusion Given the high risk of life-threatening complications of an incarcerated UDS as ischemia, gastric perforation or severe bleeding, emergent surgery is indicated. In stable patients with acute presentation of large paraesophageal hernia or UDS exhibiting acute mechanical gastric outlet obstruction, after esophago-gastroscopy laparoscopic reduction and hernia repair followed by an anti-reflux procedure is suggested. However, in cases of unstable patients open repair is the surgical method of choice. Here, we present an exceptionally challenging case of a young patient with a giant recurrent hiatal hernia becoming clinically manifest in an incarcerated UDS. PMID:24228771

  7. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  8. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  9. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... your legs to help prevent blood clots from forming. You will receive shots of medicine to prevent ... diversion with duodenal switch Dumping syndrome References Buchwald H. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In: Buchwald ...

  10. Familial Gastric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Namrata; Clark, Jeffrey W.; Duda, Dan G.; Hong, Theodore S.; Kwak, Eunice L.; Mullen, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, the less commonly known syndromes also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and characterization of these syndromes require a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, biologists, and pathologists. This article reviews the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Implications for Practice: Although the majority of gastric adenocarcinomas are sporadic with many of those related to chronic Helicobacter pylori infection, approximately 10% of the cases show familial aggregation, and a specific hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. This review describes the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Ultimately, a better understanding of the biology of these conditions should allow early identification and intervention as part of a multidisciplinary approach involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, and pathologists. PMID:26424758

  11. Gastric cancer and trastuzumab: first biologic therapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gunturu, Krishna S.; Woo, Yanghee; Beaubier, Nike; Remotti, Helen E.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains difficult to cure and has a poor overall prognosis. Chemotherapy and multimodality therapy has shown some benefit in the treatment of gastric cancer. Current therapies for gastric cancer have their limitations; thus, we are in need of newer treatment options including targeted therapies. Here, we review the biologic therapy with trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ gastric cancer. PMID:23450234

  12. A review on gastric diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The gastric fundal diverticulae are rare. They can present with variable symptoms. We are enclosing a literature review on gastric fundal diverticulum. Lessons have emerged which may help in the management of this rare condition in future. PMID:22257431

  13. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  14. Primary gastric lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Al-Akwaa, Ahmad M; Siddiqui, Neelam; Al-Mofleh, Ibrahim A

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this review is to describe the various aspects of primary gastric lymphoma and the treatment options currently available. METHODS: After a systematic search of Pubmed, Medscape and MDconsult, we reviewed and retrieved literature regarding gastric lymphoma. RESULTS: Primary gastric lymphoma is rare however, the incidence of this malignancy is increasing. Chronic gastritis secondary to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been considered a major predisposing factor for MALT lymphoma. Immune histochemical marker studies and molecular biology utilizing polymerase chain reaction have facilitated appropriate diagnosis and abolished the need for diagnostic surgical resection. Advances in imaging techniques including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Endoscopic Ultrasonography (EUS) have helped evaluation of tumor extension and invasion. The clinical course and prognosis of this disease is dependent on histopathological sub-type and stage at the time of diagnosis. Controversy remains regarding the best treatment for early stages of this disease. Chemotherapy, surgery and combination have been studied and shared almost comparable results with survival rate of 70%-90%. However, chemotherapy possesses the advantage of preserving gastric anatomy. Radiotherapy alone has been tried and showed good results. Stage IIIE, IVE disease treatment is solely by chemotherapy and surgical resection has been a remote consideration. CONCLUSION: We conclude that methods of diagnosis and staging of the primary gastric lymphoma have dramatically improved. The modalities of treatment are many and probably chemotherapy is superior because of high success rate, preservation of stomach and tolerable complications. PMID:14695759

  15. Gastric perforation secondary to metastasis from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chee Siong; Gumber, Ashutosh; Kiruparan, Pasupathy; Blackmore, Alexander

    2016-07-18

    Gastric perforation secondary to metastasis from breast cancer occurs infrequently. We present the case of a 72-year-old postmenopausal female patient with a known history of lobular carcinoma of the breast who presented to a district general hospital with a clinical diagnosis of an acute abdomen. Further contrast-enhanced CT scan demonstrated free gas and fluid in the abdomen. She underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and onlay Graham's omentopexy patch due to 1×1 cm prepyloric gastric perforation. Final histopathology proved the presence of metastatic malignant cells in the breast origin. We discuss the issues involved in postoperative investigation and management.

  16. [Stomach perforation: an unusual complication of gastric bezoars].

    PubMed

    Hani, Mohamed Aziz; Guesmi, Fethi; Bouasker, Ibtissem; Zoghlami, Ayoub; Najah, Nabil

    2003-05-01

    Bezoars are concretions of stagnant swallowed material in digestive tract. The most frequent are trichobezoars made of hair and phytobezoars composed of undigestible fruits and vegetables fibers. We report a case of a 24-year-old female patient who presented in emergency with an acute peritonitis due to a gastric perforation on bezoars. Gastrotomy, extraction of bezoars, gastric stitching and peritoneal lavage were performed. Post operative period was uneventful. A new careful interrogation into the patient's previous habits found glue-eating custom during the four last years.

  17. Intramural hemorrhage simulating gastric neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sheward, S E; Davis, M; Amparo, E G; Gogel, H K

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of benign gastric ulcer with secondary extensive intramural hemorrhage causing a radiographic appearance consistent with a large ulcerated gastric neoplasm. This is the second such case reported and the first studied with sonography and computed tomographic scan. A brief review of the literature on intramural gastric hematoma is presented.

  18. Fluoxetine and sertraline stimulate gastric acid secretion via a vagal pathway in anaesthetised rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel Salam, Omar M E

    2004-09-01

    The effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, fluoxetine and sertraline on basal, secretagogues (histamine or bethanechol)- and distention-stimulated gastric acid secretion was investigated in the urethane-anaesthetised acute gastric fistula rat. Gastric acid secretion was measured by flushing of the gastric contents with saline every 15 min. Fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) produced a dose-dependent increase in basal gastric acid secretion. These stimulatory effects were abolished by vagotomy. Intraperitoneally administered sertraline also stimulated gastric acid secretion. The stimulatory effect of lower doses (5 mg kg(-1)) of sertraline was similar to that of the higher (30 mg kg(-1)) doses. The gastric secretory response to i.p. sertraline was long lasting (greater than 60 min), and blocked by vagotomy. Intraperitoneally administered fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg kg(-1)) or sertraline (5 mg kg(-1)) also increased gastric secretion induced by histamine, bethanechol or distention. The fluoxetine or sertraline stimulatory effects of histamine-induced acid secretion were abolished by vagotomy. Data indicate a stimulatory effect for fluoxetine and sertraline mediated by vagal nerve on gastric acid secretion in urethane-anaesthetised rats.

  19. Aqueous suspension of anise “Pimpinella anisum” protects rats against chemically induced gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Al Mofleh, Ibrahim A; Alhaider, Abdulqader A; Mossa, Jaber S; Al-Soohaibani, Mohammed O; Rafatullah, Syed

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To substantiate the claims of Unani and Arabian traditional medicine practitioners on the gastroprotective potential effect of a popular spice anise, “Pimpinella anisum L.” on experimentally-induced gastric ulceration and secretion in rats. METHODS: Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by various noxious chemicals including 80% ethanol, 0.2 mol/L NaOH, 25% NaCl and indomethacin. Anti-secretory studies were undertaken using pylorus-ligated Shay rat technique. Levels of gastric non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and wall mucus were estimated and gastric tissue was also examined histologically. Anise aqueous suspension was used in two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) in all experiments. RESULTS: Anise significantly inhibited gastric mu-cosal damage induced by necrotizing agents and indomethacin. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically. In pylorus-ligated Shay rats, anise suspension significantly reduced the basal gastric acid secretion, acidity and completely inhibited the rumenal ulceration. On the other hand, the suspension significantly replenished ethanol-induced depleted levels of gastric mucosal NP-SH and gastric wall mucus concentration. CONCLUSION: Anise aqueous suspension possesses significant cytoprotective and anti-ulcer activities against experimentally-induced gastric lesions. The anti-ulcer effect of anise is possibly prostaglandin-mediated and/or through its anti-secretory and antioxidative properties. PMID:17373749

  20. Mucosal adaptation to aspirin induced gastric damage in humans. Studies on blood flow, gastric mucosal growth, and neutrophil activation.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, J W; Dembinski, A; Stoll, R; Domschke, W; Konturek, S J

    1994-01-01

    The gastropathy associated with the ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin is a common side effect of this class of drugs, but the precise mechanisms by which they cause mucosal damage have not been fully explained. During continued use of an injurious substance, such as aspirin, the extent of gastric mucosal damage decreases and this phenomenon is named gastric adaptation. To assess the extent of mucosal damage by aspirin and subsequent adaptation the effects of 14 days of continuous, oral administration of aspirin (2 g per day) to eight healthy male volunteers was studied. To estimate the rate of mucosal damage, gastroscopy was performed before (day 0) and at days 3, 7, 14 of aspirin treatment. Gastric microbleeding and gastric mucosal blood flow were measured using laser Doppler flowmeter and mucosal biopsy specimens were taken for the estimation of tissue DNA synthesis and RNA and DNA concentration. In addition, the activation of neutrophils in peripheral blood was assessed by measuring their ability to associate with platelets. Aspirin induced acute damage mainly in gastric corpus, reaching at day 3 about 3.5 on the endoscopic Lanza score but lessened to about 1.5 at day 14 pointing to the occurrence of gastric adaptation. Mucosal blood flow increased at day 3 by about 50% in the gastric corpus and by 88% in the antrum. The in vitro DNA synthesis and RNA concentration, an index of mucosal growth, were reduced at day 3 but then increased to reach about 150% of initial value at the end of aspirin treatment. It is concluded that the treatment with aspirin in humans induces gastric adaptation to this agent, which entails the increase in mucosal blood flow, the rise in neutrophil activation, and the enhancement in mucosal growth. PMID:7959223

  1. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-02-21

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright.

  2. Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

  3. Observations on the relation between alcohol absorption and the rate of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, S

    1981-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) is absorbed slowly from the stomach and rapidly from the small intestine, and the rate of its absorption depends on the rate of gastric emptying. When gastric emptying is fast, the absorption of alcohol is fast. When gastric emptying is slow the absorption of alcohol is delayed and peak blood alcohol concentrations are reduced. Alterations of the gastric emptying rate, which may have a physiologic, pharmacologic or pathologic cause, markedly influence the rate of alcohol absorption. The gastric emptying rate makes an important contribution to inter- and intraindividual variations in the rate of alcohol absorption and therefore the timing and magnitude of the acute intoxicating effect of an oral dose of alcohol. PMID:7459787

  4. Protective Effect of Flos Lonicerae against Experimental Gastric Ulcers in Rats: Mechanisms of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Action

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Yun, Nari; Han, Hae-Jung; Kim, Jeom-Yong; Kim, Joo-Young; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2014-01-01

    Flos Lonicerae is one of the oldest and most commonly prescribed herbs in Eastern traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Flos Lonicerae (GC-7101) on experimental gastric ulcer models and its mechanisms of action in gastric ulcer healing. The pharmacological activity of GC-7101 was investigated in rats on HCl/EtOH, indomethacin, water immersion restraint stress induced acute gastric ulcer, and acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. To determine its gastroprotective mechanisms, gastric wall mucus secretion, mucosal PGE2, mucosal NO content, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation and glutathione content, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. GC-7101 significantly attenuated development of acute gastric ulcer and accelerated the healing of acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. In HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer, GC-7101 markedly enhanced gastric wall mucus content which was accompanied by increased mucosal PGE2 and NO production. Furthermore, treatment of GC-7101 exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as evidenced by decreased myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB translocation, inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, and lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These results demonstrated that GC-7101 possesses strong antiulcerogenic effect by modulating oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators. PMID:25610477

  5. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  6. Melanoma with gastric metastases

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Katherine; Serafi, Sam W.; Bhatia, Abhijit S.; Ibarra, Irene; Allen, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations. PMID:27609722

  7. Embolization of Large Gastric Varices Using Vena Cava Filter and Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Jason M.; Shah, Himanshu Stecker, Michael S.; Namyslowski, Jan

    2004-08-15

    A 40-year-old male with alcoholic cirrhosis and portal hypertension presented with acute variceal hemorrhage. Abdominal CT scan and endoscopy revealed large gastric varices. The patient underwent a TIPS procedure. Portal venography demonstrated persistent filling of the large gastric varices with associated high-flow spontaneous splenorenal shunt. Because of the large size of the varices, a Simon-Nitinol filter was used in conjunction with multiple embolization coils to enable successful occlusion of the varices.

  8. Primary intrathoracic gastric volvulus in the neonatal period: a differential diagnosis of esophageal atresia

    PubMed Central

    El Azzouzi, Driss

    2014-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in the neonatal period is a rare surgical emergency. Delays in diagnosis and treatment are life-threatening due to progressive deterioration of the gastric walls. Presentation in this period can be confused with the possibility of esophageal atresia or esophageal web. The upper gastrointestinal tract contrast study is diagnostic in this disease. The authors report a case of acute intrathoracic gastric volvulus diagnosis by radiologic-contrast-study in 1-day-old girl that was confirmed at surgery. The physiopathology, classification and different presentations of this entity are briefly reviewed. PMID:25309661

  9. Gastric cancer and family history

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Identifying individuals at high risk is important for surveillance and prevention of gastric cancer. Having first-degree relatives diagnosed with gastric cancer is a strong and consistent risk factor for gastric cancer, but the pathogenic mechanisms behind this familial aggregation are unclear. Against this background, we reviewed the risk factors for gastric cancer in those with a first-degree relative with gastric cancer, and the possible causes for familial clustering of gastric cancer including bacterial factors, inherited genetic susceptibility, environmental factors or a combination thereof. Among individuals with a family history, current or past Helicobacter pylori infection, having two or more first-degree affected relatives or female gender was associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. To date, no specific single nucleotide polymorphism has been shown to be associated with familial clustering of gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is the most important strategy for preventing gastric cancer in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients, particularly those in their 20s and 30s. Early H. pylori eradication could prevent the progression to intestinal metaplasia and reduce the synergistic effect on gastric carcinogenesis in individuals with both H. pylori infection and a family history. Endoscopic surveillance is also expected to benefit individuals with a family history. Further large-scale, prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and optimal time point for endoscopy in this population. Moreover, genome-wide association studies that incorporate environmental and dietary factors on a ‘big data’ basis will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:27809451

  10. Effects of gastric vagotomy on visceral cell proliferation induced by ventromedial hypothalamic lesions: role of vagal hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Kintaka, Yuri; Osaka, Toshimasa; Suzuki, Yoko; Hashiguchi, Takeo; Niijima, Akira; Kageyama, Haruaki; Fumiko, Takenoya; Shioda, Seiji; Inoue, Shuji

    2009-07-01

    In rats, ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) lesions induce cell proliferation in the visceral organs (stomach, small intestine, liver, and pancreas) due to hyperactivity of the vagus nerve. To investigate the effects of selective gastric vagotomy on VMH lesion-induced cell proliferation and secretion of gastric acid, we assessed the mitotic index (the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunopositive cells per 1,000 cells in the gastric mucosal cell layer) and measured the volume of secreted basal gastric acid. Furthermore, to explore whether or not ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions (AGML) lead to ulcer formation in VMH-lesioned rats, we assessed the ulcer index of both sham-operated and VMH-lesioned rats after administration of ethanol. VMH lesions resulted in an increased mitotic index and thickness of the gastric mucosal cell layer and gave rise to the hypersecretion of gastric acid. Selective gastric vagotomy restored these parameters to normal without affecting cell proliferation in other visceral organs. Ethanol-induced AGML caused ulcers in sham VMH-lesioned rats, whereas VMH-lesioned rats were less likely to exhibit such ulcers. These results suggest that VMH lesion-induced vagally mediated cell proliferation in the visceral organs is associated with hyperfunction in these organs, and VMH lesion-induced resistance to ethanol may be due to thickening of the gastric mucosal cell layer resulting from cell proliferation in the gastric mucosa-this in turn is due to hyperactivity of the vagus nerve.

  11. Role of gastric blood flow, neutrophil infiltration, and mucosal cell proliferation in gastric adaptation to aspirin in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T; Stachura, J; Dembinski, A; Majka, J

    1994-01-01

    Gastric mucosa exhibits the ability to adapt to ulcerogenic action of aspirin but the mechanism of this phenomenon is unknown. In this study, acute gastric lesions were produced by single or repeated doses of acidified aspirin in rats with intact or resected salivary glands and with intact or suppressed synthase of nitric oxide. A single oral dose of aspirin produced a dose dependent increase in gastric lesions accompanied by considerable blood neutrophilia and mucosal neutrophil infiltration, significant reduction in gastric blood flow, and almost complete suppression of biosynthesis of prostaglandins. After rechallenge with aspirin, the mucosal damage became smaller and progressively declined with repeated aspirin insults. Gastric adaptation to aspirin was accompanied by a significant rise in gastric blood flow, reduction in both blood neutrophilia and mucosal neutrophil infiltration, and a remarkable increase in mucosal cell regeneration and mucosal content of epidermal growth factor. Salivectomy, which reduced the mucosal content of epidermal growth factor, aggravated the initial mucosal damage induced by the first exposure to acidified aspirin but did not prevent the adaptation of this mucosa to repeated aspirin insults. Pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), a specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, eliminated the hyperaemic response to repeated aspirin but did not abolish the development of adaptation to aspirin showing that the maintenance of the gastric blood flow plays little part in this adaptation. In conclusion, the stomach adapts readily to repeated aspirin insults and this is accompanied by a considerable reduction in blood neutrophilia and the severity of neutrophil infiltration and by an extensive proliferation of mucosal cells possibly involving epidermal growth factor. PMID:7525421

  12. Molecular biology of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, A; Rodríguez Braun, E; Pérez Fidalgo, A; Chirivella González, I

    2007-04-01

    Despite its decreasing incidence overall, gastric cancer is still a challenging disease. Therapy is based mainly upon surgical resection when the tumour remains localised in the stomach. Conventional chemotherapy may play a role in treating micrometastatic disease and is effective as palliative therapy for recurrent or advanced disease. However, the knowledge of molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer pathogenesis is still in its infancy and the contribution of molecular biology to the development of new targeted therapies in gastric cancer is far behind other more common cancers such as breast, colon or lung. This review will focus first on the difference of two well defined types of gastric cancer: intestinal and diffuse. A discussion of the cell of origin of gastric cancer with some intriguing data implicating bone marrow derived cells will follow, and a comprehensive review of different genetic alterations detected in gastric cancer, underlining those that may have clinical, therapeutic or prognostic implications.

  13. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  14. Wandering spleen causing gastric outlet obstruction and pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ramon; Lobert, Philip; Herman, Richard; O'Malley, Ryan; Mychaliska, George

    2010-12-01

    Excessive splenic mobility (i.e. wandering spleen) is a rare condition caused by laxity or deficiency of all the spleen's normal ligamentous attachments in the left hypochondrium. In the pediatric population, a wandering spleen may present as an incidental finding, an abdominal mass or torsion of the vascular pedicle causing venous congestion and acute abdominal pain, and eventually infarction. We present an unusual case of wandering spleen causing pancreatitis and gastric outlet obstruction via direct external compression.

  15. A gastric acid secretion model.

    PubMed Central

    de Beus, A M; Fabry, T L; Lacker, H M

    1993-01-01

    A theory of gastric acid production and self-protection is formulated mathematically and examined for clinical and experimental correlations, implications, and predictions using analytic and numerical techniques. In our model, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, as represented by an archetypal gastron, consists of two chambers, circulatory and luminal, connected by two different regions of ion exchange. The capillary circulation of the gastric mucosa is arranged in arterial-venous arcades which pass from the gastric glands up to the surface epithelial lining of the lumen; therefore the upstream region of the capillary chamber communicates with oxyntic cells, while the downstream region communicates with epithelial cells. Both cell types abut the gastric lumen. Ion currents across the upstream region are calculated from a steady-state oxyntic cell model with active ion transport, while the downstream ion fluxes are (facilitated) diffusion driven or secondarily active. Water transport is considered iso-osmotic. The steady-state model is solved in closed form for low gastric lumen pH. A wide variety of previously performed static and dynamic experiments on ion and CO2 transport in the gastric lumen and gastric blood supply are for the first time correlated with each other for an (at least) semiquantitative test of current concepts of gastric acid secretion and for the purpose of model verification. Agreement with the data is reported with a few outstanding and instructive exceptions. Model predictions and implications are also discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8396457

  16. Rett syndrome and gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Malay B; Bittner, James G; Edwards, Michael A

    2008-04-01

    Rett Syndrome is associated with decreased peristaltic esophageal waves and gastric dysmotility, resulting in swallowing difficulties and gastric dilation. Rarely, gastric necrosis and perforation occur. Our case represents the third reported case of gastric necrosis and perforation associated with Rett Syndrome. A 31-year-old female after 11 hours of intermittent emesis and constant, sharp abdominal pain presented with evidence of multiorgan system failure including hypovolemic shock, metabolic acidosis, coagulopathy, and hepatorenal failure. A chest radiograph revealed intra-abdominal free air necessitating emergent laparotomy. During exploration, a severely dilated, thin-walled stomach with an area of necrosis and gross perforation was noted. Wedge resection of the necrotic tissue and primary closure were performed. Despite aggressive perioperative resuscitation and ventilation support, the patient died 3 hours postoperatively secondary to refractory shock and hypoxemia. Severe gastric dilation can occur with Rett Syndrome and may cause gastric necrosis and perforation. Prolonged elevated gastric pressures can decrease perfusion and may contribute to perforation. Timely decompression via percutaneous endoscopic or surgical gastrostomy could decrease the risk of perforation particularly when significant gastric distention is present. Consideration of gastric necrosis and perforation in patients with Rett Syndrome may lead to earlier intervention and decreased mortality.

  17. Pattern-Recognition Receptors and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with an increased risk of several human malignancies, a classic example being gastric adenocarcinoma (GC). Development of GC is known to result from infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, which initially induces acute inflammation and, in a subset of patients, progresses over time to chronic inflammation, gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and finally intestinal-type GC. Germ-line encoded receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical for generating mature pro-inflammatory cytokines that are crucial for both Th1 and Th2 responses. Given that H. pylori is initially targeted by PRRs, it is conceivable that dysfunction within genes of this arm of the immune system could modulate the host response against H. pylori infection, and subsequently influence the emergence of GC. Current evidence suggests that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) (NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3), a C-type lectin receptor (DC-SIGN), and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA-5), are involved in both the recognition of H. pylori and gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, polymorphisms in genes involved in the TLR (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD14) and NLR (NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, NLRP12, NLRX1, CASP1, ASC, and CARD8) signaling pathways have been shown to modulate the risk of H. pylori infection, gastric precancerous lesions, and/or GC. Further, the modulation of PRRs has been suggested to suppress H. pylori-induced inflammation and enhance GC cell apoptosis, highlighting their potential relevance in GC therapeutics. In this review, we present current advances in our understanding of the role of the TLR and NLR signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of GC, address the involvement of other recently identified PRRs in GC, and discuss the potential implications of PRRs in GC immunotherapy

  18. [The gastric volvulus as a cause of dyspnea. A case report].

    PubMed

    León Valdivies, Yusbiel José; Saínz Menéndez, Benito; Fernández García, Sergio; Osés Herrera, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    The gastric volvulus is a not very frequent entity that can show up in acute form or chronic. The acute volvulus can show up with the triad of Borchardt, the chronic one can be asymptomatic and its diagnosis is usually incidental. We present shows a case of an airplane pilot that presents dyspnea to the medium efforts with cough related with episodes of gastric acidity mainly after profuse foods. The diagnostic confirmation was carried out by means of radiological simple and contrasted studies. A surgical intervention was performed and the symptoms disappeared without other alterations in a period of pursuit of one year.

  19. Gut microbiota and gastric disease.

    PubMed

    Sgambato, Dolores; Miranda, Agnese; Romano, Lorenzo; Romano, Marco

    2017-02-15

    The gut microbiota may be considered a crucial "organ" of human body because of its role in the maintenance of the balance between health as well as disease. It is mainly located in the small bowel and colon, while, the stomach was long thought to be sterile in particular for its high acid production. In particular, stomach was considered "an hostile place" for bacterial growth until the identification of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Now, the stomach and its microbiota can be considered as two different "organs" that share the same place and they have an impact on each other. In fact microscopic structures of gastric mucosa (mucus layer and luminal contents) influence local microflora and vice versa. In this article our attention is directed specifically to explain the effects of this "cross-talk" on gastric homeostais. The gastric microbiota grossly consists of two macrogroups: HP and non-HP bacteria. Here, we review the relationship between these two populations and their role in the development of the different gastric disorders: functional dyspepsia, gastric premalignant lesions (chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of the gastric mucosa) and gastric cancer. Moreover we focus on the effects on the gastric microbiota of exogenous interference as diet and use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).

  20. Gastric antiulcer, antisecretory and cytoprotective properties of celery (Apium graveolens) in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Howiriny, Tawfeq; Alsheikh, Abdulmalik; Alqasoumi, Saleh; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; ElTahir, Kamal; Rafatullah, Syed

    2010-07-01

    In the present investigation, an ethanol extract of celery [Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae/Umbelliferae)], at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, was evaluated for antigastric ulcer activity using various experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. Ulcers were induced by indomethacin, cytodestructive agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and 25% NaCl) and cold restraint stress. Gastric secretory studies were undertaken by using pylorus ligation (Shay rat model). In addition to gastric wall mucus (GWM), non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also estimated in gastric tissues after 80% ethanol treatment. Pretreatment of celery extract produced dose-dependent reduction in all experimentally induced gastric lesions. Ethanol (80%) decreased the levels of GWM, NP-SH and increase in MDA concentration in gastric tissue. Celery extract showed the ability to significantly replenish the ethanol-induced depleted levels of GWM and gastric mucosal NP-SH. The gastric mucosal MDA level was also significantly lowered in extract pretreated rats. The celery extract showed stomach protection against the models used for ulcerogenesis. Results were further confirmed by using histopathological assessment. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of various chemical constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, volatile oils, alkaloids, sterols and/or triterpenes. Acute toxicity test revealed no deleterious or toxic symptoms or mortality over a period of 14 days. However, the LD(50) was found to be 7.55 g/kg, and showed a large margin of safety. The results suggest that Apium graveolens extract significantly protects the gastric mucosa and suppresses the basal gastric secretion in rats, possibly through its antioxidant potential.

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated acid protects against indomethacin-induced gastric injury.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Peña, Elizabeth Arlen; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Chávez-Piña, Aracely Evangelina

    2012-12-15

    Previous studies have shown gastroprotective effect of fish oil in several experimental models. However, the mechanisms and active compounds underlying this effect are not fully understood. Fish oil has several components; among them, one of the most studied is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid. The aim of this study was to examine the gastroprotective effect of DHA as a pure compound in a rat model of indomethacin-induced gastric injury as well as elucidate some of the mechanism(s) behind DHA's gastroprotective effect. Indomethacin was orally administered to induce an acute gastric injury (3, 10 and 30mg/kg). Omeprazol (a proton pump inhibitor, 30mg/kg, p.o.) and DHA (3, 10, 30mg/kg, p.o.) were gavaged 30 and 120min, respectively, before indomethacin insult (30mg/kg p.o.). Three hours after indomethacin administration, rats were sacrificed, gastric injury was evaluated by determining the total damaged area. A sample of gastric tissue was harvested and processed to quantify prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Indomethacin produced gastric injury in dose-dependent manner. DHA protected against indomethacin-induced gastric damage, and this effect was comparable with omeprazol's gastroprotective effect. DHA did not reverse the indomethacin-induced reduction of PGE(2) gastric levels. In contrast, DHA partially prevented the indomethacin-induced increase in LTB(4) gastric levels. This is the first report demonstrating DHA's gastroprotective effect as a pure compound. Furthermore, the results reveal that the gastroprotective effect is mediated by a decrease in gastric LTB(4) levels in indomethacin-induced gastric damage.

  2. Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.

  3. Pediatric Gastric Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela-Ramos, Marco Cesar; Mendizábal-Méndez, Ana Luisa; Ríos-Contreras, Carlos Alberto; Rodríguez-Montes, Claudia Esther

    2010-01-01

    Neoplasms from germ cell origin are a heterogeneous group of tumors rarely seen in the pediatric population, teratoma is the most frequent among them. They can occur in either gonadal or extragonadal locations. Extragonadal teratoma arising from abdominal viscera is very unusual. There are less than a hundred reported cases of gastric teratoma in the worldwide literature. Since the occurrence of this pathology in the pediatric age group is quite rare, we describe a case of a teratoma located in the lesser curvature of the stomach in an infant with an emphasis in radiologic-pathologic correlation. PMID:22470691

  4. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) offers protection against gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin in rats.

    PubMed

    Campos, A R; Barros, A I S; Santos, F A; Rao, V S N

    2003-12-01

    The effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract were analyzed in rats on acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin and were compared to those produced by caffeine, a methylxanthine. Guarana (50 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) pretreated animals showed a significant reduction in the severity of gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol in a manner similar to caffeine (20 and 30 mg/kg p.o.). Against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, guarana at a higher dose offered significant protection but caffeine was ineffective at the doses tested. In 4 h pylorus-ligated rats, both guarana and caffeine caused significant diminution in the gastric secretory volume as well as the total acidity. Gastrointestinal transit in mice was not significantly affected by either of these agents. These findings indicate that guarana has a gastroprotective property that needs further elucidation as regards to its mechanism.

  5. Rapunzel syndrome resulting in gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Parakh, J S; McAvoy, A; Corless, D J

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of an 18-year-old female patient with no past medical history who presented to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain and vomiting on the background of a long history of ingesting hair (trichophagia). Computed tomography revealed pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in keeping with visceral perforation. In addition, a large hair bolus was seen extending in contiguity from the stomach to the jejunum. A laparotomy was performed, revealing an anterior gastric perforation secondary to a 120cm long trichobezoar, which had formed a cast of the entire stomach, duodenum and proximal jejunum. The bezoar was removed and an omental patch repair to the anterior ulcer was performed. The patient made an excellent postoperative recovery and was discharged home with psychiatric follow-up review.

  6. [Anisakiasis - a little-known parasitic zoonosis].

    PubMed

    Bardoň, Jan; Harna, Jiří; Pijáček, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Parasites of the family Anisakidae cause enteric parasitic zoonoses developing after consumption of inadequately cooked marine fish. Cases of such diseases are reported mainly from Japan or other countries where raw or uncooked fish are traditionally consumed. The presented short communication briefly reports detection of larvae of Pseudoterranova spp., parasites of the family Anisakidae, in a fresh chilled angler-fish (Lophius piscatorius) bought at a retail store in the Czech Republic.

  7. The fundamental hemodynamic mechanism underlying gastric "stress ulceration" in cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, R W; Bulkley, G B; Hamilton, S R; Morris, J B; Haglund, U H; Meilahn, J E

    1987-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic ulceration of the gastric mucosa is seen frequently in patients with hypovolemic or cardiogenic shock. Although such lesions clearly are related to regional gastric ischemia, little attention has been directed at the underlying mechanism(s) mediating the ischemia itself. To this end, anesthetized pigs were subjected to sustained cardiogenic shock (mild hemorrhage and pericardial tamponade) such that cardiac output was reduced to 38 +/- 1% of the baseline level for 4 hours, followed by release of the tamponade, reinfusion of the shed blood, and resuscitation for 2 hours. During the period of shock, there was profound regional gastric ischemia, resulting from severe and disproportionate gastric vasoconstriction. "Blinded" gross and microscopic evaluation of the stomachs removed after the experiment revealed severe mucosal ischemic necrosis, hemorrhage, and ulceration, whereas sham-operated pigs showed no lesions. The characteristics of this model therefore mimic the essential features of the gastric "stress ulceration" syndrome. Prior confirmed total alpha-adrenergic blockade with phenoxybenzamine failed to alter these features significantly. In contrast, prior ablation of the renin-angiotensin axis, whether by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with teprotide or by bilateral nephrectomy, significantly and substantially ameliorated the ischemia, vasospasm, and mucosal injury. In this model of cardiogenic shock, acute gastric mucosal "stress ulceration" is caused by a disproportionately severe regional gastric ischemia resulting from selective splanchnic vasospasm that is unaffected by sympathetic blockade but abolished by prior ablation of the renin-angiotensin axis. Like nonocclusive small bowel ischemia, ischemic colitis, and the "shock liver" syndrome, gastric "stress ulceration" is yet another component of the multiple splanchnic organ failure syndrome that appears to be mediated primarily by the remarkable sensitivity of the splanchnic

  8. [Micro-organism translocation and acute anastomosis inflammation after stomach resection].

    PubMed

    Gulov, M K; Kurbonov, K M

    2003-10-01

    The results of examination of 42 patients with an acute anastomositis after performance of gastric resection were analyzed. Clinical classification was elaborated for detailed interpretation of the anastomosits diagnosis and choice of therapy. Close correlative inter-relatioship between severity of anastomositis and degree of gastric mucosa colonization by micro-organisms was established basing on analysis of the laboratory and bacteriological investigations results.

  9. Lethal gastric hemorrhage from a caliber-persistent artery of the antrum - a branch of the right gastric artery

    PubMed Central

    Gurzu, S; Copotoiu, C; Molnar, C; Azamfirei, L; Jung, I

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To present a rarely diagnosed case of gastric Dieulafoy lesion. Description of case: A 62-year-old male was hospitalized with hematemesis. Laparoscopic ligature of two gastric ulcers located in the antrum was performed but the upper gastrointestinal bleeding was not stopped. The patient was transferred to another surgical clinic and he underwent an emergency abdominal laparotomy with re-suture of gastric ulcers. Considering his general condition and another recurrent bleeding, he was transferred to our hospital and a total gastrectomy of necessity was performed. The patient died four days after surgery because of sepsis. At autopsy, we identified diffuse peritonitis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and chronic pancreatitis with expanded fibrotic areas. Histological examination of the surgical specimen showed oversized tortuous vessels in the gastric submucosal layer with expansion into mucosa. Some of the vessels presented acute and/or organized thrombi with recanalization, in the others, lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques were observed. Based on these criteria, the ‘caliber-persistent artery’, also known as ‘Dieulafoy’s lesion’, was diagnosed. Conclusion: Dieulafoy’s lesion should be suspected in every case of gastrointestinal bleeding in both adults and children. PMID:25336884

  10. Topographic localization of gastric lesions and key role of plasma bicarbonate concentration in dogs with experimentally induced gastric dilatation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C J; Keith, J C; April, M

    1987-02-01

    The canine gastric response to acute dilatation, its correlation with selected systemic cardiovascular changes, and preliminary study of its modulation by membrane-stabilizing agents were studied in 21 Beagle dogs. Gastric mucosal damage and adverse cardiovascular sequelae were induced by inflation of an intragastric balloon to 60 mm of Hg in each anesthetized dog for 2.5 hours. At this time, dogs were given 1 of 4 treatments: control; lidocaine HCl, 2.2 mg bolus + 66 micrograms/min, IV; prednisolone succinate, 6.6 mg, IV; and zinc sulfate, 2.2 mg bolus + 66 micrograms/min, IV. After treatments were given, there was a 4-hour deflation period. Throughout the 6.5 hours, continuous measurements were made of stroke volume, arterial blood pressure, PaO2, PaCO2, and plasma HCO3- concentration. Gastric lesions, assessed by planimetric analysis of ulcer indices, were limited to the fundus and corpus and were significantly decreased by lidocaine administration. As seen by histopathologic examination, a sharply delineated transverse area bordering the corporeal-antral junction near the lesser curvature demonstrated minimal resistance to ulceration and showed mucus depletion. Plasma HCO3- concentration, base excess, and CO2 values were negatively correlated with development of gastric damage, indicating that plasma HCO3- concentration has a key role in mucosal resistance to ulcerogenesis.

  11. Splenic Artery Embolization for the Treatment of Gastric Variceal Bleeding Secondary to Splenic Vein Thrombosis Complicated by Necrotizing Pancreatitis: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Kyu; Hur, Young Hoe; Koh, Yang Seok

    2016-01-01

    Splenic vein thrombosis is a relatively common finding in pancreatitis. Gastric variceal bleeding is a life-threatening complication of splenic vein thrombosis, resulting from increased blood flow to short gastric vein. Traditionally, splenectomy is considered the treatment of choice. However, surgery in necrotizing pancreatitis is dangerous, because of severe inflammation, adhesion, and bleeding tendency. In the Warshaw operation, gastric variceal bleeding is rare, even though splenic vein is resected. Because the splenic artery is also resected, blood flow to short gastric vein is not increased problematically. Herein, we report a case of gastric variceal bleeding secondary to splenic vein thrombosis complicated by necrotizing pancreatitis successfully treated with splenic artery embolization. Splenic artery embolization could be the best treatment option for gastric variceal bleeding when splenectomy is difficult such as in case associated with severe acute pancreatitis or associated with severe adhesion or in patients with high operation risk. PMID:27891150

  12. Yogurt containing Lactobacillus gasseri OLL 2716 (LG21 yogurt) accelerated the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Masayuki; Shimizu, Kimiko; Kurakazu, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    We have reported that LG21 yogurt containing Lactobacillus gasseri OLL 2716 (LG21 yogurt) inhibits the formation of HCl-induced acute gastric lesions through the generation of prostaglandin E₂. This study aimed to determine the role of viable Lactobacillus in the healing of acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer. LG21 yogurt or γ-ray radiated LG21 yogurt was administered orally twice a day for 10 d at a dose of 5 ml/kg. LG21 yogurt significantly accelerated the healing of the ulcer, but γ-ray radiated LG21 yogurt did not. However, both yogurts significantly inhibited HCl-induced gastric erosive lesions and enhanced the generation of gastric mucosal prostaglandin E₂. From the above results, it was found that viable bacteria are needed to accelerate the healing of chronic gastric ulcer, but not to inhibit gastric lesions.

  13. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management.

  14. Biomarkers in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mokra, Daniela; Kosutova, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its milder form acute lung injury (ALI) may result from various diseases and situations including sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, acute pancreatitis, aspiration of gastric contents, near-drowning etc. ALI/ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar injury, lung edema formation, neutrophil-derived inflammation, and surfactant dysfunction. Clinically, ALI/ARDS is manifested by decreased lung compliance, severe hypoxemia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Severity and further characteristics of ALI/ARDS may be detected by biomarkers in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (or tracheal aspirate) of patients. Changed concentrations of individual markers may suggest injury or activation of the specific types of lung cells-epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, etc.), and thereby help in diagnostics and in evaluation of the patient's clinical status and the treatment efficacy. This chapter reviews various biomarkers of acute lung injury and evaluates their usefulness in diagnostics and prognostication of ALI/ARDS.

  15. Protective effects of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on gastric ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiao-Chang; Wu, Yong-Jie; Gao, Ming-Tang; Li, Wen-Guang; Zhao, Ning; Wang, Zeng-Lu; Bao, Chun-Jie; Yan, Zhen; Zhang, Ying-Qi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effects of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic gastric ulcers in rats and to compare the results in therapy of human gastric ulcers by different administration methods. METHODS: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was administered (initial single or continuous administration) into rats either intragastrically or intramuscularly before (induced acute gastric ulcer) or after (induced chronic gastric ulcer) the applications of inducing agents, and each animal was sacrificed to observe the protective effects of BPC 157 on gastric ulcers. RESULTS: Both intramuscular (im) and intragastric (ig) administration of BPC 157 could apparently reduce the ulcer area and accelerate the healing of induced ulcer in different models and the effect of im administered BPC 157 was better than that of ig. The rats treated with higher dosages (400 ng/kg, 800 ng/kg) of BPC 157 (im and ig) showed significantly less lesion (P < 0.01 vs excipient or saline control), the inhibition ratio of ulcer formation varied between 45.7% and 65.6%, from all measurements except 400 ng/kg BPC 157 in pylorus ligation induced model (P < 0.05), in which the inhibition rate was 54.2%. When im administered (800 ng/kg BPC 157) in three models, the inhibition ratio of ulcer formation was 65.5%, 65.6% and 59.9%, respectively, which was better than that of famotidine (its inhibition rate was 60.8%, 57.2% and 34.3%, respectively). Continuous application of BPC 157 (in chronic acetate induced gastric ulcer) could accelerate rebuilding of glandular epithelium and formation of granulation tissue (P < 0.05 at 200 ng/kg and P < 0.01 at 400 ng/kg and 800 ng/kg vs excipient or saline control). CONCLUSION: Both im and ig administered gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 can apparently ameliorate acute gastric ulcer in rats and antagonize the protracted effect of acetate challenge on chronic ulcer. The effect of im administration of BPC 157 is better than that of ig, and the

  16. Inflammation, atrophy, and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.

    2006-01-01

    The association between chronic inflammation and cancer is now well established. This association has recently received renewed interest with the recognition that microbial pathogens can be responsible for the chronic inflammation observed in many cancers, particularly those originating in the gastrointestinal system. A prime example is Helicobacter pylori, which infects 50% of the world’s population and is now known to be responsible for inducing chronic gastric inflammation that progresses to atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer. This Review provides an overview of recent progress in elucidating the bacterial properties responsible for colonization of the stomach, persistence in the stomach, and triggering of inflammation, as well as the host factors that have a role in determining whether gastritis progresses to gastric cancer. We also discuss how the increased understanding of the relationship between inflammation and gastric cancer still leaves many questions unanswered regarding recommendations for prevention and treatment. PMID:17200707

  17. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mean Abnormal results may be due to: Stomach (gastric) cancer Gastritis , when the lining of the stomach becomes ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Biopsy Peptic Ulcer Stomach Cancer Stomach Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  18. Gastric Rupture in Pregnancy: Case Series from a Tertiary Institution in Rwanda and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ntirushwa, David; Rulisa, Stephen; Muhorakeye, Febronie; Bazzett-Matabele, Lisa; Rurangwa, Theogene; Small, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric rupture is a rare, life-threatening condition during pregnancy. Case study We present three cases of gastric perforation during pregnancy and the puerperium. The first patient presented with gastric perforation 4 days following an uncomplicated cesarean delivery for obstetric indications. She initially complained of epigastric pain; however, those symptoms resolved. She later demonstrated worsening abdominal distension, intra-abdominal free fluid, and signs of peritonitis. At laparotomy, an ascariasis-associated gastric rupture was diagnosed. She died from sepsis 4 days following the laparotomy. The second patient presented 19 days following a normal vaginal delivery. She presented with hemodynamic instability and underwent emergent laparotomy due to suspected septic shock peritonitis. Gastric rupture was diagnosed intraoperatively. She improved clinically and was discharged home. The third patient underwent emergency cesarean delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status in the setting of preeclampsia. She was initially diagnosed with ascites and pulmonary edema as a result of preeclampsia. Later in her course, she developed features in favor of acute abdomen and signs of sepsis. At the time of emergent laparotomy, a gastric rupture was identified and repaired. She died 2 days later from sepsis. Conclusion We report the management and outcome of three cases of pregnancy-related gastric rupture. To our knowledge, these three cases represent the largest series of pregnancy-related gastric ruptures from a single institution. PMID:28078172

  19. Gene methylation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

    2013-09-23

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.

  20. Endovascular management of gastric varices.

    PubMed

    Saad, Wael E

    2014-11-01

    Bleeding from gastric varices is a major complication of portal hypertension. Although less common than bleeding associated with esophageal varices, gastric variceal bleeding has a higher mortality. From an endovascular perspective,transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) to decompress the portal circulation and/or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) are utilized to address bleeding gastric varices. Until recently, there was a clear medical cultural divide between the strategy of decompressing the portal circulation (TIPS creation, for example) and transvenous obliteration for the management of gastric varices. However, the practice of BRTO is gaining acceptance in the United States and its practice is spreading rapidly. Recently, the American College of Radiology has identified BRTO to be a viable alternative to TIPS in particular anatomical and clinical scenarios. However, the anatomical and clinical applications of BRTO were not defined beyond the conservative approach of resorting to BRTO in non-TIPS candidates. The article discusses the outcomes of BRTO and TIPS for the management of gastric varices individually or in combination. Definitions, endovascular technical concepts and contemporary vascular classifications of gastric variceal systems are described in order to help grasp the complexity of the hemodynamic pathology and hopefully help define the pathology better for future reporting and lay the ground for more defined stratification of patients not only based on comorbidity and hepatic reserve but on anatomy and hemodynamic classifications.

  1. Management of acute variceal bleeding: emphasis on endoscopic therapy.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Andrés

    2010-05-01

    Acute variceal bleeding is one of the most serious and feared complications of patients with portal hypertension. The most common cause of portal hypertension is advanced liver disease. Patients with esophageal and gastric varices may bleed because of a progressive increase in portal pressure that causes them to grow and finally rupture. This article will review the current management strategies for acute variceal bleeding with emphasis on endoscopic therapy for the acute episode.

