Sadeghpour, Mona; Bunick, Christopher G; Robinson, Deanne Mraz; Galan, Anjela; Tigelaar, Robert E; Imaeda, Suguru
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an acute sterile pustular eruption most commonly induced by medications. We present a case of AGEP with erythroderma following use of midodrine in a 58-year-old man. Although antibiotics are most commonly implicated in AGEP, we emphasize that nonantibiotic agents also may cause AGEP, which often manifests after a longer time interval compared to antibiotic-associated AGEP.
Grelck, Kurt; Stewart, Noelle; Rosen, Les; Sukal, Sean
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a potentially widespread, pustular, cutaneous eruption commonly associated with drug administration. We report a case of AGEP associated with the antianginal, anti-ischemic agent ranolazine. The patient, an 83-year-old man, had a validation score of 10 out of 12 in accordance with the EuroSCAR criteria (8-12 is considered definitive), although it may have been higher had blood work been performed prior to diagnosis and treatment. After ranolazine was discontinued and a course of tapered oral prednisone was prescribed, the rash resolved with subsequent desquamation.
Alberto, Chloé; Konstantinou, Maria Polina; Martinage, Catherine; Casassa, Eline; Tournier, Emilie; Bagheri, Haleh; Sibaud, Vincent; Mourey, Loïc; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Meyer, Nicolas; Paul, Carle; Bulai Livideanu, Cristina
Enzalutamide (Xtandi®) is a new potent inhibitor of the signaling pathway for the androgen receptor with a half-life of 5.8 days. It has been on the market for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer since November 2013. We report the first case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) induced by enzalutamide. A 62-year-old male patient with no significant medical history, was diagnosed in April 2014 with metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. In April 2015 the patient received a second line oral therapy with enzalutamide, 160 mg/day, coupled with a subcutaneous implant of 10.8 mg of goserelin, an agonist analog of natural luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH). Ten days after starting enzalutamide treatment and four days after introduction of first goserelin subcutaneous implant, the patient experienced an acute skin reaction. It is about of the plaques covered with widespread millimetric non-follicular pustules. Complete resolution of skin lesions occurred within four weeks. According to the AGEP validation score of the European Study of Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions, the total score in the current case was 7, interpreted as probable AGEP. According to criteria that assess adverse drug reactions, it was concluded that enzalutamide was responsible for this case of AGEP (suggestive imputation). Dermatologist can be confronted with adverse skin drug reactions attributable to new therapeutic molecules. The slow resolution of symptoms seems be due to the long half-life of enzalutamide.
Speck, Laura M; Wilkerson, Michael G; Perri, Anthony J; Kelly, Brent C
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare cutaneous eruption mainly provoked by drugs. A case of AGEP in a 74-year-old male that was attributed to the ingestion of terazosin hydrochloride is presented. This is the first reported case of this association in medical literature. The history, clinical presentation, and pathogenesis of AGEP are discussed.
Momin, Saira B; Del Rosso, James Q; Michaels, Brent; Mobini, Narciss
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a diffuse pustular disorder that is primarily drug induced and characterized by acute, extensive, small, nonfollicular, sterile pustules that usually begin in intertriginous folds with widespread edema and erythema. This article reports a case in which thalidomide, dexamethasone, or meloxicam may have been the etiologic agent to induce AGEP and the skin condition may have worsened with administration of additional medications during hospital admission. A good thorough medical history, including a drug history, along with clinicopathologic correlation is extremely important in a patient presenting with acute diffuse pustular lesions.
Bissinger, Ingrid; Matute-Turizo, Gustavo; Mejía-Barreneche, María Natalia
Antecedentes: Entre 62 y 90% de los casos de pustulosis exantemática generalizada aguda son causados por medicamentos. Su inicio es rápido con pústulas generalizadas, fiebre, conteo de neutrófilos en sangre mayor de 7000; la resolución de las pústulas es espontánea en menos de 15 días. Se describe un caso asociado a piroxicam. Caso clínico: Hombre de 36 años de edad con eritema inicial en tórax y abdomen, acompañado de ardor, sin fiebre, que posteriormente se extendió a antebrazos, brazos y muslos; con edema de cara. Una semana antes había consumido piroxicam por dolor lumbar; al momento de su hospitalización recibía antihistamínicos, esteroides tópicos y sistémicos. El hemoleucograma mostró leucocitos de 8920, eosinófilos de 600, neutrófilos de 6600, IgE sérica total de 188 mg/L, proteína C reactiva de 2.9 mg/L, sin compromiso hepático, renal ni pulmonar. Se inició tratamiento con antihistamínicos y ranitidina intravenosos, solución salina, vaselina tópica más mupirocina tópica y esteroides sistémicos. Al segundo día de hospitalización, los neutrófilos aumentaron a 9000 y la proteína C reactiva a 3.3 mg/L. La puntuación para validar pustulosis exantemática aguda en el paciente fue de 8, indicativa de diagnóstico definitivo. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico diferencial debe establecerse principalmente con psoriasis pustulosa. El pronóstico en general es bueno, como sucedió con el caso informado.
Milman, Laura de Mattos; Müller, Giana Paula; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Grill, Aline Barcellos; Rhoden, Deise Louise Bohn; Mello-da-Silva, Carlos Augusto; Vettorato, Gerson
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an acute febrile rash, usually induced by drugs, which recently has been linked to spider bite. We report a case of a male patient, 48 years old, with an erythematous rash accompanied by fever and small non-follicular pustules. He reported previous pain in the buttock with the onset of a necrotic plaque. The lesion was compatible with spider bite of the genus Loxosceles. According to the EuroSCAR group instrument, the patient scored +10 indicating definite diagnosis of AGEP. As the patient had a compatible lesion and had no other triggers of AGEP, in an Loxosceles endemic area, the AGEP would be associated with spider bite, as described in other publications.
Abbas, Mariam; Holfeld, Karen; Desjardins, Danielle; Zimmer, June
Pustular psoriasis of the digits (acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau) may be localized to one or more digits for over an extended period of time. Characteristic presentation is that of tender, diffusely eroded, and fissured pustular plaques on one or more digits. Transition to other forms of psoriasis and to generalized pustular psoriasis is known to occur. These patients have an increased risk of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) compared to the general population. Pustular psoriasis is often therapy resistant. We report the case of a 54-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with a pustular psoriasis flare complicated by AGEP. Treatment course included hospital admission, cyclosporine, acitretin, and discontinuation of cephalexin. The precipitating factor in the course of treatment is thought to be cephalexin. When treating patients with pustular psoriasis the occurrence of druginduced complications should be carefully examined. Our case suggests that avoidance of β-lactam antibiotics in these patients is warranted unless absolutely indicated.
Turan, Hakan; Acer, Ersoy; Erdem, Havva; Uslu, Esma; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir
A 27-year-old male patient who has used oral terbinafine for two weeks was admitted to our outpatient clinic for non-follicular millimetric pustules on erythematous and edematous different-sized plaques on his trunk and flexural areas. He was diagnosed with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) because of terbinafine use in the light of history, clinical and histopathological findings. An AGEP is a rare and severe pustular reaction usually triggered by systemic drug intake. Approximately, 2.3% of the patients having oral terbinafine have been reported to develop cutaneous adverse effects. Although terbinafine is a commonly used medicine, it must be considered that it may cause severe adverse reactions.
Chaabane, Amel; Aouam, Karim; Gassab, Lies; Njim, Leila; Boughattas, Naceur A
We report a case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) after cefotaxime use confirmed by a positive patch test. A 30-year-old woman received cefotaxime, fosfomycin and ciprofloxacin for sinusitis. Twelve days after drug initiation, she developed an extending pustular erythema associated with fever. Laboratory investigations showed marked leukocytosis. His blood chemistry was normal. The histological examination showed parakeratosis, spongiosis and nonfollicular intra-epidermal pustules consistent with AGEP. All medications were withdrawn. The symptoms resolved within 11 days after cefotaxime discontinuation. Patch tests were positive to cefotaxime after 48 h, while ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin yielded negative findings. Based on the Naranjo algorithm, it is probable that AGEP reaction was caused by cefotaxime. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of AGEP associated with positive cefotaxime patch testing.
Yoshida, Yukie; Murayama, Naoya
A 78-year-old woman visited a local clinic because of cough and fever, and was prescribed levofloxacin, carbocisteine, and cold medicine (salicylamide, acetaminophen, anhydrous caffeine, promethazine methylene disalicylate). The following day, erythema appeared on the trunk, and spread. Multiple pustules independent of hair follicles developed on the erythema mainly in the skin folds. Histopathological examination revealed subcorneal pustular dermatosis. The clinical course and characteristics of the rashes led to a diagnosis of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). Although the administration on levofloxacin, carbocisteine, and cold medicine were discontinued, the rashes recurred. We reviewed the patient's history, and found that she had a history of taking the over-the-counter drug Kerorin, and had taken a dose of Kerorin on the day before the first examination and before the recurrence. The ingestion of Kerorin was regarded as an incidental oral administration test, which was positive. Thus, oral administration tests with Kerorin and its ingredients acetylsalicylic acid and anhydrous caffeine were positive, leading to a diagnosis of AGEP caused by Kerorin.
Power, Anna E; Graudins, Linda V; McLean, Catriona A; Hopper, Ingrid
The case of a patient who experienced a severe adverse reaction requiring emergency treatment after a single dose of fenofibrate is described. A 58-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes was hospitalized for treatment of an extensive blistering rash on the buttocks and trunk accompanied by fever, hypotension, tachycardia, neutrophilia, impaired renal function, and liver enzyme abnormalities. She reported that two days previously she had developed fever and vomiting four hours after taking her first dose of fenofibrate (145 mg). The patient required vasopressor support and was initially treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for 3 days and a course of immune globulin. On hospital day 4, histopathology returned results consistent with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and the patient was subsequently treated with topical steroids. Gradual resolution of AGEP was noted at the time of her discharge from the hospital on day 7 and at one-week follow-up. Analysis of the case using the adverse drug reaction probability scale of Naranjo et al. yielded a score of 5, indicating a probable association between fenofibrate use and AGEP development. AGEP is a predominantly drug-induced condition but is not typically associated with fenofibrate use. Cutaneous eruptions in AGEP are often accompanied by systemic symptoms (e.g., fever, leukocytosis), and the disorder can also be associated with impaired creatinine clearance and elevated aminotransaminase levels. A woman with type 1 diabetes developed AGEP after taking a single dose of fenofibrate. Her cutaneous symptoms began to resolve within days of discontinuation of fenofibrate use. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Fever and rash are common presenting complaints to the Emergency Department. This report documents an uncommon diagnosis involving this presentation. The patient presented with signs and symptoms consistent with severe sepsis. Once the diagnosis of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis was recognized, the outcome was favorable.
Charfi, Ons; Kastalli, Sarrah; Sahnoun, Rym; Lakhoua, Ghozlane
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction, mostly induced by drugs. Hydroxychloroquine have been rarely reported in literature as a causative drug of this reaction. We report a case of AGEP induced by hydroxychloroquine with systemic involvement and confirmed by positive patch testing.
Pearson, Kelly C; Morrell, Dean S; Runge, Susan R; Jolly, Puneet
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare cutaneous eruption that often is a reaction to medications, most commonly antibiotics. Clinically, AGEP closely mimics pustular psoriasis and also is similar to subcorneal pustular dermatosis and IgA pemphigus. For clinicians, it is important to differentiate AGEP from pustular psoriasis. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis will have an acute drug association. Few cases have been known to be caused by hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Proper therapeutic management of AGEP includes withdrawal of the offending agent, and resolution typically occurs within 15 days. We report a case of AGEP after HCQ administration that did not follow the usual course of resolution after medication cessation. The patient continued to experience cutaneous eruptions that waxed and waned for 81 days. Hydroxychloroquine has a particularly long half-life and is a known cause of AGEP; therefore, it is possible that HCQ-induced AGEP may not follow the typical rapid recovery time.
Tak, Hasan; Koçak, Cengiz; Sarıcı, Gülben; Dizen Namdar, Nazlı; Kıdır, Mehtap
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare inflammatory dermatosis characterized by multiple nonfollicular pustules that occur on erythematous skin. Despite its similarity to pustular psoriasis and association with fever and leukocytosis, AGEP typically heals quickly. Etiologically, drugs and viruses have been suspected in most cases. Here, we present a case of AGEP, in a woman, that developed 1 day after starting bupropion for smoking cessation, as a rare side effect of the treatment. PMID:26688759
Tak, Hasan; Koçak, Cengiz; Sarıcı, Gülben; Dizen Namdar, Nazlı; Kıdır, Mehtap
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare inflammatory dermatosis characterized by multiple nonfollicular pustules that occur on erythematous skin. Despite its similarity to pustular psoriasis and association with fever and leukocytosis, AGEP typically heals quickly. Etiologically, drugs and viruses have been suspected in most cases. Here, we present a case of AGEP, in a woman, that developed 1 day after starting bupropion for smoking cessation, as a rare side effect of the treatment.
Kakeda, M; Schlapbach, Christoph; Danelon, G; Tang, M M; Cecchinato, V; Yawalkar, N; Uguccioni, M
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) are rare pustular skin disorders with systemic involvement. IL-17A/F is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in various neutrophilic inflammatory disorders. Here we show that IL-17A/F is highly expressed by innate immune cells such as neutrophils and mast cells in both AGEP and GPP.
Duckworth, L; Maheshwari, M B; Thomson, M A
A 72-year-old man developed a generalized erythematous pustular eruption 11 weeks after commencing terbinafine. Clinically and histologically, the appearance was that of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and the disease was managed with topical preparations. Initial improvement was marred by relapse of acute pustulosis, now more in keeping with terbinafine-induced pustular psoriasis (PP), which was successfully treated with acitretin. This case highlights the difficulty of differentiating between AGEP and PP. © The Author(s). CED © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.
Paquet, P; Vandenbossche, G; Nikkels, A F; Henry, F; Piérard, G E
Iodinated contrast agents are frequently involved in delayed polymorphic adverse skin reactions. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis following administration of iodinated contrast agents is a rare but severe form of such reactions. The disease is characterized by the sudden occurrence of an erosive and pustular erythroderma with fever, leukocytosis and sometimes peripheral adenopathies and liver involvement. This condition is considered as an immunologic reaction, primarily involving T lymphocytes. The overall mortality reaches about 1%. Elucidating the differential diagnosis with other acute paroxysmal drug eruptions (toxic epidermal necrolysis, Steven-Johnson syndrome and drug hypersensitivity syndrome) is of paramount importance for establishing the adequate treatment of PEAG.
Sousa, Aline Soares de; Lara, Osório Alves Corrêa de Castro; Papaiordanou, Francine; Marchioro, Gláucia Silva Simioni; Tebcherani, Antonio José
Severe cutaneous drug reactions include a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from mild morbilliform cutaneous rash, to severe forms of hypersensitivity. Special attention is given in this report to the acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), induced in 90% of cases by the use of systemic drugs, especially aminopenicillins and macrolides. The incidence of the disease is low, 1-5 cases per million patients / year. The main differential diagnosis is Von Zumbusch's Pustular Psoriasis. The prognosis is generally good and the disease self limited, after withdrawal of the triggering drug. In this report the authors describe a case of AGEP, triggered by ceftriaxone in a patient with psoriasis vulgaris.
Kardaun, Sylvia H; Kuiper, Hilde; Fidler, Vaclav; Jonkman, Marcel F
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) represents a severe, acute, pustular skin reaction that is most often induced by drugs. AGEP can be difficult to differentiate from generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) both clinically and histopathologically. We present a systematic description of the histopathological spectrum of AGEP and GPP with a focus on discriminating features. A retrospective, descriptive, comparative histopathological study was completed utilizing step sections of 43 biopsies of 29 cases with a validated diagnosis of probable or definite AGEP and 24 biopsies of 19 cases with an established diagnosis of GPP. In AGEP, biopsies from erythema and pustules showed minor differences, whereas histopathology of the acute stage of GPP showed major differences compared to the chronic stage. Comparing AGEP and GPP, the presence of eosinophils, necrotic keratinocytes, a mixed interstitial and mid-dermal perivascular infiltrate and absence of tortuous or dilated blood vessels were in favor of AGEP. Moreover, chronic GPP was characterized by prominent epidermal psoriatic changes. The frequency of a psoriatic background of AGEP patients in our study was higher than that of psoriasis in the general population. However, histopathology of a subgroup of AGEP patients with a personal history of psoriasis revealed no significant differences from the other AGEP patients. The spectrum of histopathological features of both AGEP and GPP is presented. Despite considerable overlap, subtle consistent histopathological differences and the grade of severity of specific features can help in differentiation. We could neither substantiate earlier reports that follicular pustules exclude AGEP nor did we see vasculitis as a specific feature in AGEP. Our study also supports the concept that AGEP is a separate entity that is distinct from GPP. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Fernando, Suran L
Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction and is caused by drugs in >90% of cases. It is rare, with an incidence of 1-5 patients per million per year. The clinical manifestations are characterised by fever and the rapid appearance of disseminated sterile pustules 3-5 days after the commencement of treatment. It is accompanied by marked neutrophilia. Mucous membranes are not typically involved. The drugs conferring the highest risk of AGEP according to the EuroSCAR study are aminopenicillins, pristinamycin, hydroxychloroquine, antibacterial sulphonamides, terbinafine and diltiazem. The pathogenesis of AGEP involves the initial influx of CD8 cytotoxic T-cells resulting in the apoptosis of keratinocytes and formation of vesicles. Then CXCL-8-producing and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor-producing CD4 cells enter the epidermis, resulting in neutrophil mediated inflammation and the formation of pustules. As a result, the histology reveals intraepidermal, usually subcorneal, pustules and an accompanying neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltrate. Epicutaneous patch testing may also support the diagnosis by causing a localised pustular reaction 48-96 h after the offending drug is applied. The condition usually resolves by 15 days after the causative drug is withdrawn but oral corticosteroid therapy may be necessary in some individuals. The mortality rate is up to 5% and mostly occurs in elderly people who have significant comorbidities.
Badawi, Ahmed H; Tefft, Kimberly; Fraga, Garth R; Liu, Deede Y
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an abrupt cutaneous adverse reaction usually in response to medications. It is generally a self-limiting disease if diagnosed promptly and the offending agent discontinued. Cetirizine, a commonly used anti-histamine medication for the treatment of allergic diseases has few reported side effects and is normally well-tolerated and effective. Herein, the first reported case of cetirizine induced AGEP is presented, followed by a discussion of the clinical and pathological aspects of this adverse cutaneous reaction to a widely used drug. Awareness of this reaction is vital owing to the extensive use of cetirizine and the importance of drug cessation once the reaction is identified. Lastly, other pustular cutaneous reactions may present similarly and therefore accurate identification of this disease can prevent unnecessary diagnostic testing.
Zaraa, I; Ben Taazayet, S; Trojjet, S; El Euch, D; Chelly, I; Haouet, S; Mokni, M; Ben Osman, A
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an uncommon pustular eruption characterized by small nonfollicular pustules on an erythematous background, sometimes associated with fever and neutrophilia. Over 90% of cases are drug-induced; however, it can be caused in rare cases by other agents. We report two cases of AGEP secondary to ingestion of Pistacia lentiscus essential oil, the first two such cases to our knowledge. The cutaneous morphology, disease course and histological findings were consistent with a definite diagnosis of AGEP, based on the criteria of the EuroSCAR study group. These two cases highlight the need to consider herbal extracts as a potential rare cause of AGEP and to ensure the safety of herbal medicines.
Ben Said, Z; Saidi, W; Boussofara, L; Ghariani, N; Belajouza, C; Sriha, B; Denguezli, M; Nouira, R
acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe eruption induced in most cases by medication; more rarely, it is associated with viral infection, food allergens or toxins. The literature contains only very rare reports of AGEP caused by a spider bite. We describe three cases of AGEP in Tunisian women following a spider bite. three Tunisian women were hospitalized in the dermatology department during the summer months presenting acute febrile pustulosis and rash occurring after a spider bite. The diagnosis of AGEP was confirmed with certainty based on the EuroSCAR score. Two patients presented marked eosinophilia. The outcome was favourable in all cases after symptomatic treatment. the factors militating in favour of spider-bite origin in these three patients were: (1) the presence of skin lesions characteristic of a spider bite; (2) the chronology of events, with eruption occurring 24 to 48 hours after the bite; and (3) the exclusion of the common causes of AGEP and the presence of marked eosinophilia in two of the cases. Our cases and the few cases published in the literature indicate that spider bites may be added to the list of the possible causes of AGEP. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Feldmeyer, Laurence; Heidemeyer, Kristine; Yawalkar, Nikhil
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe, usually drug-related reaction, characterized by an acute onset of mainly small non-follicular pustules on an erythematous base and spontaneous resolution usually within two weeks. Systemic involvement occurs in about 20% of cases. The course is mostly benign, and only in rare cases complications lead to life-threatening situations. Recent studies highlight the importance of genetic variations in interleukin-36 receptor antagonist gene (IL-36RN) in the pathogenesis of this disease. The physiopathology of AGEP remains unclear, but an involvement of innate and acquired immune cells together with resident cells (keratinocytes), which recruit and activate neutrophils via production of cytokines/chemokines such as IL-17, IL-36, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8)/IL-8, has been postulated. Treatment is based on the removal of the causative drug, supportive care, infection prevention and use of potent topical or systemic steroids. PMID:27472323
Chang, Shyue-Luen; Hu, Sindy; Hung, Shuen-Iu; Huang, Yau-Li; Hsiao, Wen-chin; Chung, Wen-Hung
Ki-67 is an established marker of cell proliferation. It is highly expressed in psoriasis and correlated with the clinical severity of psoriasis. Higher number of Ki-67 positive keratinocytes has been observed in pustular psoriasis (PP) as compared with psoriasis vulgaris. As for Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), a distinct disease entity but similar in many aspects of clinicopathologic features to PP, Ki-67 immunostaining presentation has never been investigated before. This study aimed to compare Ki-67 immunostaining presentation between PP and AGEP. By immunohistochemical staining, we compared Ki-67 immunostaining presentation on skin lesions of five patients of AGEP and five age-matched patients of PP. Ki-67 positive keratinocytes were counted and mean values were determined to compare between PP and AGEP. An augmented presence of Ki-67 positive keratinocytes was found in both AGEP and PP and they distributed not only in basal cell layer but in middle or even upper part of epidermis. Statistical analysis using Mann-Whitney U test showed no difference of epidermal proliferation rate between the two groups (P = 0.222). The results showed there was no difference of Ki-67 immunostaining presentation between AGEP and PP. Besides, we found marked increase of Ki-67-positive proliferating keratinocytes in AGEP and suggested that epidermal hyperproliferation may also play an important role in the formation of AGEP. We also discussed the possible pathophysiology of AGEP, possible epidermal architecture changes in AGEP and PP, and found the similarity in pathophysiology of AGEP and PP.
Qu, Yan-Jing; Jin, Shu-Bin; Han, Xiang-Chun; Zheng, Li-Qiang
Acute localized exanthematous pustulosis is a localized variant of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, which is characterized by the eruption of multiple scattered pustules following drug administration. A 72-year-old woman presented with multiple erythematous pustules on her face, which had appeared two days after using cefoperazone and sodium sulbactam. Histopathological findings showed subcorneal pustules and mixed inflammatory cell infiltration in the dermis. The pustules resolved within about two weeks after the patient discontinued the antibiotics. This report discusses the case of a woman with a cutaneous drug reaction consistent with acute localized exanthematous pustulosis that occurred after cefoperazone and sodium sulbactam were administered. PMID:28099605
de Sousa, Aline Soares; Lara, Osório Alves Corrêa de Castro; Papaiordanou, Francine; Marchioro, Gláucia Silva Simioni; Tebcherani, Antonio José
Severe cutaneous drug reactions include a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from mild morbilliform cutaneous rash, to severe forms of hypersensitivity. Special attention is given in this report to the acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), induced in 90% of cases by the use of systemic drugs, especially aminopenicillins and macrolides. The incidence of the disease is low, 1-5 cases per million patients / year. The main differential diagnosis is Von Zumbusch's Pustular Psoriasis. The prognosis is generally good and the disease self limited, after withdrawal of the triggering drug. In this report the authors describe a case of AGEP, triggered by ceftriaxone in a patient with psoriasis vulgaris. PMID:26375226
Kim, Hyunah; Bang, Eun Sook; Lim, Seung-Kwan; Lee, Jae Myeong
To report a rare case of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome caused by antituberculosis (TB) drugs, which progressed to acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) after moxifloxacin treatment. A 25-year-old female was hospitalized for dyspnea and dizziness. She had a history of TB and experienced rifampin-induced skin rash. She was treated for TB with moxifloxacin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. Upon admission, she had a fever of 39.2 °C, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, and eosinophil count increased during the first 10 days after admission. The patient had a rash all over the body with itching, pain, and a burning sensation. Diagnosis of DRESS syndrome was made. Immunoglobulin and prednisolone administration improved the DRESS symptoms. After the first DRESS syndrome diagnosis, anti-TB medications were changed to isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, cycloserine, and streptomycin, which also caused a skin rash, itching, and elevated AST/ALT levels, and eosinophil count. Then, the anti-TB treatment was changed to cycloserine, streptomycin, ethionamide, and para-aminosalicylic acid. The rash and itching persisted and eosinophil count increased further. All TB medications were discontinued except streptomycin. Due to the flushing and a burning sensation by streptomycin at the injection site, it was replaced with moxifloxacin. The patient experienced erythematous pustules and patches on skin with desquamation, fissures, and swelling. Therefore, a diagnosis of moxifloxacin-induced AGEP was made. DRESS syndrome induced by anti-TB drugs developed in a 25-year-old woman with moxifloxacin-related subsequent AGEP. .
Bomarrito, L; Zisa, G; Delrosso, G; Farinelli, P; Galimberti, M
We present a case of acute generalized exanthematous pustolosis (AGEP) induced by amoxicillin-clavulanate. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by symptoms presentation and histological features (Euroscar score point compatible with definite diagnosis). Patch testing performer six months later confirmed sensitization to the culprit drug and showed positivity also to other beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin G and cephalexin). We believe that a T cell delayed response to betalactams common ring could be involved.
Eyler, Jennifer T; Squires, Stephen; Fraga, Garth R; Liu, Deede; Kestenbaum, Thelda
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a clinical reaction pattern characterized by the rapid appearance of widespread sterile, nonfollicular pustules arising within edematous erythematous skin. This aseptic pustular eruption is commonly accompanied by leukocytosis and fever and usually follows recent administration of oral or parenteral drugs. We report two cases of terbinafine-induced AGEP in male patients. Both patients developed a generalized erythroderma with scaling and pruritic pustules 7 and 14 days following initiation of oral terbinafine. With immediate discontinuation of terbinafine and various treatment protocols, both patients demonstrated recovery followed by skin desquamation during the subsequent weeks. Terbinafine is the most frequently used systemic antimycotic and antifungal medication, reflecting its superior efficacy for dermatophyte infections. Despite the appealing drug profile, an awareness of terbinafine-induced AGEP is important given the 5 percent mortality associated with AGEP. Additionally, distinguishing the characteristics of AGEP from those associated with toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and generalized pustular psoriasis allows for prompt dermatologic evaluation, accurate diagnosis, and appropriate treatment.
Bilac, Dilek Bayraktar; Ermertcan, Aylin Turel; Ozturkcan, Serap; Sahin, M Turhan; Temiz, Peyker
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP, toxic pustuloderma, pustular drug eruption) is a not uncommon cutaneous reaction pattern that is usually related to drug administration. The eruption is of sudden onset and appears 7-10 days after the medication is started. A 22-year-old male patient who was a student at a chemical faculty attended our outpatient clinic with a complaint of pustular eruption on his face. According to his history, the eruption started with pruritus and erythema on his chin 3 days ago and spread to his face and chest. He explained that he had performed an experiment with sulfuric acid and bromic acid and was exposed to their vapor. His dermatological examination revealed erythema and pustules on his cheeks, on his chin, above his upper lip, and on his eyebrows. He also had a few pustules on his chest. There were no ocular, mucous membrane, or pulmonary symptoms. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy specimen revealed superficial orthokeratosis, focal subcorneal pustule formation, and perivascular chronic inflammatory cell infiltration in superficial dermis. After administration of systemic antihistamines and wet dressing topically, we observed rapid healing of the lesions. Because there was no systemic drug intake in his history, we were concerned that exposure to sulfuric acid and bromic acid vapor caused AGEP in this patient. We present this rare case to show that the vapor of chemical materials may cause AGEP or other drug eruptions.
Piperacillin/Tazobactam-Associated Hypersensitivity Syndrome with Overlapping Features of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis and Drug-Related Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms Syndrome
Kim, Tae In; Jeong, Ki Heon; Kim, Nack In
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare disorder characterized by acute onset of erythematous and edematous eruptions with sterile pustules, accompanied by fever, and a self-limiting condition thought to be caused by drugs, in particular, antibiotics. Drug-related rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a severe adverse drug-induced reaction, characterized by a generalized skin rash associated with hypereosinophilia, lymphocytosis, and internal organ involvement. These reactions differ in causative agents, as well as clinical presentation, prognosis, and treatment. Therefore, appropriate diagnostic measures should be rapidly undertaken. Herein, we described a patient who developed overlapping features of hypersensitivity syndromes, AGEP and DRESS, with the use of piperacillin and the beta-lactamase inhibitor sodium tazobactam. Coexistence of AGEP and DRESS in the same patient is quite rare. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous reports on the coexistence of AGEP and DRESS associated with piperacillin/tazobactam. PMID:26848226
A 21-year-old woman of Romany origin, in the third trimester of her fourth pregnancy, was admitted to the hospital because of a generalized erythematous and pustular eruption and desquamation involving her face, neck, trunk, and extremities. The skin changes were accompanied by fever (100.4 degrees F [38 degrees C]) and malaise. The patient was convinced that the dermatitis was induced by the consumption of "spoilt" pork sausage (bad smell, changed taste) approximately 24 hours earlier. Clinical examination revealed a woman with phototype III skin, black eyes, and black hair, in good general health. Widespread, symmetrical, moderately intense erythema and isolated or coalescing targetoid lesions studded with discrete, pinhead-sized, nonfollicular pustules in the center or at the periphery were distributed over her face, trunk, groins, and upper and lower extremities (Figures 1). On the neck and abdomen, lamellar desquamation was observed (Figure 2). Palms, soles, scalp, mucous membranes, hair, and nails were not affected. Nikolsky's sign was negative. The patient complained of very slight skin burning and itching. The pregnancy was proceeding without any complications and her obstetric status was normal. The woman had neither any accompanying diseases, nor previous personal or family history of psoriasis, nor any known allergies. She had taken no systemic medication (not even vitamins). She had three pregnancies; two ended with the delivery of healthy babies and one of them was aborted at her will. Laboratory studies revealed leukocytosis (13.2 x 109/L), neutrophilia (8 x 109/L), anemia (hemoglobin, 108 g/L), and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (68-110 mm/h). The results from the following investigations were normal: urinalysis, renal and hepatic function, serum albumin, Ca, Na, K, aspartate aminotransferase titer, cryoprotein, hepatitis B surface antigen, and serum markers for syphilis. Bacterial and fungal cultures of pustular content were sterile. A
Song, Hyo Sang; Kim, Sang Jin; Park, Tae-In; Jang, Yong Hyun
Background Cutaneous pustular disorders include generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). Objective To identify differences between GPP and AGEP, here we immunohistochemically evaluated interleukin (IL)-36 and the IL-23/Th17 axis. Methods This retrospective comparative immunohistochemical study was completed using 11 biopsies of 11 cases of GPP and 11 biopsies of 11 cases of AGEP. Through staining with the anti-IL-36-alpha (IL-36α), anti-IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra), anti-nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), anti-IL-23, anti-IL-17, and anti-IL-8 antibodies, main expression location and intensity were visualized in the epidermis and dermis. Results In both diseases, diffuse IL-36α expression was observed in the epidermis. IL-36Ra expression was observed in the dermal perivascular area as well as in the epidermis. NF-κB expression was observed in the epidermis and perivascular dermal area. Diffuse IL-23 and IL-17 expression was seen in the whole epidermis and the perivascular dermal area. IL-8 was expressed in the subcorneal pustules and parakeratotic area. Contrary to other cytokines, IL-23 expression in the epidermis of patients with GPP was more intense than only that in patients with AGEP. Conclusion Common pathomechanisms might exist in the development of GPP and AGEP based on these immunohistochemical results, but further studies are needed. PMID:27489427
Song, Hyo Sang; Kim, Sang Jin; Park, Tae-In; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Eun-So
Cutaneous pustular disorders include generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). To identify differences between GPP and AGEP, here we immunohistochemically evaluated interleukin (IL)-36 and the IL-23/Th17 axis. This retrospective comparative immunohistochemical study was completed using 11 biopsies of 11 cases of GPP and 11 biopsies of 11 cases of AGEP. Through staining with the anti-IL-36-alpha (IL-36α), anti-IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra), anti-nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), anti-IL-23, anti-IL-17, and anti-IL-8 antibodies, main expression location and intensity were visualized in the epidermis and dermis. In both diseases, diffuse IL-36α expression was observed in the epidermis. IL-36Ra expression was observed in the dermal perivascular area as well as in the epidermis. NF-κB expression was observed in the epidermis and perivascular dermal area. Diffuse IL-23 and IL-17 expression was seen in the whole epidermis and the perivascular dermal area. IL-8 was expressed in the subcorneal pustules and parakeratotic area. Contrary to other cytokines, IL-23 expression in the epidermis of patients with GPP was more intense than only that in patients with AGEP. Common pathomechanisms might exist in the development of GPP and AGEP based on these immunohistochemical results, but further studies are needed.
Ronjat, L; Ferneiny, M; Hadj-Rabia, S; Boccara, O; Bodemer, C
Dermatophytids are immunologically mediated dermatologic presentations secondary to sensitization to a dermatophyte infection. They are most frequently associated with toe-web intertrigo and usually present as localized, palmar, pruriginous vesicular eruptions. We report three original cases of generalized exanthematous pustular dermatophytid associated with kerions. Two boys aged 11 and 6 years, and one girl aged 6 years initially presented with kerion secondary to Trichophyton tonsurans (case 1), Trichophyton soudanense (case 2) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (case 3), respectively. Two to three days after initiation of griseofulvin treatment, all patients presented with a pustular eruption extending from the head to the trunk, associated in one case with fever of 39°C and inflammatory chondritis. Samples obtained from the pustular lesions were sterile, serum inflammatory markers were within the normal range and skin lesions resolved on oral corticosteroid treatment (prednisone 0.75 mg/kg, case 1) or high-potency topical steroids (cases 2 and 3) given as an adjunct to griseofulvin treatment (19 to 23 mg/kg/d). Dermatophytids occur during the acute phase of infection or within a few days of treatment initiation. Lesions are remote from the infection site, contain no dermatophyte, and resolve after treatment of the infection. We report three original cases of generalized exanthematous pustular dermatophytid, associated in one case with fever and inflammatory chondritis. The main differential diagnosis is acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis secondary to antifungal drugs. Differences in clinical presentation between the two enable the appropriate diagnosis to be made as well as continued use of the antifungal medication needed to cure the patient. General or topical steroids may also be used in combination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tresch, Sandra; Cozzio, Antonio; Kamarashev, Jivko; Harr, Thomas; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; French, Lars E; Feldmeyer, Laurence
A 21-year-old man presented with multiple erythematous nonfollicular papules partially confluent to plaques on his breast and lower abdomen that had been present for 1 month. Grouped pustules were present under the right breast. The patient had been taking finasteride over the past 3 months for androgenetic alopecia. His medical history was negative for psoriasis. Our initial differential diagnosis included dyskeratosis follicularis Darier, allergic contact dermatitis, infectious folliculitis, varicella zoster virus infection, fixed drug eruption, and IgA pemphigus. The white blood cell count and differential were within the normal limits. Results of viral cultures and PCR, as well as bacterial and fungal cultures of skin lesions proved negative. A lesional biopsy specimen showed a slight psoriasiform acanthosis in association with spongiosis and infiltration of both the epidermis and dermis by neutrophils and eosinophils, resulting in formation of subcorneal, intraepidermal, and subepidermal pustules. The results of direct immunofluorescence were negative, excluding an IgA pemphigus. The result of a lymphocyte transformation test was positive for finasteride. On the basis of the time relationship between the administration of finasteride and the development of the skin disease in combination with symptoms resolution on cessation of the drug, the histologic findings, and the positive lymphocyte transformation test result, we consider this to be an unusual type of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis defined as acute localized exanthematous pustulosis caused by finasteride. Within 4 weeks after withdrawal of finasteride, the rash resolved without any specific therapy. Transient discrete residual hyperpigmentation and scaling were present. The patient refused an oral provocation challenge.
Kline, Amy; Fischer, Gayle
We present a case of acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis in an 11-year-old girl who used Duro-Tuss, an over-the-counter cough mixture containing pholcodine, and present a comprehensive review of the literature on severe drug reactions resulting from using non-prescription medications. This case reinforces the importance of taking a complete medication history. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Ozturk, Gunseli; Turk, Bengu Gerceker; Karaca, Nezih; Karaarslan, Isil Kilinc; Ertekin, Banu; Ertam, Ilgen; Kazandi, Alican; Kandiloglu, Gulsen
Terbinafine, a widely used antifungal agent, may rarely cause cutaneous side effects with an incidence of 2.7%. Generalized pustular eruptions are quite uncommon but severe adverse cutaneous reactions of terbinafine have been reported. The main pustular eruptions due to terbinafine include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and drug induced pustular psoriasis. In this report, two cases of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and one case of generalized pustular psoriasis triggered with terbinafine are presented.
Tabata, Nobuko; Yoshizawa, Hideka
Generalized pustular lesions characterized by acute onset with fever occur in pustulosis acuta generalisata, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and generalized pustular psoriasis. In the present report, we describe a pediatric case of generalized pustular eruption that was not completely consistent with clinical features. Our patient had no evidence of a post-streptococcal infection. We observed scattered symmetric eruption of discrete pustules with an inflammatory halo on normal skin. The eruption was absent on her palms and soles of the feet. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports in the English literature of cases with clinical features similar to those of our patient. PMID:27462226
Westphal, Danielle Cristine; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Souza, Petra Pereira de; Castiel, Jessica; Chirano, Carlos Alberto; Santos, Mônica
Generalized pustular psoriasis, or psoriasis of von Zumbusch, is an acute and severe clinical form of psoriasis, which usually occurs in patients with psoriasis undergoing aggravating factors. In this work, we report the case of a female patient, 70 years old, who developed generalized pustular psoriasis symptoms while reducing the dose of oral corticosteroids, improperly introduced for the treatment of alleged acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. The differential diagnosis of generalized pustular psoriasis should be made with other pustular dermatoses, such as subcorneal pustulosis, IgA pemphigus and especially with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. Personal history of psoriasis and histopathological findings with psoriasiform changes and subcorneal pustule favored the diagnosis. She was treated with acitretin 30 mg / day, progressing to complete regression of the lesions.
Westphal, Danielle Cristine; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; de Souza, Petra Pereira; Castiel, Jessica; Chirano, Carlos Alberto; Santos, Mônica
Generalized pustular psoriasis, or psoriasis of von Zumbusch, is an acute and severe clinical form of psoriasis, which usually occurs in patients with psoriasis undergoing aggravating factors. In this work, we report the case of a female patient, 70 years old, who developed generalized pustular psoriasis symptoms while reducing the dose of oral corticosteroids, improperly introduced for the treatment of alleged acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. The differential diagnosis of generalized pustular psoriasis should be made with other pustular dermatoses, such as subcorneal pustulosis, IgA pemphigus and especially with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. Personal history of psoriasis and histopathological findings with psoriasiform changes and subcorneal pustule favored the diagnosis. She was treated with acitretin 30 mg / day, progressing to complete regression of the lesions. PMID:27828647
Paploski, Igor A.D.; Prates, Ana Paula P.B.; Cardoso, Cristiane W.; Kikuti, Mariana; Silva, Monaise M. O.; Waller, Lance A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Kitron, Uriel
Zika virus infection emerged as a public health emergency after increasing evidence for its association with neurologic disorders and congenital malformations. In Salvador, Brazil, outbreaks of acute exanthematous illness (AEI) attributed to Zika virus, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and microcephaly occurred in 2015. We investigated temporal correlations and time lags between these outbreaks to identify a common link between them by using epidemic curves and time series cross-correlations. Number of GBS cases peaked after a lag of 5–9 weeks from the AEI peak. Number of suspected cases of microcephaly peaked after a lag of 30–33 weeks from the AEI peak, which corresponded to time of potential infections of pregnant mothers during the first trimester. These findings support the association of GBS and microcephaly with Zika virus infection and provide evidence for a temporal relationship between timing of arboviral infection of pregnant women during the first trimester and birth outcome. PMID:27144515
Paploski, Igor A D; Prates, Ana Paula P B; Cardoso, Cristiane W; Kikuti, Mariana; Silva, Monaise M O; Waller, Lance A; Reis, Mitermayer G; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme S
Zika virus infection emerged as a public health emergency after increasing evidence for its association with neurologic disorders and congenital malformations. In Salvador, Brazil, outbreaks of acute exanthematous illness (AEI) attributed to Zika virus, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and microcephaly occurred in 2015. We investigated temporal correlations and time lags between these outbreaks to identify a common link between them by using epidemic curves and time series cross-correlations. Number of GBS cases peaked after a lag of 5-9 weeks from the AEI peak. Number of suspected cases of microcephaly peaked after a lag of 30-33 weeks from the AEI peak, which corresponded to time of potential infections of pregnant mothers during the first trimester. These findings support the association of GBS and microcephaly with Zika virus infection and provide evidence for a temporal relationship between timing of arboviral infection of pregnant women during the first trimester and birth outcome.
Miani, S; Boneschi, M; La Penna, A; Erba, M; De Monti, M; Giordanengo, F
Acute vascular abdomen is a severe and life-threatening pathology due to arterial degeneration, leading to hemorrhage or arterial occlusion leading to ischemia. Differential diagnosis of patients with severe abdominal pain and/or shock include several vascular and traumatic diseases, the most common being rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), or less frequently rupture of visceral artery aneurysm. Also acute aortic dissection, iatrogenic injury and acute mesenteric ischemia may lead to acute vascular abdomen. Clinical evaluation of the haemodynamic status of the patient may be very difficult, and may require airway maintenance and ventilation with a rapid treatment of hemorrhagic shock. In the stable patient with an uncertain diagnosis, CT scan, NMR and selective angiography may be helpful in diagnosis before vascular repair. On the contrary, the unstable patient, after hemodynamic resuscitation, must be operated on expeditiously. We present our vascular algorithms, to assess timing of diagnosis and treatment of this severe acute disease.
... recovery) and treatment options. Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...
Palter, Steven F.; Rodas, Edgar B.; Prosst, Ruediger L.; Rosser, Ludie E.
The timely diagnosis of intra-abdominal pathology continues to be an elusive problem. Delays in diagnosis and therapeutic decision making are continuing dilemmas in patients who are females of childbearing age, elderly, obese or immunosuppressed. Minilaparoscopy without general anesthesia potentially can provide an accurate, cost-effective method to assist in the evaluation of patients with acute abdominal pain. Laparoscopy without general anesthesia is not a new technique, but with the combination of two emerging factors— 1) the introduction of new technology with the development of improved, smaller laparoscopes and instruments, and 2) the shifting of emphasis on healthcare to a more cost-effective managed care environment--its value and widespread utilization is being reconsidered. We report the case of a 22 year old female with an acute onset of increasing abdominal and pelvic pain. Despite evaluation by general surgery, gynecology, emergency room staff, as well as, non-invasive testing, a clear diagnosis could not be made. In view of this, minilaparoscopy without general anesthesia was performed and revealed an acute, retrocecal appendicitis. The diagnosis was made with the assistance from the conscious patient. The utilization of this technique greatly expedited the treatment of this patient. Full-sized laparoscopic equipment was then used to minimally invasively remove the diseased appendix under general anesthesia. Both procedures were well tolerated by the patient. PMID:9876717
Abrahão, Jônatas S; Lima, Larissa S; Assis, Felipe L; Alves, Pedro A; Silva-Fernandes, André T; Cota, Marcela MG; Ferreira, Vanessa M; Campos, Rafael K; Mazur, Carlos; Lobato, Zélia IP; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G
Background Orthopoxvirus (OPV) and Parapoxvirus (PPV) have been associated with worldwide exanthematic outbreaks. Some species of these genera are able to infect humans and domestic animals, causing serious economic losses and public health impact. Rapid, useful and highly specific methods are required to detect and epidemiologically monitor such poxviruses. In the present paper, we describe the development of a nested-multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection of OPV and PPV species directly from exanthematic lesions, with no previous viral isolation or DNA extraction. Methods and Results The OPV/PPV nested-multiplex PCR was developed based on the evaluation and combination of published primer sets, and was applied to the detection of the target pathogens. The method showed high sensitivity, and the specificity was confirmed by amplicon sequencing. Exanthematic lesion samples collected during bovine vaccinia or contagious ecthyma outbreaks were submitted to OPV/PPV nested-multiplex PCR and confirmed its applicability. Conclusion These results suggest that the presented multiplex PCR provides a highly robust and sensitive method to detect OPV and PPV directly from clinical samples. The method can be used for viral identification and monitoring, especially in areas where OPV and PPV co-circulate. PMID:19747382
Malo, S; Bjerrum, L; Feja, C; Lallana, M J; Poncel, A; Rabanaque, M J
Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide threat to public health. Acute respiratory tract infections are the main reason for antibiotic prescribing in the Spanish paediatric population. The aim of the study was to describe the frequency of antibiotic prescription and their pattern of use in acute respiratory tract infections diagnosed in children in Primary Care in Aragón (Spain). A study was conducted over a 1-year period on children between 0 and 14 years-old, recording all episodes of acute otitis, acute pharyngotonsillitis, non-specific upper respiratory infection, and acute bronchitis. The proportion of episodes within each diagnosis receiving an antibiotic prescription was calculated, and the prescribing pattern was determined. Half (50%) of the children in Aragón were diagnosed with a respiratory tract infection during the study period. Non-specific upper respiratory infection was the most frequent diagnosis. An antibiotic was prescribed in 75% of pharyngotonsillitis episodes, 72% of otitis, 27% of bronchitis, and 16% of non-specific upper respiratory infections. Broad spectrum antibiotics, mainly amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic, were predominantly prescribed. Antibiotic prescribing in respiratory tract infections in children was generally high, and the choice of antibiotics was probably inappropriate in a high percentage of cases. Therefore an improvement in antibiotic prescribing in children appears to be needed. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wilson, A. D.; Downham, M. A. P. S.; Forster, D. P.
The character and frequency of acute illness in infants presenting to a general practice over a 16-week period was studied. Symptoms were classified as 'major' or 'minor' in accordance with the definitions used in a multicentre study in infant mortality. Of the 126 consultations reviewed, 106 (84 per cent) included at least one major symptom. None of the illnesses resulted in hospital admission or had a fatal outcome. It was concluded that this classification of symptoms into `major' and `minor' categories is not sufficiently discriminating to use in general practice. More specific definitions are required. PMID:6708005
Miyazaki, Yu; Koike, Haruki; Ito, Mizuki; Atsuta, Naoki; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Katsuno, Masahisa; Kusunoki, Susumu; Sobue, Gen
We report a 53-year-old woman with an unusual presentation characterized by acute onset of generalized sensory symptoms associated with anhidrosis, anosmia, ageusia, and elevated titers of anti-GalNAc-GD1a antibodies. After intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, a remarkable improvement in the pain and temperature sensation was noted in her face, trunk, and extremities. The impaired pain and temperature sensation remained distributed along cranial and spinal dermatomes in a non-length-dependent manner, suggesting that the ganglionopathy affected small neurons.
Spittler, J F
Following the Central European tradition of the triad system of psychiatry of Kurt Schneider (I. Abnormal Reactions/Personalities, II. Acute/Chronic Organic Psychosis, III. Schizophrenia/Cyclothymia) (19) a series of 210 cases of acute organic psychoses was collected. In contrast to DSM-III and in accord with W.A. Lishman (10), this series comprises not only delirium, but the entire range of impairments of consciousness from the "Durchgangssyndrom" of H.H. Wieck (24) to clouding of consciousness and coma, twilight states or apallic syndromes. From this series we present some elementary quantitative data concerning the age distribution of different etiologies, that are generally considered helpful in the diagnostic process. In contrast to this opinion, a single case of bromazepam-induced delirium shows: The anamnesis may be misleading, the general and neurological examination as well as the radiological, laboratory and electrophysiological tests could be insignificant. The essential diagnostic tool is the descriptive or phenomenological psychopathological observation. Compared to it, the general data of the age distribution of different etiologies of organic psychoses are of comparably little help in making a diagnosis. Artificial intelligence and medical expert systems are set out to replace the diagnosis of the physician. Eliminative materialistic neuroscience is set out to replace old-fashioned descriptive psychopathology by quantitative electrical and chemical data. Through the method of systematically confronting general quantitative data with suitably chosen single cases it should be possible to find out essential differences between general reductionist statements and the properties of complex qualitative phenomena like the individual human mind.
Stevenson, Jennifer E.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Sricharoenchai, Thiti; Wozniak, Amy; Shanholtz, Carl; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Needham, Dale M.
Objective Acute lung injury (ALI) is common in the intensive care unit (ICU), typically requiring life support ventilation. Survivors often experience anxiety after hospital discharge. We evaluated general anxiety symptoms 3 months after ALI for: (1) associations with patient characteristics and ICU variables, and (2) cross-sectional associations with physical function and quality of life (QOL). Methods General anxiety was assessed as part of a prospective cohort study recruiting patients from 13 ICUs at four hospitals in Baltimore, MD using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale — Anxiety Subscale (HAD-A), with associations evaluated using multivariable linear and logistic regression models. Results Of 152 patients, 38% had a positive screening test for general anxiety (HAD-A ≥ 8). Pre-ICU body mass index and psychiatric comorbidity were associated with general anxiety (OR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06 (1.00, 1.13) and 3.59 (1.25, 10.30), respectively). No ICU-related variables were associated with general anxiety. General anxiety was associated with the number of instrumental ADL dependencies (Spearman's rho = 0.22; p = 0.004) and worse overall QOL as measured by EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS) (rho = −0.34; p < 0.001) and utility score (rho = −0.30; p < 0.001), and by the SF-36 mental health domain (rho = −0.70; p < 0.001) and Mental Component Summary score (rho = −0.73; p < 0.001). Conclusion Many patients have substantial general anxiety symptoms 3 months after ALI. General anxiety was associated with patient characteristics and impaired physical function and quality of life. Early identification and treatment of general anxiety may enhance physical and emotional function in patients surviving critical illnesses. PMID:23972420
St-Louis, E; Sudarshan, M; Al-Habboubi, M; El-Husseini Hassan, M; Deckelbaum, D L; Razek, T S; Feldman, L S; Khwaja, K
Elderly patients form a growing subset of the acute care surgery (ACS) population. Older age may be associated with poorer outcomes for some elective procedures, but there are few studies focusing on outcomes for the elderly ACS population. Our objective is to characterize differences in mortality and morbidity for acute care surgery patients >80 years old. A retrospective review of all ACS admissions at a large teaching hospital over 1 year was conducted. Patients were classified into non-elderly (<80 years old) and elderly (≥80 years old). In addition to demographic differences, outcomes including care efficiency, mortality, postoperative complications, and length of stay were studied. Data analysis was completed with the Student's t test for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables using STATA 12 (College Station, TX, USA). We identified 467 non-elderly and 60 elderly patients with a mean age-adjusted Charlson score of 3.2 and 7.2, respectively (p < 0.001) and a mortality risk of 1.9 and 11.7 %, respectively (p < 0.001). The elderly were at risk of longer duration (>4 days) hospital stay (p = 0.05), increased postoperative complications (p = 0.002), admission to the ICU (p = 0.002), and were more likely to receive a non-operative procedure (p = 0.003). No difference was found (p = NS) for patient flow factors such as time to consult general surgery, time to see consult by general surgery, and time to operative management and disposition. Compared to younger patients admitted to an acute care surgery service, patients over 80 years old have a higher risk of complications, are more likely to require ICU admission, and stay longer in the hospital.
Abhishek, Abhishek; Roddy, Edward; Doherty, Michael
Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis and affects 2.5% of the general population in the UK. It is also the only arthritis that has the potential to be cured with safe, inexpensive and well tolerated urate-lowering treatments, which reduce serum uric acid by either inhibiting xanthine oxidase - eg allopurinol, febuxostat - or by increasing the renal excretion of uric acid. Of these, xanthine oxidase inhibitors are used first line and are effective in 'curing' gout in the vast majority of patients. Gout can be diagnosed on clinical grounds in those with typical podagra. However, in those with involvement of other joints, joint aspiration is recommended to demonstrate monosodium urate crystals and exclude other causes of acute arthritis, such as septic arthritis. However, a clinical diagnosis of gout can be made if joint aspiration is not feasible. This review summarises the current understanding of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, investigations and treatment of gout. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.
Jeddian, Ali Reza; Lindenmeyer, Antje; Marshall, Tom; Rashidian, Arash; Sayadi, Leila; Jafari, Nazila
The number of acutely ill patients has risen in general wards due to the aging population, more advanced and complicated therapeutic methods, economic changes in the health system, therapeutic choices and shortage of intensive care unit beds. This may lead to adverse events and outcomes with catastrophic results. The purpose of this study was to describe the conditions of acutely ill patients, from the perspective of caregivers. The study was conducted in Tehran University of Medical Sciences and its two affiliated general teaching hospitals. Ten nurses and physicians participated in interviews, which were analyzed using qualitative content analysis methods. Four main categories of difficulties in caring for acutely ill patients in general wards were described: problems in identifying acutely ill patients, problems in clinical management of acutely ill patients, inappropriate use of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) beds, and poor structure for mortality control. The staff do not appropriately diagnose the signs of deterioration. There are problems with the appropriate management of acutely ill patients, even if they are considered to be acutely ill and in need of special attention in general wards. Many shortcomings exist caring for acutely ill patients, ranging from identification to clinical management; there are also structural and contextual problems. An immediate plan is necessary to circumvent the challenges and to improve the care for acutely ill patients. These challenges highlight the need for changes in current levels of care for acutely ill patients, as well as the need for appropriate support systems.
Valenti, W M; Hruska, J F; Menegus, M A; Freeburn, M J
This communication is the third in a four-part series on nosocomial viral infections from the Strong Memorial Hospital. This third article discusses guidelines for prevention and control of exanthematous viruses, gastroenteritis, viruses, adenoviruses and the picornaviruses other than rhinoviruses. Several uncommonly seen viruses, such as the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Marburg, Ebola, and Lassa fever viruses, also are reviewed briefly.
Armed Forces Ra ioloy Research Institute Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones, and General...Gnotobiological Isolation Russia State Medical University 19990119 114 Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones...effects of antibiotics and probiotics (Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus) in mice irradiated with 7 Gy. The effects were studied in normal mice and mice
MacIver, David H; Dayer, Mark J; Harrison, Andrew J I
Current concepts of heart failure propose multiple heterogeneous pathophysiological mechanisms. Recently a theoretical framework for understanding chronic heart failure was suggested. This paper develops this framework to include acute heart failure syndromes. We propose that all acute heart failure syndromes may be understood in terms of a relative fall in left ventricular stroke volume. The initial compensatory mechanism is frequently a tachycardia often resulting in a near normal cardiac output. In more severe forms a fall in cardiac output causes hypotension or cardiogenic shock. In chronic heart failure the stroke volume and cardiac output is returned to normal predominantly through ventricular remodeling or dilatation. Ejection fraction is simply the ratio of stroke volume and end-diastolic volume. The resting stroke volume is predetermined by the tissue's needs; therefore, if the ejection fraction changes, the end-diastolic volume must change in a reciprocal manner. The potential role of the right heart in influencing the presentation of left heart disease is examined. We propose that acute pulmonary edema occurs when the right ventricular stroke volume exceeds left ventricular stroke volume leading to fluid accumulation in the alveoli. The possible role of the right heart in determining pulmonary hypertension and raised filling pressures in left-sided heart disease are discussed. Different clinical scenarios are presented to help clarify these proposed mechanisms and the clinical implications of these theories are discussed. Finally an alternative definition of heart failure is proposed.
