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Sample records for acute health effects

  1. Acute and long term health effects of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Voelz, G.L.

    1986-11-19

    This paper covers selected aspects of the acute and long term health effects excluding acute radiation syndrome and carcinogenesis, resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. The changes addressed in this paper are those witnessed within an organ or whole body rather than at the molecular or even cellular level. They include acute and late health effects. Some of these effects are threshold effects, meaning that the dose must exceed a certain threshold before one sees these effects. Less than the threshold dose results in no observable organ or whole body effect. The severity of the effects correlate directly with the amount of cell damage or cell death that has occurred. 15 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Indoor air pollution: Acute adverse health effects and host susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Zummo, S.M.; Karol, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Increased awareness of the poor quality of indoor air compared with outdoor air has resulted in a significant amount of research on the adverse health effects and mechanisms of action of indoor air pollutants. Common indoor air agents are identified, along with resultant adverse health effects, mechanisms of action, and likely susceptible populations. Indoor air pollutants range from biological agents (such as dust mites) to chemical irritants (such as nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, and isocyanates). These agents may exert their effects through allergic as well as nonallergic mechanisms. While the public does not generally perceive poor indoor air quality as a significant health risk, increasing reports of illness related to indoor air and an expanding base of knowledge on the health effects of indoor air pollution are likely to continue pushing the issue to the forefront.

  3. Acute health effects of accidental chlorine gas exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to report the course of an accidental release of chlorine gas that occurred in a factory in Gumi-si, South Korea, on March 5, 2013. We describe the analysis results of 2 patients hospitalized because of chlorine-induced acute health problems, as well as the clinical features of 209 non-hospitalized patients. Methods We analyzed the medical records of the 2 hospitalized patients admitted to the hospital, as well as the medical records and self-report questionnaires of 209 non-hospitalized patients completed during outpatient treatment. Results Immediately after the exposure, the 2 hospitalized patients developed acute asthma-like symptoms such as cough and dyspnea, and showed restrictive and combined pattern ventilatory defects on the pulmonary function test. The case 1 showed asthma-like symptoms over six months and diurnal variability in peak expiratory flow rate was 56.7%. In case 2, his FEV1 after treatment (93%) increased by 25% compared to initial FEV1 (68%). Both cases were diagnosed as chlorine-induced reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) on the basis of these clinical features. The most frequent chief complaints of the 209 non-hospitalized patients were headache (22.7%), followed by eye irritation (18.2%), nausea (11.2%), and sore throat (10.8%), with asymptomatic patients accounting for 36.5%. The multiple-response analysis of individual symptom revealed headache (42.4%) to be the most frequent symptom, followed by eye irritation (30.5%), sore throat (30.0%), cough (29.6%), nausea (27.6%), and dizziness (27.3%). Conclusions The 2 patients hospitalized after exposure to chlorine gas at the leakage site showed a clinical course corresponding to RADS. All of the 209 non-hospitalized patients only complained of symptoms of the upper airways and mucous membrane irritation. PMID:25852940

  4. Comparison of Acute Health Effects From Exposures to Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Mehus, Aaron A.; Reed, Rustin J.; Lee, Vivien S. T.; Littau, Sally R.; Hu, Chengcheng; Lutz, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the comparative acute health effects associated with exposures to diesel and 75% biodiesel/25% diesel (B75) blend fuel emissions. Methods: We analyzed multiple health endpoints in 48 healthy adults before and after exposures to diesel and B75 emissions in an underground mine setting—lung function, lung and systemic inflammation, novel biomarkers of exposure, and oxidative stress were assessed. Results: B75 reduced respirable diesel particulate matter by 20%. Lung function declined significantly more after exposure to diesel emissions. Lung inflammatory cells along with sputum and plasma inflammatory mediators increased significantly to similar levels with both exposures. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative stress, was not significantly changed after either exposure. Conclusions: Use of B75 lowered respirable diesel particulate matter exposure and some associated acute health effects, although lung and systemic inflammation were not reduced compared with diesel use. PMID:26147538

  5. Acute health effects after exposure to chlorine gas released after a train derailment.

    PubMed

    Van Sickle, David; Wenck, Mary Anne; Belflower, Amy; Drociuk, Dan; Ferdinands, Jill; Holguin, Fernando; Svendsen, Erik; Bretous, Lena; Jankelevich, Shirley; Gibson, James J; Garbe, Paul; Moolenaar, Ronald L

    2009-01-01

    In January 2005, a train derailment on the premises of a textile mill in South Carolina released 42 to 60 tons of chlorine gas in the middle of a small town. Medical records and autopsy reports were reviewed to describe the clinical presentation, hospital course, and pathology observed in persons hospitalized or deceased as a result of chlorine gas exposure. Eight persons died before reaching medical care; of the 71 persons hospitalized for acute health effects as a result of chlorine exposure, 1 died in the hospital. The mean age of the hospitalized persons was 40 years (range, 4 months-76 years); 87% were male. The median duration of hospitalization was 4 days (range, 1-29 days). Twenty-five (35%) persons were admitted to the intensive care unit; the median length of stay was 3 days. Many surviving victims developed significant pulmonary signs and severe airway inflammation; 41 (58%) hospitalized persons met PO2/FiO2 criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome or acute lung injury. During their hospitalization, 40 (57%) developed abnormal x-ray findings, 74% of those within the first day. Hypoxia on room air and PO2/FiO2 ratio predicted severity of outcome as assessed by the duration of hospitalization and the need for intensive care support. This community release of chlorine gas caused widespread exposure and resulted in significant acute health effects and substantial health care requirements. Pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas analysis provided early indications of outcome severity.

  6. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  7. Acute health effects of PM10 pollution on symptomatic and asymptomatic children

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, C.A. 3d.; Dockery, D.W. )

    1992-05-01

    This study assessed the association between daily changes in respiratory health and respirable particulate pollution (PM10) in Utah Valley during the winter of 1990-1991. During the study period, 24-h PM10 concentrations ranged from 7 to 251 micrograms/m3. Participants included symptomatic and asymptomatic samples of fifth- and sixth-grade students. Relatively small but statistically significant (p less than 0.01) negative associations between peak expiratory flow (PEF) and PM10 were observed for both the symptomatic and asymptomatic samples. The association was strongest for the symptomatic children. Large associations between the incidence of respiratory symptoms, especially cough, and PM10 pollution were also observed for both samples. Again the association was strongest for the symptomatic sample. Immediate and delayed PM10 effects were observed. Respiratory symptoms and PEF changes were more closely associated with 5-day moving-average PM10 levels than with concurrent-day levels. These associations were also observed at PM10 levels below the 24-h standard of 150 micrograms/m3. This study indicates that both symptomatic and asymptomatic children may suffer acute health effects of respirable particulate pollution, with symptomatic children suffering the most.

  8. Modeling the acute health effects of astronauts from exposure to large solar particle events.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowen; Kim, Myung-Hee Y; McClellan, Gene E; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-04-01

    Radiation exposure from Solar Particle Events (SPE) presents a significant health concern for astronauts for exploration missions outside the protection of the Earth's magnetic field, which could impair their performance and result in the possibility of failure of the mission. Assessing the potential for early radiation effects under such adverse conditions is of prime importance. Here we apply a biologically based mathematical model that describes the dose- and time-dependent early human responses that constitute the prodromal syndromes to consider acute risks from SPEs. We examine the possible early effects on crews from exposure to some historically large solar events on lunar and/or Mars missions. The doses and dose rates of specific organs were calculated using the Baryon radiation transport (BRYNTRN) code and a computerized anatomical man model, while the hazard of the early radiation effects and performance reduction were calculated using the Radiation-Induced Performance Decrement (RIPD) code. Based on model assumptions we show that exposure to these historical events would cause moderate early health effects to crew members inside a typical spacecraft or during extra-vehicular activities, if effective shielding and medical countermeasure tactics were not provided. We also calculate possible even worse cases (double intensity, multiple occurrences in a short period of time, etc.) to estimate the severity, onset and duration of various types of early illness. Uncertainties in the calculation due to limited data on relative biological effectiveness and dose-rate modifying factors for protons and secondary radiation, and the identification of sensitive sites in critical organs are discussed.

  9. Acute health effects in a community after a release of hydrofluoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, J.S.; Brender, J.D.; Sanderson, L.M.; Perrotta, D.M.; Beauchamp, R.A. )

    1991-05-01

    {approximately} 3,000 persons were evacuated from a Texas community after 24,036 kg (53,000 lb) of caustic hydrofluoric acid (HF) were released from a nearby petrochemical plant. Emergency room and hospital records of 939 persons who were seen at two area hospitals were reviewed. Most persons who presented at the emergency rooms were female (56%) or black (60%), and their mean age was 33.9 y. The most frequently reported symptoms were eye irritation (41.5%), burning throat (21%), headache (20.6%), and shortness of breath (19.4%). Physical examination results were normal for 49% of the cases; however, irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, skin, and lungs were noted on other exams. Decreased pulmonary function was demonstrated by pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in the first second, less than 80% of predicted value, 42.3%); hypoxemia (pO2 less than 80 mm Hg, 17.4%) and hypocalcemia (less than 8.5 mg/dl, 16.3%) were also noted. Ninety-four (10%) of the cases were hospitalized, and more than 83% of all cases were discharged with a primary diagnosis of HF exposure. There are several reports of individuals who are acutely and chronically exposed to HF; however, we are unaware of other published reports that describe exposure of a community to HF. This incident represented a unique opportunity to study the immediate health impact on a community of residents who were exposed to a hazardous materials release. Results of this analysis suggest that (a) initial health problems should be followed up, (b) any long-term health effects of HF exposure must be assessed, and (c) the health impact on the population at risk should be determined.

  10. Acute health effects associated with exposure to volcanic air pollution (vog) from increased activity at Kilauea Volcano in 2008.

    PubMed

    Longo, Bernadette M; Yang, Wei; Green, Joshua B; Crosby, Frederick L; Crosby, Vickie L

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Kilauea Volcano on the island of Hawai'i increased eruption activity and emissions of sulfurous volcanic air pollution called vog. The purpose of this study was to promptly assess for a relative increase in cases of medically diagnosed acute illnesses in an exposed Hawaiian community. Using a within-clinic retrospective cohort design, comparisons were made for visits of acute illnesses during the 14 wk prior to the increased volcanic emissions (low exposure) to 14 wk of high vog exposure when ambient sulfur dioxide was threefold higher and averaged 75 parts per billion volume per day. Logistic regression analysis estimated effect measures between the low- and high-exposure cohorts for age, gender, race, and smoking status. There were statistically significant positive associations between high vog exposure and visits for medically diagnosed cough, headache, acute pharyngitis, and acute airway problems. More than a sixfold increase in odds was estimated for visits with acute airway problems, primarily experienced by young Pacific Islanders. These findings suggest that the elevated volcanic emissions in 2008 were associated with increased morbidity of acute illnesses in age and racial subgroups of the general Hawaiian population. Continued investigation is crucial to fully assess the health impact of this natural source of sulfurous air pollution. Culturally appropriate primary- and secondary-level health prevention initiatives are recommended for populations in Hawai'i and volcanically active areas worldwide.

  11. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Affect and Arousal in Inpatient Mental Health Consumers.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Robert; Reaburn, Peter; Happell, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Acute exercise performed at a self-selected intensity improves affect and may improve long-term adherence. Similarly, in people with severe depression, acute aerobic exercise performed at self-selected intensity improves affect and arousal. However, the relationship between changes in affect and arousal and perceived exercise intensity in people with mental illness has not been evaluated. Affect and arousal were assessed immediately prior to, and immediately following, a group exercise program performed at a self-selected intensity in 40 inpatient mental health consumers who received a diagnosis of anxiety or bipolar or depressive disorders. Exercise intensity was assessed immediately after exercise. Postexercise affect was significantly improved for people with bipolar and depressive disorders but not for people with anxiety disorders. For the group as a whole, results showed a significant curvilinear relationship between ratings of perceived exertion and postexercise affect. These data will inform the development and delivery of future exercise interventions for inpatient mental health consumers.

  12. Modeling Acute Health Effects of Astronauts from Exposure to Large Solar Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    In space exploration outside the Earth s geomagnetic field, radiation exposure from solar particle events (SPE) presents a health concern for astronauts, that could impair their performance and result in possible failure of the mission. Acute risks are of special concern during extra-vehicular activities because of the rapid onset of SPE. However, most SPEs will not lead to acute risks but can lead to mission disruption if accurate projection methods are not available. Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS) is a group of clinical syndromes developing acutely (within several seconds to 3 days) after high dose whole-body or significant partial-body ionizing radiation exposures. The manifestation of these syndromes reflects the disturbance of physiological processes of various cellular groups damaged by radiation. Hematopoietic cells, skin, epithelium, intestine, and vascular endothelium are among the most sensitive tissues of human body to ionizing radiation. Most ARS symptoms are directly related to these tissues and other systems (nervous, endocrine, and cardiovascular, etc.) with coupled regulations. Here we report the progress in bio-mathematical models to describe the dose and time-dependent early human responses to ionizing radiation. The responses include lymphocyte depression, granulocyte modulation, fatigue and weakness syndrome, and upper gastrointestinal distress. The modest dose and dose-rates of SPEs are predicted to lead to large sparing of ARS, however detailed experimental data on a range of proton dose-rates for organ doses from 0.5 to 2 Gy is needed to validate the models. We also report on the ARRBOD code that integrates the BRYNTRN and SUMDOSE codes, which are used to estimate the SPE organ doses for astronauts under various space travel scenarios, with our models of ARS. The more recent effort is to provide easy web access to space radiation risk assessment using the ARRBOD code.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of the community-based management of severe acute malnutrition by community health workers in southern Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Puett, Chloe; Sadler, Kate; Alderman, Harold; Coates, Jennifer; Fiedler, John L; Myatt, Mark

    2013-07-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding the community-based management of severe acute malnutrition (CMAM) to a community-based health and nutrition programme delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in southern Bangladesh. The cost-effectiveness of this model of treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of the 'standard of care' for SAM (i.e. inpatient treatment), augmented with community surveillance by CHWs to detect cases, in a neighbouring area. An activity-based cost model was used, and a societal perspective taken, to include all costs incurred in the programme by providers and participants for the management of SAM in both areas. Cost data were coupled with programme effectiveness data. The community-based strategy cost US$26 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, compared with US$1344 per DALY averted for inpatient treatment. The average cost to participant households for their child to recover from SAM in community treatment was one-sixth that of inpatient treatment. These results suggest that this model of treatment for SAM is highly cost-effective and that CHWs, given adequate supervision and training, can be employed effectively to expand access to treatment for SAM in Bangladesh.