  2. [Some aspects of the complex treatment of acute suppurative perionitis].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, M M; Roĭ, V P; Zaritskiĭ, I; Konovalenko, V V; Mellin, V M

    1976-10-01

    The authors present an analysis of the results of complex treatment in 4318 patients operated upon for acute peritonitis, caused by acute appendicitis, perforating gastric and duodenal ulcers, acute cholecystitis, ruptures and perforations of the intestine and other surgical and gynecological diseases. Patients with diffuse purulent peritonitis showed marked disorders in protein-aminoacid, nitrogen, and water electrolyte metabolism, acid-base balance, a reduced nonspecific immune responsiveness of the organism. Therpeutic tactics was delineated taking into account the revealed changes.

  3. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do PMID:26566288

  4. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do.

  5. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system relation.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Suran, Jelena; Barisic, Ivan; Dzidic, Senka; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system-relation, its close participation in Moncada's (maintained vascular integrity, platelets control) homeostatic healing response of NO-system to injury. Namely, BPC 157's particular healing effect also affects all events after vascular integrity loss (dependent on circumstances, it reduces either thrombosis (abdominal aorta anastomosis) or bleeding/thrombocytopenia (amputation, heparin, warfarin, aspirin)) and in a series of different injurious models, acute and chronic, BPC 157 consistently advances healing after severe injuries in various tissues spontaneously unable to heal; stimulates egr-1 and naB2 genes; exhibits high safety (LD1 not achieved)). Hypothesis, that BPC 157 (since formed constitutively in the gastric mucosa, stable in human gastric juice, along with significance of NO-synthase and the basal formation of NO in stomach mucosa, greater than that seen in other tissues) exhibits a general, effective competing both with L-arginine analogues (i. e., L-NAME) and L-arginine, and that this has some physiologic importance (NO-generation), later, practically supports its beneficial effects illustrating BPC 157 and NOsystem mutual (with L-NAME/L-arginine; alone and together) relations in (i) gastric mucosa and mucosal protection, following alcohol lesions, in cytoprotection course, NO-generation, and blood pressure regulation; (ii) alcohol acute/chronic intoxication, and withdrawal; (iii) cardiovascular disturbances, chronic heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and arrhythmias; (iv) disturbances after hypokalemia and hyperkalemia, and potassium-cell membrane dysfunction; and finally, in (v) complex healing failure, proved by the fistulas healing, colocutaneous and esophagocutaneous. However, how this advantage of modulating NO-system (i. e., particular effect on eNOS gene), may be practically translated into an enhanced clinical performance remains to be determined.

  6. Pembrolizumab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery in Treating Adult Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cardia Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-30

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer

  7. Rare case of Helicobacter pylori-related gastric ulcer: Malignancy or pseudomorphism?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting-Ting; Qiu, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Lu; Wan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogen and the most frequent cause of gastric ulcers. There is also a close correlation between the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the incidence of gastric cancer. We present the case of a 38-year-old woman referred by her primary care physician for screening positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), which showed a nodular strong accumulation point with standardized uptake value 5.6 in the gastric fundus. Gastroscopy was then performed, and a single arched ulcer, 12 mm in size, was found in the gastric fundus. Histopathological examination of the lesion revealed chronic mucosal inflammation with acute inflammation and H. pylori infection. There was an obvious mitotic phase with widespread lymphoma. Formal anti-H. pylori treatment was carried out. One month later, a gastroscopy showed a single arched ulcer, measuring 10 mm in size in the gastric fundus. Histopathological examination revealed chronic mucosal inflammation with acute inflammation and a very small amount of H. pylori infection. The mitotic phase was 4/10 high power field, with some heterotypes and an obvious nucleolus. Follow-up gastroscopy 2 mo later showed the gastric ulcer in stage S2. The mucosal swelling had markedly improved. The patient remained asymptomatic, and a follow-up PET-CT was performed 6 mo later. The nodular strong accumulation point had disappeared. Follow-up gastroscopy showed no evidence of malignant cancer. H. pylori-associated severe inflammation can lead to neoplastic changes in histiocytes. This underscores the importance of eradicating H. pylori, especially in those with mucosal lesions, and ensuring proper follow-up to prevent or even reverse early gastric cancer. PMID:23569348

  8. [The Soupault-Bucaillle operation in the treatment of Billroth II gastric resection syndrome].

    PubMed

    Marchesi, M; Biffoni, M; Tartaglia, F; Nobili-Benedetti, R; Picchi, P; Pugliese, F R; Lentini, A; Stocco, F; Campana, F P

    1992-04-01

    The study analyzes the benefits related to the gastroduodenojejunoplasty (GDJP) according to Soupault & Bucaille, adopted as the corrective treatment of the Billroth II gastric resection syndrome in those cases resistant to the dieting-pharmacological supports. Our experience is based on 18 cases (13 males, 5 females, mean age 39 yrs), treated from 1982 to 1987 with GDJP for a gastric resection syndrome. The patients were observed 5 years after their resection: 10 presented with an atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy and all had a diffuse acute phlogosis in presence of biliary storage. Manual anastomoses were performed in the first 8 cases, while staplers were used in the remaining cases. Results were quite satisfying; no operative mortality or specific complications, nor pain and biliary vomiting were registered; 14 patients over 18 (77%) gained weight significantly; only 1 patient reported low-intense early "dumping-like" symptoms easily controlled by medical therapy. Endoscopy showed no biliary reflux in all cases. Biopsies of the stump, carried on before and after the GDJP intervention, showed a marked reduction of the inflammatory aspects in 76% (13) of the patients. Among the 10 patients with atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy, only 2 (20%) presented a significant increase in the number of gastric parietal cells and gastric principal cells.

  9. Effects of beta-adrenoceptor drug stimulation on various models of gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Esplugues, J.; Lloris, J. M.; Martí-Bonmatí, E.; Morcillo, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    1. Experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of the pharmacological activation of beta-adrenoceptors on various models of gastric ulcer in the rat. 2. Pretreatment with the beta-adrenoceptor stimulant drugs, isoprenaline or salbutamol, significantly inhibited stress-induced gastric ulcers. This anti-ulcer effect was abolished by propranolol but not by atenolol, suggesting that beta 2-adrenoceptors mediate this response. 3. In the pylorus-ligation model, salbutamol inhibited lesion formation and reduced the intragastric content of hydrogen ions, histamine and pepsin although the latter was only affected with the higher dose of salbutamol. 4. Salbutamol also prevented the ulcerogenic action on the gastric mucosa of an exogenously perfused artificial gastric juice, showing that the anti-ulcer effect is not necessarily dependent on acid inhibition. 5. Salbutamol also reduced the formation of acute ulcers induced by various iatrogenic means (histamine, polymyxin B, reserpine and indomethacin). 6. Long-term treatment with salbutamol accelerated the healing of experimental chronic gastric ulcer. 7. In anaesthetized rats, salbutamol produced a dose-related increase in mucosal blood flow which may contribute to its mode of action. 8. It is concluded that beta-adrenoceptor agonists exert preventive and curative effects on gastric damage induced in the rat. This effect seems specific and mediated through beta-adrenoceptor activation. PMID:6125225

  10. Protective Effects of Manassantin A against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji-Won; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Tae-In; Moon, Og-Sung; Won, Young-Suk; Son, Hwa-Young; Son, Jong-Keun; Kwon, Hyo-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Manassantin A, a neolignan isolated from Saururus chinensis, is a major phytochemical compound that has various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, neuroleptic, and human acyl-CoA : cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitory activities. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of manassantin A against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury in rats. Gastric injury was induced by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol to each rat. The positive control group and the manassantin A group were given oral doses of omeprazole (20 mg/kg) or manassantin A (15 mg/kg), respectively, 1 h prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. Our examinations revealed that manassantin A pretreatment reduced ethanol-induced hemorrhage, hyperemia, and epithelial cell loss in the gastric mucosa. Manassantin A pretreatment also attenuated the increased lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions, increased the mucosal glutathione (GSH) content, and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β were clearly decreased in the manassantin A-pretreated group. In addition, manassantin A pretreatment enhanced the levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and reduced the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) overproduction and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation. Collectively, these results indicate that manassantin A protects the gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, and suggest that these protective effects might be associated with COX/PGE2 stimulation, inhibition of iNOS production and NF-κB activation, and improvements in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status.

  11. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-24

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  12. The electrophoresis of human gastric juice

    PubMed Central

    Piper, D. W.; Stiel, Mirjam C.; Builder, Janet E.

    1962-01-01

    The electrophoretic pattern of normal human gastric juice is described. The effect of autodigestion of gastric juice and of the peptic digestion of albumin is described. The fallacies involved in the study of gastric juice proteins where peptic digestion of the protein constituent has not been prevented are emphasized. In this study the gastric juice was neutralized within the stomach to prevent changes due to autodigestion. PMID:13943717

  13. Gastric juice miR-129 as a potential biomarker for screening gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xing; Luo, Lin; Wu, Yibo; Yu, Xiuchong; Liu, Yang; Yu, Xuelin; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinjun; Cui, Long; Ye, Guoliang; Le, Yanping; Guo, Junming

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles during the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. Conventional serological tests for screening gastric cancer have limits on sensitivity and specificity. Several miRNAs in peripheral blood have been used as biomarkers of gastric cancer. However, most of these miRNAs are shared by several types of cancer. Thanks to the tissue specificity of gastric juice, here we examined the feasibility of using gastric juice miR-129-1/2, which are aberrantly expressed in gastric cancer, to screen gastric cancer. Total of 141 gastric juices samples from gastric cancer, gastric ulcer, atrophic gastritis, and minimal gastritis patients or subjects with normal mucosa were collected by gastroscopy. The gastric juice miR-129-1/2 levels were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for differentiating patients with gastric cancer from patients with benign gastric diseases. We showed that, compared with patients with benign gastric diseases, patients with gastric cancer had significantly lower levels of gastric juice miR-129-1-3p and miR-129-2-3p. The areas under ROC curve (AUC) were 0.639 and 0.651 for miR-129-1-3p and miR-129-2-3p, respectively. Using the parallel combination test, the AUC was up to 0.656. In summary, our results suggest that gastric juice miR-129-1-3p and miR-129-2-3p are potential biomarkers for the screening gastric cancer, and the detection of gastric juice miRNAs is a convenient non-invasion method for the diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  14. Acetaldehyde and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Salaspuro, Mikko

    2011-04-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene polymorphisms associating with enhanced acetaldehyde exposure and markedly increased cancer risk in alcohol drinkers provide undisputable evidence for acetaldehyde being a local carcinogen not only in esophageal but also in gastric cancer. Accordingly, acetaldehyde associated with alcoholic beverages has recently been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. Microbes are responsible for the bulk of acetaldehyde production from ethanol both in saliva and Helicobacter pylori-infected and achlorhydric stomach. Acetaldehyde is the most abundant carcinogen in tobacco smoke and it readily dissolves into saliva during smoking. Many foodstuffs and 'non-alcoholic' beverages are important but unrecognized sources of local acetaldehyde exposure. The cumulative cancer risk associated with increasing acetaldehyde exposure suggests the need for worldwide screening of the acetaldehyde levels of alcoholic beverages and as well of the ethanol and acetaldehyde of food produced by fermentation. The generally regarded as safe status of acetaldehyde should be re-evaluated. The as low as reasonably achievable principle should be applied to the acetaldehyde of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and food. Risk groups with ADH-and ALDH2 gene polymorphisms, H. pylori infection or achlorhydric atrophic gastritis, or both, should be screened and educated in this health issue. L-cysteine formulations binding carcinogenic acetaldehyde locally in the stomach provide new means for intervention studies.

  15. Visualization of gastric bands on radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; McIntyre, B.; Elgin, D.; Christian, P.; Moore, J.

    1984-01-01

    In the course of performing many gastric emptying studies with radionuclide labeled solid and liquid meals, the authors have noted the appearance of gastric ''bands'' on images. These bands do not appear to be peristaltic contractions because they persist in individual subjects for hours of imaging. Peristaltic contraction waves move and change appearance within a few seconds. Bands have been described in humans at autopsy and in dogs, pigs, and monkeys, typically in transverse and mid-gastric locations. However, because the bands have not been seen on radiographic studies with barium meals, the finding has been ignored in gastro-intestinal and radiologic textbooks. An anatomic basis or physiologic role in regulating gastric emptying is unknown. SPECT imaging of 5 normal subjects after ingestion of Tc-99m sulfur colloid labeled chicken liver meals on two separate study days was performed. Linear photon deficient regions (''bands'') were identified on gastric images in all subjects. Multiple bands were sometimes seen, including a transverse band across the mid lower body of the stomach and a vertical longitudinal band which appeared to bisect the fundus in three subjects. In one subject, multiple body positions including upright, upside-down, and supine, did not alter the appearance or location of the transverse gastric band. Conventional imaging did not always demonstrate presence of the band, since the optimal projection for imaging the band may not have been part of the planar imaging routine. Sixty-four acquisitions over 360/sup 0/ of SPECT imaging showed that bands were seen in some projections and not in others.

  16. [Alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 2-macroglobulin and reactive protein C in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Dumitraşcu, D; Radu, D; Stanciu, L; Ioniţă, A; Petcovici, M

    1989-01-01

    Proteins of acute phase: alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT), alpha 2-macroglobulin (AMG), reactive C protein (RCP) were determined in the serum of 50 patients with gastric cancer. The Mancini, simple radial immunodiffusion method was used (SRID). The concentration of these proteins increased at 32/50 (64%) for AAT; 30/50 (60%) for AMG and 33/50 (66%) for RCP. By cumulative evaluation, the positivity of serum markers increased to 88%. The importance of differential diagnosis with regard to the benign gastric lesions (adenoma, ulcer, segmentary fibrosis, before receiving the bioptic result, is emphasized.

  17. [Melatonin as a therapeutic factor in gastric ulcer healing under experimental diabetes].

    PubMed

    Magierowski, Marcin; Jasnos, Katarzyna; Brzozowska, Iwona; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Nawrot, Elizbieta; Szczyrk, Urszula; Kwiecień, Sławomir

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormon secreted mostly by the pineal gland in the brain which maintains the body's circadian rhythm. Interestingly, this indol derivative is produced by enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in amount about 400 fold greater than detected in the pinealocytes. Previous studies revealed that melatonin exerts beneficial action against acute gastric damage induced by stress ethanol, aspirin and ischemia-reperfusion. Hyperglycemia, which is the main symptom of diabetes mellitus, is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress, both promoting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS were shown to exhibit higher activity than molecular oxygen under basal conditions due to unpaired electron in its outermost shell of electrons. ROS lead to damage of cellular proteins, nucleic acids and membrane polyunsaturated fatty lipids. In this study, we induced diabetes mellitus by the application of strep. tozocin in presence of gastric ulcers. Male Wistar rats were used in this model. 9 days after gastric ulcers and diabetes mellitus induction, groups of rats were treated with saline or melatonin (20 mg/kg i.g.). At the termination of the experiment, rats were anesthetized, abdomen was opened and gastric blood flow (GBF) was measured. Stomachs were removed for determination of gastric ulcers area by planimetry. Tissue samples were collected for biochemical assays. We demonstrated that melatonin significantly accelerates gastric ulcers healing with and without coexistence of diabetes mellitus. This effect was accompanied by increase of GBF level. Moreover, we observed an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an decrease in lipid peroxidation products concentration within gastric tissue homogenates of animals treated with melatonin, as compared with control group. Melatonin application accelerates gastric ulcers healing with and without presence of

  18. Gastric ulceration in an equine neonate

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susan

    2003-01-01

    A 24-hour-old colt presented with clinical signs consistent with gastric ulceration. Treatment was initiated with a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist and clinical signs resolved. Gastroscopy at 16 d confirmed the presence of a gastric ulcer. Although gastric ulceration is common in foals, it is rarely reported in foals this young. PMID:12757136

  19. Esophageal motility disorders after gastric banding.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, R W; Deveney, C W; McConnell, D B; Wolfe, B M; Jobe, B A

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effects of gastric banding on esophageal function are not well described. This report describes a 28-year-old woman who developed signs and symptoms of abnormal esophageal motility and lower esophageal sphincter hypotension after gastric banding for morbid obesity. The current literature addressing the effects of gastric banding on esophageal function in light of this case report is discussed.

  20. Etiology and Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous malignant disease associated with environmental and genetic predisposing factors. While gastric cancer incidence and mortality fell greatly globally over the past decades, it remains the fourth cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Thus, prevention of gastric cancer is still a major strategy for improvement of gastric cancer prognosis. Summary Helicobacter pylori infection has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Unhealthy diet and lifestyle, including high-salt food, smoking and drinking, are able to induce genotypic and phenotypic transformation of gastric epithelial cells. Gene mutations (such as E-cadherin) in stomach epithelial cells are major genetic causes for gastric cancer. The eradication of H. pylori has been demonstrated to be an effective approach for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Increased intake of a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits as well as smoking cessation have been shown to reduce the incidence of gastric cancer. The secondary prevention strategy is to screen premalignant gastric lesions by endoscopy. Biomarker tests are also reliable methods to identify gastric precancerous lesions. Endoscopy screening is still the gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. Key Message H. pylori infection, a diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, as well as gene mutations are major risk factors for the development of gastric cancer. Practical Implications The eradication of H. pylori is a major primary preventive strategy of gastric cancer. A healthy lifestyle, including increased intake of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, reduced intake of salted and smoked food and red meat, a reduction of alcohol intake as well as smoking cessation will be effective approaches for the prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:27722154

  1. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  2. A Burkholderia pseudomallei Colony Variant Necessary for Gastric Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Austin, C. R.; Goodyear, A. W.; Bartek, I. L.; Stewart, A.; Sutherland, M. D.; Silva, E. B.; Zweifel, A.; Vitko, N. P.; Tuanyok, A.; Highnam, G.; Mittelman, D.; Keim, P.; Schweizer, H. P.; Vázquez-Torres, A.; Dow, S. W. C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Diverse colony morphologies are a hallmark of Burkholderia pseudomallei recovered from infected patients. We observed that stresses that inhibit aerobic respiration shifted populations of B. pseudomallei from the canonical white colony morphotype toward two distinct, reversible, yet relatively stable yellow colony variants (YA and YB). As accumulating evidence supports the importance of B. pseudomallei enteric infection and gastric colonization, we tested the response of yellow variants to hypoxia, acidity, and stomach colonization. Yellow variants exhibited a competitive advantage under hypoxic and acidic conditions and alkalized culture media. The YB variant, although highly attenuated in acute virulence, was the only form capable of colonization and persistence in the murine stomach. The accumulation of extracellular DNA (eDNA) was a characteristic of YB as observed by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of gastric tissues, as well as in an in vitro stomach model where large amounts of eDNA were produced without cell lysis. Transposon mutagenesis identified a transcriptional regulator (BPSL1887, designated YelR) that when overexpressed produced the yellow phenotype. Deletion of yelR blocked a shift from white to the yellow forms. These data demonstrate that YB is a unique B. pseudomallei pathovariant controlled by YelR that is specifically adapted to the harsh gastric environment and necessary for persistent stomach colonization. PMID:25650400

  3. A physical identity for the gastric mucosal barrier.

    PubMed

    Hills, B A

    1990-07-16

    An oligolamellar lining which is probably phospholipid has been demonstrated on the gastric mucosal surface of the rat by transmission electron microscopy using fixation procedures specially developed to avoid the destruction of hydrophobic surfaces. This structure is unlikely to be an artefact since the use of two hydrophobic probes in epifluorescence microscopy gave emissions characteristic of oligolamellar phospholipid prepared in vitro. Moreover, lipid solvents almost eliminated both the fluorescence and the hydrophobicity. An oligolamellar lining was seen also on deeper structures, including oxyntic ducts and canaliculi in parietal cells, and it might offer a physical basis for the hitherto elusive gastric mucosal barrier. Parietal cells were also found to contain multilamellar bodies which, in the lung at least, represent phospholipid (surfactant) in a particularly surface-active form and one conducive to its deposition on tissue surfaces. This suggests that the parietal cell could gear the protection (surfactant) to the potential insult (acid) by secreting both together. The demonstration of a simple physical barrier preventing the stomach from digesting itself is discussed in regard to suggesting the use of certain surface-active foods which could be beneficial in preventing gastric ulcers and their recurrence after the acute phase has been treated using conventional therapies.

  4. Primary gastric mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Petranovic, Duska; Pilcic, Gorazd; Peitl, Milena; Cubranic, Aleksandar; Valkovic, Toni; Nacinovic, Antica Duletic; Lucin, Ksenija; Jonjic, Nives

    2012-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma represents 2.5–7% all of non Hodgkin's lymphomas. Stomach is the most common site of extranodal lymphoma. However, that is not the case with mantle cell lymphoma, which is extremely rare. We present a case of 71-year-old woman admitted to the Internal Clinic of the University Clinical Hospital Center Rijeka, because of stomach discomfort and melena. Endoscopy and computed tomography revealed a polyp in gastric antrum. Histopathologic, immunohistochemic and genetic methods were also performed and the results were consistent with primary gastric mantle cell lymphoma without periepigastric and/or local or distant abdominal lymph node involvement. PMID:22567215

  5. Gastric lymphoma: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, Claudio; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Savio, Antonella

    2011-03-01

    The diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma is frequently difficult for the general histopathologist. During recent years there have been relevant changes in the therapeutic approach to gastric MALT lymphoma and our knowledge about its pathogenesis has greatly improved. The management of this disease actually requires a close cooperation between the histopathologist and the clinicians. The histology report of biopsies of a newly diagnosed or of an already treated case implies information of clinical and therapeutical relevance. This paper aims at giving the histopathologist a general knowledge about the state of art of this disease and its management. The diagnostic process leading to a complete and competent report is then described step by step.

  6. Gastric cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, F; Buiatti, E; Palli, D

    1991-01-01

    Although Gastric Cancer (GC) death rates are decreasing worldwide, in high risk areas GC is still a major public health problem. Italy is one of the European countries with the highest mortality rates for GC (males: 17.3; females: 8.2 x 100,000 inhabitants in 1987) which represents the third cause of death due to cancer in 1987, accounting for over 14,000 deaths per year (10% of cancer deaths). Reasons for the geographic variability in GC occurrence within the country are reviewed, discussing the results of two recent analytical epidemiological studies carried out in Italy. These large case-control studies focused on dietary factors, involving high and low-risk areas for GC (Florence, Siena, Forlì, Imola, Cremona, Genoa, Cagliari, and Milan). Low socio-economic status, family history of GC, residence in rural areas were associated to GC risk, while migration from southern areas and body mass index were inversely related to GC. Consumption of traditional soups, meat, salted and dried fish, cold cuts and seasoned cheeses, as well as the intake of animal proteins and nitrites were related to an increased GC risk. On the contrary consumption of fresh fruit, citrus fruit, raw vegetables, spices, garlic and olive oil, and vitamin C, E and beta-carotene intake were found to be protective factors. Among diet-related factors, preference for salty foods and frequent broiling were positively related to GC, while the longstanding availbility of a refrigerator or freezer and the habits of consuming frozen foods were associated with decreased GC risk. These results are discussed in detail, considering the main hypotheses on GC carcinogenesis.

  7. Inhibitory effects of DA-9601 on ethanol-induced gastrohemorrhagic lesions and gastric xanthine oxidase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Huh, Keun; Kwon, Tae Hyup; Shin, Uk Sup; Kim, Won Bae; Ahn, Byoung Ok; Oh, Tae Young; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2003-10-01

    The exposure of gastric mucosa to ethanol produces pathological changes such as inflammatory process, hemorrhagic erosions, even acute ulcers. The gastric mucosal lesions accompanied by a significant decrease of gastric blood flow and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) implicate a role of xanthine oxidase in ethanol-induced gastric hemorrhagic erosions. DA-9601, a novel antipeptic formulation of extracts of Artemisia asiatica Nakai, was studied for its inhibitory effect on gastric xanthine oxidase activity and type conversion of the enzyme that has a profound role in free radical generation. Intubation of absolute ethanol (4 g/kg) significantly induced gastrohemorrhagic lesions and lipid peroxidation in the rat stomach. Oral administration of DA-9601 at 40 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions and lipid peroxidation, which was proportional to the inhibitory effect of DA-9601 on alcohol-induced xanthine oxidase-type conversion and enzyme activity. The results suggest that alcohol-induced gastric mucosal damage may be, in part, due to the increased activity of xanthine oxidase and type conversion rate of the enzyme and that the preventive effect of DA-9601 on gastrohemorrhagic lesions would result from its inhibitory action against xanthine oxidase and oxidative stress in alcohol-treated rats.

  8. A rare cause of gastric perforation-Candida infection: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nalini

    2012-11-01

    Fungal microorganisms as a cause of gastric perforation, is very rare. Most of the cases of gastric perforation are seen as the complications of peptic ulcer disease, the intake of NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs), neoplastic diseases, etc. We are reporting a case of a 50 year old male who presented with a sudden onset of abdominal pain and shock and was diagnosed as acute peritonitis which was caused by a gastrointestinal perforation. An emergency exploratory laporotomy was performed and a gastric perforation repair with omentoplexy was done. However, the patient died in the post operative period due to a sudden cardiac arrest. A gastric perforation edge biopsy revealed the presence of fungal hyphae. The peritoneal fluid culture revealed Candida albicans colonies.

  9. A Rare Cause of Gastric Perforation-Candida Infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Fungal microorganisms as a cause of gastric perforation, is very rare. Most of the cases of gastric perforation are seen as the complications of peptic ulcer disease, the intake of NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs), neoplastic diseases, etc. We are reporting a case of a 50 year old male who presented with a sudden onset of abdominal pain and shock and was diagnosed as acute peritonitis which was caused by a gastrointestinal perforation. An emergency exploratory laporotomy was performed and a gastric perforation repair with omentoplexy was done. However, the patient died in the post operative period due to a sudden cardiac arrest. A gastric perforation edge biopsy revealed the presence of fungal hyphae. The peritoneal fluid culture revealed Candida albicans colonies. PMID:23285460

  10. Left Aberrant Gastric Vein Causing Isolated Left Hepatic Portal Venous Gas Secondary to an Incarcerated Diaphragmatic Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Kartik; Anandpara, Karan; Dey, Amit K.; Kedar, Pradnya; Hira, Priya; Kale, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is an ominous radiological sign suggestive of underlying intestinal sepsis, infection or trauma. Portal pneumatosis secondary to gastric pathologies is rare. Case Report We report a rare case of a 34-year-old man who presented with acute epigastric pain and vomiting, diagnosed to have an incarcerated diaphragmatic hernia causing gastric pneumatosis and resultant portal venous gas. Conclusions Our case highlights an unusual presentation of gastric pneumatosis secondary to an incarcerated hiatal hernia with resultant portal venous gas involving only the left lobe of the liver. An aberrant left gastric vein was responsible for this phenomenon in our case. A sound understanding of anatomical variants is thus crucial to radiological diagnosis. PMID:26251676

  11. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  12. Can transcutaneous recordings detect gastric electrical abnormalities?

    PubMed Central

    Familoni, B O; Bowes, K L; Kingma, Y J; Cote, K R

    1991-01-01

    The ability of transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity to detect gastric electrical abnormalities was determined by simultaneous measurements of gastric electrical activity with surgically implanted serosal electrodes and cutaneous electrodes in six patients undergoing abdominal operations. Transient abnormalities in gastric electrical activity were seen in five of the six patients during the postoperative period. Recognition of normal gastric electrical activity by visual analysis was possible 67% of the time and with computer analysis 95% of the time. Ninety four per cent of abnormalities in frequency were detected by visual analysis and 93.7% by computer analysis. Abnormalities involving a loss of coupling, however, were not recognised by transcutaneous recordings. Transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity assessed by computer analysis can usually recognise normal gastric electrical activity and tachygastria. Current techniques, however, are unable to detect abnormalities in electrical coupling. PMID:1864531

  13. Functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic pathway responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins and damaged intracellular organelles. Perturbations in autophagy are found in gastric cancer. In host gastric cells, autophagy can be induced by Helicobacter pylori (or H. pylori) infection, which is associated with the oncogenesis of gastric cancer. In gastric cancer cells, autophagy has both pro-survival and pro-death functions in determining cell fate. Besides, autophagy modulates gastric cancer metastasis by affecting a wide range of pathological events, including extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor angiogenesis, and tumor microenvironment. In addition, some of the autophagy-related proteins, such as Beclin 1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3), and p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) have certain prognostic values for gastric cancer. In this article, we review the recent studies regarding the functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer. PMID:26910278

  14. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Samples of Gastric Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Leda Maria Delmondes Freitas; Menezes, Lania Barreto de Oliveira; de Souza Neta, Adozina Marques; Leite Rolemberg, Paulo Candido; Souza, Lais Dantas; Barreto, Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho; Meurer, Luise

    2017-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection affects about 50% of the world population and its association with environmental factors and host properties is involved in gastric carcinogenesis. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of H. pylori in samples of gastric mucosa biopsies, correlate the presence of the bacteria in the sample with the variables age, sex and origin, to identify the types of lesions found in patients with H. pylori, and to evaluate the association of the lesions with the region of the gastric mucosa. Methods A cross-sectional, retrospective study was carried out in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, from January 2013 to December 2015. A total of 45,206 gastric mucosal biopsies were obtained from patients submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Of the reports evaluated, 12,909 met the inclusion criteria since they presented the patient’s demographic data as well as the histopathological characteristics of gastric mucosal regions and positivity for H. pylori. Data were analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistic 20 and subjected to descriptive analyses (categorical variables) and inferential (Pearson’s Qui-square and linear association tests) and multiple correspondence analyses. Significance level adopted 5%. Results Of the total of 12,909 (28.6%) reports evaluated, 67% (8,647) came from urban areas and 64.5% (8,320) were female. The mean age (standard deviation (SD)) was 43 years, ranging from 8 to 100 years, prevailing between 21 and 60 years. Among the types of gastric mucosa analyzed, 95.5% (12,322) were of the antral mucosa. The absence of glandular atrophy, the mild infection intensity for H. pylori, the absence of metaplasia, the presence of foveolar hyperplasia and lymphoid follicles were statistically significant (P < 0.001) in this region. In the fundic region, the evidence of fibrinoleucocytic crust and lymphoid follicles was significant (P < 0.001). There was no evidence of associated ulcerated lesions or significant relationship

  15. A gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma expressing somatostatin in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Jeremiah A; Newman, Shelley J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Dunlap, John

    2010-03-01

    A metastatic gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma in a 2.5-year-old inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) with a chronic history of anorexia, weight loss, depression, and acute melena is described. Histologic examination of the gastric mass revealed a densely cellular tumor arranged in nests and occasional rosettes of hyperchromatic cells with oval to spindle-shaped nuclei and minimal cytoplasm; the tumor was supported by a moderate fibrovascular stroma. Similar cells invaded through the gastric mucosa, and there were multiple hepatic metastases. The neoplastic cells were weakly immunopositive for neuron-specific enolase and moderately positive for somatostatin but were negative for chromogranin AB and gastrin. Ultrastructural studies revealed scattered neurosecretory granules in the neoplastic cells, confirming the diagnosis of a neuroendocrine carcinoma.

  16. Gastric dilitation-volvulus in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Schlanser, Justin R; Agnew, Dalen; Paperd, Deborah W; Harrison, Tara M

    2014-06-01

    A 10-year-old male red panda presented acutely with symptoms of shock due to acute abdominal distress and respiratory compromise. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed a severely distended stomach for which passage of an orogastric tube for relief was unsuccessful. Intra-operatively, the stomach was found to be distended and torsed around its long axis supporting the diagnosis of Gastric dilitation-volvulus (GDV). The animal arrested and died intra-operatively and was submitted for necropsy with lesions supportive of the diagnosis of GDV. No risk factors for GDV were found to correlate between the panda and those described in domestic dogs. This case suggests that red pandas can be susceptible to this condition in captive settings.

  17. Gastric Schwannoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Romdhane, Hayfa; Cheikh, Myriam; Mzoughi, Zeineb; Slama, Sana Ben; Ennaifer, Rym; Belhadj, Najet

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas are generally benign, slow growing tumors. They are rarely observed in the gastrointestinal tract with the most common site being the stomach. These tumors are usually asymptomatic. The preoperative diagnosis via endoscopy is a challenging issue due to the difficulty of differentiation from other submucosal tumors. A 54-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain persisting for the last 10 months. Upper endoscopy revealed an elevated submucosal mass of the gastric antrum. The overlying mucosa was normal. Biopsy specimens yielded only unspecific signs of mild inactive chronic inflammation. Endoscopic ultrasound examination noted a hypoechoic homogeneous mass lesion located in the gastric antrum. The mass appeared to arise from the muscularis propria, and there was no perigastric lymphadenopathy. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan identified a homogeneous round mass and arising from the antrum of the stomach. Submucosal tumor was suspected and surgical intervention was recommended. The patient underwent an elective laparoscopic partial gastrectomy. The histopathologic features and immunohistochemical-staining pattern were consistent with a benign gastric schwannoma. Our patient shows no recurrence with a follow-up of one year. The definitive diagnosis of gastric schwannomas requires immunohistochemical studies. Complete margin negative surgical resection, as in this case, is the curative treatment of choice. The clinical course is generally benign. PMID:28028429

  18. Familial gastric cancer - clinical management.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Caldas, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The clinical management of familial gastric cancer is the same as that for sporadic gastric cancer at the current time. As the causative mutations for these cases are identified this should lead to the development of specific treatments which target the molecular abnormality. The only germline mutations identified so far occur within the E-cadherin gene (CDHI) and they account for approximately 30% of familial gastric cancer cases. When index patients fulfilling the clinical criteria for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome have a CDHI mutation identified then genetic testing of asymptomatic relatives should be considered. The clinical sequelae of testing positive for such a mutation are profound and therefore it is essential that counselling is given prior to genetic testing. The management options are surveillance endoscopy and prophylactic gastrectomy. In this chapter the practicalities of genetic testing are discussed as well as the pros and cons of the two management options. It is essential that experience of these rare families is pooled so that surveillance and treatment can be optimised in the future.

  19. Gastrin and gastric surgery.

    PubMed

    Fabri, P J; McGuigan, J E

    1976-01-01

    data are present. These differential tests are of value in identifying the Zollinger-Ellison patient who has borderline serum gastrin levels and in differentiation from the syndrome of the retained antrum. 6. In a patient with a recurrent ulcer following surgery in whom a drug-induced ulcer can be excluded and gastric outlet obstruction cannot be demonstrated, a serum gastrin level may be indicated. A serum gastrin value greater than 300 pg. per ml. (normal less than 200 pg. per ml.) in a fasting morning serum sample is significantly elevated, even after vagotomy, and warrants further investigation. Provocative testing of the gastrin response to calcium and secretin should elucidate the etiology of the recurrent ulceration in this type of patient.

  20. Sustained delayed gastric emptying during repeated restraint stress in oxytocin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Babygirija, R; Zheng, J; Bülbül, M; Cerjak, D; Ludwig, K; Takahashi, T

    2010-11-01

    We have recently shown that impaired gastric motility observed in acute restraint stress was restored following repeated restraint stress in mice. Repeated restraint stress up-regulates oxytocin mRNA expression and down-regulates corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA expression at the hypothalamus. Oxytocin knockout mice (OXT-KO) have been widely used to study the central oxytocin signalling pathways in response to various stressors. We studied the effects of acute and repeated restraint stress on solid gastric emptying and hypothalamic CRF mRNA expression in wild-type (WT) and OXT-KO mice. Heterozygous (HZ) parents (B6; 129S-Oxt(tm1Wsy)/J mice) were bred in our animal facility. Male OXT-KO, WT and HZ littermates were used for the study. Solid gastric emptying was measured following acute restraint stress (for 90 min) or repeated restraint stress (for five consecutive days). Expression of CRF mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. There were no significant differences of gastric emptying in WT (68.4 ± 4.1%, n = 6), HZ (71.8 ± 3.1%, n = 6) and OXT-KO (70.6 ± 3.1%, n = 6) mice in nonstressed conditions. Acute stress significantly delayed gastric emptying in OXT-KO mice (33.10 ± 2.5%, n = 6) WT (39.1 ± 1.1%, n = 6) and HZ mice (35.8 ± 1.2%, n = 6). Following repeated restraint stress loading, gastric emptying was significantly restored in WT (68.3 ± 4.5%, n = 6) and HZ mice (63.1 ± 2.6%, n = 6). By contrast, gastric emptying was still delayed in OXT-KO mice (34.7 ± 1.3%, n = 6) following repeated restraint stress. The increase in CRF mRNA expression at the PVN was much pronounced in OXT-KO mice compared to WT or HZ mice following repeated restraint stress. These findings suggest that central oxytocin plays a pivotal role in mediating the adaptation mechanism following repeated restraint stress in mice.

  1. Acute phlegmonous gastritis complicated by delayed perforation.

    PubMed

    Min, Sun Young; Kim, Yong Ho; Park, Won Seo

    2014-03-28

    Here, we report on a case of acute phlegmonous gastritis (PG) complicated by delayed perforation. A 51-year-old woman presented with severe abdominal pain and septic shock symptoms. A computed tomography scan showed diffuse thickening of the gastric wall and distention with peritoneal fluid. Although we did not find definite evidence of free air on the computed tomography (CT) scan, the patient's clinical condition suggested diffuse peritonitis requiring surgical intervention. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a thickened gastric wall with suppurative intraperitoneal fluid in which Streptococcus pyogenes grew. There was no evidence of gastric or duodenal perforation. No further operation was performed at that time. The patient was conservatively treated with antibiotics and proton pump inhibitor, and her condition improved. However, she experienced abdominal and flank pain again on postoperative day 10. CT and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a large gastric ulcer with perforation. Unfortunately, although the CT showed further improvement in the thickening of the stomach and the mucosal defect, the patient's condition did not recover until a week later, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy taken on postoperative day 30 showed suspected gastric submucosal dissection. We performed total gastrectomy as a second operation, and the patient recovered without major complications. A pathological examination revealed a multifocal ulceration and necrosis from the mucosa to the serosa with perforation.

  2. Current issues in gastric cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Patru, C L; Surlin, V; Georgescu, I; Patru, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignant tumors of digestive tract continues to be a major health problem by frequency, aggressiveness and low rate of cure in symptomatic stage. Although its incidence is decreasing (especially in the West), globally the gastric cancer is ranked fourth in incidence among cancers at various sites. Despite these developments, the gastric cancer mortality, overall declining globally, is high. especially in the West where even if diagnosed fewer cases of gastric cancer, TNM stages are advanced and have a poor prognosis. In contrast, in Japan, where the incidence is still high, the percentage of cases diagnosed at the stage of "early gastric cancer" has greatly increased, thus improving prognosis. Gastric neoplasia affects more men, age range 50-70 years, disadvantaged social classes and black race. In Romania the gastric cancer incidence is increasing over recent years, presenting variations across the country being more common in men compared with women, reaching a peak of incidence around age 60. Gastric cancer mortality in the world places Romania among the countries with average mortality. Gastric cancer prognosis remains extremely reserved, in close correlation with tumor stage at diagnosis, surgical treatment being the only possibility to provide improved survival, especially in the early stages. Improvement of survival rate in recent years is due to increased gastric resectability result of an earlier diagnosis, a more complex treatment and a closer monitoring of the population at risk.

  3. Gastric metastasis of bilateral breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Belaïd, Asma; Mghirbi, Fahmi; Béhi, Khalil; Doghri, Raoudha; Benna, Farouk

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The most frequent metastatic sites are lung, bone, liver and brain. On the other hand, gastric metastases are rare. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) occurs rarely. Lobular carcinoma is the histological type most often associated with bilateral breast carcinomas and gastric metastases. We made a retrospective study including four patients followed in the Salah Azaiez Institute, for a bilateral breast cancer with gastric metastases. We analyzed the epidemiological, anatomoclinical and therapeutic particularities of this rare entity. Symptoms were unspecific. The diagnosis of gastric metastasis of the SBBC was confirmed by a histopathological examination of an endoscopic biopsy. The median age was 46.2 years (range, 36–51 years) and the median time until the gastric involvement was 19 months (range, 0–41 months). None of patients had a surgical treatment for the gastric location. All Patients received at least one line of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Median survival following the detection of gastric involvement was 22 months (range, 1–56 months). Gastric metastases from breast cancer are rare and frequently associated with other distant metastasis. Symptoms are unspecific and endoscopy may not be contributive. Therefore, gastric involvement is underestimated. Lobular infiltrating carcinoma (LIC) is the most histological type incriminated in its occurrence. The supply of immunohistochemistry is crucial to distinguish between primary or metastatic gastric cancer. PMID:28280631

  4. Non-coding RNAs and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei-Fei; Chen, Sheng-Can; Xia, Tian; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Shao, Yong-Fu; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play key roles in development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered ncRNA expression is associated with gastric cancer occurrence, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is significantly related to gastric cancer tumor stage, size, differentiation and metastasis. MiRNAs interrupt cellular signaling pathways, inhibit the activity of tumor suppressor genes, and affect the cell cycle in gastric cancer cells. Some miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-106a and miR-421, could be potential markers for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new research hotspot among cancer-associated ncRNAs, play important roles in epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Several gastric cancer-associated lncRNAs, such as CCAT1, GACAT1, H19, and SUMO1P3, have been explored. In addition, Piwi-interacting RNAs, another type of small ncRNA that is recognized by gastroenterologists, are involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and piR-651/823 represents an efficient diagnostic biomarker of gastric cancer that can be detected in the blood and gastric juice. Small interfering RNAs also function in post-transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer and might be useful in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833871

  5. Trop2 marks transient gastric fetal epithelium and adult regenerating cells after epithelial damage.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Vallone, Valeria; Leprovots, Morgane; Strollo, Sandra; Vasile, Gabriela; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frederick; Vassart, Gilbert; Garcia, Marie-Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Mouse fetal intestinal progenitors lining the epithelium prior to villogenesis grow as spheroids when cultured ex vivo and express the transmembrane glycoprotein Trop2 as a marker. Here, we report the characterization of Trop2-expressing cells from fetal pre-glandular stomach, growing as immortal undifferentiated spheroids, and their relationship with gastric development and regeneration. Trop2(+) cells generating gastric spheroids differed from adult glandular Lgr5(+) stem cells, but appeared highly related to fetal intestinal spheroids. Although they shared a common spheroid signature, intestinal and gastric fetal spheroid-generating cells expressed organ-specific transcription factors and were committed to intestinal and glandular gastric differentiation, respectively. Trop2 expression was transient during glandular stomach development, being lost at the onset of gland formation, whereas it persisted in the squamous forestomach. Undetectable under homeostasis, Trop2 was strongly re-expressed in glands after acute Lgr5(+) stem cell ablation or following indomethacin-induced injury. These highly proliferative reactive adult Trop2(+) cells exhibited a transcriptome displaying similarity with that of gastric embryonic Trop2(+) cells, suggesting that epithelium regeneration in adult stomach glands involves the partial re-expression of a fetal genetic program.

  6. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paulo Humberto M.; Martins, Maria do Carmo C.; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia M.; Chaves, Mariana H.; Sousa, Elcilene A.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Véras, Leiz Maria; Almeida, Fernanda Regina C.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall. PMID:24900960

  7. Phase II Study of Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan, and Capecitabine in Advanced Gastric/Gastroesophageal Junction Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  8. Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different

  9. Gastric intestinal metaplasia is associated with gastric dysplasia but is inversely correlated with esophageal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Justin M; Patrie, James T; Bleibel, Wissam; Frye, Jeanetta W; Sauer, Bryan G; Shami, Vanessa M; Stelow, Edward B; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Wang, Andrew Y

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine which clinical factors might be associated with gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) in a North American population. METHODS Pathology and endoscopy databases at an academic medical center were reviewed to identify patients with and without gastric IM on biopsies for a retrospective cohort study. Patient demographics, insurance status, and other clinical factors were reviewed. RESULTS Four hundred and sixty-eight patients with gastric IM (mean age: 61.0 years ± 14.4 years, 55.5% female) and 171 without gastric IM (mean age: 48.8 years ± 20.8 years, 55.0% female) were compared. The endoscopic appearance of atrophic gastritis correlated with finding gastric IM on histopathology (OR = 2.05, P = 0.051). Gastric IM was associated with histologic findings of chronic gastritis (OR = 2.56, P < 0.001), gastric ulcer (OR = 6.97, P = 0.015), gastric dysplasia (OR = 6.11, P = 0.038), and gastric cancer (OR = 6.53, P = 0.027). Histologic findings of Barrett’s esophagus (OR = 0.28, P = 0.003) and esophageal dysplasia (OR = 0.11, P = 0.014) were inversely associated with gastric IM. Tobacco use (OR = 1.73, P = 0.005) was associated with gastric IM. CONCLUSION Patients who smoke or have the endoscopic finding of atrophic gastritis are more likely to have gastric IM and should have screening gastric biopsies during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Patients with gastric IM are at increased risk for having gastric dysplasia and cancer, and surveillance EGD with gastric biopsies in these patients might be reasonable. PMID:28250898

  10. Percutaneous drainage of gastric remnant dilatation after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Bibyan, M; Khandelwal, R G; Parmar, A K; Reddy, P K

    2012-05-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a commonly performed bariatric procedure worldwide. Gastric remnant dilatation is an uncommon early complication of this procedure that can be fatal if treatment is delayed, as it can cause peritonitis and death. Herein we report a gastric bypass patient who presented with profound shock 3 months after the surgery. After resuscitation and evaluation, she was diagnosed as having a massive dilatation of gastric remnant, which we managed with percutaneous drainage.