Paolantonio, Pasquale; Rengo, Marco; Ferrari, Riccardo
Multidetector CT (MDCT) is an imaging technique that provides otherwise unobtainable information in the diagnostic work-up of patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A correct working diagnosis depends essentially on understanding the individual patient's clinical data and laboratory findings. In haemodynamically stable patients with acute severe and generalized abdominal pain, MDCT is now the preferred imaging test and gives invaluable diagnostic information, also in unstable patients after stabilization. In this descriptive review, we focus our attention on acute, severe and generalized or undifferentiated non-traumatic abdominal pain. The main differential diagnoses are acute pancreatitis, gastrointestinal perforation, ruptured abdominal aneurysm and acute mesenteric ischaemia. We will provide radiologist readers with a technical guide to optimize MDCT imaging protocols and list the major CT signs essential to reach a correct diagnosis and guide the best treatment. PMID:26689097
Salehiomran, Mohammad Reza; Naserkhaki, Somayeh; Hajiahmadi, Mahmoud
Background: Diseases that cause acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) often progress rapidly, thus may cause life threatening complications, therefore, their diagnosis and cure are important. This study was carried out to investigate the causes of acute generalized weakness in children referred to Amirkola Children’s Hospital, in Babol, Iran. Methods: In this case series, the epidemiological causes of the disease and clinical features of 15 cases with acute generalized weakness from April 2005 to September 2010 were evaluated. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age of cases was 4.7±3.5 years. The male/female ratio was 2. Twenty cases had Guillain-Barre syndrome, two with myositis and one with periodic hyperkalemic paralysis. Conclusion: Guillain-Barre syndrome is the most common cause of AFP in children admitted due to acute generalized weakness in Amirkola Children’s Hospital. PMID:24358438
Demeyere, Nele; Riddoch, M J; Slavkova, E D; Jones, K; Reckless, I; Mathieson, P; Humphreys, G W
Cognitive assessments after stroke are typically short form tests developed for dementia that generates pass/fail classifications (e.g. the MoCA). The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) provides a domain-specific cognitive profile designed for stroke survivors. This study compared the use of the MoCA and the OCS in acute stroke with respect to symptom specificity and aspects of clinical utility. A cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 200 stroke patients within 3 weeks of stroke completing MoCA and OCS. Demographic data, lesion side and Barthel scores were recorded. Inclusivity was assessed in terms of completion rates and reasons for non-completion were evaluated. The incidence of cognitive impairments on both the MoCA and OCS sub-domains was calculated and differences in stroke specificity, cognitive profiles and independence of the measures were addressed. The incidence of acute cognitive impairment was high: 76% of patients were impaired on MoCA, and 86% demonstrated at least one impairment on the cognitive domains assessed in the OCS. OCS was more sensitive than MoCA overall (87 vs 78% sensitivity) and OCS alone provided domain-specific information on prevalent post-stroke cognitive impairments (neglect, apraxia and reading/writing ability). Unlike the MOCA, the OCS was not dominated by left hemisphere impairments but gave differentiated profiles across the contrasting domains. The OCS detects important cognitive deficits after stroke not assessed in the MoCA, it is inclusive for patients with aphasia and neglect and it is less confounded by co-occurring difficulties in these domains.
Yang, Y-L; Hu, M; Chang, M; Tomlinson, B
Niacin commonly causes cutaneous flushing, which is partially alleviated by laropiprant, a selective antagonist of prostaglandin D2 at the DP1 receptor. Here we report an unusually high incidence of exanthematous eruption associated with the use of the extended-release (ER) niacin/laropiprant combination treatment in Hong Kong Chinese patients. Among 201 patients treated with ER niacin/laropiprant 1000/20 mg over 7 days to assess flushing symptoms and 166 of the patients who continued the treatment for 12 weeks (doubling the dose after 4 weeks), 28 patients (14%) developed a highly pruritic cutaneous eruption at a mean of 5 days after starting the treatment or 4 days after increasing the dose. This resolved over several days after drug withdrawal with symptomatic treatment. Compared with the subjects who completed 12-weeks treatment uneventfully, those who developed cutaneous eruption were older, had significantly lower body weight, were taking background lipid-lowering treatment more frequently and had greater flushing responses in the first few days of treatment. The relationship of the exanthematous eruption with lower body weight and the increase in dosage suggests a pharmacokinetic effect that may be related to increased exposure to niacin or its metabolites and provoked by inhibition of the DP1 receptor with laropiprant, as we have not seen this rash with niacin used alone. This may suggest that the southern Chinese population may have some genetic predisposition; as such, a high frequency of exanthematous reactions has not been reported in other populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nyklícek, Ivan; Bosch, Jos A; Amerongen, Arie V Nieuw
Hypertensives have consistently been found to have a more reactive cardiovascular system than normotensives. In the present study, it was examined whether this enhanced cardiovascular stress reactivity generalizes to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the immune system. Forty-two unmedicated hypertensives and 21 normotensive controls performed five passive coping and active coping stressful tasks in the laboratory. In addition to the expected greater mean diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the tasks, hypertensives exhibited enhanced (baseline corrected) task salivary cortisol and secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) levels. Moreover, correlations were found between blood pressure responses and task related cortisol activity and between baseline blood pressure levels and task-induced S-IgA levels. These results indicate that hypertensives not only have a hyperreactive cardiovascular system, but also an enhanced HPA axis and immune system reactivity to stress. A central stress mechanism may be responsible for the heightened generalized stress response in hypertensives.
Ferrari, Robert; Russell, Anthony Science
Questionnaire Survey. The purpose of this study was to survey the whiplash management beliefs for practicing general practitioners, family physicians, and chiropractors. Many treatments are prescribed by general practitioners, family physicians, and chiropractors for acute whiplash, but to date no survey of management beliefs for acute whiplash has been reported. A total of 483 physicians and 123 chiropractors in the urban setting of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada were asked to participate by completing a questionnaire with 24 items designed to assess management beliefs regarding acute whiplash. A total of 362 physicians (75%) and 88 chiropractors (72%) completed the survey. Only 1% of physicians and none of the chiropractors believed that whiplash patients should be prescribed bed rest until almost all their pain goes away. As well, only 1% of physicians and none of the chiropractors believed that patients with acute whiplash should not return to work until almost all their pain goes away. More than 89% of physicians and 76% of chiropractors believed that encouragement of maintaining normal activities, even if they hurt, is important in the recovery from whiplash. Also, 91% of physicians and 84% of chiropractors agreed that exercise therapy was effective in acute whiplash patients. Physicians are more likely to have negative feelings about treating patients who have whiplash, were more likely to believe there was nothing physically wrong with many patients with chronic whiplash, and agree that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants are effective in acute whiplash. Chiropractors are more likely to agree that traction, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, manipulation, massage, and acupuncture are effective in acute whiplash. Physicians and chiropractors generally hold beliefs that are consistent with the current evidence regarding the most helpful approaches to acute whiplash, although chiropractors were more likely to be supportive of passive
Ncube, N B Q; Solanki, G C; Kredo, T; Lalloo, R
Antibiotic resistance is a significant public health problem. Prudent use of antibiotics is crucial in reducing this resistance. Acute bronchitis is a common reason for consultations with general medical practitioners, and antibiotics are often prescribed even though guidelines recommend not prescribing them for uncomplicated acute bronchitis. To analyse the antibiotic prescription patterns of South African (SA) general medical practitioners in the treatment of acute bronchitis. The 2013 claims for members of 11 health insurance schemes were analysed to assess antibiotic prescription patterns for patients diagnosed with acute bronchitis. The patterns were assessed by type of bronchitis, chronic health status of the patients, sex and age group. The types of antibiotic prescribed were also analysed. Of 166 821 events analysed, an antibiotic was prescribed in more than half (52.9%). There were significant differences by type of bronchitis and chronic health status. Patients with viral bronchitis were more likely to be prescribed an antibiotic than those with bacterial bronchitis (odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 - 1.26). Patients with a chronic illness were less likely to be prescribed an antibiotic than those without (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.57 - 0.60). More than 70% of the antibiotics prescribed were cephalosporins, penicillins and other beta-lactams. Prescription rates of antibiotics for acute bronchitis by SA general medical practitioners are high. There is an urgent need to follow the guidelines for antibiotic use for acute bronchitis to reduce the likelihood of increasing resistance to available antibiotics.
McDonnell, N J; Muchatuta, N A; Paech, M J
Magnesium is commonly used in the prevention of eclampsia. Reports of acute toxicity are rare and we are not aware of detailed management algorithms. We present a case of acute magnesium toxicity presenting as ventilatory impairment and failure to rouse adequately from general anaesthesia. The patient was managed with controlled ventilation, further sedation, intravenous calcium gluconate, forced diuresis and dextrose-insulin infusion. We present a guideline for the management of life-threatening magnesium toxicity and discuss measures that may prevent future similar occurrences. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hameed, S. Morad; Brenneman, Frederick D.; Ball, Chad G.; Pagliarello, Joe; Razek, Tarek; Parry, Neil; Widder, Sandy; Minor, Sam; Buczkowski, Andrzej; MacPherson, Cailan; Johner, Amanda; Jenkin, Dan; Wood, Leanne; McLoughlin, Karen; Anderson, Ian; Davey, Doug; Zabolotny, Brent; Saadia, Roger; Bracken, John; Nathens, Avery; Ahmed, Najma; Panton, Ormond; Warnock, Garth L.
Over the past 5 years, there has been a groundswell of support in Canada for the development of organized, focused and multidisciplinary approaches to caring for acutely ill general surgical patients. Newly forged acute care surgery (ACS) services are beginning to provide prompt, evidence-based and goal-directed care to acutely ill general surgical patients who often present with a diverse range of complex pathologies and little or no pre- or postoperative planning. Through a team-based structure with attention to processes of care and information sharing, ACS services are well positioned to improve outcomes, while finding and developing efficiencies and reducing costs of surgical and emergency health care delivery. The ACS model also offers enhanced opportunities for surgical education for students, residents and practicing surgeons, and it will provide avenues to strengthen clinical and academic bonds between the community and academic surgical centres. In the near future, cooperation of ACS services from community and academic hospitals across the country will lead to the formation of systems of acute surgical care whose development will be informed by rigorous data collection and research and evidence-based quality-improvement initiatives. In an era of increasing subspecialization, ACS is a strong unifying force in general surgery and a platform for collective advocacy for an important patient population. PMID:20334738
Singh, Priyanka A; Cassel, Kerry P; Moscati, Ronald M; Eckersley, David
We report a case of erythrodermic pustular psoriasis associated with initiation of bupropion/naltrexone (Contrave®; Orexigen Therapeutics, La Jolla, CA) in a patient with no history of psoriasis. A 55-year-old woman was transferred to our tertiary medical center from a community hospital for possible Stevens-Johnson syndrome 3 weeks after initiation of bupropion/naltrexone. The patient was admitted to the burn unit for wound treatment and hydration. She received intravenous cyclosporine during the admission that resulted in acute kidney injury and the therapy was discontinued. The skin biopsy ruled out Stevens-Johnson syndrome and was more consistent with generalized pustular psoriasis. After discharge, the patient followed up with her dermatologist. She was diagnosed with acute generalized and erythrodermic psoriasis and the patient was restarted on cyclosporine 100 mg twice a day. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Few case reports of bupropion-induced generalized pustular psoriasis and erythrodermic psoriasis in patients with a history of psoriasis have been reported. To our knowledge, acute generalized erythrodermic pustular psoriasis associated with bupropion/naltrexone has not been reported in a patient without history of psoriasis. Due to increases in obesity and increases in prescribing of bupropion/naltrexone SR, health care providers should be aware of this possible severe adverse reaction. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Background Postpartum hemorrhage is one of the rare occasions when a general or acute care surgeon may be emergently called to labor and delivery, a situation in which time is limited and the stakes high. Unfortunately, there is generally a paucity of exposure and information available to surgeons regarding this topic: obstetric training is rarely found in contemporary surgical residency curricula and is omitted nearly completely from general and acute care surgery literature and continuing medical education. Methods The purpose of this manuscript is to serve as a topic specific review for surgeons and to present a surgeon oriented management algorithm. Medline and Ovid databases were utilized in a comprehensive literature review regarding the management of postpartum hemorrhage and a management algorithm for surgeons developed based upon a collaborative panel of general, acute care, trauma and obstetrical surgeons' review of the literature and expert opinion. Results A stepwise approach for surgeons of the medical and surgical interventions utilized to manage and treat postpartum hemorrhage is presented and organized into a basic algorithm. Conclusion The manuscript should promote and facilitate a more educated, systematic and effective surgeon response and participation in the management of postpartum hemorrhage. PMID:19939251
Loogman, Masja C M; Bouma, Margriet; Burgers, Jako S
The revised guideline on 'Acute diarrhoea' from the Dutch College of General Practitioners covers the diagnosis and management of suspected acute infectious diarrhoea. Acute diarrhoea resulting from infectious gastroenteritis is often caused by a virus and is usually self-limiting; stool testing is rarely indicated. The main complication of acute diarrhoea is dehydration, although this is rare in the Netherlands. Children under 2 years old and patients over 70 are at an increased risk of dehydration. Dehydration is a clinical diagnosis based on a combination of patient history and physical examination. DNA diagnostic methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are now available for stool testing, in addition to stool culture and the triple faeces test (TFT). PCR is preferred for its better test properties. Treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) is indicated for patients with dehydration and may also be useful in patients at an increased risk of this event. Acute diarrhoea after hospitalisation or after visiting the tropics or subtropics merits special attention on account of the risk of infection with unusual pathogens and the consequences with regard to management.
Cattanach, N; Sheedy, R; Gill, S; Hughes, A
Bedrest during hospital admission is common and might be harmful. There is scarce published evidence that quantifies physical activity levels and expectations regarding physical activity of general medical patients during an acute inpatient stay. The current study aimed to investigate physical activity levels and expectations regarding physical activity in general medical patients at a large Australian teaching hospital. A convenience sample of 24 general medical patients was observed at 10-min intervals in one day between 8:00 and 17:00 and their physical activity status recorded. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding their expectations of physical activity during illness and hospital admission. Patients were observed to be in bed 51% of the time, were sitting out of bed 43% of the time, were standing 1% of the time and were walking 5% of the time. One third of participants (n = 8) were not observed to walk during the observation period. Questionnaire data indicated that nine (38%) participants expected to remain in bed while in hospital. General medical patients had low levels of physical activity during their hospital stay, which was consistent with many participants' expectations of appropriate activity when in hospital. If physical activity is an important part of acute general medical patient management, then patient expectations of the appropriateness of physical activity need to be addressed and methods to increase physical activity implemented. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Sánchez-Lozada, Raúl; Camacho-Hernández, María Isabel; Vega-Chavaje, Ricardo Gerardo; Garza-Flores, José Humberto; Campos-Castillo, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Vega, Rafael
In Mexico acute pancreatitis is an important cause of morbility and mortality. We here describe the characteristics of patients managed with that diagnosis at the Hospital General de Mexico. Retrospective, descriptive and observational study. Patients with acute panrcreatitis were seen between January 1996 to December 2000. The acute pancreatitis prevalence found in the hospital setting was 5%. We identified 104 patients, 62% men, with mean age 37 yrs. In 74% ofcases seen, we made a correct early diagnosis upon admission. The biliary (49%) and the alcoholic (37%) were the most frequent causes. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom at onset (94%). High leukocyte count (78%), followed by serum lipase (74%) was the most sensitive laboratory test. Only 34% of patients studied had an adequate nutritional status. 54% of' patients presented severe pancreatitis. The mean number of hospital days was 17 and 44% required ICU management. Thirty five percent required surgery where necrosectomy was performed and a mortality of 67% was found. The total mortality rate was 21%. The correct clinical diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is frequent. It is a more common finding than severe pancreatitis, but it does not increase the morbility and mortality in our patient population.
Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Miller, Barbra S; Doherty, Gerard M; Brunsvold, Melissa E; Hemmila, Mark R; Park, Pauline K; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Sihler, Kristen C; Wahl, Wendy L; Wang, Stewart C; Napolitano, Lena M
To examine the case mix and patient characteristics and outcomes of the nontrauma emergency (NTE) service in an academic Division of Acute Care Surgery. An NTE service (attending, chief resident, postgraduate year-3 and postgraduate year-2 residents, and two physician assistants) was created in July 2005 for all urgent and emergent inpatient and emergency department general surgery patient consults and admissions. An NTE database was created with prospective data collection of all NTE admissions initiated from November 1, 2007. Prospective data were collected by a dedicated trauma registrar and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-intensive care unit (ICU) coordinator daily. NTE case mix and ICU characteristics were reviewed for the 2-year time period January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2009. During the same time period, trauma operative cases and procedures were examined and compared with the NTE case mix. Thousand seven hundred eight patients were admitted to the NTE service during this time period (789 in 2008 and 910 in 2009). Surgical intervention was required in 70% of patients admitted to the NTE service. Exploratory laparotomy or laparoscopy was performed in 449 NTE patients, comprising 37% of all surgical procedures. In comparison, only 118 trauma patients (5.9% of admissions) required a major laparotomy or thoracotomy during the same time period. Acuity of illness of NTE patients was high, with a significant portion (13%) of NTE patients requiring ICU admission. NTE patients had higher admission Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III scores [61.2 vs. 58.8 (2008); 58.2 vs. 55.8 (2009)], increased mortality [(9.71% vs. 4.89% (2008); 6.78% vs. 5.16% (2009)], and increased readmission rates (15.5% vs. 7.4%) compared with the total surgical ICU (SICU) admissions. In an era of declining operative caseload in trauma, the NTE service provides ample opportunity for complex general surgery decision making and operative procedures for
Farré, M; Badenas, J M; Lamas, X; Ugena, B; Camí, J
A survey was carried amongst physicians and nurses of a general hospital, in order to know their opinion about acute pain treatment. Out of 106 physicians and 153 nurses questioned, 72 and 105 respectively answered the questionnaire. Two thirds of them though that analgesic treatment was currently good, although, it could be improved if they increased their knowledge about it. Twenty nine per cent of physicians thought that their patients were receiving lower doses than what they had prescribed and that this fact could be responsible for the treatment failure. Those questioned believed that approximately 30% of patients treated with opium derivatives for over a week could develop addiction problems. Our study confirmed the existence of inadequate attitudes towards the need for analgesics in patients with acute pain.
Elliot, R; Adams, J
Older people form the largest group occupying acute hospital beds and many of them will have undiagnosed mental health problems. The creation of a Dementia Nurse Specialist role in a district general hospital provided the opportunity to assess the extent of the previously unmet need among patients, carers and nursing staff. Over 30 patients were seen each month, while around 6 to 12 were diagnosed as having dementia. Other activities undertaken as part of the role included providing information and support for carers, and advice on management of behaviours and support for ward staff. The role also involved policy writing, pathway and local strategy planning, care plan development, and formal and informal teaching on dementia. It is argued that this fixed-term post demonstrated that a Dementia Nurse Specialist could provide significant input in an acute hospital setting, by improving the experience of hospitalization for vulnerable older people and their carers. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.
Campanile, Fabio Cesare; Boru, Cristian E; Rizzello, Mario; Puzziello, Alessandro; Copaescu, Catalin; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Silecchia, Gianfranco
Development and widespread use of laparoscopic bariatric surgery exposes emergency room physicians and general surgeons to face acute or chronic surgical complications of bariatric surgery. The most common surgical emergencies after bariatric surgery are examined based on an extensive review of bariatric surgery literature and on the personal experience of the authors' practice in four high-volume bariatric surgery centers. An orderly stepwise approach to the bariatric patient with an emergency condition is advisable. Resuscitation should follow the same protocol adopted for the non-bariatric patients. Consultation with the bariatric surgeon should be obtained early, and referral to the bariatric center should be considered whenever possible. The identification of the surgical procedure to which the patient was submitted will orient in the diagnosis of the acute condition. Procedure-specific complication should always be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis. Acute slippage is the most frequent complication that needs emergency treatment in a laparoscopic gastric banding. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypasses may present with life-threatening suture leaks or suture line bleeding. Gastric greater curvature plication (investigational restrictive procedure) can present early complications related to prolonged postoperative vomiting. Both gastric bypass and bilio-pancreatic diversion may cause anastomotic marginal ulcer, bleeding, or rarely perforation and severe stenosis, while small bowel obstruction due to internal hernia represents a surgical emergency, also caused by trocar site hernia, intussusceptions, adhesions, strictures, kinking, or blood clots. Rapid weight loss after bariatric surgery can cause cholecystitis or choledocholithiasis, which are difficult to treat after bypass procedures. The general surgeon should be informed about modern bariatric procedures, their potential acute complications, and emergency management.
Chiumello, Davide; Algieri, Ilaria; Grasso, Salvatore; Terragni, Pierpaolo; Pelosi, Paolo
The use of low tidal volume ventilation and low to moderate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels is a widespread strategy to ventilate patients with non-injured lungs during general anesthesia and in intensive care as well with mild to moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Higher PEEP levels have been recommended in severe ARDS. Due to the presence of alveolar collapse, recruitment maneuvers (RMs) by causing a transient elevation in airway pressure (i.e. transpulmonary pressure) have been suggested to improve lung inflation in non-inflated and poorly-inflated lung regions. Various types of RMs such as sustained inflation at high pressure, intermittent sighs and stepwise increases of PEEP and/or airway plateau inspiratory pressure have been proposed. The use of RMs has been associated with mixed results in terms of physiological and clinical outcomes. The optimal method for RMs has not yet been identified. The use of RMs is not standardized and left to the individual physician based on his/her experience. Based on the same grounds, RMs have been proposed to improve lung aeration during general anesthesia. The aim of this review was to present the clinical evidence supporting the use of RMs in patients with ARDS and during general anesthesia and as well their potential biological effects in experimental models of acute lung injury.
Little, P; Smith, L; Cantrell, T; Chapman, J; Langridge, J; Pickering, R
To compare general practitioners' reported management of acute back pain with 'evidence based' guidelines for its management. Confidential postal questionnaire. One health district in the South and West region. 236 general practitioners; 166 (70%) responded. Examination routinely performed, 'danger' symptoms and signs warranting urgent referral, advice given, and satisfaction with management. A minority of general practitioners do not examine reflexes routinely (27%, 95% confidence interval 20% to 34%), and a majority do not examine routinely for muscle weakness or sensation. Although most would refer patients with danger signs, some would not seek urgent advice for saddle anaesthesia (6%, 3% to 11%), extensor plantar response (45%, 37% to 53%), or neurological signs at multiple levels (15%, 10% to 21%). A minority do not give advice about back exercises (42%, 34% to 49%), fitness (34%, 26% to 41%), or everyday activities. A minority performed manipulation (20%) or acupuncture (6%). One third rated their satisfaction with management of back pain as 4 out of 10 or less. The management of back pain by general practitioners does not match the guidelines, but there is little evidence from general practice for many of the recommendations, including routine examination, activity modification, educational advice, and back exercises. General practitioners need to be more aware of danger symptoms and of the benefits of early mobilisation and possibly of manipulation for persisting symptoms. Guidelines should reference each recommendation and discuss study methodology and the setting of evidence.
Kluger, Nicolas; Bessis, Didier; Guillot, Bernard; Girard, Céline
Generalized pustular and/or erythrodermic psoriasis may have severe or even lethal complications. A peculiar noninfectious acute respiratory distress syndrome (so-called "sterile pneumonitis") has been described in generalized pustular psoriasis and/or erythrodermic psoriasis. We report a new case in a 14-year-old girl with a long history of pustular psoriasis and review the published work on this complication. The girl developed sterile pneumonitis during a disease flare-up, and high-dose corticosteroid therapy was quickly initiated. Within a few days, her clinical and radiological status was dramatically improved. The pathogenesis of aseptic pneumonitis is unknown, but various proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated, especially tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which could play a role in the recruitment of leukocytes to the lung. This complication has rarely been reported but should be more widely known as the differential diagnoses include congestive heart failure, acute lung infection related or unrelated to immunosuppressive therapy, and drug hypersensitivity reaction. Early recognition would avoid delays in the correct management of this potentially lethal complication, which requires high-dose systemic corticosteroid therapy. Copyright © 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Campos, Rafael K; Brum, Mário C S; Nogueira, Carlos E W; Drumond, Betânia P; Alves, Pedro A; Siqueira-Lima, Larissa; Assis, Felipe L; Trindade, Giliane S; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Ferreira, Paulo C; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S
During the last bovine vaccinia (BV) outbreaks, several Vaccinia virus (VACV) strains were isolated and characterised, revealing significant polymorphisms between strains, even within conserved genes. Although the epidemiology of VACV has been studied in BV outbreaks, there is little data about the circulation of the Brazilian VACV isolates. This study describes the genetic and biological characterisation of two VACV isolates, Pelotas 1 virus (P1V) and Pelotas 2 virus (P2V), which were obtained concomitantly from a horse affected by severe cutaneous disease. Despite being isolated from the same exanthematic clinical sample, P1V and P2V showed differences in their plaque phenotype and in one-step growth curves. Moreover, P1V and P2V presented distinct virulence profiles in a BALB/c mouse model, as observed with other Brazilian VACV isolates. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of four different genes demonstrated that the isolates are segregated in different VACV clusters. Our results raise interesting questions about the diversity of VACV isolates in Brazil.
Kertz, Sarah; Bigda-Peyton, Joe; Bjorgvinsson, Throstur
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric presentations; however, GAD has the lowest diagnostic reliability of the anxiety disorders and is poorly recognized in clinical practice. A more reliable assessment of GAD could lead to earlier detection and treatment of the disorder, which has an otherwise debilitating course and significant associated impairment. The 7-item GAD Scale (GAD-7) has shown promise as a measure with good clinical utility and strong psychometric properties in primary care and community settings but has yet to be assessed in acute psychiatric populations. This study examined the validity of the GAD-7 in a sample of 232 patients enrolled in a partial hospital programme. Patients completed a diagnostic interview and a battery of self-report measures before and after treatment. Findings suggest that the GAD-7 has good internal consistency and good convergent validity with worry, anxiety, depression and stress, and the measure was sensitive to change over the course of a short intensive cognitive-behavioural therapy partial hospital programme. However, the confirmatory analysis failed to support the hypothesized unidimensional factor structure; and although the GAD-7 demonstrated good sensitivity (.83), specificity was poor (.46) in identifying patients with GAD. Overall, the GAD-7 appears to be a valid measure of generalized anxiety symptoms in this sample, on the basis of good internal consistency, convergent validity and sensitivity to change, but does not perform well as a screener for GAD. The GAD-7 Scale is an easy-to-score, self-report measure of core generalized anxiety disorder symptoms. The GAD-7 Scale has good internal consistency and convergent validity with depression, anxiety, stress and worry, and is sensitive to change. The GAD-7 Scale appears to be a good measure of generalized anxiety symptoms in an acute psychiatric sample. The GAD-7 Scale does not perform well as a screener for GAD and should not
Mao, Yuanyuan; Wen, Shuai; Chen, Gezi; Zhang, Wei; Ai, Yanqiu; Yuan, Jingjing
Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) can be life-threatening. Early detection is even more difficult for patients under general anesthesia as common symptoms are not available and the pathophysiological course of intra-operative APE is influenced by procedures of surgery and anesthesia, which makes patients under general anesthesia a distinctive group. We report a case of APE during orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia. A 64-year-old female with atrial fibrillation and surgical history of varicosity underwent total right hip replacement surgery under general anesthesia. No arterial or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was found prior to the surgery, but APE still occurred intraoperatively. The sudden decrease in PETCO2 and increase in PaCO2 combined other clues raised the suspect of APE, which is further evidenced by transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE). Multidisciplinary consultation was started immediately. After discussion with the consultation team and communication with patient's family members, anticoagulation therapy was started and IVC filter was placed to prevent PE recurrence. The patient went through the operation and discharged uneventfully 30 days later. Pulmonary embolism is a rare and potentially high-risk perioperative situation, with a difficult diagnosis when occurs under anesthesia. The separation phenomenon of decrease in PETCO2 and increase in PaCO2 might be a useful and suggestive sign, enabling prompt management and therefore improving the prognosis.
Kim, Minjae; Brady, Joanne E; Li, Guohua
Acute kidney injury (AKI), acute respiratory failure, and sepsis are distinct but related pathophysiologic processes. We hypothesized that these 3 processes may interact to synergistically increase the risk of short-term perioperative mortality in patients undergoing high-risk intraabdominal general surgery procedures. We performed a retrospective, observational cohort study of data (2005-2011) from the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, a high-quality surgical outcomes data set. High-risk procedures were those with a risk of AKI, acute respiratory failure, or sepsis greater than the average risk in all intraabdominal general surgery procedures. The effects of AKI, acute respiratory failure, and sepsis on 30-day mortality were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Additive interactions were assessed with the relative excess risk due to interaction. Of 217,994 patients, AKI, acute respiratory failure, and sepsis developed in 1.3%, 3.7%, and 6.8%, respectively. The 30-day mortality risk with sepsis, acute respiratory failure, and AKI were 11.4%, 24.1%, and 25.1%, respectively, compared with 0.85% without these complications. The adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for a single complication (versus no complication) on mortality were 7.24 (6.46-8.11), 10.8 (8.56-13.6), and 14.2 (12.8-15.7) for sepsis, AKI, and acute respiratory failure, respectively. For 2 complications, the adjusted hazard ratios were 30.8 (28.0-33.9), 42.6 (34.3-52.9), and 65.2 (53.9-78.8) for acute respiratory failure/sepsis, AKI/sepsis, and acute respiratory failure/AKI, respectively. Finally, the adjusted hazard ratio for all 3 complications was 105 (92.8-118). Positive additive interactions, indicating synergism, were found for each combination of 2 complications. The relative excess risk due to interaction for all 3 complications was not statistically significant. In high-risk general surgery patients, the development of AKI
Hambright, Greg; Agrawal, Vaidehi; Sladek, Phillip L; Slonim, Suzanne M; Truitt, Michael S
Acute care surgeons (ACS) often care for patients with limited access to health care. They may not participate in preventative screenings and interventions (PSIs) such as mammography, colonoscopy, or pneumococcal vaccinations (VAs). We sought to identify barriers to compliance and determine if ACS have an opportunity to facilitate PSI participation. All patients evaluated by an ACS were considered for inclusion in the study. Patients meeting national PSI inclusion criteria were enrolled. Surveys were administered to assess compliance and identify barriers to participation. The overall compliance rate with PSIs was 57%. Patients without a primary care physician had a compliance rate of 23%. The most common barrier to participation was lack of knowledge of PSI recommendations (42%). Males were less compliant than females (47% vs 62%). ACS evaluate a large number of general surgery and trauma patients. The acute care surgeon-patient encounter represents a valuable opportunity for education and improved PSI compliance. Additional research should focus on developing interventional strategies and evaluating their impact on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jiménez Lucena, I
By analyzing how the early Francoist regime in Spain used certain aspects of the epidemic of exanthematous typhus during the period from 1939 to 1943, this article explores how health policies may legitimize sociopolitical systems by validating ideas and actions that affect many aspects of society. The typhus epidemic and the actions it gave rise to were used as points of reference to support each of the doctrines of legitimization, within the overall ideological framework that the victors of the Civil War intended to establish. Their objective was to consolidate their power and challenge recusants to the New State.
Guerreiro de Moura, Carlos Antônio Gusmão; de Assis, Luiz Henrique; Góes, Paulo; Rosa, Fabiana; Nunes, Victor; Gusmão, Ítalo Magalhães; Cruz, Constança Margarida Sampaio
Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease triggered by different conditions in genetically susceptible people. It is characterized by variable cutaneous manifestations including localized or disseminated pustules. Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) has two main clinical forms: von Zumbusch psoriasis, characterized by severe erythrodermia and scaling skin after the resolution of pustules, and the annular form. GPP may also present severe extracutaneous manifestations including pneumonitis, heart failure and hepatitis. Old reports showed a relationship between hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia as triggers for GPP highlighting the importance of adequate workup of the patient and possible therapeutic changes in acute situations. Here, we present a case of severe von Zumbusch psoriasis with life-threatening complications triggered by severe hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism successfully treated with aggressive calcium reposition.
Johner, Amanda M; Merchant, Shaila; Aslani, Nava; Planting, Anneke; Ball, Chad G; Widder, Sandy; Pagliarello, Giuseppe; Parry, Neil G; Klassen, Dennis; Hameed, S Morad
Today's acute care surgery (ACS) service model requires multiple handovers to incoming attending surgeons and residents. Our objectives were to investigate current handover practices in Canadian hospitals that have an ACS service and assess the quality of handover practices in place. We administered an electronic survey among ACS residents in 6 Canadian general surgery programs. Resident handover of patient care occurs frequently and often not under ideal circumstances. Most residents spend less than 5 minutes preparing handovers. Clinical uncertainty owing to inadequate handover is most likely to occur during overnight and weekend coverage. Almost one-third of surveyed residents rate the overall quality of the handovers they received as poor. Handover skills must be taught in a systematic fashion. Improved resident communication will likely decrease loss of patient information and therefore improve ACS patient safety.
Guerreiro de Moura, Carlos Antônio Gusmão; de Assis, Luiz Henrique; Góes, Paulo; Rosa, Fabiana; Nunes, Victor; Gusmão, Ítalo Magalhães; Cruz, Constança Margarida Sampaio
Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease triggered by different conditions in genetically susceptible people. It is characterized by variable cutaneous manifestations including localized or disseminated pustules. Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) has two main clinical forms: von Zumbusch psoriasis, characterized by severe erythrodermia and scaling skin after the resolution of pustules, and the annular form. GPP may also present severe extracutaneous manifestations including pneumonitis, heart failure and hepatitis. Old reports showed a relationship between hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia as triggers for GPP highlighting the importance of adequate workup of the patient and possible therapeutic changes in acute situations. Here, we present a case of severe von Zumbusch psoriasis with life-threatening complications triggered by severe hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism successfully treated with aggressive calcium reposition. PMID:26955330
Narayan, Mayur; Tesoriero, Ronald; Bruns, Brandon R; Klyushnenkova, Elena N; Chen, Hegang; Diaz, Jose J
Emergency general surgery (EGS) is a major component of acute care surgery, however, limited data exist on mortality with respect to trauma center (TC) designation. We hypothesized that mortality would be lower for EGS patients treated at a TC vs non-TC (NTC). A retrospective review of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database from 2009 to 2013 was performed. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma EGS ICD-9 codes were used to identify EGS patients. Data collected included demographics, TC designation, emergency department admissions, and All Patients Refined Severity of Illness (APR_SOI). Trauma center designation was used as a marker of a formal acute care surgery program. Primary outcomes included in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed controlling for age. There were 817,942 EGS encounters. Mean ± SD age of patients was 60.1 ± 18.7 years, 46.5% were males; 71.1% of encounters were at NTCs; and 75.8% were emergency department admissions. Overall mortality was 4.05%. Mortality was calculated based on TC designation controlling for age across APR_SOI strata. Multivariable logistic regression analysis did not show statistically significant differences in mortality between hospital levels for minor APR_SOI. For moderate APR_SOI, mortality was significantly lower for TCs compared with NTCs (p < 0.001). Among TCs, the effect was strongest for Level I TC (odds ratio = 0.34). For extreme APR_SOI, mortality was higher at TCs vs NTCs (p < 0.001). Emergency general surgery patients treated at TCs had lower mortality for moderate APR_SOI, but increased mortality for extreme APR_SOI when compared with NTCs. Additional investigation is required to better evaluate this unexpected finding. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stein, P D; Henry, J W
The purpose of this investigation is to estimate the prevalence of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in a general hospital, its frequency among patients who died, and the ability of physicians to diagnose PE antemortem. The prevalence of acute PE among 51,645 patients hospitalized over a 21-month period was assessed in 1 of the 6 clinical centers (Henry Ford Hospital) that participated in the collaborative study, prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED). The diagnosis of PE was made by pulmonary angiography, or in those who did not undergo pulmonary angiography because they declined or were ineligible for randomization to angiography in PIOPED, the diagnosis was based on the ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) lung scan. Based on data in PIOPED, PE was considered to be present in 87% of patients with high probability V/Q scam interpretations, 30% with intermediate probability interpretations, 14% with low probability interpretations, and 4% with nearly normal V/Q scans. The estimated prevalence of acute PE in hospitalized patients was 526 of 51,645 (1.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 1.1%). Based on extrapolated data from autopsy, PE was estimated to have caused or contributed to death in 122 of 51,645 (0.2%; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.29%). Pulmonary embolism was observed at autopsy in 59 of 404 (14.6%; 95% CI, 11.3 to 18.4%). Among patients with PE at autopsy, the PE caused or contributed to death in 22 of 59 (37.3%; 95% CI, 25.0 to 50.9%) and PE was incidental in 37 of 59 (62.7%; 95% CI, 49.1 to 75.0%). Among patients at autopsy who died from PE, the diagnosis was unsuspected in 14 of 20 (70.0%; 95% CI, 45.7 to 88.1%). Most of these patients had advanced associated disease. In these patients, death from PE occurred within 2.5 h in 13 of 14 (92.9%; 95% CI, 66.1 to 99.8%). Pulmonary embolism is common in a general hospital. The prevalence of PE at autopsy has not changed over 3 decades. The frequency of unsuspected PE in patients at autopsy has not
Hansen, Jens Georg
The idea behind this thesis is to present how ARS and especially acute maxillary sinusitis in adults is diagnosed and treated in general practice. The study extends over many years, beginning with the first survey in 1991. Based on doctors' answers, we then investigated the diagnostic values of the symptoms, signs and examinations which the doctors reported using. All patients over 18 years suspected of acute maxillary sinusitis were included consecutively and only once and, after a clinical examination with the GP, they were offered the opportunity to enter into the prospective study referred to acute CT scan and by changes in the CT, immediately referred to sinus puncture. Both examinations were conducted at Aalborg Hospital. The disease was found most frequently in younger and 2/3 were women. The reason for this gender difference is unknown. We have assessed the diagnostic values of the symptoms, objective findings and investigations using 3 different reference standards: sinus puncture, microbiological diagnosis and CT scan described in three articles. In all examinations, it appeared that the usual signs and symptoms of acute maxillary sinusitis occur almost equally often and with a few exceptions in patients, with and without pus in the sinus cavities. Pain in the sinus cavities occurring in 95% of patients, and only elevated levels of CRP and ESR are significantly and independently associated with pus in the sinus cavities. This finding is surprising, because they are two nonspecific markers. CRP tested by near-patient testing has, within the investigations period, been introduced in general practice, and from 1999 the doctors also get reimbursed for performing the test. We have on this background originally defined a clinical criterion with pain over the sinuses accompanied by elevated values of CRP and/or ESR giving a sensitivity of 0.82, specificity 0.57, ppv 0.68 and npv 0.74. But looking at the ROC curve we suggest that a more clinical
Iqbal, I; Pervez, S; Baig, S
A knowledge, attitude and practices (K.A.P.) survey was conducted among doctors working as general practitioners (GP) in Multan, for diagnosis and management of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children under five years of age. GPs in Multan were not familiar with national ARI control programme and rational drug use guidelines. They rarely asked about symptoms describing severity of disease while taking patient histories and did not look for signs of severe pneumonia during physical examinations. Most patients diagnosed as URTI (upper respiratory tract infection) received oral antibiotics and those with pneumonia received injectable antibiotics. Other drugs prescribed included cough syrups, antihistamines and antipyretics. The average number of drugs prescribed per patient was 3.4. The doctors were deficient in providing home care advice for sick children to the caretakers. Average time spent by doctors on each patient was two minutes and twenty-three seconds. A combination of biomedical and social factors help to perpetuate this irrational prescribing behaviour of the GPs. Continuing education programmes for doctors in general practice about ARI management in children and rational use of drugs and health education of the public may improve the current prescribing practices.
Campana, Marion; Bonin-Guillaume, Sylvie; Yagoubi, Ramzi; Berbis, Julie; Franqui, Caroline
s and related disorders (ADRD) remain a major public health issue. The progression of the disease is dominated by behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) which are frequent and burdensome for caregivers. The aim of our survey was to study how the general practionner managed these behavioral disturbances (particularly agitation and aggressiveness) in community living patients with ADRD and support of their main caregivers. We based our study on a medical survey sent to all general practitioners (GP) practicing in four districts in Marseille near from a secure unit. Ninety five out of 260 answered to the survey and 57 had already been exposed to patients' behavioral decompensation. For these BPSD management, atypical neuroleptics and benzodiazepines were mostly prescribed, and according to the literature and guidelines. Half of the GP's recognized the weak effectiveness of this strategy. Almost all of them are interested in having a document summarizing the main strategy to be set up or a possibility to call a specialized mobile team with doctors and professionals caregivers. A few dedicated consultations were devoted to informal caregivers whereas GP were aware of negative effects of these decompensations on them. This study point out difficulties for GP to provide appropriate management for their patients with ADRD living at home and for their informal caregivers, particularly during acute behavioral disturbance, despite their practical knowledges.
Li, An; Wang, Xiao-hong; Hao, Feng-tong
To investigate the current situation of treatment for acute chemical poisoning in the emergency departments and occupational disease departments of some general hospitals and to provide a basis for improving the ability of general hospital to deal with acute chemical poisoning. Four hospitals from Shandong Province, Beijing City, and Shanxi Province, China were selected in the study. They included two first-class hospitals located in the downtown, where the patients with acute chemical poisoning from urban and suburban areas were admitted to the occupational disease departments, and two second-class hospitals located in the suburban area or county, where the patients with acute chemical poisoning from the suburban area were admitted to the emergency departments. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 141 medical workers (51 persons in the emergence department group and 90 persons in the occupational disease department group) that were engaged in the treatment of acute chemical poisoning in the four hospitals; 1999 medical records were analyzed. Individual in-depth interviews, questionnaire investigation, and field observation were used to compare the emergency department group and occupational disease department group in terms of the ability to deal with acute chemical poisoning and the training on treatment for acute chemical poisoning. The emergency department group had significantly higher proportion of pesticide poisoning cases than the occupational disease department group (P<0.01). Thirty-seven of the patients in occupational disease department group died, with a fatality rate of 2.7%, and 14 of the patients in emergence department group died,with a fatality rate of 2.2%, so there was no significant difference between the two groups in this regard (P>0.05). There were significantly more cases treated without emergency plan in the emergency department group than in the occupational disease department group ( 37.3% vs. 10.0%, P <0.0 1). The occupational
March, B; Gillies, D
Introduction Acute general surgical units (AGSUs) are changing the way in which acute appendicitis is managed. In the AGSU at John Hunter Hospital, some patients wait more than 48 hours from admission to undergo an appendicectomy, usually because they are not unwell enough to precipitate an operation before that time. We analysed this subgroup of appendicectomy patients to determine how effectively they are being managed and how this might be improved. Methods A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was conducted of all patients who received an appendicectomy while admitted under the AGSU at John Hunter Hospital in the five years between January 2009 and December 2013. Results A total of 1,039 appendicectomies were performed in the study period, with 81 patients (7.8%) waiting >48 hours for their operation (delayed appendicectomy group). Overall, the negative appendicectomy (NA) rate was 21.6%; the NA rate in delayed appendicectomies was 50.62% and a non-therapeutic operation occurred in 47% of this group (n=38). No significant difference was found in the incidence of perforation/gangrenous appendicitis between patients having surgery in <48 hours and the delayed appendicectomy groups (11.2% vs 9.9%, p=0.85). A combination of negative diagnostic imaging result, a normal white cell count and normal C-reactive protein (ie a negative ‘triple test’) was the best predictor of a negative appendicectomy (p=0.0158, negative predictive value: 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 0.59–0.99), in the delayed appendicectomy group. Conclusions In the delayed appendicectomy group, the incidence of perforation/gangrenous appendicitis was not significantly different from that found in patients having appendicectomy performed sooner. However, the NA and non-therapeutic operation rates were unacceptably high. An appendix triple test can improve diagnostic accuracy significantly without an unacceptable rise in the rates of perforation/gangrenous appendicitis. PMID
the cell bodies.the brain were examined histologically and stain’ At first sight this picture was suggestive of the formationed by methods common in...INVESTIGATIONS ON GENERAL OXYGEN DEFICIENCY OF THE BRAIN at 11 I. The Behavior of Astrocytes After Acute and Subacute Death A PROJECT NUMBER 21-23-004...c3, REPORT NUMBER 2 PROJECT IREPORT NEUROHISTOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON GENERAL OXYGEN DEFICIENCY OF THE BRAIN II. The Behavior of Astrocytes After
Foo, Elizabeth; McDonald, Rod; Savage, Earle; Floyd, Richard; Butler, Anthony; Rumball-Smith, Alistair; Connor, Saxon
Understanding and being able to measure constraints within a health system is crucial if outcomes are to be improved. Current systems lack the ability to capture decision making with regard to tasks performed within a patient journey. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a mobile task management tool on clinical workflow within an acute general surgical service by analysing data capture and usability of the application tool. The Cortex iOS application was developed to digitize patient flow and provide real-time visibility over clinical decision making and task performance. Study outcomes measured were workflow data capture for patient and staff events. Usability was assessed using an electronic survey. There were 449 unique patient journeys tracked with a total of 3072 patient events recorded. The results repository was accessed 7792 times. The participants reported that the application sped up decision making, reduced redundancy of work and improved team communication. The mode of the estimated time the application saved participants was 5-9 min/h of work. Of the 14 respondents, nine discarded their analogue methods of tracking tasks by the end of the study period. The introduction of a mobile task management system improved the working efficiency of junior clinical staff. The application allowed capture of data not previously available to hospital systems. In the future, such data will contribute to the accurate mapping of patient journeys through the health system. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Hatch, Quinton; McVay, Derek; Johnson, Eric K; Maykel, Justin A; Champagne, Bradley J; Steele, Scott R
Acute care surgical teams (ACSTs) have limited data in residency. We sought to determine the impact of an ACST on the depth and breadth of general surgery resident training. One year prior to and after implementation of an ACST, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs spanning multiple postgraduate year levels were compared for numbers, case types, and complexity. We identified 6,009 cases, including 2,783 after ACST implementation. ACSTs accounted for 752 cases (27%), with 39.2% performed laparoscopically. ACST cases included biliary (19.4%), skin/soft tissue (10%), hernia (9.8%), and appendix (6.5%). Second-year residents performed a lower percentage of laparoscopic cases after the creation of the ACST (20.4% vs 26.3%; P = .003), while chief residents performed a higher percentage (42.1 vs 37.4; P = .04). Case numbers and complexity following ACST development were unchanged within all year groups (P > .1). ACST in a residency program does not sacrifice resident case complexity, diversity, or volume. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Vasseljen, Ottar; Woodhouse, Astrid; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Leivseth, Linda
In this prospective cohort study we aimed to describe the natural course of acute neck and low back pain in a general population of Norway. We screened 9056 subjects aged 20-67 years who participated in a general health survey for a new episode of neck or low back pain the previous month. The screening identified 219 subjects who formed the cohort for this study. Pain intensity was reported on a numeric rating scale (0-10) at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after start of the new pain episode. The course of pain was described for neck and low back pain, different baseline pain levels, age groups, and number of pain sites at baseline. Use of medication and health care was described and associations between pain intensity and seeking health care were estimated. Pain declined rapidly within 1 month after a new pain episode, with a reduction of 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-1.32) for neck pain and 1.40 (95% CI 0.82-1.99) for low back pain with little change thereafter. However, pain remained unchanged over the follow-up year for those with equal pain in the neck and low back areas at baseline and for those reporting 4 or more pain sites at baseline. Only 1 in 5 sought health care for their complaints. Still, the course of pain was comparable to effect sizes reported in interventional studies. This study thus contributes natural course reference data for comparisons of pain outcome in clinical trials and practice.
Bless, Philipp J; Muela Ribera, Joan; Schmutz, Claudia; Zeller, Andreas; Mäusezahl, Daniel
Acute gastroenteritis (AG) is frequently caused by infectious intestinal diseases (IID) including food- and waterborne pathogens of public health importance. Among these pathogens, Campylobacter spp. plays a major role. Many European countries monitor selected IIDs within disease surveillance systems. In Switzerland, the information on IIDs is restricted to limited surveillance data, while no data is available for AG. We conducted a qualitative study among Swiss general practitioners (GPs) to investigate the case management of AG and campylobacteriosis patients, the associated disease burden and the determinants leading to registration in the National Notification System for Infectious Diseases (NNSID). Interviews were conducted with a semi-structured questionnaire and underwent inductive content analysis based on Grounded Theory. The questionnaire was repeatedly adapted to capture emerging themes until the point of theoretical saturation. GPs perceived AG and campylobacteriosis of little relevance to their daily work and public health in general. According to GP self-estimates each consults about two cases of AG per week and diagnoses a median of five campylobacteriosis cases per year. A large proportion of AG cases receives telephone consultations only and gets medical advice from the practice nurse. Antibiotic therapy is considered useful and stool diagnostics are performed for about a fifth of consulting AG patients. Stool diagnostics ("test") and antibiotic therapy ("treat") are interrelated and follow four strategies: "Wait & See", "Treat & See", "Treat & Test", and "Test & See". AG case management is diverse and includes different triage steps. A small proportion of AG patients have stool diagnostics performed and only positive tested patients are reported to the NNSID. As a result severe cases and cases with a history of travel abroad are overrepresented in the NNSID. The use of multiplex PCR panels in routine diagnostics likely leads to improved case
Bless, Philipp J.; Muela Ribera, Joan; Schmutz, Claudia; Zeller, Andreas; Mäusezahl, Daniel
Acute gastroenteritis (AG) is frequently caused by infectious intestinal diseases (IID) including food- and waterborne pathogens of public health importance. Among these pathogens, Campylobacter spp. plays a major role. Many European countries monitor selected IIDs within disease surveillance systems. In Switzerland, the information on IIDs is restricted to limited surveillance data, while no data is available for AG. We conducted a qualitative study among Swiss general practitioners (GPs) to investigate the case management of AG and campylobacteriosis patients, the associated disease burden and the determinants leading to registration in the National Notification System for Infectious Diseases (NNSID). Interviews were conducted with a semi-structured questionnaire and underwent inductive content analysis based on Grounded Theory. The questionnaire was repeatedly adapted to capture emerging themes until the point of theoretical saturation. GPs perceived AG and campylobacteriosis of little relevance to their daily work and public health in general. According to GP self-estimates each consults about two cases of AG per week and diagnoses a median of five campylobacteriosis cases per year. A large proportion of AG cases receives telephone consultations only and gets medical advice from the practice nurse. Antibiotic therapy is considered useful and stool diagnostics are performed for about a fifth of consulting AG patients. Stool diagnostics (“test”) and antibiotic therapy (“treat”) are interrelated and follow four strategies: “Wait & See”, “Treat & See”, “Treat & Test”, and “Test & See”. AG case management is diverse and includes different triage steps. A small proportion of AG patients have stool diagnostics performed and only positive tested patients are reported to the NNSID. As a result severe cases and cases with a history of travel abroad are overrepresented in the NNSID. The use of multiplex PCR panels in routine diagnostics likely
Akkerman, Annemiek E; Kuyvenhoven, Marijke M; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Verheij, Theo J M
To assess clinical determinants of under- and overprescribing of antibiotics according to the Dutch national guideline for patients with acute otitis media (AOM) in general practice. A total of 146 general practitioners (GPs) from the Netherlands included all patients with AOM during a 4 week period in winter, and recorded patient characteristics, clinical presentation and management. Under- and overprescribing of antibiotics in AOM was assessed using the Dutch national guideline. A total of 458 AOM consultations were recorded. In seven out of 10 consultations (310/439; excluding 19 consultations in which patients were referred to secondary care), antibiotic prescribing decisions were according to the national guideline. In 11% of all consultations (50/439), there was underprescribing and in 18% (79/439) there was overprescribing. Patients with an antibiotic indication but without an antibiotic prescription (underprescribing; n=50) had more short-term symptoms (OR: 0.93), relatively few inflammation signs (OR: 0.47) and were less severely ill (OR: 0.30), compared with patients with an antibiotic indication and an antibiotic prescription (n=167). Patients without an antibiotic indication but with an antibiotic prescription (overprescribing; n=79) were more often younger than 24 months (OR: 0.34), more severely ill (OR: 3.30) and expected more often an antibiotic as perceived by their GP (OR: 2.11), compared with patients without an antibiotic indication and without an antibiotic prescription (n=143). Clinical determinants which are stated as criteria for antibiotic treatment of AOM in the Dutch national guideline were recognized by GPs as important items, but were frequently given too much weight.
Introduction The 30-day case-fatality rate after acute myocardial infarction (MI) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is twice that of the general population. This study compared the frequency and timeliness of early reperfusion therapy and treatment with secondary prevention medications after acute MI in RA patients and controls. Methods We performed a structured medical chart review of RA patients and matched controls who had been admitted with acute MI to one of three hospitals in Victoria, Australia, between 1995 and 2005. The administration and timing of acute reperfusion therapy and in-hospital treatment with secondary prevention medications were compared between the two groups. Acute reperfusion was defined as thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within 12 hours of the first symptom of MI. Results The medical charts of 90 RA patients and 90 matched controls were reviewed. The RA patients were significantly less likely to receive acute reperfusion compared with the controls (16% versus 37%: odds ratio (OR), 0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.10 to 0.64)), and this difference persisted after adjusting for type of MI, clinical setting of MI, and prior MI (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.6). The RA patients also received less-frequent in-hospital treatment with beta blockers (71% versus 83%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.96) and lipid-lowering agents (40% versus 70%; OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.46). Conclusions RA patients who experience acute MI receive acute reperfusion and secondary prevention medications less frequently than do controls. This may contribute to higher case-fatality rates after MI in RA patients. PMID:20929534
Sear, Alan M
The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 was intended to reduce spending by about $115 billion from the Medicare Hospital Insurance trust fund over a five-year period. Several studies were funded by the hospital industry that indicated that the actual reductions would be far greater than $115 billion and that these reductions would have a devastating effect on U.S. hospital finances. In 1999, Congress passed the Balanced Budget Refinement Act, which added back about $11 billion in spending for fiscal years 2000 through 2002. In 2000, Congress passed the Benefits Improvement and Protection Act, which restored another $37 billion in spending over a five-year period. These cutbacks were going into effect at the same time as a cyclical decline in hospital operating margins occurred. This study was designed to determine if any separate effect of the Balanced Budget Act could be detected in the operating margins of general acute care hospitals in Tampa Bay, Florida. Operating margins were analyzed for 25 hospitals for a 12-year period (1990 through 2001), and a regression model was tested in which the dependent variable was the difference in mean operating margins for each hospital between the 1990 through 1997 period and the 1998 through 2001 period. The mean percentage of hospital revenue derived from Medicare, five other revenue source variables, and three hospital structural variables were used as the predictor variables. A statistically significant decline in operating margins was seen between these two periods, but Medicare revenue did not account for a significant amount of the variance. Thus, it was concluded that the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 did not significantly affect the operating margins of the study hospitals. Implications for Medicare policy are addressed.