  14. Acute and Chronic Whole-Body Vibration Exercise does not Induce Health-Promoting Effects on The Blood Profile

    PubMed Central

    Theodorou, Anastasios A.; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Paschalis, Vassilis; Chanou, Konstantina; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise is an alternative, popular and easy exercise that can be followed by general public. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic WBV exercise on health-related parameters. Twenty-eight women were allocated into a control group (n=11, mean ±SEM: age, 43.5 ±1.5 yr; body mass, 66.1 ±3.1 kg; height, 160.6 ±1.5 cm) and a vibration group (n=17, mean ±SEM: age, 44.0 ±1.0 yr; body mass, 67.1 ±2.2 kg; height, 162.5 ±1.5 cm). After baseline assessments, participants of the experimental group performed WBV training 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Before and after the chronic WBV exercise, the participants of the vibration group performed one session of acute WBV exercise. Blood chemistry measurements (hematology, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin) were assessed pre-exercise and post-exercise at the first and eighth week of WBV exercise in both control and vibration groups. The results failed to support any effect of both acute and chronic WBV exercise on biochemical health-related parameters. However, it seems that WBV exercise is a safe way of training without a negative impact on muscle and liver functionality. PMID:26240654

  15. Spatial Variable Selection Methods for Investigating Acute Health Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Components

    PubMed Central

    Vock, Laura F. Boehm; Reich, Brian J.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Dominici, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Summary Multi-site time series studies have reported evidence of an association between short term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, but the effect size varies across the United States. Variability in the effect may partially be due to differing community level exposure and health characteristics, but also due to the chemical composition of PM which is known to vary greatly by location and time. The objective of this article is to identify particularly harmful components of this chemical mixture. Because of the large number of highly-correlated components, we must incorporate some regularization into a statistical model. We assume that, at each spatial location, the regression coefficients come from a mixture model with the flavor of stochastic search variable selection, but utilize a copula to share information about variable inclusion and effect magnitude across locations. The model differs from current spatial variable selection techniques by accommodating both local and global variable selection. The model is used to study the association between fine PM (PM <2.5 μm) components, measured at 115 counties nationally over the period 2000–2008, and cardiovascular emergency room admissions among Medicare patients. PMID:25303336

  16. Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Nawaz, Haq; Farooqui, Sadia Zohra; Khuwaja, Urooj Bakht; Najam-ul-Hassan; Jafri, Syed Nadim; Lutfi, Shahid Ali; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2006-01-01

    Background On July 27 2003, a ship carrying crude oil run aground near Karachi and after two weeks released 37,000 tons of its cargo into the sea. Oil on the coastal areas and fumes in air raised health concerns among people. We assessed the immediate health impact of oil spill from the tanker Tasman Spirit on residents of the affected coastline in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We conducted a study consisting of an exposed group including adults living in houses on the affected shoreline and two control groups (A and B) who lived at the distance of 2 km and 20 km away from the sea, respectively. We selected households through systematic sampling and interviewed an adult male and female in each household about symptoms relating to eyes, respiratory tract, skin and nervous system, smoking, allergies, beliefs about the effect on their health and anxiety about the health effects. We used logistic regression procedures to model each symptom as an outcome and the exposure status as an independent variable while adjusting for confounders. We also used linear regression procedure to assess the relationship exposure status with symptoms score; calculated by summation of all symptoms. Results Overall 400 subjects were interviewed (exposed, n = 216; group A, n = 83; and group B, n = 101). The exposed group reported a higher occurrence of one or more symptoms compared to either of the control groups (exposed, 96% vs. group A, 70%, group B 85%; P < 0.001). Mean summary symptom scores were higher among the exposed group (14.5) than control group A (4.5) and control group B (3.8, P < 0.001). Logistic regression models indicated that there were statistically significant, moderate-to-strong associations (Prevalence ORs (POR) ranging from 2.3 to 37.0) between the exposed group and the symptoms. There was a trend of decreasing symptom-specific PORs with increase in distance from the spill site. Multiple linear regression model revealed strong relationship of exposure status with the

  17. Estimating the acute health effects of coarse particulate matter accounting for exposure measurement error.

    PubMed

    Chang, Howard H; Peng, Roger D; Dominici, Francesca

    2011-10-01

    In air pollution epidemiology, there is a growing interest in estimating the health effects of coarse particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm. Coarse PM concentrations can exhibit considerable spatial heterogeneity because the particles travel shorter distances and do not remain suspended in the atmosphere for an extended period of time. In this paper, we develop a modeling approach for estimating the short-term effects of air pollution in time series analysis when the ambient concentrations vary spatially within the study region. Specifically, our approach quantifies the error in the exposure variable by characterizing, on any given day, the disagreement in ambient concentrations measured across monitoring stations. This is accomplished by viewing monitor-level measurements as error-prone repeated measurements of the unobserved population average exposure. Inference is carried out in a Bayesian framework to fully account for uncertainty in the estimation of model parameters. Finally, by using different exposure indicators, we investigate the sensitivity of the association between coarse PM and daily hospital admissions based on a recent national multisite time series analysis. Among Medicare enrollees from 59 US counties between the period 1999 and 2005, we find a consistent positive association between coarse PM and same-day admission for cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Protective effect of Zhuyeqing liquor, a Chinese traditional health liquor, on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The study first evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL) against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Animals were administered orally with 50% alcohol 12 ml/kg at 4 h after the doses of ZYQL everyday for fourteen consecutive days except mice in normal group. The protective effect was evaluated by biochemical parameters including serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), total-bilirubin (TBIL) and reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue. The result were confirmed histopathologically and the expression of TNF-α in mice liver was determined by immunohistochemistry analysis. HPLC-PDA was used for phytochemical analysis of ZYQL, and the plant source of each compound was claritied by UPLC-TOF-MS. The result showed that pretreatment with ZYQL exhibited a significant protective effect by reversing the biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in a dose depended manner. HPLC analysis indicated that ZYQL contained flavonoids, iridoids, terpenoids and phenolic acids, which might be the active chemicals. This study demonstrated the hepatoprotective activity of ZYQL, thus scientifically supported the function of its health care. PMID:24090365

  19. Health effects in those with acute radiation sickness from the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Fred A; Gus'kova, Angelina K; Gusev, Igor

    2007-11-01

    The Chernobyl accident resulted in almost one-third of the reported cases of acute radiation sickness (ARS) reported worldwide. Cases occurred among the plant employees and first responders but not among the evacuated populations or general population. The diagnosis of ARS was initially considered for 237 persons based on symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Ultimately, the diagnosis of ARS was confirmed in 134 persons. There were 28 short term deaths of which 95% occurred at whole body doses in excess of 6.5 Gy. Underlying bone marrow failure was the main contributor to all deaths during the first 2 mo. Allogenic bone marrow transplantation was performed on 13 patients and an additional six received human fetal liver cells. All of these patients died except one individual who later was discovered to have recovered his own marrow and rejected the transplant. Two or three patients were felt to have died as a result of transplant complications. Skin doses exceeded bone marrow doses by a factor of 10-30, and at least 19 of the deaths were felt to be primarily due to infection from large area beta burns. Internal contamination was of relatively minor importance in treatment. By the end of 2001, an additional 14 ARS survivors died from various causes. Long term treatment has included therapy for beta burn fibrosis and skin atrophy as well as for cataracts.

  20. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions? Method: Participants (N = 169) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusion: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:27774084

  1. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions? Method: Participants (N = 169) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusion: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  2. ACUTE RESPIRATORY HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON ASTHMATIC CHILDREN IN US INNER CITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Children with asthma in inner-city communities may be particularly vulnerable to adverse effects of air pollution because of their airways disease and exposure to relatively high levels of motor vehicle emissions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between fluc...

  3. Health Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapter . Additional information regarding the health effects of climate change and references to supporting literature can be found ... globalchange.gov/engage/activities-products/NCA3/technical-inputs . Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health ...

  4. A retrospective study on acute health effects due to volcanic ash exposure during the eruption of Mount Etna (Sicily) in 2002

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mount Etna, located in the eastern part of Sicily (Italy), is the highest and most active volcano in Europe. During the sustained eruption that occurred in October-November 2002 huge amounts of volcanic ash fell on a densely populated area south-east of Mount Etna in Catania province. The volcanic ash fall caused extensive damage to infrastructure utilities and distress in the exposed population. This retrospective study evaluates whether or not there was an association between ash fall and acute health effects in exposed local communities. Methods We collected the number and type of visits to the emergency department (ED) for diseases that could be related to volcanic ash exposure in public hospitals of the Province of Catania between October 20 and November 7, 2002. We compared the magnitude of differences in ED visits between the ash exposure period in 2002 and the same period of the previous year 2001. Results We observed a significant increase of ED visits for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and ocular disturbances during the ash exposure time period. Conclusions There was a positive association between exposure to volcanic ash from the 2002 eruption of Mount Etna and acute health effects in the Catania residents. This study documents the need for public health preparedness and response initiatives to protect nearby populations from exposure to ash fall from future eruptions of Mount Etna. PMID:23924394

  5. Acute Health Effects Among Military Personnel Participating in the Cleanup of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill, 2007, in Taean County, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Gwack, Jin; Lee, Ju Hyung; Kang, Young Ah; Chang, Kyu-jin; Lee, Moo Sik; Hong, Jee Young

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to investigate acute health effects and its related factors among military personnel participating in the cleanup of the 2007 Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in Taean county, Korea. Methods We collected data on acute symptoms during the cleanup and their predictors using a self-administered questionnaire to 2624 military personnel. Selfreported symptoms included six neurologic symptoms, five respiratory symptoms, two dermatologic symptoms, three ophthalmic symptoms, and three general symptoms. Independent variables were demographic factors (gender, age, education level, and rank), health behavioral factors (smoking history and usage of the personal protective equipment such as masks and gloves), and occupational history such as where and for how long individuals participated in cleanup. Results The duration of work days was significantly associated with 17 acute symptoms except for itchiness and red skin.Working in Taean county also increased the risk of most acute symptoms except headache and back pain. In regard to personal protective equipment, wearing masks was mainly related to the development of respiratory symptoms such as sore throat and wearing other protective equipment was related to the development of sore throat, back pain, headache, and cough. Military personnel younger than 25 years reported 4.66 times more hot flushing and 5.39 times more itchiness than those older than 25 years. Conclusion It should be emphasized that for early-stage cleanup the number of workers should be minimized, sufficient personal protective equipment with approved quality for blocking noxious gas should be supplied, and systematic health care for the workers should be provided. Health effects could be diminished by providing adequate education regarding the appropriate use of protective equipment, especially to nonprofessionals such as residents and volunteers. To make disaster response expeditious, a national and regional preparedness

  6. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  7. Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

    To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 μg/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

  8. Acute mental health nurses: comprehensive practitioners or specialist therapists?

    PubMed

    Mathers, B

    2012-02-01

    This paper examines the aids and barriers to implementing the psychosocial interventions (PSI) which trainees learned on two teaching modules. The main purpose of the modules is to teach trainees PSI to help them be more effective in their care of patients with severe mental illness. The trainees were qualified nurses working in acute mental health wards in various London hospitals. PSI has been found to be helpful for patients with psychotic symptoms in community contexts. In this study, the implementation of PSI specific to acute inpatient mental health settings is explored. This was achieved by conducting semi-structured audiotaped interviews with all 20 trainees from a single cohort. The data were analysed by categories and themes to elicit not only the problems but also helpful strategies which can be used when working with PSI in acute inpatient mental health settings. The paper concludes by offering recommendations for future good practice for this area of mental health service.

  9. Seasonal variation in the acute effect of particulate air pollution on mortality in the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Renjie; Peng, Roger D.; Meng, Xia; Zhou, Zhijun; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological findings concerning the seasonal variation in the acute effect of particulate matter (PM) are inconsistent. We investigated the seasonality in the association between PM with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10) and daily mortality in 17 Chinese cities. We fitted the “main” time-series model after adjustment for time-varying confounders using smooth functions with natural splines. We established a “seasonal” model to obtain the season-specific effect estimates of PM10, and a “harmonic” model to show the seasonal pattern that allows PM10 effects to vary smoothly with the day in a year. At the national level, a 10 μg/m3 increase in the two-day moving average concentrations (lag 01) of PM10 was associated with 0.45% [95% posterior interval (PI), 0.15% to 0.76%], 0.17% (95% PI, −0.09% to 0.43%), 0.55% (95% PI, 0.15% to 0.96%) and 0.25% (95%PI, −0.05% to 0.56%) increases in total mortality for winter, spring, summer and fall, respectively. For the smoothly-varying plots of seasonality, we identified a two-peak pattern in winter and summer. The observed seasonal pattern was generally insensitive to model specifications. Our analyses suggest that the acute effect of particulate air pollution could vary by seasons with the largest effect in winter and summer in China. To our knowledge, this is the first multicity study in developing countries to analyze the seasonal variations of PM-related health effects. PMID:23500824

  10. FINE PARTICLES ARE MORE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED THAN COARSE PARTICLES WITH ACUTE REPIRATORY HEALTH EFFECTS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have reported associations between airborne particles and a range of respiratory outcomes from symptoms to mortality. Current attention has been focused on the characteristics of these particles responsible for the adverse health effects. We have reanalyzed three...

  11. Mastery and coping moderate the negative effect of acute and chronic stressors on mental health-related quality of life in HIV.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Katherine; Rueda, Sergio; Rourke, Sean B; Bekele, Tsegaye; Gardner, Sandra; Fenta, Haile; Hart, Trevor A

    2011-06-01

    Acute and chronic life stressors have a detrimental effect on the health of people living with HIV. Psychosocial resources such as mastery, coping, and social support may play a critical role in moderating the negative effects of stressors on health-related quality of life. A total of 758 participants provided baseline enrolment data on demographics (age, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, education, employment, income), clinical variables (CD4 counts, viral load, AIDS-defining condition, time since HIV diagnosis), psychosocial resources (mastery, coping, social support), life stressors (National Population Health Survey [NPHS] Stress Questionnaire), and health-related quality of life (SF-36). We performed hierarchical multivariate regression analyses to evaluate the potential moderating effects of psychosocial resources on the relationship between stressors and health-related quality of life. The top three stressors reported by participants were trying to take on too many things at once (51%), not having enough money to buy the things they needed (51%), and having something happen during childhood that scared them so much that they thought about it years later (42%). Life stressors were significantly and inversely associated with both physical and mental health-related quality of life. Mastery and maladaptive coping had significant moderating effects on mental health but not on physical health. These results suggest that developing interventions that improve mastery and reduce maladaptive coping may minimize the negative impact of life stressors on the mental health of people with HIV. They also highlight that it is important for clinicians to be mindful of the impact of life stressors on the health of patients living with HIV.