  11. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brachycephalic dog with hiatal hernia.

    PubMed

    Aslanian, M E; Sharp, C R; Garneau, M S

    2014-10-01

    A brachycephalic dog was presented with an acute onset of retching and abdominal discomfort. The dog had a chronic history of stertor and exercise intolerance suggestive of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Radiographs were consistent with a Type II hiatal hernia. The dog was referred and within hours of admission became acutely painful and developed tympanic abdominal distension. A right lateral abdominal radiograph confirmed gastric dilatation and volvulus with herniation of the pylorus through the hiatus. An emergency exploratory coeliotomy was performed, during which the stomach was derotated, and an incisional gastropexy, herniorrhaphy and splenectomy were performed. A staphylectomy was performed immediately following the exploratory coeliotomy. The dog recovered uneventfully. Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in dogs with Type II hiatal hernia and should be considered a surgical emergency.

  12. Gastric Hamartomatous Polyps—Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Monika; Yang, Xiu; Zhang, Xuchen

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps are frequently encountered on endoscopic examinations. While many of these represent true epithelial lesions, some of the polyps may result from underlying stromal or lymphoid proliferations or even heterotopic tissue. Histologic examination is essential for accurate typing of the polyps to predict malignant potential and underlying possible genetic abnormalities. The focus of this review is on gastric hamartomatous polyps, which are relatively rare and diagnostically challenging. Though most of the gastric hamartomatous polyps are benign, certain types are associated with increased malignant potential. These include certain polyps associated with specific genetic familial polyposis syndromes and gastric inverted hamartomatous polyps. Identification of these polyps can result in the prevention or early diagnosis of gastric carcinoma and also help in the identification of family members with polyposis syndromes. The aim of this review is to categorize gastric hamartomatous polyps and aid in the identification of high-risk categories. PMID:27081323

  13. [Intra-gastric penetration of an adjustable gastric band].

    PubMed

    Ablassmaier, B; Opitz, I; Jacobi, C A; Müller, J M

    2001-07-01

    Between November 1995 and August 2000 we performed adjustable silicone gastric banding laparoscopically in 252 patients. The body mass index varied from 37 to 86 kg/m2. We report on a 38-year-old woman who was operated on in 1997 with a body mass index of 47 kg/m2 (167 cm, 132 kg). The postoperative follow-up was uneventful until January 2000. The patient lost weight until she weighed 78 kg. Then she complained of diffuse epigastric pain. Gastroscopy revealed gastritis. Omeprazol was prescribed. No amelioration occurred. Endoscopic control showed partial intragastric migration of the band. After laparoscopic removal of the band, the patient was free of symptoms. Band erosion is a possible complication of adjustable gastric banding. As is known from intragastric penetration of the Angelchik prosthesis, the clinical symptoms of this complication may be mild. Since the follow-up of most patients with gastric banding is less than 5 years, more complications similar to that one described may be diagnosed in the future.

  14. Human gastric epithelial cells contribute to gastric immune regulation by providing retinoic acid to dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Bimczok, D; Kao, J Y; Zhang, M; Cochrun, S; Mannon, P; Peter, S; Wilcox, C M; Mönkemüller, K E; Harris, P R; Grams, J M; Stahl, R D; Smith, P D; Smythies, L E

    2015-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori, the gastric mucosa has received little investigative attention as a unique immune environment. Here, we analyzed whether retinoic acid (RA), an important homeostatic factor in the small intestinal mucosa, also contributes to gastric immune regulation. We report that human gastric tissue contains high levels of the RA precursor molecule retinol (ROL), and that gastric epithelial cells express both RA biosynthesis genes and RA response genes, indicative of active RA biosynthesis. Moreover, primary gastric epithelial cells cultured in the presence of ROL synthesized RA in vitro and induced RA biosynthesis in co-cultured monocytes through an RA-dependent mechanism, suggesting that gastric epithelial cells may also confer the ability to generate RA on gastric dendritic cells (DCs). Indeed, DCs purified from gastric mucosa had similar levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and RA biosynthesis gene expression as small intestinal DCs, although gastric DCs lacked CD103. In H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa, gastric RA biosynthesis gene expression was severely disrupted, which may lead to reduced RA signaling and thus contribute to disease progression. Collectively, our results support a critical role for RA in human gastric immune regulation.

  15. Diversity of the Gastric Microbiota in Thoroughbred Racehorses Having Gastric Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Ho, Hungwui; Hwang, Hyeshin; Kim, Yongbaek; Han, Janet; Lee, Inhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2016-04-28

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is one of the most frequently reported diseases in thoroughbred racehorses. Although several risk factors for the development of gastric ulcers have been widely studied, investigation of microbiological factors has been limited. In this study, the presence of Helicobacter spp. and the gastric microbial communities of thoroughbred racehorses having mild to severe gastric ulcers were investigated. Although Helicobacter spp. were not detected using culture and PCR techniques from 52 gastric biopsies and 52 fecal samples, the genomic sequences of H. pylori and H. ganmani were detected using nextgeneration sequencing techniques from 2 out of 10 representative gastric samples. The gastric microbiota of horses was mainly composed of Firmicutes (50.0%), Proteobacteria (18.7%), Bacteroidetes (14.4%), and Actinobacteria (9.7%), but the proportion of each phylum varied among samples. There was no major difference in microbial composition among samples having mild to severe gastric ulcers. Using phylogenetic analysis, three distinct clusters were observed, and one cluster differed from the other two clusters in the frequency of feeding, amount of water consumption, and type of bedding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the gastric microbiota of thoroughbred racehorses having gastric ulcer and to evaluate the microbial diversity in relation to the severity of gastric ulcer and management factors. This study is important for further exploration of the gastric microbiota in racehorses and is ultimately applicable to improving animal and human health.

  16. Gastric dilatation-volvulus as complication after surgical removal of a splenic haemangiosarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Marconato, L

    2006-09-01

    An 8-year-old crossbreed dog presented after one episode of acute collapse due to rupture of a splenic haemangiosarcoma. Following splenectomy the dog recovered well. Two days after discharge the dog re-presented because of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) that eventually led to his death. Splenectomy to remove a voluminous splenic tumour may predispose to GDV and dogs may benefit from concurrent prophylactic gastropexy.

  17. Ruptured Left Gastric Artery Aneurysm: Unique Presentation with Hemothorax and Hemomediastinum

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Michael K.S. Vrazas, John I.

    2006-06-15

    Although splanchnic artery aneurysms are uncommon and remain mostly asymptomatic, they are associated with a high mortality rate when they rupture. We discuss the case of a 66-year-old woman who had successful embolization of a left gastric artery aneurysm after presenting with acute chest pain and the unusual computed tomography findings of hemothorax and hemomediastinum. To our knowledge, only one other similar case has been published in the literature.

  18. Pathogenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Qu, Yi-Ping; Hou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent advances have improved our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, as best exemplified by elucidating the fundamental role of several major signaling pathways and related molecular derangements. Central to these mechanisms are the genetic and epigenetic alterations in these signaling pathways, such as gene mutations, copy number variants, aberrant gene methylation and histone modification, nucleosome positioning, and microRNAs. Some of these genetic/epigenetic alterations represent effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GC. This information has now opened unprecedented opportunities for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis and the development of novel therapeutic strategies for this cancer. The pathogenetic mechanisms of GC are the focus of this review. PMID:25320518

  19. Selected Endoscopic Gastric Devices for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Kartik; Rothstein, Richard I

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on the stomach target devices that are currently in various stages of development. Approved intragastric balloons, devices targeting small bowel and aspiration techniques, are described in other contributions to this issue. Bariatric endoscopic devices targeting the stomach directly alter gastric physiology and promote weight loss by potentially changing functional gastric volume, gastric emptying, gastric wall compliance, neurohormonal signaling, and, thereby, satiety. Many stomach-targeting devices are on the horizon for clinical use, and further study will determine the safety and efficacy for clinical use.

  20. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Saleh; Lahav, Ziv; Rmeileh, Ayman Abu; Mizrahi, Meir

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk. PMID:27579191

  1. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Daher, Saleh; Lahav, Ziv; Rmeileh, Ayman Abu; Mizrahi, Meir; Khoury, Tawfik

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk.

  2. Helicobacter pylori and early gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Craanen, M E; Blok, P; Dekker, W; Tytgat, G N

    1994-01-01

    The relation between Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia, and early gastric cancer was studied by examining gastrectomy specimens from 31 intestinal type and 22 diffuse type carcinomas. A total of 298 patients with antral gastritis were used as controls. Atrophic changes and intestinal metaplasia were significantly more common in intestinal type early gastric cancer compared with diffuse type early gastric cancer (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). H pylori was found in 61.3% of intestinal type early gastric cancer and in 54.5% of diffuse type early gastric cancer (NS). The age adjusted prevalence of intestinal metaplasia in the patients with antral gastritis was higher in H pylori positive patients in all age groups studied. Comparing gastritis patients with patients with intestinal type early gastric cancer showed the age adjusted prevalence of intestinal metaplasia to be significantly higher in the patients with early gastric cancer in all age groups studied. In conclusion, H pylori is associated with both types of early gastric carcinoma. Intestinal metaplasia formation seems to be a multifactorial process in which H pylori may play a part. These findings suggest that gastric cancer may be included in the spectrum of H pylori associated diseases, although many questions about causality remain to be answered. PMID:7959189

  3. Acupuncture and gastric acid studies.

    PubMed

    Sodipo, J O; Falaiye, J M

    1979-01-01

    The effects of therapeutic acupuncture on gastric acid secretion on pain relief in chronic duodenal ulcer patients were studied. Ten adult Nigerian patients with clinical, endoscopic as well as radiological evidence of duodenal ulcer constituted the "Ulcer Group." Four other patients who gave history of dyspepsia formed the "Dyspeptic Group." Pentagastrin stimulation test was performed on all subjects pre- and post-acupuncture therapy. The classical Chinese acupuncture loci were employed. The mean Basal Acid Output (BAO) in the duodenal ulcer group was markedly reduced from 4.04 +/- 1.01 mMols/hour to 1.05 +/- 2.5 mMols/hour. The mean Maximal Acid Output (MAO) was lowered from 34.72 +/- 13.81 mMols/hour to 15.34 +/- 4.01 mMols/hour. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). It is more probable, therefore, that the relief of pain is attributable to the therapeutic inhibition of gastric hyperacidity in our patients. Thus, though pain relief has been previously demonstrated in response to acupuncture, the results of this investigation have gone further to show that acupunture achieves symptomatic relief through therapeutic gastric depression in duodenal ulcer patients.

  4. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shushang; Zheng, Gaozan; Yang, Jianjun; Hong, Liu; Sun, Li; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Hongwei; Feng, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and gastric cancer is relatively high, and its prognosis is controversial due to the complex and variant kinds of presentation. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer. From May 2010 to November 2015, a total of 241 gastric GIST patients were retrospectively enrolled in the present study. The patients with coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer were recorded. The clinicopathological features and prognoses of patients were analyzed. Among 241 patients, 24 patients had synchronous gastric cancer (synchronous group) and 217 patients did not (no-synchronous group). The synchronous group presented a higher percentage of elders (66.7% vs 39.6%, P = 0.001) and males (87.5% vs 48.4%, P < 0.001) than the no-synchronous group. The tumor diameter, mitotic index, and National Institutes of Health degree were also significantly different between the 2 groups (all P < 0.05). The 5-year disease-free survival and disease-specific survival rates of synchronous group were significantly lower than those of no-synchronous group (54.9% vs 93.5%, P < 0.001; 37.9% vs 89.9%, P < 0.001, respectively). However, the 5-year overall survival rates between synchronous and gastric cancer groups were comparable (37.9% vs 57.6%, P = 0.474). The coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer was common in elder male patients. The synchronous GIST was common in low-risk category. The prognosis of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer was worse than that of primary-single gastric GIST, but was comparable with primary-single gastric cancer. PMID:27828865

  5. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shushang; Zheng, Gaozan; Yang, Jianjun; Hong, Liu; Sun, Li; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Hongwei; Feng, Fan

    2016-11-01

    The coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and gastric cancer is relatively high, and its prognosis is controversial due to the complex and variant kinds of presentation. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer.From May 2010 to November 2015, a total of 241 gastric GIST patients were retrospectively enrolled in the present study. The patients with coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer were recorded. The clinicopathological features and prognoses of patients were analyzed.Among 241 patients, 24 patients had synchronous gastric cancer (synchronous group) and 217 patients did not (no-synchronous group). The synchronous group presented a higher percentage of elders (66.7% vs 39.6%, P = 0.001) and males (87.5% vs 48.4%, P < 0.001) than the no-synchronous group. The tumor diameter, mitotic index, and National Institutes of Health degree were also significantly different between the 2 groups (all P < 0.05). The 5-year disease-free survival and disease-specific survival rates of synchronous group were significantly lower than those of no-synchronous group (54.9% vs 93.5%, P < 0.001; 37.9% vs 89.9%, P < 0.001, respectively). However, the 5-year overall survival rates between synchronous and gastric cancer groups were comparable (37.9% vs 57.6%, P = 0.474).The coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer was common in elder male patients. The synchronous GIST was common in low-risk category. The prognosis of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer was worse than that of primary-single gastric GIST, but was comparable with primary-single gastric cancer.

  6. The gastroprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Monolluma quadrangula against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Bader, Ammar; Shahzad, Naiyer; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed S; Gushash, Ahmad S; Hasanpourghadi, Mohadeseh

    2016-01-01

    Monolluma quadrangula (Forssk.) Plowes is used in Saudi traditional medicines to treat gastric ulcers. The hydroalcoholic extract of M. quadrangula (MHAE) was used in an in vivo model to investigate its gastroprotective effects against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. Five groups of Sprague Dawley rats were used. The first group was treated with 10% Tween 20 as a control. The other four groups included rats treated with absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg) to induce an ulcer, rats treated with 20 mg/kg omeprazole as a reference drug, and rats treated with 150 or 300 mg/kg MHAE. One hour later, the rats were administered absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg) orally. Animals fed with MHAE exhibited a significantly increased pH, gastric wall mucus, and flattening of the gastric mucosa, as well as a decreased area of gastric mucosal damage. Histology confirmed the results; extensive destruction of the gastric mucosa was observed in the ulcer control group, and the lesions penetrated deep into the gastric mucosa with leukocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer and edema. However, gastric protection was observed in the rats pre-fed with plant extracts. Periodic acid–Schiff staining of the gastric wall revealed a remarkably intensive uptake of magenta color in the experimental rats pretreated with MHAE compared to the ulcer control group. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed an upregulation of the Hsp70 protein and a downregulation of the Bax protein in rats pretreated with MHAE compared with the control rats. Gastric homogenate showed significantly increased catalase and superoxide dismutase, and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced in the rats pretreated with MHAE compared to the control group. In conclusion, MHAE exhibited a gastroprotective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. The mechanism of this gastroprotection included an increase in pH and gastric wall mucus, an increase in endogenous enzymes, and a decrease in the level of

  7. Organ-specific activation of the gastric branch of the efferent vagus nerve by ghrelin in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Habara, Hiromi; Hayashi, Yujiro; Inomata, Norio; Niijima, Akira; Kangawa, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin plays multiple physiological roles such as growth hormone secretion and exerting orexigenic actions; however, its physiological roles in the electrical activity of autonomic nerves remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of human ghrelin on several autonomic nerve activities in urethane-anesthetized rats using an electrophysiological method. Intravenous injection of ghrelin at 3 μg/kg significantly and transiently potentiated the efferent activity of the gastric vagus nerve; however, it did not affect the efferent activity of the hepatic vagus nerve. The activated response to ghrelin in the gastric efferent vagus nerve was not affected by the gastric afferent vagotomy, suggesting that this effect was not induced via the gastric afferent vagus nerve. Ghrelin did not affect the efferent activity of the brown adipose tissue, adrenal gland sympathetic nerve, and the renal sympathetic nerve. In addition, rectal temperature and the plasma concentrations of norepinephrine, corticosterone, and renin were also not changed by ghrelin. These findings demonstrate that ghrelin stimulates the gastric efferent vagus nerve in an organ-specific manner without affecting the gastric afferent vagus nerve and that ghrelin does not acutely affect the efferent basal activity of the sympathetic nerve in rats.

  8. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute bronchitis, your health care provider will ask about your symptoms and listen to your breathing. You may also have other tests. Treatments include rest, fluids, and aspirin (for adults) or ...

  9. NERP-2 regulates gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying via the orexin pathway.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Cherl; Toshinai, Koji; Waise, T M Zaved; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuki; Ueta, Yoichi; Kim, Min-Seon; Minamino, Naoto; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2017-02-16

    Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide (NERP)-2 is derived from a distinct region of VGF, a neurosecretory protein originally identified as a product of a nerve growth factor-responsive gene in rat PC12 cells. Colocalization of NERP-2 with orexin-A in the lateral hypothalamus increases orexin-A-induced feeding and energy expenditure in both rats and mice. Orexigenic and anorectic peptides in the hypothalamus modulate gastric function. In this study, we investigated the effect of NERP-2 on gastric function in rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of NERP-2 to rats increased gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying, whereas peripheral administration did not affect gastric function. NERP-2-induced gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying were blocked by an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, SB334867. NERP-2 also induced Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus and the dorsomotor nucleus of the vagus X, which are key sites in the central nervous system for regulation of gastric function. Atropine, a blocker of vagal efferent signal transduction, completely blocked NERP-2-induced gastric acid secretion. These results demonstrate that central administration of NERP-2 activates the orexin pathway, resulting in elevated gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying.

  10. Duodeno-gastric reflux and gastric adenomas: a scintigraphic study in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed Central

    Spigelman, A D; Granowska, M; Phillips, R K

    1991-01-01

    To test whether the presence of gastric adenomas (dysplasia) was associated with gastric reflux of duodenal contents, six patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) who had gastric adenomas and nine matched FAP patients without gastric adenomas underwent scintigraphic duodeno-gastric reflux scanning. Reflux was graded 0-6, where 0 = no reflux, 1 = intermittent reflux into antrum only, 2 = prolonged reflux into antrum only, 3 = intermittent reflux into body, 4 = prolonged reflux into body, 5 = intermittent reflux into body and fundus, and 6 = prolonged reflux into body and fundus. FAP patients with gastric adenomas had more severe reflux (median 6, range 4-6) than did controls (median 3, range 0-6; P = 0.009, Mann-Whitney U test). These results are consistent with a role for bile in the development of gastric adenomatous polyps and suggest that bile is involved in the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. PMID:1653358

  11. [COMPOSITION OF GASTRIC JUICE AND BILE IN RATS AT THE EXPERIMENTAL CHRONIC PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Gorenko, Z A; Grinchenko, O A; Veselsky, S P; Baban, V M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas, which is characterized by destruction of pancreatic secretory parenchyma and progressing exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Usually these patients have complications as cardiovascular, renal, respiratory and liver failure, and various gastric dysfunctions. The data of clinical observations do not reveal fully the functional state of the stomach and liver in chronic pancreatitis also remains an open question about the quality of the gastric juices and bile by this pathology. Therefore our aim was to investigate the secretory functions of the stomach and liver features in rats at the experimental chronic pancreatitis. This pathology modeled using L-arginine. Basal gastric secretion was investigated in chronic experiment by aspiration method for 10th and 63rd days, and pancreas and liver--in acute experiments at 13th and 68th days after the last administration of L-arginine. It was established that the character of the secretory response of the digestive tract depends on the duration of the pathology course. On the 10th day the functional state of the gastric secretory glands in rats with chronic pancreatitis characterized by twice increase of gastric acid production but decrease the level of hexosamines on 23.8% (P < 0.001) that indicate a increase of gastric content aggressiveness and mucus producing cells secretory insufficiency. In these animals the rate of total protein decreased on 61.7% (P < 0.05). On the 13th day observed the increase of pancreatic juice on 332% (P < 0.01), hepatic secret volume on 74.9% (P < 0.001) and redistribution in the cholates spectrum: glycocholates level increased but tauro-, free and total dehydroxylated bile acids decreased. These changes suggest deterioration of bile detergent properties, inhibition of acidic pathway of bile acids biosynthesis and conjugation of cholates with taurine. In two months total deficit of amino acids in gastric juice correlated with

  12. Role of GP82 in the selective binding to gastric mucin during oral infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Staquicini, Daniela I; Martins, Rafael M; Macedo, Silene; Sasso, Gisela R S; Atayde, Vanessa D; Juliano, Maria A; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2010-03-02

    Oral infection by Trypanosoma cruzi has been the primary cause of recent outbreaks of acute Chagas' diseases. This route of infection may involve selective binding of the metacyclic trypomastigote surface molecule gp82 to gastric mucin as a first step towards invasion of the gastric mucosal epithelium and subsequent systemic infection. Here we addressed that question by performing in vitro and in vivo experiments. A recombinant protein containing the complete gp82 sequence (J18), a construct lacking the gp82 central domain (J18*), and 20-mer synthetic peptides based on the gp82 central domain, were used for gastric mucin binding and HeLa cell invasion assays, or for in vivo experiments. Metacyclic trypomastigotes and J18 bound to gastric mucin whereas J18* failed to bind. Parasite or J18 binding to submaxillary mucin was negligible. HeLa cell invasion by metacyclic forms was not affected by gastric mucin but was inhibited in the presence of submaxillary mucin. Of peptides tested for inhibition of J18 binding to gastric mucin, the inhibitory peptide p7 markedly reduced parasite invasion of HeLa cells in the presence of gastric mucin. Peptide p7*, with the same composition as p7 but with a scrambled sequence, had no effect. Mice fed with peptide p7 before oral infection with metacyclic forms developed lower parasitemias than mice fed with peptide p7*. Our results indicate that selective binding of gp82 to gastric mucin may direct T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes to stomach mucosal epithelium in oral infection.

  13. Characterization of Gastric Microbiota in Twins.

    PubMed

    Dong, Quanjiang; Xin, Yongning; Wang, Lili; Meng, Xinying; Yu, Xinjuan; Lu, Linlin; Xuan, Shiying

    2017-02-01

    Contribution of host genetic backgrounds in the development of gastric microbiota has not been clearly defined. This study was aimed to characterize the biodiversity, structure and composition of gastric microbiota among twins. A total of four pairs of twins and eight unrelated individuals were enrolled in the study. Antral biopsies were obtained during endoscopy. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and pyrosequenced. Sequences were analyzed for the composition, structure, and α and β diversities of gastric microbiota. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the most predominant phyla of gastric microbiota. Each individual, twins as well as unrelated individuals, harbored a microbiota of distinct composition. There was no evidence of additional similarity in the richness and evenness of gastric microbiota among co-twins as compared to unrelated individuals. Calculations of θYC and PCoA demonstrated that the structure similarity of gastric microbial community between co-twins did not increase compared to unrelated individuals. In contrast, the structure of microbiota was altered enormously by Helicobacter pylori infection. These results suggest that host genetic backgrounds had little effect in shaping the gastric microbiota. This property of gastric microbiota could facilitate the studies discerning the role of microbiota from genetic grounds in the pathogenesis.

  14. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

  15. Nutrition and gastric cancer in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, Suayib

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains to be one of leading causes of cancer deaths despite worldwide decreasing incidence. In Turkey gastric cancer incidence is 9.6/100,000 in men and 5.7/100,000 in females. Gastric cancer is also one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Turkey with a crude death rate of 5.84/100,000 in men, 3.7/100,000 in women. The mean age of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer is 56 years in Turkey. The relatively high rate of gastric cancer in Turkey is mainly due to dietary factors. The traditional food preservation such as salt curing or smoking and lack of refrigeration of food play a significant role in gastric cancer development in the country. There are etiological and epidemiological differences among geographical regions in Turkey. Gastric cancer is seen much more often in the central, northeastern, and eastern part of Turkey. Increased HP pylori infection is also another important reason for increased incidence of gastric cancer in some parts of the country.

  16. Acute gastritis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in a child

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Mok; Song, Chun Woo; Song, Kyu Sang

    2016-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) inducing a self-limiting clinical syndrome characterized by fever, sore throat, hepatosplenomegaly, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Gastrointestinal symptoms of EBV infection are nonspecific and occur rarely. EBV inducing acute gastrointestinal pathology is poorly recognized without suspicion. Careful consideration is needed to diagnose gastric involvement of EBV infection including gastric lymphoma, gastric cancer, and gastritis. A few recent cases of gastritis associated with EBV infection have been reported in adolescents and adults. However, there is no report of EBV-associated gastritis in early childhood. We experienced a rare case of 4-year-old girl with EBV gastritis confirmed by in situ hybridization. PMID:28018450

  17. Attenuation of stress-induced gastric lesions by lansoprazole, PD-136450 and ranitidine in rats.

    PubMed

    Chandranath, S I; Bastaki, S M A; D'Souza, A; Adem, A; Singh, J

    2011-03-01

    Combining restraint with cold temperature (4°C) consistently induces gastric ulceration in rats after 3.5 h. The cold restraint-stress (CRS) method provides a suitable model for acute ulcer investigations. This study compares the antiulcer activities of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor), PD-136450 (CCK(2)/gastrin receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (histamine H(2) receptor antagonist) on CRS-induced gastric ulcers in rats. The results have shown that lansoprazole, which is a potent anti-secretory agent, provides complete protection in this model of ulcer formation. The use of indomethacin pretreatment to inhibit the prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and N(G)-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) pretreatment to inhibit nitric oxide synthase did not alter the lansoprazole-induced inhibition of ulcer index obtained in the untreated Wistar rats indicating that these two systems were not involved in the activation of lansoprazole. PD-136450, an effective anti-secretory agent against gastrin- but not dimaprit-induced stimulation, evoked a dose-dependent inhibition of CRS-induced gastric ulcers. The results show that both PG and nitric oxide pathways can influence the inhibitory effect of PD-136450 against CRS-induced gastric ulcer. The antiulcer activities of both lansoprazole and PD-136450 were compared to that of ranitidine. The results showed that ranitidine was more potent than lansoprazole and PD-136450 in inhibiting CRS-induced gastric ulcers and its effect was shown to be influenced by PG as well as nitric oxide synthase. The results of this study have demonstrated that although lansoprazole, PD-136450 and ranitidine were protective against CRS-induced gastric ulcers, the antiulcer activities of PD-136450 and ranitidine involved both PG and nitric oxide pathways, while lansoprazole acted independently of these two systems during CRS.

  18. A Biochemical Study on the Gastroprotective Effect of Andrographolide in Rats Induced with Gastric Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Saranya, P.; Geetha, A.; Selvamathy, S. M. K. Narmadha

    2011-01-01

    The major objective of the study was to evaluate the gastroprotective property of andrographolide, a chief component of the leaves of Andrographis paniculata in terms of the ulcer preventive effect in rats. An acute toxicity test was conducted with different concentrations of andrographolide to determine the LD50 value. The dose responsive study was conducted in rats pretreated with andrographolide (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) for a period of 30 days, prior to ulcer induction by administering ethanol, aspirin or by pyloric ligation. The ulcer protective efficacy was tested by determining the ulcer score, pH, pepsin, titrable acidity, gastric mucin, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione, and enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in gastric tissue. The activities of H+-K+ ATPase and myeloperoxidase were also determined in gastric tissue. The LD50 value was found to be 48 mg/kg b. wt and the effective dose was found to be 3 mg/kg. We have observed a significant reduction in the ulcer score in rats pretreated with 3 mg of andrographolide/kg body weight. A favourable increase in the pH and decrease in titrable acidity were observed in the gastric fluid of rats pretreated with the test drug. The gastric tissue H+-K+ ATPase and myeloperoxidase activities were elevated in ulcer-induced animals. The elevation in the enzyme activity was significantly minimized in the andrographolide received animals. The antioxidants and mucin levels were significantly maintained in the gastric tissue of drug-pretreated animals. Andrographolide did not produce any toxic effects in normal rats. This study reveals that the ulcer preventive efficacy of andrographolide may probably due to its antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiacid secretory effects. PMID:22923868

  19. Effects of juice from Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on gastric emptying in male rats.

    PubMed

    Pu, Hsiao-Fung; Huang, Wei-Ju; Tseng, Wen-Min; Wang, Shyi-Wu; Liu, Yu-Wen; Doong, Ming-Long; Wang, Paulus S

    2004-12-31

    The effects of juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni) on gastric emptying, gastrointestinal transit, and plasma level of cholecystokinin (CCK) in rats were studied. Male rats were given noni by gavage at levels of 0.25, 1, or 4 ml/kg once per day for one or 7 days. The rats in the control group were given water, while the rats in the experimental group were fasted overnight before measurement of gastrointestinal motility. Gastrointestinal motility was assessed in rats 15 min after intragastric instillation of a test meal containing charcoal (10%) and Na251CrO4 (0.5 microCi/ml). Gastric emptying was determined by measuring the amount of radiolabeled chromium contained in the small intestine as a percentage of the initial amount received. Then, gastrointestinal transit was evaluated by calculating the geometric center of distribution of the radiolabeled marker. Finally, blood samples were collected for measurement of CCK by radioimmunoassay. The administration of noni at 0.25 ml/kg, but not at 1 ml/kg and 4 ml/kg, for 1 day significantly inhibited gastric emptying. In contrast, gastric emptying was significantly inhibited by oral noni (0.25, 1, or 4 ml/kg) for 7 days. Intraperitoneal injection of lorglumide (5 or 10 mg/kg), a selective CCK1 receptor antagonist, effectively attenuated the noni-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. The intestinal transit and body weight, food intake, water intake, urine volume as well as feces weight were not altered by the administration of noni either acutely or chronically, but the administration of oral noni (1 ml/kg) for 7 days increased the level of plasma CCK in male rats. These results suggest that oral noni inhibits gastric emptying in male rats via a mechanism involving stimulation of CCK secretion and CCK1 receptor activation.

  20. Factors controlling gastric-glucagon release.

    PubMed Central

    Lefèbvre, P J; Luyckx, A S

    1977-01-01

    A system consisting of an isolated dog stomach perfused with whole blood has been designed to study gastric glucagon secretion. Under basal conditions, gastric glucagon release was 0.0-3.1 ng glucagon/100g of stomach per min. Arginine, at an arterial plasma concentration averaging 10 mM, elicited a rapid glucagon release. This gastric glucagon release was almost completely abolished by somatostatin (100 ng/ml). The release of gastric glucagon was not affected by hyperglycemia alone but was reduced by about 40% when hyperglycemia was concomitant with an hyperinsulinemia within the physiological range. These observations support the concept that adequate concentrations of insulin are necessary in order for hyperglycemia to inhibit gastric glucagon secretion. Furthermore, it is suggested that the isolated perfused dog stomach might provide a unique tool permitting investigation of alpha-cell function in the absence of endogenously released insulin. PMID:845258

  1. Anticancer Effect of Lycopene in Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer ranks as the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Risk factors of gastric carcinogenesis include oxidative stress, DNA damage, Helicobacter pylori infection, bad eating habits, and smoking. Since oxidative stress is related to DNA damage, smoking, and H. pylori infection, scavenging of reactive oxygen species may be beneficial for prevention of gastric carcinogenesis. Lycopene, one of the naturally occurring carotenoids, has unique structural and chemical features that contributes to a potent antioxidant activity. It shows a potential anticancer activity and reduces gastric cancer incidence. This review will summarize anticancer effect and mechanism of lycopene on gastric carcinogenesis based on the recent experimental and clinical studies. PMID:26151041

  2. Helicobacter pylori, Cancer, and the Gastric Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Lydia E; Peek, Richard M

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this disease. Although the stomach was once thought to be a sterile environment, it is now known to house many bacterial species leading to a complex interplay between H. pylori and other residents of the gastric microbiota. In addition to the role of H. pylori virulence factors, host genetic polymorphisms, and diet, it is now becoming clear that components of the gastrointestinal microbiota may also influence H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss emerging data regarding the gastric microbiota in humans and animal models and alterations that occur to the composition of the gastric microbiota in the presence of H. pylori infection that may augment the risk of developing gastric cancer.

  3. Gastric Pneumatosis in a Premature Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Yuk Joseph; Chan, Kwong-leung; Wong, Siu-chun Mabel; Chim, Stella; Wong, Kar-yin

    2011-01-01

    Gastric pneumatosis is extremely rare during infancy. It has been reported in association with necrotizing enterocolitis or congenital abnormalities such as pyloric stenosis. Here, we report a case of gastric pneumatosis in a premature neonate on synchronized nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. No pneumatosis was noted in the rest of the bowel or esophagus. There could have been mild damage in the gastric mucosa, either related to the placement of the feeding tube or secondary to the use of indomethacin or both. The condition was further aggravated by noninvasive ventilation. An increase in intragastric pressure resulted in the submucosal dissection of air followed by the development of gastric pneumatosis. Conservative management strategies, including the use of a nasogastric tube for decompression and the withholding of feeding, successfully managed the gastric pneumatosis in our patient. An uneventful recovery was made after conservative management. Prompt recognition and evaluation of this condition were essential for making the diagnosis. PMID:23705077

  4. Polyamines are Inhibitors of Gastric Acid Secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Tushar K.; Nandi, Jyotirmoy; Pidhorodeckyj, Nykolai; Meng-Ai, Zhou

    1982-03-01

    The naturally occurring organic polycations such as spermine and spermidine inhibit histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion by bullfrog gastric mucosa in vitro; spermine is much more potent than spermidine. Unlike the H2 receptor antagonists, the polyamines are completely ineffective from the nutrient side and are effective only from the secretory side of the chambered mucosa. The polyamine effects could be reversed by increasing K+ concentration in the secretory solution. Studies with isolated gastric microsomal vesicles demonstrate that the polyamines do not inhibit the gastric H+,K+-ATPase but greatly decrease the ATPase-mediated uptake of H+ under appropriate conditions. For the latter effects the presence of polyamine within the vesicle interior was found to be essential. Our data strongly suggest an uncoupling of the gastric H+,K+-ATPase system by the polyamines. The therapeutic potential of these and similar compounds in the treatment of hyperacidity and peptic ulcer is discussed.

  5. Gastric acid secretion: changes during a century.

    PubMed

    Di Mario, Francesco; Goni, Elisabetta

    2014-12-01

    The advances in knowledge of gastric physiology within the past century have been the most exciting and important in this area of interest for many decades. The aim of this presentation consists of a comprehensive review of the extensive recent literature on this topic in order to highlight milestones in the field of gastric physiology, in particular in gastric acid secretion, gastric pathophysiology, acid-related diseases and use of acid regulatory drugs. Moreover, in the 21st century there have been many epidemiologic changes as well as a decrease of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer together with an increase of gastroesophageal reflux disease and the related increase of pomp proton inhibitor wide use.

  6. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PERIODS OF GASTRIC ISCHAEMIA IN THE VIABILITY OF THE TISSUE OF BODY, FUNDUS AND ANTRUM REGION OF RABBIT STOMACH

    PubMed Central

    MAGALHÃES, Maria Angélica B.; BARBOSA, Alfredo J. A.; FIGUEIREDO, Juliano A.; ALBERTI, Luiz R.; PETROIANU, Andy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the rich vascular arcade of the stomach, gastric ischemia represents an important medical challenge and can be the consequence of obstructive or non-obstructive vascular processes of pathological or iatrogenic origin. AIM: To assess the effects of acute gastric ischaemia on the different regions of the stomach. METHOD: Fifteen New Zeland rabbits were divided into three groups: group 1, animals were observed during 3 h; group 2, during 6 h; group 3, during 12 h. Rabbit stomachs were subjected to devascularization of the greater and lesser curvatures. After predetermined time, the stomachs were removed for macro and microscopic studies. RESULTS: Haemorrhagic necrosis was more marked in the gastric fundus and body. In contrast, the antropylorus remained preserved in 80% of the animals. Necrosis of the gastric body and fundus mucosa were observed in all animals after 6 h and 12 h of ischaemia. CONCLUSION: Acute gastric ischaemia in rabbits produces haemorrhagic necrosis of the gastric fundus and body even in a short period of time. Beside this, the antropyloric region was significantly more resistant to ischaemia. PMID:26247325

  7. Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbino, Andrea; Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa; Curci, Silvana; Colella, Matilde

    2010-06-01

    Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

  8. Gastritis, nitrosamines, and gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stemmermann, G.N.; Mower, H.

    1981-01-01

    Gastritis is associated with peptic ulcer, gastroenterostomy, pernicious anemia, and exposure to nitrosamines. Once established, the process may be self-perpetuating, resulting in atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. This can be explained by the process of endogenous nitrosation of amines in the inflamed gastric mucosa. Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Several drugs given parenterally have been identified as mutagenic nitroso compounds in homogenates of human and canine antral mucosa. Nitrite for this process is apparently derived from the inflamed mucosa. Different amines appear to be nitrosated at different places in the antrum, suggesting the presence of site-specific enzymes that control these reactions.

  9. Triple gastric peptic ulcer perforation.

    PubMed

    Radojkovic, Milan; Mihajlovic, Suncica; Stojanovic, Miroslav; Stanojevic, Goran; Damnjanovic, Zoran

    2016-03-01

    Patients with advanced or metastatic cancer have compromised nutritional, metabolic, and immune conditions. Nevertheless, little is known about gastroduodenal perforation in cancer patients. Described in the present report is the case of a 41-year old woman with stage IV recurrent laryngeal cancer, who used homeopathic anticancer therapy and who had triple peptic ulcer perforation (PUP) that required surgical repair. Triple gastric PUP is a rare complication. Self-administration of homeopathic anticancer medication should be strongly discouraged when evidence-based data regarding efficacy and toxicity is lacking.

  10. Serum and gastric fluid levels of cytokines and nitrates in gastric diseases infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Mehmet, N; Refik, M; Harputluoglu, M; Ersoy, Y; Aydin, N Engin; Yildirim, B

    2004-04-01

    This case control study presents data on the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate and a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-2R (IL-2R), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor TNF-alpha in gastric fluid and serum. Patients with gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer are studied and grouped according to infection by Helicobacter pylori. The 208 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination were classified as follows; H. pylori-positive gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-negative gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-positive ulcers (n = 34), H. pylori-negative ulcers (n = 34), 43 patients with H. pylori-positive gastric cancer in addition to 33 H. pylori-negative healthy control individuals. Gastric fluids and blood samples were taken concomitantly. Cytokines and nitrite and nitrate determinations were attempted as soon as possible after collection of the samples. Nitrite and nitrate levels of serum and gastric fluids of H. pylori-positive gastritis and ulcers were higher than H. pylori-negative gastritis and ulcers. The concentrations of total nitrite and nitrate and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8) in gastric fluids and sera of H. pylori-positive gastric cancer patients were higher than H. pylori-negative control groups. IL-1 beta level was significantly elevated in gastric fluid of infected cancer patients but not in serum. Taken together, the results suggest that an increase in cytokine-NO combination in gastric mucosa previously reported by many studies is not restricted to local infected gastric tissue but also detected in gastric fluid and sera of H. pylori-positive subjects and may have an important role in the pathogenesis and development of common gastric diseases.

  11. Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shree Ram

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

  12. Gastroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Leaf against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab.; Tayyab, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5 mL/kg) orally, positive control was administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug) and 2 groups were received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5 mL/kg) was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2 g/kg and 5 g/kg). PMID:24783203

  13. Gastroprotective Effect of Oxalis corniculata (Whole Plant) on Experimentally Induced Gastric Ulceration in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sakat, S. S.; Tupe, Preeti; Juvekar, Archana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiulcer activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata (whole plant) using pylorus ligation and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats. The extract was preliminary evaluated for acute oral toxicity test using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines 423. Further, it was studied for antiulcer potential at the dose levels of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Ranitidine was used as a standard drug (100 mg/kg). Acid secretory parameters like gastric volume, pH, total acidity and free acidity were measured in pylorus ligation model, whereas numbers of ulcers, ulcers score and ulcer index was measured in pylorus ligated and indomethacin treated rats. Pretreatment of test extract significantly (p<0.05) decreased the gastric volume, total acidity, free acidity and increase in the pH of the gastric fluid in pylorus-ligated rats. It also showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in number of ulcers, ulcers score and ulcer index in pylorus ligated and indomethacin treated rats. Results of the study suggest that, the methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata possesses significant antisecretory and antiulcer effects and justify the traditional usage of this herb to treat peptic ulcers. PMID:23204622

  14. Antiulcer properties of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract on experimental models of gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Najarnezhad, Vahid; Anassori, Ehsan; Mostafavi, Mostafa; Keshipour, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. is used in folk medicine for treatment of stomach disorders including peptic ulcers. The hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (HEGG) was evaluated for antiulcerogenic activity and acute toxicity profile in mice. Various doses of HEGG (50-200 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals of different groups. Omeprazole and cimetidine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg were used as positive controls, respectively. Stomach was opened along the greater curvature then ulceration index was determined examining the inner lining of stomach. Oral administration of the extract at 1600 mg/kg did not produce toxic symptoms and mortality in mice. 2950 mg/kg was determined as the oral LD50. The HEGG (50-200 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in ulcer index in HCl/Ethanol-induced ulcer. G. glabra extract (50-150 mg/kg) showed antiulcer activity against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions dose dependently. The extract effectively inhibited formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol. The extract (200 mg/kg) was more potent than omeprazole (30 mg/kg). HEGG reduced the ulcer index in hypothermic stress induced gastric ulcers in mice and the antiulcer effect was comparable to that of cimetidine. The results indicated that G. glabra hydroalcoholic extract exerted an antiulcergenic effect that could be associated with increase in gastric mucosal defensive factors.

  15. Antiulcer properties of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract on experimental models of gastric ulcer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Najarnezhad, Vahid; Anassori, Ehsan; Mostafavi, Mostafa; Keshipour, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. is used in folk medicine for treatment of stomach disorders including peptic ulcers. The hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (HEGG) was evaluated for antiulcerogenic activity and acute toxicity profile in mice. Various doses of HEGG (50-200 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals of different groups. Omeprazole and cimetidine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg were used as positive controls, respectively. Stomach was opened along the greater curvature then ulceration index was determined examining the inner lining of stomach. Oral administration of the extract at 1600 mg/kg did not produce toxic symptoms and mortality in mice. 2950 mg/kg was determined as the oral LD50. The HEGG (50–200 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in ulcer index in HCl/Ethanol-induced ulcer. G. glabra extract (50-150 mg/kg) showed antiulcer activity against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions dose dependently. The extract effectively inhibited formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol. The extract (200 mg/kg) was more potent than omeprazole (30 mg/kg). HEGG reduced the ulcer index in hypothermic stress induced gastric ulcers in mice and the antiulcer effect was comparable to that of cimetidine. The results indicated that G. glabra hydroalcoholic extract exerted an antiulcergenic effect that could be associated with increase in gastric mucosal defensive factors. PMID:26664383

  16. Re-organisation of oesophago-gastric cancer care in England: progress and remaining challenges

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Oesophago-gastric cancer services in England have been extensively reorganised since 2001 to deliver a centralised, specialist-led service. Our aim was to assess how well the National Health Service (NHS) in England met organisational standards for oesophago-gastric cancer care. Methods Questionnaires that asked about the provision of staging investigations, curative and palliative treatments and key personnel were sent in September 2007 to the lead clinician for oesophago-gastric cancer at all 30 cancer networks and 156 NHS acute trusts in England. Results Responses were received from all networks and 81% of NHS trusts. All networks provided essential staging investigations and a range of endoscopic palliative therapies. Only 16 of the 30 cancer networks discussed all patients at the specialist multi-disciplinary team meeting and 11 networks had not fully centralised curative surgery. There was also variation between NHS trusts in the integration of the palliative care team, the availability of nurse specialists and the use of dieticians to provide nutritional support. Conclusion There has been considerable progress in reforming oesophago-gastric cancer services but the process of reorganisation is still incomplete and regional differences in service provision exist that may lead to variation in patient outcomes. PMID:19909525

  17. Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents.

    PubMed

    Bynum, L J; Pierce, A K

    1976-12-01

    A retrospective analysis of 50 patients who had been observed to aspirate gastric contents was performed to define better the course of patients with this syndrome. The patients invariably had a disturbance of consciousness, most commonly due to sedative drug overdose or general anesthesia. The onset of clinical signs occurred prompty after aspiration and tended to be similar in all patients, irrespective of their subsequent course or outcome. These findings usually included fever, tachypnea, diffuse rales, and serious hypoxemia. Cough, cyanosis, wheezing, and apnea were each seen in approximately one third of the cases. Apena, shock, and early severe hypoxemia were particularly ominous events. Initial roentgenograms revealed diffuse or localized alveolar infiltrates, which progressed during the next 24 to 36 hours. Subsequent clinical courses followed 3 patterns: 12 per cent of the patients died shortly after aspiration; 62 per cent had rapid clinical and radiologic improvement, with clearing, on average, within 4.5 days; 26 per cent demonstrated rapid improvement, but then had clinical and radiographic progression associated with recovery of bacterial pathogens from the sputum and a fatal outcome in more than 60 per cent. Treatment from the outset by adrenocortical steroids or antimicrobial agents had no demonstrable effect on the outcome. The clinical features of aspiration of gastric contents are characteristic and distinguish it from other forms of aspiration-related lung disease.