Kanazawa, Nobuo; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Mikita, Naoya; Furukawa, Fukumi
Generalized pustular psoriasis is a distinct type of psoriasis characterized by recurrent febrile attacks with disseminated subcorneal pustules on generalized skin rashes. Recently, homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations of the IL36RN gene, which encodes the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-36 receptor antagonist, were identified in familial and sporadic cases of various ethnicities with generalized pustular psoriasis. Here we report a 39-year-old Japanese male patient who had suffered from repeated attacks of generalized pustular psoriasis since infancy with intervals of several years. At presentation, erythematous lesions with a few pustules were found only on some parts of the body and controlled with topical corticosteroids. An analysis of the IL36RN gene revealed compound heterozygous mutations of c.28C>T and c.368C>T. While the former mutation causing the premature termination p.Arg10X is recurrent in Japanese cases, the latter missense mutation causing p.Thr123Met substitution is novel, but another mutation in the same position has been reported in one Japanese case. Our report further supports the presence of the Japanese-specific hot spots in the IL36RN gene, 28C and 368C, and suggests the functional significance of Thr123. This special type of generalized pustular psoriasis caused by IL36RN mutations has been designated as deficiency for IL-36 receptor antagonist, a new hereditary autoinflammatory disease, and its phenotypes have emerged to include other related pustular disorders, palmoplantar pustulosis, acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau, and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. The genetic analysis of the cases with these diseases would be important for establishment and application of the specific treatments targeting the IL-36 signaling. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Chang, Yu-Kai; Alderman, Brandon L; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Chen, Feng-Tzu
This study examined whether acute moderate intensity exercise results in a general or selective improvement in cognitive function. In addition, multiple stimulus-locked ERP components and serum BDNF levels were assessed to investigate potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying acute exercise effects on select aspects of cognitive performance. Thirty young adults were recruited and participated in exercise and reading control sessions in a counterbalanced order. Following treatments, the Stroop task was administrated, and N1, N2, P3, and N450 components of the ERP waveform were recorded and analyzed. Additionally, blood samples were withdrawn immediately following exercise or rest conditions prior to administration of the Stroop task. Acute exercise facilitated response times for both Stroop congruent and incongruent task conditions, with a similar magnitude of improvement. Larger P3 and reduced N450 amplitudes as well as decreased N450 latency were observed following exercise, but no effects on N1 and N2 components were found. This dose of exercise also did not influence serum BDNF levels. These findings suggest that moderate intensity acute exercise results in a generalized rather than selective improvement in cognition. The facilitation may be related to an increase in attentional or neural resource allocation and conflict detection processes reflected by longer latency endogenous components (P3, N450), but is not influenced by earlier sensory and monitoring processes revealed by earlier ERP components or by serum levels of BDNF. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Löwhagen Hendén, Pia; Rentzos, Alexandros; Karlsson, Jan-Erik; Rosengren, Lars; Leiram, Birgitta; Sundeman, Henrik; Dunker, Dennis; Schnabel, Kunigunde; Wikholm, Gunnar; Hellström, Mikael; Ricksten, Sven-Erik
Retrospective studies have found that patients receiving general anesthesia for endovascular treatment in acute ischemic stroke have worse neurological outcome compared with patients receiving conscious sedation. In this prospective randomized single-center study, we investigated the impact of anesthesia technique on neurological outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients. Ninety patients receiving endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke in 2013 to 2016 were included and randomized to general anesthesia or conscious sedation. Difference in neurological outcome at 3 months, measured as modified Rankin Scale score, was analyzed (primary outcome) and early neurological improvement of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and cerebral infarction volume. Age, sex, comorbidities, admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, intraprocedural blood pressure, blood glucose, Paco2 and Pco2 modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Ischemia score, and relevant time intervals were recorded. In the general anesthesia group 19 of 45 patients (42.2%) and in the conscious sedation group 18 of 45 patients (40.0%) achieved a modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 (P=1.00) at 3 months, with no differences in intraoperative blood pressure decline from baseline (P=0.57); blood glucose (P=0.94); PaCO2 (P=0.68); time intervals (P=0.78); degree of successful recanalization, 91.1% versus 88.9% (P=1.00); National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at 24 hours 8 (3-5) versus 9 (2-15; P=0.60); infarction volume, 20 (10-100) versus 20(10-54) mL (P=0.53); and hospital mortality (13.3% in both groups; P=1.00). In endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke, no difference was found between general anesthesia and conscious sedation in neurological outcome 3 months after stroke. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01872884. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Borges-Costa, João; Silva, Raquel; Gonçalves, Luzia; Filipe, Paulo; Soares de Almeida, Luís; Marques Gomes, Manuel
Acute generalized pustular psoriasis (AGPP) is a rare variant of psoriasis that can be lethal without proper treatment. It can be caused by the withdrawal of corticosteroids and, among its extra-cutaneous manifestations, liver abnormalities are frequently under-reported or attributed to drugs. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and laboratory data, treatment options, and disease outcome in patients with AGPP and to search for significant differences between subgroups of these patients. This was a retrospective analysis of the clinical files from inpatients with AGPP observed in our department between 1973 and 2008. Statistical tests were performed at a significance level of 5%. This was an inpatient, single-center study. Outcome measures were a previous history of psoriasis, corticosteroid use before admittance, mortality rate, white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, and abnormalities in liver enzymes. A total of 34 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of whom 61% were men and 65% had a previous history of psoriasis vulgaris. Topical corticosteroids were applied by 50% of patients before admittance. Skin lesions remitted with methotrexate, etretinate, or acitretin treatment in all but two patients who died of sepsis. Abnormalities in liver enzymes were present in 47% of patients. Patients without a previous history of psoriasis had a significantly younger age at the first episode of AGPP. In the comparison between the groups of patients with and without liver abnormalities, a male preponderance and higher leukocyte counts were found in the former, with a positive correlation between the absolute neutrophil count and total bilirubin also being observed. Previous use of retinoids or methotrexate was not associated with these hepatic alterations. Limitations of the data were that this was a single-center, retrospective study with a small sample size. Withdrawal of systemic or topical corticosteroids can precipitate or worsen AGPP and
Montagnac, Richard; Briat, Claude; Schillinger, Francis; Sartelet, Hervé; Birembaut, Philippe; Daudon, Michel
A 58 year-old woman developed an acute renal failure very quickly after ingestion of two 500 mg tablets of ciprofloxacin, without any other identifiable risk factor. Renal biopsy was performed. No sign of acute interstitial nephritis was observed but tubular lesions were found, accompanied by deposits of a brown-yellowish substance identified by infrared microscopy as a ciprofloxacin salt. The outcome was favourable. This observation gives the opportunity to remind the different forms of quinolone-induced renal injury and to discuss the possible ways for preventing renal side-effects related to the quinolone use.
Brinjikji, W; Murad, M H; Rabinstein, A A; Cloft, H J; Lanzino, G; Kallmes, D F
A number of studies have suggested that anesthesia type (conscious sedation versus general anesthesia) during intra-arterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke has implications for patient outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing the clinical and angiographic outcomes of the 2 anesthesia types. In March 2014, we conducted a computerized search of MEDLINE and EMBASE for reports on anesthesia and endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Using random-effects meta-analysis, we evaluated the following outcomes: recanalization rate, good functional outcome (mRS ≤ 2), asymptomatic and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, death, vascular complications, respiratory complications, procedure time, time to groin, and time from symptom onset to recanalization. Nine studies enrolling 1956 patients (814 with general anesthesia and 1142 with conscious sedation) were included. Compared with patients treated by using conscious sedation during stroke intervention, patients undergoing general anesthesia had higher odds of death (OR = 2.59; 95% CI, 1.87-3.58) and respiratory complications (OR = 2.09; 95% CI, 1.36-3.23) and lower odds of good functional outcome (OR = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.35-0.53) and successful angiographic outcome (OR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.37-0.80). No difference in procedure time (P = .28) was seen between the groups. Preintervention NIHSS scores were available from 6 studies; in those, patients receiving general anesthesia had a higher average NIHSS score. Patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing intra-arterial therapy may have worse outcomes with general anesthesia compared with conscious sedation. However, the difference in stroke severity at the onset may confound the comparison in the available studies; thus, a randomized trial is necessary to confirm this association. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Crowther, Nicola; Kahvo, Mia; Chana, Prem
Acute pancreatitis is a common problem seen in the United Kingdom, with an incidence of 56.6 per 100,000 population.[1,2,3] Optimising management has been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity, and the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) published revised guidelines in 2005 to standardise treatment for this potentially life threatening condition. The aim of this quality improvement project was to investigate and improve the initial management of acute pancreatitis in patients presenting to the Great Western Hospital (GWH) in Swindon between November 2012 and July 2013. Patients presenting to the surgical team during this time with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were identified for the initial data collection. Notes were prospectively reviewed and data collected allowing a comparison between management in GWH against BSG guidelines. Following this stage, a pro forma based on the 2005 guidelines was created and implemented, with the aim of raising awareness and standardising care among surgical staff. Following implementation of the pro forma, data collection was repeated between May and June 2013 to assess the impact of the intervention. Results revealed an improvement from 93% to 100% of patients receiving the correct diagnosis within 24 hours of presentation. Severity stratification within 48 hours of diagnosis improved from 75% to 88% and identification of aetiology also improved from 64% to 74%. The implementation of an acute pancreatitis management protocol and education of junior surgical staff has been shown to improve compliance with BSG guidelines at the GWH, and ultimately aims to improves patient care and outcomes.
Crowther, Nicola; Kahvo, Mia; Chana, Prem
Acute pancreatitis is a common problem seen in the United Kingdom, with an incidence of 56.6 per 100,000 population.[1,2,3] Optimising management has been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity, and the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) published revised guidelines in 2005 to standardise treatment for this potentially life threatening condition. The aim of this quality improvement project was to investigate and improve the initial management of acute pancreatitis in patients presenting to the Great Western Hospital (GWH) in Swindon between November 2012 and July 2013. Patients presenting to the surgical team during this time with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were identified for the initial data collection. Notes were prospectively reviewed and data collected allowing a comparison between management in GWH against BSG guidelines. Following this stage, a pro forma based on the 2005 guidelines was created and implemented, with the aim of raising awareness and standardising care among surgical staff. Following implementation of the pro forma, data collection was repeated between May and June 2013 to assess the impact of the intervention. Results revealed an improvement from 93% to 100% of patients receiving the correct diagnosis within 24 hours of presentation. Severity stratification within 48 hours of diagnosis improved from 75% to 88% and identification of aetiology also improved from 64% to 74%. The implementation of an acute pancreatitis management protocol and education of junior surgical staff has been shown to improve compliance with BSG guidelines at the GWH, and ultimately aims to improves patient care and outcomes. PMID:26734376
Park, Eun Young; Kim, Yi Seul; Lim, Kyung-Jee; Lee, Hye Kyoung; Lee, Soo Kyung; Choi, Hyun
Porphyrias are inherited metabolic disorders resulting from a specific enzyme defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Porphyrias are induced by various precipitants. Clinical features include abdominal pain, neurologic manifestations, autonomic neuropathy, and mental disturbance. Diagnosis may be delayed because of variable symptoms that mimic other diseases and because of the rarity of of porphyrias. Although most patients with known porphyria can complete anesthesia and surgery safely, undiagnosed porphyric patients are in danger of porphyric crisis due to inadvertent exposure to precipitating drugs and environment. We report a case of a patient who experienced delayed emergence with neurological disturbance after general anesthesia, ultimately diagnosed as acute intermittent porphyria. PMID:25302100
El Ashry, Saad R; El Gamal, Tarek A; Challagundla, Sudhakar R; Ntala, Chara A; Nagy, Ahmed M; Crane, Evan O
We wanted to assess the number of unnecessary radiographs done for acute knee injury patients and the accuracy of the Pittsburgh decision rules. A retrospective observational study was done to look at the acute knee injury patients presented to a district general hospital Accident and Emergency Department from August 2011 till August 2013. We assessed the following parameters: sex, age, mechanism of injury, weight-bearing status and incidence of fractures in patients subjected to plain radiograph. A prospective study was then done from April 2014- August 2014 following implementation of the Pittsburgh decision rules. 24% of the patients had knee X-ray, compared to 72.12% in the first cycle. 36.8% had fracture, compared to 6.1% first cycle, with 66.7 % reduction in x-rays. Pittsburgh decision rules sensitivity was 100% and specificity 85.3%, positive predictive value 45.8% and accuracy 87%. 1. The Pittsburgh decision rules is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in determining the need of X-ray in acute knee Injuries. 2. We found that the Pittsburgh decision rules performs well in our hospital, which coincides with previously published literature.
Smith, Lindsay; Ewings, Paul; Smith, Caroline; Thompson, Matthew; Harnden, Anthony; Mant, David
Background National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance to treat otitis media in older children immediately with antibiotics only if they have ear discharge is based on limited evidence. Aim To determine the clinical significance and outcome of ear discharge in children with acute otitis media, in routine clinical practice. Design of study Observational cohort study of children with acute otitis media comparing those with and without ear discharge at presentation. Setting Primary care in East Somerset. Method Two hundred and fifty-six children aged 6 months to 10 years were recruited from primary care. Clinical features and other characteristics were recorded at presentation. Follow-up was undertaken at 2 weeks and 3 months. Results Children with otitis media who present with ear discharge are much more likely to be treated with antibiotics irrespective of age (adjusted odds ratio 15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3 to 66). Most with discharge have proven bacterial infection (58%, 95% CI = 42 to 72%). They have a more severe systemic illness, with higher axillary temperature (80% increase in odds of ear discharge for each additional degree centigrade, P = 0.02), pulse rate (9% increase in odds for each extra beat, P<0.001), and Yale score (mean 10.5 versus 9.0, P = 0.003). They may also have an increased likelihood of adverse outcome (adjusted odds ratio of pain at 1 week 2.9; further episodes of acute otitis media 3.3; hearing difficulty at 3 months 4.7; all P<0.10). Conclusion Ear discharge defines a group of children with otitis media who are sicker and may be at higher risk of adverse outcome. NICE guidance to treat them with antibiotics is supported. PMID:20132703
Cram, Peter; Bayman, Levent; Popescu, Joanna; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary S
Objective Compare characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized in specialty cardiac and general hospitals for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Data 2000–2005 all-payor administrative data from Arizona, California, Texas, and Wisconsin. Study Design We identified patients admitted to specialty and competing general hospitals with AMI or CABG and compared patient demographics, comorbidity, and risk-standardized mortality in specialty and general hospitals. Principal Findings Specialty hospitals admitted a lower proportion of women and blacks and treated patients with less comorbid illness than general hospitals. Unadjusted in-hospital AMI mortality for Medicare enrollees in specialty and general hospitals was 6.1 and 10.1 percent (p<.0001) and for non-Medicare enrollees was 2.8 and 4.0 percent (p<.04). Unadjusted in-hospital CABG mortality for Medicare enrollees in specialty and general hospitals was 3.2 and 4.7 percent (p<.01) and for non-Medicare enrollees was 1.1 and 1.8 percent (p=.02). After adjusting for patient characteristics and hospital volume, risk-standardized in-hospital mortality for all AMI patients was 2.7 percent for specialty hospitals and 4.1 percent for general hospitals (p<.001) and for CABG was 1.5 percent for specialty hospitals and 2.0 percent for general hospitals (p=.07). Conclusions In-hospital mortality in specialty hospitals was lower than in general hospitals for AMI but similar for CABG. Our results suggest that specialty hospitals may offer significantly better outcomes for AMI but not CABG. PMID:20002764
Colprim, Daniel; Inzitari, Marco
Unplanned acute hospital transfers (AT) from post-acute or long-term care facilities represent critical transitions, which expose patients to negative health outcomes and increase the burden of the emergency departments that receive these patients. We aim at determining incidence and risk factors for AT during the first 30 days of admission at an intermediate care and rehabilitation geriatric facility (ICGF). Prospective cohort study conducted in an ICGF of Barcelona, Spain. Sociodemographics, main diagnostics, and variables of the comprehensive geriatric assessment were recorded at admission. At the moment of AT, suspected diagnostic motivating the transfer was recorded. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association between admission characteristics and AT. We included 1505 patients (mean age + standard deviation = 81.31 ± 7.06, 65.7% women). AT were 217 (14.4%, 5.64/1000 days of stay) resulting in only 81 final hospitalizations (37% of AT), whereas 136 patients returned to ICGF after visiting the emergency department. Principal triggers of AT were cardiovascular, falls/orthopedic, and gastrointestinal problems. Being admitted to ICGF after a general surgery [hazard ratio (HR) 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.94; P < .001], taking 8 or more drugs at admission (HR 1.98; 95% CI 1.37-2.86; P < .001) and living with a partner (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.01-1.81; P = .05) were independently associated with a higher risk of AT. In our sample, clinical and social characteristics at admission to an ICGF are associated with a higher risk of AT. A relevant proportion of AT is not admitted to the acute hospital, suggesting perhaps some avoidable AT. Identification of risk factors might be relevant to design strategies to reduce AT. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leonardsen, Ann-Chatrin L; Del Busso, Lilliana; Grøndahl, Vigdis A; Ghanima, Waleed; Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter
Municipality acute wards (MAWs) have recently been introduced in Norway. Their mandate is to provide treatment for patients who otherwise would have been hospitalized. Even though GPs are key stakeholders, little is known about how they perceive referring patients to these wards. The aim of this study was to investigate GPs' perspectives on factors relevant for their decision-making when referring patients to MAWs. We used a qualitative approach, conducting semi-structured interviews with 23 GPs from five different MAW catchment areas in the southeastern part of Norway. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The GPs experienced challenges in deciding which patients were suitable for treatment at a MAW, including whether patients could be regarded as medically clarified, and whether these services were sufficient and safe. GPs were also under pressure from several other stakeholders when deciding where to refer their patients. Moreover, the MAWs were viewed not merely as an alternative to hospitals, but also as a service in addition to hospitals. This study improves our understanding of how GPs experience decentralized acute health care services, by identifying factors that influence and challenge their referral decisions. For these services to be used as intended in the collaboration reform, integrating the perspectives of GPs in the development and implementation of these services may be beneficial. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Arnaoutakis, George J; Bittle, Gregory J; Allen, Jeremiah G; Weiss, Eric S; Alejo, Jennifer; Baumgartner, William A; Shah, Ashish S; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Efron, David T; Conte, John V
Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have become common as a bridge to heart transplant as well as destination therapy. Acute care surgical (ACS) problems in this population are prevalent but remain ill-defined. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with ACS interventions in LVAD patients. A total of 173 patients who received HeartMate(®) XVE or HeartMate(®) II (HMII) LVADs between December 2001 and March 2010 were studied. Patient demographics, presentation of ACS problem, operative intervention, co-morbidities, transplantation, complications, and survival were analyzed. A total of 47 (27 %) patients underwent 67 ACS procedures at a median of 38 days after device implant (interquartile range 15-110), with a peri-operative mortality rate of 5 % (N = 3). Demographics, device type, and acuity were comparable between the ACS and non-ACS groups. A total of 21 ACS procedures were performed emergently, eight were urgent, and 38 were elective. Of 29 urgent and emergent procedures, 28 were for abdominal pathology. In eight patients, the cause of the ACS problem was related to LVADs or anticoagulation. Cumulative survival estimates revealed no survival differences if patients underwent ACS procedures (p = 0.17). Among HMII patients, transplantation rates were unaffected by an ACS intervention (p = 0.2). ACS problems occur frequently in LVAD patients and are not associated with adverse outcomes in HMII patients. The acute care surgeon is an integral member of a comprehensive approach to effective LVAD management.
Du, Elizabeth H Y; Shankar, Jai J S
Stroke is the second leading cause of mortality and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life-years worldwide. For each minute of an ischemic stroke, an estimated 1.9 million brain cells die. The year 2015 saw the unprecedented publication of 5 multicentre, randomized, controlled trials. These studies showed that patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by large-vessel thrombus occlusion of the proximal anterior circulation had significantly reduced disability at 90 days when treated with endovascular thrombectomy and usual stroke care compared to usual stroke care alone. As a result, endovascular thrombectomy is now the new North American and European standard of care for suitable patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by large-vessel proximal anterior circulation occlusion. We review key take-home messages in this paradigm shift for radiologists, including the importance of time and workflow efficiency, what currently constitutes appropriate preimaging patient selection and imaging criteria, the use of newer generation thrombectomy devices, safety outcomes, as well as further areas still in need of elucidation. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Franco-Pérez, Javier; Ballesteros-Zebadúa, Paola; Manjarrez-Marmolejo, Joaquín
Mefloquine can cross the blood-brain barrier and block the gap junction intercellular communication in the brain. Enhanced electrical coupling mediated by gap junctions is an underlying mechanism involved in the generation and maintenance of seizures. For this reason, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the systemic administration of mefloquine on tonic-clonic seizures induced by two acute models such as pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock. All the control rats presented generalized tonic-clonic seizures after the administration of pentylenetetrazole. However, the incidence of seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole significantly decreased in the groups administered systematically with 40 and 80 mg/kg of mefloquine. In the control group, none of the rats survived after the generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole, but survival was improved by mefloquine. Besides, mefloquine significantly modified the total spectral power as well as the duration, amplitude and frequency of the epileptiform activity induced by pentylenetetrazole. For the maximal electroshock model, mefloquine did not change the occurrence of tonic hindlimb extension. However, this gap junction blocker significantly decreased the duration of the tonic hindlimb extension induced by the acute electroshock. These data suggest that mefloquine at low doses might be eliciting some anticonvulsant effects when is systemically administered to rats.
O’Brien, Kathryn; Edwards, Adrian; Hood, Kerenza; Butler, Christopher C
Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children may be associated with long-term complications that could be prevented by prompt treatment. Aim To determine the prevalence of UTI in acutely ill children ≤ 5 years presenting in general practice and to explore patterns of presenting symptoms and urine sampling strategies. Design and setting Prospective observational study with systematic urine sampling, in general practices in Wales, UK. Method In total, 1003 children were recruited from 13 general practices between March 2008 and July 2010. The prevalence of UTI was determined and multivariable analysis performed to determine the probability of UTI. Result Out of 597 (60.0%) children who provided urine samples within 2 days, the prevalence of UTI was 5.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.3% to 8.0%) overall, 7.3% in those < 3 years and 3.2% in 3–5 year olds. Neither a history of fever nor the absence of an alternative source of infection was associated with UTI (P = 0.64; P = 0.69, respectively). The probability of UTI in children aged ≥3 years without increased urinary frequency or dysuria was 2%. The probability of UTI was ≥5% in all other groups. Urine sampling based purely on GP suspicion would have missed 80% of UTIs, while a sampling strategy based on current guidelines would have missed 50%. Conclusion Approximately 6% of acutely unwell children presenting to UK general practice met the criteria for a laboratory diagnosis of UTI. This higher than previously recognised prior probability of UTI warrants raised awareness of the condition and suggests clinicians should lower their threshold for urine sampling in young children. The absence of fever or presence of an alternative source of infection, as emphasised in current guidelines, may not rule out UTI in young children with adequate certainty. PMID:23561695
O'Brien, Kathryn; Edwards, Adrian; Hood, Kerenza; Butler, Christopher C
Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children may be associated with long-term complications that could be prevented by prompt treatment. To determine the prevalence of UTI in acutely ill children ≤ 5 years presenting in general practice and to explore patterns of presenting symptoms and urine sampling strategies. Prospective observational study with systematic urine sampling, in general practices in Wales, UK. In total, 1003 children were recruited from 13 general practices between March 2008 and July 2010. The prevalence of UTI was determined and multivariable analysis performed to determine the probability of UTI. Out of 597 (60.0%) children who provided urine samples within 2 days, the prevalence of UTI was 5.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.3% to 8.0%) overall, 7.3% in those < 3 years and 3.2% in 3-5 year olds. Neither a history of fever nor the absence of an alternative source of infection was associated with UTI (P = 0.64; P = 0.69, respectively). The probability of UTI in children aged ≥3 years without increased urinary frequency or dysuria was 2%. The probability of UTI was ≥5% in all other groups. Urine sampling based purely on GP suspicion would have missed 80% of UTIs, while a sampling strategy based on current guidelines would have missed 50%. Approximately 6% of acutely unwell children presenting to UK general practice met the criteria for a laboratory diagnosis of UTI. This higher than previously recognised prior probability of UTI warrants raised awareness of the condition and suggests clinicians should lower their threshold for urine sampling in young children. The absence of fever or presence of an alternative source of infection, as emphasised in current guidelines, may not rule out UTI in young children with adequate certainty.
Cunha, Diego Fontana Siqueira; Darcie, Ana Letícia Fornazieri; Ferronato, Angela Espósito; Hein, Noely; Lo, Denise Swei; Yoshioka, Cristina Ryoka Miyao; Hirose, Maki; Cardoso, Debora Morais; Gilio, Alfredo Elias
Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy (AHEI) is a rare leukocytoclastic vasculitis, clinically characterized by the classical triad: palpable purpuric skin lesions, edema and fever, and is commonly misdiagnosed as Henoch-Schönlein purpura. In addition to its sudden onset, AHEI is also characterized by its self-limited course with complete and spontaneous recovery occurring between 1 and 3 weeks. Because of the scarcity of studies on therapy with corticosteroids, the conservative approach is usually recommended. The authors report an unusual case of an one-year-old boy who presented with typical cutaneous rash of AHEI and orchitis, the latter showing complete resolution after less than 24 hours of prednisolone therapy. The authors call attention to this entity mainly as a differential diagnosis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura and to the importance of new studies to establish the benefits of corticosteroid therapy for AHEI. PMID:26558246
Oyama, Yumiko; Yonekura, Yuki; Fukahori, Hiroki
To investigate the factors affecting nurse health-related quality of life (HRQOL) by considering the patient characteristics and ward characteristics. Nurse health-related quality of life is an important health outcome, and should be promoted for quality nursing care. This cross-sectional study was conducted on nurses who work in general acute care wards in three university hospitals in metropolitan Japan. Multilevel analysis was conducted to investigate possible factors related to nurse health-related quality of life. Nurses who worked at a ward had a significantly lower physical health score (β = -0.13, P < 0.01). These nurses had a higher ratio of patients who could not understand medical instructions, had cognitive disabilities, or required assistance with activities of daily living (ADL). The number of beds was the only factor significantly related to mental health status of nurses (β = 0.19, P < 0.05). Work conditions that sustain nurse health should take into account not only the number of nurses, but also patient characteristics. Further large-scale studies are needed in order to investigate the effect of hospital characteristics on nurse health-related quality of life. Increasing the number of nurses' aides and delegating assistance with ADL to them could support nurse health-related quality of life in the acute care setting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is often present in patients with existing or prior psoriasis vulgaris (PV; "GPP with PV"). However, cases of GPP have been known to arise without a history of PV ("GPP alone"). There has long been debate over whether GPP alone and GPP with PV are distinct subtypes that are etiologically different from each other. We recently reported that the majority of GPP alone cases is caused by recessive mutations of IL36RN. In contrast, only a few exceptional cases of GPP with PV were found to have recessive IL36RN mutations. Very recently, we also reported that CARD14 p.Asp176His, a gain-of-function variant, is a predisposing factor for GPP with PV; in contrast, the variant is not associated with GPP alone in the Japanese population. These results suggest that GPP alone is genetically different from GPP with PV. IL36RN mutations are also found in some patients with severe acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, palmar-plantar pustulosis, and acrodermatitis continua of hallopeau. CARD14 mutations and variants are causal or disease susceptibility factors of PV, GPP, or pityriasis rubra pilaris, depending on the mutation or variant position of CARD14. It is clinically important to analyze IL36RN mutations in patients with sterile pustulosis. For example, identifying recessive IL36RN mutations leads to early diagnosis of GPP, even at the first episode of pustulosis. In addition, individuals with IL36RN mutations are very susceptible to GPP or GPP-related generalized pustulosis induced by drugs (e.g., amoxicillin), infections, pregnancy, or menstruation. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hanrahan, Nancy P.; Aiken, Linda H.; McClaine, Lakeetra; Hanlon, Alexandra L
Following deinstitutionalization, inpatient psychiatric services moved from state institutions to general hospitals. Despite the magnitude of these changes, evaluations of the quality of inpatient care environments in general hospitals are limited. This study examined the extent to which organizational factors of the inpatient psychiatric environments are associated with psychiatric nurse burnout. Organizational factors were measured by an instrument endorsed by the National Quality Forum. Robust clustered regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between organizational factors in 67 hospitals and levels of burnout for 353 psychiatric nurses. Lower levels of psychiatric nurse burnout was significantly associated with inpatient environments that had better overall quality work environments, more effective managers, strong nurse-physician relationships, and higher psychiatric nurse-to-patient staffing ratios. These results suggest that adjustments in organizational management of inpatient psychiatric environments could have a positive effect on psychiatric nurses’ capacity to sustain safe and effective patient care environments. PMID:20144031
Luoto, Teemu M; Artsola, Minna; Helminen, Mika; Liimatainen, Suvi; Kosunen, Elise; Ohman, Juha
Patients with head injury constitute a large population treated in primary health care. It is essential to recognize patients with traumatic brain injury among this notable population to determine the need for more specific evaluation. General practitioners (n=331) in Pirkanmaa hospital district in Finland received an email link to answer the survey. The response rate was 54.1% (n=179). Mean survey score was 20.5 points (max. 25). Only acquaintance with the national traumatic brain injury practice guidelines was associated with greater survey scores. The general practitioners' level of knowledge in managing head injuries was good. Deficiencies were found in the questions dealt with post-traumatic amnesia and the definition of traumatic brain injury.
Ami, Schattner; Meital, Adi; Ella, Kitroser; Abraham, Klepfish
Abstract Few case series provide a current, comprehensive, and detailed description of splenic infarction (SI), an uncommon condition. Retrospective chart review complemented by imaging evaluation and patient follow-up. All adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acute SI discharged over 10 years from a single academic center were studied. A systematic literature review was done to compile a complete list of SI etiologies. SI was found in 32 patients, 0.016% of admissions. Ages ranged from 18 to 86 (median 64) years. Cardiogenic emboli were the predominant etiology (20/32, 62.5%) and atrial fibrillation was frequent. Other patients had autoimmune disease (12.5%), associated infection (12.5%), or hematological malignancy (6%). Nine of the patients (28%) had been previously healthy or with no recognized morbidity predisposing to SI. In 5 of 9 hitherto silent antiphospholipid syndrome or mitral valve disease had been identified. Two remained cryptogenic. Most patients presented with abdominal pain (84%), often felt in the left upper quadrant or epigastrium. Associated symptoms, leukocytosis or increased serum lactate dehydrogenase occurred inconsistently (∼25% each). Chest X-ray showed suggestive Lt. supra-diaphragmatic findings in 22%. Thus, the typical predisposing factors and/or clinical presentation should suggest SI to the clinician and be followed by early imaging by computed tomography (CT), highly useful also in atypical presentations. Complications were rare and patients were discharged after 6.5 days (median) on anticoagulant treatment. The systematic literature review revealed an extensive list of conditions underlying SI. In some, SI may be the first and presenting manifestation. SI is a rare event but should be considered in predisposed patients or those with any combination of suggestive clinical features, especially abdominal pain CT evaluation is diagnostic and the outcome is good. PMID:26356690
Klüver, Nils; Vogs, Carolina; Altenburger, Rolf; Escher, Beate I; Scholz, Stefan
Fish embryos have become a popular model in ecotoxicology and toxicology. The fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) with the zebrafish embryo was recently adopted by the OECD as technical guideline TG 236 and a large database of concentrations causing 50% lethality (LC50) is available in the literature. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) of baseline toxicity (also called narcosis) are helpful to estimate the minimum toxicity of chemicals to be tested and to identify excess toxicity in existing data sets. Here, we analyzed an existing fish embryo toxicity database and established a QSAR for fish embryo LC50 using chemicals that were independently classified to act according to the non-specific mode of action of baseline toxicity. The octanol-water partition coefficient Kow is commonly applied to discriminate between non-polar and polar narcotics. Replacing the Kow by the liposome-water partition coefficient Klipw yielded a common QSAR for polar and non-polar baseline toxicants. This developed baseline toxicity QSAR was applied to compare the final mode of action (MOA) assignment of 132 chemicals. Further, we included the analysis of internal lethal concentration (ILC50) and chemical activity (La50) as complementary approaches to evaluate the robustness of the FET baseline toxicity. The analysis of the FET dataset revealed that specifically acting and reactive chemicals converged towards the baseline toxicity QSAR with increasing hydrophobicity. The developed FET baseline toxicity QSAR can be used to identify specifically acting or reactive compounds by determination of the toxic ratio and in combination with appropriate endpoints to infer the MOA for chemicals.
Murphy, J E; Donald, J F; Molla, A L
A single-blind comparison of lymecycline and amoxycillin was performed by three general practitioners in the treatment of acute bronchitis. A total of 132 patients were treated for seven days with lymecycline (204 mg) two capsules twice daily or amoxycillin 250 mg three times daily. Symptoms and signs assessed were cough, dyspnoea, sputum volume, purulence of sputum and temperature. Both drugs brought about a statistically significant improvement. For all parameters the improvements seen with lymecycline were superior to those seen with amoxycillin although in no case did any of these reach statistical significance. However, in the case of purulent sputum those patients receiving lymecycline showed improvement which reached borderline significance (0-05 less than p less than 0-1) as compared with amoxycillin. Side-effects in the case of both drugs were negligible.
Pagey, Georgina; Halkett, Georgia; Pillai, Vinita; Meng, Xingqiong
Background There has been a focus recently on the use of the Internet and email to deliver education interventions to general practitioners (GPs). The treatment of breast cancer may include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or hormone treatment. These treatments may have acute adverse effects. GPs need more information on the diagnosis and management of specific adverse effects encountered immediately after cancer treatment. Objective The goal was to evaluate an Internet-based educational program developed for GPs to advise patients with acute adverse effects following breast cancer treatment. Methods During phase 1, participants viewed 6 video vignettes of actor-patients reporting 1 of 6 acute symptoms following surgery and chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy treatment. GPs indicated their diagnosis and proposed management through an online survey program. They received feedback about each scenario in the form of a specialist clinic letter, as if the patient had been seen at a specialist clinic after they had attended the GP. This letter incorporated extracts from local guidelines on the management of the symptoms presented. This feedback was sent to the GPs electronically on the same survey platform. In phase 2, all GPs were invited to manage similar cases as phase 1. Their proposed management was compared to the guidelines. McNemar test was used to compare data from phases 1 and 2, and logistic regression was used to explore the GP characteristics that were associated with inappropriate case management. Results A total of 50 GPs participated. Participants were younger and more likely to be female than other GPs in Australia. For 5 of 6 vignettes in phase 1, management was consistent with expert opinion in the minority of cases (6%-46%). Participant demographic characteristics had a variable effect on different management decisions in phase 1. The variables modeled explained 15%-28% of the differences observed. Diagnosis and management improved significantly
Jiwa, Moyez; Long, Anne; Shaw, Tim; Pagey, Georgina; Halkett, Georgia; Pillai, Vinita; Meng, Xingqiong
There has been a focus recently on the use of the Internet and email to deliver education interventions to general practitioners (GPs). The treatment of breast cancer may include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or hormone treatment. These treatments may have acute adverse effects. GPs need more information on the diagnosis and management of specific adverse effects encountered immediately after cancer treatment. The goal was to evaluate an Internet-based educational program developed for GPs to advise patients with acute adverse effects following breast cancer treatment. During phase 1, participants viewed 6 video vignettes of actor-patients reporting 1 of 6 acute symptoms following surgery and chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy treatment. GPs indicated their diagnosis and proposed management through an online survey program. They received feedback about each scenario in the form of a specialist clinic letter, as if the patient had been seen at a specialist clinic after they had attended the GP. This letter incorporated extracts from local guidelines on the management of the symptoms presented. This feedback was sent to the GPs electronically on the same survey platform. In phase 2, all GPs were invited to manage similar cases as phase 1. Their proposed management was compared to the guidelines. McNemar test was used to compare data from phases 1 and 2, and logistic regression was used to explore the GP characteristics that were associated with inappropriate case management. A total of 50 GPs participated. Participants were younger and more likely to be female than other GPs in Australia. For 5 of 6 vignettes in phase 1, management was consistent with expert opinion in the minority of cases (6%-46%). Participant demographic characteristics had a variable effect on different management decisions in phase 1. The variables modeled explained 15%-28% of the differences observed. Diagnosis and management improved significantly in phase 2, especially for diarrhea
Ottenheijm, Ramon P G; Cals, Jochen W L; Winkens, Bjorn; Weijers, René E; de Bie, Rob A; Dinant, Geert-Jan
Objective To determine the clinical effectiveness of ultrasound tailored treatment in patients with acute subacromial disorders. Design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Setting Dutch general practice. Participants Patients aged 18–65 years with acute (duration <3 months) unilateral shoulder pain and no previous treatment, in whom the general practitioner suspected a subacromial disorder was enrolled. Interventions All patients underwent ultrasound imaging of the affected shoulder. Patients who were still symptomatic after a qualification period of 2 weeks with standard treatment were randomised to treatment tailored to ultrasound diagnosis (disclosure of the ultrasound diagnosis) or usual care (non-disclosure of the ultrasound diagnosis). Primary outcome measure Patient-perceived recovery using the Global Perceived Effect questionnaire at 1 year. Results 129 patients were included. 18 patients recovered during the 2-week qualification period, resulting in 111 randomised patients; 56 were allocated to ultrasound tailored treatment and 55 to usual care. After 1 year, no statistically significant differences in recovery were found between the ultrasound tailored treatment group (72.5% (37/51)) and the usual care group (60% (30/50), OR 2.24 (95% CI 0.72 to 6.89; p=0.16)). Also, healthcare use was similar. Conclusions This study has shown no clinically significant difference in the primary outcome measure between the ultrasound tailored treatment and usual care groups. Furthermore, there was no overall difference in healthcare resources used between groups. Although no formal cost data are included, one can only assume that the ultrasound examinations are additional costs for the intervention group, which cannot be justified in routine practice based on this trial. Based on this study, no change in current pragmatic guidelines to incorporate early ultrasound imaging can be recommended. Trial registration number NTR2403; Results. PMID:27872111
Sjøl, A; Thomsen, K K; Schroll, M; Andersen, L B
Secular trends in AMI rates were analyzed in relation to physical activity levels. The population attributable risk of physical inactivity was calculated. Participants were randomly selected subjects from a suburb of Copenhagen, Denmark, screened during the years 1964-1991. Occupational physical activity and in leisure time were assessed 1964, 1974, 1976, 1982, 1987 and 1991 by self-administered questionnaire along with smoking habits and alcohol consumption. Blood pressure, weight, height and serum lipids were measured according to WHO-standards. Mortality data were obtained from death certificates, from hospital records or autopsies. Acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) 1964-1994 were included. 13.925 men and women aged 30, 40, 50 and 60 years, were drawn as random samples from a background population of 300.000 inhabitants. A cohort born in 1914 was examined in 1964 and 1974, a cohort born in 1936, was examined in 1976 and 1987; Monica (Monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular diseases) I cohort were examined in 1982 and 1987; MONICA II in 1986, and MONICA III in 1991. Mean physical activity level at leisure adjusted for age and sex increased over time (P < 0001). 25% of the men were sedentary, and more women reported a sedentary lifestyle than men. The overall trend was from 1964 to 1992 a decline in physical activity at work (P < 0001) in both gender and all age groups. The difference in AMI incidence rates between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) levels increased over time. No change was found in AMI rates comparing sedentary in different time periods. A remarkable decrease over time in the AMI incidence rate was found in physically active during leisure time. Population attributable risk (PAR) exceeded 40% in both genders in the late 1980s. In conclusion the difference in AMI rates between LTPA subgroups has increased over time. The low AMI rates observed among the most physically active reveal a substantial potential for the prevention of AMI
Babson, Kimberly A; Trainor, Casey D; Feldner, Matthew T; Blumenthal, Heidemarie
Evidence indicates acute sleep deprivation affects negative mood states. The present study experimentally tested the effects of acute sleep deprivation on self-reported symptoms of state anxiety and depression as well as general distress among 88 physically and psychologically healthy adults. As hypothesized, the effects of acute sleep deprivation increased state anxiety and depression, as well as general distress, relative to a normal night of sleep control condition. Based on the tripartite model of anxiety and depression, these findings replicate and extend prior research by suggesting sleep deprivation among individuals without current Axis I disorders increases both state symptoms of anxiety and depression specifically, and general distress more broadly. Extending this work to clinical samples and prospectively testing mechanisms underlying these effects are important future directions in this area of research.
Hoge, Elizabeth A; Bui, Eric; Palitz, Sophie A; Schwarz, Noah R; Owens, Maryann E; Johnston, Jennifer M; Pollack, Mark H; Simon, Naomi M
Mindfulness-Based interventions have increased in popularity in psychiatry, but the impact of these treatments on disorder-relevant biomarkers would greatly enhance efficacy and mechanistic evidence. If Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is successfully treated, relevant biomarkers should change, supporting the impact of treatment and suggesting improved resilience to stress. Seventy adults with GAD were randomized to receive either Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or an attention control class; before and after, they underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Area-Under-the-Curve (AUC) concentrations were calculated for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. MBSR participants had a significantly greater reduction in ACTH AUC compared to control participants. Similarly, the MBSR group had a greater reduction in inflammatory cytokines' AUC concentrations. We found larger reductions in stress markers for patients with GAD in the MBSR class compared to control; this provides the first combined hormonal and immunological evidence that MBSR may enhance resilience to stress.
Togneri, Ana M; Podestá, Laura B; Pérez, Marcela P; Santiso, Gabriela M
A twelve-year retrospective review of Staphylococcus aureus infections in adult and pediatric patients (AP and PP respectively) assisted in the Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos Evita in Lanús was performed to determine the incidence, foci of infection, the source of infection and to analyze the profile of antimicrobial resistance. An amount of 2125 cases of infection in AP and 361 in PP were documented. The incidence in AP decreased significantly in the last three years (χi(2); p<0.05); in PP it increased significantly during the last five years (χ(2); p<0.0001). In both populations was detected a notable increase in skin infections and associated structures (PEA) in bacteremia to the starting point of a focus on PEA, and in total S. aureus infections of hospital-onset (χ(2); p < 0.005). Methicillin-resistance (MRSA) increased from 28 to 78% in PP; in AP it remained around 50%, with significant reduction in accompanying antimicrobial resistance to non-β-lactams in both groups of MRSA. In S. aureus documented from community onset infections (CO-MRSA) in the last three years, the percentage of methicillin-resistance was 57% in PP and 37% in AP; in hospital-onset infections it was 43% and 63% respectively. Although data showed that S. aureus remains a pathogen associated with the hospital-onset, there was an increase of CO-MRSA infections with predominance in PEA in both populations.
Boroojeny, Shahram Borjian; Fard, Maziar Mahjoubi
To evaluate the efficacy of preoperative oral clonidine (5 g/kg) in preventing ocular hypertension in the early period after cataract surgery with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation under general anaesthesia. This was a randomized double-blind clinical trial comprising of 62 eyes in 62 patients with senile cataract without using any viscoelastics. They were randomly assigned into two groups for preoperative oral clonidine (5 g/kg) and placebo. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured 6,12 and 24 hours postoperatively. Mean differences of lOPs at 6 and 12 hours after surgery were significantly lower in clonidine group [+0.41 4.55 (p = 0.612), 0.06 3.62 (p = 0.922)] than placebo group [5.77 4.25 (p = < 0.001), 4.70 3.19p < 0.001)] but was more than preoperative intraocular pressures in both. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean IOP 24hours post operatively in the two groups. But compared to preoperative IOP less increase in mean IOP was seen in clonidine group when compared to placebo group. A single dose of oral clonidine (5 g/kg) preoperatively can produce a significant IOP-lowering effect in early period after cataract surgery, specially in the first 12 hours.
Muncer, Steven J; Hannon, Bronagh C; Goodrich, Joanna; Cornwell, Jocelyn
Objective To evaluate the impact of Schwartz Center Rounds, a multi-disciplinary forum to reflect on the emotional consequences of working in healthcare, on the staff of a large acute general hospital over a three-year period. Design Evaluation data following each Round were collected routinely from all staff attending over this period and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Setting An integrated university teaching trust with both acute hospital and community services in the North East of England. Participants Over the three-year period of the study, 795 participant evaluation forms were returned by staff attending the Rounds. Main outcome measures A standard evaluation form completed at the end of each Round by those present, including ratings on a five-point scale against each of eight statements and an opportunity to offer additional free text comments. Results The findings show a very positive response to all aspects of the Rounds by staff who attended. The most highly rated statement was: ‘I have gained insight into how others think/feel in caring for patients’. This was reinforced by the qualitative analysis in which the primary theme was found to be Insight. There were no significant differences between disciplines/staff groups, indicating that all staff whether clinical or non-clinical responded to the Rounds equally positively. Conclusions Schwartz Rounds are highly valued by staff from all disciplines, and by managers and other non-clinicians as well as clinicians. They appear to have the potential to increase understanding between different staff, and so to reduce isolation and provide support. PMID:28050259
Fullen, Brona M; Maher, Thomas; Bury, Gerard; Tynan, Aodan; Daly, Leslie E; Hurley, Deirdre A
There are no national low back pain (LBP) clinical guidelines in Ireland, and neither the level of adherence of General Practitioners (GPs) to the European guidelines, nor the cost of LBP to the patient and the state, have been investigated. A prospective pilot study was conducted on 54 consenting patients (18M, 36F: mean age (SD): 40.5 (14.3) years) with a new episode of acute LBP (<3 months) attending one of nine participating GPs. Baseline demographic, LBP classification [i.e. simple back ache (SBA), nerve root pain (NRP), serious spinal pathology (SSP)] and primary care management data were recorded over a three month period. Adherence and costs were estimated based on: medication prescription, referral for investigations, treatment or consultations, and wage replacement costs (time signed off work). For both SBA and NRP, medication prescriptions were consistent with European guideline recommendations, but not for referral for further treatment (39% of SBA patients were referred on first visit), secondary care (54% of NRP patients were referred on first visit), or discontinuation of work (50% NRP patients on first GP visit). The average total cost (direct and wage replacement) for a single episode of LBP over 12 weeks was 20,531 Euros (20,300-20,762). Direct costs accounted for 43% [8874.36 Euros, (8643.37-9105.37 Euros)] and wage replacement costs 57% (11,657 Euros). In conclusion, management of acute LBP in a cohort of GPs in Ireland was not consistent with European clinical guideline recommendations, and warrants higher levels of postgraduate education among GPs, as well as restructuring of primary care services, which should improve patient outcome and reduce costs.
Weinberg, Michael; Besser, Avi; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Neria, Yuval
Although previous studies have rarely examined predictors of acute emotional responses to war trauma, this "natural laboratory" study aimed to examine the role that individual differences in dispositional optimism and self-esteem play in the development of acute symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and dissociative experiences. A sample of 140 female adults exposed to missile and rocket fire during an eruption of violence in the Middle East in November 2012 was assessed during real-time exposure. The results demonstrate inverse associations between dispositional optimism and acute symptoms of GAD and dissociation. The associations were accounted for by individual differences in self-esteem. In addition, individuals with low levels of dispositional optimism demonstrated a higher risk for acute GAD and dissociative experiences, in part because of their low levels of self-esteem. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Background Gastrointestinal symptoms are not an uncommon manifestation of an influenza virus infection. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the presence of influenza viruses in the stools of adult patients consulting their general practitioner for uncomplicated acute diarrhea (AD) and the proportion of concurrent infections by enteric and influenza viruses. Method A case-control study was conducted from December 2010 to April 2011. Stool specimens were collected and tested for influenza viruses A (seasonal A/H3N2 and pandemic A/H1N1) and B, and for four enteric viruses (astrovirus, group A rotavirus, human enteric adenovirus, norovirus of genogroups I – NoVGI - and genogroup II - NoVGII). Results General practitioners enrolled 138 cases and 93 controls. Of the 138 stool specimens collected, 92 (66.7%) were positive for at least one of the four enteric viruses analysed and 10 (7.2%) tested positive for one influenza virus. None of these 10 influenza positive patients reported respiratory symptoms. In five influenza-positive patients (3.6%), we also detected one enteric virus, with 4 of them being positive for influenza B (2 had co-detection with NoVGI, 1 with NoVGII, and 1 with astrovirus). None of the 93 controls tested positive for one of the enteric and/or other influenza viruses we investigated. Conclusions In this study we showed that the simultaneous detection of influenza and enteric viruses is not a rare event. We have also reported, for the first time in general practice, the presence of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses in the stools of adult patients consulting for uncomplicated AD. A simultaneous investigation of enteric and influenza viruses in patients complaining of gastrointestinal symptoms could be useful for future studies to better identify the agents responsible for AD. PMID:22709374
Uyeno, Jennifer; Heck, Carol S.
ABSTRACT Purpose: To examine discharge planning of patients in general internal medicine units in Ontario acute-care hospitals from the perspective of physiotherapists. Methods: A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was sent to participants in November 2011. Respondents' demographic characteristics and ranking of factors were analyzed using descriptive statistics; t-tests were performed to determine between-group differences (based on demographic characteristics). Responses to open-ended questions were coded to identify themes. Results: Mobility status was identified as the key factor in determining discharge readiness; other factors included the availability of social support and community resources. While inter-professional communication was identified as important, processes were often informal. Discharge policies, timely availability of other discharge options, and pressure for early discharge were identified as affecting discharge planning. Respondents also noted a lack of training in discharge planning; accounts of ethical dilemmas experienced by respondents supported these themes. Conclusions: Physiotherapists consider many factors beyond the patient's physical function during the discharge planning process. The improvement of team communication and resource allocation should be considered to deal with the realities of discharge planning. PMID:25125778
Sørensen, Sigrid B; Barazangi, Nobl; Chen, Charlene; Wong, Christine; Grosvenor, David; Rose, Jack; Bedenk, Ann; Morrow, Megan; McDermott, Dan; Hove, Jens D; Tong, David C
Common intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA) exclusion criteria may substantially limit the use of thrombolysis. Preliminary data have shown that the SMART (Simplified Management of Acute stroke using Revised Treatment) criteria greatly expand patient eligibility by reducing thrombolysis exclusions, but they have not been assessed on a large scale. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of general adoption of SMART thrombolysis criteria to a large regional stroke network. Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who received IV thrombolysis within a regional stroke network was performed. Patients were divided into those receiving thrombolysis locally versus at an outside hospital. The primary outcome was modified Rankin Scale score (≤1) at discharge and the main safety outcome was symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) rate. There were 539 consecutive patients, and 50.5% received thrombolysis at an outside facility. Ninety percent of the patients possessed common conventional IV rt-PA contraindications. There were no significant differences between local and network treated patients in favorable outcome (45.4% versus 37.4%; odds ratio [OR], .72; P > .09), mortality (9% versus 14%; OR, 1.6; P > .07), or sICH rate (2.6% versus 5.1%; OR, 2.0; P = .13). Multivariate analysis showed no association between receiving IV rt-PA at an outlying spoke hospital and higher rate of sICH or worse outcome at discharge. Generalized application of SMART criteria is safe and effective. Widespread application of these criteria could substantially increase the proportion of patients who might qualify for treatment. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FitzGerald, James M; O'Regan, Niamh; Adamis, Dimitrios; Timmons, Suzanne; Dunne, Colum P; Trzepacz, Paula T; Meagher, David J
Sleep disturbances in elderly medical inpatients are common, but their relationship to delirium and dementia has not been studied. Sleep and delirium status were assessed daily for a week in 145 consecutive newly admitted elderly acute general hospital patients using the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5, and Richards-Campbell Sleep Quality Scale measures. The longitudinal relationship between DRS-R98 and Richards-Campbell Sleep Quality Scale sleep scores and delirium, also with dementia as a covariate, was evaluated using generalized estimating equation logistic regression. The cohort was divided into delirium only, dementia only, comorbid delirium-dementia, and no-delirium/no-dementia subgroups. Mean age of total group was 80 ± 6.3, 48% were female, and 31 (21%) had dementia, 29 had delirium at admission (20%), and 27 (18.5%) experienced incident delirium. Mild sleep disturbance (DRS-R98 sleep item score ≥1) occurred for at least 1 day in all groups, whereas moderate sleep disturbance (score ≥2) occurred in significantly more of the prevalent delirium-only (81%; n = 17) cases than incident delirium-only (46%; n = 13) cases (P < .001). There were more cases with DRS-R98 sleep item scores ≥2 (P < .001) in the delirium-only group compared with the other subgroups. Severity of sleep-wake cycle disturbance over time was significantly associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5 delirium status but not with age, sex, or dementia (P < .001). Observer-rated more severe sleep-wake cycle disturbances are highly associated with delirium irrespective of dementia status, consistent with being a core feature of delirium. Monitoring for altered sleep-wake cycle patterns may be a simple way to improve delirium detection.
Chia, Michael P C
To describe an unusual case of canine toxicosis from presumptive sea hare ingestion, its management, and outcome. A young dog was treated for acute toxicosis after partially ingesting a giant sea hare washed up on a beach. The primary symptoms of generalized tremors, mild ataxia, and hyperesthesia occurred rapidly within 20 minutes of ingestion. Decontamination procedures were performed early and the dog made a full recovery within an approximate period of 6 hours. Sea hare toxicosis should be considered as a potential cause of acute onset of tremors, ataxia, and hyperesthesia in previously healthy dogs living in coastal areas. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.
Wolf, Marc E; Ebert, Anne D; Chatzikonstantinou, Anastasios
Specialized electroencephalography (EEG) methods have been used to provide clues about stroke features and prognosis. However, the value of routine EEG in stroke patients without (suspected) seizures has been somewhat neglected. We aimed to assess this in a group of acute ischemic stroke patients in regard to short-term prognosis and basic stroke features. We assessed routine (10-20) EEG findings in 69 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients without seizures. Associations between EEG abnormalities and NIHSS scores, clinical improvement or deterioration as well as MRI stroke characteristics were evaluated. Mean age was 69 ± 18 years, 43 of the patients (62.3%) were men. Abnormal EEG was found in 40 patients (58%) and was associated with higher age (p = 0.021). The most common EEG pathology was focal slowing (30; 43.5%). No epileptiform potentials were found. Abnormal EEG in general and generalized or focal slowing in particular was significantly associated with higher NIHSS score on admission and discharge as well as with hemorrhagic transformation of the ischemic lesion. Abnormal EEG and generalized (but not focal) slowing were associated with clinical deterioration ( p = 0.036, p = 0.003). Patients with lacunar strokes had no EEG abnormalities. Abnormal EEG in general and generalized slowing in particular are associated with clinical deterioration after acute ischemic stroke. The study demonstrates the value of routine EEG as a simple diagnostic tool in the evaluation of stroke patients especially with regard to short-term prognosis.
Rodriguez, M; Martinez, A; Sala, P; Pérez, R; Linares, A; Sánchez-Lombraña, J L; Rodrigo, L
The etiology and epidemiology of 547 consecutive episodes of acute viral hepatitis in adults and diagnosed in a general hospital over 12 years (1983-1994) were prospectively analyzed as were the changes observed during the two halves of the study period. Of the 547 episodes, 25.4% were of type A, 41.1% type B, 21.9% type C, 6.6% non A, non B, non C, 2.4% type D, 1.1% by cytomegalovirus and 1.4% by the Epstein-Barr virus. The proportion of hepatitis A increased from 21.5% from 1983-1988 to 34.1% from 1989-1994 (p = 0.002), while hepatitis C decreased from 24.9% to 15.3% (p = 0.01) during the same periods. The proportion of hepatitis B observed in intravenous drug addicts fell from 56.1% in the first period to 39.3% in the second period (p = 0.03), while sexually transmitted hepatitis B rose from 7.3% to 22.9% (p = 0.002). A decrease was observed in the cases of hepatitis C in both periods in the intravenous drug addict cases (60.6% vs. 34.6%; p = 0.03) with an increase being observed in the C virus transmitted by unapparent mechanisms (2.1% vs. 23.1%; p = 0.001). These results suggest that modifications may currently be observed in the epidemiology of the viral hepatitis in Spain and that these trends should be taken into account when planning preventive strategies.
Lü, Shu-Hong; Tian, Ben-Chun; Yang, Ting-Zhong; Chen, Ding-Wan; Chi, Yan-Hua
To find out the perceived stress in general public during prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and its impact on health behavior. A retrospective survey was conducted in Guangzhou, Hangzhou, and Taiyuan according to the epidemic situations of SARS, and 2532 subjects were randomly selected from constructive industry, school, and commercial business and residents in urban and rural areas. The perceive stress was measured by Chinese perceived stress scale (CPSS), and health related behavior during SARS was tested by uniform and self-made questionnaire. EpiData 2.0 was used for data management and CPSS value was calculated according to answer to 14 questions contained in the scale. Health risk stress among different population group and health related behavior among low, medium and high stress state were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. 2424 subjects were involved in the survey. The CPSS value was measured from 0 - 49 (22.7 +/- 6.8), M = 24.0. 39.3% (953/2379) subjects were under the health risk stress. The health related behaviors such as washing hands, opening the window for air, keeping away from others when cough and sneeze, doing exercises etc were reduced with the stress increased. Logistic regression indicated that compared with the persons with the thoughts of nothing serious of SARS, without any dread of SARS, and knowing nothing about prevention of SARS, the perceived stress was significantly related with perceiving of the thread to certain extent (beta = 0.41, Wald chi(2) = 4.84, P = 0.03), worrying little about the epidemic (beta = 0.50, Wald chi(2) = 6.69, P = 0.01), worrying about it to certain extent (beta = 1.39, Wald chi(2) = 48.59, P = 0.00) and scared so much (beta = 1.77, Wald chi(2) = 53.59, P = 0.00), and knowing little about the prevention (beta = 0.74, Wald chi(2) = 4.48, P = 0.03), knowing something about prevention (beta = -0.98, Wald chi(2) = 8.29, P = 0.00) and knowing the prevention very well (beta = -1.18, Wald chi(2) = 10.66, P
Harris, Tim; McDonald, Keith
To benchmark walk-in presentations to emergency departments (ED) with those presenting to other local acute healthcare facilities. A large teaching hospital with an annual ED census of 140, 000 adult patients and surrounding associated acute healthcare providers. A random sample of 384 patients who self-presented to the ED was obtained. Benchmarking data were drawn from two general practices; the Tower Hamlets Community Services walk-in centre (co-located on-site with the ED) and the GP-run out-of-hours service. The case-mix presenting to the ED was characterised by a higher proportion of injuries and chest pain, but fewer simple infections and non-traumatic musculoskeletal conditions as compared to other acute care facilities in our region. Patients with injuries and possible cardiac chest pain were more likely to attend the ED, and those with infection or musculoskeletal problems less likely, as compared with other acute healthcare facilities. The population presenting to the ED is distinct from that presenting to general practice, out-of-hours clinics, or walk-in centres. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Karpova, M N; Kuznetsova, L V; Zin'kovskii, K A; Klishina, N V
We studied anticonvulsant effects of combined treatment with citicoline, a nootropic substance with neuroregenerative and neuroprotective activities, and valproate, an antiepileptic agent widely used in the treatment of epilepsy, on the model of pentylenetetrazole-induced (75 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) acute generalized convulsions in male Wistar rats. Combined treatment with citicoline and valproate in minimum effective doses (70 and 300 mg/kg, respectively) potentiated the anticonvulsant properties of both agents.