  12. Is the tobacco control movement misrepresenting the acute cardiovascular health effects of secondhand smoke exposure? An analysis of the scientific evidence and commentary on the implications for tobacco control and public health practice

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    While chronic exposure to secondhand smoke has been well recognized as a cause of heart disease in nonsmokers, there has been recent speculation about the potential acute cardiovascular effects of transient exposure to secondhand smoke among nonsmokers; in particular, the possibility that such exposure could increase the risk of acute myocardial infarction even in an otherwise healthy nonsmoker. This paper reviews the claims being made by a number of anti-smoking and public health groups regarding the acute cardiovascular effects of secondhand smoke exposure among otherwise healthy adults, analyzes the validity of these claims based on a review of the scientific evidence, and discusses the implications of the findings for tobacco control and public health practice. Based on the analysis, it appears that a large number of anti-smoking organizations are making inaccurate claims that a single, acute, transient exposure to secondhand smoke can cause severe and even fatal cardiovascular events in healthy nonsmokers. The dissemination of inaccurate information by anti-smoking groups to the public in support of smoking bans is unfortunate because it may harm the tobacco control movement by undermining its credibility, reputation, and effectiveness. Disseminating inaccurate information also represents a violation of basic ethical principles that are a core value of public health practice that cannot and should not be sacrificed, even for a noble end such as protecting nonsmokers from secondhand smoke exposure. How the tobacco control movement responds to this crisis of credibility will go a long way towards determining the future effectiveness of the movement and its ability to continue to save lives and protect the public's health. PMID:17927828

  13. Mental- and physical-health effects of acute exposure to media images of the September 11, 2001, attacks and the Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Silver, Roxane Cohen; Holman, E Alison; Andersen, Judith Pizarro; Poulin, Michael; McIntosh, Daniel N; Gil-Rivas, Virginia

    2013-09-01

    Millions of people witnessed early, repeated television coverage of the September 11 (9/11), 2001, terrorist attacks and were subsequently exposed to graphic media images of the Iraq War. In the present study, we examined psychological- and physical-health impacts of exposure to these collective traumas. A U.S. national sample (N = 2,189) completed Web-based surveys 1 to 3 weeks after 9/11; a subsample (n = 1,322) also completed surveys at the initiation of the Iraq War. These surveys measured media exposure and acute stress responses. Posttraumatic stress symptoms related to 9/11 and physician-diagnosed health ailments were assessed annually for 3 years. Early 9/11- and Iraq War-related television exposure and frequency of exposure to war images predicted increased posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 to 3 years after 9/11. Exposure to 4 or more hr daily of early 9/11-related television and cumulative acute stress predicted increased incidence of health ailments 2 to 3 years later. These findings suggest that exposure to graphic media images may result in physical and psychological effects previously assumed to require direct trauma exposure.

  14. Acute neurobehavioural effects of toluene.

    PubMed Central

    Echeverria, D; Fine, L; Langolf, G; Schork, A; Sampaio, C

    1989-01-01

    An acute inhalation chamber study of 42 college students was performed to investigate the relation between exposure to 0, 75, and 150 ppm of toluene and changes in central nervous system function and symptoms. Paid subjects were exposed for seven hours over three days. Verbal and visual short term memory (Sternberg, digit span, Benton, pattern memory); perception (pattern recognition); psychomotor skill (simple reaction time, continuous performance, digit symbol, hand-eye coordination, finger tapping, and critical tracking); manual dexterity (one hole); mood (profile of mood scales (POMS]; fatigue (fatigue checklist); and verbal ability were evaluated at 0800, 1200, and 1600 hours. Voluntary symptoms and observations of sleep were collected daily. An analysis of variance and test for trend was performed on the difference and score for each concentration reflecting an eight hour workday where each subject was their own control. A 3 x 3 Latin square study design evaluated toluene effects simultaneously, controlling for learning across the three days and the solvent order. Intersubject variation in solvent uptake was monitored in breath and urine. A 5-10% decrement in performance was considered significant if it was consistent with a linear trend at p less than 0.05. Adverse performance at 150 ppm toluene was found at 6.0% for digit span, 12.1% for pattern recognition (latency), 5.0% for pattern memory (number correct), 6.5% for one hole, and 3.0% for critical tracking. The number of headaches and eye irritation also increased in a dose response manner. The greatest effect was found for an increasing number of observations of sleep. Overall, no clear pattern of neurobehavioural effects was found consistent with the type 1 central nervous system as classified by the World Health Organisation. Subtle acute effects, however, were found just below and above the ACGIH TLV of 100 ppm toluene, supporting the position that the guideline be lowered since the biological

  15. The acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa flavanols on mood, cognitive and cardiovascular health in young healthy adults: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Massee, Laura A.; Ried, Karin; Pase, Matthew; Travica, Nikolaj; Yoganathan, Jaesshanth; Scholey, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Kennedy, Greg; Sali, Avni; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa supplementation has been associated with benefits to cardiovascular health. However, cocoa's effects on cognition are less clear. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial (n = 40, age M = 24.13 years, SD = 4.47 years) was conducted to investigate the effects of both acute (same-day) and sub-chronic (daily for four-weeks) 250 mg cocoa supplementation on mood and mental fatigue, cognitive performance and cardiovascular functioning in young, healthy adults. Assessment involved repeated 10-min cycles of the Cognitive Demand Battery (CDB) encompassing two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Sevens), a Rapid Visual Information Processing task, and a mental fatigue scale over the course of half an hour. The Swinburne University Computerized Cognitive Assessment Battery (SUCCAB) was also completed to evaluate cognition. Cardiovascular function included measuring both peripheral and central blood pressure and cerebral blood flow. At the acute time point, consumption of cocoa significantly improved self-reported mental fatigue and performance on the Serial Sevens task in cycle one of the CDB. No other significant effects were found. This trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (Trial ID: ACTRN12613000626763). Accessible via http://www.anzctr.org.au/TrialSearch.aspx?searchTxt=ACTRN12613000626763&ddlSearch=Registered. PMID:26042037

  16. Health Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... to other addictions (like to alcohol and drugs). Memory problems Adults with damage to the prefrontal cortex ... not support iframes. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute ...

  17. Acute kidney injury: global health alert.

    PubMed

    Li, Philip Kam Tao; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Mehta, Ravindra L

    2013-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly prevalent in developing and developed countries and is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Most etiologies of AKI can be prevented by interventions at the individual, community, regional and in-hospital levels. Effective measures must include community-wide efforts to increase an awareness of the devastating effects of AKI and provide guidance on preventive strategies, as well as early recognition and management. Efforts should be focused on minimizing causes of AKI, increasing awareness of the importance of serial measurements of serum creatinine in high-risk patients, and documenting urine volume in acutely ill people to achieve early diagnosis; there is as yet no definitive role for alternative biomarkers. Protocols need to be developed to systematically manage prerenal conditions and specific infections. More accurate data about the true incidence and clinical impact of AKI will help to raise the importance of the disease in the community, and increase awareness of AKI by governments, the public, general and family physicians and other healthcare professionals to help prevent the disease. Prevention is the key to avoid the heavy burden of mortality and morbidity associated with AKI.

  18. Mental health nurses' views of recovery within an acute setting.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Hunt, Glenn E

    2013-06-01

    How the principles of a recovery-oriented mental health service are incorporated in the day-to-day nursing practice of mental health nurses in inpatient settings is unclear. In this study, we interviewed 21 mental health nurses working in acute inpatient mental health units about a range of recovery-focused topics. Three overlapping themes were identified: (i) the perception of recovery; (ii) congruent humanistic approaches; and (iii) practical realities. Only four interviewees had some formal training about recovery. Most respondents recognize that positive attitudes, person-centred care, hope, education about mental illness, medication and side-effects, and the acknowledgement of individual recovery pathways are necessary to prevent readmission, and are central to a better life for people who live with a mental illness. This research supports the view that ideas and practices associated with the recovery movement have been adopted to some degree by nurses working at the acute end of the services continuum. However, most saw the recovery orientation as rhetoric rather than as an appropriately resourced, coordinated, and integrated program. These nurses, however, speak of much more detailed aspects of working with patients and being required to prepare them for the exigencies of living in the community post-discharge.

  19. Health Care Seeking Behavior of Persons with Acute Chagas Disease in Rural Argentina: A Qualitative View

    PubMed Central

    Dinardi, Graciela; Canevari, Cecilia; Torabi, Nahal

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is a tropical parasitic disease largely underdiagnosed and mostly asymptomatic affecting marginalized rural populations. Argentina regularly reports acute cases of CD, mostly young individuals under 14 years old. There is a void of knowledge of health care seeking behavior in subjects experiencing a CD acute condition. Early treatment of the acute case is crucial to limit subsequent development of disease. The article explores how the health outcome of persons with acute CD may be conditioned by their health care seeking behavior. The study, with a qualitative approach, was carried out in rural areas of Santiago del Estero Province, a high risk endemic region for vector transmission of CD. Narratives of 25 in-depth interviews carried out in 2005 and 2006 are analyzed identifying patterns of health care seeking behavior followed by acute cases. Through the retrospective recall of paths for diagnoses, weaknesses of disease information, knowledge at the household level, and underperformance at the provincial health care system level are detected. The misdiagnoses were a major factor in delaying a health care response. The study results expose lost opportunities for the health care system to effectively record CD acute cases. PMID:27829843

  20. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectants in a public administration: Impact on health and work performance related to acute respiratory symptoms and diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The economical impact of absenteeism and reduced productivity due to acute infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal disease is normally not in the focus of surveillance systems and may therefore be underestimated. However, large community studies in Europe and USA have shown that communicable diseases have a great impact on morbidity and lead to millions of lost days at work, school and university each year. Hand disinfection is acknowledged as key element for infection control, but its effect in open, work place settings is unclear. Methods Our study involved a prospective, controlled, intervention-control group design to assess the epidemiological and economical impact of alcohol-based hand disinfectants use at work place. Volunteers in public administrations in the municipality of the city of Greifswald were randomized in two groups. Participants in the intervention group were provided with alcoholic hand disinfection, the control group was unchanged. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and days of work were recorded based on a monthly questionnaire over one year. On the whole, 1230 person months were evaluated. Results Hand disinfection reduced the number of episodes of illness for the majority of the registered symptoms. This effect became statistically significant for common cold (OR = 0.35 [0.17 - 0.71], p = 0.003), fever (OR = 0.38 [0.14-0.99], p = 0.035) and coughing (OR = 0.45 [0.22 - 0.91], p = 0.02). Participants in the intervention group reported less days ill for most symptoms assessed, e.g. colds (2.07 vs. 2.78%, p = 0.008), fever (0.25 vs. 0.31%, p = 0.037) and cough (1.85 vs. 2.00%, p = 0.024). For diarrhoea, the odds ratio for being absent became statistically significant too (0.11 (CI 0.01 - 0.93). Conclusion Hand disinfection can easily be introduced and maintained outside clinical settings as part of the daily hand hygiene. Therefore it appears as an interesting, cost-efficient method within the scope of company health

  1. Health effects of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Tetley, T D

    2007-06-01

    With the rapid growth of nanotechnology and future bulk manufacture of nanomaterials comes the need to determine, understand and counteract any adverse health effects of these materials that may occur during manufacture, during use, or accidentally. Nanotechnology is expanding rapidly and will affect many aspects of everyday life; there are already hundreds of products that utilize nanoparticles. Paradoxically, the unique properties that are being exploited (e.g. high surface reactivity and ability to cross cell membranes) might have negative health impacts. The rapid progress in development and use of nanomaterials is not yet matched by toxicological investigations. Epidemiological studies implicate the ultrafine (nano-sized) fraction of particulate air pollution in the exacerbation of cardiorespiratory disease and increased morbidity. Experimental animal studies suggest that the increased concentration of nanoparticles and higher reactive surface area per unit mass, alongside unique chemistry and functionality, is important in the acute inflammatory and chronic response. Some animal models have shown that nanoparticles which are deposited in one organ (e.g. lung and gut) may access the vasculature and target other organs (e.g. brain and liver). The exact relationship between the physicochemistry of a nanoparticle, its cellular reactivity, and its biological and systemic consequences cannot be predicted. It is important to understand such relationships to enjoy the benefits of nanotechnology without being exposed to the hazards.

  2. Acute Health Delivery, Energy Impact, and Rural Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Lonna; And Others

    To examine what changes occurred in the acute health care delivery systems of rural Texas energy impact communities from 1978 to 1983, a retrospective survey was used to acquire data from which a database could be generated that could provide information for community and state policy decisions. From a pool of communities chosen by a panel of…

  3. An estimate of the cost of acute health effects from food- and water-borne marine pathogens and toxins in the USA.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Erin P; Kite-Powell, Hauke; Beet, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Large and growing segments of the United States population consume seafood or engage in marine recreation. These activities provide significant benefits but also bring risk of exposure to marine-borne illness. To manage these risks, it is important to understand the incidence and cost of marine-borne disease. We review the literature and surveillance/monitoring data to determine the annual incidence of disease and health consequences due to marine-borne pathogens from seafood consumption and beach recreation in the USA. Using this data, we employ a cost-of-illness model to estimate economic impacts. Our results suggest that health consequences due to marine-borne pathogens in the USA have annual costs on the order of US$900 million. This includes US$350 million due to pathogens and marine toxins specifically identified as causing food-borne disease, an estimated US$300 million due to seafood-borne disease with unknown etiology, US$30 million from direct exposure to the Vibrio species, and US$300 million due to gastrointestinal illness from beach recreation. Although there is considerable uncertainty about the degree of underreporting of certain pathogen-specific acute marine-related illnesses, the conservative assumptions we have used in constructing our estimate suggest that it should be considered a lower bound on true costs.