  18. Prevention of experimentally-induced gastric ulcers in rats by an ethanolic extract of "Parsley" Petroselinum crispum.

    PubMed

    Al-Howiriny, Tawfeq; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; El-Tahir, Kamal; Rafatullah, Syed

    2003-01-01

    An ethanolic extract of Parsley, Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym.ex A.W. Hill (Umbelliferae), was tested for its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and to protect gastric mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, indomethacin and cytodestructive agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and 25% NaCl) in rats. The extract in doses of 1 and 2 g/kg body weight had a significant antiulcerogenic activity on the models used. Besides, ethanol-induced depleted gastric wall mucus and non-protein sulfhydryl contents were replenished by pretreatment with Parsley extract. Acute toxicity tests showed a large margin of safety for the extract. The phytochemical screening of Parsley leaves revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, sterols and/or triterpenes.

  19. Gastric cancer and related epigenetic alterations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Trupti N; Roy, Soumyadipta; Ravi, Revathi

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer, a malignant and highly proliferative condition, has significantly affected a large population around the globe and is known to be caused by various factors including genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences. Though the global trend of these cancers is declining, an increase in its frequency is still a threat because of changing lifestyles and dietary habits. However, genetic and epigenetic alterations related to gastric cancers also have an equivalent contribution towards carcinogenic development. DNA methylation is one of the major forms of epigenetic modification which plays a significant role in gastric carcinogenesis. Methylation leads to inactivation of some of the most important genes like DNA repair genes, cell cycle regulators, apoptotic genes, transcriptional regulators, and signalling pathway regulators; which subsequently cause uncontrolled proliferation of cells. Mutations in these genes can be used as suitable prognostic markers for early diagnosis of the disease, since late diagnosis of gastric cancers has a huge negative impact on overall patient survival. In this review, we focus on the important epigenetic mutations that contribute to the development of gastric cancer and the molecular pathogenesis underlying each of them. Methylation, acetylation, and histone modifications play an integral role in the onset of genomic instability, one of the many contributory factors to gastric cancer. This article also covers the constraints of incomplete knowledge of epigenetic factors influencing gastric cancer, thus throwing light on our understanding of the disease. PMID:28144288

  20. Viscous fingering of HCI through gastric mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Garik, Peter; Turner, Bradley S.; Bradley, James Douglas; Bansil, Rama; Stanley, H. Eugene; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1992-12-01

    THE HCI in the mammalian stomach is concentrated enough to digest the stomach itself, yet the gastric epithelium remains undamaged. One protective factor is gastric mucus, which forms a protective layer over the surface epithelium1-4 and acts as a diffusion barrier5,6 Bicarbonate ions secreted by the gastric epithelium7 are trapped in the mucus gel, establishing a gradient from pH 1-2 at the lumen to pH 6-7 at the cell surface8-10. How does HCI, secreted at the base of gastric glands by parietal cells, traverse the mucus layer without acidifying it? Here we demonstrate that injection of HCI through solutions of pig gastric mucin produces viscous fingering patterns11-18 dependent on pH, mucin concentration and acid flow rate. Above pH 4, discrete fingers are observed, whereas below pH 4, HCI neither penetrates the mucin solution nor forms fingers. Our in vitro results suggest that HCI secreted by the gastric gland can penetrate the mucus gel layer (pH 5-7) through narrow fingers, whereas HC1 in the lumen (pH 2) is prevented from diffusing back to the epithelium by the high viscosity of gastric mucus gel on the luminal side.

  1. Current status of proximal gastric vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, B D

    1989-01-01

    Proximal gastric vagotomy is nearing its twentieth year in clinical use as an operation for peptic ulcer disease. No other acid-reducing operation has undergone as much scrutiny or study. At this time, the evidence of such studies and long-term follow-up strongly supports the use of proximal gastric vagotomy as the treatment of choice for chronic duodenal ulcer in patients who have failed medical therapy. Its application in treating the complications of peptic ulcer disease, which recently have come to represent an increasingly greater percentage of all operations done for peptic ulcer disease, is well-tested. However, initial series suggest that it should probably occupy a prominent role in treating some of these complications, particularly in selected patients, in the future. The operation has the well-documented ability to reduce gastric acid production, not inhibit gastric bicarbonate production, and also minimally inhibit gastric motility. The combination of these physiologic results after proximal gastric vagotomy, along with preservation of the normal antropyloroduodenal mechanism of gastrointestinal control, serve to allow patients with proximal gastric vagotomy the improved benefits of significantly fewer severe gastrointestinal side effects than are seen after other operations for peptic ulcer disease. PMID:2644897

  2. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: Indian enigma.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vatsala; Pandey, Renu; Misra, Sri Prakash; Dwivedi, Manisha

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium which resides in the mucous linings of the stomach. It has been implicated in the causation of various gastric disorders including gastric cancer. The geographical distribution and etiology of gastric cancer differ widely in different geographical regions and H. pylori, despite being labeled as a grade I carcinogen, has not been found to be associated with gastric cancer in many areas. Studies in Asian countries such as Thailand, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabian countries, Israel and Malaysia, have reported a high frequency of H. pylori infection co-existing with a low incidence of gastric cancer. In India, a difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer has been noted even in different regions of the country leading to a puzzle when attempting to find the causes of these variations. This puzzle of H. pylori distribution and gastric cancer epidemiology is known as the Indian enigma. In this review we have attempted to explain the Indian enigma using evidence from various Indian studies and from around the globe. This review covers aspects of epidemiology, the various biological strains present in different parts of the country and within individuals, the status of different H. pylori-related diseases and the molecular pathogenesis of the bacterium.

  3. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  4. Diabetes and gastric cancer: the potential links.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Tseng, Farn-Hsuan

    2014-02-21

    This article reviews the epidemiological evidence linking diabetes and gastric cancer and discusses some of the potential mechanisms, confounders and biases in the evaluation of such an association. Findings from four meta-analyses published from 2011 to 2013 suggest a positive link, which may be more remarkable in females and in the Asian populations. Putative mechanisms may involve shared risk factors, hyperglycemia, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, high salt intake, medications and comorbidities. Diabetes may increase the risk of gastric cancer through shared risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and smoking. Hyperglycemia, even before the clinical diagnosis of diabetes, may predict gastric cancer in some epidemiological studies, which is supported by in vitro, and in vivo studies. Patients with diabetes may also have a higher risk of gastric cancer through the higher infection rate, lower eradication rate and higher reinfection rate of H. pylori. High salt intake can act synergistically with H. pylori infection in the induction of gastric cancer. Whether a higher risk of gastric cancer in patients with diabetes may be ascribed to a higher intake of salt due to the loss of taste sensation awaits further investigation. The use of medications such as insulin, metformin, sulfonylureas, aspirin, statins and antibiotics may also influence the risk of gastric cancer, but most of them have not been extensively studied. Comorbidities may affect the development of gastric cancer through the use of medications and changes in lifestyle, dietary intake, and the metabolism of drugs. Finally, a potential detection bias related to gastrointestinal symptoms more commonly seen in patients with diabetes and with multiple comorbidities should be pointed out. Taking into account the inconsistent findings and the potential confounders and detection bias in previous epidemiological studies, it is expected that there are still more to be

  5. Does remnant gastric cancer really differ from primary gastric cancer? A systematic review of the literature by the Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Haga, Yoshio; Oba, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Remnant gastric cancer, most frequently defined as cancer detected in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for benign disease and those cases after surgery of gastric cancer at least 5 years after the primary surgery, is often reported as a tumor with poor prognosis. The Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association for Research Promotion evaluated the clinical impact of remnant gastric cancer by systematically reviewing publications focusing on molecular carcinogenesis, lymph node status, patient survival, and surgical complications. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "remnant," "stomach," and "cancer," revealing 1154 relevant reports published up to the end of December 2014. The mean interval between the initial surgery and the diagnosis of remnant gastric cancer ranged from 10 to 30 years. The incidence of lymph node metastases at the splenic hilum for remnant gastric cancer is not significantly higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer. Lymph node involvement in the jejunal mesentery is a phenomenon peculiar to remnant gastric cancer after Billroth II reconstruction. Prognosis and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates seem to be comparable to those for primary proximal gastric cancer. The crude 5-year mortality for remnant gastric cancer was 1.08 times higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, although no prospective cohort study has yet evaluated the clinical significance of remnant gastric cancer, our literature review suggests that remnant gastric cancer does not adversely affect patient prognosis and postoperative course.

  6. [Lymphoma of the residual gastric stump].

    PubMed

    La Torre, F; Nicastro, A; Crescenzi, U; Persico Stella, L; Clarioni, A; Pontone, P; Montori, A

    1993-03-01

    The authors report a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (lymphoplasmocytoid type) arisen on the gastric stump of a patient operated 18 years before according to Billroth II gastric resection for peptic ulcer. They underline the extraordinary rarity of the event because this type of neoplasia never arises on the gastric stump, where would be more likely to find, due to irritative chemical stimuli of the biliary reflux, phenomena of intestinal metaplasia or severe dysplasia highly predisposing to adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, they stress the importance of a "deep" bioptic examination for a diagnosis as early as possible of this type of pathology.

  7. Early gastric cancer in Menetrier's disease.

    PubMed

    Remes-Troche, Jose Maria; Zapata-Colindres, Juan Carlos; Starkman, Ivethe; De Anda, Jazmin; Arista-Nasr, Julian; Valdovinos-Diaz, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01

    Uncommon conditions such as pernicious anaemia and hypertrophic gastropathies have been considered as risk factors for gastric cancer; however, the exact increase in risk is unknown. Menetrier's disease is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the stomach caused by an overexpression of tumour growth factor α, a ligand for the tyrokinase epidermal growth factor receptor, resulting in a selective expansion of surface mucous cells in the body and fundus of the stomach. There have been nearly 200 cases of Menetrier's disease reported in the literature yet less than 15 have been associated with gastric adenocarcinoma. Here, we report an early stage gastric adenocarcinoma detected incidentally in a patient recently diagnosed with Menetrier's disease.

  8. Gastric rupture after the Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Bintz, M; Cogbill, T H

    1996-01-01

    Since 1975, the Heimlich maneuver has been widely applied to relieve upper airway obstruction caused by aspirated material. Life-threatening complications have been documented following this simple procedure. We report two cases of gastric rupture after use of the Heimlich maneuver. Both patients experienced pulmonary and abdominal symptoms. The diagnosis was confirmed in each case by the demonstration of free intraperitoneal air on an upright chest roentgenogram. Full-thickness gastric rupture along the lesser curvature of the stomach was repaired in both patients; one patient died. Abdominal pain or persistent abdominal distention despite nasogastric suction after the Heimlich maneuver should prompt evaluation for possible gastric rupture.

  9. Antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract as an anti-ulcerogenic agent

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cassia sieberiana is a savannah tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of various stomach disorders including gastric ulcer, stomach pains and indigestion. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antioxidant, gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins, secretory phospholipase A2, phytochemical and acute toxicity properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract in a bid to justify its phytotherapeutic applications in gastric ulcer. Methods Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of the roots bark extract of Cassia sieberiana were assayed. Serum secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) concentration and activity and the formation of gastric mucosal prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and I2 (PGI2) were also assessed. Comparisons between means were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Students Standard Newman-Keuls post hoc analysis to determine statistical significance. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The extract was found to possess significant ferric reducing antioxidant power and can scavenge hydroxyl radicals. The extract also possesses DPPH scavenging activity, can chelate ferrous ion and a dose-dependent protective effect against lipid peroxidation and free radical generation. Prostaglandin studies showed that the roots bark extract dose dependently increased gastric mucosal PGE2 and PGI2 levels and also decreased serum sPLA2 activity. Phytochemical analyses suggest that the roots extract contains polyhydroxyl/phenolic substances. Acute toxicity test showed no sign of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight p.o. Conclusions C. sieberiana roots extract possesses significant antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin properties as well as serum secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity which could be due to its content of polyhydroxy and/or phenolic substances. This may justify its use as an anti-ulcerogenic agent in traditional medicine in

  10. Renal cell carcinoma: complete pathological response in a patient with gastric metastasis of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    García-Campelo, Rosario; Quindós, Maria; Vázquez, Diana Dopico; López, Margarita Reboredo; Carral, Alberto; Calvo, Ovidio Fernández; Soto, José Manuel Rois; Grande, Enrique; Durana, Jesús; Antón-Aparicio, Luis Miguel

    2010-01-01

    A 75-year-old-man, with a 2-month history of abdominal pain, underwent a standard diagnostic workup that included a CT scan that showed a large right renal mass and subcentimeter nodes in the right and left lung lobes. In December 2003, the patient underwent right nephrectomy with adrenalectomy and a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (pT3N0M0 stage) was made. No further treatment was proposed and patient was followed up regularly. In October 2006, the annual gastrointestinal endoscopy showed asymptomatic multilobulated and polypoid masses in the gastric fundus and gastric body that corresponded to metastasis of the renal carcinoma that had been resected three years ago. Surgical treatment was refused and oral treatment with sunitinib (50 mg/day consecutively for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks off) was initiated. Patient completed one cycle and development of acute toxicity (grade 3 asthenia, anorexia and mucositis) led to treatment interruption. After recovering from acute toxicity, the patient was proposed to reinitiate treatment with dose reduction, but he refused any medical treatment. At the follow-up visit, three months later, the gastrointestinal endoscopy showed four unspecific 2 mm nodules without malignant evidence. The whole-body CT did not reveal any other abnormality except for the known lung nodes. PET scan six months after treatment confirmed complete gastric response.

  11. Three aromatic amino acids in gastric juice as potential biomarkers for gastric malignancies.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Lin, Sanren; Zhou, Liya; Geng, Qiuming; Li, Yuan; Xu, Ming; Na, Renhua

    2011-05-23

    For screening early-stage gastric malignancies, the existing serum biomarkers have limited sensitivity and specificity. Gastric juice biomarkers are scarce and require further investigation. We divided this study on searching potential biomarkers into four parts: (1) detection of differential fluorescence spectrum and peaks in the gastric juice from patients using fluorescence spectroscopy and HPLC, (2) identification and validation of differential peaks using LC/MS and NMR, (3) quantification of potential biomarkers, and (4) establishment of diagnostic detection. The fluorescence intensity (FI), tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and total protein content were significantly higher in the gastric juice of patients with gastric malignancies (all P<0.01). With all P<0.001, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the biomarkers were tyrosine, 0.838; phenylalanine, 0.856; and tryptophan, 0.816. At a specificity of 79.4%, the sensitivity for gastric malignancy detection with phenylalanine was 87.9% only. Aromatic amino acids in gastric juices could be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers to screen gastric malignancies. It is a less-invasive and economical method compared to gastric biopsy.

  12. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy as Preoperative Treatment for Localized Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarty, Twisha; Crane, Christopher H.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Mansfield, Paul F.; Briere, Tina M.; Beddar, A. Sam; Mok, Henry; Reed, Valerie K.; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E.; Das, Prajnan

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate dosimetric parameters, acute toxicity, pathologic response, and local control in patients treated with preoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for localized gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods: Between November 2007 and April 2010, 25 patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma were treated with induction chemotherapy, followed by preoperative IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy and, finally, surgical resection. The median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in 18 patients, capecitabine in 3, and other regimens in 4. Subsequently, resection was performed with total gastrectomy in 13 patients, subtotal gastrectomy in 7, and other surgeries in 5. Results: Target coverage, expressed as the ratio of the minimum dose received by 99% of the planning target volume to the prescribed dose, was a median of 0.97 (range, 0.92-1.01). The median V{sub 30} (percentage of volume receiving at least 30 Gy) for the liver was 26%; the median V{sub 20} (percentage of volume receiving at least 20 Gy) for the right and left kidneys was 14% and 24%, respectively; and the median V{sub 40} (percentage of volume receiving at least 40 Gy) for the heart was 18%. Grade 3 acute toxicity developed in 14 patients (56%), including dehydration in 10, nausea in 8, and anorexia in 5. Grade 4 acute toxicity did not develop in any patient. There were no significant differences in the rates of acute toxicity, hospitalization, or feeding tube use in comparison to those in a group of 50 patients treated with preoperative three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. R0 resection was obtained in 20 patients (80%), and pathologic complete response occurred in 5 (20%). Conclusions: Preoperative IMRT for gastric adenocarcinoma was well tolerated, accomplished excellent target coverage and normal structure sparing, and led to appropriate

  13. Gastroprotective Effect of an Aqueous Suspension of Black Cumin Nigella sativa on Necrotizing Agents-Induced Gastric Injury in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Al Mofleh, Ibrahim A; Alhaider, Abdulqader A.; Mossa, Jaber S.; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed O.; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Rafatullah, Syed; Shaik, Shaffi A.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aim Previous studies on “Black seed” or “Black Cumin” Nigella sativa (NS) have reported a large number of pharmacological activities including its anti-ulcer potential. These studies employed either fixed oil, volatile oil components or different solvent extracts. In folkloric practices, NS seeds are taken as such, in the form of coarse dry powder or the powdered seeds are mixed with water. This study examines the effect of NS aqueous suspension on experimentally induced gastric ulcers and basal gastric secretion in rats to rationalize its use by herbal and Unani medicine practitioners. Materials and Methods The study was conducted at the Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous Plants Research Center, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by various noxious chemicals (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and indomethacin) in Wistar albino rats. Anti-secretory studies were undertaken in a separate group of rats. Gastric wall mucus contents and non-protein sulfhydryl concentration were estimated, and gastric tissue was examined histopathologically. Results An aqueous suspension of Black seed significantly prevented gastric ulcer formation induced by necrotizing agents. It also significantly ameliorated the ulcer severity and basal gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated Shay rats. Moreover, the suspension significantly replenished the ethanol-induced depleted gastric wall mucus content levels and gastric mucosal non-protein sulfhydryl concentration. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histopathologically. Conclusion These findings validate the use of Black seed in gastropathies induced by necrotizing agents. The anti-ulcer effect of NS is possibly prostaglandin-mediated and/or through its antioxidant and anti-secretory activities. PMID:19568521

  14. Perforated Carcinoma in the Gastric Remnant: A Case of Conservative Treatment Prior to Successful Curative R0 Resection

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Sho; Okumura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kansuke; Mizumura, Naoto; Ito, Aya; Maehira, Hiromitsu; Imagawa, Atsuo; Ogawa, Masao; Kawasaki, Masayasu; Kameyama, Masao

    2016-01-01

    An 80-year-old man who had undergone distal gastrectomy and Billroth-II gastrojejunostomy 38 years previously, for a benign gastric ulcer, was diagnosed with remnant gastric cancer based on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings. He presented at our emergency department with acute-onset epigastric pain due to perforated remnant gastric cancer. Conservative medical management was selected, including nasogastric tube insertion, antibiotics, and proton pump inhibitors, because his peritonitis was limited to his epigastrium and his general condition was stable. Twenty-one days after the perforation occurred, curative total remnant gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy were performed. Adhesion between the lateral segment of the liver and the dissected lesser curvature of the gastric remnant may have contributed to the peritonitis in this case, which was limited to the epigastrium. This is the first report of perforated remnant gastric cancer in which conservative treatment was effective prior to curative resection. The protocol reported here may be of use to other clinicians who may encounter this clinical entity in their practices. PMID:27651972

  15. [Effect of Saussurea lappa on gastric functions].

    PubMed

    Chen, S F; Li, Y Q; He, F Y

    1994-07-01

    The patients with chronic superficial gastritis were selected in the study. The variation in gastric acidity output, serum gastrin and plasma somatostatin concentration were observed during the Saussurea lappa decoction (SLD) perfusion into the stomach. There was no significant changes in acidity output, serum gastrin and plasma somatostatin concentration after the perfusion of SLD (P > 0.05). Changes in gastric emptying and plasma motilin concentration were observed after oral administration of the SLD in 5 healthy volunteers. The time of gastric emptying was markedly shortened after oral administration of SLD (P < 0.01). A significant increase occurred in plasma motilin concentration at 30 min. after oral administration of SLD (P < 0.01). It revealed that SLD could accelerate the gastric emptying and increase the endogenous motilin release.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wen-Jia; Gao, Jin-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of the major treatments for gastric cancer, but drug resistance limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy, which results in treatment failure. Resistance to chemotherapy can be present intrinsically before the administration of chemotherapy or it can develop during chemotherapy. The mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in gastric cancer are complex and multifactorial. A variety of factors have been demonstrated to be involved in chemoresistance, including the reduced intracellular concentrations of drugs, alterations in drug targets, the dysregulation of cell survival and death signaling pathways, and interactions between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer and on recent studies that have sought to overcome the underlying mechanisms of chemoresistance. PMID:27672425

  17. Multidisciplinary management for esophageal and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boniface, Megan M; Wani, Sachin B; Schefter, Tracey E; Koo, Phillip J; Meguid, Cheryl; Leong, Stephen; Kaplan, Jeffrey B; Wingrove, Lisa J; McCarter, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The management of esophageal and gastric cancer is complex and involves multiple specialists in an effort to optimize patient outcomes. Utilizing a multidisciplinary team approach starting from the initial staging evaluation ensures that all members are in agreement with the plan of care. Treatment selection for esophageal and gastric cancer often involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and palliative interventions (endoscopic and surgical), and direct communication between specialists in these fields is needed to ensure appropriate clinical decision making. At the University of Colorado, the Esophageal and Gastric Multidisciplinary Clinic was created to bring together all experts involved in treating these diseases at a weekly conference in order to provide patients with coordinated, individualized, and patient-centered care. This review details the essential elements and benefits of building a multidisciplinary program focused on treating esophageal and gastric cancer patients. PMID:27217796

  18. Immunotherapy for gastric premalignant lesions and cancer.

    PubMed

    Zorzetto, Valerio; Maddalo, Gemma; Basso, Daniela; Farinati, Fabio

    2012-06-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous change for gastric cancer, shows a loss of appropriate glands, Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune gastritis being the two main etiologic factors. While H. pylori eradication is the mandatory treatment for the former, no etiologic treatment is available for the latter, in which a Th1-type response, modulated by Tregs and Th17 cells, is involved. H. pylori-related atrophic gastritis is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, while autoimmune atrophic gastritis is also linked to a substantial risk of gastric type I carcinoid, related to the chronic stimulus exerted by hypergastrinemia on enterochromaffin-like cells. Several studies have been published on gastric cancer treatment through an active specific immunotherapy, aimed at improving the immunoregulatory response and increasing the circulating tumor-specific T cells. No study on immunotherapy of carcinoids is available but, in our experience, the administration of an antigastrin 17 vaccine induced carcinoid regression in two out of three patients treated.

  19. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stomach (gastric) cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Translating gastric cancer genomics into targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Ang, Yvonne L E; Yong, Wei Peng; Tan, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer is a common disease with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. Many gastric cancers harbour potentially actionable targets, including over-expression and mutations in tyrosine kinase pathways. Agents have been developed against these targets with varying success- in particular, the use of trastuzumab in HER2-overexpressing gastric cancers has resulted in overall survival benefits. Gastric cancers also have high levels of somatic mutations, making them candidates for immunotherapy; early work in this field has been promising. Recent advances in whole genome and multi-platform sequencing have driven the development of molecular classification systems, which may in turn guide the selection of patients for targeted treatment. Moving forward, challenges will include the development of appropriate biomarkers to predict responses to targeted therapy, and the application of new molecular classifications into trial development and clinical practice.

  1. Computed tomographic recognition of gastric varices

    SciTech Connect

    Balthazar, E.J.; Megibow, A.; Naidich, D.; LeFleur, R.S.

    1984-06-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) findings in 13 consecutive patients with proven gastric varices were analyzed and correlated with the radiographic, angiographic, and gastroscopic evaluations. In 11 patients, CT clearly identified large (five) or smaller (six) varices located mainly along the posteromedial wall of the gastric fundus and proximal body of the stomach. Well defined rounded or tubular densities that enhanced during intravenous administration of contrast material and could not be distinguished from the gastric wall were identified. Dense, enhancing, round or tubular, intraluminal filling defects were seen in the cases where the stomach was distended with water. In seven patients, the CT examination correctly diagnosed the pathogenesis of gastric varices by identifying hepatic cirrhosis, calcific pancreatis, and carcinoma of the pancreas.

  2. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  3. Considerations about gastric cancer proteomics.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo; McCormick, Thaís Messias; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Fischer, Juliana DE Saldanha DA Gama; Aquino, Priscila Ferreira DE; Bravo, Guilherme Pinto; Carvalho, Maria DA Glória DA Costa

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of molecular studies aimed to analyze promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes and global proteomics in gastric carcinogenesis is increasing. Nonetheless, only a few considered the different types of stomach cells, the tumor location and the influence of Helicobacter pylori and Epstein Barr virus infection (EBV). Molecular differences relating to anatomical and histological tumor areas were also recently described. The authors propose a molecular classification of gastric cancer, dividing it into four subtypes: tumors positive for EBV; microsatellite unstable tumors; genomically stable tumors and tumors with chromosomal instability. RESUMO A frequência de estudos moleculares visando a analisar os promotores de metilação de genes supressores de tumor e proteômica globais na carcinogênese gástrica está aumentando. No entanto, apenas alguns consideraram os diferentes tipos de células do estômago, a localização do tumor e a influência da infecção por Helicobacter pylori e pelo vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV). Diferenças moleculares relacionadas com áreas tumorais anatômicas e histológicas também foram recentemente descritas. Os autores propõem uma classificação molecular de câncer gástrico, dividindo-o em quatro subtipos: tumores positivos para o EBV; tumores microssatélite instáveis; tumores genomicamente estáveis ​​e tumores com instabilidade cromossômica.

  4. Familial Clustering of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung; Jang, Woncheol; Seo, Bochang; Oh, Sooyeon; Shin, Cheol Min; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This comprehensive cross-sectional study aimed to identify factors contributing to familial aggregation of gastric cancer (GC). A total of 1058 GC patients and 1268 controls were analyzed separately according to the presence or absence of a first-degree relative of GC (GC-relative). Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, residence during childhood, smoking, alcohol intake, monthly income, spicy food ingestion, Helicobacter pylori status and host cytokine polymorphisms was performed. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) positivity was a distinctive risk factor for GC in the family history (FH)-positive group (odds ratio [OR], 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42–4.00), while current/ex-smoker, moderate to strong spicy food ingestion, and non-B blood types were more closely associated with GC in the FH-negative group. Among the FH-positive group, alcohol consumption showed a synergistic carcinogenic effect in the at least 2 GC-relatives group compared to the 1 GC-relative group (1.71 vs. 9.58, P for interaction = 0.026), and this was dose-dependent. In the subjects with ≥2 GC-relatives, TGFB1-509T/T was a risk factor for GC (OR 23.74; 95% CI 1.37–410.91), as were rural residency in childhood, alcohol consumption, spicy food ingestion, and cagA positivity. These results suggest that subjects with FH may be a heterogeneous group in terms of gastric cancer susceptibility. Especially, subjects with ≥2 GC-relatives should undergo risk stratification including TGFB1-509T/T and alcohol consumption. PMID:27196462

  5. Itopride for gastric volume, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Shahab; Jafri, Wasim; Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Bilal, Rakhshanda; Awan, Safia; Abbas, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To study the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS Randomized controlled trial was conducted to check the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying, capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid and symptoms of FD. We recruited a total of 31 patients having FD on the basis of ROME III criteria. After randomization, itopride was received by 15 patients while 16 patients received placebo. Gastric accommodation was determined using Gastric Scintigraphy. 13C labeled octanoic breadth test was performed to assess gastric emptying. Capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid drink was checked using satiety drinking capacity test. The intervention group comprised of 150 mg itopride. Patients in both arms were followed for 4 wk. RESULTS Mean age of the recruited participant 33 years (SD = 7.6) and most of the recruited individuals, i.e., 21 (67.7%) were males. We found that there was no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation as measured at different in volumes in the itopride and control group with the empty stomach (P = 0.14), at 20 min (P = 0.38), 30 min (P = 0.30), 40 min (P = 0.43), 50 min (P = 0.50), 60 min (P = 0.81), 90 min (P = 0.25) and 120 min (P = 0.67). Gastric emptying done on a sub sample (n = 11) showed no significant difference (P = 0.58) between itopride and placebo group. There was no significant improvement in the capacity to tolerate liquid in the itopride group as compared to placebo (P = 0.51). Similarly there was no significant improvement of symptoms as assessed through a composite symptom score (P = 0.74). The change in QT interval in itopride group was not significantly different from placebo (0.10). CONCLUSION Our study found no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and maximum tolerated volume in patients with FD. PMID:28217377

  6. Gastric metastasis by lung small cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Casella, Giovanni; Bella, Camillo Di; Cambareri, Antonino Roberto; Buda, Carmelo Antonio; Corti, Gianluigi; Magri, Filippo; Crippa, Stefano; Baldini, Vittorio

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are rare. We describe a case of gastric metastasis due to primary lung cancer, revealed by an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE). Haematogenous metastases to the stomach are a rare event. To our knowledge, only 55 cases have been described in the international literature. In these patients, the prognosis is very poor. We report herein a case of gastric metastasis by lung small cell carcinoma, with a review of the literature about this rare entity. PMID:16810769

  7. [Gastritis associated with duodeno-gastric reflux].

    PubMed

    Diarra, M; Konate, A; Traore, C B; Drabo, M; Soukho, A espouse Diarra; Kalle, A; Dembele, M; Traore, H A; Maiga, M Y

    2007-01-01

    Our main objective was to study gastritis associated to duodeno-gastric reflux. It is about a longitudinal study case/witness, paired according to the sex and the age. It was unrolled from February 2005 to January 2006 in the digestive diseases department of the hospital Gabriél Touré, and endoscopic centers of Promenade des Angevins, and clinique Farako. The patients profited from an upper digestive endoscopy to appreciate endoscopic aspect of gastritis associated to bile in the stomach mucus lake. The gastric biopsies were systematic. This study included 50 patients having gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus lake compared to 50 patients having gastritis associated to clearly gastric mucus lake. The sex-ratio was 1.26 in favour of men. The average age of the patients was of 41.30 +/- 15.43 years. On the symptomatic hand, fetid breath was significantly met in duodeno-gastric reflux (p = 0.013). Potash consumption in the "tô" (millet cake) was significantly reported in gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus lake (p = 0.042). The endoscopic aspects were comparable. Histological aspects of nonatrophic chronic gastritis were significantly mint in witnesses as well into the antrum as into the fundus (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.00023). The reactional gastritis aspect was the prerogative of duodenogastric reflux (p ranging between 10(-6) and 3.10 (-6). Helicobacter pylori infection was found comparable in the two groups (p = 0.297). Dysplasia although rare was found only in gastritis associated to duodeno-gastric reflux. Gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus does not se,nm to have specific clinical, endoscopic and histological presentation. However the presence of dysplasia must have an attentive monitoring.

  8. Epigenetic alterations in gastric cancer (Review).

    PubMed

    Fu, Du-Guan

    2015-09-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common types of cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. An increasing number of recent studies have confirmed that gastric cancer is a multistage pathological state that arises from environmental factors; dietary factors in particulary are considered to play an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. Improper dietary habits are one of the primary concerns as they influence key molecular events associated with the onset of gastric carcinogenesis. In the field of genetics, anticancer research has mainly focused on the various genetic markers and genetic molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of this of this disease. Some of this research has proven to be very fruitful, providing insight into the possible mechamisms repsonsible for this disease and into possible treatment modalities. However, the mortality rate associated with gastric cancer remains relatively high. Thus, epigenetics has become a hot topic for research, whereby genetic markers are bypassed and this research is directed towards reversible epigenetic events, such as methylation and histone modifications that play a crucial role in carcinogenesis. The present review focuses on the epigenetic events which play an important role in the development and progression of this deadly disease, gastric cancer.

  9. Gastric cáncer: Overview.

    PubMed

    Piazuelo, M Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2013-07-01

    Gastric cancer ranks fourth in incidence and second in mortality among all cancers worldwide. Despite the decrease in incidence in some regions of the world, gastric cancer continues to present a major clinical challenge due to most cases being diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The development of gastric cancer is a complex and multifactorial process involving a number of etiological factors and multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. Among the predisposing factors are: Helicobacter pylori infection, high salt intake, smoking, and in a small percentage of patients, a familial genetic component. More than 95% of stomach cancer cases are adenocarcinomas, which are classified into two major histologic types: intestinal and diffuse. Intestinal type adenocarcinoma is preceded by a sequence of gastric lesions known as Correa´s cascade and is the histologic type associated with the global decrease in gastric cancer rates. Diffuse type adenocarcinomas have a more aggressive behavior and worse prognosis than those of the intestinal type. According to the anatomical location, adenocarcinomas are classified as proximal (originating in the cardia) and distal (originating in the body and antrum). This classification seems to recognize two different clinical entities. Surgical resection of the tumor at an early stage is the only effective treatment method. Therefore, the identification and surveillance of patients at risk may play a significant role in survival rates. Anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy has been shown to be an effective measure in the prevention of gastric cancer.

  10. Epstein-barr virus in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Jun; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi; Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Oga, Atsunori; Yanai, Hideo; Sakaida, Isao

    2014-11-07

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation.

  11. Worldwide practice in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brenkman, Hylke JF; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current status of gastric cancer surgery worldwide. METHODS: An international cross-sectional survey on gastric cancer surgery was performed amongst international upper gastro-intestinal surgeons. All surgical members of the International Gastric Cancer Association were invited by e-mail to participate. An English web-based survey had to be filled in with regard to their surgical preferences. Questions asked included hospital volume, the use of neoadjuvant treatment, preferred surgical approach, extent of the lymphadenectomy and preferred anastomotic technique. The invitations were sent in September 2013 and the survey was closed in January 2014. RESULTS: The corresponding specific response rate was 227/615 (37%). The majority of respondents: originated from Asia (54%), performed > 21 gastrectomies per year (79%) and used neoadjuvant chemotherapy (73%). An open surgical procedure was performed by the majority of surgeons for distal gastrectomy for advanced cancer (91%) and total gastrectomy for both early and advanced cancer (52% and 94%). A minimally invasive procedure was preferred for distal gastrectomy for early cancer (65%). In Asia surgeons preferred a minimally invasive procedure for total gastrectomy for early cancer also (63%). A D1+ lymphadenectomy was preferred in early gastric cancer (52% for distal, 54% for total gastrectomy) and a D2 lymphadenectomy was preferred in advanced gastric cancer (93% for distal, 92% for total gastrectomy) CONCLUSION: Surgical preferences for gastric cancer surgery vary between surgeons worldwide. Although the majority of surgeons use neoadjuvant chemotherapy, minimally invasive techniques are still not widely adapted. PMID:27099448

  12. Laparoscopic Proximal Gastrectomy With Gastric Tube Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Norio; Toujigamori, Manabu; Shiroshita, Hidefumi; Etoh, Tsuyoshi; Inomata, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: There is no standardized method of reconstruction in laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG). We present a novel technique of reconstruction with a long, narrow gastric tube in LPG for early gastric cancer (EGC). Methods: During the laparoscopic procedure, the upper part of the stomach is fully mobilized with perigastric and suprapancreatic lymphadenectomy, and then the abdominal esophagus is transected. After a minilaparotomy is created, the entire stomach is pulled outside. A long, narrow gastric tube (20 cm long, 3 cm wide) is created with a linear stapler. The proximal part of the gastric tube is formed into a cobra head shape for esophagogastric tube anastomosis, which is then performed with a 45-mm linear stapler under laparoscopic view. The end of the esophagus is fixed on the gastric tube to prevent postoperative esophageal reflux. Results: Thirteen patients with early proximal gastric cancer underwent the procedure. The mean operative time was 283 min, and median blood loss was 63 ml. There were no conversions to open surgery, and no intraoperative complications. Conclusion: This new technique of reconstruction after LPG is simple and feasible. The procedure has the potential of becoming a standard reconstruction technique after LPG for proximal EGC. PMID:27547027

  13. Downregulated MicroRNA-133a in Gastric Juice as a Clinicopathological Biomarker for Gastric Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Shao, Juan; Fang, Peng-Hua; He, Biao; Guo, Li-Li; Shi, Ming-Yi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhen-Wen, Zhen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Circulatory miR-133a is a marker shared by several types of cancer. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of using miR-133a levels in gastric juice to screen for gastric cancer. A total of 204 samples of gastric juice and mucosa from gastric cancer, atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, superficial gastritis and healthy cases were collected by gastroscopy. The results showed that miR-133a levels in gastric juice and carcinoma tissues of patients with gastric cancer were significantly downregulated and positively correlated. Moreover, miR-133a in gastric juice has high operability, high reliability, high sensitivity, high specificity and relative stability, fit for clinical diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  14. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors affecting gastric proton pump expression and acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Charles E; Beeson, Craig; Suarez, Giovanni; Peek, Richard M; Backert, Steffen; Smolka, Adam J

    2015-08-01

    Acute Helicobacter pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells and human gastric biopsies represses H,K-ATPase α subunit (HKα) gene expression and inhibits acid secretion, causing transient hypochlorhydria and supporting gastric H. pylori colonization. Infection by H. pylori strains deficient in the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI) genes cagL, cagE, or cagM, which do not transfer CagA into host cells or induce interleukin-8 secretion, does not inhibit HKα expression, nor does a cagA-deficient strain that induces IL-8. To test the hypothesis that virulence factors other than those mediating CagA translocation or IL-8 induction participate in HKα repression by activating NF-κB, AGS cells transfected with HKα promoter-Luc reporter constructs containing an intact or mutated NF-κB binding site were infected with wild-type H. pylori strain 7.13, isogenic mutants lacking cag PAI genes responsible for CagA translocation and/or IL-8 induction (cagA, cagζ, cagε, cagZ, and cagβ), or deficient in genes encoding two peptidoglycan hydrolases (slt and cagγ). H. pylori-induced AGS cell HKα promoter activities, translocated CagA, and IL-8 secretion were measured by luminometry, immunoblotting, and ELISA, respectively. Human gastric biopsy acid secretion was measured by microphysiometry. Taken together, the data showed that HKα repression is independent of IL-8 expression, and that CagA translocation together with H. pylori transglycosylases encoded by slt and cagγ participate in NF-κB-dependent HKα repression and acid inhibition. The findings are significant because H. pylori factors other than CagA and IL-8 secretion are now implicated in transient hypochlorhydria which facilitates gastric colonization and potential triggering of epithelial progression to neoplasia.

  15. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  16. Alterations in Gastric Microbiota After H. Pylori Eradication and in Different Histological Stages of Gastric Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Tung Hiu; Qin, Youwen; Sham, Pak Chung; Lau, K S; Chu, Kent-Man; Leung, Wai K

    2017-03-21

    The role of bacteria other than Helicobacter pylori (HP) in the stomach remains elusive. We characterized the gastric microbiota in individuals with different histological stages of gastric carcinogenesis and after receiving HP eradication therapy. Endoscopic gastric biopsies were obtained from subjects with HP gastritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM), gastric cancer (GC) and HP negative controls. Gastric microbiota was characterized by Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the 16 S rDNA. Apart from dominant H. pylori, we observed other Proteobacteria including Haemophilus, Serratia, Neisseria and Stenotrophomonas as the major components of the human gastric microbiota. Although samples were largely converged according to the relative abundance of HP, a clear separation of GC and other samples was recovered. Whilst there was a strong inverse association between HP relative abundance and bacterial diversity, this association was weak in GC samples which tended to have lower bacterial diversity compared with other samples with similar HP levels. Eradication of HP resulted in an increase in bacterial diversity and restoration of the relative abundance of other bacteria to levels similar to individuals without HP. In conclusion, HP colonization results in alterations of gastric microbiota and reduction in bacterial diversity, which could be restored by antibiotic treatment.

  17. Alterations in Gastric Microbiota After H. Pylori Eradication and in Different Histological Stages of Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tung Hiu; Qin, Youwen; Sham, Pak Chung; Lau, K.S.; Chu, Kent-Man; Leung, Wai K.

    2017-01-01

    The role of bacteria other than Helicobacter pylori (HP) in the stomach remains elusive. We characterized the gastric microbiota in individuals with different histological stages of gastric carcinogenesis and after receiving HP eradication therapy. Endoscopic gastric biopsies were obtained from subjects with HP gastritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM), gastric cancer (GC) and HP negative controls. Gastric microbiota was characterized by Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the 16 S rDNA. Apart from dominant H. pylori, we observed other Proteobacteria including Haemophilus, Serratia, Neisseria and Stenotrophomonas as the major components of the human gastric microbiota. Although samples were largely converged according to the relative abundance of HP, a clear separation of GC and other samples was recovered. Whilst there was a strong inverse association between HP relative abundance and bacterial diversity, this association was weak in GC samples which tended to have lower bacterial diversity compared with other samples with similar HP levels. Eradication of HP resulted in an increase in bacterial diversity and restoration of the relative abundance of other bacteria to levels similar to individuals without HP. In conclusion, HP colonization results in alterations of gastric microbiota and reduction in bacterial diversity, which could be restored by antibiotic treatment. PMID:28322295

  18. Severe gastric impaction secondary to a gastric polyp in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Snyman, Heindrich Nicolaas; Abrahams, Miranda; Moore, Alison; Vince, Andrew; Anderson, Maureen E.C.

    2013-01-01

    A 13-year-old Percheron gelding was presented for refractory gastric impaction. At necropsy a pedunculated 10 cm × 11 cm × 14 cm mass, histologically identified as an inflammatory polyp, was suspected to have been partly obstructing the pylorus. This is the first report of a polyp resulting in gastric outflow obstruction in a horse. PMID:24155420

  19. Gastric bezoar after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Ertugrul, Ismail; Tardum Tardu, Ali; Tolan, Kerem; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Karagul, Servet; Kirmizi, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to present a patient with gastric pouch bezoar after having a bariatric surgery. Presentation of case Sixty-three years old morbid obese female had a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery 14 months ago. She has lost 88% of her excess body mass index; but started to suffer from nausea, abdominal distention and vomiting lately, especially for the last two months. The initial evaluation by endoscopy, computed tomography (CT) and an upper gastrointestinal contrast series overlooked the pathology in the gastric pouch and did not display any abnormality. However, a second endoscopy revealed a 5 cm in diameter phytobezoar in the gastric pouch which was later endoscopically removed. After the bezoar removal, her complaints relieved completely. Discussion The gastric bezoars may be confused with the other pathologies because of the dyspeptic complaints of these patients. The patients that had a bariatric surgery; are more prone to bezoar formation due to their potential eating disorders and because of the gastro-enterostomy made to a small gastric pouch after the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Conclusion Possibility of a bezoar formation should be kept in mind in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients who has nausea and vomiting complaints. Removal of the bezoar provides a dramatic improvement in the complaints of these patients. PMID:27107501

  20. Severe gastric impaction secondary to a gastric polyp in a horse.

    PubMed

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Snyman, Heindrich Nicolaas; Abrahams, Miranda; Moore, Alison; Vince, Andrew; Anderson, Maureen E C

    2013-10-01

    A 13-year-old Percheron gelding was presented for refractory gastric impaction. At necropsy a pedunculated 10 cm × 11 cm × 14 cm mass, histologically identified as an inflammatory polyp, was suspected to have been partly obstructing the pylorus. This is the first report of a polyp resulting in gastric outflow obstruction in a horse.

  1. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve.

  2. [Enzymes in gastric juice. An aid in the diagnosis of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Marino Alarcón, O; Concho Lugo, H; Silva Larralte, T; Tauil Bsereni, E; Solano Nava, P; Machado, D; Chacón Patiño, A

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we measured the activities of the following enzymes: LDH (lactic dehydrogenase), beta-glucuronidase, acid maltase, phosphohexoseisomerase (PHI) and acid proteases in the gastric juice of patients with gastric cancer (n = 50) (Case Group), in endoscopically normal subjects (n = 50) and in subjects with different non tumor-like digestive pathologies (n = 55) (Control Groups). In the patients with gastric carcinoma we found a significant increase in LDH, beta-glucuronidase, PHI and acid maltase activities and a decreased activity of acid proteases. The results agree with previous findings from other workers. The variations of enzyme activities in gastric juice can help to differentiate between malignant and benign processes of the gastric mucosa.