Ou, Judy Y; Smits-Seemann, Rochelle R; Kaul, Sapna; Fluchel, Mark N; Sweeney, Carol; Kirchhoff, Anne C
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) has a high survival rate, but cancer-related late effects in the early post-treatment years need documentation. Hospitalizations are an indicator of the burden of late effects. We identify rates and risk factors for hospitalization from five to ten years after diagnosis for childhood and adolescent ALL survivors compared to siblings and a matched population sample. 176 ALL survivors were diagnosed at ≤22 years between 1998 and 2008 and treated at an Intermountain Healthcare facility. The Utah Population Database identified siblings, an age- and sex-matched sample of the Utah population, and statewide inpatient hospital discharges. Sex- and birth year-adjusted Poisson models with Generalized Estimating Equations and robust standard errors calculated rates and rate ratios. Cox proportional hazards models identified demographic and clinical risk factors for hospitalizations among survivors. Hospitalization rates for survivors (Rate:3.76, 95% CI=2.22-6.36) were higher than siblings (Rate:2.69, 95% CI=1.01-7.18) and the population sample (Rate:1.87, 95% CI=1.13-3.09). Compared to siblings and population comparisons, rate ratios (RR) were significantly higher for survivors diagnosed between age 6 and 22 years (RR:2.87, 95% CI=1.03-7.97 vs siblings; RR:2.66, 95% CI=1.17-6.04 vs population comparisons). Rate ratios for diagnosis between 2004 and 2008 were significantly higher compared to the population sample (RR:4.29, 95% CI=1.49, 12.32), but not siblings (RR:2.73, 95% CI=0.54, 13.68). Survivors originally diagnosed with high-risk ALL did not have a significantly higher risk than siblings or population comparators. However, high-risk ALL survivors (Hazard ratio [HR]:3.36, 95% CI=1.33-8.45) and survivors diagnosed from 2004 to 2008 (HR:9.48, 95% CI=1.93-46.59) had the highest risk compared to their survivor counterparts. Five to ten years after diagnosis is a sensitive time period for hospitalizations in the ALL population. Survivors of
Koshy, Elizabeth; Watt, Hilary; Curcin, Vasa; Bottle, Alex; Sharland, Mike; Saxena, Sonia
To investigate the effectiveness of tonsillectomy in reducing acute throat infection (ATI) consultation rates over 6 years' follow-up among children with low baseline ATI consultation rates. Retrospective cohort study. UK general practices from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Children aged 4-15 years with ≤3 ATI consultations during the 3 years prior to 2001 (baseline). 450 children who underwent tonsillectomy (tonsillectomy group) and 13 442 other children with an ATI consultation (comparison group) in 2001. Mean differences in ATI consultation rates over the first 3 years' and subsequent 3 years' follow-up compared with 3 years prior to 2001 (baseline); odds of ≥3 ATI consultations at the same time points. Among children in the tonsillectomy group, the 3-year mean ATI consultation rate decreased from 1.31 to 0.66 over the first 3 years' follow-up and further declined to 0.60 over the subsequent 3 years' follow-up period. Compared with children who had no operation, those who underwent tonsillectomy experienced a reduction in 3-year mean ATI consultations per child of 2.5 (95% CI 2.3 to 2.6, p<0.001) over the first 3 years' follow-up, but only 1.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.4, p<0.001) over the subsequent 3 years' follow-up compared with baseline, respectively. This equates to a mean reduction of 3.7 ATI consultations over a 6-year period and approximates to a mean annual reduction of 0.6 ATI consultations per child, per year, over 6 years' follow-up. Children who underwent tonsillectomy were also much less likely to experience ≥3 ATI consultations during the first 3 years' follow-up (adjusted OR=0.12, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.17) and the subsequent 3 years' follow-up (adjusted OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.41). Among children with low baseline ATI rates, there was a statistically significant reduction in ATI consultation rates over 6 years' follow-up. However, the relatively modest clinical benefit needs to be weighed against the potential
Arena, Christophe; Amoros, Jean Pierre; Vaillant, Véronique; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Chikhi-Brachet, Roxane; Jourdan-Da Silva, Nathalie; Varesi, Laurent; Arrighi, Jean; Souty, Cécile; Blanchon, Thierry; Falchi, Alessandra; Hanslik, Thomas
Data describing the epidemiology and management of viral acute diarrhea (AD) in adults are scant. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence, clinical characteristics, management and risk factors of winter viral AD in adults. The incidence of AD in adults during two consecutive winters (from December 2010 to April 2011 and from December 2011 to April 2012) was estimated from the French Sentinelles network. During these two winters, a subset of Sentinelles general practitioners (GPs) identified and included adult patients who presented with AD and who filled out a questionnaire and returned a stool specimen for virological examination. All stool specimens were tested for astrovirus, group A rotavirus, human enteric adenovirus, and norovirus of genogroup I and genogroup II. Age- and sex-matched controls were included to permit a case-control analysis with the aim of identifying risk factors for viral AD. During the studied winters, the average incidence of AD in adults was estimated to be 3,158 per 100,000 French adults (95% CI [2,321 - 3,997]). The most reported clinical signs were abdominal pain (91.1%), watery diarrhea (88.5%), and nausea (83.3%). GPs prescribed a treatment in 95% of the patients with AD, and 80% of the working patients with AD could not go to work. Stool examinations were positive for at least one enteric virus in 65% (95% CI [57 - 73]) of patients with AD with a predominance of noroviruses (49%). Having been in contact with a person who has suffered from AD in the last 7 days, whether within or outside the household, and having a job (or being a student) were risk factors significantly associated with acquiring viral AD. During the winter, AD of viral origin is a frequent disease in adults, and noroviruses are most often the cause. No preventable risk factor was identified other than contact with a person with AD. Thus, at the present time, reinforcement of education related to hand hygiene remains the only way to reduce the
Bienvenu, O Joseph; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Shanholtz, Carl; Dennison-Himmelfarb, Cheryl R; Pronovost, Peter J; Needham, Dale M
To evaluate the cooccurrence, and predictors of remission, of general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during 2-year follow-up in survivors of acute lung injury treated in an ICU. Prospective cohort study, with follow-up at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months post-acute lung injury. Thirteen medical and surgical ICUs in four hospitals. Survivors among 520 patients with acute lung injury. The outcomes of interest were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety and depression subscales (scores ≥ 8 indicating substantial symptoms) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (scores ≥ 1.6 indicating substantial posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms). Of the 520 enrolled patients, 274 died before 3-month follow-up; 186 of 196 consenting survivors (95%) completed at least one Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessment during 2-year follow-up, and most completed multiple assessments. Across follow-up time points, the prevalence of suprathreshold general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms ranged from 38% to 44%, 26% to 33%, and 22% to 24%, respectively; more than half of the patients had suprathreshold symptoms in at least one domain during 2-year follow-up. The majority of survivors (59%) with any suprathreshold symptoms were above threshold for two or more types of symptoms (i.e., general anxiety, depression, and/or posttraumatic stress disorder). In fact, the most common pattern involved simultaneous general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Most patients with general anxiety, depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during 2-year follow-up had suprathreshold symptoms at 24-month (last) follow-up. Higher Short-Form-36 physical functioning domain scores at the prior visit were associated with a greater likelihood of remission from general anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during follow-up. The majority
Fournier, T; Vranckx, R; Mejdoubi, N; Durand, G; Porquet, D
Phenobarbital (PB) induces transcription of the alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) gene, one of the major positive acute-phase proteins, the expression of which is controlled by a specific combination of glucocorticoids and cytokines. This raises questions as to the involvement of glucocorticoids and cytokine pathways in the PB-mediated effect on AGP gene expression. We found that the pattern of whole-serum proteins in PB-treated rats differed markedly from that observed during a typical acute inflammatory response (in turpentine-treated rats): levels of some positive acute-phase proteins (APP) increased slightly (alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, hemopexin and T-kininogen), while levels of alpha 2 macroglobulin, the most sensitive marker of the acute-phase reaction, decreased. Among the negative APP, neither albumin nor prealbumin decreased while CBG increased. The cytokines involved in AGP gene regulation (mainly IL1, IL6 and TNF alpha) do not therefore seem to mediate the effect of PB on acute-phase protein expression. Glucocorticoid involvement is also ruled out by the observed enhancement of the effect of PB on AGP expression in adrenalectomized animals. Our results suggest that phenobarbital acts on AGP expression by a mechanism independent of the inflammatory pathway.
factitious- ness, it appears reasonable to apply the term mofpbotropic mortal necrobiosis also to ganglion cell changes after acute death« Consequently... necrobiosis can.b^ applied PROJEGT’ÜÜMBER 21-23-W4* REPORTNÜMjBER 1 in the present connection as well» Whenever a new term is introduced, one has to make...Occasionally, one can observe a mörphötropic necrobiosis of intravital origin within a morpbo- trppic mortal necrobiosis . We examined one case, for
Breen, Alan; Carr, Eloise; Mann, Eileen; Crossen-White, Holly
(1) To determine the acceptability of the Royal College of General Practitioner Guidelines to small samples of nurses, General Practitioners and acute back pain patients, (2) to determine what additional roles for nurses in the management of acute back pain in primary care might be acceptable to these samples, (3) to evaluate the responses of General Practitioners, nurses and patients to a suggested service model based on the RCGP Guidelines, (4) to identify opportunities for and barriers to the further development of such models and to obtain the appraisal of the above by an external group of assessors. Using a qualitative design the pilot study included Primary Care (General Practitioners, Practice Nurses and Patients) with the main outcome measures as: appraisal questionnaires (for RCGP Guideline), qualitative content analysis of focus group narratives, and appraisal of process and outcomes by an external panel. Attitudes towards the RCGP guidelines were positive, but professionals and patients alike did not think their recommendations could be implemented with the current service provision in primary care. There was criticism by professionals of the capacity for a nurse-led service within practices. Access to chiropractors, osteopaths and/or specialist physiotherapists in National Health Service primary care was raised as a need by both groups. All members of the Advisory Panel approved the processes for the recruitment of participants, focus group questions and analysis. Barriers to implementation of the RCGP Guideline and to a nurse-led acute back pain service in general practice, were illustrated. These mainly relate to grossly inadequate capacity to deal with multidimensional patient needs, allowing progression to chronic pain states and much higher health care costs. There was a strong desire to include a different group of professionals in primary care. We recommend a local needs assessment and consideration of a national strategy for the implementation
Tomlinson, Emily Jane; Phillips, Nicole M; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Hutchinson, Alison M
To determine predisposing and precipitating risk factors for incident delirium in medical patients during an acute hospital admission. Incident delirium is the most common complication of hospital admission for older patients. Up to 30% of hospitalised medical patients experience incident delirium. Determining risk factors for delirium is important for identifying patients who are most susceptible to incident delirium. Retrospective case-control study with two controls per case. An audit tool was used to review medical records of patients admitted to acute medical units for data regarding potential risk factors for delirium. Data were collected between August 2013 and March 2014 at three hospital sites of a healthcare organisation in Melbourne, Australia. Cases were 161 patients admitted to an acute medical ward and diagnosed with incident delirium between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. Controls were 321 patients sampled from the acute medical population admitted within the same time range, stratified for admission location and who did not develop incident delirium during hospitalisation. Identified using logistic regression modelling, predisposing risk factors for incident delirium were dementia, cognitive impairment, functional impairment, previous delirium and fracture on admission. Precipitating risk factors for incident delirium were use of an indwelling catheter, adding more than three medications during admission and having an abnormal sodium level during admission. Multiple risk factors for incident delirium exist; patients with a history of delirium, dementia and cognitive impairment are at greatest risk of developing delirium during hospitalisation. Nurses and other healthcare professionals should be aware of patients who have one or more risk factors for incident delirium. Knowledge of risk factors for delirium has the potential to increase the recognition and understanding of patients who are vulnerable to delirium. Early recognition and
Høye, Sigurd; Straand, Jørund; Brekke, Mette; Dalen, Ingvild; Lindbæk, Morten
Objective To assess the effects of a multifaceted educational intervention in Norwegian general practice aiming to reduce antibiotic prescription rates for acute respiratory tract infections and to reduce the use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Design Cluster randomised controlled study. Setting Existing continuing medical education groups were recruited and randomised to intervention or control. Participants 79 groups, comprising 382 general practitioners, completed the interventions and data extractions. Interventions The intervention groups had two visits by peer academic detailers, the first presenting the national clinical guidelines for antibiotic use and recent research evidence on acute respiratory tract infections, the second based on feedback reports on each general practitioner’s antibiotic prescribing profile from the preceding year. Regional one day seminars were arranged as a supplement. The control arm received a different intervention targeting prescribing practice for older patients. Main outcome measures Prescription rates and proportion of non-penicillin V antibiotics prescribed at the group level before and after the intervention, compared with corresponding data from the controls. Results In an adjusted, multilevel model, the effect of the intervention on the 39 intervention groups (183 general practitioners) was a reduction (odds ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.84) in prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections compared with the controls (40 continuing medical education groups with 199 general practitioners). A corresponding reduction was seen in the odds (0.64, 0.49 to 0.82) for prescribing a non-penicillin V antibiotic when an antibiotic was issued. Prescriptions per 1000 listed patients increased from 80.3 to 84.6 in the intervention arm and from 80.9 to 89.0 in the control arm, but this reflects a greater incidence of infections (particularly pneumonia) that needed treating in the intervention arm
Salonga-Reyes, Armi; Scott, Ian A
Objectives The aims of the present study were to identify causes of prolonged discharge delays among non-acute in-patients admitted to a tertiary general medicine service, quantify occupied bed days (OBDs) and propose strategies for eliminating avoidable delays.Methods A retrospective study was performed of patients admitted between 1 January 2012 and 31 May 2015 and discharged as non-acute cases requiring maintenance care and who incurred a total non-acute length of stay (LOS) >7 days and total hospital LOS >14 days. Long-stay patients with non-acute LOS ≥28 days were subject to chart review in ascertaining serial causes of discharge delay and their attributable OBDs. Literature reviews and staff feedback identified potential strategies for minimising delays.Results Of the 406 patients included in the present study, 131 incurred long-stays; for these 131 patients, delays were identified that accounted for 5420 of 6033 (90%) non-acute OBDs. Lack of available residential care beds was most frequent, accounting for 44% of OBDs. Waits for outcomes of guardianship applications accounted for 13%, whereas guardian appointments, Public Trustee applications and funding decisions for equipment or care packages each consumed between 4% and 5% of OBDs. Family and/or carer refusal of care accounted for 7%. Waits for aged care assessment team (ACAT) assessments, social worker reports, geriatrician or psychiatrist reviews and confirmation of enduring power of attorney each accounted for between 1% and 3% of OBDs. Of 30 proposed remedial strategies, those rated as high priority were: greater access to interim care or respite care beds or supported accommodation, especially for patients with special needs; dedicated agency officers for hospital guardianship applications and greater interagency collaboration and harmonisation of assessment and decision processes; and formal requests from hospital administrators to patients and family to accept care options and attend mediation
Feeney, L; Kavanagh, A; Kelly, B D; Mooney, M
The environment of a hospital can have a significant impact on the experiences of patients. In March 2003 a new purpose built acute psychiatric admission unit opened on the site of Kilkenny General hospital, while the admission wards of the 2 local stand-alone psychiatric hospitals closed. We sought to compare admissions before and after the move, hypothesising that there would be lower levels of aggression, sedative prescribing and intoxicant abuse in the new unit. Details of 98 acute admissions that occurred during the first 3 months of 2002 were compared to 97 acute admissions that occurred during the first 3 months of 2004. Average daily diazepam and chlorpromazine equivalents were calculated for each patient. The Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) was used to compare levels of aggression. Compared to 2002 fewer patients left the hospital against medical advice in 2004 (OR 0.35, p = 0.027). Overall levels of aggression fell significantly (p = 0.001). Levels of benzodiazapine prescribing also fell (Mean diazepam daily dose 5.75 mg in 2002 versus 4.14 mg in 2004; p = 0.003). There were trends towards reductions in involuntary admissions, admissions of intoxicated people, patients abusing intoxicants in hospital and in antipsychotic prescribing. It is likely that the more pleasant, better designed and less stigmatising environment of the new unit together with the renewed energy and optimism of clinical staff contributed to the changes observed.
Senado-Lara, Isaac; Castro-Mendoza, Antonio; Palacio-Vélez, Fernando; Vargas-Avila, Arcenio Luis
To know the current state of surgical management of patients with abdominal trauma. We carried out a retrospective, observational, transversal study involving patients with abdominal trauma with clinical files wtih trauma who required surgery during the period of April 1, 1998 through March 30, 2003. There were 72 cases including nine male and 33 female patients. Mechanism of lesion was divided into closed and penetrating trauma, the latter group of patients divided into individuals with blunt wounds or with gunshot wounds. Most frequent early postoperative complication was hemorrhage, while most frequent late postoperative complication was acute renal failure. Causes of death were hypovolemic shock in four patients followed by two cases each with the following pathologies: acute respiratory insufficiency syndrome; myocardial infarct, and septic shock. Abdominal trauma is a frequent pathology in our environment, males the most affected patients, with penetrating trauma main lesion cause. Prolonged surgical time required hemotransfusions, and infectious processes together with processes related with tissular hypoxia are the most common cause of complications and death.
McKenzie, Joanne E; French, Simon D; O'Connor, Denise A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Mortimer, Duncan; Michie, Susan; Francis, Jill; Spike, Neil; Schattner, Peter; Kent, Peter M; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Green, Sally E
Background Evidence generated from reliable research is not frequently implemented into clinical practice. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are a potential vehicle to achieve this. A recent systematic review of implementation strategies of guideline dissemination concluded that there was a lack of evidence regarding effective strategies to promote the uptake of guidelines. Recommendations from this review, and other studies, have suggested the use of interventions that are theoretically based because these may be more effective than those that are not. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the management of acute low back pain was recently developed in Australia. This provides an opportunity to develop and test a theory-based implementation intervention for a condition which is common, has a high burden, and for which there is an evidence-practice gap in the primary care setting. Aim This study aims to test the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention for implementing a clinical practice guideline for acute low back pain in general practice in Victoria, Australia. Specifically, our primary objectives are to establish if the intervention is effective in reducing the percentage of patients who are referred for a plain x-ray, and improving mean level of disability for patients three months post-consultation. Methods/Design This study protocol describes the details of a cluster randomised controlled trial. Ninety-two general practices (clusters), which include at least one consenting general practitioner, will be randomised to an intervention or control arm using restricted randomisation. Patients aged 18 years or older who visit a participating practitioner for acute non-specific low back pain of less than three months duration will be eligible for inclusion. An average of twenty-five patients per general practice will be recruited, providing a total of 2,300 patient participants. General practitioners in the control arm will receive access
Vos, Cees J; Verhagen, Arianne P; Koes, Bart W
A prospective cohort study with a 1 week follow-up. To examine the reliability and responsiveness of the Dutch version of the Neck Disability Index (NDI) in patients with acute neck pain in general practice. An increasing number of studies on treatment options is published in which the NDI is used. Reports of the ability of the NDI to detect change over time, often called responsiveness, however have not yet been published. At baseline 187 patients (119 women, 68 men) were included. They completed a questionnaire on demographic variables, self-reported cause of their complaints and the NDI. After 1 week, 86 patients were sent the NDI again together with the perceived recovery scale which was used as our external criterion. The scale ranged from 1 (complete recovery) to 7 (complaints are worse than ever). Response rate was 93%. Test-retest scores on reliability were good (ICC = 0.90). A Bland and Altman plot and a graph of total sum score differences showed no visible tendency towards unequal spreading of the data. For patients that reported on the perceived recovery scale that they were "stable" we found a responsiveness ratio of 1.82. The standard error of measurement (SEM) was 0.60 what resulted in a minimal detectable change (MDC) of 1.66. The NDI has shown to be a reliable and responsive instrument in patients with acute neck pain in general practice.
Baeza, Fernanda L; da Rocha, Neusa S; Fleck, Marcelo P
There have been significant reductions in numbers of psychiatric beds and length of stay (LOS) worldwide, making LOS in psychiatric beds an interesting outcome. The objective of this study was to find factors measurable on admission that would predict LOS in the acute psychiatric setting. This was a prospective, observational study. Overall, 385 subjects were included. The median LOS was 25 days. In the final model, six variables explained 14.6% of the variation in LOS: not having own income, psychiatric admissions in the preceding 2 years, high Clinical Global Impression and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores, diagnosis of schizophrenia, and history of attempted suicide. All variables were associated with longer LOS, apart from history of attempted suicide. Identifying patients who will need to stay longer in psychiatric beds remains a challenge. Improving knowledge about determinants of LOS could lead to improvements in the quality of care in hospital psychiatry.
Zerbo, Erin; Cohen, Shelly; Bielska, Wiktoria; Caligor, Eve
Transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) is a manualized, psychodynamic treatment for severe personality disorders. Training in TFP during residency can provide a readily applicable model for understanding and treating personality pathology in a variety of settings, even for residents who do not obtain additional training in psychodynamic treatments or go on to practice psychotherapy. Although TFP was developed as a long-term outpatient treatment, the authors have found the diagnostic and theoretical framework and the clinical techniques described in the TFP treatment manual to be useful in acute settings, even when the clinician does not have a clearly established relationship with the patient. In the authors' experience, residents find this model of understanding and working with patients with personality disorders enjoyable to learn and easy to apply.
Parker, Zachary M; Pasieka, Tracy Jo; Parker, George A; Leib, David A
The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure, which is often fatal. Although herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1. In this study, we used bone marrow chimeras of IFN-αβγR(-/-) (AG129) and wild-type (WT; 129SvEv) mice to probe the underlying IFN-dependent mechanisms that control HSV-1 pathogenesis. After infection, WT mice with either IFN-αβγR(-/-) or WT marrow exhibited comparable survival, while IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice with WT marrow had a significant survival advantage over their counterparts with IFN-αβγR(-/-) marrow. Furthermore, using bioluminescent imaging to maximize data acquisition, we showed that the transfer of IFN-competent hematopoietic cells controlled HSV-1 replication and damage in the livers of IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice. Consistent with this, the inability of IFN-αβγR(-/-) immune cells to control liver infection in IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice manifested as profoundly elevated aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, indicative of severe liver damage. In contrast, IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice receiving WT marrow exhibited only modest elevations of AST and ALT levels. These studies indicate that IFN responsiveness of the immune system is a major determinant of viral tropism and damage during visceral HSV infections. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is an incurable viral infection with the most significant morbidity and mortality occurring in neonates and patients with compromised immune systems. Severe pathologies from HSV include the
Small, Neil; Green, John; Spink, Joanna; Forster, Anne; Young, John
This article contrasts community hospital and general hospital philosophies of care and examines how they relate to patients' and caregivers' experiences. Semi-structured interviews with 42 staff were used to produce care setting vignettes in six community hospitals and four general hospitals in the midlands and north of England. The vignettes were used with 26 patients and 10 caregivers in semi-structured interviews. Community hospital and general hospital staff identified shared understandings of requirements for post-acute rehabilitation care for older people. Distinctive features were: general hospital--medical efficiency, helping patients get better, high standard of care, need for stimulation; community hospital--home-like setting, quiet, calm ambience, good views, orientated to elderly people, encouragement of social interaction, involvement of relatives in care. In the main there was symmetry between staff aspirations and patients' experience. However some concepts used and assumptions made by staff were not recognised by patients. These were characteristically reframed in patients' answers as if they were discussing subjective dimensions of care. There was patient and caregiver preference for the home-like environment of community hospitals. In care of older people, where the focus is rehabilitation, patient preferences are particularly pertinent and should be considered alongside clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness.
Rochat, Laurence; Bizzini, Alain; Senn, Nicolas; Bochud, Pierre-Yves; Genton, Blaise; de Vallière, Serge
In 2011, a patient was admitted to our hospital with acute schistosomiasis after having returned from Madagascar and having bathed at the Lily waterfalls. On the basis of this patient's indication, infection was suspected in 41 other subjects. This study investigated (1) the knowledge of the travelers about the risks of schistosomiasis and their related behavior to evaluate the appropriateness of prevention messages and (2) the diagnostic workup of symptomatic travelers by general practitioners to evaluate medical care of travelers with a history of freshwater exposure in tropical areas. A questionnaire was sent to the 42 travelers with potential exposure to schistosomiasis. It focused on pre-travel knowledge of the disease, bathing conditions, clinical presentation, first suspected diagnosis, and treatment. Of the 42 questionnaires, 40 (95%) were returned, among which 37 travelers (92%) reported an exposure to freshwater, and 18 (45%) were aware of the risk of schistosomiasis. Among these latter subjects, 16 (89%) still reported an exposure to freshwater. Serology was positive in 28 (78%) of 36 exposed subjects at least 3 months after exposure. Of the 28 infected travelers, 23 (82%) exhibited symptoms and 16 (70%) consulted their general practitioner before the information about the outbreak had spread, but none of these patients had a serology for schistosomiasis done during the first consultation. The usual prevention message of avoiding freshwater contact when traveling in tropical regions had no impact on the behavior of these travelers, who still went swimming at the Lily waterfalls. This prevention message should, therefore, be either modified or abandoned. The clinical presentation of acute schistosomiasis is often misleading. General practitioners should at least request an eosinophil count, when confronted with a returning traveler with fever. If eosinophilia is detected, it should prompt the search for a parasitic disease. © 2015 International Society
Objective: To investigate the population of bipolar patients in a general hospital in Germany who required treatment by a consultant psychiatrist. Method: A retrospective analysis was conducted of the clinical records of 47 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were treated by a consultant psychiatrist between 2009 and 2012 in one of the general hospitals of Charité Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany. We investigated the sections of the hospital that requested psychiatric consultations for bipolar patients, the status of these patients, and their primary cause of treatment, as well as the intervention (including pharmacotherapy) recommended by the consultant psychiatrist. Results: For more than half of the patients, their psychiatric illness was either directly or indirectly the reason they presented to the hospital. The remaining bipolar patients were treated for various somatic illnesses unrelated to their bipolar disorder throughout the hospital, with a relative overrepresentation of patients in the neurology department. More than half of the patients were referred to a psychiatric hospital by the consultant psychiatrist. Benzodiazepines were the most commonly administered drugs for acute pharmacologic intervention. Conclusions: Psychiatric consultations are not frequently requested for bipolar patients compared to those with other psychiatric disorders. However, more than half of the bipolar patients needed further psychiatric treatment in a psychiatric hospital. This finding emphasizes the importance of psychiatric consultations in a general hospital for bipolar patients. The administration of benzodiazepines as an acute treatment seems to be the standard pharmacologic procedure, not a specific pharmacotherapy like mood stabilizers. PMID:25133062
Kwak, Yee Gyung; Moon, Chisook; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Baek-Nam
Antibiotics are often administered to terminally ill patients until death, and antibiotic use contributes to the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). We investigated antibiotic use and the isolation of MDROs among patients who died in general medical wards. All adult patients who died in the general internal medicine wards at four acute care hospitals between January and June 2013 were enrolled. For comparison with these deceased patients, the same number of surviving, discharged patients was selected from the same divisions of internal medicine subspecialties during the same period. During the study period, 303 deceased patients were enrolled; among them, 265 (87.5%) had do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders in their medical records. Antibiotic use was more common in patients who died than in those who survived (87.5% vs. 65.7%, P<0.001). Among deceased patients with DNR orders, antibiotic use was continued in 59.6% of patients after obtaining their DNR orders. Deceased patients received more antibiotic therapy courses (two [interquartile range (IQR) 1-3] vs. one [IQR 0-2], P<0.001). Antibiotics were used for longer durations in deceased patients than in surviving patients (13 [IQR 5-23] vs. seven days [IQR 0-18], P<0.001). MDROs were also more common in deceased patients than in surviving patients (25.7% vs. 10.6%, P<0.001). Patients who died in the general medical wards of acute care hospitals were exposed to more antibiotics than patients who survived. In particular, antibiotic prescription was common even after obtaining DNR orders in patients who died. The isolation of MDROs during the hospital stay was more common in these patients who died. Strategies for judicious antibiotic use and appropriate infection control should be applied to these patient populations.
Kheterpal, Sachin; Tremper, Kevin K; Heung, Michael; Rosenberg, Andrew L; Englesbe, Michael; Shanks, Amy M; Campbell, Darrell A
The authors sought to identify the incidence, risk factors, and mortality impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) after general surgery using a large and representative national clinical data set. The 2005-2006 American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program participant use data file is a compilation of outcome data from general surgery procedures performed in 121 US medical centers. The primary outcome was AKI within 30 days, defined as an increase in serum creatinine of at least 2 mg/dl or acute renal failure necessitating dialysis. A variety of patient comorbidities and operative characteristics were evaluated as possible predictors of AKI. A logistic regression full model fit was used to create an AKI model and risk index. Thirty-day mortality among patients with and without AKI was compared. Of 152,244 operations reviewed, 75,952 met the inclusion criteria, and 762 (1.0%) were complicated by AKI. The authors identified 11 independent preoperative predictors: age 56 yr or older, male sex, emergency surgery, intraperitoneal surgery, diabetes mellitus necessitating oral therapy, diabetes mellitus necessitating insulin therapy, active congestive heart failure, ascites, hypertension, mild preoperative renal insufficiency, and moderate preoperative renal insufficiency. The c statistic for a simplified risk index was 0.80 in the derivation and validation cohorts. Class V patients (six or more risk factors) had a 9% incidence of AKI. Overall, patients experiencing AKI had an eightfold increase in 30-day mortality. Approximately 1% of general surgery cases are complicated by AKI. The authors have developed a robust risk index based on easily identified preoperative comorbidities and patient characteristics.
Paulsson, Kajsa; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; MacDougall, Finlay; Stevens, Jane; Stasevich, Irina; Vrcelj, Nikoletta; Chaplin, Tracy; Lillington, Debra M.; Lister, T. Andrew; Young, Bryan D.
We present here a genome-wide map of abnormalities found in diagnostic samples from 45 adults and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A 500K SNP array analysis uncovered frequent genetic abnormalities, with cryptic deletions constituting half of the detected changes, implying that microdeletions are a characteristic feature of this malignancy. Importantly, the pattern of deletions resembled that recently reported in pediatric ALL, suggesting that adult, adolescent, and childhood cases may be more similar on the genetic level than previously thought. Thus, 70% of the cases displayed deletion of one or more of the CDKN2A, PAX5, IKZF1, ETV6, RB1, and EBF1 genes. Furthermore, several genes not previously implicated in the pathogenesis of ALL were identified as possible recurrent targets of deletion. In total, the SNP array analysis identified 367 genetic abnormalities not corresponding to known copy number polymorphisms, with all but two cases (96%) displaying at least one cryptic change. The resolution level of this SNP array study is the highest used to date to investigate a malignant hematologic disorder. Our findings provide insights into the leukemogenic process and may be clinically important in adult and adolescent ALL. Most importantly, we report that microdeletions of key genes appear to be a common, characteristic feature of ALL that is shared among different clinical, morphological, and cytogenetic subgroups. PMID:18458336
Olaussen, Morten; Holmedal, Øystein; Lindbaek, Morten; Brage, Søren
Lateral epicondylitis is a painful condition responsible for loss of function and sick leave for long periods of time. In many countries, the treatment guidelines recommend a wait-and-see policy, reflecting that no conclusions on the best treatment can be drawn from the available research, published studies and meta-analyses. Randomized double blind controlled clinical trial in a primary care setting. While earlier trials have either compared corticosteroid injections to physical therapy or to naproxen orally, we will compare the clinical effect of physiotherapy alone or physiotherapy combined with corticosteroid injection in the initial treatment of acute tennis elbow. Patients seeing their general practitioner with lateral elbow pain of recent onset will be randomised to one of three interventions: 1: physiotherapy, corticosteroid injection and naproxen or 2: physiotherapy, placebo injection and naproxen or 3: wait and see treatment with naproxen alone. Treatment and assessments are done by two different doctors, and the contents of the injection is unknown to both the treating doctor and patient. The primary outcome measure is the patient's evaluation of improvement after 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Secondary outcome measures are pain, function and severity of main complaint, pain-free grip strength, maximal grip strength, pressure-pain threshold, the patient's satisfaction with the treatment and duration of sick leave. This article describes a randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trial with a one year follow up to investigate the effects of adding steroid injections to physiotherapy in acute lateral epicondylitis.
Pidgeon, T E; Shariff, U; Devine, F; Menon, V
Introduction In 2013 our hospital introduced an in-hours, consultant-led, outpatient acute surgical clinic (ASC) for emergency general surgical patients. In 2014 this clinic was equipped with a dedicated ultrasonography service. This prospective cohort study evaluated this service before and after the introduction of ultrasonography facilities. Methods Data were recorded prospectively for all patients attending the clinic during 2013 and 2014. The primary outcome was patient destination (whether there was follow-up/admission) after clinic attendance. Results The ASC reviewed patients with a wide age range and array of general surgical complaints. In 2013, 186 patients attended the ASC. After the introduction of the ultrasonography service in 2014, 304 patients attended. In 2014, there was a reduction in the proportion of patients admitted to hospital from the clinic (18.3% vs 8.9%, p=0.002). However, the proportion of patients discharged after ASC review remained comparable with 2013 (30.1% in 2013 vs 38.8% in 2014, p=0.051). The proportion of patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) scans also fell (14.0% vs 4.9%, p<0.001). Conclusions The ASC assessed a wide array of general surgical complaints. Only a small proportion required hospital admission. The introduction of an ultrasonography service was associated with a further reduction in admission rates and computed tomography.
Varman, Katherine M; Namias, Nicholas; Schulman, Carl I; Pizano, Louis R
Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is an immune-mediated dermatologic condition that is characterized by a widespread eruption of sterile, subcorneal pustules. Cases of GPP may present to the burn intensive care unit (ICU), and they may be confused with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) due to the generalized erythema and desquamation. GPP often benefits from admission to an ICU for management of fluid and electrolyte imbalances and for complications such as pneumonitis, renal dysfunction and sepsis. We present the case of a 42 year-old man who was transferred to the burn unit for presumed TEN where he was diagnosed with GPP and successfully treated with intravenous cyclosporine and supportive care. Our objective is to increase awareness of this condition in the critical care community, discuss clinical and laboratory findings, and to review the treatment guidelines published by the National Psoriasis Foundation in August 2012. We also discuss the latest reports utilizing biological response modifying drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Spijker-Huiges, Antje; Vermeulen, Karin; Winters, Jan C; van Wijhe, Marten; van der Meer, Klaas
A pragmatic, randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial in Dutch general practice. Assessing the costs and cost-effectiveness of adding segmental epidural steroid injections to care as usual in radiculopathy in general practice. Lumbosacral radicular syndrome (radiculopathy) is a benign, generally self-limiting but painful condition caused by a herniated lumbar intervertebral disc, which results in an inflammatory process around the nerve root. Segmental epidural steroid injections could lessen pain. Low back pain and sciatica form a large financial burden on national health care systems. Improving pain treatment could lower costs to society by diminishing loss of productivity. Patients with acute radiculopathy were included by general practitioners. All patients received usual care. Patients in the intervention group received one segmental epidural steroid injection containing 80 mg of triamcinolone as well. Follow-up was performed using postal questionnaires at 2, 4, 6, 13, 26, and 52 weeks. Main outcomes were pain, disability and costs. Economic evaluation was performed from a societal perspective with a time horizon of 1 year. Sixty-three patients were included in the analysis. Mean total costs were €4414 or $5985 in the intervention group and €5121 or $6943 in the control group. This difference was mostly due to loss of productivity. The point estimate for the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was -€730 or -$990 (1-point diminishment on the numerical rating scale back pain score in 1 patient in the course of 1 yr would save €730 or $990). Bootstrapping showed a 95% confidence interval of -€4476 to €951 or -$6068 to $1289. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve showed that without additional investment the probability that epidural steroids are cost-effective is more than 80%. The effect on pain and disability of epidural steroids in lumbosacral radicular syndrome is small but significant, and at lower costs with no reported complications
French, Simon D.; McKenzie, Joanne E.; O'Connor, Denise A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Mortimer, Duncan; Francis, Jill J.; Michie, Susan; Spike, Neil; Schattner, Peter; Kent, Peter; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Page, Matthew J.; Green, Sally E.
Introduction This cluster randomised trial evaluated an intervention to decrease x-ray referrals and increase giving advice to stay active for people with acute low back pain (LBP) in general practice. Methods General practices were randomised to either access to a guideline for acute LBP (control) or facilitated interactive workshops (intervention). We measured behavioural predictors (e.g. knowledge, attitudes and intentions) and fear avoidance beliefs. We were unable to recruit sufficient patients to measure our original primary outcomes so we introduced other outcomes measured at the general practitioner (GP) level: behavioural simulation (clinical decision about vignettes) and rates of x-ray and CT-scan (medical administrative data). All those not involved in the delivery of the intervention were blinded to allocation. Results 47 practices (53 GPs) were randomised to the control and 45 practices (59 GPs) to the intervention. The number of GPs available for analysis at 12 months varied by outcome due to missing confounder information; a minimum of 38 GPs were available from the intervention group, and a minimum of 40 GPs from the control group. For the behavioural constructs, although effect estimates were small, the intervention group GPs had greater intention of practising consistent with the guideline for the clinical behaviour of x-ray referral. For behavioural simulation, intervention group GPs were more likely to adhere to guideline recommendations about x-ray (OR 1.76, 95%CI 1.01, 3.05) and more likely to give advice to stay active (OR 4.49, 95%CI 1.90 to 10.60). Imaging referral was not statistically significantly different between groups and the potential importance of effects was unclear; rate ratio 0.87 (95%CI 0.68, 1.10) for x-ray or CT-scan. Conclusions The intervention led to small changes in GP intention to practice in a manner that is consistent with an evidence-based guideline, but it did not result in statistically significant changes in actual
French, Simon D; McKenzie, Joanne E; O'Connor, Denise A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Mortimer, Duncan; Francis, Jill J; Michie, Susan; Spike, Neil; Schattner, Peter; Kent, Peter; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Page, Matthew J; Green, Sally E
This cluster randomised trial evaluated an intervention to decrease x-ray referrals and increase giving advice to stay active for people with acute low back pain (LBP) in general practice. General practices were randomised to either access to a guideline for acute LBP (control) or facilitated interactive workshops (intervention). We measured behavioural predictors (e.g. knowledge, attitudes and intentions) and fear avoidance beliefs. We were unable to recruit sufficient patients to measure our original primary outcomes so we introduced other outcomes measured at the general practitioner (GP) level: behavioural simulation (clinical decision about vignettes) and rates of x-ray and CT-scan (medical administrative data). All those not involved in the delivery of the intervention were blinded to allocation. 47 practices (53 GPs) were randomised to the control and 45 practices (59 GPs) to the intervention. The number of GPs available for analysis at 12 months varied by outcome due to missing confounder information; a minimum of 38 GPs were available from the intervention group, and a minimum of 40 GPs from the control group. For the behavioural constructs, although effect estimates were small, the intervention group GPs had greater intention of practising consistent with the guideline for the clinical behaviour of x-ray referral. For behavioural simulation, intervention group GPs were more likely to adhere to guideline recommendations about x-ray (OR 1.76, 95%CI 1.01, 3.05) and more likely to give advice to stay active (OR 4.49, 95%CI 1.90 to 10.60). Imaging referral was not statistically significantly different between groups and the potential importance of effects was unclear; rate ratio 0.87 (95%CI 0.68, 1.10) for x-ray or CT-scan. The intervention led to small changes in GP intention to practice in a manner that is consistent with an evidence-based guideline, but it did not result in statistically significant changes in actual behaviour. Australian New Zealand
Monda, D.P.; Galat, D.L.; Finger, S.E.; Kaiser, M.S.
Toxicity of un-ionized ammonia (NH3-N) to the midge, Chironomus riparius was compared, using laboratory culture (well) water and sewage effluent (≈0.4 mg/L NH3-N) in two 96-h, static-renewal toxicity experiments. A generalized linear model was used for data analysis. For the first and second experiments, respectively, LC50 values were 9.4 mg/L (Test 1A) and 6.6 mg/L (Test 2A) for ammonia in well water, and 7.8 mg/L (Test 1B) and 4.1 mg/L (Test 2B) for ammonia in sewage effluent. Slopes of dose-response curves for Tests 1A and 2A were equal, but mortality occurred at lower NH3-N concentrations in Test 2A (unequal intercepts). Response ofC. riparius to NH3 in effluent was not consistent; dose-response curves for tests 1B and 2B differed in slope and intercept. Nevertheless, C. riparius was more sensitive to ammonia in effluent than in well water in both experiments, indicating a synergistic effect of ammonia in sewage effluent. These results demonstrate the advantages of analyzing the organisms entire range of response, as opposed to generating LC50 values, which represent only one point on the dose-response curve.
Reade, Cynthia; Stoltzfus, Jill; Mittal, Vikrant
Objective: Aggressive patients are not uncommon in acute inpatient behavioral health units of general hospitals. Prior research identifies various predictors associated with aggressive inpatient behavior. This prospective observational study examines the demographic and clinical characteristics of aggressive inpatients and the routine medications these patients were receiving at discharge. Method: Thirty-six adults diagnosed with a DSM-IV mental disorder who met 2 of 6 established inclusion criteria for high violence risk and a Clinical Global Impressions–Severity of Illness (CGI-S) scale score ≥ 4 were observed for a maximum of 28 days on the 23-bed case mix acute behavioral health unit of St Luke’s University Hospital, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, from January 2012 to May 2013. Primary outcome measures were the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) and CGI-S; secondary measures were symptom outcome measures and demographic and clinical characteristics data. Analysis was conducted using repeated measures methodology. Results: Younger males with a history of previous violence, psychiatric admissions, and symptoms of severe agitation were more at risk for aggressive behavior. Positive psychotic symptoms, a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, substance use, and comorbid personality disorders also increased risk. Significant improvements from baseline to last visit were observed for the CGI-S and MOAS (P < .001 for both), with a significant correlation between the MOAS and CGI-S at last visit (P < .001). Only the symptom of agitation was significantly correlated to MOAS scores at both baseline and last visit (P < .001). Conclusion: Patients significantly improved over time in both severity of illness and level of aggression. PMID:25317364
Huang, Sichao; Zhang, Tiantian; Chen, Lin; Xie, Siwen; Mo, Enpan; Xu, Jun; Cai, Shaohui
Objective In this study, a systematic evaluation was conducted to estimate the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor for treating acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in general ACS patients and a diabetes mellitus (DM) group. Methods A search of PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, CNKI databases was conducted to analyze relevant randomized controlled trails (RCTs) of ticagrelor treating ACS during 2007 to 2015. Article screening, quality accessing and data extracting was independently undertaken by two reviewers. A meta-analysis was performed to clarify the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor in general ACS patients, and a meta-regression analysis was taken to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor in DM patients compared with general ACS patients. Result Twenty-two studies with 35004 participants were included. The meta-analysis result implicated that ticagrelor could: 1) reduce the incidence of the composite endpoint [OR = 0.83, 95%CI (0.77, 0.90), P<0.00001] and the incidence of myocardial infarction [OR = 0.81, 95%CI (0.74, 0.89), P = 0.0001]; 2) not statistically reduce the incidence of cardiovascular death, the incidence of stroke and the incidence of bleeding events; 3) increase the incidence of dyspnea [OR = 1.90, 95%CI (1.73, 2.08), P<0.00001] compared with clopidogrel. Meanwhile, compared with prasugrel, ticagrelor could 1) reduce the platelet reactivity of patients at maintenance dose [MD = -44.59, 95%CI (-59.16, -30.02), P<0.00001]; 2) not statistically reduce the incidence of cardiovascular death, the platelet reactivity of patients 6 hours or 8 hours after administration, or the incidence of bleeding events; 3) induce the incidence of dyspnea [OR = 13.99, 95%CI (2.58, 75.92), P = 0.002]. Furthermore, the result of meta-regression analysis implicated that there was a positive correlation between DM patients and the platelet reactivity of patients 6 hours and 8 hours after administration, but there was no obvious
Introduction Post-infectious autoimmune demyelination of the central nervous system is a rare neurological disorder typically associated with exanthematous viral infections. We report an unusual presentation of the condition and a previously undocumented association with Streptococcus pneumonia meningitis. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with an acute myelopathy three days after discharge following acute Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. Imaging studies of the spine ruled out an infective focus and no other lesions were seen within the cord. Diffuse, bilateral white matter lesions were seen within the cerebral hemispheres, and our patient was diagnosed as having a post-infective demyelination syndrome that met the diagnostic criteria for an acute transverse myelitis. Our patient clinically and radiologically improved following treatment with steroids. Conclusions The novel association of a Streptococcus pneumoniae infection with post-infectious autoimmune central nervous system demyelination should alert the reader to the potentially causative role of this common organism, and gives insights into the pathogenesis. The unusual dissociation between the clinical presentation and the location of the radiological lesions should also highlight the potential for the condition to mimic the presentation of others, and stimulates debate on the definitions of acute transverse myelitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and their potential overlap. PMID:22992300
Ho, Hanley J; Toh, Cheng Yen; Ang, Brenda; Krishnan, Prabha; Lin, Raymond T P; La, My-Van; Chow, Angela
Autochthonous infections with New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported in Singapore since 2011, but occurrences of nosocomial transmission have not. We report an outbreak of NDM-1-producing Enterobacter cloacae among adults admitted to an acute hospital's general ward. On detecting the index case with a culture specimen positive for NDM-1-producing E cloacae, active case finding was conducted by screening all possible patient contacts. On-site ward assessment was performed, and electronic patient medical records were reviewed to conduct a case-control study to identify factors associated with colonization. Of 55 screened patient contacts, 3 further cases were detected, with isolates genetically related to the index case. None of these 4 cases was housed within the same cubicle. However, 3 were managed by the same medical team. Being managed by this team was positively associated with being a case (adjusted odds ratio = 15.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-270.27; P = .06) after adjusting for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index score, and recent antibiotic use. Our report suggests nosocomial transmission of NDM-1-producing E cloacae occurred via health care staff. Improvements in infection control measures, especially pertaining to staff hand hygiene practices and ward staffing, are needed to reduce the spread of highly resistant pathogens, such as NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Macfarlane, J; Lewis, S A; Macfarlane, R; Holmes, W
Respiratory symptoms are the most common cause of general practitioner (GP) consultation, and hospital-based specialists are often called on to provide management guidelines, particularly in the area of antibiotic prescribing. The present authors have assessed factors associated with antibiotic use by 115 GPs when managing 1089 adults with an acute lower respiratory tract illness, including cough. They prescribed antibiotics to three-quarters of patients, but felt antibiotics to be definitely indicated in less than one-third of these cases and not needed in one-fifth. Univariate analysis revealed that antibiotics were prescribed more frequently by older GPs for older patients in the presence of underlying disease, discoloured sputum, shortness of breath, wheeze, fever, signs on chest examination, and 'other factors'. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed an independent effect for all these findings except for the presence of underlying disease, shortness of breath and wheeze. 'Other factors' included patient 'pressure' and social factors, and GP work pressure or prior experience with the patient. These factors were an important influence on prescribing, especially if the GP felt an antibiotic was not indicated. Amoxycillin was the first choice (58% of total) except where the patient had recently received antibiotics for the same illness. Broader spectrum antibiotics were used more commonly in patients with chronic lung disease, discoloured sputum, chest signs on examination and where the GP felt antibiotics were indicated. However, these antibiotics were also prescribed to 14% of previously well patients. General practitioners used a wide variety of terms to describe the illness with little consistency or structure. The decision concerning the use and choice of antibiotics and the confidence with which the GP makes that decision is a complex interaction between patient, doctor and disease, being affected not only by clinical features but also by the social and
Shafi, Shahid; Priest, Elisa L; Crandall, Marie L; Klekar, Christopher S; Nazim, Ali; Aboutanos, Michel; Agarwal, Suresh; Bhattacharya, Bishwajit; Byrge, Nickolas; Dhillon, Tejveer S; Eboli, Dominick J; Fielder, Drew; Guillamondegui, Oscar; Gunter, Oliver; Inaba, Kenji; Mowery, Nathan T; Nirula, Raminder; Ross, Steven E; Savage, Stephanie A; Schuster, Kevin M; Schmoker, Ryan K; Siboni, Stefano; Siparsky, Nicole; Trust, Marc D; Utter, Garth H; Whelan, James; Feliciano, David V; Rozycki, Grace
The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) has developed a new grading system for uniform description of anatomic severity of emergency general surgery (EGS) diseases, ranging from Grade I (mild) to Grade V (severe). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of AAST grades for acute colonic diverticulitis with patient outcomes. A secondary purpose was to propose an EGS quality improvement program using risk-adjusted center outcomes, similar to National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and Trauma Quality Improvement Program methodologies. This was a retrospective study of 1,105 patients (one death) from 13 centers. At each center, two reviewers (blinded to each other's assignments) assigned AAST grades. Interrater reliability was measured using κ coefficient. Relationship between AAST grade and clinical events (complications, intensive care unit use, surgical intervention, and 30-day readmission) as well as length of stay was measured using regression analyses to control for age, comorbidities, and physiologic status at the time of admission. Final model was also used to calculate observed-to-expected (O-E) ratios for adverse outcomes (death, complications, readmissions) for each center. Median age was 54 years, 52% were males, 43% were minorities, and 22% required a surgical intervention. Almost two thirds had Grade I or II disease. There was a high level of agreement for grades between reviewers (κ = 0.81). Adverse events increased from 13% for Grade I, to 18% for Grade II, 28% for Grade III, 44% for Grade IV, and 50% for Grade V. Regression analysis showed that higher disease grades were independently associated with all clinical events and length of stay, after adjusting for age, comorbidities, and physiology. O-E ratios showed statistically insignificant variations in risk of death, complications, or readmissions. AAST grades for acute colonic diverticulitis are independently associated with clinical outcomes and resource
Kostelec, Pablo; Emanuele Garbelli, Pietro; Emanuele Garbelli, Pietro
On-call weekends in medicine can be a busy and stressful time for junior doctors, as they are responsible for a larger pool of patients, most of whom they would have never met. Clinical handover to the weekend team is extremely important and any communication errors may have a profound impact on patient care, potentially even resulting in avoidable harm or death. Several senior clinical bodies have issued guidelines on best practice in written and verbal handover. These include: standardisation, use of pro forma documents prompting doctors to document vital information (such as ceiling of care/resuscitation status) and prioritisation according to clinical urgency. These guidelines were not consistently followed in our hospital site at the onset of 2014 and junior doctors were becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the handover processes. An initial audit of handover documents used across the medical division on two separate weekends in January 2014, revealed high variability in compliance with documentation of key information. For example, ceiling of care was documented for only 14-42% of patients and resuscitation status in 26-72% of patients respectively. Additionally, each ward used their own self-designed pro forma and patients were not prioritised by clinical urgency. Within six months from the introduction of a standardised, hospital-wide weekend handover pro forma across the medical division and following initial improvements to its layout, ceiling of therapy and resuscitation status were documented in approximately 80% of patients (with some minor variability). Moreover, 100% of patients in acute medicine and 75% of those in general medicine were prioritised by clinical urgency and all wards used the same handover pro forma. PMID:28352468
Li, Ranran; Wu, Renrong; Chen, Jun; Kemp, David E.; Ren, Ming; Conroy, Carla; Chan, Philip; Serrano, Mary Beth; Ganocy, Stephen J.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Gao, Keming
Objectives To pilot efficacy and safety data of quetiapine-XR monotherapy or adjunctive therapy to antidepressant(s) in the acute treatment of MDD with current generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to ascertain the diagnosis of DSM-IV Axis I disorders. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to quetiapine-XR or placebo for up to 8 weeks. Changes from baseline to endpoint in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HAMD-17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomatology-16 items Self-Report (QIDS-16-SR) total scores, and other outcome measures were analyzed with the last observation carried forward strategy and/or mixed-effects modeling for repeated measures. Results Of the 34 patients screened, 23 patients were randomized to receive quetiapine-XR (n = 11) or placebo (n = 12), with 5 and 4 completing the study, respectively. The mean dose of quetiapine-XR was 154 ± 91 mg/d. The change from baseline to endpoint in the total scores of HAMD-17, HAM-A, QIDS-16-SR, and CGI-S were significant in the quetiapine-XR group, but only the change in HAM-A total score was significant in the placebo group. The differences in these changes between the two groups were only significant in CGI-S scores, with the rest of numerical larger in the quetiapine-XR group. The most common side effects from quetiapine-XR were dry mouth, somnolence/sedation, and fatigue. Conclusions In this pilot study, quetiapine-XR was numerically superior to placebo in reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients with MDD and current GAD. Large sample studies are warranted to support or refute these preliminary findings. PMID:27738370
Kostelec, Pablo; Emanuele Garbelli, Pietro; Emanuele Garbelli, Pietro
On-call weekends in medicine can be a busy and stressful time for junior doctors, as they are responsible for a larger pool of patients, most of whom they would have never met. Clinical handover to the weekend team is extremely important and any communication errors may have a profound impact on patient care, potentially even resulting in avoidable harm or death. Several senior clinical bodies have issued guidelines on best practice in written and verbal handover. These include: standardisation, use of pro forma documents prompting doctors to document vital information (such as ceiling of care/resuscitation status) and prioritisation according to clinical urgency. These guidelines were not consistently followed in our hospital site at the onset of 2014 and junior doctors were becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the handover processes. An initial audit of handover documents used across the medical division on two separate weekends in January 2014, revealed high variability in compliance with documentation of key information. For example, ceiling of care was documented for only 14-42% of patients and resuscitation status in 26-72% of patients respectively. Additionally, each ward used their own self-designed pro forma and patients were not prioritised by clinical urgency. Within six months from the introduction of a standardised, hospital-wide weekend handover pro forma across the medical division and following initial improvements to its layout, ceiling of therapy and resuscitation status were documented in approximately 80% of patients (with some minor variability). Moreover, 100% of patients in acute medicine and 75% of those in general medicine were prioritised by clinical urgency and all wards used the same handover pro forma.
Jardin, François; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine
Acute cor pulmonale is a form of acute right heart failure produced by a sudden increase in resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary circulation, which is now rapidly recognized by bedside echocardiography. In the clinical setting, acute cor pulmonale is mainly observed as a complication of massive pulmonary embolism or acute respiratory distress syndrome. In acute respiratory distress syndrome, the worsening effect of mechanical ventilation has been recently emphasized. As a general rule, the treatment consists in rapidly reducing resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary circulation, obtained by a specific strategy according to etiology.
Schaberg, T; Möller, M; File, T; Stauch, K; Landen, H
To compare the real-life treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECBs) using moxifloxacin tablets or one of the oral macrolides azithromycin, clarithromycin or roxithromycin in terms of symptom relief, time until improvement and cure, overall efficacy and tolerability. This prospective, non-interventional, multicentre study included out-patients with AECB whose last exacerbation was treated with a macrolide. The current AECB was treated either with moxifloxacin or with one of the macrolides azithromycin, clarithromycin or roxithromycin. Data were obtained on the patient's characteristics, disease and treatment history, the course of the current AECB including time to improvement and cure, and the final assessments of efficacy and tolerability. All adverse events were recorded in patients treated with moxifloxacin; for patients receiving macrolides, only drug-related adverse events were reported. 464 physicians treated 904 patients with moxifloxacin and 846 patients with one of the macrolides. Age, sex and body mass index were well matched between the two treatment groups. However, more moxifloxacin than macrolide patients presented with a generally bad condition (62.8% vs 48.6%). About 42% of patients in both groups had had chronic bronchitis for 1-5 years, and about 27% for 5-10 years. The mean number of AECBs in the previous 12 months was 2.7 and 2.6, respectively. Moxifloxacin was administered to most patients for 5 (43.8%) or 7 days (42.4%). Patients in the macrolide group were treated in most cases with clarithromycin 500 mg for 4-7 days, roxithromycin 300 mg for 6-7 days or azithromycin 500 mg for 3 days. Physicians assessed overall efficacy and tolerability as 'very good' or 'good' in 96.1% and 98.1%, respectively, of moxifloxacin-treated patients and in 67.5% and 91.7%, respectively, of macrolide-treated patients. The mean duration until improvement and cure of AECB was 3.2 days (+/- SD 1.5) and 6.2 days (+/- 2.6) in moxifloxacin
Santos, Paulo Roberto; Monteiro, Diego Levi Silveira
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common among intensive care unit (ICU) patients and is associated with high mortality. Type of ICU, category of admission diagnosis, and socioeconomic characteristics of the region can impact AKI outcomes. We aimed to determine incidence, associated factors and mortality of AKI among trauma and non-trauma patients in a general ICU from a low-income area. We studied 279 consecutive patients in an ICU during a follow-up of one year. Patients with less than 24-hour stay in the ICU and with chronic kidney disease were excluded. AKI was classified according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria in three stages. Comparisons were performed by the Student-t and Mann-Whitney tests for continuous variables, respectively with and without normal distribution. Comparisons of frequencies were carried out by the Fisher test. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test variables as predictors for AKI and death. Admission categories were proportionally divided into 51.6% of non-trauma diagnosis and 48.4% of trauma cases. Most trauma cases involved brain injury (79.5%). The overall incidence of AKI was 32.9%, distributed among the three stages: 33.7% stage 1, 29.4% stage 2 and 36.9% stage-3. Patients who developed AKI were older, had more diabetes, stayed longer in the ICU, presented higher APACHE II and more often needed mechanical ventilation and use of vasopressors. In comparison with non-trauma cases, trauma patients had a greater prevalence of males, higher APACHE II score, higher urine output, and younger age. There was no difference concerning development of AKI and crude mortality between trauma and non-trauma patients. Age, presence of diabetes, APACHE score and use of vasopressors were independent predictors for AKI, and AKI increased the risk of death ten-fold (OR = 14.51; CI 95% = 7.94-26.61; p < 0.001). There was a high incidence of AKI in this study. AKI was strongly associated with mortality
Efficacy of movement control exercises versus general exercises on recurrent sub-acute nonspecific low back pain in a sub-group of patients with movement control dysfunction. protocol of a randomized controlled trial
Background Practice guidelines recommend various types of exercise for chronic back pain but there have been few head-to-head comparisons of these interventions. General exercise seems to be an effective option for management of chronic low back pain (LBP) but very little is known about the management of a sub-acute LBP within sub-groups. Recent research has developed clinical tests to identify a subgroup of patients with chronic non-specific LBP who have movement control dysfunction (MD). Method/Design We are conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to compare the effects of general exercise and specific movement control exercise (SMCE) on disability and function in patients with MD within recurrent sub-acute LBP. The main outcome measure is the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Discussion European clinical guideline for management of chronic LBP recommends that more research is required to develop tools to improve the classification and identification of specific clinical sub-groups of chronic LBP patients. Good quality RCTs are then needed to determine the effectiveness of specific interventions aimed at these specific target groups. This RCT aims to test the hypothesis whether patients within a sub-group of MD benefit more through a specific individually tailored movement control exercise program than through general exercises. PMID:22494776
Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...