  4. Acute Health Impact of Air Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, T.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, M.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution not only has long term health impact, but can affect health through acute exposure. This paper, using air pollution index (API) as overall evaluation of air quality, blood pressure and vital capacity as health outcomes, focuses on the acute health impact of air pollution in China. Current result suggests that after controlling smoking history, occupational exposure, income and education, API is positively associated with blood pressure and negatively associated with vital capacity. The associations became stronger for people with hypertension or pulmonary functional diseases, which indicates that these people are more sensitive to air pollution. Among three pollutants which API measures, that is inhalable particles (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), PM10 is most statistically associated with blood pressure increase and vital capacity decrease. Further study will focusing on the following two questions. The first question is how various time lags affect the associations among API, blood pressure and vital capacity. The second question is how differently people in various cohorts reacts to acute exposure to air pollution. The differences in reactions of blood pressure and vital capacity between people in urban and rural areas, genders, various age cohorts, distinct income and education groups will be further studied.

  5. Pharmacological Effects of Niacin on Acute Hyperlipemia.

    PubMed

    la Paz, Sergio Montserrat-de; Bermudez, Beatriz; Naranjo, M Carmen; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2016-01-01

    The well-known changes in modern lifestyle habits including over nutrition and physical inactivity have led to striking adverse effects on public health (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome) over recent decades. One noticeable consequence is exaggerated and prolonged state of postprandial hyperlipemia due to the ingestion of multiple fat-enriched meals during the course of a day. Postprandial (non-fasting) hyperlipemia is characterized by increased blood levels of exogenous triglycerides (TG) in the form of apolipoprotein (apo) B48-containing TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL), which have a causal role in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cardiovascular benefits of lifestyle modification (healthy diet and exercise) and conventional lipid-lowering therapies (e.g., statins, fibrates, and niacin) could involve their favourable effects on postprandial metabolism. Pharmacologically, niacin has been used as an athero-protective drug for five decades. Studies have since shown that niacin may decrease fasting levels of plasma verylow- density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and lipoprotein [a] (Lp[a]), while may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Herein, the purpose of this review was to provide an update on effects and mechanisms related to the pharmacological actions of niacin on acute hyperlipemia.

  6. Exploring the impact of health information technology on communication and collaboration in acute care nursing.

    PubMed

    Cashen, Margaret S; Bradley, Victoria; Farrell, Ann; Murphy, Judy; Schleyer, Ruth; Sensmeier, Joyce; Dykes, Patricia C

    2006-01-01

    A focus group using nursing informatics experts as informants was conducted to guide development of a survey to explore the impact of health information technology on the role of nurses and interdisciplinary communication in acute care settings. Through analysis of focus group transcripts, five key themes emerged: information, communication, care coordination, interdisciplinary relationships, workflow, and practice effectiveness and efficiency. This served as the basis for development of a survey that will investigate perceptions of acute care providers across the United States regarding the impact of health information technology on the role of nurses and interdisciplinar communication in acute care settings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of survey development including analysis of transcripts, emergence of key themes, and the processes by which the themes will be employed to inform survey development.

  7. Health utility indexes in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Gencer, Baris; Rodondi, Nicolas; Auer, Reto; Nanchen, David; Räber, Lorenz; Klingenberg, Roland; Pletscher, Mark; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Matter, Christian M; Lüscher, Thomas F; Mach, François; Perneger, Thomas V; Girardin, François R

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have been associated with lower health utilities (HUs) compared with the general population. Given the prognostic improvements after ACS with the implementation of coronary angiography (eg, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)), contemporary HU values derived from patient-reported outcomes are needed. Methods We analysed data of 1882 patients with ACS 1 year after coronary angiography in a Swiss prospective cohort. We used the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scale (VAS) to derive HU indexes. We estimated the effects of clinical factors on HU using a linear regression model and compared the observed HU with the average values of individuals of the same sex and age in the general population. Results Mean EQ-5D HU 1-year after coronary angiography for ACS was 0.82 (±0.16) and mean VAS was 0.77 (±0.18); 40.9% of participants exhibited the highest utility values. Compared with population controls, the mean EQ-5D HU was similar (expected mean 0.82, p=0.58) in patients with ACS, but the mean VAS was slightly lower (expected mean 0.79, p<0.001). Patients with ACS who are younger than 60 years had lower HU than the general population (<0.001). In patients with ACS, significant differences were found according to the gender, education and employment status, diabetes, obesity, heart failure, recurrent ischaemic or incident bleeding event and participation in cardiac rehabilitation (p<0.01). Conclusions At 1 year, patients with ACS with coronary angiography had HU indexes similar to a control population. Subgroup analyses based on patients' characteristics and further disease-specific instruments could provide better sensitivity for detecting smaller variations in health-related quality of life. PMID:27252878

  8. Communication and care in an acute cancer center: the effects of patients' willingness to communicate about health, health-care environment perceptions, and health status on information seeking, participation in care practices, and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin B; Frey, Lawrence R

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the role of willingness to communicate about health (WTCH) among older patients in a state-of-the-art cancer center. Specifically, relationships were examined between patients' WTCH and their information seeking, perceptions of coping activities the center offered, and satisfaction with the center. The study also explored how those relationships may be mediated by patients' perceptions of the health-care environment and their health status. The results indicated that WTCH may play an important role in predicting information-seeking behaviors, perceived helpfulness of center-sponsored activities, and overall satisfaction with care received at the center. Evidence also was found that perceptions of the health-care environment mediated cancer patients' WTCH. The implications of these findings for communication theory and application, as well as limitations and future directions for research, are discussed.

  9. Does Acute Maternal Stress in Pregnancy Affect Infant Health Outcomes? Examination of a Large Cohort of Infants Born After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Spandorfer S, Grill E, Davis O, Fasouliotis S, Rosenwaks Z: Septem- ber 11th in New York City (NYC): the effect of a catastrophe on IVF outcome in a...Naval Health Research Center Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes ? Examination of A Large Cohort of Infants Born...California 92106 BioMed CentralBMC Public Health ssOpen AcceResearch article Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes

  10. Acute effects of solar particle event radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ann R.; Weissman, Drew; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wan, X. Steven; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Lin, L.; Cengel, K.

    2014-01-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animals exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations: gamma rays or electrons). All animal studies described have been approved by the University of PA IACUC. Some conclusions from recent CARR investigations are as follows: (i) the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for SPE-like protons compared with standard reference radiations (gammas or electrons) for white blood cells (WBCs) vary greatly between mice, ferrets and pigs, with the RBE values being greater in ferrets than those in mice, and considerably greater in pigs compared with those in ferrets or mice [1, 2]. This trend for the data suggests that the RBE values for WBCs in humans could be considerably greater than those observed in small mammals, and SPE proton radiation may be far more hazardous to humans than previously estimated from small animal studies. (ii) Very low doses of SPE proton radiation (25 cGy) increase blood clotting times in ferrets, and the low SPE-like dose rate has more severe effects than high dose rate radiation [3]. (iii) Results from pig and ferret studies suggest that disseminated intravascular coagulation is a major cause of death at doses near the LD50 level for SPE-like proton and gamma radiation. (iv) Exposure to SPE-like proton or gamma radiation, in combination with

  11. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  12. Alcohol Acute Effects in Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    we derive the name "whiskey." In the Elizabethan era the physiological effects were known to Shakespeare , who in Hamlet noted that alcohol provoked...the Elizabethan era the physiological effects were alluded to by Porter in Hamlet , who noted alcohol provoked only "nose-painting, sleep and urine" (8...atlas of wine. London: Mitchell Beazley Pub, 1985. 7. Lord T. The World Guide to Spirits. pp. 6-27, 1979. 8. Shakespeare W. Macbeth. Act II, Scene 3

  13. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    PubMed

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  14. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca

    PubMed Central

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A.; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8–13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30–50 and 50–100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca’s chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  15. Acute and Developmental Behavioral Effects of Flame ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tricresyl phosphate (TMPP; also abbreviated TCP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP; also abbreviated TPP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP; also abbreviated TDCPP), tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and 2,2-,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae (n≈24 per dose per compound) were exposed to test compounds (0.4 - 120 µM) at sub-teratogenic concentrations either developmentally or acutely, and locomotor activity was assessed at 6 days post fertilization. When given developmentally, all chemicals except BPDP, IDDP and TBBPA produced behavioral effects. When given acutely, all chemicals produced behavioral effects, with TPHP, TBBPA, EHDP, IPP, and BPDP eliciting the most effects at the most concentrations. The results indicate that these replacement flame retardants may have developmental or pharmacological effects on the vertebrate nervous system. This study

  16. Effects of acute caffeine administration on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Dewey, Amber M; Briatico, Laura N

    2010-12-01

    Acute caffeine administration has physiological, behavioral, and subjective effects. Despite its widespread use, few studies have described the impact of caffeine consumption in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute caffeine administration in adolescents. We measured cardiovascular responses and snack food intake after acute administration of 0 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg of caffeine. We also compared usual food intake and subjective effects of caffeine between high- and low-caffeine consumers. Finally, we conducted a detailed analysis of caffeine sources and consumption levels. We found main effects of caffeine dose on heart rate (HR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), with HR decreasing and DBP increasing with increasing caffeine dose. There were significant interactions among gender, caffeine use, and time on DBP. High caffeine consumers (>50 mg/day) reported using caffeine to stay awake and drinking coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks more than low consumers (<50 mg/day). Boys were more likely than girls to report using getting a rush, more energy, or improved athletic performance from caffeine. Finally, when we examined energy and macronutrient intake, we found that caffeine consumption was positively associated with laboratory energy intake, specifically from high-sugar, low-fat foods and also positively associated with protein and fat consumption outside of the laboratory. When taken together, these data suggest that acute caffeine administration has a broad range of effects in adolescents and that the magnitude of these effects is moderated by gender and chronic caffeine consumption.

  17. The Prevalence of Natural Health Product Use in Patients with Acute Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alherbish, Aws; Charrois, Theresa L.; Ackman, Margaret L.; Tsuyuki, Ross T.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural health products (NHP) use may have implications with respect to adverse effects, drug interactions and adherence yet the prevalence of NHP use by patients with acute cardiovascular disease and the best method to ascertain this information is unknown. Objective To identify the best method to ascertain information on NHP, and the prevalence of use in a population with acute cardiovascular disease. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of consecutive patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease to the University of Alberta Hospital during January 2009. NHP use was explored using structured and open-ended questions based on Health Canada's definition of NHP. The medical record was reviewed, and documentation of NHP use by physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, compared against the gold-standard structured interview. Results 88 patients were interviewed (mean age 62 years, standard deviation [SD 14]; 80% male; 41% admitted for acute coronary syndromes). Common co-morbidities included hypertension (59%), diabetes (26%) and renal impairment (19%). NHP use was common (78% of patients) and 75% of NHP users reported daily use. The category of NHP most commonly used was vitamins and minerals (73%) followed by herbal products (20%), traditional medicines including Chinese medicines (9%), homeopathic preparations (1%) and other products including amino acids, essential fatty acids and probiotics (35%). In a multivariable model, only older age was associated with increased NHP use (OR 1.5 per age decile [95%CI 1.03 to 2.2]). When compared to the interview, the highest rate of NHP documentation was the pharmacist history (41%). NHP were documented in 22% of patients by the physician and 19% by the nurse. Conclusions NHP use is common in patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease. However, health professionals do not commonly identify NHP as part of the medication profile despite its potential importance. Structured

  18. Health Effects of Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Climate defines health concerns such as the direct effects of excess heat or cold, the lack ... nih.gov/climatereport ) examined the state of the science on effects of climate change on human health. ...

  19. [Telemedicine in acute stroke care--a health economics view].

    PubMed

    Günzel, F; Theiss, S; Knüppel, P; Halberstadt, S; Rose, G; Raith, M

    2010-05-01

    Specialized stroke units offer optimal treatment of patients with an acute stroke. Unfortunately, their installation is limited by an acute lack of experienced neurologists and the small number of stroke patients in sparsely populated rural areas. This problem is increasingly being solved by the use of telemedicine, so that neurological expertise is made available to basic and regular care. It has been demonstrated by national and international pilot studies that solidly based and rapid decisions can be made by telemedicine regrading the use of thrombolysis, as the most important acute treatment, but also of other interventions. So far studies have only evaluated improvement in the quality of care achieved by networking, but not of any lasting effect on any economic benefit. Complementary to a medical evaluation, the qualitative economic assessment presented here of German and American concepts of telemetric care indicate no difference in efficacy between various ways of networking. Most noteworthy, when comparing two large American and German studies, is the difference in their priorities. While the American networks achieved targeted improvements in efficacy of care that go beyond the immediate wishes of the doctors involved, this was of only secondary importance in the German studies. Also, in contrast to several American networks, the German telemetry networks have not tended to be organized for future growth. In terms of economic benefits, decentralized organized networks offer a greater potential of efficacy than purely local ones. Furthermore, the integration of inducements into the design of business models is a fundamental factor for achieving successful and lasting existence, especially within a highly competitive market.

  20. Serum and salivary cardiac analytes in acute myocardial infarction related to oral health status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Campbell, Charles; Kinane, Denis F.; McDevitt, John T.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of an increased emphasis on the potential to utilize biomarkers in saliva for systemic diseases, the issue of existing oral disease is an important consideration that could adversely affect the interpretation of diagnostic results obtained from saliva. We addressed the question does a patient's oral inflammation status confound biomarker levels used in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that multiple serum biomarkers and a few salivary biomarkers reflected the cardiac event. Importantly, oral health of the individual had minimal impact on the validity of the serum or salivary biomarker effectiveness.

  1. Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982): Assessment of New Findings on Sulfur Dioxide and Acute Exposure Health Effects in Asthmatic Individuals (1994)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to the document Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982) focuses on evaluation of newly available controlled human exposure studies of acute (a\\1h) sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure effects on pulmonary ...

  2. [Attaching importance to study on acute health risk assessment and adaptation of air pollution and climate change].

    PubMed

    Shi, X M

    2017-03-10

    Air pollution and climate change have become key environmental and public health problems around the world, which poses serious threat to human health. How to assess and mitigate the health risks and increase the adaptation of the public have become an urgent topic of research in this area. The six papers in this issue will provide important and rich information on design, analysis method, indicator selection and setting about acute health risk assessment and adaptation study of air pollution and climate change in China, reflecting the advanced conceptions of multi-center and area-specific study and multi-pollutant causing acute effect study. However, the number and type of the cities included in these studies were still limited. In future, researchers should further expand detailed multi-center and multi-area study coverage, conduct area specific predicting and early warning study and strengthen adaptation study.

  3. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  4. The education and training needs of qualified mental health nurses working in acute adult mental health services.