  3. Gastric Leiomyosarcoma as a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction and perforation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumours are the most common mesenchymal malignancies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and gastric leiomyosarcoma represent 1-3% of gastric malignancies. Case presentation We report a case of a 69-year- old black African man who presented with a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction and duodenal perforation. A Billroth- II gastrectomy was performed and histology confirmed a gastric leiomyosarcoma. Conclusions It is important to identify the gastric leiomyosarcoma which is a variant of the more common malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumours as the pathogenesis and management are currently well established. As the facilities for differentiating these are not easily available in resource-limited areas gastrointestinal stromal tumours may remain underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:25069607

  4. Dual Roles of Gastric Gland Mucin-specific O-glycans in Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gastric gland mucin is secreted from gland mucous cells, including pyloric gland cells and mucous neck cells located in the lower layer of the gastric mucosa. These mucins typically contain O-glycans carrying terminal α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (αGlcNAc) attached to the scaffold protein MUC6, and biosynthesis of the O-glycans is catalyzed by the glycosyltransferase, α1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (α4GnT). We previously used expression cloning to isolate cDNA encoding α4GnT, and then demonstrated that αGlcNAc functions as natural antibiotic against Helicobacter pylori, a microbe causing various gastric diseases including gastric cancer. More recently, it was shown that αGlcNAc serves as a tumor suppressor for differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. This review summarizes these findings and identifies dual roles for αGlcNAc in gastric cancer. PMID:24761044

  5. Inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit by amphetamine through a mechanism involving an increased secretion of CCK in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Doong, Ming-Luen; Lu, Chien-Chen; Kau, Mei-Mei; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Chiao, Yu-Chung; Chen, Jiann-Jong; Yeh, Jiun-Yih; Lin, Ho; Huang, Seng-Wong; Chen, Tseng-Shing; Chang, Full-Young; Wang, Paulus S

    1998-01-01

    The effect of amphetamine on gastrointestinal (GI) transit and the plasma levels of cholecystokinin (CCK) were studied in male rats. Gastric emptying was inhibited both acutely and chronically by the administration of amphetamine. GI transit was decreased by the acute administration of amphetamine but not affected by the chronic administration of amphetamine. Plasma CCK levels were increased dose-dependently by amphetamine. Proglumide, a CCK receptor antagonist, prevented amphetamine-induced inhibition of gastric emptying and the decrease in GI transit in male rats. The selective CCKA receptor antagonist, lorglumide, dose-dependently attenuated the amphetamine-induced inhibition of gastric emptying in male rats. In contrast, the selective CCKB receptor antagonist, PD 135,158, did not reverse the effect of amphetamine on gastric emptying. Both lorglumide and PD 135,158 reversed the inhibitory effect of amphetamine on GI transit in male rats. These results suggest that amphetamine-induced inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit is due in part to a mechanism associated with the hypersecretion of endogenous CCK. PMID:9720782

  6. [Acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Hecker, M; Mayer, K; Askevold, I; Collet, P; Weigand, M A; Krombach, G A; Padberg, W; Hecker, A

    2014-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a potentially fatal disease with individually differing expression of systemic involvement. For this reason early diagnosis with subsequent risk stratification is essential in the clinical management of this frequent gastroenterological disorder. Severe forms of acute pancreatitis occur in approximately 20 % of cases often requiring intensive care monitoring and interdisciplinary therapeutic approaches. In the acute phase adequate fluid replacement and sufficient analgesic therapy is of major therapeutic importance. Concerning the administration of antibiotics and the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis a change in paradigms could be observed in recent years. Furthermore, endoscopic, radiological or surgical interventions can be necessary depending on the severity of the disease and potential complications.

  7. Bronchitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... to breathe. Other symptoms of bronchitis are a cough and coughing up mucus. Acute means the symptoms ... diagnosed with chronic bronchitis, you must have a cough with mucus on most days for at least ...

  8. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is inflammation of your bronchial tree. The bronchial tree consists of tubes that carry air into your ... weeks or months. This happens because the bronchial tree takes a while to heal. A lasting cough ...

  9. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases.

  10. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori

  11. Challenges of deciphering gastric cancer heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Hudler, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is in decline in most developed countries; however, it still accounts for a notable fraction of global mortality and morbidity related to cancer. High-throughput methods are rapidly changing our view and understanding of the molecular basis of gastric carcinogenesis. Today, it is widely accepted that the molecular complexity and heterogeneity, both inter- and intra-tumour, of gastric adenocarcinomas present significant obstacles in elucidating specific biomarkers for early detection of the disease. Although genome-wide sequencing and gene expression studies have revealed the intricate nature of the molecular changes that occur in tumour landscapes, the collected data and results are complex and sometimes contradictory. Several aberrant molecules have already been tested in clinical trials, although their diagnostic and prognostic utilities have not been confirmed thus far. The gold standard for the detection of sporadic gastric cancer is still the gastric endoscopy, which is considered invasive. In addition, genome-wide association studies have confirmed that genetic variations are important contributors to increased cancer risk and could participate in the initiation of malignant transformation. This hypothesis could in part explain the late onset of sporadic gastric cancers. The elaborate interplay of polymorphic low penetrance genes and lifestyle and environmental risk factors requires additional research to decipher their relative impacts on tumorigenesis. The purpose of this article is to present details of the molecular heterogeneity of sporadic gastric cancers at the DNA, RNA, and proteome levels and to discuss issues relevant to the translation of basic research data to clinically valuable tools. The focus of this work is the identification of relevant molecular changes that could be detected non-invasively. PMID:26457012

  12. Reversal of Gastric Bypass Resolves Hyperoxaluria and Improves Oxalate Nephropathy Secondary to Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Varun; Wilfong, Jonathan B.; Rich, Christopher E.; Gibson, Pamela C.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperoxaluria after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) increases the risk for kidney injury. Medical therapies for hyperoxaluria have limited efficacy. A 65-year-old female was evaluated for acute kidney injury [AKI, serum creatinine (Cr) 2.1 mg/dl, baseline Cr 1.0 mg/dl]. She did not have any urinary or gastrointestinal symptoms or exposure to nephrotoxic agents. Sixteen months prior to this evaluation, she underwent RYGB for morbid obesity. Her examination was unremarkable for hypertension or edema and there was no protein or blood on urine dipstick. Kidney biopsy revealed acute tubulointerstitial nephritis with oxalate crystals in tubules. The concurrent finding of severe hyperoxaluria (urine oxalate 150 mg/day) confirmed the diagnosis of oxalate nephropathy. Despite medical management of hyperoxaluria, her AKI worsened. Laparoscopic reversal of RYGB was performed and within 1 month, her hyperoxaluria resolved (urine oxalate 20 mg/day) and AKI improved (Cr 1.7 mg/dl). Surgical reversal of RYGB may be considered in patients with oxalate nephropathy at high risk of progression who fail medical therapy. Physicians need to be aware of the possibility of oxalate nephropathy after RYGB and promptly treat the hyperoxaluria to halt further kidney damage. PMID:27781207

  13. Symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma successfully treated with enucleation.

    PubMed

    Krasniqi, Avdyl-Selmon; Hoxha, Faton-Tatil; Bicaj, Besnik-Xhafer; Hashani, Shemsedin-Isuf; Hasimja, Shpresa-Mehmet; Kelmendi, Sadik-Mal; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije-Hasan

    2008-10-14

    Gastric lipomas are rare tumors, accounting for 2%-3% of all benign gastric tumors. They are of submucosal or extremely rare subserosal origin. Although most gastric lipomas are usually detected incidentally, they can cause abdominal pain, dyspeptic disorders, obstruction, invagination, and hemorrhages. Subserosal gastric lipomas are rarely symptomatic. There is no report on treatment of subserosal gastric lipomas in the English literature. We present a case of a 50-year-old male with symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma which was successfully managed with removal, enucleation of lipoma, explorative gastrotomy and edge resection for histology check of gastric wall. The incidence of gastric lipoma, advanced diagnostic possibilities and their role in treatment modalities are discussed.

  14. Chronic myelocytic leukemia and gastric cancer in the same patient.

    PubMed Central

    Butala, A.; Kalra, J.; Rosner, F.

    1989-01-01

    The association of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and gastric cancer is very rare. We report a case of CML associated with gastric cancer and review the pertinent literature of 15 previously reported cases. PMID:2661837

  15. Biochemical changes induced by Campylobacter pylori in the gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Andreica, V; Suciu, A; Dumitraşcu, D; Drăghici, A; Pascu, O; Suciu, M; Ban, A

    1990-01-01

    The biochemical changes induced in the gastric juice by the presence of Campylobacter pylori (CP) were followed up in 151 patients with various gastric and duodenal diseases. The diagnosis of CP infection was made by the urease test. In the presence of CP urea decreased in the gastric juice and ammonia increased. The sialic acid, fucose and hexoses, glucide components of the mucus glycoproteins dissolved in the gastric juice, underwent no change in the presence of CP. The hexosamines in the gastric mucus increased significantly in CP patients. Urease activity is present in the gastric juice even in the absence of CP, probably due to other microorganisms present in the human stomach. This does not exclude the use of the urease test for the diagnosis of CP infection. However the test can only be used in the bioptically removed gastric mucosa samples, not in the gastric juice.

  16. Targeting Smoothened Sensitizes Gastric Cancer to Chemotherapy in Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huifa; Tian, Yongsheng; Yu, Xiangyang

    2017-01-01

    Background The Hedgehog pathway receptor smoothened (SMO) has critical roles in tumor progression. However, whether SMO is a key factor regulating gastric cancer chemotherapy resistance is unknown. Material/Methods We investigated the potential functions of SMO in inducing gastric cancer paclitaxel resistance in clinical samples, gastric cancer cell lines (424GC and AGS), and subcutaneous syngeneic mouse models. Results We found high SMO expression in paclitaxel-resistant gastric cancer clinical samples. Paclitaxel gastric cancer cells had higher SMO expression than in drug-sensitive cells. Upregulating SMO expression induced paclitaxel resistance in gastric cells lines via enhancing cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. The combination of IPI-926, an inhibitor of SMO, with paclitaxel decreased cell viability of paclitaxel-resistant gastric cancer cells in vitro and controlled tumor growth in animal models. Conclusions The Hedgehog pathway receptor SMO is an important regulator of gastric cancer paclitaxel resistance and could be a target for sensitizing paclitaxel-resistant tumors. PMID:28350784

  17. Treatment of gastropathy and gastric antral vascular ectasia in patients with portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Cristina; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2007-12-01

    Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) and gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) are two distinct gastric mucosal lesions that may cause acute and/or chronic upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis. Whereas PHG is associated with portal hypertension, GAVE may present in patients without portal hypertension or liver disease. Diagnosis is made upon visualization of the characteristic lesions with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, although the differential may be difficult at times. PHG is characterized endoscopically by a mosaic pattern with or without red signs and a proximal distribution. PHG mainly causes chronic blood loss and anemia in patients with cirrhosis but also can cause acute hemorrhage. First-line therapy for chronic hemorrhage from PHG is a nonselective beta-blocker (propranolol or nadolol) and iron supplementation. If bleeding/anemia are not controlled with these measures and the patient is transfusion-dependent, shunt therapy (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt or shunt surgery) should be considered. Management of acute bleeding from PHG, an infrequent event, should be accomplished with a vasoactive drug, somatostatin (or its analogues) or terlipressin. If bleeding responds, the patient must be switched to a nonselective beta-blocker. Shunt therapy should be considered in patients who rebleed or continue to bleed despite adequate beta-blocker therapy. GAVE is less common than PHG. It is characterized by red spots without a background mosaic pattern, typically in the gastric antrum. When lesions have a linear distribution, the lesion is called "watermelon stomach." GAVE is a cause of chronic gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia in patients with cirrhosis. If lesions are localized, first-line therapy is argon plasma coagulation. In more diffuse lesions, therapy with argon plasma coagulation is more complicated. Preliminary data suggest that cryotherapy may be a reasonable option for diffuse GAVE lesions. Neither beta

  18. Endoscopic retrieval of gastric trichophytobezoar

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiu-ling; Zhao, Wei-chuan; Wang, Yu-shui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Trichophytobezoars, which are composed of hair and plant fibers, are usually located in the stomach. They are often associated with trichophagia and trichotillomania. The most commonly reported methods of trichophytobezoar treatment are open surgery and laparoscopic retrieval; there are few reports of endoscopic removal of trichophytobezoars. Patient concerns and Diagnoses: Twelve-year-old girl presented with a 3-day history of increasing upper abdominal pain, anorexia, and postprandial emesis. She had a 3-year history of pulling out and eating her own hair. Endoscopic examination showed a large intragastric trichophytobezoar measuring 10.5 cm × 3.5 cm in size, with extension of a few hairs through the pylorus. Interventions and Outcomes: The trichophytobezoar was packed with hair fibers and contained a hard core of mixed hair and vegetable fibers. After the core was cut, the trichophytobezoar was fragmented into pieces with the alternating use of a polypectomy snare and argon plasma coagulation. A small amount of hair and nondigestible food fibers was removed with grasping forceps during the initial procedure. The remaining hairball was loosened with biopsy forceps and was injected with sodium bicarbonate solution. The trichophytobezoar was removed completely at repeat endoscopy 5 days later. After 6 months of psychological intervention, the patient had no recurrence of trichophagia or trichophytobezoar. Lessons: Endoscopy with sodium bicarbonate injection is an effective and minimally invasive method of retrieving a gastric trichophytobezoar. PMID:28099364

  19. Brainstem Circuits Regulating Gastric Function

    PubMed Central

    Travagli, R. Alberto; Hermann, Gerlinda E.; Browning, Kirsteen N.; Rogers, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Brainstem parasympathetic circuits that modulate digestive functions of the stomach are comprised of afferent vagal fibers, neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and the efferent fibers originating in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). A large body of evidence has shown that neuronal communications between the NTS and the DMV are plastic and are regulated by the presence of a variety of neurotransmitters and circulating hormones as well as the presence, or absence, of afferent input to the NTS. These data suggest that descending central nervous system inputs as well as hormonal and afferent feedback resulting from the digestive process can powerfully regulate vago-vagal reflex sensitivity. This paper first reviews the essential “static” organization and function of vago-vagal gastric control neurocircuitry. We then present data on the opioidergic modulation of NTS connections with the DMV as an example of the “gating” of these reflexes, i.e., how neurotransmitters, hormones, and vagal afferent traffic can make an otherwise static autonomic reflex highly plastic. PMID:16460274

  20. Gastric lipase secretion in children with gastritis.

    PubMed

    Tomasik, Przemyslaw J; Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Rogatko, Iwona; Zając, Andrzej; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Sztefko, Krystyna

    2013-07-29

    Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL) in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10), the second including patients with superficial gastritis caused by pathogens other than H. pylori (non-HPG; n = 14) and the control group including healthy adolescents (n = 14). Activity of HGL was measured in gastric juice collected during endoscopy. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured in all adolescents. Activity of HGL in the non-HPG group was significantly lower than in the HPG group (p < 0.005) and the control group (p < 0.005). Mean plasma GIP levels in the control group were lower than in the non-HPG group (p < 0.003) and the HPG group (p < 0.01). We conclude that the regulation of HGL secretion by GLP-1 and CCK is altered in patients with gastritis. Moreover, GIP is a potent controller of HGL activity, both in healthy subjects and in patients with gastritis.

  1. [Ways to personalized medicine for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Röcken, C

    2013-09-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common tumor and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Approximately 70 % of the patients already have lymph node metastases at the time of the diagnosis leading to a median overall survival time of 16.7 months. Complete resection of the primary tumor with D2 lymphadenectomy offers the only chance of cure in the early stages of the disease. Survival of more locally advanced gastric cancer was improved by the introduction of perioperative, adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy of gastric cancer; however, the identification of novel predictive and diagnostic targets is urgently needed. Our own studies on gastric cancer biology identified several putative tumor biologically relevant G-protein-coupled receptors (e.g. AT1R, AT2R, CXCR4, FZD7, LGR4, LGR5, LGR6). Some of these receptors are also putative stem cell markers and may serve as future targets of an individualized therapy of gastric cancer.

  2. New advances in targeted gastric cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lazăr, Daniela Cornelia; Tăban, Sorina; Cornianu, Marioara; Faur, Alexandra; Goldiş, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Despite a decrease in incidence over past decades, gastric cancer remains a major global health problem. In the more recent period, survival has shown only minor improvement, despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment by multidisciplinary teams. Because multiple genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant molecular signalling pathways are involved in the development of gastric cancers, recent research has attempted to determine the molecular heterogeneity responsible for the processes of carcinogenesis, spread and metastasis. Currently, some novel agents targeting a part of these dysfunctional molecular signalling pathways have already been integrated into the standard treatment of gastric cancer, whereas others remain in phases of investigation within clinical trials. It is essential to identify the unique molecular patterns of tumours and specific biomarkers to develop treatments targeted to the individual tumour behaviour. This review analyses the global impact of gastric cancer, as well as the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and the efficacy of bacterial eradication in preventing gastric cancer development. Furthermore, the paper discusses the currently available targeted treatments and future directions of research using promising novel classes of molecular agents for advanced tumours. PMID:27570417

  3. Gastric carcinoma: is radical gastrectomy worth while?

    PubMed Central

    Longmire, William P

    1980-01-01

    Total gastrectomy as the treatment of choice for gastric carcinoma was evaluated by a number of centres during the decade 1945-55. The operative mortality was found to be higher, the 5-year survival rate was lower, and the undesirable digestive side effects were greater than those following subtotal resection. The very radical subtotal resections with miniature gastric remnants were also found to result in postgastrectomy symptoms quite similar to those of total gastrectomy. Technical refinements of oesophagojejunal anastomoses and the use of nutritional supplements and antianaemic therapy have reduced but have not eliminated the sequelae of radical gastrectomy. A review of 15 reports of gastric cancer treatment from 8 countries suggests that in recent years total gastrectomy has been utilised in 25.4% of resections, with an average operative mortality of 21.7% and a 5-year survival of 12.3%. Radical resection or total gastrectomy is recommended for certain specific conditions, but for the usual antral gastric cancer subtotal resection distal to the vasa brevia with preservation of the gastric fundus and spleen is recommended PMID:7362184

  4. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157: novel therapy in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2011-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, safe in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice and has no reported toxicity. We focused on BPC 157 as a therapy in peridontitis, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and pancreas lesions. Particularly, it has a prominent effect on alcohol-lesions (i.e., acute, chronic) and NSAIDs-lesions (interestingly, BPC 157 both prevents and reverses adjuvant arthritis). In rat esophagitis and failed function of both lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and pyloric sphincters (PS), BPC 157 increased pressure in both sphincters till normal and reduced esophagitis. However, in healthy rats, it may decrease (PS) or increase (LES) the pressure in sphincters. It has strong angiogenic potential, it acts protectively on endothelium, prevents and reverses thrombus formation after abdominal aorta anastomosis, affects many central disturbances (i.e., dopamine and 5-HT system), the NO-system (either L-arginine and L-NAME effects), endothelin, acts as a free radical scavenger (counteracting CCl4-, paracetamol-, diclofenac-injuries) and exhibits neuroprotective properties. BPC 157 successfully heals the intestinal anastomosis, gastrocutaneous, duodenocutaneous and colocutaneous fistulas in rats, as well as interacting with the NO-system. Interestingly, the fistula closure was achieved even when the BPC 157 therapy was postponed for one month. In short-bowel syndrome escalating throughout 4 weeks, the constant weight gain above preoperative values started immediately with peroral and parental BPC 157 therapy and the villus height, crypth depth and muscle thickness (inner (circular) muscular layer) additionally increased. Thus, BPC 157 may improve gastrointestinal tract therapy.

  5. A Case of Hepatic Portal Venous Gas: Hypothesis of a Transient Direct Communication between a Penetrating Antral Gastric Ulcer and Mesenteric Varices

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Shamlan M.; Khandelwal, Kanika; Fiore, Joseph; Weinstock, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is a rare radiological sign that usually signifies an acute intra-abdominal process, most commonly bowel ischemia and sepsis. Few reports described an association with underlying gastric pathologies. We report a 60-year-old patient who presented with melena and chills and was discovered to have a gastric ulcer that appeared to have penetrated into a mesenteric varix. This, in turn, likely caused development of HPVG associated with fungemia. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor and bowel rest was sufficient to resolve symptoms and the HPVG. PMID:28331640

  6. Gastrointestinal Symptoms from Left-Ventricular Assist Device External Compression of the Gastric Lumen

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old man with a left-ventricular assist device (LVAD) as destination therapy for end-stage ischemic cardiomyopathy presented with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Other symptoms included chronic early satiety, intermittent nausea, and non-specific abdominal discomfort since LVAD implantation 3 years ago. An actively bleeding duodenal arteriovenous malformation was successfully treated with endoscopic coagulation. There was also evidence of moderate external compression of the anterior gastric wall from the LVAD pump with luminal narrowing in the antrum. While bleeding may be the most commonly encountered gastrointestinal manifestation in LVAD patients, other potential complications, including luminal compression by the device, should be recognized. PMID:28008413

  7. Association of adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus, "gastroesophageal junction," and "gastric cardia" with gastric pathology.

    PubMed

    Wijetunge, Sulochana; Ma, Yanling; DeMeester, Steve; Hagen, Jeffrey; DeMeester, Tom; Chandrasoma, Parakrama

    2010-10-01

    Controversy exists as to whether adenocarcinomas occurring in the gastroesophageal junctional region and gastric cardia originate in the esophagus or the stomach. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is known to be strongly associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease; gastric adenocarcinoma with Helicobacter pylori gastritis, and gastric intestinal metaplasia. This study evaluates the association of these tumors with pathologic findings in the biopsies of the gastric body and the antrum. It is hypothesized that if these malignancies are esophageal, they should have little or no significant association with gastric pathology; if they are gastric, these patients should have a high prevalence of gastric pathology. Between 2004 and 2008, 234 patients were diagnosed with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and/or adenocarcinoma; 107 were distal esophageal, 79 straddled the distal end of the tubular esophagus, and 48 were in the "gastric cardia." Simultaneous biopsies of the distal body and antrum were present in 185 patients; 49 had biopsy of either antrum or body. Gastric biopsies were assessed for inflammation, H. pylori infection, and intestinal metaplasia. During this period, 2146 patients had nonmalignant columnar epithelia in the esophagus with similar assessment of the stomach; these acted as a control group. The gastric biopsy was normal in 201/234 (85.9%) patients and showed significant inflammation, H. pylori infection, and/or gastric intestinal metaplasia in 33/234 (14.1%) patients. There was no gastritis, H. pylori infection, or intestinal metaplasia in 88/107 (82.2%) of the patients with distal esophageal HGD and/or adenocarcinoma, 70/79 (88.6%) with junctional HGD and/or adenocarcinoma, and 43/48 (85.9%) with "gastric cardiac" HGD and/or adenocarcinoma. The incidence of gastritis was significantly higher in the patients with HGD and/or adenocarcinoma (33/234 or 14.1%) than in the control population (146/2146 or 9.0%; P=0.01). This difference was largely the result of a

  8. Transcriptome Reveals 1400-Fold Upregulation of APOA4-APOC3 and 1100-Fold Downregulation of GIF in the Patients with Polycythemia-Induced Gastric Injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang; Gesang, Luobu; Dan, Zeng; Gusang, Lamu; Dawa, Ciren; Nie, Yuqiang

    2015-01-01

    High-altitude polycythemia (HAPC) inducing gastric mucosal lesion (GML) is still out of control and molecular mechanisms remain widely unknown. To address the issues, endoscopy and histopathological analyses were performed. Meanwhile, microarray-based transcriptome profiling was conducted in the gastric mucosa from 3 pairs of healthy subjects and HAPC-induced GML patients. HAPC caused morphological changes and pathological damages of the gastric mucosa of GML patients. A total of 10304 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 4941 up-regulated and 5363 down-regulated DEGs in gastric mucosa of GML patients compared with healthy controls (fold change ≥2, P<0.01 and FDR <0.01). Particularly, apolipoprotein genes APOA4 and APOC3 were 1473-fold and 1468-fold up-regulated in GML patients compared with the controls. In contrast, gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) was 1102-fold down-regulated in GML patients compared with the controls. APOA4 (chr11:116691770-116691711), APOC3 (chr11:116703530-116703589) and GIF (chr11:59603362-59603303) genes are all located on chromosome 11. APOA4 and APOC3 act as an inhibitor of gastric acid secretion while gastric acid promotes ulceration. GIF deficiency activates a program of acute anemia, which may antagonize polycythemia while polycythemia raises the risk of GML. Therefore, the present findings reveal that HAPC-induced GML inspires the protection responses by up-regulating APOA4 and APOC3, and down-regulating GIF. These results may offer the basic information for the treatment of HAPC-induced gastric lesion in the future.

  9. Effect of moxibustion at acupoints Ren-12 (Zhongwan), St-25 (Tianshu), and St-36 (Zuzanli) in the prevention of gastric lesions induced by indomethacin in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Freire, Anaflávia O; Sugai, Gisele C M; Blanco, Miriam M; Tabosa, Angela; Yamamura, Ysao; Mello, Luiz Eugênio A M

    2005-02-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the physical characteristics underlying the action of moxibustion at acupoints Ren-12 (Zhongwan), St-25 (Tianshu), and St-36 (Zuzanli) in preventing acute injuries of the gastric mucous membrane induced by indomethacin in Wistar rats. Induction of gastric lesions, by means of intragastric administration of indomethacin (100 mg/kg), in adult male Wistar rats was followed by treatment with moxibustion using Artemisia vulgaris dried leaves at 60 or 45 degrees C, heating with Artemisia vulgaris charcoal at 50 degrees C, heating with a regular tobacco cigar at 50 degrees C, and heating with a regular water pad at 50 degrees C, The effects of the different heating protocols over the gastric lesions were then compared. In addition, another group of animals was pretreated with capsaicin (100 mg/kg, s.c.), in order to lesion C fibers and, 15 days later, subjected to indomethacin administration and moxibustion treatment. Moxibustion was significantly more efficient at 60 degrees C than at 45 degrees C in preventing gastric lesions triggered by indomethacin. Moxibustion applied in acupoints provided a significant reduction of the lesion area, which was two times less than that of animals stimulated in a nonacupoint (sham group). Comparing the therapeutic effects provided by different forms of heating over the gastric lesions, the burning of dry leaves of Artemisia vulgaris was significantly more efficient in preventing gastric lesions than moxibustion made with Artemisia charcoal or tobacco (cigar) or by heating the animal with a water pad. Desensitization of the afferent sensory C fibers by capsaicin significantly diminished the ability of moxibustion to block the lesions in the gastric mucous membrane. Moxibustion can efficiently prevent indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats and this effect is dependent on the temperature, the material used for moxibustion, the use of acupuncture points, and the integrity of C fibers.

  10. Targeting Btk with ibrutinib inhibit gastric carcinoma cells growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin Dao; Chen, Xiao Ying; Ji, Ke Wei; Tao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Tec-family non-receptor tyrosine kinases family. It has previously been reported to be expressed in B cells and has an important role in B-cell malignancies. While the roles of Btk in the pathogenesis of certain B-cell malignancies are well established, the functions of Btk in gastric carcinoma have never been investigated. Herein, we found that Btk is over-expressed in gastric carcinoma tissues and gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of Btk expression selectively inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells, but not that of the normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell, which express very little Btk. Inhibition of Btk by its inhibitor ibrutinib has an additive inhibitory effect on gastric cancer cell growth. Treatment of gastric cancer cells, but not immortalized breast epithelial cells with ibrutinib results in effective cell killing, accompanied by the attenuation of Btk signals. Ibrutinib also induces apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cells as well as is a chemo-sensitizer for docetaxel (DTX), a standard of care for gastric carcinoma patients. Finally, ibrutinib markedly reduces tumor growth and increases tumor cell apoptosis in the tumors formed in mice inoculated with the gastric carcinoma cells. Given these promising preclinical results for ibrutinib in gastric carcinoma, a strategy combining Btk inhibitor warrants attention in gastric cancer. PMID:27508020

  11. The effect of polycarbophil on the gastric emptying of pellets.

    PubMed

    Khosla, R; Davis, S S

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the putative bioadhesive, polycarbophil, on the gastric emptying of a pellet formulation, has been investigated in three fasted subjects. The pellets were radiolabelled with technetium-99m. Gastric emptying was measured using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. The pellets emptied from the stomach rapidly and in an exponential manner. Polycarbophil did not retard the gastric emptying of the pellets.

  12. Gastric cancer stem cells in gastric carcinogenesis, progression, prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kang; Dan, Zeng; Nie, Yu-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the study of the mechanism of tumorigenesis has brought much progress to cancer treatment. However, cancer stem cell (CSC) theory has changed previous views of tumors, and has provided a new method for treatment of cancer. The discovery of CSCs and their characteristics have contributed to understanding the molecular mechanism of tumor genesis and development, resulting in a new effective strategy for cancer treatment. Gastric CSCs (GCSCs) are the basis for the onset of gastric cancer. They may be derived from gastric stem cells in gastric tissues, or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. As with other stem cells, GCSCs highly express drug-resistance genes such as aldehyde dehydrogenase and multidrug resistance, which are resistant to chemotherapy and thus form the basis of drug resistance. Many specific molecular markers such as CD44 and CD133 have been used for identification and isolation of GCSCs, diagnosis and grading of gastric cancer, and research on GCSC-targeted therapy for gastric cancer. Therefore, discussion of the recent development and advancements in GCSCs will be helpful for providing novel insight into gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833872

  13. Current status of randomized controlled trials for laparoscopic gastric surgery for gastric cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoxin; Hu, Yanfeng; Liu, Hao

    2015-08-01

    China alone accounts for nearly 42% of all new gastric cancer cases worldwide, and gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in China nowadays. Without mass screening programs, unfortunately over 80% of all Chinese patients have been diagnosed as advanced diseases. As in other Asian countries, especially Japan and Korea, laparoscopic gastrectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer has gained increasingly popularity in China during the past decade. Whether laparoscopic surgery can be safely and effectively performed in the treatment of gastric cancer remains controversial, particularly with regard to curative intent in advanced diseases. Given the high incidence of these cancers, and their advanced stage at diagnosis, China has a significant interest in determining the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic gastrectomy. A well-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) is considered the only feasible way to provide conclusive evidence. To date, China has not played a significant role in terms of conducting RCT concerning laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer. However, an effort has been made by the Chinese researchers, with the great help from our colleagues in neighboring countries such as Korea and Japan, through the establishment of the Chinese Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery Study Group. In this review, we present the current status of RCT for laparoscopic gastric surgery for gastric cancer in China, including published and ongoing registered RCT.

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastric Adenoma and Gastric Cancer in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. To evaluate the incidence of gastric adenoma and gastric cancer in colorectal cancer patients, as well as the clinicopathological features that affect their incidence. Methods. Among patients who underwent surgery after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer between January 2004 and December 2013 at Chungnam National University Hospital, 142 patients who underwent follow-up upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were assigned to the patient group. The control group included 426 subjects randomly selected. The patient group was subdivided into two: one that developed gastric adenoma or cancer and one that did not. Clinicopathological characteristics were compared between these groups. Results. In total, 35 (24.6%) colorectal cancer patients developed a gastric adenoma or gastric cancer, which was higher than the number in the control group (20 [4.7%] patients; p < 0.001). Age, alcohol history, and differentiation of colorectal cancer were associated with higher risks of gastric adenoma or gastric cancer, with odds ratios of 1.062, 6.506, and 5.901, respectively. Conclusions. In colorectal cancer patients, screening with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is important, even if no lesions are noted in the upper gastrointestinal tract at colorectal cancer diagnosis. Endoscopic screening is particularly important with increasing age, history of alcohol consumption, and poor cancer differentiation. PMID:28105047

  15. Pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastric damage: Importance of cyclooxygenase inhibition and gastric hypermotility

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the pathogenic mechanism of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric damage, focusing on the relation between cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition and various functional events. NSAIDs, such as indomethacin, at a dose that inhibits prostaglandin (PG) production, enhance gastric motility, resulting in an increase in mucosal permeability, neutrophil infiltration and oxyradical production, and eventually producing gastric lesions. These lesions are prevented by pretreatment with PGE2 and antisecretory drugs, and also via an atropine-sensitive mechanism, not related to antisecretory action. Although neither rofecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) nor SC-560 (a selective COX-1 inhibitor) alone damages the stomach, the combined administration of these drugs provokes gastric lesions. SC-560, but not rofecoxib, decreases prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and causes gastric hypermotility and an increase in mucosal permeability. COX-2 mRNA is expressed in the stomach after administration of indomethacin and SC-560 but not rofecoxib. The up-regulation of indomethacin-induced COX-2 expression is prevented by atropine at a dose that inhibits gastric hypermotility. In addition, selective COX-2 inhibitors have deleterious influences on the stomach when COX-2 is overexpressed under various conditions, including adrenalectomy, arthritis, and Helicobacter pylori-infection. In summary, gastric hypermotility plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastric damage, and the response, causally related with PG deficiency due to COX-1 inhibition, occurs prior to other pathogenic events such as increased mucosal permeability; and the ulcerogenic properties of NSAIDs require the inhibition of both COX-1 and COX-2, the inhibition of COX-1 upregulates COX-2 expression in association with gastric hypermotility, and PGs produced by COX-2 counteract the deleterious effect of COX-1 inhibition. PMID:22611307

  16. In Vivo Antioxidant and Antiulcer Activity of Parkia speciosa Ethanolic Leaf Extract against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mazen M.; Abdualkader, Abdualrahman Mohammed; Hadi, Hamid A.; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Background The current study was carried out to examine the gastroprotective effects of Parkia speciosa against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Sprague Dawley rats were separated into 7 groups. Groups 1–2 were orally challenged with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC); group 3 received 20 mg/kg omeprazole and groups 4–7 received 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic leaf extract, respectively. After 1 h, CMC or absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2–7. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Then, the injuries to the gastric mucosa were estimated through assessment of the gastric wall mucus, the gross appearance of ulcer areas, histology, immunohistochemistry and enzymatic assays. Group 2 exhibited significant mucosal injuries, with reduced gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa, whereas reductions in mucosal injury were observed for groups 4–7. Groups 3–7 demonstrated a reversal in the decrease in Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining induced by ethanol. No symptoms of toxicity or death were observed during the acute toxicity tests. Conclusion Treatment with the extract led to the upregulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Significant increases in the levels of the antioxidant defense enzymes glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the gastric mucosal homogenate were observed, whereas that of a lipid peroxidation marker (MDA) was significantly decreased. Significance was defined as p<0.05 compared to the ulcer control group (Group 2). PMID:23724090

  17. Gastric heterotopia in the rectum. A rare cause of ectopic gastric tissue.

    PubMed

    Salem, George A; Fazili, Javid; Ali, Tauseef

    2017-02-17

    Gastric heterotopia refers to the discovery of normal gastric tissue at foreign, unexpected sites. It has been described anywhere in the alimentary tract, even in the mediastinum, scrotum, and spinal cord. It is not uncommonly seen in the oesophagus or small intestine. However, large bowel lesions are rare, with the most common location of colonic lesions is the rectum. Although it is a rare entity, it may be the source for significant problems such as rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, deep rectal pain, and malignancy. Here, we report an additional case of gastric heterotopia in the rectum of a 56year old gentleman, and review the literature.

  18. Percutaneous gastrostomy of the excluded gastric segment after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Stein, Evan G; Cynamon, Jacob; Katzman, Marc Joshua; Goodman, Elliott; Rozenblit, Alla; Wolf, Ellen L; Jagust, Marcy B

    2007-07-01

    A new technique for percutaneous gastrostomy of a decompressed excluded gastric segment after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) surgery is described and the results in a single institution are reviewed. Computed tomography guidance was used to place a 21- or 22-gauge needle into the lumen of the stomach and distend it to allow placement of a feeding catheter. Ten women underwent the procedure, and despite only three patients having clear access windows, gastrostomy placement was ultimately successful in all 10 patients. Percutaneous gastrostomy of the decompressed excluded gastric segment after RYGBP surgery can be challenging, but a high rate of success can be achieved.

  19. Primary Gastric Burkitt’s Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Swarupa; Mehta, Anurag; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Anila; Louis, A. Robert; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Saxena, Upasna; Simson, David K.; Dewan, Abhinav

    2014-01-01

    The primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, although rare, is among the most common extra-nodal lymphomas, considering that gastric lymphomas are more common than intestinal lymphomas. Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive form of B-cell lymphoma that is typically endemic in Africa, while non-endemic cases are found in the rest of the world. Primary gastric BL is extremely rare and only around 50 cases have been reported worldwide. Here we present the case of a young HIV-negative male, who was referred to our department with a stage IV gastric BL. He was planned for palliative chemotherapy, but after the first cycle of chemotherapy he succumbed to the progression of the disease. PMID:25568743

  20. Laparoscopic Resection of Symptomatic Gastric Diverticula

    PubMed Central

    Zelisko, Andrea; Rodriguez, John; El-Hayek, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Gastric diverticula are rare and usually asymptomatic. This report, however, describes two examples of symptomatic gastric diverticula successfully treated by laparoscopic resection. Both patients were male and in their sixth decade of life. One patient was relatively healthy with no past medical history, whereas the other patient had chronic pain issues and at presentation was also undergoing evaluation for hyperaldosteronism. The patients presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, emesis, abdominal pain, and change in bowel function. In both cases, a gastric diverticulum was identified by CT scan, and precise anatomic position was determined by upper endoscopy. After discussion with the treating teams, including a gastroenterologist and surgeon, surgical treatment and resection was elected. Successful laparoscopic removal was accomplished in both patients, and they were discharged home after tolerating liquid diets. Both patients reported resolution of their abdominal symptoms at follow-up. PMID:24680154

  1. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets.

  2. [Primary gastric lymphoma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Rassu, P C; Bronzino, P; Strata, F; Cassinelli, G; Arena, E; La Spisa, C; Ronzitti, F; Ieracitano, V M; Casaccia, M

    2002-03-01

    In this case report the Authors describe a case of primary gastric lymphoma in a 62 years old patient who presented with dyspepsia and weigh loss. Primary gastric lymphoma is a rare neoplasm which of 1-10% of the malignant gastric neoplasms in the gastroenteric tract. The clinic presentation is usually aspecific. The infection by H. pylori is a factor of predisposition for this kind of disease. The diagnostic pathway consists in x-ray examination of the gastrointestinal tract, the endoscopy with biopsies, the computerized tomography and the echo-endoscopy. However obtaining a preoperative diagnosis is often difficult because of the submucosal localization of the lymphoma. There is not a common strategy among the Authors for the treatment of the disease, which can be surgical, radiotherapic or chemotherapic.

  3. [Regeneration of the gastric and intestinal mucosas].

    PubMed

    Castrup, H J

    1979-05-10

    The physiological cell renewal of gastrointestinal mucosa is regulated in man as in animal through certain mechanisms with measurable kinetic data. Pathologic mucosal alterations, metabolic disorders, pharmacological agents etc. clearly affect the regenerative processes of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Gastrin and pentagastrin stimulate the growth not only of the parietal cells, but also of the superficial epithelium of the gastric mucosa, whereas secretin does not change cell growth. Glucocorticoid steroids inhibit epithelial regeneration in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. 5-fluorouracil has a similar effect but acts at a different site in the regeneration cycle. Epithelial cell proliferation of the gastric and intestinal mucosa is likewise inhibited in an uremic condition. In inflammatory changes in the human gastric mucosa epithelial cell hyperproliferation relative to the severity of gastritis and anomalous proliferation within regions of dysplasia can be demonstrated. Foveolary hyperplasia in Ménétrier's disease occurs on the basis of excessive hyperproliferation with displacement of regeneration zones.

  4. Gastric mucormycosis: Diagnosis by imprint cytology.

    PubMed

    Tathe, Shilpa P; Dani, Aarti A; Chawhan, Sanjay M; Meshram, Saroj A; Randale, Archana A; Raut, Waman K

    2016-10-01

    The fungi in the order of Mucorales commonly target diabetics and other immunocompromised hosts, producing fatal respiratory and or CNS infections. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is uncommon and seldom diagnosed in living patients due to nonspecific clinical manifestations. We report a case of gastric mucormycosis in an immmunocompetent male patient, diagnosed by imprint cytology-a rare site and a rare setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second report of gastric mucormycosis being diagnosed on cytology. As the disease is rapidly progressive and often fatal, early diagnosis is critical to the patient survival. Imprint cytology or brush cytology is extremely useful for the rapid diagnosis of gastric mucormycosis as these organisms are morphologically distinct. Familiarity with the cytomorphology of these organisms assists in the correct diagnosis of this disease. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:820-822. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Espinel, Jesús; Pinedo, Eugenia; Ojeda, Vanesa; del Rio, Maria Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC). Endoscopic resection (ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with “standard” criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet “expanded” criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer. PMID:26380052

  6. Classification of nodal stations in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Guido; Doglietto, Giovanni Battista; Alfieri, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The lymphatic drainage from the stomach is anatomically elaborate and it is very hard to predict the pattern of lymph node (LN) metastases from gastric cancer (GC). However, there are LN stations metastases that are more frequently observed depending on the tumor location. Furthermore, the incidence of metastasis to various regional LN stations depends on the depth of gastric-wall invasion. The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA) classifies the regional LNs draining the stomach into 33 regional lymphatic stations. These are distinguished into three (N1–N3) groups with respect to the location of the primary tumor. The aim of this classification is to provide a common language for the clinical, surgical, and pathological description of GC. PMID:28217752

  7. Decreased expression of TLR7 in gastric cancer tissues and the effects of TLR7 activation on gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, JIONG; DONG, LEI; QIN, BIN; SHI, HAITAO; GUO, XIAOYAN; WANG, YAN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the expression of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) in gastric cancer tissues and investigate the effects of its activation on gastric cancer cells. Patients with gastric cancer (n=30) and patients without gastric cancer (control; n=14) who underwent gastroscopy were enrolled in the study. Gastric cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues were obtained from the patients with gastric cancer, and normal gastric epithelial tissues were obtained from the control patients. The TLR7 mRNA and protein expressions in different tissues were investigated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The present study also determined the effects of TLR7 activation by the agonist imiquimod on TLR7 protein expression, proinflammatory cytokine secretion and viability in SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR7 were significantly downregulated in gastric cancer tissues compared with cancer-adjacent and normal gastric epithelial tissues (P<0.01). Imiquimod significantly increased TLR7 protein expression levels, and promoted the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in SGC-7901 cells. Furthermore, imiquimod inhibited the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Thus, the present study identified that the expression of TLR7 was decreased in gastric cancer tissues, and TLR7 activation enhanced TLR7 expression, promoted the production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells. PMID:27347192

  8. Acute pancreatitis caused by intragastric balloon: A case report.

    PubMed

    Issa, Iyad; Taha, Alaa; Azar, Cecilio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity represents a global hazard that predisposes to many serious health problems. Various solutions have been proposed to overcome obesity ranging from dietary balance to bariatric surgery. Intragastric balloons are a widely used measure to decrease weight, although they are advocated as safe devices, some major complications have been reported. We report a case of acute pancreatitis after insertion of a gastric balloon for weight reduction. Abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting maybe due to acute pancreatitis caused by compression of the pancreas by the balloon. It is advisable that physicians recognise these complications early to avoid serious and severe end-results.

  9. Improving the outcomes in gastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Tegels, Juul J W; De Maat, Michiel F G; Hulsewé, Karel W E; Hoofwijk, Anton G M; Stoot, Jan H M B

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer remains a significant health problem worldwide and surgery is currently the only potentially curative treatment option. Gastric cancer surgery is generally considered to be high risk surgery and five-year survival rates are poor, therefore a continuous strive to improve outcomes for these patients is warranted. Fortunately, in the last decades several potential advances have been introduced that intervene at various stages of the treatment process. This review provides an overview of methods implemented in pre-, intra- and postoperative stage of gastric cancer surgery to improve outcome. Better preoperative risk assessment using comorbidity index (e.g., Charlson comorbidity index), assessment of nutritional status (e.g., short nutritional assessment questionnaire, nutritional risk screening - 2002) and frailty assessment (Groningen frailty indicator, Edmonton frail scale, Hopkins frailty) was introduced. Also preoperative optimization of patients using prehabilitation has future potential. Implementation of fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery programs is showing promising results, although future studies have to determine what the exact optimal strategy is. Introduction of laparoscopic surgery has shown improvement of results as well as optimization of lymph node dissection. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has not shown to be beneficial in peritoneal metastatic disease thus far. Advances in postoperative care include optimal timing of oral diet, which has been shown to reduce hospital stay. In general, hospital volume, i.e., centralization, and clinical audits might further improve the outcome in gastric cancer surgery. In conclusion, progress has been made in improving the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer treatment is high risk surgery and many areas for future research remain.