Lehtola, Vesa; Luomajoki, Hannu; Leinonen, Ville; Gibbons, Sean; Airaksinen, Olavi
Clinical guidelines recommend research on sub-groups of patients with low back pain (LBP) but, to date, only few studies have been published. One sub-group of LBP is movement control impairment (MCI) and clinical tests to identify this sub-group have been developed. Also, exercises appear to be beneficial for the management of chronic LBP (CLBP), but very little is known about the management of sub-acute LBP. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to compare the effects of general exercise versus specific movement control exercise (SMCE) on disability and function in patients with MCI within the recurrent sub-acute LBP group. Participants having a MCI attended five treatment sessions of either specific or general exercises. In both groups a short application of manual therapy was applied. The primary outcome was disability, assessed by the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). The measurements were taken at baseline, immediately after the three months intervention and at twelve-month follow-up. Seventy patients met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for the trial. Measurements of 61 patients (SMCE n = 30 and general exercise n = 31) were completed at twelve months. (Drop-out rate 12.9 %). Patients in both groups reported significantly less disability (RMDQ) at twelve months follow-up. However, the mean change on the RMDQ between baseline and the twelve-month measurement showed statistically significantly superior improvement for the SMCE group -1.9 points (-3.9 to -0.5) 95 % (CI). The result did not reach the clinically significant three point difference. There was no statistical difference between the groups measured with Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). For subjects with non-specific recurrent sub-acute LBP and MCI an intervention consisting of SMCE and manual therapy combined may be superior to general exercise combined with manual therapy. The study protocol registration number is ISRCTN48684087 . It was registered
ADEM is a disease that is characterized by an inflammatory reaction and demyelination in the central nervous system, with a distinct tendency to a peripheral localization of pathological changes. ADEM happens to occur with a temporal, and probably also with a causative relationship to viral, exanthematous diseases, as well as to preventive vaccinations. However, there are still many unresolved problems with respect to the relationship of ADEM to multiple sclerosis (MS), especially in instances with a multiphasic course of the disease. Many question marks can also be raised in cases, in which the examinations were unable to determine the exact preceding or causative factor. A lot of studies on cytokines and chemokines in blood plasma and CSR from patients with ADEM have enabled investigators to get a better insight into some stages of immunopathological processes, leading to an evolvement of the disease, without a more important impact on the clinical diagnosis.
Chandran, Nisha Suyien; Chong, Wei-Sheng
Generalized pustular psoriasis of von Zumbusch is an unstable, inflammatory form of psoriasis, with the hallmark of neutrophil infiltration in cutaneous as well as extracutaneous lesions. It is often recalcitrant, making treatment difficult. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha antagonists including infliximab have been used with success in treating recalcitrant cases. We report a case of a 48-year-old Chinese female patient with a long-standing history of poorly controlled generalized pustular psoriasis which was resistant to multiple therapies. During a severe flare, a single dose of infliximab resulted in rapid clearing of cutaneous lesions, together with resolution of liver function abnormalities that are likely secondary to neutrophilic cholangitis. Subsequent maintenance therapy with acitretin allowed remission of pustular disease for 7 months. This demonstrates the efficacy of single-dose infliximab for both cutaneous lesions and systemic hepatic involvement in generalized pustular psoriasis.
Horcajada-Reales, C; Pulido-Pérez, A; Suárez-Fernández, R
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms are all severe hypersensitivity reactions to medications. While each of these reactions is a well-established entity with specific diagnostic criteria, clinicians see cases that fulfill criteria for more than one form, prompting discussion on the possibility of combined forms. Such overlapping clinical pictures meeting the criteria for 2 conditions have thus become a topic of debate in dermatology in recent years. We describe 2 patients with cutaneous drug reactions having the characteristics of both acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome -toxic epidermal necrolysis. We also review previously published cases and current thinking on such overlapping conditions.
... headache. Acute sinusitis is mostly caused by the common cold. Unless a bacterial infection develops, most cases resolve ... Acute sinusitis is most often caused by the common cold, which is a viral infection. In some cases, ...
... can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute bronchitis, your health care provider will ask about your symptoms and listen to your breathing. You may also have other tests. Treatments include rest, fluids, and aspirin (for adults) or ...
Walsh, S A; Creamer, D
Summary Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) describes a severe medication-induced adverse reaction, which has cutaneous, haematological and solid-organ features. It is one of the triad of life-threatening drug hypersensitivity dermatoses, along with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). In this article, we discuss several controversies that surround DRESS, including problems with nomenclature and the lack of consensus in diagnostic criteria.
Jain, Sonia Pramod; Jain, Pramod Ajit
Adverse reactions to medications are extremely common and display a characteristic clinical morphology such as fixed drug eruption (FDE), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, urticaria, morbilliform exanthem, hypersensitivity syndrome, pigmentary changes, lichenoid, dermatitis, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, photosensitivity, vasculitis etc. Here we report a case of a 60 year old male who presented to us with multiple bullous eruptions over both the hands and feet after oral ingestion of ciprofloxacin. PMID:23730666
Davis, Kimberly A; Rozycki, Grace S
At the center of the development of acute care surgery is the growing difficulty in caring for patients with acute surgical conditions. Care demands continue to grow in the face of an escalating crisis in emergency care access and the decreasing availability of surgeons to cover emergency calls. To compound this problem, there is an ever-growing shortage of general surgeons as technological advances have encouraged subspecialization. Developed by the leadership of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, the specialty of acute care surgery offers a training model that would produce a new breed of specialist with expertise in trauma surgery, surgical critical care, and elective and emergency general surgery. This article highlights the evolution of the specialty in hope that these acute care surgeons, along with practicing general surgeons, will bring us closer to providing superb and timely care for patients with acute surgical conditions.
Background A study of the impacts on respiratory health of the 2007 wildland fires in and around San Diego County, California is presented. This study helps to address the impact of fire emissions on human health by modeling the exposure potential of proximate populations to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) from vegetation fires. Currently, there is no standard methodology to model and forecast the potential respiratory health effects of PM plumes from wildland fires, and in part this is due to a lack of methodology for rigorously relating the two. The contribution in this research specifically targets that absence by modeling explicitly the emission, transmission, and distribution of PM following a wildland fire in both space and time. Methods Coupled empirical and deterministic models describing particulate matter (PM) emissions and atmospheric dispersion were linked to spatially explicit syndromic surveillance health data records collected through the San Diego Aberration Detection and Incident Characterization (SDADIC) system using a Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM) statistical approach. Two levels of geographic aggregation were modeled, a county-wide regional level and division of the county into six sub regions. Selected health syndromes within SDADIC from 16 emergency departments within San Diego County relevant for respiratory health were identified for inclusion in the model. Results The model captured the variability in emergency department visits due to several factors by including nine ancillary variables in addition to wildfire PM concentration. The model coefficients and nonlinear function plots indicate that at peak fire PM concentrations the odds of a person seeking emergency care is increased by approximately 50% compared to non-fire conditions (40% for the regional case, 70% for a geographically specific case). The sub-regional analyses show that demographic variables also influence respiratory health outcomes from smoke. Conclusions The
Thelen, Brian; French, Nancy H F; Koziol, Benjamin W; Billmire, Michael; Owen, Robert Chris; Johnson, Jeffrey; Ginsberg, Michele; Loboda, Tatiana; Wu, Shiliang
A study of the impacts on respiratory health of the 2007 wildland fires in and around San Diego County, California is presented. This study helps to address the impact of fire emissions on human health by modeling the exposure potential of proximate populations to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) from vegetation fires. Currently, there is no standard methodology to model and forecast the potential respiratory health effects of PM plumes from wildland fires, and in part this is due to a lack of methodology for rigorously relating the two. The contribution in this research specifically targets that absence by modeling explicitly the emission, transmission, and distribution of PM following a wildland fire in both space and time. Coupled empirical and deterministic models describing particulate matter (PM) emissions and atmospheric dispersion were linked to spatially explicit syndromic surveillance health data records collected through the San Diego Aberration Detection and Incident Characterization (SDADIC) system using a Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM) statistical approach. Two levels of geographic aggregation were modeled, a county-wide regional level and division of the county into six sub regions. Selected health syndromes within SDADIC from 16 emergency departments within San Diego County relevant for respiratory health were identified for inclusion in the model. The model captured the variability in emergency department visits due to several factors by including nine ancillary variables in addition to wildfire PM concentration. The model coefficients and nonlinear function plots indicate that at peak fire PM concentrations the odds of a person seeking emergency care is increased by approximately 50% compared to non-fire conditions (40% for the regional case, 70% for a geographically specific case). The sub-regional analyses show that demographic variables also influence respiratory health outcomes from smoke. The model developed in this study allows a
Helpman, Liat; Besser, Avi; Neria, Yuval
Posttraumatic stress (PTSS) and generalized anxiety symptoms (GAS) may ensue following trauma. While they are now thought to represent different psychopathological entities, it is not clear whether both GAS and PTSS show a dose-response to trauma exposure. The current study aimed to address this gap in knowledge and to investigate the moderating role of subjects' demographics in the exposure-outcome associations. The sample included 249 civilian adults, assessed during the 2014 Israel-Gaza military conflict. The survey probed demographic information, trauma exposure, and symptoms. PTSS but not GAS was associated with exposure severity. Women were at higher risk for both PTSS and GAS than men. In addition, several demographic variables were only associated with PTSS levels. PTSS dose-response effect was moderated by education. These findings are in line with emerging neurobiological and cognitive research, suggesting that although PTSS and GAS have shared risk factors they represent two different psychopathological entities. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Helpman, Liat; Besser, Avi; Neria, Yuval
Posttraumatic stress (PTSS) and generalized anxiety symptoms (GAS) may ensue following trauma. While they are now thought to represent different psychopathological entities, it is not clear whether both GAS and PTSS show a dose–response to trauma exposure. The current study aimed to address this gap in knowledge and to investigate the moderating role of subjects’ demographics in the exposure-outcome associations. The sample included 249 civilian adults, assessed during the 2014 Israel–Gaza military conflict. The survey probed demographic information, trauma exposure, and symptoms. PTSS but not GAS was associated with exposure severity. Women were at higher risk for both PTSS and GAS than men. In addition, several demographic variables were only associated with PTSS levels. PTSS dose-response effect was moderated by education. These findings are in line with emerging neurobiological and cognitive research, suggesting that although PTSS and GAS have shared risk factors they represent two different psychopathological entities. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:26343559
Dennert, Robert; Crijns, Harry J.; Heymans, Stephane
Acute myocarditis is one of the most challenging diagnosis in cardiology. At present, no diagnostic gold standard is generally accepted, due to the insensitivity of traditional diagnostic tests. This leads to the need for new diagnostic approaches, which resulted in the emergence of new molecular tests and a more detailed immunohistochemical analysis of endomyocardial biopsies. Recent findings using these new diagnostic tests resulted in increased interest in inflammatory cardiomyopathies and a better understanding of its pathophysiology, the recognition in overlap of virus-mediated damage, inflammation, and autoimmune dysregulation. Novel results also pointed towards a broader spectrum of viral genomes responsible for acute myocarditis, indicating a shift of enterovirus and adenovirus to parvovirus B19 and human herpes virus 6. The present review proposes a general diagnostic approach, focuses on the viral aetiology and associated autoimmune processes, and reviews treatment options for patients with acute viral myocarditis. PMID:18617482
Besur, Siddesh; Schmeltzer, Paul; Bonkovsky, Herbert L
Porphyrias are a group of eight metabolic disorders characterized by defects in heme biosynthesis. Porphyrias are classified into two major categories: 1) the acute or inducible porphyrias and 2) the chronic cutaneous porphyrias. The acute hepatic porphyrias are further classified into acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), hereditary coproporphyria, variegate porphyria, and porphyria due to severe deficiency of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase (ALADP). AIP is the most common, and ALADP is the least common acute porphyria. The clinical presentations of acute porphyrias are nonspecific. There are no pathognomonic signs or symptoms. The most frequent presenting symptom is abdominal pain, but pain in the chest, back, or lower extremities may also occur. Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality during acute attacks, and hypomagnesemia is also common. Both are risk factors for development of seizures, which occur in ∼ 20-30% of acute attacks. Once suspected, the diagnosis of porphyria can be rapidly established by checking random urinary porphobilinogen. Initial management of acute porphyria includes discontinuation of all potentially harmful drugs and management of symptoms. Acute attacks should be treated emergently with intravenous heme and glucose to avoid considerable morbidity and mortality. Acute attacks last a few days, and the majority of patients are asymptomatic between attacks. Prognosis is good if the condition is recognized early and treated aggressively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baghai, Thomas C; Blier, Pierre; Baldwin, David S; Bauer, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M; Fountoulakis, Kostas N; Kasper, Siegfried; Leonard, Brian E; Malt, Ulrik F; Stein, Dan; Versiani, Marcio; Möller, Hans-Jürgen
Current gold standard approaches to the treatment of depression include pharmacotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic interventions with social support. Due to current controversies concerning the efficacy of antidepressants in randomized controlled trials, the generalizability of study findings to wider clinical practice and the increasing importance of socioeconomic considerations, it seems timely to address the uncertainty of concerned patients and relatives, and their treating psychiatrists and general practitioners. We therefore discuss both the efficacy and clinical effectiveness of antidepressants in the treatment of depressive disorders. We explain and clarify useful measures for assessing clinically meaningful antidepressant treatment effects and the types of studies that are useful for addressing uncertainties. This includes considerations of methodological issues in randomized controlled studies, meta-analyses, and effectiveness studies. Furthermore, we summarize the differential efficacy and effectiveness of antidepressants with distinct pharmacodynamic properties, and differences between studies using antidepressants and/or psychotherapy. We also address the differential effectiveness of antidepressant drugs with differing modes of action and in varying subtypes of depressive disorder. After highlighting the clinical usefulness of treatment algorithms and the divergent biological, psychological, and clinical efforts to predict the effectiveness of antidepressant treatments, we conclude that the spectrum of different antidepressant treatments has broadened over the last few decades. The efficacy and clinical effectiveness of antidepressants is statistically significant, clinically relevant, and proven repeatedly. Further optimization of treatment can be helped by clearly structured treatment algorithms and the implementation of psychotherapeutic interventions. Modern individualized antidepressant treatment is in most cases a well-tolerated and efficacious
Comparisons of the tolerability and sensitivity of quetiapine-XR in the acute treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, bipolar depression, major depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder
Wang, Zuowei; Kemp, David E.; Chan, Philip K.; Fang, Yiru; Ganocy, Stephen J.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Gao, Keming
Quetiapine extended-release (quetiapine-XR) has been studied in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar mania, bipolar depression, major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The purpose of this study was to compare the tolerability and sensitivity of quetiapine-XR among these psychiatric conditions. The discontinuation due to adverse events (DAEs) and reported somnolence in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of quetiapine-XR in these psychiatric conditions were examined. The absolute risk reduction or increase and the number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) or harm (NNTH) for DAEs and reported somnolence of quetiapine-XR ≥300 mg/d relative to placebo were estimated. Data from one study in schizophrenia (n=465), one in mania (n=316), one in bipolar depression (n=280), two in refractory MDD (n=624), two in MDD (n=669) and three in GAD (n=1109) were available. The risk for DAEs of quetiapine-XR relative to placebo was significantly increased in bipolar depression (NNTH=9), refractory MDD (NNTH=8), MDD (NNTH=9), and GAD (NNTH=5), but not in schizophrenia and mania. The risk for reported somnolence of quetiapine-XR relative to placebo was significantly increased in schizophrenia (600 mg/d NNTH=15 and 800 mg/d NNTH=11), mania (NNTH=8), bipolar depression (NNTH=4), refractory MDD (NNTH=5), MDD (NNTH=5) and GAD (NNTH=5). These results suggest that patients with GAD had the poorest tolerability during treatment with quetiapine-XR, but they had a similar sensitivity as those with bipolar depression and MDD. Patients with schizophrenia or mania had a higher tolerability and a lower sensitivity than those with bipolar depression, MDD, or GAD. PMID:20875219
Bhatia, Madhav; Wong, Fei Ling; Cao, Yang; Lau, Hon Yen; Huang, Jiali; Puneet, Padmam; Chevali, Lakshmi
Acute pancreatitis is a common clinical condition. It is a disease of variable severity in which some patients experience mild, self-limited attacks while others manifest a severe, highly morbid, and frequently lethal attack. The exact mechanisms by which diverse etiological factors induce an attack are still unclear. It is generally believed that the earliest events in acute pancreatitis occur within acinar cells. Acinar cell injury early in acute pancreatitis leads to a local inflammatory reaction. If this inflammatory reaction is marked, it leads to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). An excessive SIRS leads to distant organ damage and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). MODS associated with acute pancreatitis is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in this condition. Recent studies have established the role played by inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis and the resultant MODS. At the same time, recent research has demonstrated the importance of acinar cell death in the form of apoptosis and necrosis as a determinant of pancreatitis severity. In this review, we will discuss about our current understanding of the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis.
Cui, Xuelian; Niu, Wei; Kong, Lingming; He, Mingjun; Jiang, Kunhong; Chen, Shengdong; Zhong, Aifang; Li, Wanshuai; Lu, Jim; Zhang, Liyi
Depression and anxiety are apparent symptoms in the early onset or acute phase of schizophrenia (SZ), which complicate timely diagnosis and treatment. It is imperative to seek an indicator to distinguish schizophrenia from depressive and anxiety disorders. Using lncRNA microarray profiling and RT-PCR, three up-regulated lncRNAs in SZ, six down-regulated lncRNAs in major depressive disorder (MDD), and three up-regulated lncRNAs in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) had been identified as potential biomarkers. All the lncRNAs were, then, cross-validated in 40 SZ patients, 40 MDD patients, 40 GAD patients, and 40 normal controls. Compared with controls, three up-regulated SZ lncRNAs had a significantly down-regulated expression in GAD, and no remarkable differences existed between MDD and the controls. Additionally, the six down-regulated MDD lncRNAs were expressed in an opposite fashion in SZ, and the expression of the three up-regulated GAD lncRNAs were significantly different between SZ and GAD. These results indicate that the expression patterns of the three up-regulated SZ lncRNAs could not be completely replicated in MDD and GAD, and vice versa. Thus, these three SZ lncRNAs seem to be established as potential indicators for diagnosis of schizophrenia and distinguishing it from MDD and GAD.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Evaluation of a Medical and Mental Health Unit compared with standard care for older people whose emergency admission to an acute general hospital is complicated by concurrent 'confusion': a controlled clinical trial. Acronym: TEAM: Trial of an Elderly Acute care Medical and mental health unit.
Harwood, Rowan H; Goldberg, Sarah E; Whittamore, Kathy H; Russell, Catherine; Gladman, John Rf; Jones, Rob G; Porock, Davina; Lewis, Sarah A; Bradshaw, Lucy E; Elliot, Rachel A
Patients with delirium and dementia admitted to general hospitals have poor outcomes, and their carers report poor experiences. We developed an acute geriatric medical ward into a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit over an eighteen month period. Additional specialist mental health staff were employed, other staff were trained in the 'person-centred' dementia care approach, a programme of meaningful activity was devised, the environment adapted to the needs of people with cognitive impairment, and attention given to communication with family carers. We hypothesise that patients managed on this ward will have better outcomes than those receiving standard care, and that such care will be cost-effective. We will perform a controlled clinical trial comparing in-patient management on a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit with standard care. Study participants are patients over the age of 65, admitted as an emergency to a single general hospital, and identified on the Acute Medical Admissions Unit as being 'confused'. Sample size is 300 per group. The evaluation design has been adapted to accommodate pressures on bed management and patient flows. If beds are available on the specialist Unit, the clinical service allocates patients at random between the Unit and standard care on general or geriatric medical wards. Once admitted, randomised patients and their carers are invited to take part in a follow up study, and baseline data are collected. Quality of care and patient experience are assessed in a non-participant observer study. Outcomes are ascertained at a follow up home visit 90 days after randomisation, by a researcher blind to allocation. The primary outcome is days spent at home (for those admitted from home), or days spent in the same care home (if admitted from a care home). Secondary outcomes include mortality, institutionalisation, resource use, and scaled outcome measures, including quality of life, cognitive function, disability, behavioural and
Evaluation of a Medical and Mental Health Unit compared with standard care for older people whose emergency admission to an acute general hospital is complicated by concurrent 'confusion': a controlled clinical trial. Acronym: TEAM: Trial of an Elderly Acute care Medical and mental health unit
Background Patients with delirium and dementia admitted to general hospitals have poor outcomes, and their carers report poor experiences. We developed an acute geriatric medical ward into a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit over an eighteen month period. Additional specialist mental health staff were employed, other staff were trained in the 'person-centred' dementia care approach, a programme of meaningful activity was devised, the environment adapted to the needs of people with cognitive impairment, and attention given to communication with family carers. We hypothesise that patients managed on this ward will have better outcomes than those receiving standard care, and that such care will be cost-effective. Methods/design We will perform a controlled clinical trial comparing in-patient management on a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit with standard care. Study participants are patients over the age of 65, admitted as an emergency to a single general hospital, and identified on the Acute Medical Admissions Unit as being 'confused'. Sample size is 300 per group. The evaluation design has been adapted to accommodate pressures on bed management and patient flows. If beds are available on the specialist Unit, the clinical service allocates patients at random between the Unit and standard care on general or geriatric medical wards. Once admitted, randomised patients and their carers are invited to take part in a follow up study, and baseline data are collected. Quality of care and patient experience are assessed in a non-participant observer study. Outcomes are ascertained at a follow up home visit 90 days after randomisation, by a researcher blind to allocation. The primary outcome is days spent at home (for those admitted from home), or days spent in the same care home (if admitted from a care home). Secondary outcomes include mortality, institutionalisation, resource use, and scaled outcome measures, including quality of life, cognitive function
... the past. Being exposed to radiation from an atomic bomb or to the chemical benzene . Having a ... chemicals to look for certain changes in the structure or function of genes. This test is used ...
... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...
A comprehensive review of occupational and general population cancer risk: 1,3-Butadiene exposure-response modeling for all leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, myeloid neoplasm and lymphoid neoplasm.
Sielken, Robert L; Valdez-Flores, Ciriaco
Excess cancer risks associated with 1,3-butadiene (BD) inhalation exposures are calculated using an extensive data set developed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) from an epidemiology study of North American workers in the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) industry. While the UAB study followed SBR workers, risk calculations can be adapted to estimate both occupational and general population risks. The data from the UAB SBR study offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the association between cumulative exposure to BD and different types of cancer, accounting for the number of tasks involving high-intensity exposures to BD as well as confounding associated with the exposures to the multiple other chemicals in the SBR industry. Quantitative associations of BD exposure and cancer, specifically leukemia, can be further characterized by leukemia type, including potential associations with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and the groups of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms. Collectively, these multiple evaluations lead to a comprehensive analysis that makes use of all of the available information and is consistent with the risk assessment goals of the USEPA and other regulatory agencies, and in line with the recommendations of the USEPA Science Advisory Board. While a range of cancer risk values can result from these multiple factors, a preferred case for occupational and general population risk is highlighted. Cox proportional hazards models are used to fit exposure-response models to the most recent UAB data. The slope of the model with cumulative BD ppm-years as the predictor variable is not statistically significantly greater than zero for CML, AML, or, when any one of eight exposure covariates is added to the model, for all leukemias combined. The slope for CLL is statistically significantly different from zero. The slope for myeloid neoplasms is not statistically
... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is inflammation of your bronchial tree. The bronchial tree consists of tubes that carry air into your ... weeks or months. This happens because the bronchial tree takes a while to heal. A lasting cough ...
... to breathe. Other symptoms of bronchitis are a cough and coughing up mucus. Acute means the symptoms ... diagnosed with chronic bronchitis, you must have a cough with mucus on most days for at least ...
Hecker, M; Mayer, K; Askevold, I; Collet, P; Weigand, M A; Krombach, G A; Padberg, W; Hecker, A
Acute pancreatitis is a potentially fatal disease with individually differing expression of systemic involvement. For this reason early diagnosis with subsequent risk stratification is essential in the clinical management of this frequent gastroenterological disorder. Severe forms of acute pancreatitis occur in approximately 20 % of cases often requiring intensive care monitoring and interdisciplinary therapeutic approaches. In the acute phase adequate fluid replacement and sufficient analgesic therapy is of major therapeutic importance. Concerning the administration of antibiotics and the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis a change in paradigms could be observed in recent years. Furthermore, endoscopic, radiological or surgical interventions can be necessary depending on the severity of the disease and potential complications.
... urine from your bladder and out through the penis Acute prostatitis may also be caused by problems ... urine out of the bladder Foreskin of the penis that cannot be pulled back (phimosis) Injury to ...
Durán-Nah, J J; Collí-Quintal, J
To describe the epidemiologic pattern of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) in a general hospital in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. From 1994 to 1998, 33 patients 13 years of age or older with diagnosis of APP were studied. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze information. Males were frequently affected (82%), specially those coming from rural areas (60%). The mean age of the group was 34 +/- 15.8 years. In 79% of the cases, pesticides were used to commit suicide and 33% of poisoning cases were due to organophospate pesticides. The mortality rate was 12%. In this small sample, acute poisoning from pesticides in the agricultural setting may be underestimated, since it was less frequent than in the general population. APP was more commonly used by indigent people to commit suicide.
Acute pancreatitis is an autodigestive disease in which the pancreatic tissue is damaged by the digestive enzimes produces by the acinar cells and is associated with severe upper abdominal pain. The severity of acute pancreatitis ranges from edema to necrosis of the gland. The edematous form of the disease occurs in about 80-85% of patients and is self-limited, with recovery in few days. In the 15-20% of patients with the most severe form of pancreatitis, hospitalization is prolonged and commonly associated with infection and other complications including multiple organ failure. The main causes of acute pancreatitis in adults are gallstones, other gallbladder (biliary) diseases and alcohol abuse. Treatment of acute pancreatitis-depends on the severity oft he condition. Generaly, the patients need, hospitalisation with administration of intravenous fluid to help restore blood volume, pain control, supplemental oxygen as required and correction of electrolite and metabolic abnormalities. Antibiotic prophylaxis has not been shown as an effective preventive treatment. Early enteral feeding is based on a high level of evidence, resulting in a reduction of local and sistemic infection. Begin oral feeding once abdominal pain has resolved and the patients regains appetite. The diet should be low in fat and protein. Patients suffering from infected necrosis causing clinical sepsis, pancreatic abscess or surgical acute abdomen are candidates for early intervention. During recent years the management of acute pancreatitis has changed. This has been due particulary in response to the general availability of computed tomography, improved intensive care facilities, knowledge about the central role of pancreatic infection and refinements in surgical and other interventional techniques.
General practitioners’ views on the acceptability and applicability of a web-based intervention to reduce antibiotic prescribing for acute cough in multiple European countries: a qualitative study prior to a randomised trial
Background Interventions to promote prudent antibiotic prescribing by general practitioners (GPs) have often only been developed for use in one country. We aimed to develop an intervention which would be appropriate to implement in multiple European countries in order to offer greater benefit to practice whilst using fewer resources. The INTRO (INternet TRaining for antibiOtic use) intervention needed to deliver training to GPs in the use of C-Reactive Protein (CRP) near patient tests to help diagnose acute cough and in communication skills to help explain prescribing decisions to patients. We explored GPs’ views on the initial version of INTRO to test acceptability and potentially increase applicability for use in multiple countries before the start of a randomised trial. Method 30 GPs from five countries (Belgium, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain), were interviewed using a “think aloud” approach. GPs were asked to work through the intervention and discuss their views on the content and format in relation to following the intervention in their own practice. GPs viewed the same intervention but versions were created in five languages. Data were coded using thematic analysis. Results GPs in all five countries reported the view that the intervention addressed an important topic, was broadly acceptable and feasible to use, and would be a useful tool to help improve clinical practice. However, GPs in the different countries identified aspects of the intervention that did not reflect their national culture or healthcare system. These included perceived differences in communication style used in the consultation, consultation length and the stage of illness at which patient typically presented. Conclusion An online intervention to support evidence-based use of antibiotics is acceptable and feasible to implement amongst GPs in multiple countries. However, tailoring of the intervention to suit national contexts was necessary by adding local information and
Kinkade, Scott; Long, Natalie A
Cough is the most common illness-related reason for ambulatory care visits in the United States. Acute bronchitis is a clinical diagnosis characterized by cough due to acute inflammation of the trachea and large airways without evidence of pneumonia. Pneumonia should be suspected in patients with tachypnea, tachycardia, dyspnea, or lung findings suggestive of pneumonia, and radiography is warranted. Pertussis should be suspected in patients with cough persisting for more than two weeks that is accompanied by symptoms such as paroxysmal cough, whooping cough, and post-tussive emesis, or recent pertussis exposure. The cough associated with acute bronchitis typically lasts about two to three weeks, and this should be emphasized with patients. Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viruses, and antibiotics are not indicated in patients without chronic lung disease. Antibiotics have been shown to provide only minimal benefit, reducing the cough or illness by about half a day, and have adverse effects, including allergic reactions, nausea and vomiting, and Clostridium difficile infection. Evaluation and treatment of bronchitis include ruling out secondary causes for cough, such as pneumonia; educating patients about the natural course of the disease; and recommending symptomatic treatment and avoidance of unnecessary antibiotic use. Strategies to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use include delayed prescriptions, patient education, and calling the infection a chest cold.
Geokas, Michael C.
For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467
Lehman, Julia S; Rogers, Roy S
Accurate diagnosis of acute oral ulcers can be challenging. Important historic details include the pattern of recurrence, anatomic areas of involvement within the mouth and elsewhere on the mucocutaneous surface, associated medical symptoms or comorbidities, and symptomology. Careful mucocutaneous examination is essential. When necessary, biopsy at an active site without ulceration is generally optimal. Depending on the clinical scenario, supplemental studies that may be useful include cultures; perilesional biopsy for direct immunofluorescence testing; and evaluation for infectious diseases, gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, connective tissue diseases, or hematinic deficiencies. Clinicians should maintain a broad differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with acute oral ulcers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... by Type Ask a Foot and Ankle Surgeon Athletes Children Diabetes General Seasonal Seniors Women When to ... by Type Ask a Foot and Ankle Surgeon Athletes Children Diabetes General Seasonal Seniors Women When to ...
The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835
Pyelonephritis is an acute urological condition that involves infection of one or both kidneys. The condition is not generally associated with high levels of mortality, but patients can become acutely ill and experience severe pain. Early recognition and treatment of pyelonephritis may limit morbidity. This article identifies patients at increased risk of pyelonephritis and discusses appropriate strategies to prevent serious complications.
Rationale, design and organization of the delayed antibiotic prescription (DAP) trial: a randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies in the non-complicated acute respiratory tract infections in general practice.
de la Poza Abad, Mariam; Mas Dalmau, Gemma; Moreno Bakedano, Mikel; González González, Ana Isabel; Canellas Criado, Yolanda; Hernández Anadón, Silvia; Rotaeche del Campo, Rafael; Torán Monserrat, Pere; Negrete Palma, Antonio; Pera, Guillem; Borrell Thió, Eulàlia; Llor, Carl; Little, Paul; Alonso Coello, Pablo
Respiratory tract infections are an important burden in primary care and it's known that they are usually self-limited and that antibiotics only alter its course slightly. This together with the alarming increase of bacterial resistance due to increased use of antimicrobials calls for a need to consider strategies to reduce their use. One of these strategies is the delayed prescription of antibiotics. Multicentric, parallel, randomised controlled trial comparing four antibiotic prescribing strategies in acute non-complicated respiratory tract infections. We will include acute pharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, acute bronchitis and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (mild to moderate). The therapeutic strategies compared are: immediate antibiotic treatment, no antibiotic treatment, and two delayed antibiotic prescribing (DAP) strategies with structured advice to use a course of antibiotics in case of worsening of symptoms or not improving (prescription given to patient or prescription left at the reception of the primary care centre 3 days after the first medical visit). Delayed antibiotic prescription has been widely used in Anglo-Saxon countries, however, in Southern Europe there has been little research about this topic. The DAP trial wil evaluate two different delayed strategies in Spain for the main respiratory infections in primary care. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number http://NCT01363531.
Rationale, design and organization of the delayed antibiotic prescription (DAP) trial: a randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies in the non-complicated acute respiratory tract infections in general practice
Background Respiratory tract infections are an important burden in primary care and it’s known that they are usually self-limited and that antibiotics only alter its course slightly. This together with the alarming increase of bacterial resistance due to increased use of antimicrobials calls for a need to consider strategies to reduce their use. One of these strategies is the delayed prescription of antibiotics. Methods Multicentric, parallel, randomised controlled trial comparing four antibiotic prescribing strategies in acute non-complicated respiratory tract infections. We will include acute pharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, acute bronchitis and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (mild to moderate). The therapeutic strategies compared are: immediate antibiotic treatment, no antibiotic treatment, and two delayed antibiotic prescribing (DAP) strategies with structured advice to use a course of antibiotics in case of worsening of symptoms or not improving (prescription given to patient or prescription left at the reception of the primary care centre 3 days after the first medical visit). Discussion Delayed antibiotic prescription has been widely used in Anglo-Saxon countries, however, in Southern Europe there has been little research about this topic. The DAP trial wil evaluate two different delayed strategies in Spain for the main respiratory infections in primary care. Trial registration This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number http://NCT01363531. PMID:23682979
Meekins, Jessica M
Sudden loss of vision is an ophthalmic emergency with numerous possible causes. Abnormalities may occur at any point within the complex vision pathway, from retina to optic nerve to the visual center in the occipital lobe. This article reviews specific prechiasm (retina and optic nerve) and cerebral cortical diseases that lead to acute blindness. Information regarding specific etiologies, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for vision is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1−5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides, different doses [amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides], long-course regimens), antihistamines, cephalosporins or macrolides, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), doxycycline, saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intra-nasal). PMID:19450327
Barr, Wendy; Smith, Andrew
Acute diarrhea in adults is a common problem encountered by family physicians. The most common etiology is viral gastroenteritis, a self-limited disease. Increases in travel, comorbidities, and foodborne illness lead to more bacteria-related cases of acute diarrhea. A history and physical examination evaluating for risk factors and signs of inflammatory diarrhea and/or severe dehydration can direct any needed testing and treatment. Most patients do not require laboratory workup, and routine stool cultures are not recommended. Treatment focuses on preventing and treating dehydration. Diagnostic investigation should be reserved for patients with severe dehydration or illness, persistent fever, bloody stool, or immunosuppression, and for cases of suspected nosocomial infection or outbreak. Oral rehydration therapy with early refeeding is the preferred treatment for dehydration. Antimotility agents should be avoided in patients with bloody diarrhea, but loperamide/simethicone may improve symptoms in patients with watery diarrhea. Probiotic use may shorten the duration of illness. When used appropriately, antibiotics are effective in the treatment of shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, Clostridium difficile, traveler's diarrhea, and protozoal infections. Prevention of acute diarrhea is promoted through adequate hand washing, safe food preparation, access to clean water, and vaccinations.
Shields, Joanne; Maxwell, Alexander P
Urinary tract infection (UTI) may predominantly involve the lower urinary tract, i.e. acute cystitis, or upper urinary tract consisting of the renal pelvis and kidney,, i.e. acute pyelonephritis The incidence of acute pyelonephritis is higher in young women than in men but the incidence in men over 65 is similar to that in older women. Women have up to a 10% risk of recurrent acute pyelonephritis in the year following a first acute episode. The equivalent risk in men is 6%. Acute pyelonephritis may be uncomplicated and resolve without serious sequelae. A minority of episodes may be complicated by acute kidney injury, papillary necrosis, renal or perinephric abscess or the development of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Acute pyelonephritis is generally caused by microorganisms ascending from the urethra via the bladder into the upper urinary tract. Rarely the kidney may be seeded by blood-borne infection. Ecoli is the most common uropathogen causing pyelonephritis accounting for 70-90% of infections. Species of Enterococci, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Staphylococci are responsible for the remaining infections. There is a rising incidence in the community of UTI with bacteria that produce extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes. These ESBL bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporins and increasingly to quinolones. Risk factors for uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis include recent sexual intercourse, acute cystitis, stress incontinence and diabetes and for complicated acute pyelonephritis include pregnancy, diabetes, anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract and renal calculi.
Sánchez Marteles, Marta; Urrutia, Agustín
Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock are two of the main forms of presentation of acute heart failure. Both entities are serious, with high mortality, and require early diagnosis and prompt and aggressive management. Acute pulmonary edema is due to the passage of fluid through the alveolarcapillary membrane and is usually the result of an acute cardiac episode. Correct evaluation and clinical identification of the process is essential in the management of acute pulmonary edema. The initial aim of treatment is to ensure hemodynamic stability and to correct hypoxemia. Other measures that can be used are vasodilators such as nitroglycerin, loop diuretics and, in specific instances, opioids. Cardiogenic shock is characterized by sustained hypoperfusion, pulmonary wedge pressure > 18 mmHg and a cardiac index < 2.2l/min/m(2). The process typically presents with hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg or a decrease in mean arterial pressure > 30 mmHg) and absent or reduced diuresis (< 0.5 ml/kg/h). The most common cause is left ventricular failure due to acute myocardial infarction. Treatment consists of general measures to reverse acidosis and hypoxemia, as well as the use of vasopressors and inotropic drugs. Early coronary revascularization has been demonstrated to improve survival in shock associated with ischaemic heart disease.
Mabbutt, Sarah Elizabeth; Burdall, Oliver Charles; Kariyawasam, Sanjeeva
Gastric volvulus is a rare cause for acute visceral obstruction, with a high mortality rate that rises with delay in definitive treatment. A 33-year-old woman with a rare chromosomal mutation (46,XX,del(6)(q25.1q25.3)) presented with evidence of acute visceral obstruction. Diagnostic difficulties delayed treatment and she clinically deteriorated. Urgent CT imaging revealed acute mesentero-axial gastric volvulus. At laparotomy, global failure of colonic and splenic fixation was found. The viscera were de-rotated, the stomach salvaged and gastropexy and colopexy were performed. This is the first report of gastric volvulus secondary to congenital absence of colonic and splenic ligamentous attachments occurring in a patient over 30 years of age. This case is interesting not only due to unique pathology, but also highlights that general surgeons must be aware of the possibility of unusual causes for intestinal obstruction in patients with recognised genetic abnormalities, even in adult cases, to avoid harmful diagnostic delay. PMID:23853188
Ramasastry, Sai S
The most important factors in the management of acute wounds are the history and physical examination. The goals of wound care are fivefold: avoid further tissue damage, achieve wound closure as rapidly as possible, restore function to the injured tissue, facilitate the patient's expedient return to normal daily activities, and restore the patient's quality of life. The treating physician must have a good understanding of the wound healing mechanism. One must rule out all associated occult injuries that may be life threatening. Proper wound assessment and management with minimal discomfort to the patient are crucial. The primary goal is to facilitate the healing process to achieve a cosmetically pleasing and functional result.
Smith, J. Weston; O'Donovan, J. B.
An acute general hospital of 68 beds at Tamworth, a Midland town of 50,000 people, is staffed by general practitioners for both inpatient and casualty work. During the period 1967-8 there were 889 general practitioner admissions to the hospital for intermediate surgical and medical care, the average length of stay being 6·3 days and the average cost per case £44·3. Of these patients 96 were transferred to other hospitals. The patients, doctors, and standard of medical care have benefited from this kind of service. A “satellite” hospital of this type therefore has an important role in the community for carefully selected types of cases. PMID:5429111
Galtés, Ignasi; Gallego, María Ángeles; Esgueva, Raquel; Martin-Fumadó, Carles
A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital after being found unconscious in his home. He had a history of alcoholism, multiple drug addictions, and type I diabetes mellitus. At admission, he had hyperglycaemia (550 mg/dL) with glucosuria and ketone bodies in the urine, along with septic shock refractory to bilateral alveolar infiltrates and severe respiratory failure. The patient died 24 hours post admission due to multiple organ failure, with diabetic ketoacidosis decompensated by possible respiratory infection in a patient with polytoxicomania. The autopsy confirmed the presence of acute bilateral bronchopneumonia, chronic pancreatitis, severe hepatic steatosis, and generalized congestive changes. At the oesophagus, acute oesophageal necrosis was evident.
Baxter, G M
Laminitis is an inflammation of the sensitive laminae along the dorsal aspect of the digit and is considered to be a secondary complication of several predisposing or primary factors. Affected horses are usually very lame, have increased digital pulses, are painful to hoof testers along the toe of the foot, and have evidence of downward rotation or distal displacement of the distal phalanx present on radiographs. Treatments for acute laminitis include anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-endotoxin therapy, vasodilators, antithrombotic therapy, corrective trimming and shoeing, and surgical procedures. Treatment regimens are very controversial and the true efficacy of these treatments is unknown. The quality of laminae damage that occurs with laminitis, however, probably has greater influence on the success of treatment and outcome of the horse than the treatment regimen itself.
Ruud, Torleif; Lindefors, Nils; Lindhardt, Anne
The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of some of the most important issues faced by acute inpatient facilities in three Scandinavian countries, including reflections and critical remarks for discussion in this field. Information was drawn from scientific articles and official reports published in recent years, as well as the authors' own knowledge of acute facilities in their home countries. Acute inpatient facilities, including General Hospital Psychiatric Units (GHPUs), in all Scandinavian countries have several issues and problems in common, which include the organisation and capacity of acute services, the assessment of dangerousness and suicidality, the use of coercion and efforts to reduce coercion, the need to define and improve the quality of acute services, and the necessity to improve collaboration and continuity between acute services and other services. Although the emphasis some of these issues receive can vary across the three countries, Scandinavian mental health professionals (and policy makers) have begun to systematically share their experiences in developing a growing spirit of collaboration. Despite the role of welfare state and the deployment of substantial resources in Scandinavian countries, mental health practitioners are struggling to implement best practices in acute wards, to develop differentiated forms of acute services, and to reach the right balance and coordination between acute services and other services.
Hui, Charles Ps
Acute otitis externa, also known as 'swimmer's ear', is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present.
Hui, Charles PS
Acute otitis externa, also known as ‘swimmer’s ear’, is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present. PMID:24421666
Becker, Dávid; Merkely, Béla
The acute coronary syndrome is the most severe form of coronary artery disease. It is an immediate threat of life and the mortality rate can be high without proper therapy and patient management. Based on the first ECG, two different forms can be distinguished: acute coronary syndrome with and without ST elevation. Besides adequate medication, management of these patients is an essential part of treatment. In case of ST elevation, coronarography and percutaneous coronary intervention is needed in general, within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. When ST elevation is not detected on the ECG, individual ischemic risk factors and predictable mortality of the patient may define the necessity and the date of the invasive examination. The Hungarian hemodynamic laboratory network covers almost the whole country and, therefore, practically each patient may receive a state-of-the-art therapy. Although indicators of cardiovascular diseases are still prominent, the mortality rate of myocardial Infarction is decreasing in Hungary due to the well-organized invasive care.
Matĕjovic, M; Novák, I; Srámek, V; Rokyta, R; Hora, P; Nalos, M
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the general term used for severe acute respiratory failure of diverse aetiology. It is associated with a high morbidity, mortality (50-70%), and financial costs. Regardless of aetiology, the basic pathogenesis of ARDS is a systemic inflammatory response leading to a diffuse inflammatory process that involves both lungs, thus causing diffuse alveolar and endothelial damage with increased pulmonary capillary permeability and excessive extravascular lung water accumulation. ARDS is commonly associated with sepsis and multiple organ failure. The clinical picture involves progressive hypoxaemia, radiographic evidence of pulmonary oedema, decreased lung compliance and pulmonary hypertension. Despite the scientific and technological progress in critical care medicine, there is no specific ARDS therapy available at the moment and its management remains supportive. Therapeutic goals include resolution of underlying conditions, maintenance of acceptable gas exchange and tissue oxygenation and prevention of iatrogenic lung injury. Many new specific therapeutic strategies have been developed, however, most of them require further scientific evaluation. The paper reviews definition, basic pathogenesis and pathophysiology of ARDS and discusses current concepts of therapeutic possibilities of ARDS.
González, R Gilberto; Schwamm, Lee H
Acute ischemic stroke is common and often treatable, but treatment requires reliable information on the state of the brain that may be provided by modern neuroimaging. Critical information includes: the presence of hemorrhage; the site of arterial occlusion; the size of the early infarct "core"; and the size of underperfused, potentially threatened brain parenchyma, commonly referred to as the "penumbra." In this chapter we review the major determinants of outcomes in ischemic stroke patients, and the clinical value of various advanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging methods that may provide key physiologic information in these patients. The focus is on major strokes due to occlusions of large arteries of the anterior circulation, the most common cause of a severe stroke syndrome. The current evidence-based approach to imaging the acute stroke patient at the Massachusetts General Hospital is presented, which is applicable for all stroke types. We conclude with new information on time and stroke evolution that imaging has revealed, and how it may open the possibilities of treating many more patients. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jawa, Randeep S; Anillo, Sergio; Kulaylat, Mahmoud N
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) refers to a clinical syndrome of acute lung injury that occurs in a temporal relationship with the transfusion of blood products. Because of the difficulty in making its diagnosis, TRALI is often underreported. Three not necessarily mutually exclusive hypotheses have been described to explain its etiogenesis: antibody mediated, non-antibody mediated, and two hit mechanisms. Treatment is primarily supportive and includes supplemental oxygen. Diuretics are generally not indicated, as hypovolemia should be avoided. Compared with many other forms of acute lung injury, including the acute respiratory distress syndrome, TRALI is generally transient, reverses spontaneously, and carries a better prognosis. A variety of prevention strategies have been proposed, ranging from restrictive transfusion strategies to using plasma derived only from males.
Kanbay, M; Korkmaz, M; Yilmaz, U; Gur, G; Boyacioglu, S
Few data exist about the incidence of drug induced acute pancreatitis in the general population. Drugs are related to the aetiology of pancreatitis in about 1.4%–2% of cases. Although angiotensin converting enzymes are generally well tolerated, acute pancreatitis has been reported in a few subjects treated with captopril, enalapril, and lisinopril. A 85 year old man with a long standing history of hypertension, who was treated with ramipril 5 mg once daily, presented with acute pancreatitis. Other causes of the disease were ruled out. After cessation of ramipril his condition improved and amylase level decreased. This was his third episode of acute pancreatitis since ramipril was started in 2000. To the authors' knowledge ramipril induced pancreatitis has not previously been reported. PMID:15467001
Werntz, Megan; Chun, Carlene; Togioka, Brandon Michael
Pityriasis rosea (PR) is an acute exanthematous skin disease that is likely due to reactivation of human herpesviruses (HHVs) 6b and 7. In contrast to herpes simplex and zoster (alphaherpesviruses), HHV-6b and -7 (betaherpesviruses) are not found predominantly in skin lesions. This difference in virion location may decrease the possibility of causing central nervous system infection through skin contamination, but the risk for hematogenous spread likely remains the same. This article uses the first-known epidural placement through active PR to illustrate risk-benefit considerations when deciding between neuraxial and general anesthesia for obstetric patients with PR.
Other Specified Inflammatory Disorders of Skin or Subcutaneous Tissue; Pyoderma Gangrenosum; Erosive Pustular Dermatosis of the Scalp; Sweet's Syndrome; Behcet's Disease; Bowel-associated Dermatosis-arthritis Syndrome; Pustular Psoriasis; Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis; Keratoderma Blenorrhagicum; Sneddon-Wilkinson Disease; IgA Pemphigus; Amicrobial Pustulosis of the Folds; Infantile Acropustulosis; Transient Neonatal Pustulosis; Neutrophilic Eccrine Hidradenitis; Rheumatoid Neutrophilic Dermatitis; Neutrophilic Urticaria; Still's Disease; Erythema Marginatum; Unclassified Periodic Fever Syndromes / Autoinflammatory Syndromes; Dermatitis Herpetiformis; Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis; Bullous Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Inflammatory Epidermolysis Bullosa Aquisita; Neutrophilic Dermatosis of the Dorsal Hands (Pustular Vasculitis); Small Vessel Vasculitis Including Urticarial Vasculitis; Erythema Elevatum Diutinum; Medium Vessel Vasculitis
General practitioner use of a C-reactive protein point-of-care test to help target antibiotic prescribing in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (the PACE study): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Bates, Janine; Francis, Nick A; White, Patrick; Gillespie, David; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Breen, Rachel; Kirby, Nigel; Hood, Kerry; Gal, Micaela; Phillips, Rhiannon; Naik, Gurudutt; Cals, Jochen; Llor, Carl; Melbye, Hasse; Wootton, Mandy; Riga, Evgenia; Cochrane, Ann; Howe, Robin; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Sewell, Bernadette; Alam, Mohammed Fasihul; Butler, Christopher C
Most patients presenting with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in primary care are prescribed an antibiotic, which may not always be appropriate and may cause harm. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase biomarker that can be rapidly measured at the point of care and may predict benefit from antibiotic treatment in AECOPD. It is not clear whether the addition of a CRP point-of-care test (POCT) to clinical assessment leads to a reduction in antibiotic consumption without having a negative impact on COPD health status. This is a multicentre, individually randomised controlled trial (RCT) aiming to include 650 participants with a diagnosis of AECOPD in primary care. Participants will be randomised to be managed according to usual care (control) or with the addition of a CRP POCT to guide antibiotic prescribing. Antibiotic consumption for AECOPD within 4 weeks post randomisation and COPD health status (total score) measured by the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) at 2 weeks post randomisation will be co-primary outcomes. Primary analysis (by intention-to-treat) will determine differences in antibiotic consumption for superiority and COPD health status for non-inferiority. Secondary outcomes include: COPD health status, CCQ domain scores, use of other COPD treatments (weeks 1, 2 and 4), EQ-5D utility scores (weeks 1, 2 and 4 and month 6), disease-specific, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at 6 months, all-cause antibiotic consumption (antibiotic use for any condition) during first 4 weeks post randomisation, total antibiotic consumption (number of days during first 4 weeks of antibiotic consumed for AECOPD/any reason), antibiotic prescribing at the index consultation and during following 4 weeks, adverse effects over the first 4 weeks, incidence of pneumonia (weeks 4 and 6 months), health care resource use and cost comparison over the 6 months following randomisation. Prevalence and resistance profiles of bacteria will be
Atkinson, Helen; Wallis, Sebastian; Coatesworth, Andrew P
Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common problem facing general practitioners, paediatricians and otolaryngologists. This article reviews the aetiopathogenesis, epidemiology, presentation, natural history, complications and management of AOM. The literature was reviewed by using the PubMed search engine and entering a combination of terms including 'AOM', 'epidemiology' and 'management'. Relevant articles were identified and examined for content. What is the take-home message? AOM is a very common problem affecting the majority of children at least once and places a large burden on health care systems throughout the world. Although symptomatic relief is often enough for most children, more severe and protracted cases require treatment with antibiotics, especially in younger children.
Tabbane, K; Charfi, F; Dellagi, L; Guizani, L; Boukadida, L
The post-partum is a high risk period for the development of acute psychotic disorders. The frequence of post-partum psychoses is evaluated at 1 to 2 per 1,000 births. Post-partum psychosis include major affective disorders which is the most frequent diagnosis. The clinical pictures have specific characteristics: rapid change of symptomatology, liability of mood, and frequent confusional signs. The short-term prognosis is generally good but the risk of recurrence of the mental disorder, in or outside puerperal context, is high. At clinical, evolutive and genetic levels, the studies do not provide arguments for nosological autonomy of post-partum psychosis. At therapeutic level, the ECT is particularly efficient in this indication.
Filipowicz, Ewa; Staszków, Monika
Acute kidney injury (AKI) in obstetrics may be caused by the same disorders that are observed in the general population or may be specific for a pregnancy such as: preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome or acute fatty liver of pregnancy. The renal changes may be only temporary, and resolve within a few weeks postpartum, or may become irreversible leading to a progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the article the most important pregnancy related syndromes associated with AKI have been shortly reviewed.
Nevler, Naomi; Gandelman-Marton, Revital
Thinking epilepsy is a rare form of reflex epilepsy that can be induced by specific cognitive tasks, and occurs mainly in idiopathic generalized epilepsies. We report a case of complex partial seizures triggered by thinking in a young man with acute bacterial meningitis and a remote head injury. This case illustrates that thinking-induced reflex seizures can be partial and can be provoked by an acute brain insult.
Kleinfeldt, T; Ince, H; Rehders, T C; Nienaber, C A
Acute aortic dissection is gaining recognition in Western societies, and is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. New diagnostic imaging modalities, longer life expectancy in general, as well as the increase in the number of hypertension patients have all contributed to the growing awareness of aortic dissections. Compared with acute coronary syndrome and lung embolism, aortic dissection is among the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening conditions involving chest pain. Here we report the case of a 59 year old patient suffering from hypertension and discuss the latest diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the setting of acute chest pain.
Ding, You; Han, Muxin; Rovelli, Carlo
We reconsider the spinfoam dynamics that has been recently introduced, in the generalized Kamiński-Kisielowski-Lewandowski (KKL) version where the foam is not dual to a triangulation. We study the Euclidean as well as the Lorentzian case. We show that this theory can still be obtained as a constrained BF theory satisfying the simplicity constraint, now discretized on a general oriented 2-cell complex. This constraint implies that boundary states admit a (quantum) geometrical interpretation in terms of polyhedra, generalizing the tetrahedral geometry of the simplicial case. We also point out that the general solution to this constraint (imposed weakly) depends on a quantum number rf in addition to those of loop quantum gravity. We compute the vertex amplitude and recover the KKL amplitude in the Euclidean theory when rf=0. We comment on the eventual physical relevance of rf, and the formal way to eliminate it.
Strober, Bruce E
A 69-year-old man presented with symmetric erythematous, hyperpigmented, and ivory-colored plaques on the trunk and extremities. His clinical history, laboratory analysis, and histopathologic examination were consistent with generalized morphea, a subtype of localized scleroderma.
The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.
Smith, Susan M; Fahey, Tom; Smucny, John; Becker, Lorne A
The benefits and risks of antibiotics for acute bronchitis remain unclear despite it being one of the most common illnesses seen in primary care. To assess the effects of antibiotics in improving outcomes and assess adverse effects of antibiotic therapy for patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchitis. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 12, MEDLINE (1966 to January week 1, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to January 2014) and LILACS (1982 to January 2014). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any antibiotic therapy with placebo or no treatment in acute bronchitis or acute productive cough, in patients without underlying pulmonary disease. At least two review authors extracted data and assessed trial quality. Seventeen trials with 3936 participants were included in the primary analysis. The quality of trials was generally good. There was limited evidence to support the use of antibiotics in acute bronchitis. At follow-up, there was no difference in participants described as being clinically improved between antibiotic and placebo groups (11 studies with 3841 participants, risk ratio (RR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99 to 1.15; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 22. Participants given antibiotics were less likely to have a cough (four studies with 275 participants, RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.85; NNTB 6); have a night cough (four studies with 538 participants, RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.83; NNTB 7) and a shorter mean cough duration (seven studies with 2776 participants, mean difference (MD) -0.46 days, 95% CI -0.87 to -0.04). The differences in presence of a productive cough at follow-up and MD of productive cough did not reach statistical significance.Antibiotic-treated patients were more likely to be unimproved according to clinician's global assessment (six studies with 891 participants, RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.79; NNTB 25); have an abnormal lung exam (five studies with 613 participants, RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.70; NNTB
Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)
Do randomized clinical trial selection criteria reflect levels of risk as observed in a general population of acute myocardial infarction survivors? The PEGASUS trial in the light of the FAST-MI 2005 registry.