    PubMed

    Jones, Julia; Lowe, Trevor

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents findings from a research study that investigated the education and training needs of qualified mental health nurses who work in acute adult mental health services in the UK. The study aimed to address a key knowledge 'gap' highlighted by recent Department of Health reports () that suggest that little is known regarding the education and training expectations, priorities and needs of mental health nurses who work in acute adult mental health services. This study aimed to identify (i) what type of post-registration education and training mental health nurses working in acute settings need; (ii) how the nurses want education and training to be delivered; and (iii) what qualifications and accreditation the nurses want to receive? The research consisted of two methods: focus groups and a questionnaire survey. This paper reports on the findings from the questionnaire survey. The results of the survey demonstrate that there is a real need for post-registration education and training for this group of nurses; to equip them with the relevant knowledge and skills to nurse people in the acute phase of their mental illness in acute inpatient settings.

  5. School Nurse Workload: A Scoping Review of Acute Care, Community Health, and Mental Health Nursing Workload Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endsley, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to survey the most recent (5 years) acute care, community health, and mental health nursing workload literature to understand themes and research avenues that may be applicable to school nursing workload research. The search for empirical and nonempirical literature was conducted using search engines such as…

  6. Closeness, chaos and crisis: the attractions of working in acute mental health care.

    PubMed

    Deacon, M; Warne, T; McAndrew, S

    2006-12-01

    This paper makes a case for the attractiveness of acute mental health inpatient nursing (acute nursing) and argues that an altered perception of this work is essential if we are to provide the most acutely mentally ill and vulnerable people with a stable and expert nursing workforce. The discussion draws on an ethnographic study conducted in an inner-city psychiatric unit in England and the advantages of this method for understanding nursing work are described. Within our findings, we set out two overarching themes: the contextual realities of the contemporary acute ward and features of attraction that encourage nurses to work in the acute care setting. The former includes nurses' responsibility for the total ward environment and the latter the 'comfort of closeness' and 'surviving and thriving in chaos and crisis'. In conclusion, we argue that despite the unpopularity of the acute inpatient mental health environment, the highly sophisticated skills employed by acute nurses actually ensure the promotion of health for the majority of service users.

  7. 21 CFR 320.28 - Correlation of bioavailability with an acute pharmacological effect or clinical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Correlation of bioavailability with an acute pharmacological effect or clinical evidence. 320.28 Section 320.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND...

  8. The effect of chronic ammonia exposure on acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin and cytokines in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 45 weeks of exposure to 30 ppm NH3 on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and c...

  9. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals#

    EPA Science Inventory

    Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animalsWhitney S. Krueger1,2, Elizabeth D. Hilborn2, Timothy J. Wade21Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA2Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Research and Development, U...

  10. Reengineering acute episodic and chronic care delivery: the Geisinger Health System experience.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Jonathan R; Casale, Alfred S; Steele, Glenn D; Toms, Steven A

    2012-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) represents an evolution in clinical decision-making research that allows for the study of heterogeneous groups of patients with complex diseases processes. It has foundations in decision science, reliability science, and health care policy research. Health care finance will increasingly rely on CER for guidance in the coming years. There is increasing awareness of the importance of decreasing unwarranted variation in health care delivery. In the past 7 years, Geisinger Health System has performed broad reengineering of its acute episodic and chronic care delivery models utilizing macrosystem-level application of CER principles. These provider-driven process initiatives have resulted in significant improvement across all segments of care delivery, improved patient outcomes, and notable cost containment. These programs have led to the creation of novel pricing models, and when "hardwired" throughout a care delivery system, they can lead to correct medical decision making by 100% of providers in all patient encounters. Neurosurgery as a specialty faces unique challenges and opportunities with respect to broad adoption and application of CER techniques.

  11. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 Apr 05, 2017 National Porphyria Awareness Week! Mar 23, 2017 National Porphyria Awareness Week is ONE ... 2017 National Porphyria Awareness Week (NPAW) 2017 date: Mar 1, 2017 FDA Meeting for Acute Porphyrias is ...

  12. Health Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Song, Ki-Hoon; Chung, Jin-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a unique element with distinct physical characteristics and toxicity whose importance in public health is well recognized. The toxicity of arsenic varies across its different forms. While the carcinogenicity of arsenic has been confirmed, the mechanisms behind the diseases occurring after acute or chronic exposure to arsenic are not well understood. Inorganic arsenic has been confirmed as a human carcinogen that can induce skin, lung, and bladder cancer. There are also reports of its significant association to liver, prostate, and bladder cancer. Recent studies have also suggested a relationship with diabetes, neurological effects, cardiac disorders, and reproductive organs, but further studies are required to confirm these associations. The majority of research to date has examined cancer incidence after a high exposure to high concentrations of arsenic. However, numerous studies have reported various health effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of arsenic. An assessment of the health effects to arsenic exposure has never been performed in the South Korean population; thus, objective estimates of exposure levels are needed. Data should be collected on the biological exposure level for the total arsenic concentration, and individual arsenic concentration by species. In South Korea, we believe that biological exposure assessment should be the first step, followed by regular health effect assessments. PMID:25284195

  13. Inhalation of diethylamine--acute nasal effects and subjective response

    SciTech Connect

    Lundqvist, G.R.; Yamagiwa, M.; Pedersen, O.F.; Nielsen, G.D. )

    1992-03-01

    Adult volunteers were exposed to 25 ppm (75 mg/m3) diethylamine in a climate chamber for 15 min in order to study the acute nasal reactions to an exposure equivalent to the present threshold limit value-short-term exposure limit. Changes in nasal volume and nasal resistance were measured by acoustic rhinometry and by rhinomanometry. Acute change in nasal volume, usually seen as acute nasal mucosa response to thermal stimuli, was not observed, nor was an acute change in nasal airway resistance. In a subsequent experiment, the aim was to measure acute sensory effects. Exposure to a concentration increasing from 0 to 12 ppm took place for 60 min, equal to an average concentration of 10 ppm (30 mg/m3). A moderate to strong olfactory response and distinct nasal and eye irritation were observed. In spite of considerable individual variation, the results were in agreement with sensory effect estimates obtained from animal studies.

  14. Age-related differences in pulmonary effects of acute and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce adverse pulmonary and systemic health effects. Importantly, children and older persons are considered at-risk populations for O3-induced dysfunction, yet the mechanisms accounting for the age-related pulmonary responses to O3 are uncertain. In this study, we examined age-related susceptibility to O3 using 1 mo (adolescent), 4 mo (young adult), 12 mo (adult) and 24 mo (senescent) male Brown Norway rats exposed to filtered air or O3 (0.25and 1.00 ppm), 6 h/day, two days/week for 1 week (acute) or 13 weeks (subchronic). Ventilatory function, assessed by whole-body plethysmography, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) biomarkers of injury and inflammation were used to examine O3-induced pulmonary effects.Relaxation time declined in all ages following the weekly exposures; however, this effect persisted only in the 24 mo rats following a five days recovery, demonstrating an inability to induce adaptation commonly seen with repeated O3 exposures. PenH was increased in all groups with an augmented response in the 4 mo rats following the subchronic O3 exposures. O3 led to increased breathing frequency and minute volume in the 1 and 4 mo animals. Markers ofpulmonary permeability were increased in all age groups. Elevations in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity and lung inflammation following an acute O3 exposure were noted in only the 1 and 4 mo rats, which likely received an increased effective O3 dose. These data demonstrate that ado

  15. 2013 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel Status Review for: The Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure, The Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs), The Risk Of Degenerative Tissue Or Other Health Effects From Radiation Exposure, and The Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) was impressed with the strong research program presented by the scientists and staff associated with NASA's Space Radiation Program Element and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The presentations given on-site and the reports of ongoing research that were provided in advance indicated the potential Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS) and were extensively discussed by the SRP. This new data leads the SRP to recommend that a higher priority should be placed on research designed to identify and understand these risks at the mechanistic level. To support this effort the SRP feels that a shift of emphasis from Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) and carcinogenesis to CNS-related endpoints is justified at this point. However, these research efforts need to focus on mechanisms, should follow pace with advances in the field of CNS in general and should consider the specific comments and suggestions made by the SRP as outlined below. The SRP further recommends that the Space Radiation Program Element continue with its efforts to fill the vacant positions (Element Scientist, CNS Risk Discipline Lead) as soon as possible. The SRP also strongly recommends that NASA should continue the NASA Space Radiation Summer School. In addition to these broad recommendations, there are specific comments/recommendations noted for each risk, described in detail below.

  16. A Method for Quantifying the Acute Health Impacts of Residential Non-Biological Exposure Via Inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Singer, Bret C.

    2014-08-01

    The inability to monetize the health costs of acute exposures in homes and the benefits of various control options is a barrier to justifying policies and approaches that can reduce exposure and improve health.We synthesized relationships between short-term outdoor concentration changes and health outcomes to estimate the health impacts of short-term in-home exposures. Damage and cost impacts of specific health outcomes were taken from the literature. We assessed the impact of vented and non-vented residential natural gas cooking burners on Southern California occupants for two pollutants (NO2 and CO).

  17. Public Health Response Systems In-Action: Learning from Local Health Departments’ Experiences with Acute and Emergency Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jennifer C.; Yang, Jane E.; Crawley, Adam W.; Biesiadecki, Laura; Aragón, Tomás J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of their core mission, public health agencies attend to a wide range of disease and health threats, including those that require routine, acute, and emergency responses. While each incident is unique, the number and type of response activities are finite; therefore, through comparative analysis, we can learn about commonalities in the response patterns that could improve predictions and expectations regarding the resources and capabilities required to respond to future acute events. In this study, we interviewed representatives from more than 120 local health departments regarding their recent experiences with real-world acute public health incidents, such as infectious disease outbreaks, severe weather events, chemical spills, and bioterrorism threats. We collected highly structured data on key aspects of the incident and the public health response, particularly focusing on the public health activities initiated and community partners engaged in the response efforts. As a result, we are able to make comparisons across event types, create response profiles, and identify functional and structural response patterns that have import for future public health preparedness and response. Our study contributes to clarifying the complexity of public health response systems and our analysis reveals the ways in which these systems are adaptive to the character of the threat, resulting in differential activation of functions and partners based on the type of incident. Continued and rigorous examination of the experiences of health departments throughout the nation will refine our very understanding of what the public health response system is, will enable the identification of organizational and event inputs to performance, and will allow for the construction of rich, relevant, and practical models of response operations that can be employed to strengthen public health systems. PMID:24236137

  18. Effects of Payment Changes on Trends in Post-Acute Care

    PubMed Central

    Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Colla, Carrie Hoverman; Escarce, José J

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test how the implementation of new Medicare post-acute payment systems affected the use of inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs), skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), and home health agencies. Data Sources Medicare acute hospital, IRF, and SNF claims; provider of services file; enrollment file; and Area Resource File data. Study Design We used multinomial logit models to measure realized access to post-acute care and to predict how access to alternative sites of care changed in response to prospective payment systems. Data Extraction Methods A file was constructed linking data for elderly Medicare patients discharged from acute care facilities between 1996 and 2003 with a diagnosis of hip fracture, stroke, or lower extremity joint replacement. Principal Findings Although the effects of the payment systems on the use of post-acute care varied, most reduced the use of the site of care they directly affected and boosted the use of alternative sites of care. Payment system changes do not appear to have differentially affected the severely ill. Conclusions Payment system incentives play a significant role in determining where Medicare beneficiaries receive their post-acute care. Changing these incentives results in shifting of patients between post-acute sites. PMID:19490159

  19. Effect of a synbiotic on infantile acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Z

    2013-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is still a common disease worldwide. Synbiotics are being used to alleviate the effects of acute gastroenteritis-related diarrhoea. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a synbiotic in reducing the duration of diarrhoea in children with acute gastroenteritis. The study has been carried out on data gathered from children with acute gastroenteritis between the age of three months and 14 years seen in paediatric polyclinics between August 2009 and April 2010. While synbiotic group patients got a sachet containing Bifidobacterium lactis 2211 with a minimum of 5×10⁶ cfu active bacteria and 900 mg chicory inulin twice daily for five days together with an oral rehydration solution, the control group only received an oral rehydration solution. Therapy with synbiotic plus an oral rehydration solution shortened the duration of acute diarrhoea in children by approximately one day compared to oral rehydration solution only.

  20. Catastrophic health expenditure on acute coronary events in Asia: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Stephen W-L; Sawhney, Jitendra PS; Ong, Tiong K; Chin, Chee Tang; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Nhan, Vo T; Itoh, Yohji; Huo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate out-of-pocket costs and the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure in people admitted to hospital with acute coronary syndromes in Asia. Methods Participants were enrolled between June 2011 and May 2012 into this observational study in China, India, Malaysia, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. Sites were required to enrol a minimum of 10 consecutive participants who had been hospitalized for an acute coronary syndrome. Catastrophic health expenditure was defined as out-of-pocket costs of initial hospitalization > 30% of annual baseline household income, and it was assessed six weeks after discharge. We assessed associations between health expenditure and age, sex, diagnosis of the index coronary event and health insurance status of the participant, using logistic regression models. Findings Of 12 922 participants, 9370 (73%) had complete data on expenditure. The mean out-of-pocket cost was 3237 United States dollars. Catastrophic health expenditure was reported by 66% (1984/3007) of those without insurance versus 52% (3296/6366) of those with health insurance (P < 0.05). The occurrence of catastrophic expenditure ranged from 80% (1055/1327) in uninsured and 56% (3212/5692) of insured participants in China, to 0% (0/41) in Malaysia. Conclusion Large variation exists across Asia in catastrophic health expenditure resulting from hospitalization for acute coronary syndromes. While insurance offers some protection, substantial numbers of people with health insurance still incur financial catastrophe. PMID:26966330

  1. Hemodynamic effects of acute digitalization several months after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ressl, J; Jandová, R; Jebavý, P; Kasalický, J; Widimský, J

    1975-01-01

    Left ventricular function was investigated at rest and during exercise by heart catheterization in 15 patients 3-5 months after acute myocardial infarction. The effect of 1 mg digoxin i.v. in ten patients was correlated to placebo (saline solution) in five patients. A significant decrease of the left ventricular enddiastolic pressure, increase of left ventricular systolic ejection fraction and a shift of the left ventricular function curve to left upwards was found after digoxin with no changes in the placebo group. This beneficial effect of acute digitalization in patients convalescing from uncomplicated myocardial infarction without clinical signs of manifest heart failure could have therapeutic implication.