  10. Improving the outcomes in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tegels, Juul JW; De Maat, Michiel FG; Hulsewé, Karel WE; Hoofwijk, Anton GM; Stoot, Jan HMB

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains a significant health problem worldwide and surgery is currently the only potentially curative treatment option. Gastric cancer surgery is generally considered to be high risk surgery and five-year survival rates are poor, therefore a continuous strive to improve outcomes for these patients is warranted. Fortunately, in the last decades several potential advances have been introduced that intervene at various stages of the treatment process. This review provides an overview of methods implemented in pre-, intra- and postoperative stage of gastric cancer surgery to improve outcome. Better preoperative risk assessment using comorbidity index (e.g., Charlson comorbidity index), assessment of nutritional status (e.g., short nutritional assessment questionnaire, nutritional risk screening - 2002) and frailty assessment (Groningen frailty indicator, Edmonton frail scale, Hopkins frailty) was introduced. Also preoperative optimization of patients using prehabilitation has future potential. Implementation of fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery programs is showing promising results, although future studies have to determine what the exact optimal strategy is. Introduction of laparoscopic surgery has shown improvement of results as well as optimization of lymph node dissection. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has not shown to be beneficial in peritoneal metastatic disease thus far. Advances in postoperative care include optimal timing of oral diet, which has been shown to reduce hospital stay. In general, hospital volume, i.e., centralization, and clinical audits might further improve the outcome in gastric cancer surgery. In conclusion, progress has been made in improving the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer treatment is high risk surgery and many areas for future research remain. PMID:25320507

  11. Giardia lamblia trophozoites in gastric biopsies.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vatsala; Misra, S P; Dwivedi, Manisha; Singh, P A

    2006-10-01

    To assess the prevalence of gastric giardiasis in gastric biopsies of patients with carcinoma stomach and in patients taking treatment for duodenal ulcer. Gastric biopsy specimens from 54 patients of carcinoma stomach and 100 antral biopsies from patients taking treatment for duodenal ulcer were included in the study. Sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, methylene blue and May Grunwald-Giemsa stains and examined for presence of Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Eight out of 54 (14.9%) biopsies of gastric carcinoma patients harboured trophozoites of Giardia lamblia. Associated H. pylori infection was present in all biopsies (8/8; 100%). Atrophy and intestinal metaplasia was present in 62.5% (5/8) and 25% (2/8) cases respectively. Sections from seven out of 35 patients (20%) taking treatment for duodenal ulcer showed presence of G. lamblia. H. pylori infection, gastritis and atrophy were found in 85.7% (6/7), 71.4% (5/7) and 28.6% (2/7) cases respectively. First gastric biopsy in these patients was negative for G. lamblia but 2nd and 3rd biopsies were positive. A careful search for G. lamblia trophozoites should be made while examining the gastric biopsies, especially in patients with carcinoma stomach, intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis and those taking treatment for duodenal ulcer. This may help in indirect diagnosis of clinically unsuspected cases of intestinal giardiasis and may explain persistence of vague upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) symptoms despite clearance of H. pylori in patients on anti-ulcer therapy.

  12. Origin of Microsatellite Instability in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Halling, Kevin C.; Harper, Jeffrey; Moskaluk, Christopher A.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Petroni, Gina R.; Yustein, Aron S.; Tosi, Piero; Minacci, Chiara; Roviello, Franco; Piva, Paolo; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Jackson, Charles E.; Powell, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is observed in 13–44% of gastric carcinoma. The etiology of MSI in gastric carcinoma has not been clearly defined. To assess the role of mismatch repair in the development of MSI in gastric cancer, expression of hMSH2 and hMLH1 was explored. We examined 117 gastric carcinomas for MSI and observed instability at one or more loci in 19 (16%) of these tumors. Of the 19 tumors with MSI, nine exhibited low-rate MSI (MSI-L) with instability at <17% of loci, whereas the remaining 10 exhibited high-rate MSI (MSI-H) with instability at >33% of loci examined. Immunohistochemical staining for hMLH1 and hMSH2 was performed on eight of the tumors with MSI-H, five with MSI-L, and 15 tumors without MSI. All eight tumors with MSI-H showed loss of staining for either hMLH1 (n = 5) or hMSH2 (n = 3). In contrast, tumors with MSI-L or without MSI all showed normal hMSH2 and hMLH1 protein expression patterns. Moreover, all eight of the tumors with MSI-H also showed instability at BAT-26, whereas none of the MSI-L tumors or tumors without instability showed instability at BAT-26. These findings suggest that the majority of high-level MSI in gastric cancer is associated with defects of the mismatch repair pathway. Although larger studies are needed, BAT-26 appears to be a sensitive and specific marker for the MSI-H phenotype in gastric carcinoma. PMID:10393852

  13. Gastric tonometry: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Hamilton, M A; Mythen, M G

    2001-04-01

    Gastric tonometry has proved to be a sensitive but not specific predictor of outcome in the critically ill. The data accumulated to date indicate that those patients able to achieve or maintain a normal gastric mucosal pH do better than those who do not. In addition, therapy aimed at improving an abnormal gastric mucosal pH has proved to be less successful. These findings may simply indicate that tonometry identifies those "responders" and "nonresponders," as becomes increasingly apparent in populations of critical care patients receiving interventional therapy. Gastric tonometry has undergone a number of methodologic changes over the last decade, seeing a switch from saline to automated gas tonometry. Along with this switch of methodology has come a deeper scrutiny of the indices used to assess gut perfusion. Most studies (including all the interventional ones) have used gastric mucosal pH. The newer indices of gut luminal PCO2 (PgCO2) referenced to arterial CO2 (PgCO2-PaCO2) or end tidal CO2 (PgCO2-PeCO2), although relatively well validated, remain to be proven as predictors of outcome or guides to interventional therapy. If we take a fresh look at the interventional trials in intensive care patients, there is a very definite trend toward benefit in the protocol groups, although they are generally reported as negative studies. There is much to be accomplished, however, before we accept the gastric tonometer as a routine tool with which to guide therapy based on gastrointestinal perfusion, including a greater understanding of gastrointestinal physiology and, as ever, the call for an adequately powered prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate the clinical utility of gas tonometry.

  14. [Gastric epithelial polyps (part two)].

    PubMed

    Espejo Romero, Luis Hernán; Navarrete Siancas, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    The following is a statistical report regarding gastric polyps: Frequency determined through endoscopic examinations was 3.6%. The terms hyperplastic polyps and adenomas were used for the classification of epithelial polyps, considering the suprafoveal hyperplasias within the hyperplastic polyps, provided they were elevated lesions. Out of 2,283 polyps, 1,959 were hyperplastic (86%) and 324 were adenomas (14%). When analyzing 780 polyps, 86 (11%) were found to have the Nakamura III category. With regard to topography, in an examination of 2253 polyps, hyperplastic polyps were located as follows: 325 (17%) in the antrum, 1402 (73%) in the body and 202 (10%) in the fundus. Adenomas had a different distribution: 212 (65%) in the antrum, 100 (31%) in the body and 12 (4%) in the fundus. Out of 371 hyperplastic polyps examined, 49% were pediculate and 51% were sessile; on the contrary, 86 % of adenomas were sessile. The average age was 66.2 years in adenoma carriers, 58.5 in those having hyperplastic polyps, and 57.4 for suprafoveal hyperplasias. In 287 adenomas, 94.1% of carriers were over 40 years old. Out of 92 adenomas examined, 21.7% evidenced adenoma metaplasia and 72.8% evidenced metaplasia in adjacent areas. Only 5.5% had no metaplasia. In 105 hyperplastic polyps studied, intestinal metaplasia was found: 16.7% in the polyp and 60% in adjacent areas. No metaplasia was found in the remaining 23.3%. Average size of the adenomas was 14 mm and of hyperplastic polyps, 11 mm. A total of 195 adenomas were smaller than 10 mm. The percentage of malignization in 288 adenomas examined was closely related to their size: 214 (66%) smaller than 20 mm, had a malignization percentage of 7%; 74 (34%) larger than 20 mm, had 51% malignization, and 86.2% malignization was found in adenomas of over 40 mm. Global malignization percentage of adenomas was 18%. However, when adenomas with high grade dysplasia in the 4.1 category of the Viena classification (non-invasive high grade

  15. Cardiovascular and systemic effects of gastric dilatation and volvulus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Claire R; Rozanski, Elizabeth A

    2014-09-01

    Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) is a common emergency condition in large and giant breed dogs that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Dogs with GDV classically fulfill the criteria for the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and can go on to develop multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Previously reported organ dysfunctions in dogs with GDV include cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, coagulation and renal dysfunction. Cardiovascular manifestations of GDV include shock, cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial dysfunction. Respiratory dysfunction is also multifactorial, with contributory factors including decreased respiratory excursion due to gastric dilatation, decreased pulmonary perfusion and aspiration pneumonia. Gastrointestinal dysfunction includes gastric necrosis and post-operative gastrointestinal upset such as regurgitation, vomiting, and ileus. Coagulation dysfunction is another common feature of MODS in dogs with GDV. Disseminated intravascular coagulation can occur, putting them at risk of complications associated with thrombosis in the early hypercoagulable state and hemorrhage in the subsequent hypocoagulable state. Acute kidney injury, acid-base and electrolyte disturbances are also reported in dogs with GDV. Understanding the potential for systemic effects of GDV allows the clinician to monitor patients astutely and detect such complications early, facilitating early intervention to maximize the chance of successful management.

  16. Conformal radiotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of gastric cancer: Review of 82 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Kassam, Zahra |; Lockwood, Gina |; O'Brien, Catherine; Brierley, James |; Swallow, Carol ||; Oza, Amit |; Siu, Lillian |; Knox, Jennifer J. |; Wong, Rebecca |; Cummings, Bernard; Kim, John |; Moore, Malcolm |; Ringash, Jolie |. E-mail: jolie.ringash@rmp.uhn.on.cag

    2006-07-01

    Background: The Intergroup 0116 study showed a survival benefit with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for resected gastric cancer. We report our experience using conformal radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Eighty-two patients with resected gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma, Stage IB to IV (M0), were treated with 45 Gy in 25 fractions using a 5-field conformal technique. Chemotherapy was in accordance with the Intergroup 0116 study, or infusional 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin in a phase I/II trial. Results: Mean age was 56.4 years. Median follow-up was 22.8 months. Grade 3 or greater acute toxicity (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events, version 3.0) was noted in 57% of patients (upper gastrointestinal tract 34%, hematologic 33%). One patient died of neutropenic sepsis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 late toxicity included esophageal strictures (3 patients) and small bowel obstruction (1 patient). Full course CRT was completed by 67% of patients. Of 26 patients who relapsed, 20 died. Site of first relapse was available on 23 patients: 8 locoregional and distant, 4 locoregional alone, 11 distant alone. Overall and relapse-free survival were 69% and 54% at 3 years. Conclusion: Adjuvant CRT for gastric cancer, even with conformal RT, is associated with significant toxicity. Survival was comparable to that reported in the Intergroup 0116 study.

  17. Gastric Cancer and Helicobacter pylori: Impact of hopQII Gene.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, E; Kahrizi, D; Moradi, M T; Sohrabi, M; Yari, K

    2016-02-29

    The Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium found usually in the stomach and use a number of mechanisms to survive in the stomach lumen. The presence of these bacteria in the stomach can lead to gastritis and reduction in stomach acid production. Acute inflammation can directly damage to the peripheral cells that are responsible for the secretion of acid. The risk of developing gastric carcinoma is associated to heterogeneity of Helicobacter pylori virulence factors. The HopQII is one of the outer membrane proteins involved in bacterial adherence to gastric mucosa and has been suggested to also play a role in the virulence of H. pylori. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between different H. pylori virulence hopQII allele and patients with gastroduodenal disorders. For this purpose 58 stomach biopsies of patients with gastric cancer and 100 saliva samples from healthy individuals were collected. Then genomic DNA was purified and PCR for was done for desired genes via specific primers. The H. pylori infections were diagnosed by PCR for GlmM gene. Then frequencies of hopQII+ and hopQII- genotypes was determined in H. pylori infected cases. Statistical analysis showed that there were not significant differences between healthy and diseased ones for genotype hopQII+.

  18. Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Pseudoachalasia, and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mizrak, Dilsa; Alkan, Ali; Erdogdu, Batuhan; Utkan, Gungor

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare, inherited skeletal disorder characterized by abnormalities of type 1 collagen. Malignancy is rarely reported in patients with OI and it was suggested that this disease can protect against cancer. Here, we report a 41-year-old woman with symptoms of achalasia where repeated treatment of pneumatic dilation and stent replacement was unsuccessful; therefore, surgery was performed. Pathology showed gastric adenocarcinoma unexpectedly. Chemotherapy was given after assessing dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) enzyme activity, which can be deficient in OI patients. This is the first report of gastric cancer mimicking achalasia in a patient with OI. PMID:25874139

  19. Gastritis and Gastric Ulcers in Working Dogs.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael S; Williamson, Katherine K

    2016-01-01

    Gastritis and gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in canine athletes. Although the majority of scientific work on this condition has been performed in ultraendurance racing sled dogs, this condition has been identified in other canine athletes, including sled dogs competing in shorter events and dogs performing off-leash explosive detection duties. The cause of the syndrome is unknown, but current hypotheses propose a link between exercise-induced hyperthermia and loss of gastric mucosal barrier function as an early event in the pathogenesis. Treatment is focused on prevention of clinical disease using acid secretion inhibitors, such as omeprazole, which has excellent efficacy in controlled clinical studies.

  20. Isolated diffuse hyperplastic gastric polyposis presenting with severe anemia

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardena, Suriya; Anandacoomaraswamy, Dharshan; Burzyantseva, Olga; Abdullah, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Gastric polyps exist in a wide variety of types, most of which are small and often benign. Discovery of gastric polyps during Endoscopy necessitates biopsies. Case presentation We present a case report of an isolated diffuse hyperplastic gastric polyposis in a 26 years old Hispanic female when she was investigated for profound anemia. The Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed numerous gastric polyps filling the entire stomach. She was treated with near-total gastrectomy and her anemia resolved Conclusion Isolated diffuse hyperplasic gastric polyposis with normal gastrin level is a rare entity and can present with severe anemia. PMID:18755016

  1. Primary gastric tuberculosis – report of 5 cases

    PubMed Central

    Amarapurkar, Deepak N; Patel, Nikhil D; Amarapurkar, Anjali D

    2003-01-01

    Background Gastric tuberculosis is rare, and usually associated with pulmonary tuberculosis or an immunodeficient state. Here, we report five cases of gastric tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients without evidence of pulmonary involvement. Case presentation Three patients presented with gastric outlet obstruction that required surgery to relieve the obstruction as well as to confirm the diagnosis. The remaining two had involvement of gastroesophageal junction. All of them responded well to standard antitubercular treatment. Conclusion Though gastric tuberculosis is rare, it should be considered a possibility when patients present with gastric outlet obstruction or with endoscopic evidence of diffuse chronic inflammatory activity, particularly in areas endemic for tuberculosis. PMID:12703983

  2. Incidence and surgical importance of the posterior gastric artery.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, K; Prates, J C; DiDio, L J

    1978-01-01

    In a series of 61 adult cadavers, the posterior gastric artery was found in 38 (62.3%), originating from the superior aspect of the mid-third of the splenic artery. The posterior gastric artery, running behind the parietal peritoneum of the omental bursa, produced a peritoneal fold before reaching the posterior wall of the superior portion of the gastric body, near the cardiac region, and the fundus. Its high incidence, hidden origin, deep course, and distribution make this artery very important for surgical procedures relating to the stomach, pancreas, spleen, and celiac region. It may be crucial, especially if partial gastric resection of splenectomy have obliterated other gastric vessels. PMID:629615

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection, gastrin and cyclooxygenase-2 in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yun; Sun, Kun; Xu, Wei; Li, Xiao-Lin; Shen, Hong; Sun, Wei-Hao

    2014-09-28

    Gastric cancer is one of the most frequent neoplasms and a main cause of death worldwide, especially in China and Japan. Numerous epidemiological, animal and experimental studies support a positive association between chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and the development of gastric cancer. However, the exact mechanism whereby H. pylori causes gastric carcinogenesis remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is elevated in gastric carcinomas and in their precursor lesions. In this review, we present the latest clinical and experimental evidence showing the role of gastrin and COX-2 in H. pylori-infected patients and their possible association with gastric cancer risk.

  4. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  5. Canine gastric mucosal vasodilation with prostaglandins and histamine analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, J.G.; Nies, A.S.

    1982-10-01

    The effect of direct intragastric artery infusion of prostaglandins E2 and I2, arachidonic acid, dimaprit (histamine H2 agonist), and 2',2'-pyridylethylamine (histamine H1 agonist) on gastric mucosal blood flow was examined in dogs to elucidate the relationship between gastric secretory state and mucosal blood flow in dogs. These compounds were chosen because of their diverse effect on gastric acid secretion. Gastric fundus blood flow was measured both electromagnetically with a flow probe around the left gastric artery which supplies the fundus almost exclusively, and by the radioactive microsphere technique. Intraarterial infusion of all the compounds resulted in gastric mucosal vasodilation even though PGE2, PGI2, and arachidonic acid inhibit gastric acid secretion, dimaprit stimulated gastric acid secretion, and 2',2'-pyridylethylamine does not affect gastric acid secretion. There was total agreement in the blood flow measurements by the two different techniques. Our data suggest that gastric acid secretion and gastric vasodilation are independently regulated. In addition, the validity of the studies in which the aminopyrine clearance indicates that prostaglandins are mucosal vasoconstrictors needs to be questioned because of the reliance of those measurements on the secretory state of the stomach.

  6. Management of gastric subepithelial tumors: The role of endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Young; Kim, Kyoung Oh

    2016-01-01

    With the wide use of esophagogastroduodenoscopy, the incidence of gastric subepithelial tumor (SET) diagnosis has increased. While the management of large or symptomatic gastric SETs is obvious, treatment of small (≤ 3 cm) asymptomatic gastric SETs remains inconclusive. Moreover, the presence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors with malignant potential is of concern, and endoscopic treatment of gastric SETs remains a subject of debate. Recently, numerous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of endoscopic treatment of gastric SETs, and have proposed various endoscopic procedures including endoscopic submucosal dissection, endoscopic muscularis dissection, endoscopic enucleation, endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and a hybrid approach (the combination of endoscopy and laparoscopy). In this review article, we discuss current endoscopic treatments for gastric SETs as well as the advantages and limitations of this type of therapy. Finally, we predict the availability of newly developed endoscopic treatments for gastric SETs. PMID:27298713

  7. Glucose metabolism in gastric cancer: The cutting-edge

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lian-Wen; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in gastric cancer cells differs from that of normal epithelial cells. Upregulated aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) in gastric cancer meeting the demands of cell proliferation is associated with genetic mutations, epigenetic modification and proteomic alteration. Understanding the mechanisms of aerobic glycolysis may contribute to our knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis. Metabolomic studies offer novel, convenient and practical tools in the search for new biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and chemosensitivity prediction of gastric cancer. Interfering with the process of glycolysis in cancer cells may provide a new and promising therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer. In this article, we present a brief review of recent studies of glucose metabolism in gastric cancer, with primary focus on the clinical applications of new biomarkers and their potential therapeutic role in gastric cancer. PMID:26877609

  8. [Matrix metalloproteases as molecular markers in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    de la Peña, Sol; Sampieri, Clara L; León-Córdoba, Kenneth

    2010-02-06

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in the world. Prognosis in patients with gastric cancer is difficult to establish because it is commonly diagnosed when gastric wall invasion and metastasis have occurred. Currently, some members of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinases have been identified, whose expression in gastric tumor tissue is significantly elevated compared to healthy gastric tissue. Matrix metalloproteinases are 24 zinc-dependent endopeptidases that catalyze the proteolysis of the extracellular matrix. This degradation allows the cancer cells invade the surrounding stroma and trigger metastasis. Upregulation of certain matrix metalloproteinases in gastric cancer has been associated with a poor prognosis and elevated invasive capacity. This review compiles evidence about the genetic expression of matrix metalloproteinases in gastric cancer and their role in tumour invasion and metastasis, emphasizing their potential as molecular markers of prognosis.

  9. Prevalence of deleterious ATM germline mutations in gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-Sheng; Tao, Hou-Quan; He, Xu-Jun; Long, Ming; Yu, Sheng; Xia, Ying-Jie; Wei, Zhang; Xiong, Zikai; Jones, Sian; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai; Wang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    Besides CDH1, few hereditary gastric cancer predisposition genes have been previously reported. In this study, we discovered two germline ATM mutations (p.Y1203fs and p.N1223S) in a Chinese family with a history of gastric cancer by screening 83 cancer susceptibility genes. Using a published exome sequencing dataset, we found deleterious germline mutations of ATM in 2.7% of 335 gastric cancer patients of different ethnic origins. The frequency of deleterious ATM mutations in gastric cancer patients is significantly higher than that in general population (p=0.0000435), suggesting an association of ATM mutations with gastric cancer predisposition. We also observed biallelic inactivation of ATM in tumors of two gastric cancer patients. Further evaluation of ATM mutations in hereditary gastric cancer will facilitate genetic testing and risk assessment.

  10. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  11. Percutaneous gastric drainage as a treatment for small bowel obstruction after gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Hamoui, Nahid; Crookes, Peter F; Kaufman, Howard S

    2007-10-01

    The authors report the case of a patient who developed small bowel obstruction after laparoscopic gastric bypass. Imaging revealed an obstruction at the enteroenterostomy resulting in dilation of the bypassed stomach and proximal small bowel. The bypassed stomach was percutaneously drained using CT guidance, leading to resolution of the small bowel obstruction. Biliopancreatic limb obstructions can be successfully treated non-operatively after gastric bypass.

  12. Cysteamine protects gastric epithelial cell monolayers against drug induced damage: evidence for direct cellular protection by sulphydryl compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Romano, M; Razandi, M; Raza, A; Szabo, S; Ivey, J

    1992-01-01

    The sulphydryl containing drug cysteamine protects gastric mucosa in vivo against acute injury. It is not known whether this protection includes a direct effect on gastric cells. Using gastric epithelial cell monolayers derived from a well differentiated human cell line, we evaluated whether cysteamine protects against taurocholate or indomethacin induced damage in conditions which completely exclude the influence of vascular, hormonal, and neural factors. The effect of cysteamine on prostaglandin production by monolayer cells in vitro was also assessed. Cysteamine decreased damage brought about by sodium taurocholate and indomethacin by 40% (p less than 0.01) and 50% (p less than 0.01) respectively. The sulphydryl blocker iodoacetamide prevented the protective effect of cysteamine. Pretreatment with indomethacin, which inhibited prostaglandin E2 output by 60%, did not prevent protection by cysteamine; incubation with cysteamine decreased prostaglandin E2 production by cultured cells. We conclude that (i) cysteamine directly protected gastric epithelial cells in vitro (ii) this protection occurred with indomethacin, which interferes with cellular metabolism of prostaglandins, and taurocholate, whose damaging action at neutral pH is unrelated to interference with prostanoid metabolism, (iii) cysteamine protection in vitro is unrelated to endogenous prostaglandins and is probably mediated by endogenous sulphydryl compounds. Images Figure 1A-1B Figure 1C-1E PMID:1740273

  13. Cannabinoid HU210 protects isolated rat stomach against impairment caused by serum of rats with experimental acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ming-hua; Li, Yong-yu; Xu, Jing; Feng, Ya-jing; Lin, Xu-hong; Li, Kun; Han, Tong; Chen, Chang-jie

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP), especially severe acute pancreatitis often causes extra-pancreatic complications, such as acute gastrointestinal mucosal lesion (AGML) which is accompanied by a considerably high mortality, yet the pathogenesis of AP-induced AGML is still not fully understood. In this report, we investigated the alterations of serum components and gastric endocrine and exocrine functions in rats with experimental acute pancreatitis, and studied the possible contributions of these alterations in the pathogenesis of AGML. In addition, we explored the intervention effects of cannabinoid receptor agonist HU210 and antagonist AM251 on isolated and serum-perfused rat stomach. Our results showed that the AGML occurred after 5 h of AP replication, and the body homeostasis was disturbed in AP rat, with increased levels of pancreatic enzymes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), proinflammtory cytokines and chemokines in the blood, and an imbalance of the gastric secretion function. Perfusing the isolated rat stomach with the AP rat serum caused morphological changes in the stomach, accompanied with a significant increment of pepsin and [H+] release, and increased gastrin and decreased somatostatin secretion. HU210 reversed the AP-serum-induced rat pathological alterations, including the reversal of transformation of the gastric morphology to certain degree. The results from this study prove that the inflammatory responses and the imbalance of the gastric secretion during the development of AP are responsible for the pathogenesis of AGML, and suggest the therapeutic potential of HU210 for AGML associated with acute pancreatitis.

  14. Subtotal nephrectomy inhibits the gastric emptying of liquid in awake rats

    PubMed Central

    da Graça, José Ronaldo Vasconcelos; Parente, Cynara Carvalho; Fiúza, Robério Ferreira; da Silva, Pedro Alberto Freitas; Mota, Bruno Teixeira; Salles, Luiz Derwal; Silva, Camila Meirelles de Souza; da Silva, Moisés Tolentino Bento; de Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; dos Santos, Armenio Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of blood volume (BV) is attained through a functional interaction between the cardiovascular and renal systems. The gastrointestinal tract also adjusts its permeability and motor behavior after acute BV imbalances. We evaluated the effect of progressive nephron loss on gut motility. Male Wistar rats were subjected or not (sham) to 5/6 partial nephrectomy (PNX) in two steps (0 and 7th day). After further 3, 7, or 14 days, PNX and sham operation (control) rats were instrumented to monitor mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), heart rate (HR), and blood collection for biochemical analysis. The next day, they were gavage fed with a liquid test meal (phenol red in glucose solution), and fractional dye recovery determined 10, 20, or 30 min later. The effect of nonhypotensive hypovolemia and the role of neuroautonomic pathways on PNX-induced gastric emptying (GE) delay were also evaluated. Compared with the sham-operated group, PNX rats exhibited higher (P < 0.05) MAP and CVP values as well as increased values of gastric dye recovery, phenomenon proportional to the BV values. Gastric retention was prevented by prior hypovolemia, bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, coelic ganglionectomy + splanchnicectomy, guanethidine, or atropine pretreatment. PNX also inhibited (P < 0.05) the marker's progression through the small intestine. In anesthetized rats, PNX increased (P < 0.05) gastric volume, measured by a balloon catheter in a barostat system. In conclusion, the progressive loss of kidney function delayed the GE rate, which may contribute to gut dysmotility complaints associated with severe renal failure. PMID:25677547

  15. Effect of Brazilian green propolis on experimental gastric ulcers in rats.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Muriel Primon; Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2007-04-04

    Propolis is a resinous hive product collected by honeybees from plants. The propolis produced in Southeastern of Brazil is known as green propolis because of its color. Modern herbalists recommend its use because it displays antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-ulcer properties. The anti-ulcer activity of green propolis hydroalcoholic crude extract was evaluated by using models of acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol, indomethacin and stress in rats. Moreover, the effects of extract on gastric content volume, pH and total acidity, using pylorus ligated model were evaluated. Animals pretreated with propolis hydroalcoholic crude extract (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in lesion index, total affected area and percentage of lesion in comparison with control group (p<0.05) in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. Green propolis extract, at a higher dose (500 mg/kg), displayed a significant protection by reducing (p<0.05) the evaluated parameters in the gastric ulceration induced by indomethacin. In the stress-induced ulcer model it was observed a significant reduction (p<0.05) in those parameters in animals treated with green propolis extract (250 and 500 mg/kg). Regarding the pylorus ligated model it was observed that green propolis extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) displayed an anti-secretory activity, which lead to a reduction in the gastric juice volume, total acidity and pH. These findings indicate that Brazilian green propolis displays good anti-ulcer activity, corroborating the folk use of propolis preparations, and contributing for its pharmacological validation.

  16. Laparoscopic Gastric Plication: An Emerging Bariatric Procedure with High Surgical Revision Rate

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Alice; Prevedello, Luca; Verdi, Daunia; Nitti, Donato; Vettor, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic gastric plication (LGCP) reduces gastric volume without resecting or implanting a foreign body. Although still considered investigational, it could be appropriate for young patients with a low body mass index (BMI) and for those unwilling to undergo sleeve gastrectomy, gastric banding, or bypass. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the mid-term results (2 years) of LGCP in terms of safety and efficacy. Methods: A total of 56 obese patients (47 female; mean age=30.5±11.7 years; mean BMI=40.31±4.7 kg/m2) were candidates for LGCP from January 2011 to October 2013. Early and late complications, BMI, and excess BMI loss (EBL) were prospectively recorded at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months follow-up. Results: Mean operative time was 72.4±15.6 minutes. No conversion was required. Mean hospital stay was 3 days. Mean %EBL was 34.3±18.40%, 40.1±24.5%, 47.4±30.2%, 46.5±34.6%, 47.8±43.2%, and 55.3±53.6% at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months, respectively. The overall complication rate was 32.14%. Perioperative mortality was zero. Surgical revision was needed in 30 patients: 12 for unsatisfactory weight loss and 18 for gastric prolapse (one acute within 30 days), respectively. Conclusion: LGCP showed high complication rates requiring surgical revision. PMID:26421246

  17. Experimental studies of gastric dysfunction in motion sickness: The effect of gastric and vestibular stimulation on the vagal and splanchnic gastric efferents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niijima, A.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    The experiments were conducted in anaesthetized rats. In the first part of the experiments, the effect of CuSO4 on the afferent activity in the gastric branch of the vagus nerve was investigated. Gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution (0.04 percent and 0.08 percent) provoked an increase in afferent activity. In the second part of the experiments, the reflex effects of gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution, repetitive stimulation of the gastric vagus nerve, and caloric stimulation of the right vestibular apparatus (5-18 C water) on gastric autonomic outflow were investigated. The results of these experiments showed that these three different types of stimulation caused an inhibition in efferent activity of the gastric vagus nerve and a slight activation of the splanchnic gastric efferents. The summation of the effect of each stimulation was also observed. These results, therefore, provide evidence for a possible integrative inhibitory function of the vagal gastric center as well as an excitatory function of gastric sympathetic motoneurons in relation to motion sickness.

  18. NCI International EBV-Gastric Cancer Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    A collaboration among NCI and extramural investigators, established by DCEG in 2006, that utilizes data and biospecimens from completed and ongoing case series and observational studies of gastric cancer to replicate and extend findings from previous studies hindered by small numbers of EBV-positive cases, and to stimulate multidisciplinary research in this area.

  19. Laparoscopy in the management of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, E C; Karpeh, M S; Conlon, K C; Brennan, M F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors determined the accuracy of laparoscopy in detecting metastatic disease in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The majority of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma in the United States present with advanced disease. They are at high risk for intraabdominal metastatic spread. METHODS: One hundred eleven patients with gastric adenocarcinoma underwent laparoscopy at Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from December 1991 to December 1995. All were judged to be free of intra-abdominal metastatic disease on preoperative computed tomographic scan imaging. RESULTS: Laparoscopic exploration was successful in 110 of 111 patients and accurately staged 94% of the patients with respect to metastatic disease with a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 100%. The prevalence rate of metastatic disease was 37%. Twenty-four patients underwent laparoscopy only and were discharged in an average 1.4 days versus 6.5 days in patients undergoing exploratory laparotomy without resection (p < 0.05). No patients undergoing laparoscopy only have returned for palliative surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopy should be performed in nonobstructed, nonbleeding patients with advanced gastric cancer in the United States. More than one third of these patients have unsuspected metastatic disease at time of operation. Laparoscopy is highly accurate in detecting occult metastases and identifies a unique population of stage IV patients who may benefit from newer induction chemotherapeutic approaches while avoiding unnecessary laparotomy. Images Figure 4. PMID:9060581

  20. [Volumes of lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Cherniavskiĭ, A A; Lavrov, N A

    2015-01-01

    It is summarized an experience of 1528 resections for gastric cancer supplemented by D1-, D2-, D2,5- and D3-lymphadenectomy in 751, 241, 359 and 177 patients resrectively. Unconventional type D2.5 means D2-lymphodis section with additional lymphadenectomy along hepatoduodenal ligament and superior retropancreatic nodes as well as omental bursa removal with lymphodis section of esophageal opening crura. Analysis of immediate and remote results is presented. It is concluded that D3-lymphadenectomy is minimally preferred over D2.5-type in gastric cancer staging. D3-lymphodis section has the largest number of especially purulent and pancreatogenic postoperative complications. D2.5-lymphadenectomy significantly increases 5-year survival in comparison with D2-lymphodis section (from 51.2 ± 4.9 to 64.0 ± 4.1%; p<0.001) and may be chosen for any radical surgery for gastric cancer including early forms. Localized proximal tumors which are in distinctive for metastasis into hepatoduodenal ligament lymph nodes are exception. D3-lymphodis section did not impact on survival in comparison with D2,5-lymphadenectomy. Only patients with antral cancer after distal subtotal gastric resection had 5-year survival increasing on 8 % (from 60.6 ± 7.5 to 68.5 ± 6.3%).

  1. [Gastric adenomyoma clinically simulating hypertrophic pyloric stenosis].

    PubMed

    Sánchez García, S; Rubio Solís, D; Anes González, G; González Sánchez, S

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenomyomas are extremely uncommon benign tumors in children. On histologic examination, these tumors have an epithelial component similar to pancreatic ducts. We present a case of a pyloric adenomyoma that clinically simulated hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in a newborn girl. Imaging tests, fundamentally magnetic resonance imaging, were very important in the characterization and diagnosis of this entity.

  2. Sensor capsule for diagnosis of gastric disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holen, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Motility and pH sensor capsule is developed to monitor gastric acidity, pressure, and temperature. Capsule does not interfere with digestion. Sensor is capsule which includes pH electrode, Pitran pressure transducer, and thermistor temperature sensor all potted in epoxy and enclosed in high density polyethylene sheath.

  3. Technical considerations in radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, P.E.; Datz, F.L.; Moore, J.G.

    1987-12-01

    This is the final article in a four-part Continuing Education series on quantitative imaging techniques. After studying this article, the reader should be able to: 1) identify proper use of radiopharmaceuticals and meal composition for gastric emptying studies; 2) discuss appropriate imaging techniques; and 3) discuss methods of data analysis.

  4. Gastric electromechanical dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Krygowska-Wajs, A; Lorens, K; Thor, P; Szczudlik, A; Konturek, S

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate gastric myoelectrical and mechanical activities in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients. Twenty patients with IPD (14 male and 6 female, mean age 42 +/- 9 years) were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: group A--early stage of disease (no. = 6) and group B--advanced IPD (no. = 14). Electrogastrography (EGG) was performed in fasting and postprandial conditions (Synectics system). The cross-sectional area of the gastric antrum was measured by sonography (Hitachi EUB-240). The antral area in fasting conditions was 2.1 +/- 0.4 and 4.2 +/- 1.2 cm2 and gastric emptying was 75 +/- 5 and 125 +/- 12 min in groups A and B respectively. EGG showed dysrhythmias (range 1-6 cycles per minute) in about 75% of both groups of IPD patients without increase in signal amplitude after a meal. Our results suggest that gastric motility is particularly impaired in patients with advanced IPD. It may be caused by the primary degenerative process in the autonomic nervous system of the gut.

  5. Gastric bezoar with small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Urgancı, Ayvaz Ulaş; Akıncılar, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    In the operation performed on a patient with a history of abdominal surgery, a gastric bezoar and a small bowel bezoar were detected. Adhesive bowel obstruction was suspected; however, the patient was diagnosed with mechanical intestinal obstruction. Small bowel bezoar has resulted in intestinal obstruction. This case was discussed in accordance with the literature. PMID:28149129

  6. [Image processing of early gastric cancer cases].

    PubMed

    Inamoto, K; Umeda, T; Inamura, K

    1992-11-25

    Computer image processing was used to enhance gastric lesions in order to improve the detection of stomach cancer. Digitization was performed in 25 cases of early gastric cancer that had been confirmed surgically and pathologically. The image processing consisted of grey scale transformation, edge enhancement (Sobel operator), and high-pass filtering (unsharp masking). Gery scale transformation improved image quality for the detection of gastric lesions. The Sobel operator enhanced linear and curved margins, and consequently, suppressed the rest. High-pass filtering with unsharp masking was superior to visualization of the texture pattern on the mucosa. Eight of 10 small lesions (less than 2.0 cm) were successfully demonstrated. However, the detection of two lesions in the antrum, was difficult even with the aid of image enhancement. In the other 15 lesions (more than 2.0 cm), the tumor surface pattern and margin between the tumor and non-pathological mucosa were clearly visualized. Image processing was considered to contribute to the detection of small early gastric cancer lesions by enhancing the pathological lesions.

  7. Sex differences and effects of oestrogen in rat gastric mucosal defence

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Richard; Björne, Håkan; Omoto, Yoko; Siemiatkowska, Anna; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Lindblad, Mats; Holm, Lena

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate sex differences and the effects of oestrogen administration in rat gastric mucosal defence. METHODS Sex differences in gastric mucus thickness and accumulation rate, absolute gastric mucosal blood flow using microspheres, the integrity of the gastric mucosal epithelium in response to a chemical irritant and the effects of oestrogen administration on relative gastric mucosal blood flow in an acute setting was assessed in an in vivo rat experimental model. Subsequently, sex differences in the distribution of oestrogen receptors and calcitonin gene related peptide in the gastric mucosa of animals exposed to oestrogen in the above experiments was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The absolute blood flow in the GI-tract was generally higher in males, but only significantly different in the corpus part of the stomach (1.12 ± 0.12 mL/min•g in males and 0.51 ± 0.03 mL/min•g in females) (P = 0.002). After removal of the loosely adherent mucus layer the thickness of the firmly adherent mucus layer in males and females was 79 ± 1 µm and 80 ± 3 µm respectively. After 60 min the mucus thickness increased to 113 ± 3 µm in males and 121 ± 3 µm in females with no statistically significant difference seen between the sexes. Following oestrogen administration (0.1 followed by 1 µg/kg•min), mean blood flow in the gastric mucosa decreased by 31% [68 ± 13 perfusion units (PFU)] in males which was significantly different compared to baseline (P = 0.02). In females however, mean blood flow remained largely unchanged with a 4% (5 ± 33 PFU) reduction. The permeability of the gastric mucosa increased to a higher level in females than in males (P = 0.01) after taurocholate challenge. However, the calculated mean clearance increase did not significantly differ between the sexes [0.1 ± 0.04 to 1.1 ± 0.1 mL/min•100 g in males and 0.4 ± 0.3 to 2.1 ± 0.3 mL/min•100 g in females (P = 0.065)]. There were no significant differences between 17

  8. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection on the Composition of Gastric Microbiota in the Development of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Yu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancer types worldwide. In China, gastric cancer has become one of the major threats for public health, ranking second on incidence and third on cause of cancer death. Despite the common risk factors that promote the development of gastric cancer, the huge quantity of microorganism colonies within the gastrointestinal tract, particularly Helicobacter pylori infection, demonstrates a correlation with chronic inflammation and gastric carcinogenesis, as epidemiological studies have determined that H. pylori infection confers approximately 75% of the attributable risk for gastric cancer. Summary The current article draws an overview on the correlation between the microbiota, inflammation and gastric tumorigenesis. H. pylori infection has been identified as the main risk factor as it triggers epithelial barrier disruption, survival signaling as well as genetic/epigenetic modulation. Apart from H. pylori, the existence of a diverse and complex composition of microbiota in the stomach has been identified, which supports a role of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer. Moreover, metagenomics studies focused on the composition and function of the microbiota have associated microbiota with gastric metabolic diseases and even tumorigenesis. Apart from the gastric microbiota, inflammation is another identified contributor to cancer development as well. Key Message Though H. pylori infection and the non-H. pylori microbiota play a role in gastric cancer, the properties of gastric microbiota and mechanisms by which they participate in the genesis of gastric cancer are still not clearly depicted. Moreover, it remains to be understood how the presence of microbiota along with H. pylori infection affects the progress from gastric disease to cancer. Practical Implications This article summarized a clue of the current studies on microbiota, H. pylori infection and the progression from gastric disease to cancer. PMID

  9. Exploring gastric bacterial community in young pigs

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Vincenzo; Trevisi, Paolo; Bertolini, Francesca; Ribani, Anisa; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Fontanesi, Luca; Bosi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Microbiota plays an important role in the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract. Understanding the variations of the commensal microbiota composition is crucial for a more efficient control of enteric infectious diseases and for the reduction of the use of antibiotics in animal production, which are the main points of interest for improved animal healthcare and welfare and for consumer health protection. Even though the intestinal microbiota has been extensively studied, little is known about the gastric microbiota. This pilot study was aimed at a descriptive analysis of the gastric microbiota in healthy pigs and at the identification of any differences among four potentially distinct microbial niches in the stomach. Gastric mucosal samples from the oxyntic area, the pylorus and the gastric groove, and a sample of gastric contents were collected from four healthy weaned pigs. Bacterial DNA was isolated and extracted from each sample and amplicons from the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using Ion Torrent PGM. The data were analysed by an “unsupervised” and a “supervised” approach in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) pipeline. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in all the samples. Differences in bacterial community composition were found between mucosal and content samples (one-way ANOSIM pairwise post hoc test, p < 0.05); instead, the different mucosal regions did not show differences between them. The mucosal samples were characterised by Herbiconiux and Brevundimonas, two genera which include cellulolytic and xylanolytic strains. Nevertheless, additional larger trials are needed to support the data presented in this pilot study and to increase the knowledge regarding the resident microbiota of the stomach. PMID:28249050

  10. Exploring gastric bacterial community in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Motta, Vincenzo; Trevisi, Paolo; Bertolini, Francesca; Ribani, Anisa; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Fontanesi, Luca; Bosi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Microbiota plays an important role in the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract. Understanding the variations of the commensal microbiota composition is crucial for a more efficient control of enteric infectious diseases and for the reduction of the use of antibiotics in animal production, which are the main points of interest for improved animal healthcare and welfare and for consumer health protection. Even though the intestinal microbiota has been extensively studied, little is known about the gastric microbiota. This pilot study was aimed at a descriptive analysis of the gastric microbiota in healthy pigs and at the identification of any differences among four potentially distinct microbial niches in the stomach. Gastric mucosal samples from the oxyntic area, the pylorus and the gastric groove, and a sample of gastric contents were collected from four healthy weaned pigs. Bacterial DNA was isolated and extracted from each sample and amplicons from the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using Ion Torrent PGM. The data were analysed by an "unsupervised" and a "supervised" approach in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) pipeline. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in all the samples. Differences in bacterial community composition were found between mucosal and content samples (one-way ANOSIM pairwise post hoc test, p < 0.05); instead, the different mucosal regions did not show differences between them. The mucosal samples were characterised by Herbiconiux and Brevundimonas, two genera which include cellulolytic and xylanolytic strains. Nevertheless, additional larger trials are needed to support the data presented in this pilot study and to increase the knowledge regarding the resident microbiota of the stomach.

  11. Acute Vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection following partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sanghoon; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2014-01-01

    Gastric remnants are an inevitable consequence of partial gastrectomy following resection for gastric cancer. The presence of gastric stumps is itself a risk factor for redevelopment of gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is also a well-known characteristic of gastric carcinogenesis. H. pylori colonization in the remnant stomach therefore draws special interest from clinicians in terms of stomach cancer development and pathogenesis; however, the H. pylori-infected gastric remnant is quite different from the intact organ in several aspects and researchers have expressed conflicting opinions with respect to its role in pathogenesis. For instance, H. pylori infection of the gastric stump produced controversial results in several recent studies. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in the gastric stump has varied among recent reports. Gastritis developing in the remnant stomach presents with a unique pattern of inflammation that is different from the pattern seen in ordinary gastritis of the intact organ. Bile refluxate also has a significant influence on the colonization of the stomach stump, with several studies reporting mixed results as well. In contrast, the elimination of H. pylori from the gastric stump has shown a dramatic impact on eradication rate. H. pylori elimination is recognized to be important for cancer prevention and considerable agreement of opinion is seen among researchers. To overcome the current discrepancies in the literature regarding the role of H. pylori in the gastric stump, further research is required. PMID:24659869

  13. Gastric sensitivity and reflexes: basic mechanisms underlying clinical problems.

    PubMed

    Azpiroz, Fernando; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Grundy, David; Tack, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Both reflex and sensory mechanisms control the function of the stomach, and disturbances in these mechanisms may explain the pathophysiology of disorders of gastric function. The objective of this report is to perform a literature-based critical analysis of new, relevant or conflicting information on gastric sensitivity and reflexes, with particular emphasis on the comprehensive integration of basic and clinical research data. The stomach exerts both phasic and tonic muscular (contractile and relaxatory) activity. Gastric tone determines the capacity of the stomach and mediates both gastric accommodation to a meal as well as gastric emptying, by partial relaxation or progressive recontraction, respectively. Perception and reflex afferent pathways from the stomach are activated independently by specific stimuli, suggesting that the terminal nerve endings operate as specialized receptors. Particularly, perception appears to be related to stimulation of tension receptors, while the existence of volume receptors in the stomach is uncertain. Reliable techniques have been developed to measure gastric perception and reflexes both in experimental and clinical conditions, and have facilitated the identification of abnormal responses in patients with gastric disorders. Gastroparesis is characterised by impaired gastric tone and contractility, whereas patients with functional dyspepsia have impaired accommodation, associated with antral distention and increased gastric sensitivity. An integrated view of fragmented knowledge allows the design of pathophysiological models in an attempt to explain disorders of gastric function, and may facilitate the development of mechanistically orientated treatments.