Puymirat, Etienne; Schiele, François; Zeller, Marianne; Jacquemin, Laurent; Leclercq, Florence; Marcaggi, Xavier; Ferrières, Jean; Simon, Tabassome; Danchin, Nicolas
Few clinical trials have focused on populations with a history of distant myocardial infarction (MI). The PEGASUS trial assessed the impact of dual antiplatelet therapy in such patients, selected by enrichment criteria of high cardiovascular risk. Whether the PEGASUS population reflects the risk of a broader post-MI population is questionable. We analyzed whether 4-year mortality of a routine-practice population would differ according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria used in PEGASUS. FAST-MI is a nationwide French registry recruiting acute MI patients in November 2005; 2490 patients alive and without recurrent MI at one year were classified into three groups: Group 1 ("PEGASUS-like" population; n=1395; 56%), Group 2 (population having ≥1 exclusion criterion for the trial; n=677; 27%), and group 3 (population meeting neither the PEGASUS inclusion nor exclusion criteria; n=418, 17%). Group 1 patients were older than Group 3 patients, with higher GRACE scores, more comorbidity, and less STEMI, but were younger than the PEGASUS trial population. Enrichment criteria successfully defined a population at higher risk: 4-year survival 83% in Group 1, 97% in Group 2, and 68% in Group 3 (P<0.001). Among risk-enrichment criteria, age alone was highly discriminant: in PEGASUS-like patients, survival was 78% in those ≥65 versus 94% in those <65years. Enrichment criteria used in PEGAGUS succeed in defining a population at increased risk in patients with prior MI, age being the most discriminant factor. The trial population, however, was notably younger and more masculine than the corresponding real-life population in France. Clinicaltrials.govnumber:NCT00673036. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
[Integral Care Guide for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Depressive Episodes and Recurrent Depressive Disorder in Adults. Integral Attention of Adults with a Diagnosis of Depressive Episodes and Recurrent Depressive Disorder: Part II: General Aspects of Treatment, Management of the Acute Phase, Continuation and Maintenance of Patients with a Depression Diagnosis].
Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia Bohórquez; Valencia, Jenny García; Guarín, Maritza Rodríguez; Borrero, Álvaro Enrique Arenas; Díaz, Sergio Mario Castro; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Riveros, Patricia Maldonado; Jaramillo, Luis Eduardo; Brito, Enrique; Acosta, Carlos Alberto Palacio; Pedraza, Ricardo Sánchez; González-Pacheco, Juan; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos
This article presents recommendations based on evidence gathered to answer a series of clinical questions concerning the depressive episode and the recurrent depressive disorder, with emphasis on general treatment aspects, treatment in the acute phase and management of the continuation/maintenance, all intended to grant health care parameters based on the best and more updated available evidence for achieving minimum quality standards with adult patients thus diagnosed. A practical clinical guide was elaborated according to standards of the Methodological Guide of the Ministry of Social Protection. Recommendation from NICE90 and CANMAT guides were adopted and updated so as to answer the questions posed while de novo questions were developed. Recommendations 5-22 corresponding to management of depression are presented. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Cesarani, A; Alpini, D; Monti, B; Raponi, G
Vertigo and dizziness are very common symptoms in the general population. The aim of this paper is to describe the physical and pharmacological treatment of symptoms characterized by sudden onset of rotatory vertigo. Acute vertigo can be subdivided into two main groups: (1) spontaneous vertigo and (2) provoked vertigo, usually by postural changes, generally called paroxysmal positional vertigo (PPV). Sudden onset of acute vertigo is usually due to acute spontaneous unilateral vestibular failure. It can be also fluctuant as, e.g., in recurrent attacks of Ménière's disease. Pharmacotherapy of acute spontaneous vertigo includes Levo-sulpiride i.v., 50 mg in 250 physiologic solution, once or twice a day, methoclopramide i.m., 10 mg once or twice a day, or triethilperazine rectally, once or twice a day, to reduce neurovegetative symptoms; diazepam i.m., 10 mg once or twice a day, to decrease internuclear inhibition, sulfate magnesium i.v., two ampoules in 500 cc physiological solution, twice a day, or piracetam i.v., one ampoule in 500 cc physiological solution, twice a day, to decrease vestibular damage. At the onset of the acute symptoms, patients must lie on their healthy side with the head and trunk raised 20 degrees. The room must be quiet but not darkened. If the patient is able to swallow without vomiting, it is important to reduce nystagmus and stabilize the visual field with gabapentine, per os, 300 mg twice or three times a day. The first step of the physical therapy of acute vertigo is vestibular electrical stimulation, that is to say, a superficial paravertebral electrical stimulation of neck muscles, aimed to reduce antigravitary failure and to increase proprioceptive cervical sensory substitution. PPV is a common complaint and represents one of the most common entities in peripheral vestibular pathology. While the clinical picture is well known and widely described, the etiopathogenesis of PPV is still a matter of debate. Despite the different
Lee, V K; Kimbrough, D J; Jarquin-Valdivia, A A
Acute bacterial parotitis (ABP) is a relatively uncommon condition that tends to occur in debilitated older patients. We report a case of an older woman that presented with an acute intracerebral hemorrhage who developed ABP. This morbidity led to endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy and gastrostomy, all of which were not initially needed. We discuss the proposed physiopathology and etiopathogenesis of ABP in adults.
... treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. In: Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: ... et al. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults. In: Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: ...
Monfared, Ali; Habibzadeh, Seyed Mahmoud; Mesbah, Seyed Alireza
We present acute phosphate nephropathy in a 28-year-old man, which was developed after a car accident due to rhabdomyolysis. Treatment of acute kidney injury was done with administration of sodium bicarbonate.
Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...
Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...
Kim, Ki Up; Kim, Jin Kyeung; Won, Jong Ho; Hong, Dae Sik; Park, Hee Sook; Park, Kyeung Kyu
The decision to operate for abdominal pain in patients with leukopenia can be exceedingly difficult. Surgical exploration may be the only effective way to differentiate acute appendicitis from other causes, but it involves considerable risk of infectious complications due to immunesuppression. Leukemic patients, who presented significant RLQ pain, had been indicated for operation, despite having advanced disease or having had received chemotherapy or steroids. Four adult leukemia patients, complicated by acute appendictis, were reviewed. Two patients were in induction chemotherapy, one receiving salvage chemotheapy due to relapse and the other was in conservative treatment. Two patients were acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), one had acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and the other had aleukemic leukemia. All patients underwent appendectomy and recovered without complication. Our experience supports the theory that the surgical management of appendicitis in acute leukemia is the most effective way, in spite of leukopenia. PMID:8268146
Joseph, Dan; Hartman, Gregory; Gibson, Caleb
In this article we explore the consequences of modifying the common definition of a parabola by considering the locus of all points equidistant from a focus and (not necessarily linear) directrix. The resulting derived curves, which we call "generalized parabolas," are often quite beautiful and possess many interesting properties. We show that…
Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. CURRENTOPINION Acute traumatic coagulopathy ...bleeding. The recognition of acute traumatic coagulopathy as a distinct clinical entity characterized by early coagulation dysfunction, arising prior to...traumatic coagulopathy . Recent findings We focus on recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of acute traumatic coagulopathy , particularly
Smith, Susan M; Fahey, Tom; Smucny, John; Becker, Lorne A
The benefits and risks of antibiotics for acute bronchitis remain unclear despite it being one of the most common illnesses seen in primary care. To assess the effects of antibiotics in improving outcomes and to assess adverse effects of antibiotic therapy for people with a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchitis. We searched CENTRAL 2016, Issue 11 (accessed 13 January 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 1, 2017), Embase (1974 to 13 January 2017), and LILACS (1982 to 13 January 2017). We searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov on 5 April 2017. Randomised controlled trials comparing any antibiotic therapy with placebo or no treatment in acute bronchitis or acute productive cough, in people without underlying pulmonary disease. At least two review authors extracted data and assessed trial quality. We did not identify any new trials for inclusion in this 2017 update. We included 17 trials with 5099 participants in the primary analysis. The quality of trials was generally good. At follow-up there was no difference in participants described as being clinically improved between the antibiotic and placebo groups (11 studies with 3841 participants, risk ratio (RR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99 to 1.15). Participants given antibiotics were less likely to have a cough (4 studies with 275 participants, RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.85; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 6) and a night cough (4 studies with 538 participants, RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.83; NNTB 7). Participants given antibiotics had a shorter mean cough duration (7 studies with 2776 participants, mean difference (MD) -0.46 days, 95% CI -0.87 to -0.04). The differences in presence of a productive cough at follow-up and MD of productive cough did not reach statistical significance.Antibiotic-treated participants were more likely to be improved according to clinician's global assessment (6 studies
Jasdanwala, Sarfaraz; Babyatsky, Mark
Crohn's disease, a transmural inflammatory bowel disease, has many well-known extra-intestinal manifestations and complications. Although acute pancreatitis has a higher incidence in patients with Crohn's disease as compared to the general population, acute pancreatitis is still relatively uncommon in patients with Crohn's disease. Patients with Crohn's disease are at an approximately fourfold higher risk than the general population to develop acute pancreatitis. The risk of developing acute pancreatitis is higher in females as compared to males. Acute pancreatitis can occur at any age with higher incidence reported in patients in their 20s and between 40-50 years of age. The severity and prognosis of acute pancreatitis in patients with Crohn's disease is the same as in general population. Acute pancreatitis can occur before onset of intestinal Crohn's disease, this presentation being more common in children than adults. It can also occur as the presenting symptom. However, most commonly it occurs after intestinal symptoms have manifest with a mean time interval between the initial presentation and development of acute pancreatitis being 2 years. There are several etiological factors contributing to acute pancreatitis in patients with Crohn's disease. It is not clear whether acute pancreatitis is a direct extra-intestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease; however, majority of the cases of acute pancreatitis in patients with Crohn's disease are due to GS and medications. Drugs used for the treatment of Crohn's disease that have been reported to cause acute pancreatitis include 5-ASA agents, azathioprine and 6 mercaptopurine, metornidazole and corticosteroids. Recent evidence has emerged correlating both type 1 and 2 autoimmune pancreatitis with Crohn's disease. Understanding the association between the two disease entities is key to effectively manage patients with Crohn's disease and acute pancreatitis.
Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Jacobsen, Paula L; Serenko, Michael; Chen, Yinzhong
Vortioxetine is a recently approved multimodal antidepressant with anxiolytic properties in preclinical studies. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine in subjects with a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder. Subjects (n = 457) were randomized 1:1:1 to treatment with placebo or vortioxetine 2.5 or 10 mg once daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was reduction in Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) total scores from baseline after 8 weeks of treatment. Key secondary outcomes were changes from baseline in HAM-A total scores for the 2.5 and 10 mg dose, Hospital Anxiety and Depression anxiety subscore, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Sheehan Disability Scale, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale score, as well as HAM-A response rate at week 8. Neither vortioxetine dose achieved a statistically significant improvement over placebo on the primary endpoint (least-squares mean difference ± standard error from placebo: -0.87 ± 0.803 [p = 0.279] for 2.5 mg and -0.81 ± 0.791 [p = 0.306] for 10 mg vortioxetine) or on any secondary efficacy endpoints. Common adverse events (≥5% in either vortioxetine group) were nausea, dry mouth, headache, diarrhea, constipation, and vomiting. Vortioxetine 2.5 and 10 mg treatment did not significantly improve generalized anxiety disorder symptoms versus placebo. Vortioxetine was safe and well tolerated in this patient population. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Background The optimal treatment of acute complicated diverticulitis is a matter of debate and has undergone significant changes. Currently, the main focus of surgical treatment concepts is on controlling the emergency situation triggered by acute complicated sigmoid diverticulitis through interventional and minimally invasive measures. Methods This article presents the current data and recommendations on differentiated treatment of acute complicated sigmoid diverticulitis, which are also summarized in a decision tree. Results In general, resection of the diverticular sigmoid is needed to treat acute complicated sigmoid diverticulitis, because without resection the recurrence rate is too high at 40%. Since the morbidity and mortality rates associated with emergency resection are extremely high, resulting in the creation of a stoma, efforts are made to control the acute situation through interventional and laparoscopic measures. Therefore, pericolic and pelvic abscesses (Hinchey stages I, II) are eliminated through percutaneous or laparoscopic drainage. Likewise, laparoscopic lavage and drainage are performed for purulent and feculent peritonitis (Hinchey stages III, IV). After elimination of the acute septic situation, interval elective sigmoid resection is conducted. If emergency resection cannot be avoided, it is performed, while taking account of the patient's overall condition, with primary anastomosis and a protective stoma or as discontinuity resection using Hartmann's procedure. Conclusion Thanks to the progress made in interventional and laparoscopic treatment, differentiated concepts are now used to treat acute complicated sigmoid diverticulitis. PMID:26989380
Acute arthritis can first present as a symptom of dangerous and rapidly progressing disease. It is quite easy to differentiate between arthritis and periarthritis. More problematical is correct early differential diagnosis of the acute arthritis. Determining whether one, several or many joints are affected can narrow the diagnostic possibilities. Arthrocentesis and synovial fluid testing provide much information and should be done at initial evaluation if possible. The presence or absence of fever, rash, family history of joint disease and exposure to infective organisms can further direct diagnostic studies and treatment. In general, to avoid masking clues, drug therapy should be delayed for mild symptoms until diagnosis is complete. This article is designed mostly for primary care physicians, residents and includes author's original data and review of recommended reading.
Müller, W; Bahous, I
The condition of generalized periarthritis calcarea (hydroxyapatite deposition disease) is characterised by multiple periarticular calcification which can be localised around practically any joint and also in proximity to the spine. This calcification consists of hydroxyapatite crystals which are responsible for the episodes of acute, subacute or chronic periarticular or articular inflammation so typical of the condition. Because of this one can classify periarthritis calcarea along with gout and chondrocalcinosis in the group of crystal deposition diseases. The actual cause of the calcification remains unknown but it is probable that, along with hereditary factors, disturbances in metabolism play an important role. The diagnosis of generalised periarthritis is made from the characteristic X-ray picture in conjunction with the clinical findings and, on occasion, the demonstration of hydroxyapatite crystals in the affected tissues. In the differential diagnosis gout, chondrocalcinosis, various inflammatory rheumatic conditions and septic arthritis must be excluded and various calcification processes, particularly interstitial calcinosis and lipocal cinogranulomatosis, must also be considered. Since the etiology of the calcification remains unknown to specific treatment is available. Symptomatic treatment with colchicine is mostly inadequate which is why one often has recourse to the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids.
Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo
Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness.
Ring, Johannes; Grosber, Martine; Möhrenschlager, Matthias; Brockow, Knut
Anaphylaxis is the maximal variant of an acute life-threatening immediate-type allergy. Due to its often dramatic onset and clinical course, practical knowledge in the management of these reactions is mandatory both for physicians and patients. It has to be distinguished between acute treatment modalities and general recommendations for management of patients who have suffered from an anaphylactic reaction. Acute treatment comprises general procedures like positioning, applying an intravenous catheter, call for help, comfort of the patient as well as the application of medication. The acute treatment modalities are selected depending upon the intensity of the clinical symptomatology as they are categorized in 'severity grades'. First of all it is important to diagnose anaphylaxis early and consider several differential diagnoses. This diagnosis is purely clinical and laboratory tests are of no help in the acute situation. Epinephrine is the essential antianaphylactic drug in the pharmacologic treatment. It should be first applied intramuscularly, only in very severe cases or under conditions of surgical interventions intravenous application can be tried. Furthermore, glucocorticosteroids are given in order to prevent protracted or biphasic courses of anaphylaxis; they are of little help in the acute treatment. Epinephrine autoinjectors can be used by the patient him/herself. Histamine H(1)-antagonists are valuable in mild anaphylactic reactions; they should be given intravenously if possible. The replacement of volume is crucial in antianaphylactic treatment. Crystalloids can be used in the beginning, in severe shock colloid volume substitutes have to be applied. Patients suffering from an anaphylactic episode should be observed over a period of 4-10 h according to the severity of the symptomatology. It is crucial to be aware or recognize risk patients as for example patients with severe uncontrolled asthma, or under beta-adrenergic blockade. When bronchial
Saw, N K; Hindmarsh, J R
Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients.
Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J
Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients. PMID:15701748
Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Wald, Ellen R
Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis are 2 of the most common indications for antimicrobial agents in children. Together, they are responsible for billions of dollars of health care expenditures. The pathogenesis of the 2 conditions is identical. In the majority of children with each condition, a preceding viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of the acute bacterial complication. It has been shown that viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of acute otitis media in 37% of cases. Currently, precise microbiologic diagnosis of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis requires performance of tympanocentesis in the former and sinus aspiration in the latter. The identification of a virus from the nasopharynx in either case does not obviate the need for antimicrobial therapy. Furthermore, nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs are not useful in predicting the results of culture of the middle ear or paranasal sinus. However, it is possible that a combination of information regarding nasopharyngeal colonization with bacteria and infection with specific viruses may inform treatment decisions in the future.
From the perspective of neuropathies with an acute onset mimicking that of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), cases with profound sensory and/or autonomic impairment without any significant weakness have been reported. Although the possibility of infectious or toxic etiologies should be carefully excluded, immune mechanisms similar to those in GBS are suggested to be involved in these so-called acute sensory neuropathies and acute autonomic neuropathies. The types of neuropathy include those with predominant sensory manifestations, predominant autonomic manifestations such as autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy, and both sensory and autonomic manifestations such as acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. Neuronopathy in the sensory and/or autonomic ganglia (i.e., ganglionopathy) has been commonly suggested in patients with these types of neuropathies. The presence of Anti-GD1b antibodies has been reported in some of the patients with acute sensory neuropathy with deep sensory impairment, whereas anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies are reported to be present in half of the patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The discovery of anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies significantly expanded the spectrum of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. This is because some of the patients with chronic progression mimicking neurodegenerative diseases such as pure autonomic failure were positive for these antibodies. In contrast, pathologically significant autoantibodies have not been identified in acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathogenesis and the spectrum of these types of neuropathies.
Case mix, outcome and activity for patients with severe acute kidney injury during the first 24 hours after admission to an adult, general critical care unit: application of predictive models from a secondary analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme database.
Kolhe, Nitin V; Stevens, Paul E; Crowe, Alex V; Lipkin, Graham W; Harrison, David A
This study pools data from the UK Intensive Care National Audit and Research Center (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme (CMP) to evaluate the case mix, outcome and activity for 17,326 patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) occurring during the first 24 hours of admission to intensive care units (ICU). Severe AKI admissions (defined as serum creatinine >/=300 mumol/l and/or urea >/=40 mmol/l during the first 24 hours) were extracted from the ICNARC CMP database of 276,326 admissions to UK ICUs from 1995 to 2004. Subgroups of oliguric and nonoliguric AKI were identified by daily urine output. Data on surgical status, survival and length of stay were also collected. Severity of illness scores and mortality prediction models were compared (UK Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II, Stuivenberg Hospital Acute Renal Failure [SHARF] T0, SHARF II0 and the Mehta model). Severe AKI occurred in 17,326 out of 276,731 admissions (6.3%). The source of admission was nonsurgical in 83.7%. Sepsis was present in 47.3% and AKI was nonoliguric in 63.9% of cases. Admission to ICU with severe AKI accounted for 9.3% of all ICU bed-days. Oliguric AKI was associated with longer length of stay for survivors and shorter length of stay for nonsurvivors compared with nonoliguric AKI. Oliguric AKI was associated with significantly greater ICU and hospital mortality (55.8% and 77.3%, respectively) compared with nonoliguric AKI (33.4% and 49.3%, respectively). Surgery during the 1 week before admission or during the first week in the CMP unit was associated with decreased odds of mortality. UK APACHE II and the Mehta scores under-predicted the number of deaths, whereas SHARF T0 and SHARF II0 over-predicted the number of deaths. Severe AKI accounts for over 9% of all bed-days in adult, general ICUs, representing a considerable drain on resources. Although nonoliguric AKI continues to confer a survival benefit, overall survival from AKI in the ICU and survival to leave hospital
Case mix, outcome and activity for patients with severe acute kidney injury during the first 24 hours after admission to an adult, general critical care unit: application of predictive models from a secondary analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database
Kolhe, Nitin V; Stevens, Paul E; Crowe, Alex V; Lipkin, Graham W; Harrison, David A
Introduction This study pools data from the UK Intensive Care National Audit and Research Center (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme (CMP) to evaluate the case mix, outcome and activity for 17,326 patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) occurring during the first 24 hours of admission to intensive care units (ICU). Methods Severe AKI admissions (defined as serum creatinine ≥300 μmol/l and/or urea ≥40 mmol/l during the first 24 hours) were extracted from the ICNARC CMP database of 276,326 admissions to UK ICUs from 1995 to 2004. Subgroups of oliguric and nonoliguric AKI were identified by daily urine output. Data on surgical status, survival and length of stay were also collected. Severity of illness scores and mortality prediction models were compared (UK Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II, Stuivenberg Hospital Acute Renal Failure [SHARF] T0, SHARF II0 and the Mehta model). Results Severe AKI occurred in 17,326 out of 276,731 admissions (6.3%). The source of admission was nonsurgical in 83.7%. Sepsis was present in 47.3% and AKI was nonoliguric in 63.9% of cases. Admission to ICU with severe AKI accounted for 9.3% of all ICU bed-days. Oliguric AKI was associated with longer length of stay for survivors and shorter length of stay for nonsurvivors compared with nonoliguric AKI. Oliguric AKI was associated with significantly greater ICU and hospital mortality (55.8% and 77.3%, respectively) compared with nonoliguric AKI (33.4% and 49.3%, respectively). Surgery during the 1 week before admission or during the first week in the CMP unit was associated with decreased odds of mortality. UK APACHE II and the Mehta scores under-predicted the number of deaths, whereas SHARF T0 and SHARF II0 over-predicted the number of deaths. Conclusions Severe AKI accounts for over 9% of all bed-days in adult, general ICUs, representing a considerable drain on resources. Although nonoliguric AKI continues to confer a survival benefit, overall survival from AKI
Dzakovic, Alexander; Superina, Riccardo
Pancreatitis is becoming increasingly prevalent in children, posing new challenges to pediatric health care providers. Although some general adult treatment paradigms are applicable in the pediatric population, diagnostic workup and surgical management of acute and chronic pancreatitis have to be tailored to anatomic and pathophysiological entities peculiar to children. Nonbiliary causes of acute pancreatitis in children are generally managed nonoperatively with hydration, close biochemical and clinical observation, and early initiation of enteral feeds. Surgical intervention including cholecystectomy or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is often required in acute biliary pancreatitis, whereas infected pancreatic necrosis remains a rare absolute indication for pancreatic debridement and drainage via open, laparoscopic, or interventional radiologic procedure. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by painful irreversible changes of the parenchyma and ducts, which may result in or be caused by inadequate ductal drainage. A variety of surgical procedures providing drainage, denervation, resection, or a combination thereof are well established to relieve pain and preserve pancreatic function.
Sharma, B S; Shekhawat, Dhananjay S; Sharma, Prity; Meena, Chetan; Mohan, Hari
Acute respiratory distress is one of the most common reason for emergency visits in children under 5 y of age. An accurate understanding of the epidemiology of these diseases, identification of risk factors and etiology is critical for successful treatment and prevention of related mortality. The cause of acute respiratory distress varies in etiology, and hence is amenable to different treatment modalities. Depending on the predominant symptoms and signs, a child presenting to the clinician can be divided into six groups, viz., stridor; cough, fever and difficulty in breathing or fast breathing; wheezing; mediastinal shift with severe respiratory distress; slow or irregular breathing in absence of any pulmonary sign; and respiratory distress with cardiac findings. A detailed history followed by a thorough clinical examination and laboratory evaluation assisted by imaging modalities if indicated, helps to establish the exact cause of respiratory distress in the child. Early recognition and prompt institution of appropriate management or referral can significantly improve the outcome of this illness. This article offers clinicians a brief update on the general management guidelines of respiratory distress in pediatric patients. Specific treatment depends on the exact cause, however croup and acute severe asthma have been discussed in this article.
Kellam, James F; Archibald, Douglas; Barber, James W; Christian, Eugene P; D'Ascoli, Richard J; Haynes, Richard J; Hecht, Suzanne S; Hurwitz, Shepard R; Kellam, James F; McLaren, Alexander C; Peabody, Terrance D; Southworth, Stephen R; Strauss, Robert W; Wadey, Veronica M R
With the changing delivery of orthopaedic surgical care, there is a need to define the knowledge and competencies that are expected of an orthopaedist providing general and/or acute orthopaedic care. This article provides a proposal for the knowledge and competencies needed for an orthopaedist to practice general and/or acute care orthopaedic surgery. Using the modified Delphi method, the General Orthopaedic Competency Task Force consisting of stakeholders associated with general orthopaedic practice has proposed the core knowledge and competencies that should be maintained by orthopaedists who practice emergency and general orthopaedic surgery. For relevancy to clinical practice, 2 basic sets of competencies were established. The assessment competencies pertain to the general knowledge needed to evaluate, investigate, and determine an overall management plan. The management competencies are generally procedural in nature and are divided into 2 groups. For the Management 1 group, the orthopaedist should be competent to provide definitive care including assessment, investigation, initial or emergency care, operative or nonoperative care, and follow-up. For the Management 2 group, the orthopaedist should be competent to assess, investigate, and commence timely non-emergency or emergency care and then either transfer the patient to the appropriate subspecialist's care or provide definitive care based on the urgency of care, exceptional practice circumstance, or individual's higher training. This may include some higher-level procedures usually performed by a subspecialist, but are consistent with one's practice based on experience, practice environment, and/or specialty interest. These competencies are the first step in defining the practice of general orthopaedic surgery including acute orthopaedic care. Further validation and discussion among educators, general orthopaedic surgeons, and subspecialists will ensure that these are relevant to clinical practice. These
Maier, Alexander; Kommer, Vera
We report on a young women with acute rheumatic fever. Acute rheumatic fever has become a rare disease in Germany, especially in adults. This carries the risk that it can be missed in the differential diagnostic considerations of acute rheumatic disorders and febrile status. If rheumatic fever is not diagnosed and treated correctly, there is a considerable risk for rheumatic valvular heart disease. In this article diagnosis, differential diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic fever are discussed extensively.
Padrón-Arredondo, Guillermo; de Atocha Rosado-Montero, Manuel
Acute appendicitis and acute cholecystitis are among the most common diagnoses that general surgeons operate on. However, it is rarely described in its synchronous form. A 43 year-old woman attending the clinic for right upper quadrant pain of 11 days duration. The patient refers to intermittent radiating pain in the right side, with positive Murphy, tachycardia, and fever. The laboratory results showed white cells 16,200/mm(3), glucose 345 mg/dl, abnormal liver function tests. Acute cholecystitis was reported with ultrasound. A Masson-type incision was made, noting an enlarged pyogenic gallbladder with thickened walls, sub-hepatic abscess of approximately 300 ml, greenish-yellow colour, and foetid. An anterograde subtotal cholecystectomy is performed due to difficulty in identifying elements of Calot triangle due to the inflammatory process, opening it and extracting stones. The right iliac fossa is reviewed, finding a plastron and a sub-serous retrocaecal appendix perforated in its middle third with free fecalith and an abscess in the pelvic cavity. An anterograde appendectomy was performed and the patient progressed satisfactorily, later being discharged due to improvement. In this patient, with a history of recurrent episodes of gallbladder pain and disseminated acute abdominal pain without peritoneal irritation, clinical suspicion was exacerbated cholecystitis with probable empyema of the gallbladder. Open surgery approach for this patient allowed access to both the appendix and gallbladder in order to perform a complete exploration of the abdominal cavity. The synchronous presentation of cholecystolithiasis and complicated appendicitis has not been reported in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Tilouche, Samia; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Sahnoun, Maha; Chkirbène, Youssef; Mestiri, Sarra; Boughamoura, Lamia; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed; Souguir, Mohamed Kamel
Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium with heterogeneous clinical manifestations and progression. In clinical practice, although there are many methods of diagnosis of acute myocarditis, the diagnosis remains an embarrassing dilemma for clinicians. The authors report the case of 9-month-old infant who was brought to the Pediatric Emergency Department with sudden onset dyspnea. Examination disclosed heart failure and resuscitation was undertaken. The electrocardiogram showed an ST segment elevation in the anterolateral leads with a mirror image. Cardiac enzyme tests revealed a significant elevation of troponin and creatine phosphokinase levels. A diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was made, and heparin therapy was prescribed. The infant died on the third day after admission with cardiogenic shock. The autopsy showed dilatation of the ventricles and massive edema of the lungs. Histological examinations of myocardium samples revealed the presence of a marked lymphocytic infiltrate dissociating myocardiocytes. Death was attributed to acute myocarditis. The authors call attention to the difficulties of differential diagnosis between acute myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction especially in children, and to the important therapeutic implications of a correct diagnosis. PMID:28210569
Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Niewold, T.A.; Koopmans, S.J.
A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes, negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants, they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached. Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need; and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations. PMID:16252337
Yatsuhashi, H; Koga, M; Yano, M
We investigated clinical characteristics and incidence of patients with acute non-A-G hepatitis, who were all registered in 17 Japanese National Hospitals. Seven hundreds thirty-one (24.0%) of 3052 patients with sporadic acute hepatitis and 73 (21.2%) of 344 patients with posttransfusion acute hepatitis were diagnosed as acute non-ABC hepatitis. Patients with acute non-ABC hepatitis were older (Mean +/- SD, 44 +/- 15 years) and male/female ratio was 0.70. Although mean levels of liver function abnormality was generally mild, 4(1.8%) of 250 patients with acute non-ABC hepatitis were died of fulminant hepatitis.
Louis, Martine A.; Lin, Elizabeth; Baek, Ji Yoon; Andoni, Alda; Wang, Xiao Hui
General surgeons are often asked to evaluate acute abdominal pain which has an expanded differential diagnosis in women of childbearing age. Acute appendicitis accounts for many surgical emergencies as a common cause of nongynecologic pelvic pain. In some rare instances, acute appendicitis has been shown to occur simultaneously with a variety of gynecologic diseases. We report a case of concurrent acute appendicitis and ruptured ovarian endometrioma. PMID:28097032
Abd-Elhameed, W. M.; Zeyada, N. A.
This paper is concerned with developing a new class of generalized numbers. The main advantage of this class is that it generalizes the two classes of generalized Fibonacci numbers and generalized Pell numbers. Some new identities involving these generalized numbers are obtained. In addition, the two well-known identities of Sury and Marques which…
Abd-Elhameed, W. M.; Zeyada, N. A.
This paper is concerned with developing a new class of generalized numbers. The main advantage of this class is that it generalizes the two classes of generalized Fibonacci numbers and generalized Pell numbers. Some new identities involving these generalized numbers are obtained. In addition, the two well-known identities of Sury and Marques which…
Gray, Matthew Philip; Gorelick, Marc H
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a primarily pediatric, immune-mediated disease characterized by demyelination and polyfocal neurologic symptoms that typically occur after a preceding viral infection or recent immunization. This article presents the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We also present evaluation and management strategies.
Atkinson, K.; Wells, D. G.; Clink, H. McD.; Kay, H. E. M.; Powles, R.; McElwain, T. J.
Seventy-eight adult patients with acute leukaemia were classified cytologically into 3 categories: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) or acute undifferentiated leukaemia (AUL). The periodic acid-Schiff stain was of little value in differentiating the 3 groups. The treatment response in each group was different: 94% of patients with ALL (16/17) achieved complete remission with prednisone, vincristine and other drugs in standard use in childhood ALL; 59% of patients with AML (27/46) achieved complete remission with cytosine arabinoside and daunorubicin (22 patients), or 6-thioguanine and cyclophosphamide (2 patients), 6-thioguanine, cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin (1 patient), and cytosine and Adriamycin (1 patient); only 2 out of 14 patients (14%) with acute undifferentiated leukaemia achieved complete remission using cytosine and daunorubicin after an initial trial of prednisone and vincristine had failed. Prednisone and vincristine would seem to be of no value in acute undifferentiated leukaemia. It would seem also that no benefit is obtained by classifying all patients with acute leukaemia over 20 years of age as “adult acute leukaemia” and treating them with the same polypharmaceutical regimen. The problems posed by each disease are different and such a policy serves only to obscure them. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:4141625
Welgampola, Miriam S; Bradshaw, Andrew Phillip; Lechner, Corinna; Halmagyi, Gabor Michael
Dizziness is a common symptom in emergency departments, general practice, and outpatient clinics. Faced with an acutely dizzy patient, the frontline physician must determine whether or not the symptoms are vestibular in origin and, if they are, which vestibular disorder they best fit. A focused history provides useful clues to the likely cause of dizziness, yet it is the clinical examination that yields the final answer. This article summarizes history and examination techniques that are useful in the assessment of acutely dizzy patients and discusses oculomotor signs that accompany common vestibular disorders.
Clay, S A; Ramseyer, J C; Fishman, L S; Sedgwick, R P
Eight infants with an acute reversible motor unit disorder are described, including two infants from whom Clostridum botulinum type A was isolated from stool specimens. The clinical spectrum includes constipation, cranial nerve deficits, pupillary involvement, and generalized hypotonic weakness. There were no deaths, and all infants have had complete clinical recovery. A characteristic electromyographic (EMG) pattern was present in part until clinical recovery. This distinctive pattern consisted of brief, small, abundant for power exerted motor unit potentials. This EMG pattern in the context of the clinical syndrome may well be diagnostic for acute infantile motor unit disorder.
Van Hook, James W
Acute kidney injury complicates the care of a relatively small number of pregnant and postpartum women. Several pregnancy-related disorders such as preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathies may produce acute kidney injury. Prerenal azotemia is another common cause of acute kidney injury in pregnancy. This manuscript will review pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury from a renal functional perspective. Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury will be reviewed. Specific conditions causing acute kidney injury and treatments will be compared.
Smallwood, Nicholas; Dachsel, Martin; Matsa, Ramprasad; Tabiowo, Eugene; Walden, Andrew
Point of care ultrasound (POCU) is becoming increasingly popular as an extension to clinical examination techniques. Specific POCU training pathways have been developed in specialties such as Emergency and Intensive Care Medicine (CORE Emergency Ultrasound and Core UltraSound Intensive Care, for example), but until this time there has not been a curriculum for the acutely unwell medical patient outside of Critical Care. We describe the development of Focused Acute Medicine Ultrasound (FAMUS), a curriculum designed specifically for the Acute Physician to learn ultrasound techniques to aid in the management of the unwell adult patient. We detail both the outline of the curriculum and the process involved for a candidate to achieve FAMUS accreditation. It is anticipated this will appeal to both Acute Medical Unit (AMU) clinicians and general physicians who deal with the unwell or deteriorating medical or surgical patient. In time, the aspiration is for FAMUS to become a core part of the AIM curriculum.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an immune-mediated inflammatory and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, commonly preceded by an infection. It principally involves the white matter tracts of the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem, optic nerves, and spinal cord. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis mainly affects children. Clinically, patients present with multifocal neurologic abnormalities reflecting the widespread involvement in central nervous system. Cerebrospinal fluid may be normal or may show a mild pleocytosis with or without elevated protein levels. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) shows multiple demyelinating lesions. The diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis requires both multifocal involvement and encephalopathy by consensus criteria. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis typically has a monophasic course with a favorable prognosis. Multiphasic forms have been reported, resulting in diagnostic difficulties in distinguishing these cases from multiple sclerosis. In addition, many inflammatory disorders may have a similar presentation with frequent occurrence of encephalopathy and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.
Mabuchi, T; Katada, N; Nishimura, D; Hoshino, H; Shimizu, F; Suzuki, R; Sano, H; Kato, K
MRCP has been recognized as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic method. In the present study we evaluated the usefulness of MRCP in diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis. Two-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo (FASE) MRCP was performed in 40 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 13 with acute pancreatitis. In 29 patients (72.5%) with chronic pancreatitis and 9 (66.7%) with acute pancreatitis, main pancreatic duct (MPD) was visualized entirely. MRCP could demonstrate the characteristic findings of chronic pancreatitis such as dilatation and irregularity of MPD in most cases. In acute pancreatitis, MRCP indicated that MPD was normal in diameter, but irregular in configuration compared with that of the control group. MRCP may facilitate the diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis.
Avitan-Hersh, Emily; Erisson, Shay; Bergman, Reuven; Solt, Ido
Pustular psoriasis of pregnancy is a rare entity. Clinically, it is characterized by an acute eruption of erythematous plaques studded with pustules during the third trimester. It may be localized or may spread to become generalized. The rash may be accompanied by constitutional symptoms and followed by complications such as sepsis, tetany secondary to hypocalcemia, placental insufficiency, and fetal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are important. We present a case report of a patient who responded to corticosteroids and a review of the literature.
Bissell, D. Montgomery; Wang, Bruce
The porphyrias comprise a set of diseases, each representing an individual defect in one of the eight enzymes mediating the pathway of heme synthesis. The diseases are genetically distinct but have in common the overproduction of heme precursors. In the case of the acute (neurologic) porphyrias, the cause of symptoms appears to be overproduction of a neurotoxic precursor. For the cutaneous porphyrias, it is photosensitizing porphyrins. Some types have both acute and cutaneous manifestations. The clinical presentation of acute porphyria consists of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasionally seizures. Only a small minority of those who carry a mutation for acute porphyria have pain attacks. The triggers for an acute attack encompass certain medications and severely decreased caloric intake. The propensity of females to acute attacks has been linked to internal changes in ovarian physiology. Symptoms are accompanied by large increases in delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in plasma and urine. Treatment of an acute attack centers initially on pain relief and elimination of inducing factors such as medications; glucose is administered to reverse the fasting state. The only specific treatment is administration of intravenous hemin. An important goal of treatment is preventing progression of the symptoms to a neurological crisis. Patients who progress despite hemin administration have undergone liver transplantation with complete resolution of symptoms. A current issue is the unavailability of a rapid test for urine porphobilinogen in the urgent-care setting. PMID:26357631
Ait Ali Slimane, M; Montupet, P
The management of acute appendicitis in the pediatric patient has undergone radical rethinking in recent years. It has been shown that simple uncomplicated acute appendicitis can be successfully managed with antibiotic therapy and may not even require interval appendectomy. Appendicitis complicated by perforation, abscess, or inflammatory phlegmon can be successfully treated by initial antibiotic therapy (with or without percutaneous drainage) and delayed interval appendectomy. While the laparoscopic approach has proved to be well-adapted to many other pediatric surgical procedures, its utility in the treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis remains open to debate; compared to standard open appendectomy, it offers only minimal advantages with regard to post-operative care, length of hospital stay, and complications. Children can be managed either by general surgeons or pediatric surgeons depending on the organization of the emergency service; there may be a higher incidence of removal of a normal appendix in non-specialized services.
Goldstein, Larry B
The modern management of patients with ischemic stroke begins by having a system in place that organizes the provision of preventive, acute treatment, and rehabilitative services. In the acute setting, initial evaluation is aimed at rapidly establishing a diagnosis by excluding stroke mimics, distinguishing between ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, and determining if the patient is a candidate for treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA, alteplase). In some centers, select patients who do not qualify for administration of IV-tPA may be considered for endovascular intervention. General measures include the use of platelet antiaggregants, treatment of fever, blood pressure management, and continuation of statins if the patient has already been taking them. Post-acute evaluation and management is aimed at secondary prevention and optimizing recovery, including recognition and treatment of post-stroke depression.
Acute renal failure (now acute kidney injury) is a common complication of critical illness affecting between 30 and 60% of critically ill patients. The development of a consensus definition (RIFLE--risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage system) has allowed standardization of reporting and epidemiological work. Multicenter multinational epidemiological studies indicate that sepsis is now the most common cause of acute renal failure in the intensive care unit (ICU) followed by cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury. Unfortunately, our understanding of the pathogenesis of acute renal failure in these settings remains limited. Because of such limited understanding, no reproducibly effective therapies have been developed. In addition the diagnosis of acute renal failure still rests upon the detection of changes in serum creatinine, which only occur if more than 50% of glomerular filtration is lost and are often delayed by more than 24 hours. Such diagnostic delays make the implementation of early therapy nearly impossible. In response to these difficulties, there has been a concerted effort to use proteomics to identify novel early biomarkers of acute renal failure. The identification and study of neutrophil gelatinase- associated lipocalin has been an important step in this field. Another area of active interest and investigation relates to the role of intravenous fluid resuscitation and fluid balance. Data from large observational studies and randomized, controlled trials consistently indicate that a positive fluid balance in patients with acute renal failure represents a major independent risk factor for mortality and provides no protection of renal function. The pendulum is clearly swinging away from a fluid-liberal approach to a fluid-conservative approach in these patients. Finally, there is a growing appreciation that acute renal failure may identify patients who are at increased risk of subsequent chronic renal dysfunction and mortality, opening the way
... Adults Treating Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Targeted Therapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia In recent years, new drugs that target specific ... Typical Treatment of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia More In Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia About Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...
... Adults About Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Research and Treatment? More In Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia About Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...
Mason, Christopher; Dooley, Nessa; Griffiths, Mark
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a common cause of acute respiratory failure that is underdiagnosed both inside and outside of intensive care units. Progression to the most severe forms of the syndrome confers a mortality rate greater than 40% and is associated with often severe functional disability and psychological sequelae in survivors. While there are no disease-modifying pharmacotherapies for the syndrome, this progression may be prevented through the institution of quality improvement measures that minimise iatrogenic injury associated with acute severe illness. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.
Powell, Jessica; Graham, David; O'Reilly, Sarah; Punton, Gillian
Acute pulmonary oedema is a distressing and life-threatening illness that is associated with a sudden onset of symptoms. For the best possible patient outcomes, it is essential that nurses in all clinical areas are equipped to accurately recognise, assess and manage patients with acute pulmonary oedema. This article outlines the pathophysiology of acute cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, and suggests a systematic approach to the recognition and management of its most serious manifestations. Long-term care and symptom recognition are discussed and suggestions for ongoing patient self-management are provided.
Meurer, William J.; Brown, Devin L.; Burke, James F.; Hofer, Timothy P.; Tsodikov, Alexander; Hoeffner, Ellen G.; Fendrick, A.M.; Adelman, Eric E.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.
Objective: To estimate the ability of bedside information to risk stratify stroke in acute dizziness presentations. Methods: Surveillance methods were used to identify patients with acute dizziness and nystagmus or imbalance, excluding those with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, medical causes, or moderate to severe neurologic deficits. Stroke was defined as acute infarction or intracerebral hemorrhage on a clinical or research MRI performed within 14 days of dizziness onset. Bedside information comprised history of stroke, the ABCD2 score (age, blood pressure, clinical features, duration, and diabetes), an ocular motor (OM)-based assessment (head impulse test, nystagmus pattern [central vs other], test of skew), and a general neurologic examination for other CNS features. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association of the bedside information with stroke. Model calibration was assessed using low (<5%), intermediate (5% to <10%), and high (≥10%) predicted probability risk categories. Results: Acute stroke was identified in 29 of 272 patients (10.7%). Associations with stroke were as follows: ABCD2 score (continuous) (odds ratio [OR] 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–2.51), any other CNS features (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.06–6.08), OM assessment (OR 2.82; 95% CI 0.96–8.30), and prior stroke (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.05–4.57). No stroke cases were in the model's low-risk probability category (0/86, 0%), whereas 9 were in the moderate-risk category (9/94, 9.6%) and 20 were in the high-risk category (20/92, 21.7%). Conclusion: In acute dizziness presentations, the combination of ABCD2 score, general neurologic examination, and a specialized OM examination has the capacity to risk-stratify acute stroke on MRI. PMID:26511453
Razavi, Dan; Lindblad, Mats; Bexelius, Tomas; Oskarsson, Viktor; Sadr-Azodi, Omid; Ljung, Rickard
Drug-induced pancreatitis is receiving increased medical and epidemiological attention. However, as no study has examined the role of polypharmacy per se in the development of acute pancreatitis, we examined the association between polypharmacy and risk of acute pancreatitis. A nationwide case-control study was conducted between 2006 and 2008 of Swedish people aged 40-84 years. The Swedish Patient Register was used to identify 6161 cases of first-episode acute pancreatitis. The Swedish Register of the Total Population was used to randomly select 61 637 controls from the general population using frequency-based density sampling, matched for age, sex, and calendar year. The Swedish Prescribed Drug Register was used to assess polypharmacy, defined as the number of unique drugs prescribed during the last 6 months before the index date (i.e. the date of acute pancreatitis for cases and a random date for controls). Odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), of acute pancreatitis were estimated by unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for matching variables and potential confounding factors. The number of prescribed drugs was associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk of acute pancreatitis. In the multivariable-adjusted model, compared to those without any prescriptions, the OR was 1.69 (95%CI: 1.55-1.86) for persons with 1-2 drugs, 2.40 (2.20-2.62) for 3-5 drugs, 3.17 (2.88-3.48) for 6-9 drugs, and 4.57 (4.12-5.06) for 10 or more drugs. This population-based case-control study shows a dose-dependent association between increasing polypharmacy and risk of acute pancreatitis. These findings provide further insights into drug-induced pancreatitis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kodadhala, Vijay; Kurukumbi, Mohankumar; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. Primary and secondary immune responses contribute to inflammation and subsequent demyelination, but the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. Biopsy is definitive. In general, the disease is self-limiting and the prognostic outcome is favorable with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. Locked-in syndrome describes patients who are awake and conscious but have no means of producing limb, speech, or facial movements. Locked-in syndrome is a rare complication of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We present a case of incomplete locked-in syndrome occurring in a 34-year-old male secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Our case is unique, as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis occurred in a 34-year-old which was poorly responsive to immunosuppression resulting in severe disability. PMID:24977089
Hypertension is present in up to 84% of patients presenting with acute stroke, and a smaller proportion of patients have blood pressures that are below typical values in the context of cerebral ischemia. Outcomes are generally worse in those who present with either low or severely elevated blood pressure. Several studies have provided valuable information about malignant trends in blood pressure during the transition from the acute to the subacute phase of stroke. It is not uncommon for practitioners in clinical practice to identify what appear to be pressure-dependent neurologic deficits. Despite physiologic and clinical data suggesting the importance of blood pressure modulation to support cerebral blood flow to ischemic tissue, randomized controlled trials have not yielded robust evidence for this in acute ischemic stroke. We highlight previous studies involving acute-stroke patients that have defined trends in blood pressure and that have evaluated the safety and efficacy of blood-pressure modulation in acute ischemic stroke. This overview reports the current status of this topic from the perspective of a stroke neurologist and provides a framework for future research. PMID:26833984
... occur with more severe acute mountain sickness include: Blue color to the skin (cyanosis) Chest tightness or congestion Confusion Cough Coughing up blood Decreased consciousness or withdrawal from social interaction Gray ...
Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora
Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.
... cause acute liver failure include the poisonous wild mushroom Amanita phalloides, which is sometimes mistaken for one ... also can spread infection. Don't eat wild mushrooms. It can be difficult to tell the difference ...
Cell death due to DNA damage by ionizing radiation causes acute radiation injury of tissues and organs. Frequency and severity of the injuries increase according to dose increase, when the dose becomes more than threshold dose. The threshold dose of acute human radiation death is 1 Gy and LD50 of human is 4 Gy. Human dies due to the cerebrovascular syndrome, the gastrointestinal syndrome or the hematopoetic syndrome, when he received more than 20 Gy, 10-20 Gy or 3-8 Gy to his total body, respectively. Any tissue or organ, including embryo and fetus, does not show the acute injury, when it received less than 100 mSv. Acute injuries are usually reversible, and late injuries are sometimes irreversible.
... the Healthcare Professionals area of our site. PBS Documentary AIP Diagnosis Stories **Diagnostic Testing for the Acute ... treating AIP are based upon experience and clinical study. Since many commonly used drugs have not been ...
... movement due to disease or injury to the cerebellum in the brain. ... of acute cerebellar ataxia include: Abscess of the cerebellum Alcohol, medications, and insecticides Bleeding into the cerebellum ...
... drugs and anticonvulsants, can cause acute liver failure. Herbal supplements. Herbal drugs and supplements, including kava, ephedra, skullcap ... over-the-counter medications do you take? What herbal supplements do you take? Do you use illegal drugs? ...
Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora
Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429
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Hwang, Peter H
Acute rhinosinusitis is a common ailment accounting for millions of office visits annually, including that of Mrs D, a 51-year-old woman presenting with 5 days of upper respiratory illness and facial pain. Her case is used to review the diagnosis and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis. Acute viral rhinosinusitis can be difficult to distinguish from acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, especially during the first 10 days of symptoms. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines developed to guide diagnosis and treatment of acute viral and bacterial rhinosinusitis recommend that the diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis be based on the presence of "cardinal symptoms" of purulent rhinorrhea and either facial pressure or nasal obstruction of less than 4 weeks' duration. Antibiotic treatment generally can be withheld during the first 10 days of symptoms for mild to moderate cases, given the likelihood of acute viral rhinosinusitis or of spontaneously resolving acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. After 10 days, the likelihood of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis increases, and initiation of antibiotic therapy is supported by practice guidelines. Complications of sinusitis, though rare, can be serious and require early recognition and treatment.
Brix, Silke; Stahl, Rolf
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important part of renal diseases and a common clinical problem. AKI is an acute decline in renal function. Due to a lack of therapeutic options, prevention and optimal management of patients with AKI are the most important strategies. Although seldom the sole cause of patients' death, AKI is associated with a significant increase in mortality. Our objective is to draw the attention towards the prevention of AKI of non-renal causes.
Pérez del Villar, Candelas; Yotti, Raquel; Bermejo, Javier
In recent years, imaging techniques have revolutionized the diagnosis of heart failure. In patients with a clinical picture of acute decompensation, prognosis is largely determined by early implementation of general measures and treatment of the underlying cause. Given its diagnostic yield and portability, ultrasound has become an essential tool in the setting of acute heart failure, and is currently found in all medical departments involved in the care of the critically ill patient. Cardiac magnetic resonance and computed tomography allow detailed characterization of multiple aspects of cardiac structure and function that were previously unavailable. This helps guide and monitor many of the treatment decisions in the acute heart failure population in an entirely noninvasive way. This article aims to review the usefulness of the imaging techniques that are clinically relevant in the context of an episode of acute heart failure. We discuss the indications and limitations of these techniques in detail and describe the general principles for the appropriate interpretation of results. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Baldi, Fabio; Bianco, Maria Antonia; Nardone, Gerardo; Pilotto, Alberto; Zamparo, Emanuela
Diarrhoea is an alteration of normal bowel movement characterized by an increase in the water content, volume, or frequency of stools. Diarrhoea needs to be classified according to the trends over time (acute or chronic) and to the characteristics of the stools (watery, fatty, inflammatory). Secretory diarrhoeas, mostly acute and of viral aetiology in more than 70% of cases, are by far the most important subtype of diarrhoeas in terms of frequency, incidence and mortality (over 2.5 million deaths/year in developing countries). Natural and synthetic opiates such as morphine, codeine, and loperamide which react with endogenous opiates (enkephalins, beta-endorphins, dynorphins) mainly act on intestinal motility and slow down transit. An antidiarrhoeal drug developed in recent years, racecadotril, acts as an enkephalinase inhibitor. Clinical studies have shown that it is just as effective as loperamide in resolving acute diarrhoea but with greater reduction in pain and abdominal distension. Some studies have explored the prevalence of diarrhoea in old age. An epidemiological study carried out in Italy by 133 General Practitioners on 5515 elderly outpatients reported a prevalence of diarrhoea, defined according to the Rome criteria, of 9.1%. Infectious diseases (19%) and drug use (16%) were the most common causes of diarrhoea in old age. Regardless of the cause, the treatment of elderly patients with diarrhoea must include rehydration and nutritional support. Every year, more than 50 million tourists travel from industrialized countries to places where hygiene levels are poor. At least 75% of those travelling for short periods mention health problems, and in particular traveller’s diarrhoea. PMID:19610134
NISHIMI, ALEXANDRE YUKIO; ARBEX, DEMETRIO SIMÃO; MARTINS, DIOGO LUCAS CAMPOS; GUSMÃO, CARLOS VINICIUS BUARQUE DE; BONGIOVANNI, ROBERTO RANGEL; PASCARELLI, LUCIANO
ABSTRACT Objective: To determine whether training on shoulder and elbow surgery influences the orthopedist surgeons' preferred technique to address acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation (ACD). Methods: A survey was conducted with shoulder and elbow specialists and general orthopedists on their preferred technique to address acute ACD. Results: Thirty specialists and forty-five general orthopedists joined the study. Most specialists preferred the endobutton technique, while most general orthopedists preferred the modified Phemister procedure for coracoclavicular ligament repair using anchors. We found no difference between specialists and general orthopedists in the number of tunnels used to repair the coracoclavicular ligament; preferred method for wire insertion through the clavicular tunnels; buried versus unburied Kirschner wire insertion for acromioclavicular temporary fixation; and time for its removal; and regarding the suture thread used for deltotrapezoidal fascia closure. Conclusion: Training on shoulder and elbow surgery influences the surgeons' preferred technique to address acute ACD. Level of Evidence V, Expert Opinion. PMID:28149190
Desai, Jay; Mitchell, Wendy G
Acute cerebellar ataxia and acute cerebellitis represent a process characterized by parainfectious, postinfectious, or postvaccination cerebellar inflammation. There is considerable overlap between these entities. The mildest cases of acute cerebellar ataxia represent a benign condition that is characterized by acute truncal and gait ataxia, variably with appendicular ataxia, nystagmus, dysarthria, and hypotonia. It occurs mostly in young children, presents abruptly, and recovers over weeks. Neuroimaging is normal. Severe cases of cerebellitis represent the other end of the spectrum, presenting with acute cerebellar signs often overshadowed by alteration of consciousness, focal neurological deficits, raised intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus, and even herniation. Neuroimaging is abnormal and the prognosis is less favorable than in acute cerebellar ataxia. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis may be confused with acute cerebellitis when the clinical findings are predominantly cerebellar, but lesions on neuroimaging are usually widespread. Paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is often initially misdiagnosed as acute cerebellar ataxia, but has very specific features, course, and etiopathogensis.
Bitar, Anas; Altaf, Muhammad; Sferra, Thomas J.
Summary Background: Pancreatitis in the pediatric age group is not as common as in adults. Etiologies are various and differ from those in adults. Although infectious etiology accounts for a significant number of cases of pancreatitis, acute infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was rarely reported as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in adults. Acute pancreatitis has never been reported as a presenting manifestation of acute HIV infection in children. Case Report: We describe a pediatric patient who presented with acute pancreatitis that revealed acute HIV infection. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis as a primary manifestation of HIV infection is very rare. It may represent an uncommon aspect of primary HIV infection. We suggest that acute HIV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute pancreatitis at all ages. PMID:23569476
Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi
Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.
Bilgili, Beliz; Haliloğlu, Murat; Cinel, İsmail
Acute kindney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome which is generally defined as an abrupt decline in glomerular filtration rate, causing accumulation of nitrogenous products and rapid development of fluid, electrolyte and acid base disorders. In intensive care unit sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of AKI. Sepsis-induced AKI literally acts as a biologic indicator of clinical deterioration. AKI triggers variety of immune, inflammatory, metabolic and humoral patways; ultimately leading distant organ dysfunction and increases morbidity and mortality. Serial mesurements of creatinine and urine volume do not make it possible to diagnose AKI at early stages. Serum creatinine influenced by age, weight, hydration status and become apparent only when the kidneys have lost 50% of their function. For that reason we need new markers, and many biomarkers in the diagnosis of early AKI activity is assessed. Historically "Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-Endstage" (RIFLE), "Acute Kidney Injury Netwok" (AKIN) and "The Kidney Disease/ Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) classification systems are used for diagnosing easily in clinical practice and research and grading disease. Classifications including diagnostic criteria are formed for the identification of AKI. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin-C (Cys-C), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and also "cell cycle arrest" molecules has been concerned for clinical use. In this review the pathophysiology of AKI, with the relationship of sepsis and the importance of early diagnosis of AKI is evaluated.