  2. Determining acute health hazard ratings in the absence of applicable toxicological data.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Fred; Quigley, David; Freshwater, Dave; Whyte, Helena; Boada-Clista, Lydia; Laul, J C

    2007-11-01

    Health, safety, and emergency planning professionals have a responsibility to identify acute hazards associated with chemicals and to find a way to transmit that information to chemical users, emergency responders, and others. Various organizations such as the Department of Energy are considering acute health hazard ratings as triggers that would mandate various activities. A paradigm shift away from a "lists" based approach to determining whether a chemical is sufficiently hazardous to require further analysis for emergency planning purposes is under way. Various toxicological data sources and approaches in use to develop an acute health hazard rating are discussed. Methods of extrapolating data from published and unpublished supporting documentation to develop an acute health hazard rating in the absence of toxicological data by animal species, chemical structure similarities, MSDS estimated values, and data mining are discussed. The process described analyzes applicable data and allows the analyst to determine reasonable health hazard rating numbers for chemicals without published hazard ratings and for mixtures of chemicals. The level and amount of resources available will determine which methods will be used in the process.

  3. Acute stress and cardiovascular health: is there an ACE gene connection?

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are associated with acute and posttraumatic stress responses, yet biological processes underlying this association are poorly understood. This study examined whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, as indicated by a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, is associated with both CVD and acute stress related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. European-American respondents (N = 527) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of coping following 9/11 provided saliva for genotyping. Respondents had completed health surveys before 9/11 and annually for 3 years after, and acute stress assessments 9 to 23 days after 9/11. Respondents with rs4291 AA or TT genotypes reported high acute stress twice as often as those with the AT genotype. Individuals with the TT genotype were 43% more likely to report increased physician-diagnosed CVD over 3 years following 9/11, when the following variables were included in the model: (a) pre-9/11 CVD, mental health, and non-CVD ailments; (b) cardiac risk factors; (c) ongoing endocrine disorders; and (d) significant demographics. The ACE rs4291 TT genotype, which has been associated with HPA axis hyperactivity and higher levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), predicted acute stress response and reports of physician-diagnosed CVD in a national sample following collective stress. ACE gene function may be associated with both mental and physical health disorders following collective stress.

  4. Chronic and acute effects of endurance training on telomere length.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Andrea; Giardini, Guido; Tonacci, Alessandro; Mastorci, Francesca; Mercuri, Antonella; Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Sposta, Simona Mrakic; Moretti, Sarah; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Pratali, Lorenza

    2015-09-01

    Telomere shortening is considered a cellular marker of health status and biological ageing. Exercise may influence the health and lifespan of an individual by affecting telomere length (TL). However, it is unclear whether different endurance exercise levels may have beneficial or detrimental effects on biological aging. The aims of the study were to assess both chronic and acute effects of endurance training on TL after an exceptional and extreme trail race. TL was assessed in 20 endurance athletes (17 males; age = 45.4 ± 9.2 years) and 42 age- and gender-matched sedentary controls (32 males; age = 45.9 ± 9.5 years) with quantitative real-time PCR at baseline conditions. Of the 20 runners enrolled in the 'Tor des Géants ®' ultra-distance trail race, 15 athletes (12 males; age = 47.2 ± 8.5 years) were re-evaluated at the intermediate point and 14 athletes (11 males; age = 47.1 ± 8.8 years) completed the competition and were analysed at the final point. Comparison between the two groups (endurance athletes vs. sedentary controls) revealed a significant difference in TL (1.28 ± 0.4 vs. 1.02 ± 0.3, P = 0.005). TL was better preserved in elder endurance runners compared with the same age control group (1.3 ± 0.27 vs. 0.91 ± 0.21, P = 0.003). TL was significantly reduced at the intermediate (0.88 ± 0.36 vs. 1.11 ± 0.34, P = 0.002) and final point compared with baseline measurements (0.86 ± 0.4 vs. 1.11 ± 0.34, P = 0.0006) for athletes engaged in the ultra-marathon race. Our data suggest that chronic endurance training may provide protective effects on TL attenuating biological aging. Conversely, acute exposure to an ultra-distance endurance trail race implies telomere shortening probably caused by oxidative DNA damage.

  5. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning.

    PubMed

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-05-05

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity.

  6. Do pollution time-series studies contain uncontrolled or residual confounding by risk factors for acute health events?

    PubMed

    Bukowski, John

    2008-07-01

    Acute health effects from air pollution are based largely on weak associations identified in time-series studies comparing daily air pollution levels to daily mortality. Much of this mortality is due to cardiovascular disease. Time-series studies have many potential limitations, but are not thought to be confounded by traditional cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking status or hypertension) because these chronic risk factors are not obviously associated with daily pollution levels. However, acute psychobehavioral variants of these risk factors (e.g., smoking patterns and episodes of stress on any given day) are plausible confounders for the associations observed in time-series studies, given that time-series studies attempt to predict acute rather than chronic health outcomes. There is a fairly compelling literature on the strong link between cardiovascular events and daily "triggers" such as stress. Stress-related triggers are plausibly associated with daily pollution levels through surrogate stressors such as ambient temperature, daily workload, local traffic congestion, or other correlates of air pollution. For example, variables such as traffic congestion and industrial activity increase both stress-related health events and air pollution, suggesting the potential for classical confounding. Support for this argument is illustrated through examples of the well-demonstrated relationship between emotional stress and heart attack/stroke.

  7. Mechanical Thrombectomy in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In Ontario, current treatment for eligible patients who have an acute ischemic stroke is intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). However, there are some limitations and contraindications to IVT, and outcomes may not be favourable for patients with stroke caused by a proximal intracranial occlusion. An alternative is mechanical thrombectomy with newer devices, and a number of recent studies have suggested that this treatment is more effective for improving functional independence and clinical outcomes. The objective of this health technology assessment was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new-generation mechanical thrombectomy devices (with or without IVT) compared to IVT alone (if eligible) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature, limited to randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy using stent retrievers and thromboaspiration devices for patients with acute ischemic stroke. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We developed a Markov decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy (with or without IVT) versus IVT alone (if eligible), calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios using a 5-year time horizon, and conducted sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the estimates. Results There was a substantial, statistically significant difference in rate of functional independence (GRADE: high quality) between those who received mechanical thrombectomy (with or without IVT) and IVT alone (odds ratio [OR] 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.88–3.04). We did not observe a difference in mortality (GRADE: moderate quality) (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.60–1.07) or symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (GRADE: moderate quality) (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.66–1.87). In the base-case cost-utility analysis, which had a 5 year time horizon, the costs and effectiveness for

  8. Fear of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) among Health Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Kwong-Lo, Rosalie S. Y.; Mak, Christine W. Y.; Wong, Joe S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined fear related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among 2 samples of hospital staff in Hong Kong. Sample 1 included health care workers (n = 82) and was assessed during the peak of the SARS epidemic. Sample 2 included hospital staff who recovered from SARS (n = 97). The results show that participants in…

  9. Mental and social health during and after acute emergencies: emerging consensus?

    PubMed Central

    van Ommeren, Mark; Saxena, Shekhar; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2005-01-01

    Mental health care programmes during and after acute emergencies in resource-poor countries have been considered controversial. There is no agreement on the public health value of the post-traumatic stress disorder concept and no agreement on the appropriateness of vertical (separate) trauma-focused services. A range of social and mental health intervention strategies and principles seem, however, to have the broad support of expert opinion. Despite continuing debate, there is emerging agreement on what entails good public health practice in respect of mental health. In terms of early interventions, this agreement is exemplified by the recent inclusion of a "mental and social aspects of health" standard in the Sphere handbook's revision on minimal standards in disaster response. This affirmation of emerging agreement is important and should give clear messages to health planners. PMID:15682252

  10. Potential health effects of space radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.

    1993-01-01

    Crewmembers on missions to the Moon or Mars will be exposed to radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, and possibly solar particle events. The potential health hazards due to these space radiations must be considered carefully to ensure the success of space exploration. Because there is no human radioepidemiological data for acute and late effects of high-LET (Linear-Energy-Transfer) radiation, the biological risks of energetic charged particles have to be estimated from experimental results on animals and cultured cells. Experimental data obtained to date indicate that charged particle radiation can be much more effective than photons in causing chromosome aberrations, cell killing, mutation, and tumor induction. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) varies with biological endpoints and depends on the LET of heavy ions. Most lesions induced by low-LET radiation can be repaired in mammalian cells. Energetic heavy ions, however, can produce large complex DNA damages, which may lead to large deletions and are irreparable. For high-LET radiation, therefore, there are less or no dose rate effects. Physical shielding may not be effective in minimizing the biological effects on energetic heavy ions, since fragments of the primary particles can be effective in causing biological effects. At present the uncertainty of biological effects of heavy particles is still very large. With further understanding of the biological effects of space radiation, the career doses can be kept at acceptable levels so that the space radiation environment need not be a barrier to the exploitation of the promise of space.

  11. [New welding processes and health effects of welding].

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, G Marina; Maestrelli, Piero

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some of the recent developments in the control technology to enhance capability of Pulse Gas Metal Arc Welding. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processing has been also considered. FSW is a new solid-state joining technique. Heat generated by friction at the rotating tool softens the material being welded. FSW can be considered a green and energy-efficient technique without deleterious fumes, gas, radiation, and noise. Application of new welding processes is limited and studies on health effects in exposed workers are lacking. Acute and chronic health effects of conventional welding have been described. Metal fume fever and cross-shift decline of lung function are the main acute respiratory effects. Skin and eyes may be affected by heat, electricity and UV radiations. Chronic effects on respiratory system include chronic bronchitis, a benign pneumoconiosis (siderosis), asthma, and a possible increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Pulmonary infections are increased in terms of severity, duration, and frequency among welders.

  12. Public Health Consequences on Vulnerable Populations from Acute Chemical Releases

    PubMed Central

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen F.

    2008-01-01

    Data from a large, multi-state surveillance system on acute chemical releases were analyzed to describe the type of events that are potentially affecting vulnerable populations (children, elderly and hospitalized patients) in order to better prevent and plan for these types of incidents in the future. During 2003–2005, there were 231 events where vulnerable populations were within ¼ mile of the event and the area of impact was greater than 200 feet from the facility/point of release. Most events occurred on a weekday during times when day care centers or schools were likely to be in session. Equipment failure and human error caused a majority of the releases. Agencies involved in preparing for and responding to chemical emergencies should work with hospitals, nursing homes, day care centers, and schools to develop policies and procedures for initiating appropriate protective measures and managing the medical needs of patients. Chemical emergency response drills should involve the entire community to protect those that may be more susceptible to harm. PMID:21572842

  13. Sensory and Cognitive Effects of Acute Exposure to Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Nancy; Kipen, Howard; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Zhang, Junfeng; Weisel, Clifford; Laumbach, Robert; Kelly-McNeil, Kathie; Olejeme, Kelechi; Lioy, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Some epidemiologic studies have reported compromised cognitive and sensory performance among individuals exposed to low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Objectives We hypothesized a dose–response increase in symptom severity and reduction in sensory and cognitive performance in response to controlled H2S exposures. Methods In separate exposure sessions administered in random order over three consecutive weeks, 74 healthy subjects [35 females, 39 males; mean age (± SD) = 24.7 ± 4.2; mean years of education = 16.5 ± 2.4], were exposed to 0.05, 0.5, and 5 ppm H2S. During each exposure session, subjects completed ratings and tests before H2S exposure (baseline) and during the final hour of the 2-hr exposure period. Results Dose–response reduction in air quality and increases in ratings of odor intensity, irritation, and unpleasantness were observed. Total symptom severity was not significantly elevated across any exposure condition, but anxiety symptoms were significantly greater in the 5-ppm than in the 0.05-ppm condition. No dose–response effect was observed for sensory or cognitive measures. Verbal learning was compromised during each exposure condition. Conclusions Although some symptoms increased with exposure, the magnitude of these changes was relatively minor. Increased anxiety was significantly related to ratings of irritation due to odor. Whether the effect on verbal learning represents a threshold effect of H2S or an effect due to fatigue across exposure requires further investigation. These acute effects in a healthy sample cannot be directly generalized to communities where individuals have other health conditions and concomitant exposures. PMID:18197303

  14. Design Considerations for Post-Acute Care mHealth: Patient Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sanger, Patrick; Hartzler, Andrea; Lober, William B; Evans, Heather L; Pratt, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Many current mobile health applications ("apps") and most previous research have been directed at management of chronic illnesses. However, little is known about patient preferences and design considerations for apps intended to help in a post-acute setting. Our team is developing an mHealth platform to engage patients in wound tracking to identify and manage surgical site infections (SSI) after hospital discharge. Post-discharge SSIs are a major source of morbidity and expense, and occur at a critical care transition when patients are physically and emotionally stressed. Through interviews with surgical patients who experienced SSI, we derived design considerations for such a post-acute care app. Key design qualities include: meeting basic accessibility, usability and security needs; encouraging patient-centeredness; facilitating better, more predictable communication; and supporting personalized management by providers. We illustrate our application of these guiding design considerations and propose a new framework for mHealth design based on illness duration and intensity.

  15. Management of acute respiratory infections by community health volunteers: experience of Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC).

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Abdullahel

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of management practices for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in improving the competency of community health volunteers in diagnosing and treating acute respiratory infections among children. METHODS: Data were collected by a group of research physicians who observed the performance of a sample of 120 health volunteers in 10 sub-districts in Bangladesh in which Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) had run a community-based ARI control programme since mid-1992. Standardized tests were conducted until the 95% interphysician reliability on the observation of clinical examination was achieved. FINDINGS:The sensitivity, specificity, and overall agreement rates in diagnosing and treating ARIs were significantly higher among the health volunteers who had basic training and were supervised routinely than among those who had not. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis and treatment of ARIs at the household level in developing countries are possible if intensive basic training and the close supervision of service providers are ensured. PMID:12764514

  16. Acute Recurrent Pancreatitis in Children: A Study From the Pediatric Health Information System.

    PubMed

    Pant, Chaitanya; Sferra, Thomas J; Lee, Brian R; Cocjin, Jose T; Olyaee, Mojtaba

    2016-03-01

    We investigated acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) in children using a national health care database. From 2002 to 2014, 26,435 children had a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (AP); 10,648 discharges were index hospitalizations. A total of 6159 children had a single hospitalization for AP, whereas 4489 (42%) children underwent 15,787 rehospitalizations. Children experienced a median of 2 ARP-related hospitalizations with a median time between admissions of 86 days. Younger patients with a more severe index episode of AP were at a higher risk of ARP. ARP-related hospitalizations had an increased requirement for intensive care unit care compared with an index episode of AP.

  17. Effects of an Acute Seizure on Associative Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Andrew J.; Lugo, Joaquin N.