  14. Gastric physiology and function: effects of fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Moukarzel, A A; Sabri, M T

    1996-10-01

    The stomach stores food and starts digesting protein and fat. Lipids, sugars, certain amino acids, and nutrients of high osmolality trigger sensory mechanisms from the intestine which inhibit gastric emptying. Food rich in carbohydrates leaves the stomach slower than protein-rich food, and emptying is slowest after a meal containing lipid. For carbohydrate beverages, the gastric emptying rate is primarily determined by the volume, caloric content, and osmolality of fluid ingested. Gastric emptying rates vary among isocaloric beverages of different type (e.g., sucrose, fructose, galactose) or forms (e.g., maltodextrins, starches) of carbohydrate. For instance, gastric emptying is faster for a fructose solution compared with isocaloric glucose and galactose solutions. A maltodextrin or a sucrose solution empties faster than a glucose solution. This is possibly due to the greater inhibitory feedback associated with the introduction of glucose in the duodenum. In addition, fruit juices contain soluble fibers which further modulate the gastric emptying. Noninvasive methods to study gastric emptying have recently been developed. The pattern of the myoelectric activity of the gastric contraction and the effect of meals on this pattern can now be recorded by cutaneous electrodes. In healthy children ingesting different juices, the myoelectric pattern of the stomach (indicator of the gastric emptying) correlates with the carbohydrate absorption (measured by breath hydrogen excretion). Fast gastric emptying was associated with greater production of breath hydrogen. The malabsorption of juice carbohydrates may in part be related to their effect on gastric motility.

  15. Acute Blindness.

    PubMed

    Meekins, Jessica M

    2015-09-01

    Sudden loss of vision is an ophthalmic emergency with numerous possible causes. Abnormalities may occur at any point within the complex vision pathway, from retina to optic nerve to the visual center in the occipital lobe. This article reviews specific prechiasm (retina and optic nerve) and cerebral cortical diseases that lead to acute blindness. Information regarding specific etiologies, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for vision is discussed.

  16. Mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic and radiographic screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato; Shabana, Michiko; Okada, Katsuo; Okamoto, Mikizo; Osaki, Yoneatsu

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic screening, we undertook a population-based cohort study in which both radiographic and endoscopic screenings for gastric cancer have been carried out. The subjects were selected from the participants of gastric cancer screening in two cities in Japan, Tottori and Yonago, from 2007 to 2008. The subjects were defined as participants aged 40-79 years who had no gastric cancer screening in the previous year. Follow-up of mortality was continued from the date of the first screening to the date of death or up to December 31, 2013. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of gastric cancer incidence, gastric cancer death, all cancer deaths except gastric cancer death, and all-causes death except gastric cancer death. The number of subjects selected for endoscopic screening was 9950 and that for radiographic screening was 4324. The subjects screened by endoscopy showed a 67% reduction of gastric cancer compared with the subjects screened by radiography (adjusted RR by sex, age group, and resident city = 0.327; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.118-0.908). The adjusted RR of endoscopic screening was 0.968 (95%CI, 0.675-1.387) for all cancer deaths except gastric cancer death, and 0.929 (95%CI, 0.740-1.168) for all-causes death except gastric cancer death. This study indicates that endoscopic screening can reduce gastric cancer mortality by 67% compared with radiographic screening. This is consistent with previous studies showing that endoscopic screening reduces gastric cancer mortality.

  17. Effects of conventional and hydrogen sulfide-releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in rats with stress-induced and epinephrine-induced gastric damage.

    PubMed

    Fomenko, Iryna; Sklyarov, Alexander; Bondarchuk, Tetyana; Biletska, Lilya; Panasyuk, Natalia; Wallace, John L

    2014-12-01

    Mechanisms of gastric defence under conditions of combined influence of acute stress and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are still poorly studied. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of different types of NSAIDs (naproxen, celecoxib and ATB-346) in producing experimental gastric lesions (induced by water-restraint stress (WRS) or by epinephrine (EPN) injection) and to determine the role of lipid peroxidation and the nitric oxide (NO) system in the pathogenesis of the damage. Male rats were used (eight per group) in this work. The NSAIDs were all administered at a dose 10 mg kg(-1) 30 min prior to WRS or EPN injection. Administration of naproxen to the control rats caused development of gastric lesions, whereas administration of a hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing NSAID (ATB-346) or a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) did not cause gastric damage. In contrast, lipid peroxidation processes were enhanced in all groups as was the activity of NO synthase (NOS). Pretreatment with naproxen in the WRS model caused an increase in severity of damage and a decrease in NOS activity. ATB-346 displayed beneficial effects, manifested by a decrease in the area of gastric damage, but parameters of lipid peroxidation and the NOS system did not differ substantially from those in the group treated with naproxen. Administration of different NSAIDs under conditions of EPN-induced gastric damage resulted in the decrease in NOS activity and lipid peroxidation. None of the tested NSAIDs exacerbated EPN-induced gastric mucosal injury; indeed, they all reduced the extent of damage.

  18. Impact of intracerebroventricular obestatin on plasma acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1 levels, and on gastric emptying in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Lee, Wei-Jei; Chong, Keong; Lee, Shou-Dong; Liao, You-Di

    2012-07-01

    Obestatin, which is a putative 23-amino-acid peptide, is derived from the C-terminal part of the mammalian preproghrelin gene. Nesfatin-1 mRNA is co-expressed with ghrelin in gastric endocrine X/A-like cells; therefore, nesfatin-1 may also interact with preproghrelin gene products in the stomach. In this study, we investigated the impact of obestatin on the plasma levels of acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1, and on the gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal 2 h after an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection in conscious, fasted rats. The rats were implanted with ICV catheters. Plasma levels of acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1, expected to be co-expressed with obestatin, were measured, whereas the human/rat corticotropin-releasing factor (h/rCRF) was applied as an inhibitor of gastric emptying. The ICV administration of obestatin (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 nmol/rat) did not modify the plasma acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin levels, the acyl ghrelin/des-acyl ghrelin ratio and nesfatin-1 concentrations. The ICV acute administration of obestatin had no influence on the 2-h rate of gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal, but the ICV h/rCRF injection delayed it. The weight of food ingested 1 h before ICV injection significantly, but negatively correlated with the gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal. Our study indicates that the ICV injection of obestatin does not change the 2-h rate of gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal and the relatively weak interrelationships between ghrelin gene products and nesfatin-1. However, the weight of the ingested food negatively affects the gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal in conscious, fasted rats.

  19. A comparative study on the modes of action of TAK-438, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, and lansoprazole in primary cultured rabbit gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Jun; Hori, Yasunobu; Nishida, Haruyuki; Kajino, Masahiro; Inatomi, Nobuhiro

    2011-05-01

    TAK-438 is a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB) type antisecretory agent that reversibly inhibits gastric H+, K+-ATPase. Previously, we showed that TAK-438 has superior efficacy compared to lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, in the inhibition of acid secretion in vivo. In this study, we investigated the differences in the mode of actions of the two drugs using primary cultured rabbit gastric glands. TAK-438 and lansoprazole inhibited gastric acid formation in acutely isolated gastric glands (IC₅₀) values, 0.30 and 0.76 μM, respectively). In cultured gastric glands that were preincubated with TAK-438, the inhibitory effect on forskolin-stimulated acid formation was augmented over the incubation period, whereas the inhibitory effect of lansoprazole was not affected by time of incubation. Next, we evaluated the durations of the actions of TAK-438 and lansoprazole after gastric glands were incubated with either drug for 2h followed by washout. Even 8h after the drug washout, TAK-438 at higher concentrations inhibited acid formation, but the inhibitory effect of lansoprazole disappeared immediately after washout. Additionally, only a small amount of [¹⁴C] lansoprazole accumulated in resting glands, and this accumulation was enhanced by treatment with 1 μM of forskolin. In contrast, high levels of [¹⁴C] TAK-438 accumulated in both resting and forskolin-treated glands. Furthermore, a 2-h preincubation followed by washout demonstrated a slow clearance of [¹⁴C] TAK-438 from the glands. These findings suggest that TAK-438 exerts a longer and more potent antisecretory effect than lansoprazole as a result of its high accumulation and slow clearance from the gastric glands.

  20. Cyanoacrylate glue in the management of gastric varices.

    PubMed

    Consolo, P; Luigiano, C; Giacobbe, G; Scaffidi, M G; Pellicano, R; Familiari, L

    2009-02-01

    Gastric varices (GV) are less common than esophageal varices, but their management represents a particular challenge. When bleeding occurs is usually severe, requiring immediate supportive intensive care and has a high mortality rate. The best management of GV is supposed to be with a multidisciplinary approach and close cooperation between gastroenterologists, interventional radiologists and the surgical team. Many studies in literature reported high success rates with intravariceal injection of cyanoacrylate in acute GV bleeding. This agent obliterates the variceal lumen by solidification within the vein and more than 80% primary obliteration rates are achieved. In comparison with other endoscopic techniques as variceal band ligation or sclerotherapy with ethanolamine oleate, alcohol and sodium tetradecyl sulphate, cyanoacrylate has shown to be more effective, with a decrease in complications and mortality rates. The cyanoacrylate has shown effective also in the secondary prophylaxis with an incidence of re-bleeding that ranges between 15% and 30%. Actually, there is no scientific evidence supporting the application of cyanoacrylate in primary prophylaxis of bleeding from GV. Significant procedural, septic and embolic complications have been reported with cyanoacrylate glue injection. In conclusion, the endoscopic treatment with cyanoacrylate of actively bleeding GV, as well as the prophylaxis of the re-bleeding, is a safe and effective procedure and should be considered as a first-line therapy, whenever available.

  1. Safety and efficacy of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate in the management of patients with gastric and duodenal varices who are not candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, James; Trotter, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric variceal bleeding is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with portal hypertension and cirrhosis. Options are limited for patients who are not candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). Cyanoacrylate injections have been reported to be efficacious in previous case series. The aim of this retrospective study was to report our single-center experience with the safety and efficacy of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate in patients who were not TIPS candidates. Electronic medical records were reviewed for 16 patients who underwent a total of 18 esophagogastroduodenoscopies for acute gastric or duodenal variceal bleeding and secondary prophylaxis of gastric varices; 14 patients had cirrhosis with an average Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score of 16, and 2 patients had noncirrhotic portal hypertension. Primary endpoints of the study included early and delayed rebleeding rate, complications, and death or liver transplantation. The rebleeding rate (early or delayed) was 7%, and no complications were found. One death was reported (unrelated to the procedure). In conclusion, 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate is a safe and effective alternative for non-TIPS candidates who present with acute gastric variceal bleeding given its low rebleeding and complication rate. PMID:27695164

  2. Helicobacter pylori invades the gastric mucosa and translocates to the gastric lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Uchida, Keisuke; Takemura, Tamiko; Nagaoka, Sakae; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Ishige, Ikuo; Ishige, Yuki; Ishida, Noriko; Furukawa, Asuka; Muraoka, Hiroe; Ikeda, Satoshi; Sekine, Masaki; Ando, Noboru; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Yamada, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Takashige; Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2008-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been considered to be non-invasive and to rarely infiltrate the gastric mucosa, even though there is an active Th1 immune response in the lamina propria of the H. pylori-infected stomach. To elucidate whether H. pylori invades the lamina propria and translocates to the gastric lymph nodes, we examined H. pylori in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections of stomach and gastric lymph nodes obtained from 51 cancer patients using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a novel anti-H. pylori monoclonal antibody that recognizes lipopolysaccharides. Fresh gastric lymph nodes were used to culture for H. pylori. In 46 patients with H. pylori in the stomach, the bacterium was found in the lymph nodes from 21 patients by culture, 37 patients by PCR, and 29 patients by IHC. H. pylori captured by macrophages was found in the lamina propria of 39 patients. In the lymph nodes, the bacterium was found in many macrophages and a few interdigitating dendritic cells at the paracortical areas. H. pylori was also found in the intracellular canaliculi of parietal cells in 21 patients, but intracytoplasmic invasion into gastric epithelial cells was not identified. When compared to the commercially available anti-H. pylori antibodies, the novel antibody showed the highest sensitivity to detect H. pylori-positive macrophages, whereas no difference was found for H. pylori in the mucous layer. The H. pylori-positive macrophages in the lamina propria correlated with chronic gastritis as well as translocation of such cells to the lymph nodes. These results suggest that H. pylori-induced gastric epithelial damage allows the bacteria to invade the lamina propria and translocate to the gastric lymph nodes, which may chronically stimulate the immune system. The bacteria captured by macrophages, whether remaining alive or not, may contribute to the induction and development of H. pylori-induced chronic gastritis.

  3. Gastric duplication cyst: A cause of rectal bleeding in a young child.

    PubMed

    Surridge, Clare A; Goodier, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts are an uncommon congenital anomaly and rectal bleeding is a rare presentation of a complicated gastric duplication cyst. This case report describes the radiological findings in a child with a complicated gastric duplication cyst.

  4. High Hepsin expression predicts poor prognosis in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Zhao, Junjie; Tang, Wenyi; Wang, Yanru; Peng, Peike; Li, Lili; Song, Shushu; Wu, Hao; Li, Can; Yang, Caiting; Wang, Xuefei; Zhang, Chunyi; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Hepsin, a membrane-associated serine protease, is frequently upregulated in epithelial cancers and involved in cancer progression. Our study aims to describe the expression pattern and evaluate the clinical implication of hepsin in gastric cancer patients. The mRNA expression of hepsin was analyzed in 50 gastric cancer and matched non-tumor tissues, which was downregulated in 78% (39/50) of gastric cancer. By searching and analyzing four independent datasets from Oncomine, we obtained the similar results. Furthermore, we evaluated the hepsin expression by IHC in tissue microarray (TMA) containing 220 Gastric Cancer specimens. More importantly, Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were taken to access the prognosis of gastric cancer and predicted that hepsin protein expression was one of the significant and independent prognostic factors for overall survival of Gastric Cancer. PMID:27841306

  5. Salt processed food and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Si-Hao; Li, Yuan-Hang; Leung, Kayee; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

  6. Participation of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Li; Yu, Xin-Juan; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Tian, Zi-Bin; Dong, Quan-Jiang

    2014-05-07

    There are a large number of bacteria inhabiting the human body, which provide benefits for the health. Alterations of microbiota participate in the pathogenesis of diseases. The gastric microbiota consists of bacteria from seven to eleven phyla, predominantly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Intrusion by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) does not remarkably interrupt the composition and structure of the gastric microbiota. Absence of bacterial commensal from the stomach delays the onset of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, while presence of artificial microbiota accelerates the carcinogenesis. Altered gastric microbiota may increase the production of N-nitroso compounds, promoting the development of gastric cancer. Further investigation of the carcinogenic mechanisms of microbiota would benefit for the prevention and management of gastric cancer.

  7. Using gastric juice lncRNA-ABHD11-AS1 as a novel type of biomarker in the screening of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunben; Shao, Yongfu; Zhu, Mengying; Li, Qier; Yang, Fang; Lu, Xuwen; Xu, Chunjing; Xiao, Bingxiu; Sun, Yanke; Guo, Junming

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in tumorigenesis. However, the diagnostic values of most lncRNAs are largely unknown. To investigate whether gastric juice lncRNA-ABHD11-AS1 can be a potential biomarker in the screening of gastric cancer, 173 tissue samples and 130 gastric juice from benign lesion, gastric dysplasia, gastric premalignant lesions, and gastric cancer were collected. ABHD11-AS1 levels were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, the relationships between ABHD11-AS1 levels and clinicopathological factors of patients with gastric cancer were investigated. The results showed that ABHD11-AS1 levels in gastric cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in other tissues. Its levels in gastric juice from gastric cancer patients were not only significantly higher than those from cases of normal mucosa or minimal gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and gastric ulcers but also associated with gender, tumor size, tumor stage, Lauren type, and blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. More importantly, when using gastric juice ABHD11-AS1 as a marker, the positive detection rate of early gastric cancer patients was reached to 71.4 %. Thanks to the special origin of gastric juice, these results indicate that gastric juice ABHD11-AS1 may be a potential biomarker in the screening of gastric cancer.

  8. Fatal submucosal invasive gastric adenosquamous carcinoma detected at surveillance after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Shirahige, Akinori; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Oda, Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Masau; Mori, Genki; Abe, Seiichiro; Nonaka, Satoru; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Sekine, Shigeki; Kushima, Ryoji; Saito, Yutaka; Fukagawa, Takeo; Katai, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man was under annual surveillance esophagogastroduodenoscopy after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer (EGC). Two years after the initial ESD, a 0-IIc type metachronous EGC lesion, 8 mm in size, without an ulcer scar, was found in the gastric antrum. The estimated tumor depth was up to the mucosa, and biopsy revealed well and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. ESD was performed for this lesion and en bloc resection with negative margins was achieved. Histopathological examination revealed an adenosquamous carcinoma 8 mm in size invading the deep submucosal layer (1600 μm), with lymphovascular invasion, consistent with the diagnosis of non-curative resection. Additional gastrectomy was recommended for this patient; however, two months after the ESD, preoperative computed tomography revealed multiple liver metastases, and the patient was considered as an unsuitable candidate for surgical resection. Systemic chemotherapy was therefore started; however, the patient died of gastric cancer 27 mo after the second ESD. Early gastric adenosquamous carcinoma localized to the mucosa and submucosa is extremely rare and its clinical behavior is not well known. The present report is very significant in that it underscores the distinct possibility of gastric adenosquamous carcinoma being very aggressive and fatal even when detected at an early cancer. PMID:25892891

  9. Gastric microbiota and predicted gene functions are altered after subtotal gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ching-Hung; Lin, Jaw-Town; Ho, Hsiu J; Lai, Zi-Lun; Wang, Chang-Bi; Tang, Sen-Lin; Wu, Chun-Ying

    2016-02-10

    Subtotal gastrectomy (i.e., partial removal of the stomach), a surgical treatment for early-stage distal gastric cancer, is usually accompanied by highly selective vagotomy and Billroth II reconstruction, leading to dramatic changes in the gastric environment. Based on accumulating evidence of a strong link between human gut microbiota and host health, a 2-year follow-up study was conducted to characterize the effects of subtotal gastrectomy. Gastric microbiota and predicted gene functions inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequencing were analyzed before and after surgery. The results demonstrated that gastric microbiota is significantly more diverse after surgery. Ralstonia and Helicobacter were the top two genera of discriminant abundance in the cancerous stomach before surgery, while Streptococcus and Prevotella were the two most abundant genera after tumor excision. Furthermore, N-nitrosation genes were prevalent before surgery, whereas bile salt hydrolase, NO and N2O reductase were prevalent afterward. To our knowledge, this is the first report to document changes in gastric microbiota before and after surgical treatment of stomach cancer.

  10. Molecular classifiers for gastric cancer and nonmalignant diseases of the gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Sibele I; Cristo, Elier B; Carvalho, Alex F; Hirata, Roberto; Pelosof, Adriane; Gomes, Luciana I; Martins, Waleska K; Begnami, Maria D; Zitron, Cláudia; Montagnini, André L; Soares, Fernando A; Neves, E Jordão; Reis, Luiz F L

    2004-02-15

    High incidence of gastric cancer-related death is mainly due to diagnosis at an advanced stage in addition to the lack of adequate neoadjuvant therapy. Hence, new tools aimed at early diagnosis would have a positive impact in the outcome of the disease. Using cDNA arrays having 376 genes either identified previously as altered in gastric tumors or known to be altered in human cancer, we determined expression signature of 99 tissue fragments representing normal gastric mucosa, gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and adenocarcinomas. We first validated the array by identifying molecular markers that are associated with intestinal metaplasia, considered as a transition stage of gastric adenocarcinomas of the intestinal type as well as markers that are associated with diffuse type of gastric adenocarcinomas. Next, we applied Fisher's linear discriminant analysis in an exhaustive search of trios of genes that could be used to build classifiers for class distinction. Many classifiers could distinguish between normal and tumor samples, whereas, for the distinction of gastritis from tumor and for metaplasia from tumor, fewer classifiers were identified. Statistical validations showed that trios that discriminate between normal and tumor samples are powerful classifiers to distinguish between tumor and nontumor samples. More relevant, it was possible to identify samples of intestinal metaplasia that have expression signature resembling that of an adenocarcinoma and can now be used for follow-up of patients to determine their potential as a prognostic test for malignant transformation.

  11. Localization of gastric peroxidase and its inhibition by mercaptomethylimidazole, an inducer of gastric acid secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, U; Bhattacharyya, D K; Chatterjee, R; Banerjee, R K

    1992-01-01

    Mercaptomethylimidazole (MMI) is a potent inducer of gastric acid secretion which is associated with significant inhibition of peroxidase activity of rat gastric mucosa in vivo. A time-dependent increase in acid secretion correlates well with time-dependent decrease in the peroxidase activity. In a chamber experiment in vitro using isolated gastric mucosa, MMI stimulates acid secretion, showing an almost linear response up to 600 microM. The time-dependent increase in acid secretion is also correlated with time-dependent inhibition of the peroxidase activity. This effect is not mediated through oxidation of MMI by flavin-containing mono-oxygenase, which is absent from gastric mucosa. The peroxidase has been localized mainly in parietal cells isolated and purified from gastric mucosa by controlled digestion with collagenase followed by Percoll-density-gradient centrifugation. Peroxidase activity was further localized in the outer membrane of the purified mitochondria of the parietal cell by some membrane-impermeant reagents, indicating outward orientation of the enzyme. MMI can inhibit the peroxidase activity of both the parietal cell and its mitochondria in a concentration-dependent manner. The possible involvement of the parietal-cell peroxidase-H2O2 system in MMI-induced acid secretion may be suggested. PMID:1318028

  12. Gastrin stimulates MMP-1 expression in gastric epithelial cells: putative role in gastric epithelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J Dinesh; Steele, Islay; Moore, Andrew R; Murugesan, Senthil V; Rakonczay, Zoltan; Venglovecz, Viktoria; Pritchard, D Mark; Dimaline, Rodney; Tiszlavicz, Laszlo; Varro, Andrea; Dockray, Graham J

    2015-07-15

    The pyloric antral hormone gastrin plays a role in remodeling of the gastric epithelium, but the specific targets of gastrin that mediate these effects are poorly understood. Glandular epithelial cells of the gastric corpus express matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, which is a potential determinant of tissue remodeling; some of these cells express the CCK-2 receptor at which gastrin acts. We have now examined the hypothesis that gastrin stimulates expression of MMP-1 in the stomach. We determined MMP-1 transcript abundance in gastric mucosal biopsies from Helicobacter pylori negative human subjects with normal gastric mucosal histology, who had a range of serum gastrin concentrations due in part to treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). The effects of gastrin were studied on gastric epithelial AGS-GR cells using Western blot and migration assays. In human subjects with increased serum gastrin due to PPI usage, MMP-1 transcript abundance was increased 2-fold; there was also increased MMP-7 transcript abundance but not MMP-3. In Western blots, gastrin increased proMMP-1 abundance, as well that of a minor band corresponding to active MMP-1, in the media of AGS-GR cells, and the response was mediated by protein kinase C and p42/44 MAP kinase. There was also increased MMP-1 enzyme activity. Gastrin-stimulated AGS-GR cell migration in both scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays was inhibited by MMP-1 immunoneutralization. We conclude that MMP-1 expression is a target of gastrin implicated in mucosal remodeling.

  13. Gastrin, gastric acid secretion, and gastric microflora in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, K; Uvnäs-Moberg, K; Nord, C E; Johansson, C; Gullberg, R

    1986-01-01

    The relation between the basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion, plasma gastrin, and the gastric microflora was examined in 45 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Sixteen patients (36%) had basal achlorhydria, and of these, 10 (22%) had achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria after stimulation with pentagastrin. The peak acid output and acidity showed inverse correlation with the disease duration but were not associated with age or with the degree of physical disability. Hypergastrinaemia was found in nine patients (20%), of whom 6 (13%) had significant titres of parietal cell antibody. The acidity of the peak acid output showed negative correlation with plasma gastrin. It was confirmed that the gastric secretory state is a determinant of plasma gastrin levels and in addition influences the growth of micro-organisms in the gastric lumen. The type of microflora in the non-acid stomach was similar to that found in the saliva. A subgroup of eight females was identified who showed low gastric acid secretion rates, positive bacterial cultures, and atlantoaxial subluxation. Gastrin- and insulin-like immunoreactivities were found in joint fluid. The concentrations reflected their plasma levels, suggesting that the peptides are not released at the inflammatory site, but rather that they reach synovial fluid from circulating blood. PMID:3524480

  14. Effects of hecogenin and its possible mechanism of action on experimental models of gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Santos Cerqueira, Gilberto; dos Santos e Silva, Gabriela; Rios Vasconcelos, Emiliano; Fragoso de Freitas, Ana Paula; Arcanjo Moura, Brinell; Silveira Macedo, Danielle; Lopes Souto, Augusto; Barbosa Filho, José Maria; de Almeida Leal, Luzia Kalyne; de Castro Brito, Gerly Anne; Souccar, Caden; de Barros Viana, Glauce Socorro

    2012-05-15

    This study investigates the gastroprotective effects of hecogenin, a steroid saponin isolated from Agave sisalana, on experimental models of gastric ulcer. Male Swiss mice were used in the models of ethanol- and indometacin-induced gastric ulcer. To clarify the hecogenin mechanism of action, the roles of nitric oxide (NO), sulfhydryls (GSH), K⁺(ATP) channels and prostaglandins were also investigated, and measurements of lipid peroxidation (TBARS assay) and nitrite levels in the stomach of hecogenin-treated and untreated animals were performed. Furthermore, the effects of hecogenin on myeloperoxidase (MPO) release from human neutrophils were assessed in vitro. Our results showed that hecogenin (3.1, 7.5, 15, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg, p.o.) acutely administered, before ethanol or indomethacin, exhibited a potent gastroprotective effect. Although the pretreatments with L-NAME, an iNOS inhibitor, and capsazepine, a TRPV1 receptor agonist, were not able to reverse the hecogenin effect, this was reversed by glibenclamide, a K⁺(ATP) blocker, and indomethacin in the model of ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The hecogenin pretreatment normalized GSH levels and significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels in the stomach, as evaluated by the ethanol-induced gastric lesion model. The drug alone increased COX-2 expression and this effect was further enhanced in the presence of ethanol. It also decreased MPO release and significantly protected the gastric mucosa. In conclusion, we showed that hecogenin presents a significant gastroprotective effect that seems to be mediated by K⁺(ATP) channels opening and the COX-2/PG pathway. In addition, its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties may play a role in the gastroprotective drug effect.

  15. Antidiabetic and gastric emptying inhibitory effect of herbal Melia azedarach leaf extract in rodent models of diabetes type 2 mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Seifu, Daniel; Gustafsson, Lars E; Chawla, Rajinder; Genet, Solomon; Debella, Asfaw; Holst, Mikael; Hellström, Per M

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes type 2 is associated with impaired insulin production and increased insulin resistance. Treatment with antidiabetic drugs and insulin strives for normalizing glucose homeostasis. In Ethiopian traditional medicine, plant extracts of Melia azedarach are used to control diabetes mellitus and various gastrointestinal disorders. The objective of this study was to clarify the antidiabetic effects of M. azedarach leaf extracts in diabetic type 2 experimental animals. In this study, mice were injected with Melia extract intraperitoneally. Plasma glucose was studied by using tail vein sampling in acute experiments over 4 h and chronic experiments over 21 days with concurrent insulin and body weight assessments. Glucose tolerance was studied by using intraperitoneal glucose (2 mg/g) tolerance test over 120 min. Gastric emptying of a metabolically inert meal was studied by the gastric retention of a radioactive marker over 20 min. Melia extracts displayed acute, dose-dependent antidiabetic effects in ob/ob mice similar to glibenclamide (p<0.05–0.001). Long-term administration of Melia extract reduced plasma glucose (p<0.001) and insulin (p<0.01–0.001) levels over 21 days, concurrent with body weight loss. Glucose tolerance test showed reduced basal glucose levels (p<0.05–0.01), but no difference was found in glucose disposal after long-term treatment with Melia extract. In addition, the Melia extract at 400 mg/kg slowed gastric emptying rate of normal Sprague-Dawley (p<0.001) and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats (p<0.001) compared with controls. It is concluded that the M. azedarach leaf extract elicits diabetic activity through a multitargeted action. Primarily an increased insulin-sensitizing effect is at hand, resulting in blood glucose reduction and improved peripheral glucose disposal, but also through reduced gastric emptying and decreased insulin demand. PMID:28360538

  16. Gastropericardial Fistula as a Late Complication of Laparoscopic Gastric Banding

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Adam A; Lall, Chandana; Deodhar, Ajita; Chang, Kenneth J; Smith, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is a bariatric procedure that is being performed with increasing frequency as an alternative management option for morbid obesity. Several common complications have been reported including gastric band slippage and associated pouch dilatation, intragastric erosion of the band, gastric wall perforation, and abscess formation. We present a case of gastropericardial fistula occurring nine years after an LAGB. There have been no previous documented cases of the complication after this procedure. PMID:28217406

  17. Influence of experimental hypokinesia on gastric secretory function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markova, O. O.; Vavryshchuk, V. I.; Rozvodovskyy, V. I.; Proshcheruk, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    The gastric secretory function of rats was studied in 4, 8, 16 and 30 day hypokinesia. Inhibition of both the gastric juice secretory and acid producing functions was found. The greatest inhibition was observed on day 8 of limited mobility. By days 16 and 30 of the experiment, a tendency of the gastric secretory activity to return to normal was observed, although it remained reduced.

  18. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: A public health priority

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  19. Postoperative Gastric Perforation in a Newborn with Duodenal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Antabak, Anko; Bogović, Marko; Vuković, Jurica; Grizelj, Ruža; Babić, Vinka Barbarić; Papeš, Dino; Luetić, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Gastric perforation (GP) in neonates is a rare entity with high mortality. Although the etiology is not completely understood, it mostly occurs in premature neonates on assisted ventilation. Combination of duodenal atresia and gastric perforation is very rare. We present a case duodenal atresia who developed gastric perforation after operetion for duodenal atresia. Analysis of the patient medical record and histology report did not reveal the etiology of the perforation. PMID:27896170

  20. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: a public health priority.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-04-28

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  1. The current situation for gastric cancer in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Caglevic, Christian; Silva, Shirley; Mahave, Mauricio; Rolfo, Christian; Gallardo, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a neoplasm with a high incidence and mortality rate in Chile where more than 3000 people die every year from this type of cancer. This study shows the clinical and epidemiological considerations of this disease, information about translational research on this pathology in Chile, the contribution of Chilean doctors to the development of gastric cancer management awareness and the general situation of gastric cancer in Chile. PMID:28105078

  2. The Clinical Evidence Linking Helicobacter pylori to Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moss, Steven F

    2017-03-01

    Gastric cancer has long been recognized to be accompanied and preceded by chronic gastritis, lasting decades. Arguably, the most important development in our understanding of gastric cancer pathogenesis over the past 50 years has been the realization that, for most cases of gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori is the cause of the underlying gastritis. Gastritis can promote gastric carcinogenesis, typically via the Correa cascade of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. Nested case-control studies have shown that H pylori infection increases the risk of gastric cancer significantly, both of the intestinal and diffuse subtypes, and that H pylori is responsible for approximately 90% of the world's burden of noncardia gastric cancer. Based largely on randomized studies in high gastric cancer prevalence regions in East Asia, it appears that primary and tertiary intervention to eradicate H pylori can halve the risk of gastric cancer. Some public health authorities now are starting screening and treatment programs to reduce the burden of gastric cancer in these high-risk areas. However, there is currently much less enthusiasm for initiating similar attempts in the United States. This is partially because gastric cancer is a relatively less frequent cause of cancer in the United States, and in addition there are concerns about theoretical downsides of H pylori eradication, principally because of the consistent inverse relationship noted between H pylori and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Nevertheless, establishing a link between chronic H pylori infection and gastric cancer has led to novel insights into cancer biology, the gastrointestinal microbiome, and on individual and population-based gastric cancer prevention strategies.

  3. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment.

    PubMed

    Gambaracci, Giulio; Mecarini, Eleonora; Franceschini, Maria Silvia; Scialpi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies - like chicken and fish bones - can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  4. Missed Gastric Injuries in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Naiem, Ahmed A.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Kendi, Badriya H.; Al-Qadhi, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Hollow viscus injuries of the digestive tract are an uncommon occurrence in blunt abdominal trauma. We report a 39-year-old male who was hit by a vehicle as a pedestrian and admitted to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2015. He underwent an exploratory laparotomy which revealed injuries to the distal stomach, liver and descending colon. Postoperatively, the patient was febrile, tachycardic and hypotensive. Abdominal examination revealed distention and tenderness. The next day, a repeat laparotomy identified a gastric injury which had not been diagnosed during the initial laparotomy. Although the defect was repaired, the patient subsequently died as a result of multiorgan failure. Missed gastric injuries are rare and are associated with a grave prognosis, particularly for trauma patients. Delays in diagnosis, in addition to associated injuries, contribute to a high mortality rate. PMID:28003902

  5. Gastric hyperplastic polyp with focal cancer.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports a rare case of early adenocarcinoma within the gastric hyperplastic polyp, that was completely resected during an endoscopic procedure, and discusses current recommendations in such cases. Endoscopic resection of polyps with focal dysplasia or cancer is commonly indicated, as long as the procedure can be performed safely. After complete excision of a polyp with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested. The frequency of surveillance endoscopy should depend on the precise histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of the endoscopic resection. If the completeness of the procedure is confirmed both macro- and microscopically, gastric resection does not have to be performed. A follow-up esophago-gastroduodenoscopy should be performed at 1 year and then at 3 years.

  6. Gastric hyperplastic polyp with focal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a rare case of early adenocarcinoma within the gastric hyperplastic polyp, that was completely resected during an endoscopic procedure, and discusses current recommendations in such cases. Endoscopic resection of polyps with focal dysplasia or cancer is commonly indicated, as long as the procedure can be performed safely. After complete excision of a polyp with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested. The frequency of surveillance endoscopy should depend on the precise histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of the endoscopic resection. If the completeness of the procedure is confirmed both macro- and microscopically, gastric resection does not have to be performed. A follow-up esophago-gastroduodenoscopy should be performed at 1 year and then at 3 years. PMID:25361760

  7. [Surgical treatment of gastric carcinoma: lymphadenectomy].

    PubMed

    Crucitti, F; Pacelli, F; Doglietto, G B; Crucitti, P; Alfieri, S; Caprino, P

    1997-01-01

    The review of the literature shows the improvement of outcome of patients with gastric cancer after resection and extended lymphadenectomy. Lymphadenectomy D2/D3 was performed in 206 out of 639 patients with gastric cancer: 5-year survival was 66.3% versus 41.5% of the 121 patients that underwent D1 resection (p < 0.0001). Univariate and multivariate analyses show that proximal location of the cancer, advanced stage and lymphadenectomy limited to perigastric stations are negative prognostic factors. Although there are still different opinions regarding D2 or D3 lymphadenectomies for the operative risks, pancreatic resection (preferring pancreas sparing techniques) and splenectomy is subtotal gastrectomy for antral carcinoma, extended lymphadenectomy remains an important point to improve survival.

  8. Gastritis and Gastric Ulcers in Working Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Michael S.; Williamson, Katherine K.

    2016-01-01

    Gastritis and gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in canine athletes. Although the majority of scientific work on this condition has been performed in ultraendurance racing sled dogs, this condition has been identified in other canine athletes, including sled dogs competing in shorter events and dogs performing off-leash explosive detection duties. The cause of the syndrome is unknown, but current hypotheses propose a link between exercise-induced hyperthermia and loss of gastric mucosal barrier function as an early event in the pathogenesis. Treatment is focused on prevention of clinical disease using acid secretion inhibitors, such as omeprazole, which has excellent efficacy in controlled clinical studies. PMID:27092307

  9. Gastric inverted hyperplastic polyp: A rare cause of iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jin Tak; Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Dong Pil; Choi, Seung Hwa; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Park, Jun Kyu; Jang, Sun Hee; Park, Yun Jung; Sung, Ye Gyu; Sul, Hae Jung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric inverted hyperplastic polyp (IHP) is a rare gastric polyp characterized by the downward growth of hyperplastic mucosal components into the submucosal layer. Macroscopically, a gastric IHP resembles a subepithelial tumor (SET); as a result, accurately diagnosing gastric IHP is difficult. This issue has clinical significance because gastric IHP can be misdiagnosed as SET or as malignant neoplasm In addition, adenocarcinoma can accompany benign gastric IHP. Although in most cases, gastric IHPs are asymptomatic and are found incidentally, these polyps may cause anemia secondary to chronic bleeding. Here, we report one case involving gastric IHP accompanied by chronic iron deficiency anemia that was successfully managed using endoscopic submucosal dissection. PMID:27099452

  10. Huge Gastric Teratoma in an 8-Year Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ratan, Simmi K; Man, Parveen k

    2016-01-01

    Gastric teratoma is very rare tumor and usually presents in early infancy. An 8-year-old boy presented with a huge mass in abdomen extending from epigastrium to the pelvis. Ultrasound and CT scan of abdomen revealed a huge mass with solid and cystic components and internal calcifications. The preoperative diagnosis was a teratoma but not specifically gastric one. At operation, it was found to be gastric teratoma. The mass was excised completely with part of the stomach wall. The histopathology confirmed it to be mature gastric teratoma. The rarity of the teratoma with delayed presentation prompted us to report the case. PMID:27900279

  11. Sarcopenia and Visceral Obesity in Esophageal and Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-17

    Esophageal Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Sarcopenia; Sarcopenic Obesity; Obesity; Visceral Obesity; Quality of Life; Surgery; Complication of Treatment; Chemotherapeutic Toxicity; Physical Activity; Oncology

  12. Advanced endoscopic imaging in gastric neoplasia and preneoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonathan W J; Lim, Lee Guan; Yeoh, Khay Guan

    2017-01-01

    Conventional white light endoscopy remains the current standard in routine clinical practice for early detection of gastric cancer. However, it may not accurately diagnose preneoplastic gastric lesions. The technological advancements in the field of endoscopic imaging for gastric lesions are fast growing. This article reviews currently available advanced endoscopic imaging modalities, in particular chromoendoscopy, narrow band imaging and confocal laser endomicroscopy, and their corresponding evidence shown to improve diagnosis of preneoplastic gastric lesions. Raman spectrometry and polarimetry are also introduced as promising emerging technologies. PMID:28176895

  13. Effect of sulglycotide on gastric bicarbonate secretion in humans.

    PubMed

    Guslandi, M; Nannini, D; Tittobello, A

    1985-01-01

    The effect of sulglycotide, a cytoprotective agent with a healing effect on ulcers, on gastric bicarbonate secretion in humans was evaluated. Fifteen healthy volunteers were treated with sulglycotide 400 mg t.i.d. for 10 days. Before and after treatment the bicarbonate content of basal gastric juice was determined by Feldman and Barnett's method. Sulglycotide was found to increase significantly (p less than 0.0001) basal HCO3- production from the human stomach, thus strengthening the gastric mucosal defences. It was concluded that the cytoprotective and therapeutic properties of the drug are partially related to stimulation of gastric alkaline secretion.

  14. Cutaneous metastasis revealing a relapse of gastric linitis: Another case

    PubMed Central

    Kairouani, Mouna; Perrin, Julie; Dietemann-Barabinot, Anne; Diab, Rafiq; Ruck, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cutaneous metastasis from gastric cancer is a rare occurrence. The linitis gastric carcinoma accounts only 8.7% of all gastric cancers. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of female patient who was followed for linits cancer with peritoneal metastasis treated by six cycles of chemotherapy. After seventeen months of control, the relapse of the disease revealed by occurrence of cutaneous metastatsis. DISCUSSION Cutaneous metastasis from linit gastric is rare and the prognostic remains poor. The treatment is palliative. CONCLUSION This rare presentation should encourage the practitioners to biopsy any suspicion skin lesion. PMID:23276763

  15. Immune Homeostasis of Human Gastric Mucosa in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Reva, I V; Yamamoto, T; Vershinina, S S; Reva, G V

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of electron microscopic, microbiological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic studies of gastric biopsy specimens taken for diagnostic purposes according by clinical indications during examination of patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa against the background of infection with various pathogen strains of Helicobacter pylori was studied in patients of different age groups with peptic ulcer, gastritis, metaplasia, and cancer. Some peculiarities of Helicobacter pylori contamination in the gastric mucosa were demonstrated. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa in different pathologies was analyzed depending on the Helicobacter pylori genotype.

  16. Selective gene expression by rat gastric corpus epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, M.; Stengel, A.; Sachs, G.

    2011-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is divided into several segments that have distinct functional properties, largely absorptive. The gastric corpus is the only segment thought of as largely secretory. Microarray hybridization of the gastric corpus mucosal epithelial cells was used to compare gene expression with other segments of the columnar GI tract followed by statistical data subtraction to identify genes selectively expressed by the rat gastric corpus mucosa. This provides a means of identifying less obvious specific functions of the corpus in addition to its secretion-related genes. For example, important properties found by this GI tract comparative transcriptome reflect the energy demand of acid secretion, a role in lipid metabolism, the large variety of resident neuroendocrine cells, responses to damaging agents and transcription factors defining differentiation of its epithelium. In terms of overlap of gastric corpus genes with the rest of the GI tract, the distal small bowel appears to express many of the gastric corpus genes in contrast to proximal small and large bowel. This differential map of gene expression by the gastric corpus epithelium will allow a more detailed description of major properties of the gastric corpus and may lead to the discovery of gastric corpus cell differentiation genes and those mis-regulated in gastric carcinomas. PMID:21177383

  17. The Impact of Gastric Atrophy on the Incidence of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tse-Ya; Wei, Jung-Nan; Kuo, Chun-Heng; Liou, Jyh-Ming; Lin, Mao-Shin; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Hua, Cyue-Huei; Hsein, Yenh-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Lee, Mei-Kuei; Hsiao, Ching-Hsiang; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Li, Hung-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Gastric atrophy results in lower plasma ghrelin, higher gastrin secretion, a change in gut microbiota, and altered dietary nutrient absorption, which may be associated with the incidence of diabetes. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major cause of gastric atrophy and is associated with diabetes in some reports. Since there is no study which investigates the impact of gastric atrophy on diabetes, we conduct a prospective cohort study to examine the relationship between H. pylori infection, gastric atrophy, and incident diabetes. In this study, subjects with gastric atrophy had a lower risk of incident diabetes, compared to those without gastric atrophy. The extent of gastric atrophy, measured by serum pepsinogen (PG) I/II ratio, was correlated with age, H. pylori IgG titer, HOMA2-IR, and HOMA2%B. When gastric atrophy is more extensive, presented as a lower serum PG I/II ratio, the risk of incident diabetes is lower. On the other hand, there was no significant association between H. pylori infection and the incidence of diabetes. In conclusion, the presence and the extent of gastric atrophy, but not H. pylori infection, are associated with incident diabetes. Further studies are needed to investigate the detailed mechanisms and the potential applications of the findings to guide diabetes screening and treatment strategies. PMID:28045079

  18. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-11-04

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS(+/-) mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS(+/-) mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

  19. E-Cadherin and Gastric Cancer: Cause, Consequence, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    E-cadherin (epithelial-cadherin), encoded by the CDH1 gene, is a transmembrane glycoprotein playing a crucial role in maintaining cell-cell adhesion. E-cadherin has been reported to be a tumor suppressor and to be down regulated in gastric cancer. Besides genetic mutations in CDH1 gene to induce hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), epigenetic factors such as DNA hypermethylation also contribute to the reduction of E-cadherin in gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, expression of E-cadherin could be mediated by infectious agents such as H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori). As E-cadherin is vitally involved in signaling pathways modulating cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and migration, dysregulation of E-cadherin leads to dysfunction of gastric epithelial cells and contributes to gastric cancer development. Moreover, changes in its expression could reflect pathological conditions of gastric mucosa, making its role in gastric cancer complicated. In this review, we summarize the functions of E-cadherin and the signaling pathways it regulates. We aim to provide comprehensive perspectives in the molecular mechanism of E-cadherin and its involvement in gastric cancer initiation and progression. We also focus on its applications for early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy in gastric cancer in order to open new avenues in this field. PMID:25184143

  20. Gastric Volvulus Following Left Pneumonectomy in an Adolescent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Benjamin A.; Lim, Irene Isabel P.; Murphy, Jennifer M.; Price, Anita P.; Abramson, Sara J.; La Quaglia, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare post-pneumonectomy complication. Although it has been described previously, published cases are limited to an older patient population. We report the youngest case of postpneumonectomy gastric volvulus to date, occurring in an 18-year-old male with a history of inflammatory myofibroblastic pseudotumor who underwent left intrapericardial pneumonectomy, and presented 13 years later with chronic intermittent mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus. While postpneumonectomy gastric volvulus is a rare occurrence, it should remain in the differential diagnosis in postoperative thoracic surgical patients presenting with chest pain. PMID:26504742

  1. Whole-genome reconstruction and mutational signatures in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second highest cause of global cancer mortality. To explore the complete repertoire of somatic alterations in gastric cancer, we combined massively parallel short read and DNA paired-end tag sequencing to present the first whole-genome analysis of two gastric adenocarcinomas, one with chromosomal instability and the other with microsatellite instability. Results Integrative analysis and de novo assemblies revealed the architecture of a wild-type KRAS amplification, a common driver event in gastric cancer. We discovered three distinct mutational signatures in gastric cancer - against a genome-wide backdrop of oxidative and microsatellite instability-related mutational signatures, we identified the first exome-specific mutational signature. Further characterization of the impact of these signatures by combining sequencing data from 40 complete gastric cancer exomes and targeted screening of an additional 94 independent gastric tumors uncovered ACVR2A, RPL22 and LMAN1 as recurrently mutated genes in microsatellite instability-positive gastric cancer and PAPPA as a recurrently mutated gene in TP53 wild-type gastric cancer. Conclusions These results highlight how whole-genome cancer sequencing can uncover information relevant to tissue-specific carcinogenesis that would otherwise be missed from exome-sequencing data. PMID:23237666

  2. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric adenomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sinan; Cao, Hailong; Zhang, Yujie; Xu, Mengque; Chen, Xue; Piao, Meiyu; Wang, Bangmao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gastric adenomyoma (GA) is a kind of rare gastric submucosal eminence lesions. As the malignant transformation cannot be ruled out, surgery and laparoscopic resection are usually considered. The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for GA. All of the patients with gastric submucosal eminence lesions who underwent ESD from June 2008 to June 2015 in General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, China, were identified, and patients with GA, which was confirmed by pathological evaluation, were enrolled for further analysis. Among the 571 patients who received ESD, 15 cases with uncertain diagnosis before the procedure were finally confirmed as GA. The mean age of these 15 patients was 46.93 ± 15.56 years (range: 18–73). Most of the lesions were located in antrum (12/15 patients), with 2 in the body of stomach and 1 in cardia, respectively. The mean size of the lesions was 1.47 ± 0.67 cm (range: 0.4–3.0). According to the endoscopic ultrasonography, the lesions of 14 patients originated from submucosa and 1 originated from superficial muscularis, totally with mixed echoes changes. En bloc complete resection was achieved in all of the lesions. No perforation, intraoperative bleeding, delayed bleeding, and mortalities occurred. No recurrence or metastasis was found during 1 to 67 months. ESD appears to be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment for GA with clinical presentation of gastric submucosal eminence lesions. PMID:28248886

  3. Gastric spiral bacteria in small felids.

    PubMed

    Kinsel, M J; Kovarik, P; Murnane, R D

    1998-06-01

    Nine small cats, including one bobcat (Felis rufus), one Pallas cat (F. manul), one Canada lynx (F. lynx canadensis), two fishing cats (F. viverrina), two margays (F. wiedii), and two sand cats (F. margarita), necropsied between June 1995 and March 1997 had large numbers of gastric spiral bacteria, whereas five large cats, including one African lion (Panthera leo), two snow leopards (P. uncia), one Siberian tiger (P. tigris altaica), and one jaguar (P. onca), necropsied during the same period had none. All of the spiral organisms from the nine small cats were histologically and ultrastructurally similar. Histologically, the spiral bacteria were 5-14 microm long with five to nine coils per organism and were located both extracellularly within gastric glands and surface mucus, and intracellularly in parietal cells. Spiral bacteria in gastric mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx, one fishing cat, and the two sand cats were gram negative and had corkscrewlike to tumbling motility when viewed with phase contrast microscopy. The bacteria were 0.5-0.7 microm wide, with a periodicity of 0.65-1.1 microm in all cats. Bipolar sheathed flagella were occasionally observed, and no periplasmic fibrils were seen. The bacteria were extracellular in parietal cell canaliculi and intracellular within parietal cells. Culture of mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx and sand cats was unsuccessful. Based on morphology, motility, and cellular tropism, the bacteria were probably Helicobacter-like organisms. Although the two margays had moderate lymphoplasmacytic gastritis, the other cats lacked or had only mild gastric lymphoid infiltrates, suggesting that these organisms are either commensals or opportunistic pathogens.