Bilgili, Beliz; Haliloğlu, Murat; Cinel, İsmail
Acute kindney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome which is generally defined as an abrupt decline in glomerular filtration rate, causing accumulation of nitrogenous products and rapid development of fluid, electrolyte and acid base disorders. In intensive care unit sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of AKI. Sepsis-induced AKI literally acts as a biologic indicator of clinical deterioration. AKI triggers variety of immune, inflammatory, metabolic and humoral patways; ultimately leading distant organ dysfunction and increases morbidity and mortality. Serial mesurements of creatinine and urine volume do not make it possible to diagnose AKI at early stages. Serum creatinine influenced by age, weight, hydration status and become apparent only when the kidneys have lost 50% of their function. For that reason we need new markers, and many biomarkers in the diagnosis of early AKI activity is assessed. Historically “Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-Endstage” (RIFLE), “Acute Kidney Injury Netwok” (AKIN) and “The Kidney Disease/ Improving Global Outcomes” (KDIGO) classification systems are used for diagnosing easily in clinical practice and research and grading disease. Classifications including diagnostic criteria are formed for the identification of AKI. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin-C (Cys-C), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and also “cell cycle arrest” molecules has been concerned for clinical use. In this review the pathophysiology of AKI, with the relationship of sepsis and the importance of early diagnosis of AKI is evaluated. PMID:27366441
Mihalik, Zoltán; Arányi, Zsuzsanna; Siska, Eva; Nyulasi, Tibor; Pénzes, István
A 36-year-old female was admitted to the intensive care unit after resuscitation diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidotic coma, which was the first manifestation of her diabetes mellitus. It may have been provoked by pulmonary or gastrointestinal coinfection. Five days following admission the patient regained consciousness and homeostasis returned to normal. One week after the stabilization of her cardiopulmonary state, weaning from the respirator turned out to be unsuccessful: flaccid tetraparesis developed with rapid muscle atrophy and absence of deep tendon reflexes. The sensory system and cranial nerves remained intact. Electrophysiological studies and muscle biopsy showed serious acute illness myopathy with mild demyelination owing probably to the latent diabetes. The course of acute quadriplegia was fluctuating and correlated mainly with the activity of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome mechanisms. Myopathy might have been aggravated by using high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. The patient's general condition improved quickly as a result of full recovery from sepsis, discontinuation of glucocorticoids and normoglicaemia maintained by subcutan insulin substitution. Eight months after admission almost full neuromuscular restitution was achieved showing the reversibility of this grave illness.
Matsuda, Haruna; Saito, Kanami; Takayanagi, Yoshikazu; Okazaki, Toshio; Kashima, Kenji; Ishikawa, Kazushi; Kai, Yoshitaka; Takeo, Naoko; Hatano, Yutaka; Okamoto, Osamu; Fujiwara, Sakuhei
Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS)/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a severe reaction usually associated with maculopapular eruptions and systemic involvement. Here we report the first case, to our knowledge, of DIHS/DRESS due to carbamazepine with acute generalized pustular bacterid-like (AGPB-like) eruptions and skeletal muscle involvement. Reviewing our case and the published work, we discuss pustular-type DIHS/DRESS which, in most cases, involves acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)-like skin eruptions in response to carbamazepine. Pustular eruptions may appear in relatively few cases of DIHS/DRESS, in particular, when the causative drug is carbamazepine and, even in cases of intractable pustular bacterid-like eruptions, a reaction to a drug should be suspected. Skeletal muscle involvement may be associated with DIHS/DRESS as one of its systemic manifestations. © 2012 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Aramburu Bodas, Oscar; Conde Martel, Alicia; Salamanca Bautista, Prado
Acute heart failure episodes, whether onset or decompensation of a chronic form, are most often precipitated by a concurrent process or disease, described as precipitating factors of heart failure. In this article, we review these precipitating factors, their proportions and clinical relevance in general and in subgroups of patients, their relationship with prognosis, and their possible prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
humans renders the subjects refractory to a wide variety of chemical emetic agents, now numbering more than 25 substances of both exogenous and endogenous...tractus solitarius with each of three neurons (shown as large triangles) in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). These hells of NTS connect...Outputs are innervated through autonomic ganglia or by direct efferent connections. I4 Acute radiation-induced vomiting is generally typified by the
Laxdal, Oliver E.; Robertson, H. E.; Braaten, Virgil; Walker, W. Alan
During a seven-month period from November 1960 to May 1961, 181 infants and children, hospitalized because of acute respiratory infections, were studied intensively to determine the responsible etiologic agents. Forty-two per cent of the illnesses in this group appeared to be caused by bacterial agents, either primary or secondary to virus. Parainfluenza viruses were identified as causes of laryngotracheobronchitis in nearly 50% of the cases. Adenoviruses were also found to be important pathogens, particularly as causes of pneumonia in infants. The over-all infection rate attributed to adenoviruses was 11.6%. An epidemic due to Influenza B virus affected approximately 40% of children in this city just following the hospital study. This study was conducted as the first step in a long-term project undertaken at the Regina General Hospital to determine the effectiveness of vaccines in the prevention and treatment of respiratory infections in children. PMID:20327546
Burns, Stephen P
Respiratory disorders are the leading cause of death for persons with both acute and chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), and much of the morbidity and mortality associated with respiratory disorders is related to acute respiratory infections. Pneumonia is the best recognized respiratory infection associated with mortality in this population. Recent evidence supports some management strategies that differ from those recommended for the general population. Upper respiratory tract infections and acute bronchitis may be precipitating factors in the development of pneumonia or ventilatory failure in patients with chronic SCI. This review emphasizes management principles for treatment and prevention of respiratory infections in persons with SCI.
Greene, S; Dargan, P; Jones, A
The acutely poisoned patient remains a common problem facing doctors working in acute medicine in the United Kingdom and worldwide. This review examines the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient. Aspects of general management are reviewed including immediate interventions, investigations, gastrointestinal decontamination techniques, use of antidotes, methods to increase poison elimination, and psychological assessment. More common and serious poisonings caused by paracetamol, salicylates, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cocaine are discussed in detail. Specific aspects of common paediatric poisonings are reviewed. PMID:15811881
Avitsian, Rafi; Machado, Sandra B
Involvement of the Anesthesiologist in the early stages of care for acute ischemic stroke patient undergoing endovascular treatment is essential. Anesthetic management includes the anesthetic technique (general anesthesia vs sedation), a matter of much debate and an area in need of well-designed prospective studies. The large numbers of confounding factors make the design of such studies a difficult process. A universally agreed point in the endovascular management of acute ischemic stroke is the importance of decreasing the time to revascularization. Hemodynamic and ventilatory management and implementation of neuroprotective modalities and treatment of acute procedural complications are important components of the anesthetic plan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The acute inflammatory response is the non-specific and immediate reaction of the body to pathogenic organisms, tissue trauma and unregulated cell growth. An imbalance in this response could lead to a condition commonly known as "shock" or "sepsis". This thesis is an attempt to elucidate the dynamics of acute inflammatory response to infection and contribute to its systemic understanding through mathematical modeling and analysis. The models of immunity discussed use Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) to model the variation of concentration in time of the various interacting species. Chapter 2 discusses three such models of increasing complexity. Sections 2.1 and 2.2 discuss smaller models that capture the core features of inflammation and offer general predictions concerning the design of the system. Phase-space and bifurcation analyses have been used to examine the behavior at various parameter regimes. Section 2.3 discusses a global physiological model that includes several equations modeling the concentration (or numbers) of cells, cytokines and other mediators. The conclusions drawn from the reduced and detailed models about the qualitative effects of the parameters are very similar and these similarities have also been discussed. In Chapter 3, the specific applications of the biologically detailed model are discussed in greater detail. These include a simulation of anthrax infection and an in silico simulation of a clinical trial. Such simulations are very useful to biologists and could prove to be invaluable tools in drug design. Finally, Chapter 4 discusses the general problem of extinction of populations modeled as continuous variables in ODES is discussed. The average time to extinction and threshold are estimated based on analyzing the equivalent stochastic processes.
Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Lopez, Marvin A.; Valluri, Kartik; Wang, Danlu; Fischer, Andrew; Perdomo, Tatiana
Patient: Female, 43 Final Diagnosis: Myeloid sarcoma appendicitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chills • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic appendectomy, bone marrow biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for extramedullary involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Case Report: A 43-year-old female with no past medical history presented complaining of mild abdominal pain, fever, and chills for the past day. On examination, she was tachycardic and febrile, with mild tenderness of her right lower quadrant and without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia and DIC, with a fibrinogen level of 290 mg/dL. CT of the abdomen showed a thickened and hyperemic appendix without perforation or abscess, compatible with acute appendicitis. The patient was given IV broad-spectrum antibiotics and was transfused with packed red blood cells and platelets. She underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy and bone marrow biopsy, which revealed neo-plastic cells of 90% of the total bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometry indicated presence of 92.4% of immature myeloid cells with t (15: 17) and q (22: 12) mutations, and FISH analysis for PML-RARA demonstrated a long-form fusion transcript, positive for APL. Appendix pathology described leukemic infiltration with co-expression of myeloperoxidase and CD68, consistent with myeloid sarcoma of the appendix. The patient completed a course of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and all trans-retinoic acid. Repeat bone marrow biopsy demonstrated complete remission. She will follow up with her primary care physician and hematologist/oncologist. Conclusions: Myeloid sarcoma of the appendix in the setting of APL is very rare and it might play a role in the development of acute appendicitis. Urgent management, including bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention
Schreuder, Nanno; Mamedova, Ilahä; Jansman, Frank G A
The acute porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders of the heme biosynthetic pathway. Carriers of the acute porphyria gene are prone to potentially fatal acute attacks, which can be precipitated by drug exposure. It is therefore important to know whether a drug is safe for carriers of the acute porphyria gene. In this study, radiopharmaceuticals were assessed on their porphyrogenicity (ie, the potential of a drug to induce an attack). The assessment was conducted by classifying the drugs according to the Thunell model. From 41 radiopharmaceuticals assessed, I-131 norcholesterol, Tc-99m mebrofenin, Tc-99m phytate, Tc-99m sestamibi, and Tl-201 chloride were classified as possibly porphyrogenic. I-131 norcholesterol, Tc-99m mebrofenin, Tc-99m phytate, Tc-99m sestamibi, and Tl-201 chloride should not be prescribed for patients experiencing acute porphyria unless an urgent indication is present and no safer alternative is available. In such cases, potential users should seek advice from a porphyria expert. Preventive measures may also be required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
Schildberg, C W; Skibbe, J; Croner, R; Schellerer, V; Hohenberger, W; Horbach, T
In view of the threat that comes with an acute abdomen, it is of major importance that diagnostics are executed quickly and efficiently. In the course of this two tendencies can be differentiated: 1) general use of complex examination (e.g. CT, MRT) of all potential patients and 2) step-by-step-diagnostics with advanced diagnostics as and when required. A total of 444 patients with an acute abdomen as admission diagnosis were investigated. All data were evaluated prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. All patients had the same basic diagnostics consisting of aclinical history, clinical examination, laboratory examination, abdominal sonography and x-ray overview images. These examinations were supplemented when required by advanced measures, such as CT, colon enema with contrast fluid, endoscopic examination and diagnostic laparotomy. Three different disease groups of unequal diagnostic need could be identified. The first group, presented in the form of an appendicitis showed that in 80% of all patients a basic diagnosis was sufficient. Advanced examination such as CT affected 14%. The negative appendectomy rate amounted to 8%. Other diseases belonging to the first group were ileus, acute biliary diseases, perforation etc. In the second group presented in the form of a diverticulitis, an advanced radiological examination was required in 84% of all cases. Similar results are also expected in cases of pancreatitis. In the third group presented in the form of coprostasis, inflammatory etiology was found in 39% of all secondary diseases. However the symptoms became clinically apparent after treatment of the coprostasis. In this group a basic diagnosis was satisfactory in 84% of cases, however, a diagnostic laparotomy was inevitable for 3% of these patients. Generally step-by-step diagnostic approach has proven itself to be efficient. For 80% of all patients it makes advanced diagnostic measures unnecessary. The exceptions are diseases in which it is necessary to
Howe, John; Lu, Xiaoying; Thompson, Zoe; Peterson, Gordon W; Losey, Travis E
An acute symptomatic seizure is a clinical seizure occurring at the time of or in close temporal association with a brain insult. We report an acute symptomatic seizure occurring during a surgical procedure in a patient who did not have a prior history of epilepsy and who did not have a lesion associated with an increased risk of epilepsy. To characterize the incidence and clinical features of intraoperative seizures during craniotomy under general anesthesia, we reviewed cases where continuous EEG was acquired during craniotomy. Records of 400 consecutive cases with propofol as general anesthesia during craniotomy were reviewed. Demographic data, indication for surgery, clinical history, history of prior seizures, duration of surgery and duration of burst suppression were recorded. Cases where seizures were observed were analyzed in detail. Two out of 400 patients experienced intraoperative seizures, including one patient who appeared to have an acute symptomatic seizure related to the surgical procedure itself and a second patient who experienced two seizures likely related to an underlying diagnosis of epilepsy. This is the first report of an acute symptomatic seizure secondary to a neurosurgical procedure. Overall, 0.5% of patients monitored experienced seizures, indicating that intraoperative seizures are rare, and EEG monitoring during craniotomies is of low yield in detecting seizures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Abdominal pain is among the most frequent ailments reported in the office setting and can account for up to 40% of ailments in the ambulatory practice. Also, it is in the top three symptoms of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) and accounts for 5-10% of all ED primary presenting ailments. There are several common sources for acute abdominal pain and many for subacute and chronic abdominal pain. This article explores the history-taking, initial evaluation, and examination of the patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. The goal of this article is to help differentiate one source of pain from another. Discussion of acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, diverticulitis, gastritis, and gastroenteritis are undertaken. Additionally, there is discussion of common laboratory studies, diagnostic studies, and treatment of the patient with the above entities.
Cap, Andrew; Hunt, Beverley
Mortality from trauma remains a global public health challenge, with most preventable deaths due to bleeding. The recognition of acute traumatic coagulopathy as a distinct clinical entity characterized by early coagulation dysfunction, arising prior to medical intervention, has revolutionized trauma management over the last decade. The aim of this article is to review our current understanding of acute traumatic coagulopathy. We focus on recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of acute traumatic coagulopathy, particularly the changes in coagulation factors, physiological anticoagulants, endothelial activation, fibrinolysis and platelet dysfunction. Evolving diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are discussed, including viscoelastic coagulation monitoring and the role of tranexamic acid and blood products. Emphasis is now placed on early prevention, diagnosis, and aggressive initial treatment of coagulopathy and fibrinolysis with haemostatic blood products and tranexamic acid in addition to red cell units in order to reduce bleeding and improve clinical outcomes.
Boersma, Eric; Mercado, Nestor; Poldermans, Don; Gardien, Martin; Vos, Jeroen; Simoons, Maarten L
Acute myocardial infarction is a common disease with serious consequences in mortality, morbidity, and cost to the society. Coronary atherosclerosis plays a pivotal part as the underlying substrate in many patients. In addition, a new definition of myocardial infarction has recently been introduced that has major implications from the epidemiological, societal, and patient points of view. The advent of coronary-care units and the results of randomised clinical trials on reperfusion therapy, lytic or percutaneous coronary intervention, and chronic medical treatment with various pharmacological agents have substantially changed the therapeutic approach, decreased in-hospital mortality, and improved the long-term outlook in survivors of the acute phase. New treatments will continue to emerge, but the greatest challenge will be to effectively implement preventive actions in all high-risk individuals and to expand delivery of acute treatment in a timely fashion for all eligible patients.
Joseph, Susan M.; Cedars, Ari M.; Ewald, Gregory A.; Geltman, Edward M.; Mann, Douglas L.
Hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure are increasing in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of heart failure is increasing consequent to an increased number of older individuals, as well as to improvement in therapies for coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death that have enabled patients to live longer with cardiovascular disease. The main treatment goals in the hospitalized patient with heart failure are to restore euvolemia and to minimize adverse events. Common in-hospital treatments include intravenous diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropic agents. Novel pharmaceutical agents have shown promise in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure and may simplify the treatment and reduce the morbidity associated with the disease. This review summarizes the contemporary management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure. PMID:20069075
Lukens, Francis D. W.; Longcope, Warfield T.
1. Both focal and diffuse glomerulitis has been produced in rabbits by the injection directly into the left renal artery of suspensions of heat killed hemolytic streptococci. 2. Similar lesions in the glomeruli could not be obtained by the injection of suspensions of bismuth oxychloride into the left renal artery of normal rabbits. 3. The acute glomerulitis occurred in only about one-half of the rabbits employed for the experiments. 4. Glomerulitis was observed much more frequently in rabbits in which an acute localized streptococcus infection had been produced by the intracutaneous injection of living hemolytic streptococci, than in normal rabbits. The occurrence of acute glomerulitis was usually associated with a well marked skin reaction to the filtrates of hemolytic streptococci. PMID:19869861
Migraine is one of the most frequent disabling neurological conditions with a major impact on the patient’s quality of life. Migraine has been described as a chronic disorder that characterized with attacks. Attacks are characterized by moderate–severe, often unilateral, pulsating headache attacks, typically lasting 4 to 72 hours. Migraine remains underdiagnosed and undertreated despite advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology. This article reviews management of migraine acute pharmacological treatment. Currently, for the acute treatment of migraine attacks, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and triptans (serotonin 5HT1B/1D receptor agonists) are recommended. Before intake of NSAID and triptans, metoclopramide or domperidone is useful. In very severe attacks, subcutaneous sumatriptan is first choice. The patient should be treated early in the attack, use an adequate dose and formulation of a medication. Ideally, acute therapy should be restricted to no more than 2 to 3 days per week to avoid medication overuse. PMID:28360580
Introduction Low back pain affects about 70% of people in resource-rich countries at some point in their lives. Acute low back pain can be self-limiting; however, 1 year after an initial episode, as many as 33% of people still have moderate-intensity pain and 15% have severe pain. Acute low back pain has a high recurrence rate; 75% of those with a first episode have a recurrence. Although acute episodes may resolve completely, they may increase in severity and duration over time. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatments for acute low back pain? What are the effects of local injections for acute low back pain? What are the effects of non-drug treatments for acute low back pain? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 49 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, advice to stay active, analgesics (paracetamol, opioids), back exercises, back schools, bed rest, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, epidural corticosteroid injections, lumbar supports, massage, multidisciplinary treatment programmes, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), spinal manipulation, temperature treatments (short-wave diathermy, ultrasound, ice, heat), traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
Britton, Lauren; Rosenwax, Lorna; McNamara, Beverley
Increased accountability and growing fiscal limitations in global health care continue to challenge how occupational therapy practices are undertaken. Little is known about how these changes affect current practice in acute hospital settings. This article reviews the relevant literature to further understanding of occupational therapy practice in acute physical hospital settings. A scoping review of five electronic databases was completed using the keywords Occupational therapy, acute hospital settings/acute physical hospital settings, acute care setting/acute care hospital setting, general medicine/general medical wards, occupational therapy service provision/teaching hospitals/tertiary care hospitals. Criteria were applied to determine suitability for inclusion and the articles were analysed to uncover key themes. In total 34 publications were included in the review. Analysis of the publications revealed four themes: (1) Comparisons between the practice of novice and experienced occupational therapists in acute care (2) Occupational therapists and the discharge planning process (3) Role of occupation in the acute care setting and (4) Personal skills needed and organisation factors affecting acute care practice. The current literature has highlighted the challenges occupational therapists face in practicing within an acute setting. Findings from this review enhance understanding of how occupational therapy department managers and educators can best support staff that practise in acute hospital settings. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Acute rhinosinusitis is a common illness in children. Viral upper respiratory tract infection is the most common presentation of rhinosinusitis. Most children resolve the infection spontaneously and only a small proportion develops a secondary bacterial infection. The proper choice of antibiotic therapy depends on the likely infecting pathogens, bacterial antibiotic resistance, and pharmacologic profiles of antibiotics. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is currently recommended as the empiric treatment in those requiring antimicrobial therapy. Isolation of the causative agents should be considered in those who failed the initial treatment. In addition to antibiotics, adjuvant therapies and surgery may be used in the management of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.
Birewar, Sonali; Oppenheimer, Mark; Zawada, Edward T
Muscular disorders and even hypothyroid myopathy with elevated muscle enzymes are commonly seen in hypothyroidism. In this paper, we report a case of acute renal failure in a 35-year old male patient with myalgia. His serum creatinine reached a level of 2.4 mg/dl. Later, his myalgia was found to be due to hypothyroidism with TSH of over 500 uiv/ml. With thyroid replacement therapy, myalgia and his serum creatinine stabilized and subsequently improved. Hypothyroidism, although rare, has been reported as a definite and authentic cause of rhabdomyolysis. As a result, hypothyroidism must be considered in patients presenting with acute renal failure and elevated muscle enzymes.
Newland, Catherine D
Pediatric acute liver failure (ALF) is a complex and rapidly progressive syndrome that results from a variety of age-dependent etiologies. It is defined by the acute onset of liver disease with no evidence of chronic liver disease. There must be biochemical or clinical evidence of severe liver dysfunction as defined by an international normalized ratio (INR) ≥2. If hepatic encephalopathy is present, INR should be ≥1.5. Unfortunately, due to the rarity of ALF in pediatric patients, there is a paucity of diagnostic and management algorithms and each patient must have an individualized approach. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(12):e433-e438.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; Salinas, Robert C
Prostatitis, one of the most common urological infections afflicting adult men, has recently been divided into 4 different categories based on the National Institutes of Health consensus classification: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic nonbacterial prostatitis and pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. Most patients with prostatitis are found to have either nonbacterial prostatitis or prostatodynia. Prostatitis poses an international health problem, with epidemiologic studies suggesting a worldwide prevalence of more than 10%. This article reviews current modes of diagnosis and therapy for acute and chronic prostatitis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nason, Katie S
Acute intraoperative aspiration is a potentially fatal complication with significant associated morbidity. Patients undergoing thoracic surgery are at increased risk for anesthesia-related aspiration, largely due to the predisposing conditions associated with this complication. Awareness of the risk factors, predisposing conditions, maneuvers to decrease risk, and immediate management options by the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesia team is imperative to reducing risk and optimizing patient outcomes associated with acute intraoperative pulmonary aspiration. Based on the root-cause analyses that many of the aspiration events can be traced back to provider factors, having an experienced anesthesiologist present for high-risk cases is also critical.
Tamm, Alexander; Jeffery, Caroline C; Ansari, Khalid; Naik, Sandeep
We present a case of neck pain in a middle-aged woman, initially attributed to a retropharyngeal infection and treated with urgent intubation. With the help of computed tomography, the diagnosis was later revised to acute prevertebral calcific tendinitis, a self-limiting condition caused by abnormal calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the longus colli muscles. It is critical to differentiate between these two disease entities due to dramatic differences in management. A discussion of acute prevertebral calcific tendinitis and its imaging findings is provided below.
Khurana, Vishal; Ganguly, Ishita
Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) is commonly encountered, but less commonly understood clinical entity, especially idiopathic RAP, with propensity to lead to repeated attacks and may be chronic pancreatitis if attacks continue to recur. A great number of studies have been published on acute pancreatitis, but few have focused on RAP. Analysing the results of clinical studies focusing specifically on RAP is problematic in view due to lack of standard definitions, randomised clinical trials, standard evaluation protocol used and less post intervention follow-up duration. With the availability of newer investigation modalities less number of etiologies will remains undiagnosed. This review particularly is focused on the present knowledge in understanding of RAP.
Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Dembiński, Artur
Acute pancreatitis is a severe disease with high mortality. Clinical studies can bring some data about etiology, pathogenesis and the course of acute pancreatitis. However, studies concerning early events of this disease and the new concepts of treatment cannot be performed on humans, due to ethical reasons. Animal models of acute pancreatitis have been developed to solve this problem. This review presents currently used experimental models of acute pancreatitis, their properties and clinical relevance. Experimental models of acute pancreatitis can be divided into in vivo (non-invasive and invasive) and ex vivo models. The onset, development, severity and extent of acute pancreatitis, as well as the mortality, vary considerably between these different models. Animal models reproducibly produce mild, moderate or severe acute pancreatitis. One of the most commonly used models of acute pancreatitis is created by administration of supramaximal doses of cerulein, an analog of cholecystokinin. This model produces acute mild edematous pancreatitis in rats, whereas administration of cerulein in mice leads to the development of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis evoked by retrograde administration of sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct is the most often used model of acute severe necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. Ex vivo models allow to eliminate the influence of hormonal and nervous factors on the development of acute pancreatitis.
Baydin, Ahmet; Nargis, Cemil; Nural, M Selim; Aygun, Dursun; Karatas, Aydin Deniz; Bahcivan, Muzaffer
Acute aortic dissection is an uncommon disease; however, it has a high mortality rate. Classically, aortic dissection presents with sudden and severe pain in the chest, back, or abdomen. Patients often describe tearing or ripping pain. There are a few reports of atypical findings or no pain in the literature. We report a case of painless, acute aortic dissection presenting as acute stroke.
Fridinger, S E; Alper, Gulay
The International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group requires the presence of encephalopathy to diagnose acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Clinical characteristics of encephalopathy are inadequately delineated in the pediatric demyelinating literature. The authors' purpose was to better define encephalopathy in pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis by describing the details of the mental status change. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 25 children diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis according to the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group guidelines. Frequency of encephalopathy-defining features was determined. Clinical characteristics, cerebrospinal fluid findings, and electroencephalography (EEG) findings were compared between patients with different stages of encephalopathy. The authors found irritability (36%), sleepiness (52%), confusion (8%), obtundation (20%), and coma (16%) as encephalopathy-defining features in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Twenty-eight percent had seizures, and 65% demonstrated generalized slowing on EEG. Approximately half of the patients in this study were diagnosed with encephalopathy based on the presence of irritability and/or sleepiness only. Such features in young children are often subtle and transient and thus difficult to objectively determine.
The acute knee injury represents one of the most common reasons to visit a general practitioner or an emergency department in a hospital. The initial assessment of an acute knee injury usually is affected by severe swelling, pain and a significant lack of motion. Conventional radiographs in three planes may provide additional information to limit the differential diagnosis. A clinical re-evaluation after five to ten days usually allows proper functional testing and therefore correct diagnosis in the majority of cases can be made. With suspicious clinical findings, MRI may be helpful to evaluate ligamentous, meniscal and cartilaginous structures. Femoro-tibial knee dislocation represents the most harmful acute knee injury and needs to be further evaluated and treated in an adequate medical institution in every suspicious case. Rapid vascular diagnostic with (CT)-angiography is crucial. Behind a multi-ligament injury of the knee a spontaneously reduced dislocation may hide and proper neuro-vascular exam therefore is mandatory in every patient. When fracture, blocking and major instability can be excluded at initial assessment, there is usually no need for any acute surgical intervention and initial conservative treatment may be conducted on an out-patient basis for most of the patients. Priority of surgical treatment depends on the injury pattern and delayed intervention with a pre-habilitative phase may be beneficial for certain pathologies.
Nwoko, Rosemary; Plecas, Darko; Garovic, Vesna D
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is costly and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. An understanding of the renal physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy is essential for proper evaluation, diagnosis, and management of AKI. As in the general population, AKI can occur from prerenal, intrinsic, and post-renal causes. Major causes of pre-renal azotemia include hyperemesis gravidarum and uterine hemorrhage in the setting of placental abruption. Intrinsic etiologies include infections from acute pyelonephritis and septic abortion, bilateral cortical necrosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Particular attention should be paid to specific conditions that lead to AKI during the second and third trimesters, such as preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and TTP-HUS. For each of these disorders, delivery of the fetus is the recommended therapeutic option, with additional therapies indicated for each specific disease entity. An understanding of the various etiologies of AKI in the pregnant patient is key to the appropriate clinical management, prevention of adverse maternal outcomes, and safe delivery of the fetus. In pregnant women with pre-existing kidney disease, the degree of renal dysfunction is the major determining factor of pregnancy outcomes, which may further be complicated by a prior history of hypertension.
Albert, Ross H
Cough is the most common symptom bringing patients to the primary care physician's office, and acute bronchitis is usually the diagnosis in these patients. Acute bronchitis should be differentiated from other common diagnoses, such as pneumonia and asthma, because these conditions may need specific therapies not indicated for bronchitis. Symptoms of bronchitis typically last about three weeks. The presence or absence of colored (e.g., green) sputum does not reliably differentiate between bacterial and viral lower respiratory tract infections. Viruses are responsible for more than 90 percent of acute bronchitis infections. Antibiotics are generally not indicated for bronchitis, and should be used only if pertussis is suspected to reduce transmission or if the patient is at increased risk of developing pneumonia (e.g., patients 65 years or older). The typical therapies for managing acute bronchitis symptoms have been shown to be ineffective, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends against using cough and cold preparations in children younger than six years. The supplement pelargonium may help reduce symptom severity in adults. As patient expectations for antibiotics and therapies for symptom management differ from evidence-based recommendations, effective communication strategies are necessary to provide the safest therapies available while maintaining patient satisfaction.
Bruno, Raphael R; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Söllner, Wolfgang; Frieling, Thomas; Müller, Christian; Christ, Michael
Acute chest pain of non-traumatic origin is a common reason for presentation to physician's offices and emergency rooms. Coronary heart disease is the cause in up to 25% of cases. Because acute chest pain, depending on its etiology, may be associated with a high risk of death, rapid, goal-oriented management is mandatory. This review is based on pertinent articles and guidelines retrieved by a selective search in PubMed. History-taking, physical examination, and a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) are the first steps in the differential diagnostic process and generally allow the identification of features signifying a high risk of lifethreatening illness. If the ECG reveals ST-segment elevation, cardiac catheterization is indicated. The timedependent measurement of highly sensitive troponin values is a reliable test for the diagnosis or exclusion of acute myocardial infarction. A wide variety of other potential causes (e.g., vascular, musculoskeletal, gastroenterologic, or psychosomatic) must be identified from the history if they are to be treated appropriately. Elderly patients need special attention. Acute chest pain is a major diagnostic challenge for the physician. Common errors are traceable to non-recognition of important causes and to an inadequate diagnostic work-up. Future studies should be designed to help optimize the interdisciplinary management of patients with chest pain.
Hani, Mohamed Aziz; Guesmi, Fethi; Ben Achour, Jamel; Zribi, Riadh; Bouasker, Ibtissem; Zoghlami, Ayoub; Najah, Nabil
Among digestive clinical presentations of systemic lupus erythematosus, acute pancreatitis remains a serious affection with very poor prognosis. To date, pathogenesis is still unclear. We report two cases of fatal acute pancreatitis related to systemic lupus erythematosus.
Claassen, Jan; Abou Khaled, Karine; Jirsch, Jeffrey; Alschuler, Daniel M.; Wittman, John; Emerson, Ronald G.; Hirsch, Lawrence J.
Objective: Generalized periodic discharges are increasingly recognized on continuous EEG monitoring, but their relationship to seizures and prognosis remains unclear. Methods: All adults with generalized periodic discharges from 1996 to 2006 were matched 1:1 to controls by age, etiology, and level of consciousness. Overall, 200 patients with generalized periodic discharges were matched to 200 controls. Results: Mean age was 66 years (range 18–96); 56% were comatose. Presenting illnesses included acute brain injury (44%), acute systemic illness (38%), cardiac arrest (15%), and epilepsy (3%). A total of 46% of patients with generalized periodic discharges had a seizure during their hospital stay (almost half were focal), vs 34% of controls (p = 0.014). Convulsive seizures were seen in a third of both groups. A total of 27% of patients with generalized periodic discharges had nonconvulsive seizures, vs 8% of controls (p < 0.001); 22% of patients with generalized periodic discharges had nonconvulsive status epilepticus, vs 7% of controls (p < 0.001). In both groups, approximately half died or were in a vegetative state, one-third had severe disability, and one-fifth had moderate to no disability. Excluding cardiac arrest patients, generalized periodic discharges were associated with increased mortality on univariate analysis (36.8% vs 26.9%; p = 0.049). Multivariate predictors of worse outcome were cardiac arrest, coma, nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and sepsis, but not generalized periodic discharges. Conclusion: Generalized periodic discharges were strongly associated with nonconvulsive seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. While nonconvulsive status epilepticus was independently associated with worse outcome, generalized periodic discharges were not after matching for age, etiology, and level of consciousness. PMID:23035068
Moore, Philip; Garraway, Michael
Interviews with 400 consecutive patients attending a general practice sought their knowledge of the signs and symptoms of an acute heart attack, what action they would take for such an event, and their understanding of the predisposing factors contributing to heart disease. The survey revealed poor recognition of the relevant signs and symptoms of an acute heart attack and lack of knowledge of some of the main predisposing factors associated with heart disease. PMID:618352
Cambron, L; Bruwier, G; De Bock, I; Poirrier, R
A complaint of insomnia has to be analysed, and differentiated from hypochondria and, overall, from hypersomnia. Once confirmed and assessed as acute or chronic, it is often considered a disorder of hyperarousal, that is an imbalance between a central nervous system activating and a central nervous system inhibiting system with subcontinuous overflow from the former. An acute insomnia is less than one month of duration. As a disease, insomnia has to be categorized as a secondary or a primary disorder. Thereafter, it remains to assess the extent of social, psychological and economical interactions. These factors intervene as consequences or perpetuating factors. The capacity to assess the whole situation is really the great strength of the general practitioner who, more than anybody else, is on home ground. Laboratory findings and specialist examination come only as supporting evidence for causal links. A polysomnography realized in a sleep disorder center provides data reinforcing or correcting the diagnosis. From a sound assessment of the disease, the treatment has to be deduced by following a rigorous reasoning, devoid of guilty feelings as they are suggested to patients by mass-media talking, as well as freed from fashionable non medical practices. Today, we know that chronic insomnia is a disease with potential severe consequences and that it does not heal spontaneously.
Fautin, D.G.; Buddemeier, R.W.
Laboratory and field data bearing on the adaptive bleaching hypothesis (ABH) are largely consistent with it; no data of which we are aware refute it. We generalize the ABH in light of these data and observations. The population of zooxanthellae within an organism is dynamic, the diversity of zooxanthellae is both surprising and difficult to ascertain, and field experiments demonstrate both turn-over in zooxanthella types and habitat-holobiont correlations. Dynamic change in symbiont communities, and the idea of an equilibrium or optimal community that matches the environment at a particular place and time, are concepts that underlie or emerge from much of the recent literature. The mechanism we proposed to explain responses to acute bleaching appears to operate continuously, thereby enabling the host-symbiont holobiont to track even subtle environmental changes and respond promptly to them. These findings enhance the potential importance of the ABH in the outcomes of acute bleaching, which can (1) accelerate this process of holobiont change, and (2) change the set of possible trajectories for how symbiont communities might recover.
Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104
Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.
This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the titles are: The measurement of acute myocardial infarct size by CT; Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of myocardial ischemia and infarction; Poistron imaging in the evaluation of ischemia and myocardial infarction; and New inotropic agents.
Biologically motivated mathematical models, which describe the dynamics of the major hematopoietic lineages (the thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems) in acutely/chronically irradiated humans are developed. These models are implemented as systems of nonlinear differential equations, which variables and constant parameters have clear biological meaning. It is shown that the developed models are capable of reproducing clinical data on the dynamics of these systems in humans exposed to acute radiation in the result of incidents and accidents, as well as in humans exposed to low-level chronic radiation. Moreover, the averaged value of the "lethal" dose rates of chronic irradiation evaluated within models of these four major hematopoietic lineages coincides with the real minimal dose rate of lethal chronic irradiation. The demonstrated ability of the models of the human thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems to predict the dynamical response of these systems to acute/chronic irradiation in wide ranges of doses and dose rates implies that these mathematical models form an universal tool for the investigation and prediction of the dynamics of the major human hematopoietic lineages for a vast pattern of irradiation scenarios. In particular, these models could be applied for the radiation risk assessment for health of astronauts exposed to space radiation during long-term space missions, such as voyages to Mars or Lunar colonies, as well as for health of people exposed to acute/chronic irradiation due to environmental radiological events.
The mortality rate for coronary artery disease has decreased steadily over the past 25 yeas, attributable to a great extent to advances in medical and mechanical interventions. Nevertheless, mortality rates for acute coronary syndromes remain between 4% and 7%. This article highlights treatment options and the challenge of implementing evidence-based recommendations.
Shirtliff, Mark E; Mader, Jon T
Acute septic arthritis may develop as a result of hematogenous seeding, direct introduction, or extension from a contiguous focus of infection. The pathogenesis of acute septic arthritis is multifactorial and depends on the interaction of the host immune response and the adherence factors, toxins, and immunoavoidance strategies of the invading pathogen. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus are used in discussing the host-pathogen interaction in the pathogenesis of acute septic arthritis. While diagnosis rests on isolation of the bacterial species from synovial fluid samples, patient history, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and imaging studies are also important. Acute nongonococcal septic arthritis is a medical emergency that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prompt recognition, rapid and aggressive antimicrobial therapy, and surgical treatment are critical to ensuring a good prognosis. Even with prompt diagnosis and treatment, high mortality and morbidity rates still occur. In contrast, gonococcal arthritis is often successfully treated with antimicrobial therapy alone and demonstrates a very low rate of complications and an excellent prognosis for full return of normal joint function. In the case of prosthetic joint infections, the hardware must be eventually removed by a two-stage revision in order to cure the infection.
... Porphyria Research You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem in patients with one ... a "crash diet" program requires little knowledge of nutrition in order to ... seem that overweight patients with Porphyria are at a distinct disadvantage, ...
Taylor, Sarah A; Whitington, Peter F
Neonatal acute liver failure (NALF) is a rare disease about which there is little published data; however, NALF is an extremely important condition as it is distinct from acute liver failure seen in older children and adults. First, unlike acute liver failure in older patients, NALF can be diagnosed in an infant with cirrhosis. This is due to the fetal-neonatal continuum of liver disease, or the principle that neonatal liver failure may be the result of a liver disease that began in utero. Further differences exist in the mechanism of disease, diagnostic principles, and the common etiologies of NALF when compared with pediatric and adult acute liver failure. This review will address many of the distinguishing features of NALF and focus on the most common etiologies of NALF, including gestational alloimmune liver disease (GALD), the most common cause of NALF. Additionally, this review will provide insight into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare condition. Liver Transplantation 22 677-685 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Canale, D D; Donabedian, R K
Calcitonin was measured in four patients with acute pancreatitis with hypocalcemia. A marked elevation of this hormone was noted in each case and persisted over several days. The peak level of calcitonin preceded the maximum fall in calcium. Among the various factors affecting calcium balance in pancreatitis, calcitonin probably plays an important role.
Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle
Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.
Monsalbe, V; Domíngues, C; Roa, I; Busel, D; González, S
Plasma Cell Leukemia is a very rare form of plasmocytic dyscrasia, whose clinical and pathological characteristics warrant its recognition as a distinct subentity. We report the case of a 60 years old man who presented a rapidly fatal acute plasma cell leukemia, with multiple osteolytic lesions, hipercalcemia, renal and cardiac failure.
Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano
This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute
Blush, Raymond R
Acute bronchitis affects millions of individuals, significantly impacting patient health and the healthcare industry. Understanding evaluation and treatment guidelines for acute bronchitis allows the nurse practitioner to practice comprehensive care for patients. This article reviews evidence-based practices when caring for the patient with acute bronchitis, promoting optimization of healthy outcomes.
Roth, Sean M; Keyser, Gabrielle; Winfield, Michelle; McNeil, Julie; Simko, Leslie; Price, Karen; Moffa, Donald; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam; Peacock, W Frank; Katzan, Irene L
The Acute Care Team Educational Initiative (ACTEI) was developed as a quality improvement initiative for the recognition and initial management of time-sensitive medical conditions. For our first time-sensitive disease process, we focused on acute stroke [acute stroke initiative (ASI)]. As part of the larger ACTEI, the ASI included creating an ACT that responds to all suspected emergency department stroke patients. In this article, we describe the planning, process, and development of the ACTEI/ASI as well as how we created an acute response team for the diagnosis and management of suspected acute stroke.
Bernuau, Jacques Raymond; Durand, François
The rapid aggravation of a patient affected by acute liver disease, including the occurrence of acute liver failure, a life-threatening complication, may be due in some cases to recently administered drugs or other xenibiotics. A previously healthy Indian man affected by acute hepatitis E developed acute liver failure after a 5-day treatment by herbal medicines. Pressure on health authorities and education of the general population should help to obviate such avoidable deaths. Physicians have the responsibility to convince their patients affected by acute liver disease not to take medicines for symptomatic relief, especially herbal medicines, up to recovery. The hypothesis is proposed that some of the fatal cases of acute hepatitis E in pregnant women, a common observation in India, could result from an earlier consumption of herbal medicines at the onset of the symptoms of acute hepatitis E.
Oliver, Teresa; O'Connor, Stephen J
Despite the fact that half of all deaths occur in hospital, there is a lack of literature on general nurses' experiences of caring for end-of-life patients on general hospital wards. To ascertain general nurses' perceptions and experiences of a good death in an acute hospital setting. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 general nurses working in an acute hospital. Six themes were identified as important in facilitating a good death: good communication/awareness of expected death; time (to care); environment; support; knowledge; symptom management. Participants felt that failing to communicate a diagnosis of dying adversely affected the quality of death. As such the focus of future end-of-life care education needs to include how general nurses can facilitate communication and handle difficult questions to enable a good death for patients and their families.
Iqbal, Muhammad; Tareen, Muhammad Adil; Sohail, Uzma
Wandering spleen is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Generally, it remains asymptomatic, it may present clinically as a painless mobile mass or rarely as an acute abdomen when the wandering spleen twists on its pedicle, resulting in splenic congestion, infarction with or without involvement of neighbouring visceras. Here, we present an unusual case of torsion of a wandering spleen, which resulted in congestive splenomegaly and small bowel obstruction as a rare case of acute abdomen.
Peck, Brandon W; Workeneh, Biruh; Kadikoy, Huseyin; Abdellatif, Abdul
Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) is commonly used as an irrigant during dental procedures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI). In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis.
Lee, Su Jin; Cho, Young Hye; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Jeong, Dong Wook; Choi, Eun Jung; Kim, Yun Jin; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Lee, Yu Hyun
We report a case of acute calculous cholecystitis through scrub typhus. A 69-year-old woman presented with a history of general myalgia, fever, and right abdominal pain. She referred to our hospital for surgical treatment of clinically suspected acute cholecystitis. Physicians concluded the cause of cholecystitis as gall bladder (GB) stone and proper antibiotics treatment of scrub typhus was started later. The patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi organ failure through scrub typhus. Five days after admission, the patient was treated with proper antibiotics and discharged on the 13th day after starting doxycycline treatment without any sequelae. In areas endemic for tsutsugamushi disease, even though a patient with GB stone presents with symptoms of acute cholecystitis, careful history and physical examination are required to reveal the existence of eschars or skin eruptions.
Tomasiewicz, Krzysztof; Modrzewska, Roma; Lyczak, Anna; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata; Rajtar, Barbara
TT virus (TTV) was first isolated in 1997 from the patient with acute posttransfusion hepatitis. This fact led to the conclusion the virus was hepatotropic and could be considered as one of causative agents of acute hepatitis. However, later it was found in other human tissues and serological studies have revealed it is widespread. Multiple tropisms of TTV and the fact the virus is found in high rate of general population, are considered arguments for lack of medical significance of TTV in human pathology. Here we present a report of two cases of acute viral hepatitis in patients hospitalized at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Medical University of Lublin, in whom TTV-DNA was found in serum and serological and virological markers of common primary and secondary hepatotropic viruses were negative. The cases of acute hepatitis we present here should be treated as a preliminary report and the comment in the discussion about the real role of TTV in human pathology.
Hrabovsky, S L; Welty, T K; Coulehan, J L
While some Indian tribes have low rates of acute myocardial infarction, Northern Plains Indians, including the Sioux, have rates of morbidity and mortality from acute myocardial infarction higher than those reported for the United States population in general. In a review of diagnosed cases of acute myocardial infarction over a 3-year period in 2 hospitals serving predominantly Sioux Indians, 8% of cases were found misclassified, and 22% failed to meet rigorous diagnostic criteria, although the patients did indeed have ischemic heart disease. Patients had high frequencies of complications and risk factors and a fatality rate of 16% within a month of admission. Sudden deaths likely due to ischemic heart disease but in persons not diagnosed as having acute myocardial infarction by chart review occurred 3 times more frequently than deaths occurring within a month of clinical diagnosis.
Kaya, Safak; Ay, Nurettin; Baysal, Birol; Bahadir, Mehmet Veysi; Onur, Arzu; Duymus, Recai
Inflammation of the gallbladder without evidence of calculi is known as acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC). AAC is frequently associated with gangrene, perforation, and empyema. Due to these associated complications, AAC can be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Medical or surgical treatments can be chosen according to the general condition of the patient, underlying disease and agent. Particularly in acute acalculous cholecystitis cases, early diagnosis and early medical treatment have a positive effect on the patient and protect them from surgical trauma. ACC is a rare complication of acute viral hepatitis A. Herein, we present an adult patient of acalculous cholecystitis due to acute viral hepatitis A. She responded to the conservative management. PMID:24106622
Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Safouris, Apostolos; Krogias, Christos; Arthur, Adam S; Alexandrov, Andrei V
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disability and intravenous thrombolysis has been the only approved acute reperfusion therapy (RT) for many years. Seven randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) have been recently published. These studies have changed the treatment paradigm by establishing mechanical thrombectomy (MT) as the most effective acute stroke therapy for improving functional outcome in anterior circulation ELVO with a NNT of 6. The present review will critically evaluate the results of these RCTs and of the existing meta-analyses investigating the safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy for AIS. Points of debate such as acute stroke imaging, posterior circulation stroke and general anesthesia will be addressed. We will also discuss health policies aiming to increase the availability of endovascular treatment for stroke patients.
Contents: Introduction The dual cone of C (psi sub 1,..., psi sub n) Extreme rays The cone dual to an intersection of generalized convexity cones... Generalized difference quotients and multivariate convexity Miscellaneous applications of generalized convexity.
Smith, Emily K; Ek, Edmund; Croagh, Daniel; Spain, Lavinia A; Farrell, Stephen
We report a case of acute chylous peritonitis mimicking acute appendicitis in a man with acute on chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatitis, both acute and chronic, causing the development of acute chylous ascites and peritonitis has rarely been reported in the English literature. This is the fourth published case of acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in the literature.
Chowdhary, Sheemona; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti
Acute organophosphorus poisoning continues to be a detrimental problem and a potential cause of mortality especially in developing countries. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme is the main mechanism of toxicity of such pesticides and measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity is the commonly used laboratory diagnosis approved for the purpose. It is now proved beyond any doubt that early intervention is beneficial for cases of acute organophosphorus poisoning and, therefore, considerable current interest has been generated for development of point of care testing tool for screening of the same. However, to the best of our knowledge so far the matter is not reviewed from the view of point of care testing tool development. In this paper, this subject is reviewed highlighting the methodological aspects and point of care testing tool development in the context of organophosphorus poisoning.
Figueiredo, Jacinta; Santos, Ângela; Clemente, Horácio; Lourenço, Augusto; Costa, Sandra; Grácio, Maria Amélia; Belo, Silvana
Acute appendicitis associated to Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection has been found in patients submitted to urgent appendectomy at the Hospital Américo Boavida in Luanda. Due to the high prevalence and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis (or bilharziasis) in the country, we suspect that the involvement of Schistosoma infection on appendicular pathology could be very frequent, in particular for those individuals more exposed to the parasite transmission. We report two clinical cases of acute appendicitis whose surgical specimens of the appendix revealed S. haematobium and S. mansoni eggs in histological samples. The reported patients live in endemic areas and have been exposed to schistosome during childhood, which may explain the infection's chronicity. Information of these clinical cases could be relevant, particularly for surgery specialists and clinical pathologists, due to the possibility of finding more patients with concurrent appendicitis and schistosomiasis.
Hecker, M; Weigand, M A; Mayer, K
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the clinical manifestation of an acute lung injury caused by a variety of direct and indirect injuries to the lung. The cardinal clinical feature of ARDS, refractory arterial hypoxemia, is the result of protein-rich alveolar edema with impaired surfactant function, due to vascular leakage and dysfunction with consequently impaired matching of ventilation to perfusion. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of ARDS has led to the development of novel therapies, pharmacological strategies, and advances in mechanical ventilation. However, protective ventilation is the only confirmed option in ARDS management improving survival, and few other therapies have translated into improved oxygenation or reduced ventilation time. The development of innovative therapy options, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, have the potential to further improve survival of this devastating disease.
Patel, R; Das, M; Palazzolo, M; Ansari, A; Balasubramaniam, S
Eight cases of myoglobinuric acute renal failure that developed following exposure to phencyclidine were seen in the emergency department of the Martin Luther King Jr. General Hospital during a period of 36 months. All eight survived with complete recovery of renal function. Dialysis was necessary in three patients. Acute renal failure is an uncommon complication of phencyclidine abuse.
Introduction An estimated 4.6 billion cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 2004, resulting in 2.2 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries travelling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 72 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution), vitamin A supplementation, and zinc supplementation. PMID:21718555
Cheng, Ke; Wang, Xue; Guo, Menghu; Wieland, L. Susan; Shen, Xueyong; Lao, Lixing
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The objective of this review is to determine the effects and, when possible, the safety of acupuncture for the treatment of acute hordeola, in comparison to no specific treatment (e.g., observation), sham acupuncture, or other active treatments. Acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment also will be compared to that treatment alone. PMID:25214814
Kung, A. W.; Ma, J. T.; Yu, Y. L.; Wang, C. C.; Woo, E. K.; Lam, K. S.; Huang, C. Y.; Yeung, R. T.
Hypothyroid myopathy has so far been reported in long standing cases of hypothyroidism. We describe two adult patients with myopathy associated with acute transient hypothyroidism. Both presented with severe muscle aches and cramps, stiffness and spasms. Muscle enzymes were markedly elevated and electromyography in one patient showed myopathic features. Histological changes were absent in muscle biopsy, probably because of the short duration of metabolic disturbance. The myopathy subsided promptly when the hypothyroid state was reversed. PMID:3422868
Introduction Acute atrial fibrillation is rapid, irregular, and chaotic atrial activity of recent onset. Various definitions of acute atrial fibrillation have been used in the literature, but for the purposes of this review we have included studies where atrial fibrillation may have occurred up to 7 days previously. Risk factors for acute atrial fibrillation include increasing age, cardiovascular disease, alcohol, diabetes, and lung disease. Acute atrial fibrillation increases the risk of stroke and heart failure. The condition resolves spontaneously within 24 to 48 hours in more than 50% of people; however, many people will require interventions to control heart rate or restore sinus rhythm. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent embolism, for conversion to sinus rhythm, and to control heart rate in people with recent-onset atrial fibrillation (within 7 days) who are haemodynamically stable? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 26 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amiodarone, antithrombotic treatment before cardioversion, atenolol, bisoprolol, carvedilol, digoxin, diltiazem, direct current cardioversion, flecainide, metoprolol, nebivolol, propafenone, sotalol, timolol, and verapamil. PMID:25430048
Kaise, T.; Watanabe, S.; Itoh, K.
The acute toxicity of arsenobetaine was studied in male mice. No deaths were observed with oral administration of 10 g/kg of arsenobetaine. Therefore the LD/sub 50/ value was higher than 10 g/kg. This compound was found in urine in the non-metabolized form. No particular toxic symptoms were observed following administration. These suggest that arsenobetaine has low toxicity and is not metabolized in mice.
Anjos, Lais Martins Moreira; Marcondes, Mariana Barros; Lima, Mariana Ferreira; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Okoshi, Marina Politi
Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci) is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Symptom onset in streptococcal infection is usually abrupt and includes intense sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, headache, tender enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes, and pharyngeal or tonsillar exudate. Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea are uncommon, and their presence suggests a viral cause. A diagnosis of pharyngitis is supported by the patient's history and by the physical examination. Throat culture is the gold standard for diagnosing streptococcus pharyngitis. However, it has been underused in public health services because of its low availability and because of the 1- to 2-day delay in obtaining results. Rapid antigen detection tests have been used to detect S. pyogenes directly from throat swabs within minutes. Clinical scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of S. pyogenes infection. The most commonly used scoring system is the modified Centor score. Acute S. pyogenes pharyngitis is often a self-limiting disease. Penicillins are the first-choice treatment. For patients with penicillin allergy, cephalosporins can be an acceptable alternative, although primary hypersensitivity to cephalosporins can occur. Another drug option is the macrolides. Future perspectives to prevent streptococcal pharyngitis and post-infection systemic complications include the development of an anti-Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine.
Recent advances in immunotherapy of cancer may represent a successful example in translational research, in which progress in knowledge and technology in immunology has lead to new strategies of immunotherapy, and even past failure in many clinical trials have led to a better understanding of basic cancer immunobiology. This article reviews the latest concepts in antitumor immunology and its application in the treatment of cancer, with particular focus on acute leukemia. PMID:19100371
Gevers, Josette; van Erven, Pierre; de Jonge, Jan; Maas, Maaike; de Jong, Jos
This paper is a report of a study conducted to determine the combined effect of acute and chronic job demands on acute job strains experienced during medical emergencies, and its consequences for individual teamwork behaviour. Medical emergency personnel have to cope with high job demands, which may cause considerable work stress (i.e. job strains), particularly when both acute and chronic job demands are experienced to be high. This may interfere with effective individual teamwork behaviour. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in 2008, involving 48 members (doctors and nurses) of medical emergency teams working in the emergency department of a Dutch general hospital. Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical regression analyses. High acute job demands impeded effective teamwork behaviour, but only when they resulted in acute job strain. Acute emotional demands were more likely to result in acute job strain when chronic emotional job demands were also experienced as high. Although acute cognitive and physical strains were also detrimental, effective teamwork behaviour was particularly impeded by acute emotional strain. Acute job strains impair effective individual teamwork behaviour during medical emergencies, and there is urgent need to prevent or reduce a build-up of job strain from high acute and chronic demands, particularly of the emotional kind.
Derwinis, T; Białoszewski, D
A review of the general principles governing radiological procedures in cases of acute trauma to the cervical spine, depending on the patient's clinical status, and on the location and nature of the injury. Various X-ray techniques are presented that can be used to attain better differentiation of the sequelae of spinal injury, along with a general assessment of the clinical value of certain other examinations, such as computer tomography and magnetic resonance, in terms of their suitability in cases of acute trauma to the cervical spine.
Bassett, Ingrid V.; Chetty, Senica; Giddy, Janet; Reddy, Shabashini; Bishop, Karen; Lu, Zhigang; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.
Background The yield of screening for acute HIV infection among general medical patients in resource-scarce settings remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate a strategy of pooled HIV plasma RNA to diagnose acute HIV infection in patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests in Durban, South Africa. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests from a routine HIV screening program in an outpatient department in Durban with an HIV prevalence of 48%. Study participants underwent venipuncture for pooled qualitative HIV RNA, and if positive, quantitative RNA, enzyme immunoassay and Western Blot (WB). Patients with negative or indeterminate WB and positive quantitative HIV RNA were considered acutely infected. Those with chronic infection (positive RNA and WB) despite negative or discordant rapid HIV tests were considered false negative rapid antibody tests. Results Nine hundred ninety-four participants were enrolled with either negative (N=976) or discordant (N=18) rapid test results. Eleven (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.6–2.0%) had acute HIV infection. Of the 994 patients, an additional 20 (2.0%, 95% CI: 1.3–.3.1%) had chronic HIV infection (false negative rapid test). Conclusions One percent of outpatients with negative or discordant rapid HIV tests in Durban, South Africa had acute HIV infection readily detectable through pooled serum HIV RNA screening. Pooled RNA testing also identified an additional 2% of patients with chronic HIV infection. HIV RNA screening has the potential to identify both acute and chronic HIV infections that are otherwise missed by standard HIV testing algorithms. PMID:20553336
Sadeh, J S; Rudikoff, D; Gordon, M L; Bowden, J; Goldman, B D; Lebwohl, M
The pustular and erythrodermic types of psoriasis have been associated with a number of systemic complications, including congestive heart failure and pneumonia. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) refers to acute noncardiogenic pulmonary edema with hypoxemia of various causes and has been attributed to pulmonary capillary leak. Recently, 4 cases of generalized pustular or erythrodermic psoriasis have been described associated with a pulmonary capillary leak syndrome. We describe 2 additional patients, 1 with pustular and erythrodermic psoriasis and 1 with erythrodermic psoriasis; who developed ARDS. Radiographic findings, pulmonary capillary wedge pressures, echocardiograms, and, in one case, an open lung biopsy specimen, were consistent with the diagnosis of ARDS. In neither case could we document any of the common causes of acute respiratory failure. Generalized pustular and erythrodermic psoriasis may be complicated by ARDS. The pathogenesis of this complication is unclear, but proinflammatory cytokines may be involved.