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that inducing several seizures or continuous seizures in neonatal or adult rats results in impairments in learning and memory. The impact of a single acute seizure on learning and memory has not been investigated in mice. In this study, we exposed an adult 129SvEvTac mouse to the inhalant flurothyl until a behavioral seizure was induced. Our study consisted of 4 experiments where we examined the effect of one seizure before or after delay fear conditioning. We also included a separate cohort of animals that was tested in the open field after a seizure to rule out changes in locomotor activity influencing the results of memory tests. Mice that had experienced a single seizure 1 hour, but not 6 hours, prior to training showed a significant impairment in associative conditioning to the conditioned stimulus when compared to controls 24 hours later. There were no differences in freezing one day later for animals that experienced a single seizure 1 hour after associative learning. We also found that an acute seizure reduced activity levels in an open field test 2 hours but not 24 hours later. These findings suggest that an acute seizure occurring immediately before learning can have an effect on the recall of events occurring shortly after that seizure. In contrast, an acute seizure occurring shortly after learning appears to have little or no effect on long-term memory. These findings have implications for understanding the acute effects of seizures on the acquisition of new knowledge. PMID:26655449

  18. Hydrogen cyanide health effects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, B.L.; Baker, L.H.; Herndon, B.L.; Ellis, H.V. III; Horn, E.M.

    1981-09-01

    Health effects literature primarily related to inhalation exposures to hydrogen cyanide was collected, evaluated, tabulated and summarized. Approximately 170 documents were collected from computerized and manual literature searches covering the period 1899-1981. Pharmacologists and an M.D. epidemiologist rated the documents according to their applicability to the study and their methodology. The approximately 20 documents considered useful for deriving a range of concern for human exposure to hydrogen cyanide from automotive emissions were tabulated. The 25 pages of tables detail the results of acute and repeated dose testing of mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, monkeys, dogs, goats, donkeys and humans as well as human occupational studies. Most of the documents evaluated are described in an annotated bibliography.

  19. Amelioration of Acute Mercury Toxicity by a Novel, Non-Toxic Lipid Soluble Chelator N,N'bis-(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide: Effect on Animal Survival, Health, Mercury Excretion and Organ Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Clarke, David; Buchanan, Roger; Gupta, Niladri; Haley, Boyd

    2012-01-01

    The toxic effects of mercury are known to be complex with specific enzyme inhibitions and subsequent oxidative stress adding to the damaging effects. There are likely other factors involved, such as the development of impaired metal ion homeostasis and depletion of thiol and selenium based metabolites such as cysteine and selenium. Much of the toxicity of mercury occurs at the intracellular level via binding of Hg(2+) to thiol groups in specific proteins. Therefore, amelioration of mercury toxicity by the use of chelation would likely be enhanced by the use of a chelator that could cross the cell membrane and the blood brain barrier. It would be most favorable if this compound was of low toxicity, had appropriate pharmacokinetics, bound and rendered mercury cation non-toxic and had antioxidant properties. Herein we report on such a chelator, N,N'-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide (NBMI), and, using an animal model, show that it prevented the toxic effects associated with acute exposure induced by injected mercury chloride.

  20. Nurses' attitudes towards the use of PRN psychotropic medications in acute and forensic mental health settings.

    PubMed

    Barr, Lesley; Wynaden, Dianne; Heslop, Karen

    2017-03-24

    Many countries now have national mental health policies and guidelines to decrease or eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint yet the use of Pro Re Nata (PRN) medications has received less practice evaluation. This research aimed to identify mental health nurses' attitudes towards the use of PRN medications with mental health consumers. Participants were working in forensic mental health and non-forensic acute mental health settings. The "Attitudes towards PRN medication use survey" was used and data were collected online. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package Social Sciences, Version 22.0. Practice differences between forensic and other acute mental health settings were identified related to the use of PRN medications to manage symptoms from nicotine, alcohol and other drug withdrawal. Differences related to the useage of comfort rooms and conducting comprehensive assessments of consumers' psychiatric symptoms were also detected. Qualitative findings highlighted the need for increased accountability for the prescribing and administration of PRN medications along with more nursing education/training to use alternative first line interventions. Nurses administering PRN medications should be vigilant regarding the indications for this practice to ensure they are facilitating the consumer's recovery by reducing the use of all forms of potentially restrictive practices in the hospital setting. The reasons for using PRN medications and PRN administration rates must be continually monitored to avoid practices such as high dose antipsychotics use and antipsychotic polypharmacy to ensure the efficacy of the consumers' management plans on their health care outcomes.

  1. Health consequences of acute and chronic marihuana use.

    PubMed

    Maykut, M O

    1985-01-01

    Chemical content, assay procedures, and pharmacokinetics of cannabis sativa are discussed briefly. Cannabinoid cellular effects relating to chromosomes and immunity including cellular metabolism and allergic reactions are presented. Gross and microscopic brain pathology due to cannabis use is reviewed involving EEG alterations, psychopathology including aggressive behaviour as well as properties of psychomotor impairment, tolerance and dependence. Cardiopulmonary effects of marihuana are recorded under pulmonary pharmacological effects including the macrophage defense system and effects of smoke constituents; under cardiovascular effects cardiac toxicity and possible mechanism of action are discussed. Alterations of reproductive hormonal production and maturation of reproductive cells by marihuana in males and females with attendant impairment of reproductive function or fertility including reproductive outcome are reported. Field studies with healthy chronic cannabis users in Jamaica, Greece and Costa Rica are related as to observed medical alterations. Potential clinical effects are summarized in point form.

  2. Acute and long-term effects of cannabis use: a review.

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Roux, Perrine; Rolland, Benjamin; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Lançon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis remains the most commonly used and trafficked illicit drug in the world. Its use is largely concentrated among young people (15- to 34-year-olds). There is a variety of cannabis use patterns, ranging from experimental use to dependent use. Men are more likely than women to report both early initiation and frequent use of cannabis. Due to the high prevalence of cannabis use, the impact of cannabis on public health may be significant. A range of acute and chronic health problems associated with cannabis use has been identified. Cannabis can frequently have negative effects in its users, which may be amplified by certain demographic and/or psychosocial factors. Acute adverse effects include hyperemesis syndrome, impaired coordination and performance, anxiety, suicidal ideations/tendencies, and psychotic symptoms. Acute cannabis consumption is also associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, especially fatal collisions. Evidence indicates that frequent and prolonged use of cannabis can be detrimental to both mental and physical health. Chronic effects of cannabis use include mood disorders, exacerbation of psychotic disorders in vulnerable people, cannabis use disorders, withdrawal syndrome, neurocognitive impairments, cardiovascular and respiratory and other diseases.

  3. Methylmercury exposure and health effects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Kyung-Eun

    2012-11-01

    Methylmercury is a hazardous substance that is of interest with regard to environmental health, as inorganic mercury circulating in the general environment is dissolved into freshwater and seawater, condensed through the food chain, ingested by humans, and consequently affects human health. Recently, there has been much interest and discussion regarding the toxicity of methylmercury, the correlation with fish and shellfish intake, and methods of long-term management of the human health effects of methylmercury. What effects chronic exposure to a low concentration of methylmercury has on human health remains controversial. Although the possibility of methylmercury poisoning the heart and blood vessel system, the reproductive system, and the immune system is continuously raised and discussed, and the carcinogenicity of methylmercury is also under discussion, a clear conclusion regarding the human health effects according to exposure level has not yet been drawn. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives proposed to prepare additional fish and shellfish intake recommendations for consumers based on the quantified evaluation of the hazardousness of methylmercury contained in fish and shellfish, methylmercury management in the Korea has not yet caught up with this international trend. Currently, the methylmercury exposure level of Koreans is known to be very high. The starting point of methylmercury exposure management is inorganic mercury in the general environment, but food intake through methylation is the main exposure source. Along with efforts to reduce mercury in the general environment, food intake management should be undertaken to reduce the human exposure to methylmercury in Korea.

  4. Methylmercury Exposure and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury is a hazardous substance that is of interest with regard to environmental health, as inorganic mercury circulating in the general environment is dissolved into freshwater and seawater, condensed through the food chain, ingested by humans, and consequently affects human health. Recently, there has been much interest and discussion regarding the toxicity of methylmercury, the correlation with fish and shellfish intake, and methods of long-term management of the human health effects of methylmercury. What effects chronic exposure to a low concentration of methylmercury has on human health remains controversial. Although the possibility of methylmercury poisoning the heart and blood vessel system, the reproductive system, and the immune system is continuously raised and discussed, and the carcinogenicity of methylmercury is also under discussion, a clear conclusion regarding the human health effects according to exposure level has not yet been drawn. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives proposed to prepare additional fish and shellfish intake recommendations for consumers based on the quantified evaluation of the hazardousness of methylmercury contained in fish and shellfish, methylmercury management in the Korea has not yet caught up with this international trend. Currently, the methylmercury exposure level of Koreans is known to be very high. The starting point of methylmercury exposure management is inorganic mercury in the general environment, but food intake through methylation is the main exposure source. Along with efforts to reduce mercury in the general environment, food intake management should be undertaken to reduce the human exposure to methylmercury in Korea. PMID:23230465

  5. Health effects of oxygenated fuels.

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, M G

    1993-01-01

    The use of oxygenated fuels is anticipated to increase over the next decades. This paper reviews the toxicological and exposure information for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), a fuel additive, and methanol, a replacement fuel, and discusses the possible health consequences of exposure of the general public to these compounds. For MTBE, the health effects information available is derived almost exclusively from rodent studies, and the exposure data are limited to a few measurements at some service stations. Based on these data, it appears unlikely that the normal population is at high risk of exposure to MTBE vapor. However, in the absence of health and pharmacokinetic data in humans or in nonhuman primates, this conclusion is not strongly supported. Similarly, there are a number of uncertainties to take into consideration in estimating human risk from the use of methanol as a fuel. Although methanol may be toxic to humans at concentrations that overwhelm certain enzymes involved in methanol metabolism, the data available provide little evidence to indicate that exposure to methanol vapors from the use of methanol as a motor vehicle fuel will result in adverse health effects. The uncertainties in this conclusion are based on the lack of information on dose-response relationship at reasonable, projected exposure levels and of studies examining end points of concern in sensitive species. In developing a quantitative risk assessment, more needs to be known about health effects in primates or humans and the range of exposure expected for the general public for both compounds. PMID:8020439

  6. Operation Safe Haven: an evaluation of health surveillance and monitoring in an acute setting.

    PubMed

    Bennett, C; Mein, J; Beers, M; Harvey, B; Vemulpad, S; Chant, K; Dalton, C

    2000-02-17

    From May to June 1999, 3,920 ethnic Albanians from Kosovo arrived in Australia as part of Operation Safe Haven. These people were evacuated from refugee camps in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Initial processing in Australia occurred at East Hills Reception Centre, and accommodation for the duration of stay was provided in eight Haven Centres in five States. The arrival of a large number of refugees in a short time frame is unprecedented in Australia. A health surveillance system was developed and critical health data were collected to assess health status and needs, plan care, monitor for potential outbreaks of communicable diseases, track service use, to meet international reporting requirements and document our response to this crisis. In this article the health surveillance system is evaluated and suggestions are offered for the formulation of specific guidelines necessary for health surveillance in acute settings.

  7. Enhancing adult therapeutic interpersonal relationships in the acute health care setting: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Kornhaber, Rachel; Walsh, Kenneth; Duff, Jed; Walker, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic interpersonal relationships are the primary component of all health care interactions that facilitate the development of positive clinician–patient experiences. Therapeutic interpersonal relationships have the capacity to transform and enrich the patients’ experiences. Consequently, with an increasing necessity to focus on patient-centered care, it is imperative for health care professionals to therapeutically engage with patients to improve health-related outcomes. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO databases of peer-reviewed research, limited to the English language with search terms developed to reflect therapeutic interpersonal relationships between health care professionals and patients in the acute care setting. This study found that therapeutic listening, responding to patient emotions and unmet needs, and patient centeredness were key characteristics of strategies for improving therapeutic interpersonal relationships. PMID:27789958

  8. Increased systolic blood pressure reactivity to acute stress is related with better self-reported health.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bradley J; O'Brien, Shaun; Hazi, Agnes; Kent, Stephen

    2014-11-13

    The stress reactivity hypothesis posits that the magnitude of cardiovascular reactions to acute stress tasks is related with future blood pressure status, heart hypertrophy, and atherosclerosis. We assessed the stress reactivity hypothesis and aimed to identify which physiological indices (blood pressure, heart-rate, cortisol, salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA)) related to self-reported mental and physical health. We also assessed if physiological reactions elicited by an acute stressor were more related than basal assessments. Participants provided physiological samples, self-reported stress and health-data before and after an assessed 5-7 minute academic oral presentation. In hierarchical regression models, increased systolic and reduced sIgA reactivity was associated with better perceptions of mental health. Reactivity data were more related to self-reported data than basal data. In line with the only 2 studies to assess the reactivity hypothesis with self-perceived health, increased systolic reactivity was best associated with better perceived physical and mental health. The findings suggest that increased SBP reactivity may also be associated with positive health outcomes. Further research is required to determine if increased or decreased sIgA reactivity is most predictive of future morbidity.

  9. Neurocognitive Late Effects of Chemotherapy in Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Focus on Methotrexate.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Ellen; Nieman, Brian J; Butcher, Darci T; Hitzler, Johann K; Weksberg, Rosanna; Ito, Shinya; Schachar, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors frequently experience long-lasting consequences of chemotherapy on health outcomes. Neurocognitive late effects of chemotherapy occur in 40 - 60% of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors. These deficits affect mental health, school performance, job success, and are associated with poor quality of life, therefore presenting a clinical challenge for psychiatrists. However, not all cancer survivors are impacted by treatment in the same manner and emerging evidence suggests that genetic variation may modulate neurocognitive outcomes. Much like other complex psychopathologies, neurocognitive deficits in cancer survivors are the result of complex interactions between genetic and environmental variables. This review describes adverse neurocognitive outcomes observed in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and discusses genetic variability in biochemical pathways targeted by chemotherapeutic agents as a possible mechanism contributing to psychopathology in ALL survivors.