  4. Pylorus-Preserving Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung-Young; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is a function-preserving surgery for the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC), aiming to decrease the complication rate and improve postoperative quality of life. According to the Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines, PPG can be performed for cT1N0M0 gastric cancer located in the middle-third of the stomach, at least 4.0 cm away from the pylorus. Although the length of the antral cuff gradually increased, from 1.5 cm during the initial use of the procedure to 3.0 cm currently, its optimal length still remains unclear. Standard procedures for the preservation of pyloric function, infra-pyloric vessels, and hepatic branch of the vagus nerve, make PPG technically more difficult and raise concerns about incomplete lymph node dissection. The short- and long-term oncological and survival outcomes of PPG were comparable to those for distal gastrectomy, but with several advantages such as a lower incidence of dumping syndrome, bile reflux, and gallstone formation, and improved nutritional status. Gastric stasis, a typical complication of PPG, can be effectively treated by balloon dilatation and stent insertion. Robot-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy is feasible for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach in terms of the short-term clinical outcome. However, any benefits over laparoscopy-assisted PPG (LAPPG) from the patient's perspective have not yet been proven. An ongoing Korean multicenter randomized controlled trial (KLASS-04), which compares LAPPG and laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach, may provide more clear evidence about the advantages and oncologic safety of PPG. PMID:27433390

  5. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection of an Inverted Early Gastric Cancer-Forming False Gastric Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-il; Lee, Sang-kil

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a standard treatment for early gastric cancer (EGC) that does not have any risk of lymph node or distant metastases. Here, we report a case of EGC resembling a diverticulum. Diverticular formation makes it difficult for endoscopists to determine the depth of invasion and to subsequently perform ESD. Because the false diverticulum does not have a muscular layer, this lesion can be treated with ESD. Our case was successfully treated with ESD. After ESD, the EGC was confined to the submucosal layer without vertical and lateral margin involvement. This is the first case in which ESD was successfully performed for a case of EGC that coexisted with a false gastric diverticulum. An additional, larger study is needed to determine the efficacy of ESD in various types of EGC, such as a false gastric diverticulum. PMID:26855930

  6. Successful endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer adjacent to gastric cardia varix

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Ko; Hikichi, Takuto; Nakamura, Jun; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Waragai, Yuichi; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Konno, Naoki; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 58-year-old man with liver cirrhosis and renal failure was diagnosed with esophageal varices (EVs) and a gastric cardia varix (GCV) by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The patient also exhibited early gastric cancer (EGC) in the upper gastric body adjacent to the GCV. The EVs and GCV were treated using endoscopy before endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of the EGC to prevent variceal bleeding during ESD. Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) was performed to treat the EVs. In addition, extra-variceal polidocanol injection and argon plasma coagulation (APC) were performed after EVL. Follow-up EGD two months after APC revealed that the GCV had diminished in size. Then, ESD was performed with polidocanol injection into the submucosa around the GCV to prevent bleeding. During ESD, the EGC was resected en bloc without severe bleeding. Complications were not observed after ESD. Histopathological examination of the ESD specimens indicated that the resection was curative. PMID:27477990

  7. A case of gastric adenocarcinoma in a Shih Tzu dog: successful treatment of early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Chun; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Jee, Cho-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Moon, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Na-Hyun; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Cho, Kyu-Woan; Kang, Byeong-Teck; Ha, Jeongim; Jung, Dong-In

    2014-07-01

    A 9-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu dog was referred to us, because of chronic vomiting. The patient's hematological, radiographic, ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological examinations were evaluated for diagnosis. Hematologic analysis indicated moderate anemia and azotemia. Based on the imaging studies, an oval-shaped mass was identified in the gastric pylorus area. A proliferative mass was found on endoscopic examination, and we performed biopsy using grasping forceps. The histopathological findings of the biopsy specimens indicated hypertrophic gastritis, and Y-U pyloroplasty was performed. However, histopathological examination of the surgically resected mass revealed tubular adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Then, carboplatin chemotherapy was performed 4 times for 13 weeks. Clinical signs, such as vomiting, were resolved gradually after surgery and chemotherapy, and the patient's condition was managed favorably until recently (30 months after surgery). This case report describes clinical features, imaging studies, endoscopic characteristics and histopathological and immunohistochemical features of gastric tubular adenocarcinoma as early gastric cancer in a dog.

  8. Beyond gastric acid reduction: Proton pump inhibitors induce heme oxygenase-1 in gastric and endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Jan C. . E-mail: beckeja@uni-muenster.de; Grosser, Nina; Waltke, Christian; Schulz, Stephanie; Erdmann, Kati; Domschke, Wolfram; Schroeder, Henning; Pohle, Thorsten

    2006-07-07

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been demonstrated to prevent gastric mucosal injury by mechanisms independent of acid inhibition. Here we demonstrate that both omeprazole and lansoprazole protect human gastric epithelial and endothelial cells against oxidative stress. This effect was abrogated in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor ZnBG. Exposure to either PPI resulted in a strong induction of HO-1 expression on mRNA and protein level, and led to an increased activity of this enzyme. Expression of cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 remained unaffected, and COX-inhibitors did not antagonize HO-1 induction by PPIs. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense protein HO-1 is a target of PPIs in both endothelial and gastric epithelial cells. HO-1 induction might account for the gastroprotective effects of PPIs independently of acid inhibition, especially in NSAID gastropathy. Moreover, our findings provide additional perspectives for a possible but yet unexplored use of PPIs in vasoprotection.

  9. A new approach for treatment of gastro-gastric fistula after gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Leslie, Daniel; Kellogg, Todd; Andrade, Rafael; Maddaus, Michael; Hunter, David; Ikramuddin, Sayeed

    2007-02-01

    We report a novel technique for gastro-gastric fistula (GGF) repair. A 44-year-old woman was found to have a fistula between her gastric pouch and bypassed stomach 18 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) for morbid obesity. She underwent an attempted open surgical repair, which was complicated by postoperative abdominal sepsis. An upper gastrointestinal series, abdominal CT scan and upper endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of failed surgery with recurrent GGF. Under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance, two ports were inserted percutaneously into the stomach. The fistula was closed with a percutaneous, transgastric, totally extraperitoneal approach. She remains well 7 months after this intervention. This procedure appears to be a safe and effective minimally invasive approach for closure of GGF after RYGBP. This is the first description of an intragastric, percutaneous closure of a GGF after RYGBP in the medical literature. Further experience with this technique is needed to define the selection criteria, limitations, advantages, and disadvantages.

  10. Relationship of ECL cells and gastric neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, H. L.; Brenna, E.; Sandvik, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    The enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell in the oxyntic mucosa has a key role in the regulation of gastric secretion since it synthesizes and releases the histamine regulating the acid secretion from the parietal cell. Gastrin is the main regulator of the ECL cell function and growth. Long-term hypergastrinemia induces ECL cell hyperplasia, and if continued, neoplasia. ECL cell carcinoids occur in man after long-term hypergastrinemia in conditions like pernicious anemia and gastrinoma. There is also accumulating evidence that a proportion of gastric carcinomas of the diffuse type is derived from the ECL cell. Furthermore, the ECL cell may, by producing substances with angiogenic effects (histamine and basic fibroblast growth factor), be particularly prone to develop malignant tumors. Although the general opinion is that gastrin itself has a direct effect on the oxyntic mucosal stem cell, it cannot be excluded that the general trophic effect of gastrin on the oxyntic mucosa is mediated by histamine or other substances from the ECL cell, and that the ECL cell, therefore, could play a role also in the tumorigenesis/carcinogenesis of gastric carcinomas of intestinal type. PMID:10461363

  11. Microvasculature of the gastric mucosa in dogs.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alguacil, N; Gaspar-Simón, I; Martín, R; Gomez-García, J; Martín-Orti, R

    1997-01-01

    A corrosion casting technique was used to study differences in the microvascular architecture of the pars cardiaca, the fundus ventriculi, the corpus ventriculi and the pars pylorica of the canine gastric mucosa. This technique revealed an unusual arrangement of the microvascular architecture in the nonglandular region surrounding the esophageal opening. Capillaries run tortuously along the mucosal surface parallel to the long axis of the esophagus, and some capillaries form a polygonal network that extends around the seromucous glands. In contrast, the mucosal capillaries of the glandular regions of the stomach are arranged in a symmetric pattern associated with the gastric glands. There are also differences in the mucosal microvessels of the cardiac and fundic areas compared to the corpus and the antrum. In the cardiac and fundic regions, a sparse microvascular pattern was observed and fewer capillaries drained into a single venule. However, the vessels surrounding the gastric glands in the corpus and antral areas drained into venules perpendicular to the hexagonal arrangement of the capillaries.

  12. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Adam J.; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Shmulevich, Ilya; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Miller, Michael; Bernard, Brady; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Curtis, Christina; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Shen, Ronglai; Weinhold, Nils; Kelsen, David P.; Bowlby, Reanne; Chu, Andy; Kasaian, Katayoon; Mungall, Andrew J.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sipahimalani, Payal; Cherniack, Andrew; Getz, Gad; Liu, Yingchun; Noble, Michael S.; Pedamallu, Chandra; Sougnez, Carrie; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Akbani, Rehan; Lee, Ju-Seog; Liu, Wenbin; Mills, Gordon B.; Yang, Da; Zhang, Wei; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Gulley, Margaret; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Schneider, Barbara G.; Kim, Jihun; Boussioutas, Alex; Sheth, Margi; Demchok, John A.; Rabkin, Charles S.; Willis, Joseph E.; Ng, Sam; Garman, Katherine; Beer, David G.; Pennathur, Arjun; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Odze, Robert; Kim, Hark K.; Bowen, Jay; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Weaver, Stephanie; McLellan, Michael; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Sakai, Ryo; Getz, Gad; Sougnez, Carrie; Lawrence, Michael S.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Lichtenstein, Lee; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Ding, Li; Niu, Beifang; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chu, Andy; Chu, Justin; Chuah, Eric; Chun, Hye-Jung E.; Clarke, Amanda; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan A.; Lim, Emilia; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen L.; Nip, Ka Ming; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Carter, Scott L.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cho, Juok; Cibulskis, Kristian; DiCara, Daniel; Frazer, Scott; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Heiman, David I.; Jung, Joonil; Kim, Jaegil; Lander, Eric S.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Meyerson, Matthew; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Saksena, Gordon; Schumacher, Steven E.; Sougnez, Carrie; Stojanov, Petar; Tabak, Barbara; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Voet, Doug; Rosenberg, Mara; Zack, Travis I.; Zhang, Hailei; Zou, Lihua; Protopopov, Alexei; Santoso, Netty; Parfenov, Michael; Lee, Semin; Zhang, Jianhua; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Seth, Sahil; Yang, Lixing; Xu, Andrew W.; Song, Xingzhi; Pantazi, Angeliki; Xi, Ruibin; Bristow, Christopher A.; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Seidman, Jonathan; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Laird, Peter W.; Hinoue, Toshinori; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Shen, Hui; Triche, Timothy; Van Den Berg, David J.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Herman, James G.; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda; Liu, Yingchun; Murray, Bradley A.; Noble, Michael S.; Askoy, B. Arman; Ciriello, Giovanni; Dresdner, Gideon; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Lee, William; Ramirez, Ricardo; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Sinha, Rileen; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Weinhold, Nils; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Bernard, Brady; Iype, Lisa; Kramer, Roger W.; Kreisberg, Richard; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rovira, Hector; Tasman, Natalie; Shmulevich, Ilya; Ng, Santa Cruz Sam; Haussler, David; Stuart, Josh M.; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Verhaak, Roeland G.W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Leiserson, Mark D. M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Taylor, Barry S.; Black, Aaron D.; Bowen, Jay; Carney, Julie Ann; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Helsel, Carmen; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; McAllister, Cynthia; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Tabler, Teresa R.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Penny, Robert; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Curely, Erin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Sherman, Mark; Benz, Christopher; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Fedosenko, Konstantin; Manikhas, Georgy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Belyaev, Smitry; Dolzhansky, Oleg; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brzezinski, Jakub; Ibbs, Matthew; Korski, Konstanty; Kycler, Witold; ŁaŸniak, Radoslaw; Leporowska, Ewa; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Murawa, Dawid; Murawa, Pawel; Spychała, Arkadiusz; Suchorska, Wiktoria M.; Tatka, Honorata; Teresiak, Marek; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Abdel-Misih, Raafat; Bennett, Joseph; Brown, Jennifer; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Kwon, Sun-Young; Penny, Robert; Gardner, Johanna; Kemkes, Ariane; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Curley, Erin; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Engel, Jay; Bartlett, John; Albert, Monique; Park, Do-Youn; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Landreneau, Rodney; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Kelsen, David P.; Cho, Eunjung; Ladanyi, Marc; Tang, Laura; McCall, Shannon J.; Park, Young S.; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Ajani, Jaffer; Camargo, M. Constanza; Alonso, Shelley; Ayala, Brenda; Jensen, Mark A.; Pihl, Todd; Raman, Rohini; Walton, Jessica; Wan, Yunhu; Demchok, John A.; Eley, Greg; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Sheth, Margi; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Davidsen, Tanja; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Burton, Robert; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes: tumours positive for Epstein–Barr virus, which display recurrent PIK3CA mutations, extreme DNA hypermethylation, and amplification of JAK2, CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also knownasPD-L2); microsatellite unstable tumours, which show elevated mutation rates, including mutations of genes encoding targetable oncogenic signalling proteins; genomically stable tumours, which are enriched for the diffuse histological variant and mutations of RHOA or fusions involving RHO-family GTPase-activating proteins; and tumours with chromosomal instability, which show marked aneuploidy and focal amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases. Identification of these subtypes provides a roadmap for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies. PMID:25079317

  13. The history and role of gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Gastric banding has emerged in the development of bariatric surgery as an important therapeutic option for morbidly obese patients. Following the major pioneering milestones of Wilkinson and Peloso, who placed a nonadjustable band around the upper part of a patient's stomach in 1978, and Hallberg and Forsell, as well as Kuzmak, who worked on separate continents to develop the clinical application of adjustable gastric bands in the early 1980s, banding entered into widespread use in the mid 1990s, when the innovation of the laparoscopic technique made it possible to insert adjustable bands without open surgery. Today, several institutions have reported long-term (> or =5-year) results with laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). With a small number of exceptions, LAGB efficacy data range from satisfactory to excellent, with some institutions noting annual reoperation rates in the vicinity of 5%, and quality of life scores using the Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System in the good-to-excellent range in up to 70% of patients. These outcomes, coupled with the fact that LAGB has the best record of safety among the bariatric operations, is reversible, and can be performed at a relatively low cost, have established LAGB as an important tool in the long-term management of morbid obesity.

  14. Overdiagnosis of gastric cancer by endoscopic screening

    PubMed Central

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer screening using endoscopy has recently spread in Eastern Asian countries showing increasing evidence of its effectiveness. However, despite the benefits of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer, its major harms include infection, complications, false-negative results, false-positive results, and overdiagnosis. The most serious harm of endoscopic screening is overdiagnosis and this can occur in any cancer screening programs. Overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of cancers that would never have been found if there is no cancer screening. Overdiagnosis has been estimated from randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and modeling. It can be calculated on the basis of a comparison of the incidence of cancer between screened and unscreened individuals after the follow-up. Although the estimation method for overdiagnosis has not yet been standardized, estimation of overdiagnosis is needed in endoscopic screening for gastric cancer. To minimize overdiagnosis, the target age group and screening interval should be appropriately defined. Moreover, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully considered to effectively introduce endoscopic screening in communities. Further research regarding overdiagnosis is warranted when evaluating the effectiveness of endoscopic screening. PMID:28250897

  15. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Ruo-Lin; Xu, A-Man

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with poor prognosis for lack of early detection and effective treatment modalities. The significant influence of tumor microenvironment on malignant cells has been extensively investigated in this targeted-therapy era. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved and fundamental process that is critical for embryogenesis and some other pathophysiological processes, especially tumor genesis and progression. Aberrant gastric EMT activation could endow gastric epithelial cells with increased mesenchymal characteristics and less epithelial features, and promote cancer cell stemness, initiation, invasion, metastasis, and chemo-resistance with cellular adhesion molecules especially E-cadherin concomitantly repressed, which allows tumor cells to disseminate and spread throughout the body. Some pathogens, stress, and hypoxia could induce and aggravate GC via EMT, which is significantly correlated with prognosis. GC EMT is modulated by diverse micro-environmental, membrane, and intracellular cues, and could be triggered by various overexpressed transcription factors, which are downstream of several vital cross-talking signaling pathways including TGF-β, Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, etc. microRNAs also contribute significantly to GC EMT modulation. There are currently some agents which could suppress GC EMT, shedding light on novel anti-malignancy strategies. Investigating potential mechanisms modulating GC cell EMT and discovering novel EMT regulators will further elucidate GC biology, and may provide new biomarkers for early GC detection and potentially efficient targets for preventative and curative anti-GC intervention approaches to prevent local and distant invasions. PMID:26807164

  16. Overdiagnosis of gastric cancer by endoscopic screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2017-02-16

    Gastric cancer screening using endoscopy has recently spread in Eastern Asian countries showing increasing evidence of its effectiveness. However, despite the benefits of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer, its major harms include infection, complications, false-negative results, false-positive results, and overdiagnosis. The most serious harm of endoscopic screening is overdiagnosis and this can occur in any cancer screening programs. Overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of cancers that would never have been found if there is no cancer screening. Overdiagnosis has been estimated from randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and modeling. It can be calculated on the basis of a comparison of the incidence of cancer between screened and unscreened individuals after the follow-up. Although the estimation method for overdiagnosis has not yet been standardized, estimation of overdiagnosis is needed in endoscopic screening for gastric cancer. To minimize overdiagnosis, the target age group and screening interval should be appropriately defined. Moreover, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully considered to effectively introduce endoscopic screening in communities. Further research regarding overdiagnosis is warranted when evaluating the effectiveness of endoscopic screening.

  17. Suppression of gastric mucosal inflammatory responses to Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide by sulglycotide.

    PubMed

    Slomiany, B L; Piotrowski, J; Slomiany, A

    1999-02-01

    The effect of the antiulcer agent sulglycotide on gastric epithelial cell apoptosis and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) during Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide-induced acute gastritis was investigated. Rats, pretreated twice daily for 3 consecutive days with sulglycotide at 200 mg/kg or vehicle, were subjected to surface epithelial application of H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (50 microg/animal), and, after 4 additional days on the drug or vehicle regimen, their mucosal tissue was used for histologic assessment, quantitation of TNF-alpha and IL-4, and the assay of epithelial cell apoptosis. In the absence of sulglycotide, H. pylori lipopolysaccharide caused acute mucosal responses manifested by the inflammatory infiltration of the lamina propria with lymphocytes and plasma cells, edema, hyperemia, and epithelial hemorrhage. These responses were accompanied by an 11-fold increase in epithelial cell apoptosis and a 9-fold enhancement of the mucosal expression of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. However, the mucosal expression of regulatory cytokine IL-4 decreased by 15%. Treatment with sulglycotide produced significant (56.6%) reduction in the extent of acute mucosal inflammatory changes caused by H. pylori lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, the effect of sulglycotide was manifested in an 88.3% reduction in the epithelial cell apoptosis and a 69.1% decrease in the mucosal expression of TNF-alpha, whereas the expression of IL-4 showed only marginal (6%) enhancement. The results suggest that the cytoprotective agent sulglycotide suppresses the inflammatory and apoptotic events elicited in gastric mucosa by H. pylori lipopolysaccharide through stimulation of TNF-alpha expression.

  18. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion via gastro-gastric fistula in a gastric bypass patient.

    PubMed

    Antanavicius, Gintaras; Leslie, Daniel; Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Kellogg, Todd; Ikramuddin, Sayeed

    2010-07-01

    Enteral feedings are the preferred route of nutritional support for malnourished or critically ill patients. Recent progress in flexible endoscopic and interventional radiological techniques has allowed adaptation of numerous new procedures. Anatomic and functional rearrangement of the gastrointestinal tract often precludes traditional percutaneus endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. Insertion of a gastroscope through the nose, via open pharynx, or neck fistula have been described, but there are no reports in the English literature describing introduction of the gastroscope through a dilated gastro-gastric fistula in a patient with previous open Roux en Y gastric bypass.

  19. Gastric Emptying and Vagus Nerve Function After Laparoscopic Partial Fundoplication

    PubMed Central

    Lindeboom, Maud Y. A.; Ringers, Jan; van Rijn, Pieter J. J.; Neijenhuis, Peter; Stokkel, Marcel P. M.; Masclee, Ad A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish the relation between vagus nerve dysfunction, gastric emptying, and antireflux surgery. Summary Background Data: Delayed gastric emptying occurs in up to 40% of reflux patients. After antireflux surgery, gastric emptying becomes normal or is even accelerated. Occasionally, severe gastric stasis is found and is associated with a negative outcome of the antireflux procedure. It has been suggested that injury to the vagus nerve could be the cause of this delayed emptying. Methods: We evaluated in a prospective study gastric emptying of solids and vagus nerve function (pancreatic polypeptide response to hypoglycemia) before and after surgery in 41 patients (22 women; age 43 ± 1.6 years) who underwent laparoscopic hemifundoplication. Results: All patients had relief of reflux symptoms varying from adequate (n = 8) to complete relief (n = 33). Gastric emptying of solids increased significantly (P < 0.001) after operation: lag phase from 19 ± 2 to 10 ± 1 minute, emptying rate (%/h) from 37 ± 2 to 48 ± 5 and half emptying time from 110 ± 8 to 81 ± 4 minutes. Gastric emptying improved to a similar extent in patients with delayed and normal preoperative gastric emptying. Postoperative signs of vagus nerve damage (PP peak < 47pmol/L) were present in 4 patients (10%). In these 4 patients gastric emptying both before and after operation did not differ from patients with normal vagus nerve function. In fact, none of the 41 patients had severely delayed emptying after laparoscopic hemifundoplication. Conclusions: Laparoscopic hemifundoplication affects vagus nerve integrity in 10% of patients, but this does not lead to a delay in gastric emptying. In fact, gastric emptying improved significantly after fundoplication. PMID:15492559

  20. Acute laminitis.

    PubMed

    Baxter, G M

    1994-12-01

    Laminitis is an inflammation of the sensitive laminae along the dorsal aspect of the digit and is considered to be a secondary complication of several predisposing or primary factors. Affected horses are usually very lame, have increased digital pulses, are painful to hoof testers along the toe of the foot, and have evidence of downward rotation or distal displacement of the distal phalanx present on radiographs. Treatments for acute laminitis include anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-endotoxin therapy, vasodilators, antithrombotic therapy, corrective trimming and shoeing, and surgical procedures. Treatment regimens are very controversial and the true efficacy of these treatments is unknown. The quality of laminae damage that occurs with laminitis, however, probably has greater influence on the success of treatment and outcome of the horse than the treatment regimen itself.

  1. Changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels after laparoscopic gastric stapling procedures versus laparoscopic gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Gebhart, Alana; Young, Monica; Villamere, James; Shih, Anderson; Nguyen, Ninh T

    2014-10-01

    Obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are risk factors for the development of coronary artery disease. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an inflammatory biomarker that has been shown to be an independent predictor for cardiovascular risk. The aim of the current study was to examine the changes in cardiovascular risk profile in morbidly obese patients who underwent laparoscopic gastric stapling procedures (bypass and sleeve) compared with laparoscopic gastric banding. Levels of hs-CRP were measured preoperatively and at 12 to 24 months postoperatively. Based on hs-CRP levels, cardiovascular risk was categorized as low (less than 1 mg/L), moderate (1 to 3 mg/L), or high (greater than 3 mg/L). A total of 52 patients underwent gastric stapling procedures and 49 underwent gastric banding and both had preoperative and postoperative hs-CRP levels measured. There were no significant differences in age, gender, or preoperative body mass index (BMI) between groups. At baseline, 48.0 per cent of patients undergoing gastric stapling and 38.8 per cent of patients undergoing gastric banding had moderate or high cardiovascular risk. BMI at 24 months was significantly lower in the gastric stapling compared with the gastric banding group (30.4 ± 5.4 vs 36.1 ± 5.5 kg/m(2), respectively, P < 0.01). Of the patients with elevated cardiovascular risk, 64.0 per cent of gastric stapling versus 57.8 per cent of gastric banding patients had a reduction in risk category at 12 to 24 months follow-up, whereas 1.9 per cent of patients undergoing gastric stapling versus 4.1 per cent of patients undergoing gastric banding had an increase in risk category. The mean reduction in hs-CRP level for patients with elevated cardiovascular risk was greater for gastric stapling compared with gastric banding procedures (-1.10 ± 0.94 mg/L vs -0.67 ± 0.82 mg/L, respectively, P < 0.05). Cardiovascular risk improved in the majority of patients after bariatric surgery, but a more

  2. The chronological sequence of somatic mutations in early gastric carcinogenesis inferred from multiregion sequencing of gastric adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chul-Hyun; Cho, Yu Kyung; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Rhee, Je-Keun; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Lee, Sug-Hyung; Kim, Tae-Min

    2016-01-01

    Mutation profiles and intratumoral heterogeneity are not well understood for benign gastric adenomas, some of which progress into malignant gastric adenocarcinomas. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing of three microsatellite stable (MSS) and two microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) gastric adenomas with three regional tumor biopsies per case. We observed that the mutation abundance of benign gastric adenomas was comparable to those of gastric adenocarcinomas, suggesting that the mutational makeup for gastric carcinogenesis may already be achieved in benign adenomas. The extent of intratumoral heterogeneity was more substantial for MSS genomes in that only 1% - 14% of somatic mutations were common across the regional biopsies or ‘public’, while 50% - 94% of mutations were public in MSI-H gastric adenomas. We observed biallelic, loss-of-functional events of APC with truncating mutations and/or 5q losses for all cases, mostly as public events. All MSS gastric adenomas also harbored ARID2 truncating mutations, often as multiple, region-specific ones indicative of convergent evolution. Hotspot missense mutations on known cancer genes such as ERBB2 and KRAS were largely observed as region-specific aberrations. These findings suggest that biallelic functional APC inactivation initiates the gastric carcinogenesis and is followed by mutations of histone modifiers and then activation of known cancer-related genes. As the first exome-wide multi-region mutational profiling of gastric adenomas, our study provides clues on the chronological sequence of somatic mutations and their clonal architectures in early gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27175599

  3. Current issues and future perspectives of gastric cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About half of the incidence of gastric cancer is observed in East Asian countries, which show a higher mortality than other countries. The effectiveness of 3 new gastric cancer screening techniques, namely, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, serological testing, and "screen and treat" method were extensively reviewed. Moreover, the phases of development for cancer screening were analyzed on the basis of the biomarker development road map. Several observational studies have reported the effectiveness of endoscopic screening in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. On the other hand, serologic testing has mainly been used for targeting the high-risk group for gastric cancer. To date, the effectiveness of new techniques for gastric cancer screening has remained limited. However, endoscopic screening is presently in the last trial phase of development before their introduction to population-based screening. To effectively introduce new techniques for gastric cancer screening in a community, incidence and mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be initially and thoroughly evaluated by conducting reliable studies. In addition to effectiveness evaluation, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully assessed before introducing these new techniques for population-based screening.

  4. Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band (LAGB) Migration - Endoscopic Treatment Modalities.

    PubMed

    Klimczak, Tomasz; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Janczak, Przemysław; Jurałowicz, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Laparoscopic adjustible gastric binding (LAGB) is one of most common surgical methods of treating obesity. Gastric band migration (erosion) is a typical LAGB complication, with a frequency of about 1-4%. The aim of the study was to present the possibilities of endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of this complication.

  5. Pathophysiological and clinical aspects of gastric hyperplastic polyps.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Markowska, Agnieszka; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-10-28

    Gastric polyps become a major clinical problem because of high prevalence and tendency to malignant transformation of some of them. The development of gastric hyperplastic polyps results from excessive proliferation of foveolar cells accompanied by their increased exfoliation, and they are macroscopically indistinguishable from other polyps with lower or higher malignant potential. Panendoscopy allows detection and differentiation of gastric polyps, usually after obtaining histopathological biopsy specimens. Unremoved gastric hyperplastic polyps may enlarge and sometimes spontaneously undergo a sequential progression to cancer. For this reason, gastric hyperplastic polyps larger than 5 mm in size should be removed in one piece. After excision of polyps with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested depending on histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of endoscopic resection. Because of the risk of cancer development also in gastric mucosa outside the polyp, neighboring fragments of gastric mucosa should undergo microscopic investigations. This procedure allows for identification of patients who can benefit most from oncological endoscopic surveillance. If Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the gastric mucosa is confirmed, treatment strategies should include eradication of bacteria, which may prevent progression of intestinal metaplasia. The efficacy of H. pylori eradication should be checked 3-6 mo later.

  6. The Role of Preoperative TIPSS to Facilitate Curative Gastric Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, S.A.; Vickers, J.; Callaway, M.P. Alderson, D.

    2003-08-15

    The use of TIPSS to facilitate radical curative upper gastrointestinal surgery has not been reported. We describe a case in which curative gastric resection was performed for carcinoma of the stomach after a preoperative TIPSS and embolization of a large gastric varix in a patient with portal hypertension.

  7. Coexistence of gastrointestinal stromal tumor, esophageal and gastric cardia carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Wu, Xu-Dong; Shi, Quan; Jia, Jing

    2013-03-28

    Gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma are distinct neoplasms originating from different cell layers; therefore, simultaneous development of such carcinomas is relatively rare. Auxiliary examinations revealed coexistence of esophageal and gastric cardia carcinoma with lymph node metastasis in a 77-year-old man. Intraoperatively, an extraluminal tumor (about 6.0 cm × 5.0 cm × 6.0 cm) at the posterior wall of the gastric body, a tumor (about 2.5 cm × 2.0 cm) in the lower esophagus, and an infiltrative and stenosing tumor (about 1.0 cm × 2.0 cm) in the gastric cardia were detected. Wedge resection for extraluminal gastric tumor, radical esophagectomy for lower esophageal tumor, and cardiac resection with gastroesophageal (supra-aortic arch anastomoses) were performed. Postoperative histological examination showed synchronous occurrence of gastric GIST, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry indicated strong staining for c-Kit/CD117, Dog-1, Ki-67 and smooth muscle, while expression of S-100 and CD34 was negative.

  8. Effect of diazepam on unstimulated and on stimulated gastric secretion.

    PubMed

    Bennett, P N; Davies, P; Frigo, G M; Weerasinghe, W M; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1975-01-01

    The effect of intravenous diazepam on unstimulated and on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric secretion has been studied in normal subjects. No significant effect of diazapam was found on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric secretion. Unstimulated secretion was reduced by diazepam. This action of diazepam may be useful in peptic ulcer therapy.

  9. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Julia L; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described.

  10. Pathophysiological and clinical aspects of gastric hyperplastic polyps

    PubMed Central

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Markowska, Agnieszka; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps become a major clinical problem because of high prevalence and tendency to malignant transformation of some of them. The development of gastric hyperplastic polyps results from excessive proliferation of foveolar cells accompanied by their increased exfoliation, and they are macroscopically indistinguishable from other polyps with lower or higher malignant potential. Panendoscopy allows detection and differentiation of gastric polyps, usually after obtaining histopathological biopsy specimens. Unremoved gastric hyperplastic polyps may enlarge and sometimes spontaneously undergo a sequential progression to cancer. For this reason, gastric hyperplastic polyps larger than 5 mm in size should be removed in one piece. After excision of polyps with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested depending on histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of endoscopic resection. Because of the risk of cancer development also in gastric mucosa outside the polyp, neighboring fragments of gastric mucosa should undergo microscopic investigations. This procedure allows for identification of patients who can benefit most from oncological endoscopic surveillance. If Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the gastric mucosa is confirmed, treatment strategies should include eradication of bacteria, which may prevent progression of intestinal metaplasia. The efficacy of H. pylori eradication should be checked 3-6 mo later. PMID:27833379

  11. [Esophageal reconstruction--using gastric tube instead of whole stomach].

    PubMed

    Chen, Keneng

    2014-09-01

    Stomach is the first choice for esophageal reconstruction following esophagectomy. In the earlier days, however, whole stomach pulling-up was the major surgery, which had some shortcomings. Recently, gastric tube has gained wide acceptance for esophageal reconstruction. This paper summarized the anatomical and physiological advantage of stomach, the disadvantage of whole stomach, and benefits of gastric tube for esophageal reconstruction.

  12. Association of caveolin-1 genotypes with gastric cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chang, Wen-Shin; Yang, Chuan-Wei; Bau, Da-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of tumor-related death worldwide, for which the prevalence and mortality rates are very high in developed countries. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is the main protein in the caveolin family and plays a role in tumorigenesis signaling. The contribution of CAV1 genetic variants to gastric cancer is still largely unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of CAV1 genotypes in gastric cancer risk. We recruited 358 gastric patients and 358 cancer-free controls for CAV1 genotyping analysis. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CAV1, C521A (rs1997623), G14713A (rs3807987), G21985A (12672038), T28608A (rs3757733), T29107A (rs7804372), and G32124A (rs3807992), were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. There was a significant difference between the gastric cancer and control groups in the genotypic frequency distribution of the CAV1 G14713A genotypes (p=1.24*10(-5)), with those carrying the A allele having a higher risk for gastric cancer compared to those with the GG genotype (p=0.0001). Our findings suggested that CAV1 genotype may determine the individual susceptibility to gastric cancer, and that the CAV1 G14713A genotype may serve as a novel biomarker for early detection and prediction of gastric cancer.

  13. Repression of PES1 expression inhibits growth of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieping; Zhou, Xiaodong; Lan, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Guobin; Jiang, Xuping; Huang, Zongming

    2016-03-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. However, precise molecular mechanisms underlining its development are far from clear. We recently reported that PES1 promoted development of breast cancer and ovarian cancer as an oncogene. In this study, we reported that ablation of endogenous PES1 resulted in significant suppression of cell proliferation and growth and led to cell cycle arrest in G2 or G1 phase, respectively, in two gastric cancer cell lines (AGS and N87) in vitro. Meanwhile, silencing of PES1 obviously decreased expressions of cyclin D1, HIF-1α, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions and increased p21WAF1 expression. Re-expression of PES1 in these two kinds of PES1 knockdown cells rescued these effects. In vivo, repression of endogenous PES1 expression suppressed gastric tumor growth in nude mice. In addition, 40.7 % (24/59) of gastric cancer tissues showed PES1 expression via immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. However, there were not any positive PES1 stainings in matched adjacent tissues. Our results demonstrated that repression of PES1 changed expressions of some cell proliferation- and angiogenesis-related genes and inhibited gastric cancer growth, and PES1 expression increased in gastric cancer tissues. These results suggest that PES1 may play an important role in development of gastric cancer. PES1 may be a potential target for gastric cancer therapy.

  14. Effect of sesame oil against acetaminophen-induced acute oxidative hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Wan, Chang-Hsin; Liu, Li-Lian; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2008-08-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes acute liver injury or even death in both humans and experimental animals. We investigated the effect of sesame oil on APAP-induced acute liver injury. Male Wistar rats were given APAP (1,000 mg/kg; orally) to induce acute liver injury. Acetaminophen significantly increased aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical generation levels; it also induced glutathione depletion. Sesame oil (8 mL/kg; orally) did not alter the gastric absorption of APAP, but it inhibited all the parameters altered by APAP and protected the rats against APAP-induced acute liver injury. We hypothesize that sesame oil maintained the intracellular glutathione levels, reduced reactive oxygen species levels, and inhibited lipid peroxidation in rats with APAP-induced acute liver injury.

  15. Acute parietal and chief cell changes induced by a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide in mouse stomach before thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Ishida, K; Shishido, T; Tabata, H; Miura, H; Okamiya, H; Hanada, T

    2000-01-01

    The common lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gastric lesions, such as erosions or ulcers, have been investigated in depth. Little is known, however, about the acute gastric lesions following a high dose of LPS. In a time-course study, ICR female mice were given a high subcutaneous dose of LPS (50 mg/kg). Mice were sacrificed at 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after dosing and were assessed histopathologically for acute gastric lesions. The major gastric changes were seen in the fundic region and included vacuolar degeneration of parietal cells and apoptosis of chief cells. The vacuole in parietal cells was apparent as early as 4 hours postinjection (PI), and apoptosis of chief cells was apparent at 12 hours PI. Thrombus formation, in contrast, was not seen until 24 hours PI. No erosion, ulcer, or hemorrhage was seen in any gastric region in any of the treated animals at 24 hours PI. These results indicate that a subcutaneous high dose of LPS in mice causes vacuolar degeneration of parietal cells and apoptosis of chief cells before thrombus formation or subsequent ulcerative lesions.

  16. Gastric blunt traumatic injuries: A computed tomography grading classification

    PubMed Central

    Solazzo, Antonio; Lassandro, Giulia; Lassandro, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    AIM To produce a radiological grading of gastric traumatic injuries. METHODS In our study, we retrospectively analyzed 32 cases of blunt gastric traumatic injuries and compared computed tomography (CT) data with patients’ surgical or medical development. In all cases, a basal phase was acquired, and an intravenous contrast material was administered via an antecubital venous catheter with acquisition in the venous phase (70-90 s). In addition, a further set of delayed scans was performed 4-5 min after the first scanning session, without supplementary intravenous contrast material, to identify or better define areas of active bleeding. All CT examinations were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists, with more than 5 years of experience in emergency radiology, to detect signs of gastric injuries and/or associated abdominal lesions according to literature data. Specific CT findings for gastric rupture include luminal content extravasation and discontinuity of the gastric wall, while CT findings suggestive of injury consisted of free peritoneal fluid, extraluminal air, pneumatosis, and thickening and hematoma of gastric wall. RESULTS We found 32 gastric traumatic injuries. In 22 patients (68.8%), the diagnosis was based on the surgical findings; in the other 10 patients (31.2%), the diagnosis was based on the clinical and CT radiological data. We observed discontinuity of the gastric wall and luminal content extravasation in 1 patient (3.1%); in 10 patients (31.2%), there was extra-luminal air in the peritoneum. In 28 patients (87.5%), there was peritoneal fluid, which was blood in 14 patients (hematoma in 11 patients and contrast material extravasation from active bleeding in 3 patients). In 15 patients (46.9%), there was gastric wall thickening. In 3 patients, it was possible to identify a prevalent involvement of the external layer of the gastric wall, whereas, in 2 patients, the inner side of the gastric wall presented with major involvement. In 3 patients

  17. Induction of follistatin precedes gastric transformation in gastrin deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kang Weiqun; Saqui-Salces, Milena; Zavros, Yana; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2008-11-21

    We previously showed that antral gastric tumors develop in gastrin-deficient (Gas{sup -/-}) mice. Therefore Gas{sup -/-}mice were studied sequentially over 12 months to identify molecular mechanisms underlying gastric transformation. Fundic atrophy developed by 9 months in Gas{sup -/-} mice. Antral mucosal hyperplasia developed coincident with the focal loss of TFF1 and Muc5AC. Microarray analysis of 12 month Gas{sup -/-} tumors revealed an increase in follistatin, an activin/BMP antagonist. We found that elevated follistatin expression occurred in the proliferative neck zone of hyperplastic antrums, in antral tumors of Gas{sup -/-} mice, and also in human gastric cancers. Follistatin induced cyclin D1 and the trefoil factors TFF1 and TFF2 in a gastric cancer cell line. We concluded that antral hyperplasia in Gas{sup -/-} mice involves amplification of mucous cell lineages due to follistatin, suggesting its role in the development of antral gastric tumors.

  18. Abnormalities of esophageal and gastric emptying in progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Maddern, G.J.; Horowitz, M.; Jamieson, G.G.; Chatterton, B.E.; Collins, P.J.; Roberts-Thomson, P.

    1984-10-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were assessed using scintigraphic techniques in 12 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis and 22 normal volunteers. Esophageal emptying was significantly delayed in the patient group, with 7 of the 12 patients beyond the normal range. Gastric emptying was slower in patients than in controls, with 9 patients being outside the normal range for solid emptying and 7 patients outside the normal range for liquid emptying. Findings from gastric and esophageal emptying tests generally correlated well with symptoms of dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux. However, 2 patients with normal emptying studies had symptomatic heartburn, and 2 patients with delay of both solid and liquid gastric emptying gave no history of gastroesophageal reflux. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the development of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis.

  19. Helicobacter pylori does not release cysteamine into gastric juice.

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, M B; Neithercut, W D; Gillen, D; McColl, K E

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori releases cysteamine into gastric juice as cysteamine is known to be ulcerogenic. METHODS: Samples of fasting gastric juice were collected from 22 individuals (four women); 10 subjects were H pylori negative. The presence of infection was confirmed by examination and culture of gastric biopsies. Cysteamine in gastric juice was measured by reversed phase gradient high performance liquid chromatography with a detection limit of 10 mumol/l. RESULTS: Cysteamine was not detected in any of the gastric juice samples or in extracts of cultured H pylori. CONCLUSIONS: If H pylori produces cysteamine then the amounts produced are insignificant and are unlikely to explain the association between H pylori infection and the development of duodenal ulcer disease. PMID:9389979

  20. Mouse models for gastric cancer: Matching models to biological questions

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Ashleigh R; O'Donoghue, Robert J J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer‐related mortality worldwide. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease, which often results in late‐stage diagnosis, at which point there are limited treatment options. Even when treated successfully, gastric cancer patients have a high risk of tumor recurrence and acquired drug resistance. It is vital to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric cancer pathogenesis to facilitate the design of new‐targeted therapies that may improve patient survival. A number of chemically and genetically engineered mouse models of gastric cancer have provided significant insight into the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to disease onset and progression. This review outlines the strengths and limitations of current mouse models of gastric cancer and their relevance to the pre‐clinical development of new therapeutics. PMID:26809278