Cho, Seong; Lee, Yu-Ji; Kim, Sung-Rok
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, complications, and mortality rate associated with acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). A total of 75 patients who were treated at Samsung Changwon Hospital between February 2005 and March 2016 were included in the study sample. The outcomes included in-hospital survival, renal recovery, metabolic and fluid control rates, and technical success rates. Refractory heart failure was the most frequent cause of acute PD (49.3%), followed by hepatic failure (20.0%), septic shock (14.7%), acute pancreatitis (9.3%), and unknown causes (6.7%). The hospital survival of patients in the acute PD was 48.0%. Etiologies of acute kidney injury (AKI) (refractory heart failure, acute pancreatitis compared with hepatic failure, septic shock or miscellaneous causes), use of inotropes, use of a ventilator, and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II were associated with survival differences. Maintenance dialysis required after survival was high (80.1% [29/36]) due to AKI etiologies (heart or hepatic failures). Metabolic and fluid control rates were 77.3%. The technical success rate for acute PD was 93.3%. Acute PD remains a suitable treatment modality for patients with AKI in the era of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Nearly all patients who require dialysis can be dialyzed with acute PD without mechanical difficulties. This is particularly true in patients with refractory heart failure and acute pancreatitis who had a weak requirement for inotropes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
Lee, Yang Deok; Lee, Soo Teik
Doxylamine succinate is an antihistaminic drugwith additional hypnotic, anticholinergic and local anesthetic effects first described in 1948. In Korea and many other countries, it is a common-over-the counter medication frequently involved in overdoses. Clinical symtomatology of doxylamine succinate overdose includes somnolence, coma, seizures, mydriasis, tachycardia, psychosis, and rhabdomyolysis. A serious complication may be rhabdomyolysis with subsequent impairment of renal function and acute renal failure. We report a case of acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis complicating a doxylamine succinate intoxication.
Programs exploring and demonstrating new technologies in general aviation propulsion are considered. These programs are the quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) program; the general aviation turbine engine (GATE) study program; the general aviation propeller technology program; and the advanced rotary, diesel, and reciprocating engine programs.
We define the notion of generalized holomorphic principal bundles and establish that their associated vector bundles of holomorphic representations are generalized holomorphic vector bundles defined by M. Gualtieri. Motivated by our definition, several examples of generalized holomorphic structures are constructed. A reduction theorem of generalized holomorphic structures is also included.
Searle, Julia; Frick, Johann; Möckel, Martin
Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life-threatening emergency, which largely profits from early diagnosis and treatment. The prevalence of AHF is difficult to assess, estimates range between 1 and 12% in the general population. Despite recent therapeutic advances, in-hospital mortality is high with estimates varying from 4 and 18% in different registries. Due to large differences in AHF definitions and selection criteria AHF populations vary in their characteristics and outcomes. This is especially true for randomized clinical trials and the external validity of some of these trials is questionable. Additionally, the timing of data collection and/or initiation of new therapies vary with the setting of trials. The aim of this article is to call attention to the difference in AHF populations and to emphasize the need for research to clearly define these populations. AHF populations from registries and clinical trials are the basis for evidence-based management strategies. It is important that these populations represent the patients in whom these strategies will be applied in routine care.
Amano, Hodaka; Takada, Tadahiro; Isaji, Shuji; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Hirata, Koichi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yamanouchi, Eigoro; Gabata, Toshifumi; Kadoya, Masumi; Hattori, Takayuki; Hirota, Masahiko; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Takeda, Kazunori; Wada, Keita; Sekimoto, Miho; Kiriyama, Seiki; Yokoe, Masamichi; Hirota, Morihisa; Arata, Shinju
The clinical course of acute pancreatitis varies from mild to severe. Assessment of severity and etiology of acute pancreatitis is important to determine the strategy of management for acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis is classified according to its morphology into edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis. Edematous pancreatitis accounts for 80-90% of acute pancreatitis and remission can be achieved in most of the patients without receiving any special treatment. Necrotizing pancreatitis occupies 10-20% of acute pancreatitis and the mortality rate is reported to be 14-25%. The mortality rate is particularly high (34-40%) for infected pancreatic necrosis that is accompanied by bacterial infection in the necrotic tissue of the pancreas (Widdison and Karanjia in Br J Surg 80:148-154, 1993; Ogawa et al. in Research of the actual situations of acute pancreatitis. Research Group for Specific Retractable Diseases, Specific Disease Measure Research Work Sponsored by Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. Heisei 12 Research Report, pp 17-33, 2001). On the other hand, the mortality rate is reported to be 0-11% for sterile pancreatic necrosis which is not accompanied by bacterial infection (Ogawa et al. 2001; Bradely and Allen in Am J Surg 161:19-24, 1991; Rattner et al. in Am J Surg 163:105-109, 1992). The Japanese (JPN) Guidelines were designed to provide recommendations regarding the management of acute pancreatitis in patients having a variety of clinical characteristics. This article describes the guidelines for the surgical management and interventional therapy of acute pancreatitis by incorporating the latest evidence for the management of acute pancreatitis in the Japanese-language version of JPN guidelines 2010. Eleven clinical questions (CQ) are proposed: (1) worsening clinical manifestations and hematological data, positive blood bacteria culture test, positive blood endotoxin test, and the presence of gas bubbles in and around the pancreas on CT
Sánchez-Ortega, J L; Carpintero-Moreno, F; Olivares-López, A; Borrás-Rubio, E; Alvarez-López, M J; García-Izquierdo, A
We report a 72 years old woman with mild arterial hypertension and no other pathological history who presented an acute pulmonary edema due to acute obstruction of the upper airway secondary to vocal chord paralysis developing during the immediate postoperative phase of thyroidectomy. The acute pulmonary edema resolved after application of tracheal reintubation, mechanical ventilation controlled with end expiratory positive pressure, diuretics, morphine, and liquid restriction. We discuss the possible etiopathogenic possibilities of this infrequent clinical picture and we suggest that all patients who suffered and acute obstruction of the upper airways require a careful clinical surveillance in order to prevent the development of the pulmonary syndrome.
Kirshner, R L; Green, R M
We report a case of acute thrombosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to a correctly applied and successful Heimlich maneuver. Although the Heimlich maneuver is generally safe and effective, this possible catastrophic consequence needs to be recognized.
Tuncel, Tuba; Uysal, Pinar; Arikan-Ayyildiz, Zeynep; Firinci, Fatih; Karaman, Ozkan; Uzuner, Nevin
Acute urticaria is a common condition in childhood that concerns both patients and pediatricians. The aim of this study was to evaluate the general approach of pediatricians to children with acute urticaria. A data collection form consisting of 17 questions was created to evaluate pediatricians' general knowledge and practical approaches about urticaria. This form was distributed at the hospitals where pediatricians and pediatric residents work. The data was recorded in SPSS for Windows v.15 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The frequency (%) was used for descriptive data, while Pearson χ2 and Fisher's Exact tests were used for comparisons between groups. P<0.05 was considered significant. The study was approved by the local ethics committee. Pediatricians suggest that foods and food additives are the most common etiological factors in the development of urticaria and, therefore, often advise dietary changes. Second-generation antihistamines are preferred for treatment and are administered for about 5-7 days. Pediatric residents were found to prefer parenteral drug administration for the treatment of urticaria. A different generation antihistamine therapy was applied for treatment of patients who did not respond to the initial treatment. It was also determined that patients were referred to allergists when urticaria was accompanied by angioedema or when patients were resistant to conventional treatment. Pediatricians' knowledge regarding the diagnosis and treatment of urticaria was less extensive than expected. According to the results, there was some confusion among physicians regarding the etiological role of some foods in acute urticaria and the strategies for removal of these foods from the diet during the treatment. Participants' treatment approaches were partially correct and sufficient. In general, there were no differences observed between pediatric residents and pediatricians in terms of the management of patients with urticaria, except the route of
Zaki, Syed Ahmed; Gupta, Saurabh
Levetiracetam is well-tolerated and commonly used as a broad spectrum antiepileptic in both partial and generalized seizures. Few cases of levetiracetam-induced psychosis in children are reported in the literature. The present case of levetiracetam-induced acute psychosis highlights the adverse effect of this drug and also emphasizes the need for close monitoring of children on levetiracetam. PMID:24987186
Ricardo, José; Anaya, Maria José; Barbosa, Mário; André, Nelson; Magno, Pedro; Morais, José; Proença, Gonçalo; Rabaçal, Carlos; Gil, Victor
We report the case of a 21-year-old man who underwent appendectomy under general anesthesia and developed acute pulmonary edema immediately after extubation. We then review the literature, focusing on the pathophysiology and the most important aspects of diagnosis and treatment of post-extubation pulmonary edema.
Kvacheva, Yu E
In the present review, the data on the pathology of acute and chronic polonium injuries available from the an open-access domestic and foreign literature are primarily systemized and analyzed. The historical background of the research is presented in brief. On the basis of clinical and experimental generalizations, the current concept regarding the pathogenesis of polonium intoxication has been developed.
Zaki, Syed Ahmed; Gupta, Saurabh
Levetiracetam is well-tolerated and commonly used as a broad spectrum antiepileptic in both partial and generalized seizures. Few cases of levetiracetam-induced psychosis in children are reported in the literature. The present case of levetiracetam-induced acute psychosis highlights the adverse effect of this drug and also emphasizes the need for close monitoring of children on levetiracetam.
Wang, Yi -Nan
We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups G = SL(2,R) × R+, SL(5,R) and SO(5,5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d=9,7,6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincar\\'e lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Lastly, we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.
Jayaram, Ashwal Adamane; Rao, Mugula Sudhakar; Padmakumar, R
Coronary artery spasm is an intense vasoconstriction of the coronary arteries and may be responsible for the myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction as well as sudden deaths. Coronary angiography is generally needed to identify the cause. Coronary artery spasm is a multifactorial disease with underlying mechanism still poorly understood. Here, we present case of a 48-year-old male with no significant past history who presented with acute episodic onset chest pain. Clinical, Electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiographic findings suggested pericarditis but a diagnostic coronary angiography revealed significant coronary vasospasm. Patient’s symptoms significantly improved with calcium channel blockers and Nitroglycerine (NTG). PMID:28273995
Flexman, Alana M; Donovan, Anne L; Gelb, Adrian W
Stroke is a major cause of death and disability. Anesthesiologists are likely to encounter patients with stroke and must be aware of the anesthetic considerations for these patients. Intravenous thrombolysis and intra-arterial thrombolysis are effective treatments for acuteischemic stroke as well as evolving endovascular techniques such as mechanical clot retrieval. Recent retrospective studies have found an association between general anesthesia and poor clinical outcome. The results of these studies have several limitations, and current evidence is inadequate to guide the choice of anesthesia in patients with acute stroke. The choice of anesthesia must be based on individual patient factors until further research is completed.
Ural, Dilek; Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Eren, Mehmet; Karaüzüm, Kurtuluş; Temizhan, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Zoghi, Mehdi; Ramassubu, Kumudha; Bozkurt, Biykem
Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life threatening clinical syndrome with a progressively increasing incidence in general population. Turkey is a country with a high cardiovascular mortality and recent national statistics show that the population structure has turned to an ‘aged’ population. As a consequence, AHF has become one of the main reasons of admission to cardiology clinics. This consensus report summarizes clinical and prognostic classification of AHF, its worldwide and national epidemiology, diagnostic work-up, principles of approach in emergency department, intensive care unit and ward, treatment in different clinical scenarios and approach in special conditions and how to plan hospital discharge. PMID:26574757
Ural, Dilek; Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Eren, Mehmet; Karaüzüm, Kurtuluş; Temizhan, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Zoghi, Mehdi; Ramassubu, Kumudha; Bozkurt, Biykem
Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life threatening clinical syndrome with a progressively increasing incidence in general population. Turkey is a country with a high cardiovascular mortality and recent national statistics show that the population structure has turned to an 'aged' population.As a consequence, AHF has become one of the main reasons of admission to cardiology clinics. This consensus report summarizes clinical and prognostic classification of AHF, its worldwide and national epidemiology, diagnostic work-up, principles of approach in emergency department,intensive care unit and ward, treatment in different clinical scenarios and approach in special conditions and how to plan hospital discharge.
Singh, S K; Agrawal, J K; Srivastava, A S; Bhardwaj, V K; Bose, B S
A variable array of neuroglycopenic symptoms are frequently encountered in the hypoglycemic stage, but acute psychotic disorders are quite rare. A fifty five year old female presented with an acute psychosis following oral sulfonylurea induced hypoglycemia without preceding features of adrenomedullary stimulation. This case report suggests that an acute and transient psychotic disorder may be an important neuroglycopenic feature and its early recognition protects the patient from severe hypoglycemic brain damage in a state of hypoglycemia unawareness.
González de Dios, J; Ochoa Sangrador, C
A review of the evidence on prevention of acute bronchiolitis is presented. Acute bronchiolitis prevention arises from three basic approaches: preventive treatment to reduce recurrent wheezing following an episode of acute bronchiolitis, preventive treatment to reduce the frequency and severity of RSV bronchiolitis in the population at risk (prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, etc.), and general preventive measures to reduce nosocomial infection with RSV. There is sufficient evidence on the lack of efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids, oral corticosteroids and montelukast. Intravenous RSV immunoglobulin has an unfavorable risk-benefit balance, particularly with the availability of monoclonal antibodies. Palivizumab is effective as preventive treatment of RSV infection in risk populations (high risk preterm infants and hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease), but not in the frequency and severity (ICU admission, need for mechanical ventilation and mortality) of the acute bronchiolitis. The benefits of palivizumab (less admissions) seem to be worth the adverse effects, but we do not know the cost-benefit ratio. The control and prevention measures of nosocomial transmission of RSV infection (isolation, hand washing, use of mask, gloves, cap and shoes) are based on indirect evidence.
Petty, Thomas L.; Bigelow, D. Boyd; Nett, Louise M.
An organized approach for the management of acute respiratory failure in an intensive general care unit utilizes a team of consultants including a general physician, a surgeon, respiratory care nurses, physical therapists and a blood gas technician. Because this team provides consultation and technical assistance in respiratory care and provides the equipment as well as the monitoring of care, this approach is suitable for any hospital interested in the management of acute respiratory emergencies. PMID:6083241
Cárdenas-Delgado, Christian L
Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome of psychomotor dysregulation that can be present in a broad spectrum of clinical situations. Advances made over the last decades have progressively contributed to its clinical differentiation and its conceptual delimitation. Both Benzodiazepines (BZD) and Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been consolidated as first-line therapy. In this regard, a BZD response rate ranging from 70 to 90 per cent has been reported in different case series. Furthermore, NMDA receptor antagonists represent an emerging strategy in the therapeutic approach to the disorder. Most of the evidence that supports the aforementioned treatment recommendations arises from descriptive observational studies. Traditionally, catatonia pathophysiological research focused on the study of subcortical brain structures. Currently there exists compelling evidence that supports a cortical origin of the syndrome, emphasizing the role of the prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychiatric catatonia models that integrate clinical, pathophysiological, and neurobiological findings have been postulated. The aim of the present review is to summarize up-to-date available evidence associated with the pharmacotherapeutic approach to acute catatonia as well as the neurochemical basis of its effectiveness. Likewise, general measures intended to prevent morbimortality are subject to discussion herein.
Ko, Fanny W; Chan, Ka Pang; Hui, David S; Goddard, John R; Shaw, Janet G; Reid, David W; Yang, Ian A
The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations. The diagnostic approach to AECOPD varies based on the clinical setting and severity of the exacerbation. After history and examination, a number of investigations may be useful, including oximetry, sputum culture, chest X-ray and blood tests for inflammatory markers. Arterial blood gases should be considered in severe exacerbations, to characterize respiratory failure. Depending on the severity, the acute management of AECOPD involves use of bronchodilators, steroids, antibiotics, oxygen and noninvasive ventilation. Hospitalization may be required, for severe exacerbations. Nonpharmacological interventions including disease-specific self-management, pulmonary rehabilitation, early medical follow-up, home visits by respiratory health workers, integrated programmes and telehealth-assisted hospital at home have been studied during hospitalization and shortly after discharge in patients who have had a recent AECOPD. Pharmacological approaches to reducing risk of future exacerbations include long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, mucolytics, vaccinations and long-term macrolides. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions in preventing COPD exacerbations.
Pisano, Calogera; Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Torretta, Federico; Capuccio, Veronica; Allegra, Alberto; Argano, Vincenzo; Ruvolo, Giovanni
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Penn classification in predicting in-hospital mortality after surgery in acute type A aortic dissection patients. We evaluated 58 patients (42 men and 16 women; mean age 62.17 ± 10.6 years) who underwent emergency surgery for acute type A aortic dissection between September 2003 and June 2010 in our department. We investigated the correlation between the pre-operative malperfusion and in-hospital outcome after surgery. Twenty-eight patients (48%) were Penn class Aa (absence of branch vessel malperfusion or circulatory collapse), 11 (19%) were Penn class Ab (branch vessel malperfusion with ischaemia), 5 (9%) were Penn class Ac (circulatory collapse with or without cardiac involvement) and 14 (24%) were Penn class Abc (both branch vessel malperfusion and circulatory collapse). The number of patients with localized or generalized ischaemia or both, Penn class non-Aa, was 30 (52%). In-hospital mortality was 24%. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in Penn class Abc and Penn class non-Aa. Intensive unit care stay, hospital ward stay and overall hospital stay was longer in Penn class non-Aa vs Penn class Aa. De Bakey type I dissection and type II diabetes mellitus were associated with in-hospital mortality. Preoperative malperfusion is important for the evaluation of patients with acute aortic type A dissection. The Penn classification is a simple and quick method to apply and predict in-hospital mortality and outcomes.
Baker, Mark E; Nelson, Rendon C; Rosen, Max P; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Hindman, Nicole M; Kamel, Ihab R; Kaur, Harmeet; Piorkowski, Robert J; Qayyum, Aliya; Yarmish, Gail M
The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every two years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. The Atlanta Classification by the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group recently modified the terminology for the clinical course and the morphologic changes identified on imaging, primarily contrast- enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The two distinct clinical courses of the disease are classified as (1) early phase, which lasts approximately 1 week, and (2) late phase, which starts after the first week and can last for months after the initial episode. The two, primary, morphologic changes are acute, interstitial edematous and necrotizing pancreatitis. Timing of imaging, primarily MDCT, is based on the clinical phases and is, therefore, important for these imaging guidelines. Ultrasound's role is to detect gallstones after the first episode. MDCT plays a primary role in the management of acutely ill patients, only after a minimum of 48-72 hours and generally after one week. MR plays a supplementary role to MDCT. Follow-up MDCT guides management and therapy: percutaneous aspiration of fluid collections and/or placement of large caliber catheters in infected necrosis.
Patients with acute pyelonephritis may present with a spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms. There are few noninvasive diagnostic studies, however, to confirm or exclude this diagnosis. A small number of patients, generally those with severe disease, will demonstrate radiographic changes on excretory urography, but the lack of sensitivity of the IVP in early, acute pyelonephritis is well documented. Several radionuclide techniques have been proposed to assist in the earlier detection of this clinical problem including imaging with Mercury-197 chlormerodrin, Gallium-67 citrate, Technetium-99m glucoheptonate. Technetium-99m DMSA, and, more recently, Indium-111 labeled white blood cells. The success of the renal cortical imaging agents as well as those which localize in infection are described in this report. There appears to be a complimentary role or the cortical imaging agents and the radiopharmaceuticals which localize in bacterial infection. Cortical agents offer the advantage of specific assessment of functioning renal tissue and a convenient, rapid method for following the response to treatment in a noninvasive manner. A pattern is described which may be diagnostic; correlation with Gallium-67 citrate of Indium-111 WBCs may increase the probability of infection as the cause for the cortical abnormality. The measurement of differential renal function using cortical agents provides additional information to assist the clinician in predicting the late effects of infection. Improved sensitivity and specificity, and a reproducible method for following the response to therapy in patients with acute pyelonephritis are the advantages of the techniques described.
Ferchmin, P. A.; Pérez, Dinely; Cuadrado, Brenda L.; Carrasco, Marimée; Martins, Antonio H.; Eterović, Vesna A.
Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and a surrogate of the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent sarin. The neurotoxicity of DFP was assessed as a reduction of population spike (PS) area elicited by synaptic stimulation in acute hippocampal slices. Two classical antidotes, atropine, and pralidoxime, and two novel antidotes, 4R-cembranotriene-diol (4R) and a caspase 9 inhibitor, were tested. Atropine, pralidoxime, and 4R significantly protected when applied 30 min after DFP. The caspase inhibitor was neuroprotective when applied 5–10 min before or after DFP, suggesting that early synaptic apoptosis is responsible for the loss of PSs. It is likely that apoptosis starts at the synapses and, if antidotes are not applied, descends to the cell bodies, causing death. The acute slice is a reliable tool for mechanistic studies, and the assessment of neurotoxicity and neuroprotection with PS areas is, in general, pharmacologically congruent with in vivo results and predicts the effect of drugs in vivo. 4R was first found to be neuroprotective in slices and later we demonstrated that 4R is neuroprotective in vivo. The mechanism of neurotoxicity of OPs is not well understood, and there is a need for novel antidotes that could be discovered using acute slices. PMID:26438150
Bowers, Len; Allan, Teresa; Simpson, Alan; Jones, Julia; Whittington, Richard
Morale on acute psychiatric wards has been considered to be problematic, and is reported to contribute to low quality patient care. To assess the relationship of staff morale to patient, service environment, physical environment, patient routines, conflict, containment, staff demographics, and staff group variables. A multivariate cross sectional study was undertaken collecting data on morale, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and other variables on 136 acute admission psychiatric wards in England. Morale was higher than published comparison samples. Length of time in post was correlated with low morale, and qualified nurses had higher emotional exhaustion but also higher personal accomplishment. The level of verbal abuse on a ward was associated with low morale, as was a higher level of social deprivation among patients. Higher levels of order and organisation correlated with better morale. Clear policies relating to the management of verbal abuse by patients, high levels of order and organisation, and staff rotation and education, may all support high morale. Acute inpatient psychiatry is generally a happy and rewarding work environment, and identified problems are likely to be due to other factors.
Kim, Jisung; Jung, Hahn Jin; Shim, Woo Sub
Closed reduction is generally recommended for acute nasal bone fractures, and rhinoplasty is considered in cases with an unsatisfactory outcome. However, concomitant rhinoplasty with fracture reduction might achieve better surgical outcomes. This study investigated the surgical techniques and outcomes in patients who underwent rhinoplasty and fracture reduction concomitantly, during the acute stage of nasal bone fracture. Forty-five patients who underwent concomitant rhinoplasty and fracture reduction were enrolled. Nasal bone fractures were classified into 3 major types (type I, simple fracture; type II, fracture line that mimics nasal osteotomy; and type III, comminuted fracture) based on computed tomography images and preoperative facial images. Two independent otolaryngology-head and neck surgeons evaluated the surgical outcomes and telephone based survey were made to evaluate patients satisfaction. Among 45 patients, there were 39 males and 6 females. Type I was the commonest type of fracture with 18 patients (40%), while the most frequently used surgical technique for corrective surgery was dorsal augmentation with 44 patients (97.8%). The mean visual analogue scale satisfaction score of the surgeons and patients were 7.62 and 8, respectively, with no significant differences between fracture types. Concomitant rhinoplasty with fracture reduction can be performed for acute nasal bone fracture patients, and it might lead to better aesthetic outcomes.
Treatment guidelines for acute rhinosinusitis (RS) recommend the use of intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy. However, the adverse event (AE) profiles of oral glucocorticoids, which result largely from the systemic absorption of those agents, have engendered concerns about the safety of INSs. These concerns persist for INSs despite significant or marked clinical differences between them and systemic corticosteroids in systemic absorption and among the INSs in bioavailability, mechanism of action, and lipophilicity, which may contribute to differences in AEs. For example, the systemic bioavailability of the INSs as a percentage of the administered drug is less than 0.1% for mometasone furoate, less than 1% for fluticasone propionate, 46% for triamcinolone acetonide, and 44% for beclomethasone dipropionate. A review of the safety profiles of INSs, as reported in clinical trials in acute and chronic RS and allergic rhinitis, shows primarily local AEs (eg, epistaxis and headache) that are generally classified as mild to moderate, with occurrence rates that are similar to those with placebo. Studies of the safety of mometasone furoate, fluticasone propionate, budesonide, and triamcinolone acetonide did not identify any evidence of systemic AEs, such as growth retardation in children due to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, bone mineral density loss, or cataracts, which suggests that INSs can be safely administered in patients with acute RS without concern for systemic AEs.
Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin L.; Toskes, Phillip P.
Pancreatitis, which is most generally described as any inflammation of the pancreas, is a serious condition that manifests in either acute or chronic forms. Chronic pancreatitis results from irreversible scarring of the pancreas, resulting from prolonged inflammation. Six major etiologies for chronic pancreatitis have been identified: toxic/ metabolic, idiopathic, genetic, autoimmune, recurrent and severe acute pancreatitis, and obstruction. The most common symptom associated with chronic pancreatitis is pain localized to the upper-to-middle abdomen, along with food malabsorption, and eventual development of diabetes. Treatment strategies for acute pancreatitis include fasting and short-term intravenous feeding, fluid therapy, and pain management with narcotics for severe pain or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories for milder cases. Patients with chronic disease and symptoms require further care to address digestive issues and the possible development of diabetes. Dietary restrictions are recommended, along with enzyme replacement and vitamin supplementation. More definitive outcomes may be achieved with surgical or endoscopic methods, depending on the role of the pancreatic ducts in the manifestation of disease. PMID:20567557
Madonna, M B; Boswell, W C; Arensman, R M
The outcome for children with common surgical conditions that cause an acute abdomen is discussed. These conditions include appendicitis, intussusception, malrotation, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal obstructions, and nonorganic pain. Emphasis is placed on surgical intervention and disease processes that significantly affect outcome. The outcome of many of the diseases discussed is strongly influenced by the timing of diagnosis and treatment. These children should have prompt care and intervention to prevent morbidity and mortality. In addition, many children who present with common pediatric surgical emergencies have other medical conditions and are best treated in an environment that has a multidisciplinary team to handle their care and decrease the long-term complications.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition with multiple causes and a high mortality rate. Approximately 150,000 cases are reported in the United States annually, making ARDS a public health concern. Management of the condition is complex because of its severity, and medical imaging is essential for both the diagnosis and management of ARDS. This article introduces common signs, symptoms, risk factors, and causes of ARDS. Diagnostic criteria, histopathology, treatment strategies, and prognostic information also are discussed. The article explains the value of medical imaging studies of ARDS, especially radiography, computed tomography, and ultrasonography.
In the 20th century, the complications of head injuries were controlled but not eliminated. The wars of the 21st century turned attention to blast, the instant of impact and the primary injury of concussion. Computer calculations have established that in the first 5 milliseconds after the impact, four independent injuries on the brain are inflicted: 1) impact and its shockwave, 2) deceleration, 3) rotation and 4) skull deformity with vibration (or resonance). The recovery, pathology and symptoms after acute brain trauma have always been something of a puzzle. The variability of these four modes of injury, along with a variable reserve of neurones, explains some of this problem. PMID:26688392
Baldwin, Kathleen; Orr, Sean; Briand, Mary; Piazza, Carolyn; Veydt, Annita; McCoy, Stacey
Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States and is the number one cause of long-term disability. Legislative mandates, largely the result of the American Heart Association, American Stroke Association, and Brain Attack Coalition working cooperatively, have resulted in nationwide standardization of care for patients who experience a stroke. Transport to a skilled facility that can provide optimal care, including immediate treatment to halt or reverse the damage caused by stroke, must occur swiftly. Admission to a certified stroke center is recommended for improving outcomes. Most strokes are ischemic in nature. Acute ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous group of vascular diseases, which makes targeted treatment challenging. To provide a thorough review of the literature since the 2007 acute ischemic stroke guidelines were developed, we performed a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1, 2004-July 1, 2009) for relevant English-language studies. Results (through July 1, 2009) from clinical trials included in the Internet Stroke Center registry were also accessed. Results from several pivotal studies have contributed to our knowledge of stroke. Additional data support the efficacy and safety of intravenous alteplase, the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke since 1995. Due to these study results, the American Stroke Association changed its recommendation to extend the time window for administration of intravenous alteplase from within 3 hours to 4.5 hours of symptom onset; this recommendation enables many more patients to receive the drug. Other findings included clinically useful biomarkers, the role of inflammation and infection, an expanded role for placement of intracranial stents, a reduced role for urgent carotid endarterectomy, alternative treatments for large-vessel disease, identification of nontraditional risk factors, including risk factors for women, and newly published pediatric stroke guidelines. In addition, new devices for
Gardiner, I T; Uff, J S
A 47-year-old white man with sarcoidosis presented with a six-week history of acute painful pleurisy. On auscultation a loud pleural rub was heard at the left base together with bilateral basal crepitations. The chest radiograph showed hilar enlargement as well as diffuse lung shadowing. A lung biopsy showed the presence of numerous epithelioid and giant-cell granulomata, particularly subpleurally. A patchy interstitial pneumonia was also present. He was given a six-month course of prednisolone, and lung function returned to normal. Images PMID:644534
Gross, R; Gerecke, D
The effective treatment of acute (myeloblastic and lymphoblastic) leukaemias depends on the induction of remissions as well as on the maintenance of these remissions. Whereas the use of anthracyclines and of cytosine arabinoside in different combinations notably increased the rate of induction of remissions, their maintenance was less successful until now. We present a scheme using, beside MTX and 6-MP, modified COAP regimes periodically every 3 months. The follow-up of 26 patients treated in this way is encouraging since nearly one third remained in full haematological remission after 3 years of observation.
Leonardi-Bee, J; Steiner, T; Bath-Hextall, F
Stroke is the third most common cause of death and the most common cause of disability in the western world. The development of drugs to limit the effects of brain damage caused by stroke continues but no routine effective treatment has yet been identified. Naftidrofuryl has been reported to be beneficial in the treatment of acute stroke in some studies, but it is unclear whether all of the evidence supports these findings. To assess the effects of naftidrofuryl in the acute phase of stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched November 2006); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2006); MEDLINE (1966 to July 2006); EMBASE (1980 to July 2006); Science Citation Index (1981 to July 2006); National Research Register (July 2006); LILACS Database (1982 to July 2006); metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (July 2006); SUMsearch (July 2006). To identify further published, unpublished and ongoing studies we searched reference lists, handsearched conference proceedings and contacted pharmaceutical companies and authors of relevant articles. We included patients with acute ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke clinically diagnosed by a medical practitioner with or without a computerised tomography (CT) scan. Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality, and extracted data using data extraction forms or, if available, re-analysed individual patient data. Six trials involving 1274 participants were included. We found no significant benefits of naftidrofuryl compared with placebo in reducing the risks of mortality (pooled odds ratio (OR) 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78 to 1.36, six studies) or combined death or dependency/disability (pooled OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.16, three studies). Pooled results showed naftidrofuryl had no significant effect on
Faderl, Stefan; O’Brien, Susan; Pui, Ching-Hon; Stock, Wendy; Wetzler, Meir; Hoelzer, Dieter; Kantarjian, Hagop M.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a clonal expansion of hematopoietic blasts, is a highly heterogeneous disease comprising many entities for which distinct treatment strategies are pursued. Although ALL is a success story in pediatric oncology, results in adults lag behind those in children. An expansion of new drugs, more reliable immunologic and molecular techniques for the assessment of minimal residual disease, and efforts at more precise risk stratification are generating new aspects of adult ALL therapy. For this review, the authors summarized pertinent and recent literature on ALL biology and therapy, and they discuss current strategies and potential implications of novel approaches to the management of adult ALL. PMID:20101737
One in 4 children will have at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by age 10 years. AOM results from infection of fluid that has become trapped in the middle ear. The bacteria that most often cause AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Differentiating AOM from otitis media with effusion (OME) is a critical skill for physicians, as accurate diagnosis will guide appropriate treatment of these conditions. Although fluid is present in the middle ear in both conditions, the fluid is not infected in OME as is seen in AOM patients.
Tallis, G A
Three cases of acute lead arsenate poisoning which occurred in South Australia during a 12 month interval are described. The case reports demonstrate a number of features of the characteristic clinical syndrome which may follow ingestion of lead arsenate. The recommended management is immediate gastric lavage and subsequent chelation therapy with calcium EDTA and dimercaprol. Early gastric lavage may prevent significant lead absorption. However, arsenic acid (produced in the stomach when lead arsenate reacts with hydrochloric acid) is relatively water soluble and prompt gastric lavage is unlikely to prevent extensive arsenic absorption. It remains controversial as to whether chelation with dimercaprol prevents arsenical neuropathy.
Martin, G T
In the 20th century, the complications of head injuries were controlled but not eliminated. The wars of the 21st century turned attention to blast, the instant of impact and the primary injury of concussion. Computer calculations have established that in the first 5 milliseconds after the impact, four independent injuries on the brain are inflicted: 1) impact and its shockwave, 2) deceleration, 3) rotation and 4) skull deformity with vibration (or resonance). The recovery, pathology and symptoms after acute brain trauma have always been something of a puzzle. The variability of these four modes of injury, along with a variable reserve of neurones, explains some of this problem.
Abengowe, C U; McManamon, P J
Acute emphysematous cholecystitis is an uncommon condition caused by gas-forming organisms and characterized by the presence of gas in the wall and lumen of the gallbladder. Its incidence is higher among male diabetics. AEC in an elderly North American diabetic man with Indian ancestry is reported with a brief review of the world literature. The diagnosis was made preoperatively with the aid of plain radiographic films of the abdomen. A gangrenous distended gallbladder was removed at operation. Clostridium perfringens was cultured from the gallbladder contents and wall. If AEC is suspected, intensive antimicrobial therapy and fluid and electrolyte replacement should be given prior to early surgical intervention.
Kaushik, Vivek; Malik, Tass; Saeed, Shakeel R
Acute otitis externa is an inflammatory condition of the ear canal, with or without infection. Symptoms include ear discomfort, itchiness, discharge and impaired hearing. It is also known as 'swimmer's ear' and can usually be treated successfully with a course of ear drops. To assess the effectiveness of interventions for acute otitis externa. Our search for published and unpublished trials included the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; CENTRAL; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; mRCT and additional sources. The date of the most recent search was 6 January 2009. Randomised controlled trials evaluating ear cleaning, topical medication or systemic therapy in the treatment of acute otitis externa were eligible.We excluded complicated acute otitis externa; otitis externa secondary to otitis media or chronic suppurative otitis media; chronic otitis externa; fungal otitis externa (otomycosis); eczematous otitis externa; viral otitis externa and furunculosis. Two authors assessed eligibility and quality. Nineteen randomised controlled trials with a total of 3382 participants were included. Three meta-analyses were possible. The overall quality of studies was low.Topical antimicrobials containing steroids were significantly more effective than placebo drops: OR 11 (95% CI 2.00 to 60.57; one trial).In general, no clinically meaningful differences were noted in clinical cure rates between the various topical interventions reviewed. One notable exception involved a trial of high quality which showed that acetic acid was significantly less effective when compared with antibiotic/steroid drops in terms of cure rate at two and three weeks (OR 0.29 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.62) and OR 0.25 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.58) respectively).One trial of low quality comparing quinolone with non-quinolone antibiotics did not find any difference in clinical cure rate.No trials evaluated the effectiveness of ear cleaning
Burcu, Busra; Ekinci, Ozgur; Atak, Tuba; Orhun, Kivilcim; Eren, Turgut Tunc; Alimoglu, Orhan
OBJECTIVE: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute surgical pathology we encountered. In this study we investigated our pregnant cases of appendicitis, and reviewed literature. METHODS: A total of 21 pregnant women who underwent appendectomy with the initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis in Istanbul Medeniyet University Clinics of General Surgery between January 2012, and December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients’s ages, trimesters, complaints, abdominal examination, laboratory, and ultrasonographic findings, surgical techniques, complications and hospital stay were noted. RESULTS: The patients were in their first (n=12; 57.1%), second (n=5; 23.8%), and third trimesters (n=4; 19.0%) of their pregnancies Median age was 23.9 years. All of the patients had abdominal pain. Median value of WBC count was 13.297/mm³. Ultrasound was positive in 12 patients (57.1%). In 14 (66.6%) patients McBurney incision, and in 6 (28.6%) cases right paramedian incision were used. One patient (4.8%) underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. Nineteen cases were acute appendicitis (90.5%), and two cases were perforated appendicitis (9.5%). Average hospital stay was 3.8 days. Two cases with perforated acute appendicitis developed wound infection and treated conservatively. There were no fetomaternal mortality. CONCLUSION: Physiologically anatomic and biochemical changes occurring during pregnancy can delay the diagnosis of acute appendicitis threaten the lives of both the mother and the fetus Therefore, rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment convey importance. PMID:28058387
Burcu, Busra; Ekinci, Ozgur; Atak, Tuba; Orhun, Kivilcim; Eren, Turgut Tunc; Alimoglu, Orhan
Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute surgical pathology we encountered. In this study we investigated our pregnant cases of appendicitis, and reviewed literature. A total of 21 pregnant women who underwent appendectomy with the initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis in Istanbul Medeniyet University Clinics of General Surgery between January 2012, and December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients's ages, trimesters, complaints, abdominal examination, laboratory, and ultrasonographic findings, surgical techniques, complications and hospital stay were noted. The patients were in their first (n=12; 57.1%), second (n=5; 23.8%), and third trimesters (n=4; 19.0%) of their pregnancies Median age was 23.9 years. All of the patients had abdominal pain. Median value of WBC count was 13.297/mm³. Ultrasound was positive in 12 patients (57.1%). In 14 (66.6%) patients McBurney incision, and in 6 (28.6%) cases right paramedian incision were used. One patient (4.8%) underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. Nineteen cases were acute appendicitis (90.5%), and two cases were perforated appendicitis (9.5%). Average hospital stay was 3.8 days. Two cases with perforated acute appendicitis developed wound infection and treated conservatively. There were no fetomaternal mortality. Physiologically anatomic and biochemical changes occurring during pregnancy can delay the diagnosis of acute appendicitis threaten the lives of both the mother and the fetus Therefore, rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment convey importance.
Gouma, Dirk J.; Obertop, Huug
The management of patients with acute calculous cholecystitis has changed during recent years. The etiology of acute cholecystitis is still not fully understood. Infection of bile is relatively unimportant since bile and gallbladder wall cultures are sterile in many patients with acute cholecystitis. Ultrasonography is first choice for diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and cholescintigraphy is second best. Percutaneous puncture of the gallbladder that can be used for therapeutic drainage has also diagnostic qualities. Early cholecystectomy under antibiotic prophylaxis is the treatment of choice, and has been shown to be superior to delayed surgery in several prospective trials. Mortality can be as low as 0.5% in patients younger than 70–80 years of age, but a high mortality has been reported in octogenerians. Selective intraoperative cholangiography is now generally accepted and no advantage of routine cholangiography was shown in clinical trials. Percutaneous cholecystostomy can be successfully performed under ultrasound guidance and has a place in the treatment of severely ill patients with acute cholecystitis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be done safely in patients with acute cholecystitis, but extensive experience with this technique is necessary. Endoscopic retrograde drainage of the gallbladder by introduction of a catheter in the cystic duct is feasible but data are still scarce. PMID:1292590
Berthiaume, Yves; Matthay, Michael A
Although lung-protective ventilation strategies have substantially reduced mortality of acute lung injury patients there is still a need for new therapies that can further decrease mortality in patients with acute lung injury. Studies of epithelial ion and fluid transport across the distal pulmonary epithelia have provided important new concepts regarding potential new therapies for acute lung injury. Overall, there is convincing evidence that the alveolar epithelium is not only a tight epithelial barrier that resists the movement of edema fluid into the alveoli, but it is also actively involved in the transport of ions and solutes, a process that is essential for edema fluid clearance and the resolution of acute lung injury. The objective of this article is to consider some areas of recent progress in the field of alveolar fluid transport under normal and pathologic conditions. Vectorial ion transport across the alveolar and distal airway epithelia is the primary determinant of alveolar fluid clearance. The general paradigm is that active Na(+) and Cl(-) transport drives net alveolar fluid clearance, as demonstrated in several different species, including the human lung. Although these transport processes can be impaired in severe lung injury, multiple experimental studies suggest that upregulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) transport might be an effective therapy in acute lung injury. We will review mechanisms involved in pharmacological modulation of ion transport in lung injury with a special focus on the use of beta-adrenergic agonists which has generated considerable interest and is a promising therapy for clinical acute lung injury.
Radecki, Ryan Patrick
The efficacy of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke remains controversial in emergency medicine and has not been fully endorsed by either the American College of Emergency Physicians or the American Academy of emergency medicine. A growing recognition exists of the influence of pharmaceutical sponsorship on the reported findings of published clinical trials. Sponsorship bias has been suggested as a potential criticism of the literature and guidelines favoring thrombolytic therapy. The objective of this study is to review the most influential literature regarding thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke and document the presence or absence of pharmaceutical sponsorship. A publication-citation analysis was performed to identify the most frequently cited articles pertaining to thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Identified articles were reviewed for disclosures of pharmaceutical funding. Of the 20 most-cited articles pertaining to thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke, 17 (85%) disclosed pharmaceutical sponsorship. These disclosures range from general sponsorship to direct employment of authors by pharmaceutical companies. An overwhelming predominance of the most influential literature regarding thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke is susceptible to sponsorship bias. This potential bias may provide a basis for physician concern regarding the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic therapy. Further, large, independent, placebo-controlled studies may be required to guide therapy and professional guidelines definitively for acute ischemic stroke.
Radecki, Ryan Patrick
Background The efficacy of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke remains controversial in emergency medicine and has not been fully endorsed by either the American College of Emergency Physicians or the American Academy of emergency medicine. A growing recognition exists of the influence of pharmaceutical sponsorship on the reported findings of published clinical trials. Sponsorship bias has been suggested as a potential criticism of the literature and guidelines favoring thrombolytic therapy. Objective The objective of this study is to review the most influential literature regarding thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke and document the presence or absence of pharmaceutical sponsorship. Methods A publication-citation analysis was performed to identify the most frequently cited articles pertaining to thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Identified articles were reviewed for disclosures of pharmaceutical funding. Results Of the 20 most-cited articles pertaining to thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke, 17 (85%) disclosed pharmaceutical sponsorship. These disclosures range from general sponsorship to direct employment of authors by pharmaceutical companies. Conclusion An overwhelming predominance of the most influential literature regarding thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke is susceptible to sponsorship bias. This potential bias may provide a basis for physician concern regarding the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic therapy. Further, large, independent, placebo-controlled studies may be required to guide therapy and professional guidelines definitively for acute ischemic stroke. PMID:22224134
Aksoy, Ayse; Tanir, Gonul; Ozkan, Mehpare; Oguz, Melek; Yıldız, Yasemin Tasci
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, which principally affects the brain and spinal cord. It usually follows a benign infection or vaccination in children. Although a number of infectious agents have been implicated in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Toxoplasma gondii infection has not been described previously in children. Acquired T. gondii infection presents with lymphadenopathy and fever and usually spontaneously resolves in immunocompetent patients. We describe a previously healthy 10-year-old boy with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with acute acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection, the symptoms of which initially began with nuchal stiffness, difficulty in walking, and urinary and stool incontinence; he later had development of motor and sensory impairment in both lower extremities and classical magnetic resonance imaging lesions suggestive of the disease. The patient recovered completely after the specific therapy for acquired T. gondii infection and pulse prednisolone. Although acute acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection has not been reported previously in association with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, clinicians should keep in mind this uncommon cause of a common disease when evaluating a patient with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.
Jomli, R; Nacef, F; Douki, S
We describe the case of an adult man aged 49, without personal antecedents, or family psychiatric history, treated for bipolar disorder since 1995 and stabilised in the last 8 years by valproic acid, who presented in January 2010 an acute drug-induced pancreatitis. Drug-induced pancreatitis has been described since 1955. It may be induced by more than 260 various molecules, as well as by valproic acid, which remains underreported in the literature because there is a problem of imputability. The prevalence of acute drug-induced pancreatitis is set between 1 and 2 %. However, it must remain as an exclusion diagnosis after conducting an exhaustive etiological investigation that will, notably, eliminate bilary and alcoholic causes. The most incriminated drugs are the inhibitors of the conversion enzyme, sulfa drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, diuretics and anticonvulsants, including valproic acid. In Tunisia, the prescription of valproic acid is increasing in bipolar disorder therapy because it is known for its weak toxicity and easy handling. The case of our patient, who suffers from an acute Balthazar stage C pancreatitis with severe evolution after the drug was stopped, the imputability of valproic acid was considered strong and the collegial decision between the surgery, pharmacovigilance and psychiatry services maintained the drug-induced origin and consequently stopped the valproic acid. This case supports the idea that acute pancreatitis may be induced by valproic acid, even after a prescription lasting for a long period of time, it has no predictable factors and is totally independent of the drug-related dose and of depakine blood levels. There are no predictive factors to the present day, but the evolution is generally good except in rare cases where it may be dangerous. This leads us to think of bipolar patients who are found within weak grounds, such as alcoholics, cancer and HIV positive patients. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson
Presle, Alexandra; Bertocchio, Jean-Philippe; Schneider, Nathalie; Maquart, François-Xavier; Ramont, Laurent; Oudart, Jean-Baptiste
Serum protein electrophoresis is commonly used in case of acute or chronic renal failure. It can lead to the etiologic diagnosis by detecting monoclonal gammopathies which are frequently complicated by renal failure, such as cast nephropathy, Randall's disease or amyloidosis, or to explore an associated inflammatory syndrome. We report the occurrence of two monoclonal components in a patient without any monoclonal component 10 days earlier. The sudden appearance of these two monoclonal components associated to the context of sepsis of urinary origin suggested the diagnosis of transient monoclonal gammopathy. This hypothesis was confirmed by monitoring serum protein electrophoresis that showed a gradual decrease of these two monoclonal components few weeks after the resolution of the infectious disease. The main etiological factors of transient monoclonal gammopathies are infectious or autoimmune diseases. In this context, it is important to delay the achievement of serum protein electrophoresis after the acute episode, in order to avoid to falsely conclude to hematologic malignancy diagnosis. This can prevent costly biological examinations of these transient monoclonal gammopathies and invasive procedures like bone marrow examination.
Court, Jennifer Helen; Janicek, David
A 64-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of acute onset painless left ptosis. He had no other symptoms; importantly pupils were equal and reactive and eye movements were full. There was no palpable mass or swelling. He was systemically well with no headache, other focal neurological signs, or symptoms of fatigue. CT imaging showed swelling of the levator palpebrae superioris suggestive of myositis. After showing no improvement over 5 days the patient started oral prednisolone 30 mg reducing over 12 weeks. The ptosis resolved quickly and the patient remains symptom free at 6 months follow-up. Acute ptosis may indicate serious pathology. Differential diagnoses include a posterior communicating artery aneurysm causing a partial or complete third nerve palsy, Horner’s syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. A careful history and examination must be taken. Orbital myositis typically involves the extraocular muscles causing pain and diplopia. Isolated levator myositis is rare. PMID:25564592
Zuk, Anna; Bonventre, Joseph V.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a global public health concern associated with high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Other than dialysis, no therapeutic interventions reliably improve survival, limit injury, or speed recovery. Despite recognized shortcomings of in vivo animal models, the underlying pathophysiology of AKI and its consequence, chronic kidney disease (CKD), is rich with biological targets. We review recent findings relating to the renal vasculature and cellular stress responses, primarily the intersection of the unfolded protein response, mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy, and the innate immune response. Maladaptive repair mechanisms that persist following the acute phase promote inflammation and fibrosis in the chronic phase. Here macrophages, growth-arrested tubular epithelial cells, the endothelium, and surrounding pericytes are key players in the progression to chronic disease. Better understanding of these complex interacting pathophysiological mechanisms, their relative importance in humans, and the utility of biomarkers will lead to therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat AKI or impede progression to CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). PMID:26768243
Morello, William; La Scola, Claudio; Alberici, Irene; Montini, Giovanni
Acute pyelonephritis is one of the most serious bacterial illnesses during childhood. Escherichia coli is responsible in most cases, however other organisms including Klebsiella, Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Proteus, and Pseudomonas species are being more frequently isolated. In infants, who are at major risk of complications such as sepsis and meningitis, symptoms are ambiguous and fever is not always useful in identifying those at high risk. A diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis is initially made on the basis of urinalysis; dipstick tests for nitrites and/or leukocyte esterase are the most accurate indicators of infection. Collecting a viable urine sample for urine culture using clean voided methods is feasible, even in young children. No gold standard antibiotic treatment exists. In children appearing well, oral therapy and outpatient care is possible. New guidelines suggest less aggressive imaging strategies after a first infection, reducing radiation exposure and costs. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing recurrence is still a matter of debate and the risk of antibiotic resistance is a warning against its widespread use. Well-performed randomized controlled trials are required in order to better define both the imaging strategies and medical options aimed at preserving long-term renal function.
Zimmer, Vincent; Lammert, Frank
Background Acute bacterial cholangitis for the most part owing to common bile duct stones is common in gastroenterology practice and represents a potentially life-threatening condition often characterized by fever, abdominal pain, and jaundice (Charcot's triad) as well as confusion and septic shock (Reynolds' pentad). Methods This review is based on a systematic literature review in PubMed with the search items ‘cholangitis’, ‘choledocholithiasis’, ‘gallstone disease’, ‘biliary infection’, and ‘biliary sepsis’. Results Although most patients respond to empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, timely endoscopic biliary drainage depending on the severity of the disease is required to eliminate the underlying obstruction. Specific recommendations have been derived from the Tokyo guideline working group consensus 2006 and its update in 2013, albeit poorly evidence-based, providing a comprehensive overview of diagnosis, classification, risk stratification, and treatment algorithms in acute bacterial cholangitis. Conclusion Prompt clinical recognition and accurate diagnostic workup including adequate laboratory assessment and (aetiology-oriented) imaging are critical steps in the management of cholangitis. Treatment is directed at the two major interrelated pathophysiologic components, i.e. bacterial infection (immediate antimicrobial therapy) and bile duct obstruction (biliary drainage). As for the latter, transpapillary endoscopic drainage by stent or nasobiliary drain and/or same-session bile duct clearance, depending on individual disease severity, represent first-line treatment approaches. PMID:26468310
Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco; Spoliti, Marco; Maffulli, Nicola
acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is one of the few true emergencies in orthopedics and traumatology. It is a painful condition caused by the increase interstitial pressure (intracompart-mental pressure - ICP) within a closed osteofascial compartment which impair local circulation. It occurs most often in the legs, but it can affects also the arms, hands, feet, and buttocks. It usually develops after a severe injury such as fractures or crush injury, but it can also occurs after a relatively minor injury and it may be iatrogenic. Uncommon causes of ACS have been also described, that suggest surgeons to pay great attention to this serious complication. Diagnosing ACS is difficult in clinical practice, even among expert surgeons. Currently, the diagnosis is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated ICP measures. ICP higher than 30 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure is significant of compartment syndrome. Once diagnosis is made, fasciotomy to release the affected compartment should be performed as early as possible because delayed decompression would lead to irreversible ischemic damage to muscles and peripheral nerves. acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency. There is still little consensus among authors about diagnosis and treatment of these serious condition, in particular about the ICP at which fasciotomy is absolutely indicated and the timing of wound closure. New investigations are needed in order to improve diagnosis and treatment of ACS.
Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.
Hines, Patrick C; McKnight, Therese P; Seto, Wendy; Kwiatkowski, Janet L
To determine the frequency of acute care visits and risk factors for central nervous system (CNS) events in children with homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD-SS) with an acute headache. This is a retrospective cohort study of acute care visits for headache in children with SCD-SS. The prevalence of headache visits, neuroimaging evaluation, and acute CNS events were calculated and clinical and laboratory variables assessed. Headache was the chief complaint in 102 of 2685 acute care visits (3.8%) by children with SCD-SS. Acute CNS events were detected in 6.9% of these visits. Neuroimaging was performed in 42.2% of visits, and acute CNS events were identified in 16.3% of studies. Factors associated with acute CNS events included older age, history of stroke, transient ischemic attack, or seizure, neurologic symptoms, focal neurologic exam findings, and elevated platelets. Acute headache is common in pediatric SCD-SS and more frequently associated with acute CNS events than in the general pediatric population. A history of stroke, transient ischemic attack, seizures, neurologic symptoms, focal neurologic exam, or elevated platelet counts at presentation warrant confirmatory imaging studies. Whether a more limited workup is adequate for other children should be confirmed in a larger, prospective study. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Muttaquina; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Hossain, Mir Mobarak; Bhandari, Nita; Lin, Maung Maung; Joshi, Prakash Chandra; Angdembe, Mirak Raj; Wickramasinghe, V Pujitha; Hossain, S M Moazzem; Shahjahan, Mohammad; Irianto, Sugeng Eko; Soofi, Sajid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar
Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a common condition that kills children and intellectually maims those who survive. Close to 20 million children under the age of 5 years suffer from SAM globally, and about 1 million of them die each year. Much of this burden takes place in Asia. Six countries in Asia together have more than 12 million children suffering from SAM: 0.6 million in Afghanistan, 0.6 million in Bangladesh, 8.0 million in India, 1.2 million in Indonesia, 1.4 million in Pakistan, and 0.6 million in Yemen. This article is based on a review of SAM burden and intervention programs in Asian countries where, despite the huge numbers of children suffering from the condition, the coverage of interventions is either absent on a national scale or poor. Countries in Asia have to recognize SAM as a major problem and mobilize internal resources for its management. Screening of children in the community for SAM and appropriate referral and back referral require good health systems. Improving grassroots services will not only contribute to improving management of SAM, it will also improve infant and young child feeding and nutrition in general. Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), the key to home management of SAM without complications, is still not endorsed by many countries because of its unavailability in the countries and its cost. It should preferably be produced locally from locally available food ingredients. Countries in Asia that do not have the capacity to produce RUTF from locally available food ingredients can benefit from other countries in the region that can produce it. Health facilities in all high-burden countries should be staffed and equipped to treat children with SAM. A continuous cascade of training of health staff on management of SAM can offset the damage that results from staff attrition or transfers. The basic nutrition interventions, which include breastfeeding, appropriate complementary feeding, micronutrient supplementation, and
Wang, Yi -Nan
We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups G = SL(2,R) × R+, SL(5,R) and SO(5,5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d=9,7,6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincar\\'e lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Lastly, we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.
Ridgely, Charles T.
Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…
Zai, Robert, III.
From the colonial colleges to the present-day flagship universities, the undergraduate general education curriculum has dramatically shifted from a single, faculty-prescribed, general program to a diverse array of elective, student-choice-driven, specialized programs of general studies. This transformation has also encouraged, if not established,…
Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2005
The collected 2004-2005 issues of General Music Today, the online journal of MENC's Society for General Music includes articles, research, reviews and resources of interest to general music teachers of all levels. Topics covered include working with special-needs students; emphasizing early childhood environment to enhance musical growth;…
General Conference Mennonites and Old Order Amish are compared and contrasted in the areas of physical appearance, religious beliefs, formal education, methods of farming, and home settings. General Conference Mennonites and Amish differ in physical appearance and especially in dress. The General Conference Mennonite men and women dress the same…
Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2005
The collected 2004-2005 issues of General Music Today, the online journal of MENC's Society for General Music includes articles, research, reviews and resources of interest to general music teachers of all levels. Topics covered include working with special-needs students; emphasizing early childhood environment to enhance musical growth;…
Ridgely, Charles T.
Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…
[Implementation Plan for Two Clinical Practice Guides (CPGs) Contained in the Integral Care Guides (ICGs) of the General System of Social Health Care in Colombia: A) "Early Detection of Depressive Episode and Recurrent Depressive Disorder in Adults. Integral Attention of Adults with Diagnosis of Depressive Episode or Recurrent Depressive Disorder (CPG-Depression)". B) "Early Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of the Acute Intoxication Phase In 18-Years-Old Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence (CPG-Alcohol)"].
Díaz, Natalia Sánchez; Osorio, Andrés Duarte
Clinical practice guides (CPGs) are systematically recommended, with the best clinical evidence available, to help physicians and patients in decision-making concerning the most adequate sanitary care as well as the selection of the best diagnostic and therapeutic options when facing a health problem or a clinical condition. After obtaining these recommendations, it is crucial to adopt them in daily clinical practice; the process through which this change is sought is known as implementation. This document contains recommendations for implementing CPGs in two psychiatric pathologies: 1) depressive episode and recurrent depressive disorder in adults, and 2) acute intoxication phase in cases of alcohol abuse or dependence. The recommended implementation process is described; besides, barriers and facilitators found in the two guides, together with the list of management indicators and clinical outcomes, are identified for their monitoring within the General Health Social Security System of Colombia. CPGs contain recommendations with the best clinical evidence available. The challenge is achieving the adoption of such tool by users, being therefore necessary to follow the diffusion, dissemination and implementation plan, overcoming barriers and resorting to intrinsic and extrinsic facilitators for CPGs as well as performing monitoring with indicators described for measuring the implementation process (management indicators) and the effect of CPGs in clinical practice (indicators of clinical outcome.). Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
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Levine, J; Schmidt, M H; Burrell, M I; Hopkins, M S
A 44-year-old man with acute jejunoileitis of unknown etiology developed small bowel obstruction. Intermittent abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, ascites, and leukocytosis were prominent features. All stool cultures were negative. On steroid treatment, symptoms and radiographic features completely resolved. We suggest, in agreement with an earlier report, that acute jejunoileitis may be regarded as a distinct clinical entity.