  10. Neurocognitive Late Effects of Chemotherapy in Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Focus on Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    van der Plas, Ellen; Nieman, Brian J.; Butcher, Darci T.; Hitzler, Johann K.; Weksberg, Rosanna; Ito, Shinya; Schachar, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors frequently experience long-lasting consequences of chemotherapy on health outcomes. Neurocognitive late effects of chemotherapy occur in 40 – 60% of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors. These deficits affect mental health, school performance, job success, and are associated with poor quality of life, therefore presenting a clinical challenge for psychiatrists. However, not all cancer survivors are impacted by treatment in the same manner and emerging evidence suggests that genetic variation may modulate neurocognitive outcomes. Much like other complex psychopathologies, neurocognitive deficits in cancer survivors are the result of complex interactions between genetic and environmental variables. This review describes adverse neurocognitive outcomes observed in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and discusses genetic variability in biochemical pathways targeted by chemotherapeutic agents as a possible mechanism contributing to psychopathology in ALL survivors. PMID:26336377

  11. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  12. Infectious etiologies of acute febrile illness among patients seeking health care in south-central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Matthew R; Blair, Patrick J; Touch, Sok; Sokhal, Buth; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Williams, Maya; Richards, Allen L; Burgess, Timothy H; Wierzba, Thomas F; Putnam, Shannon D

    2012-02-01

    The agents of human febrile illness can vary by region and country suggesting that diagnosis, treatment, and control programs need to be based on a methodical evaluation of area-specific etiologies. From December 2006 to December 2009, 9,997 individuals presenting with acute febrile illness at nine health care clinics in south-central Cambodia were enrolled in a study to elucidate the etiologies. Upon enrollment, respiratory specimens, whole blood, and serum were collected. Testing was performed for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. Etiologies were identified in 38.0% of patients. Influenza was the most frequent pathogen, followed by dengue, malaria, and bacterial pathogens isolated from blood culture. In addition, 3.5% of enrolled patients were infected with more than one pathogen. Our data provide the first systematic assessment of the etiologies of acute febrile illness in south-central Cambodia. Data from syndromic-based surveillance studies can help guide public health responses in developing nations.

  13. Health effects of smokeless tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-28

    Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

  14. Effect of acute ethanol and acute allopregnanolone on spatial memory in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Chin, Vivien S; Van Skike, Candice E; Berry, Raymond B; Kirk, Roger E; Diaz-Granados, Jamie; Matthews, Douglas B

    2011-08-01

    The effects of ethanol differ in adolescent and adult rats on a number of measures. The evidence of the effects of ethanol on spatial memory in adolescents and adults is equivocal. Whether adolescents are more or less sensitive to ethanol-induced impairment of spatial memory acquisition remains unclear; with regard to the effects of acute ethanol on spatial memory retrieval there is almost no research looking into any age difference. Thus, we examined the effects of acute ethanol on spatial memory in the Morris Watermaze in adolescents and adults. Allopregnanolone (ALLO) is a modulator of the GABA(A) receptor and has similar behavioral effects as ethanol. We sought to also determine the effects of allopreganolone on spatial memory in adolescent and adults. Male adolescent (post natal [PN]28-30) and adult (PN70-72) rats were trained in the Morris Watermaze for 6 days and acute doses of ethanol (saline, 1.5 and 2.0 g/kg) or ALLO (vehicle, 9 and 18 mg/kg) were administered on Day 7. A probe trial followed on Day 8. As expected, there were dose effects; higher doses of both ethanol and ALLO impaired spatial memory. However, in both the ethanol and ALLO conditions adolescents and adults had similar spatial memory impairments. The current results suggest that ethanol and ALLO both impair hippocampal-dependent spatial memory regardless of age in that once learning has occurred, ethanol or ALLO does not differentially impair the retrieval of spatial memory in adolescents and adults. Given the mixed results on the effect of ethanol on cognition in adolescent rats, additional research is needed to ascertain the factors critical for the reported differential results.

  15. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  16. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  17. Psychiatric nurse practitioners' experiences of working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ngako, Kgalabi J; Van Rensburg, Elsie S J; Mataboge, Sanah M L

    2012-05-30

    Psychiatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms work in a complex environment. This environment is characterised by mental health care users who may present with a history of violence, sexual assault and substance misuse. The objectives of this study were twofold: firstly, to explore and describe the experiences of PNPs working with mental health care users (MHCUs) presenting with acute symptoms; and secondly, to make recommendations for the advanced PNPs to facilitate promotion of the mental health of PNPs with reference to nursing practice, research and education. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. The target population was PNPs working with MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms in a public mental health care institution in Gauteng. Data were collected by means of four focus group interviews involving 21 PNPs. The researcher made use of drawings, naïve sketches and field notes for the purpose of data triangulation. Data were analysed in accordance with Tesch's method of open coding. The three themes that emerged were: PNPs experienced working with these MHCUs as entering an unsafe world where care became a burden; they experienced negative emotional reactions and attitudes towards these MHCUs that compromised quality nursing care; and they made a plea for a nurturing environment that would enhance quality nursing care. The PNPs suggest skills and competency development, organisational support, and a need for external resources. Creation of a positive environment and mobilisation of resources as well as the identification and bridging of obstacles are essential in the promotion of the overall wellbeing and mental health of PNPs.

  18. School-Based Mental Health Program Evaluation: Children's School Outcomes and Acute Mental Health Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Mandell, David S.; Hadley, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of school-based mental health programs on children's school outcomes and the utilization of acute mental health services. Methods: The study sample included 468 Medicaid-enrolled children aged 6 to 17 years who were enrolled 1 of 2 school-based mental health programs (SBMHs) in a metropolitan area…

  19. [Health effects of living habits].

    PubMed

    Vuori, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    Single healthy living habits such as non-smoking and regular physical activity decrease the risk of common non-communicable diseases, unsuccessful aging and premature death to a small to moderate degree. Their cumulative effects are, however, large. Only a small minority of people adhere well to all healthy living habits or even the healthiest ones. Consequently, the population attributable fractions of major public health problems due to unhealthy lifestyles are large. Substantial improvement of public health calls for policies and programs to influence the root causes of the lifestyles in the multiple environments and systems where they are developed, maintained, and changed.

  20. Effects of melatonin on gallbladder neuromuscular function in acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J; Camello, Pedro J; Pozo, María J

    2007-10-01

    Gallbladder stasis is associated to experimental acute cholecystitis. Impaired contractility could be, at least in part, the result of inflammation-induced alterations in the neuromuscular function. This study was designed to determine the changes in gallbladder neurotransmission evoked by acute inflammation and to evaluate the protective and therapeutic effects of melatonin. Experimental acute cholecystitis was induced in guinea pigs by common bile duct ligation for 2 days, and then the neuromuscular function was evaluated using electrical field stimulation (EFS; 5-40 Hz). In a group of animals with the bile duct ligated for 2 days, a deligation of the duct was performed, and after 2 days, the neuromuscular function was studied. The EFS-evoked isometric gallbladder contraction was significantly lower in cholecystitic tissue. In addition, inflammation changed the pharmacological profile of these contractions that were insensitive to tetrodotoxin but sensitive to atropine and omega-conotoxin, indicating that acute cholecystitis affects action potential propagation in the intrinsic nerves. Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated neurotransmission was reduced by inflammation, which also increased the reactivity of sensitive fibers. Melatonin treatment prevented qualitative changes in gallbladder neurotransmission, but it did not improve EFS-induced contractility. The hormone recovered gallbladder neuromuscular function once the biliary obstruction was resolved, even when the treatment was started after the onset of gallbladder inflammation. These findings show for the first time the therapeutic potential of melatonin in the recovery of gallbladder neuromuscular function during acute cholecystitis.

  1. Is racecadotril effective for acute diarrhea in children? -First update.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Josefina; Cifuentes, Lorena

    2016-05-06

    This article updates the December 2015 Living FRISBEE (Living FRISBEE: Living FRIendly Summary of the Body of Evidence using Epistemonikos), based on the detection of two systematic reviews not identified in the previous version. Gastroenteritis or acute watery diarrhea is usually a self-limited disease, but it is still associated to substantial healthcare costs and remains a frequent demand for medical care. Racecadotril, an intestinal enkephalinase inhibitor, has been used as treatment because it would decrease the duration of acute diarrhea and fluid loss. However there is still no evidence supporting its routine use. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified five systematic reviews including nine randomized trials relevant for our question. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded racecadotril probably reduces the duration of acute diarrhea in pediatric patients, without increasing adverse effects.

  2. Study relating residential formaldehyde concentrations and acute health symptoms in adult women

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, T.; Godish, T.

    1986-09-01

    This study consisted of a survey of 180 families who requested formaldehyde sampling of their homes through the local health or state health departments in Indiana in 1980-1985. At the time that the air sample was collected, the residents of the house were interviewed regarding the presence and severity of 22 acute health symptoms suspected to be associated with formaldehyde exposure. Surveyed individuals did not know the concentration of formaldehyde in their home at the time of the interview. For the purpose of this report, analysis was limited to the oldest (typically the only) adult woman in the household who was interviewed on the day that the air sample was taken (n = 163). The level of formaldehyde in the samples ranged from less than 0.010 ppm to 0.750 ppm. Comparisons of the formaldehyde concentrations with the health symptoms indicate that formaldehyde levels above 0.050 ppm did not increase the likelihood of the women to report the presence of any of the acute health symptoms studied. However, formaldehyde levels above 0.100 ppm significantly increased the likelihood of the women to report eye and sinus irritation, difficulty in breathing and sleeping, runny nose, and chest pain.

  3. Effects of acute hypoxia on cerebrovascular responses to carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Ueda, Shinya; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Shibasaki, Manabu; Subudhi, Andrew W; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi

    2014-06-01

    In normoxic conditions, a reduction in arterial carbon dioxide tension causes cerebral vasoconstriction, thereby reducing cerebral blood flow and modifying dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA). It is unclear to what extent these effects are altered by acute hypoxia and the associated hypoxic ventilatory response (respiratory chemoreflex). This study tested the hypothesis that acute hypoxia attenuates arterial CO2 tension-mediated regulation of cerebral blood flow to help maintain cerebral O2 homeostasis. Eight subjects performed three randomly assigned respiratory interventions following a resting baseline period, as follows: (1) normoxia (21% O2); (2) hypoxia (12% O2); and (3) hypoxia with wilful restraint of the respiratory chemoreflex. During each intervention, 0, 2.0, 3.5 or 5.0% CO2 was sequentially added (8 min stages) to inspired gas mixtures to assess changes in steady-state cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity and dCA. During normoxia, the addition of CO2 increased internal carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean), while reducing dCA (change in phase = -0.73 ± 0.22 rad, P = 0.005). During acute hypoxia, internal carotid artery blood flow and MCA Vmean remained unchanged, but cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity (internal carotid artery, P = 0.003; MCA Vmean, P = 0.031) and CO2-mediated effects on dCA (P = 0.008) were attenuated. The effects of hypoxia were not further altered when the respiratory chemoreflex was restrained. These findings support the hypothesis that arterial CO2 tension-mediated effects on the cerebral vasculature are reduced during acute hypoxia. These effects could limit the degree of hypocapnic vasoconstriction and may help to regulate cerebral blood flow and cerebral O2 homeostasis during acute periods of hypoxia.

  4. The habitus of 'rescue' and its significance for implementation of rapid response systems in acute health care.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Nicola; Humphrey, Charlotte; Sandall, Jane

    2014-11-01

    The need to focus on patient safety and improve the quality and consistency of medical care in acute hospital settings has been highlighted in a number of UK and international reports. When patients on a hospital ward become acutely unwell there is often a window of opportunity for staff, patients and relatives to contribute to the 'rescue' process by intervening in the trajectory of clinical deterioration. This paper explores the social and institutional processes associated with the practice of rescue, and implications for the implementation and effectiveness of rapid response systems (RRSs) within acute health care. An ethnographic case study was conducted in 2009 in two UK hospitals (focussing on the medical directorates in each organisation). Data collection involved 180 h of observation, 35 staff interviews (doctors, nurses, health care assistants and managers) and documentary review. Analysis was informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice and his relational concept of the 'field' of the general medical ward. Three themes illustrated the nature of rescue work within the field and collective rules which guided associated occupational distinction practices: (1) the 'dirty work' of vital sign recording and its distinction from diagnostic (higher order) interpretive work; (2) the moral order of legitimacy claims for additional help; and (3) professional deference and the selective managerial control of rescue work. The discourse of rescue provided a means of exercising greater control over clinical uncertainty. The acquisition of 'rescue capital' enabled the social positioning of health care assistants, nurses and doctors, and shaped use of the RRS on the wards. Boundary work, professional legitimation and jurisdictional claims defined the social practice of rescue, as clinical staff had to balance safety, professional and organisational concerns within the field. This paper offers a nuanced understanding of patient safety on the front-line, challenging notions of

  5. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E

    2013-12-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations.

  6. The effects of citicoline on acute ischemic stroke: a review.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    Early reopening of the occluded artery is, thus, important in ischemic stroke, and it has been calculated that 2 million neurons die every minute in an ischemic stroke if no effective therapy is given; therefore, "Time is Brain." In massive hemispheric infarction and edema, surgical decompression lowers the risk of death or severe disability defined as a modified Rankin Scale score greater than 4 in selected patients. The majority, around 80%-85% of all ischemic stroke victims, does not fulfill the criteria for revascularization therapy, and also for these patients, there is no effective acute therapy. Also there is no established effective acute treatment of spontaneous intracerebral bleeding. Therefore, an effective therapy applicable to all stroke victims is needed. The neuroprotective drug citicoline has been extensively studied in clinical trials with volunteers and more than 11,000 patients with various neurologic disorders, including acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The conclusion is that citicoline is safe to use and may have a beneficial effect in AIS patients and most beneficial in less severe stroke in older patients not treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. No other neuroprotective agent had any beneficial effect in confirmative clinical trials or had any positive effect in the subgroup analysis. Citicoline is the only drug that in a number of different clinical stroke trials continuously had some neuroprotective benefit.

  7. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  8. The Acute and Chronic Biochemical and Behavioral Effects of Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-31

    Behavioral Studies - Barbiturate slieptimes were determined using hexabar- bital according to the standard technique used in our labora- tory, in which rats...the in vitro study (Table 4 D). - These results show that CMT does not produce an acute effect on Ouptake of duration over 6 hours. Nor does chronic...results of a study of the toxic effects of cyclomethylenetrinitramine on the brain after chronic admin.istration to male rats. In 1973 the Department

  9. Pathways to catastrophic health expenditure for acute coronary syndrome in Kerala: ‘Good health at low cost’?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Universal health coverage through the removal of financial and other barriers to access, particularly for people who are poor, is a global priority. This viewpoint describes the many pathways to catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) for patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) based on two case studies and the thematic analysis of field notes regarding 210 patients and their households from a study based in Kerala, India. Discussion There is evidence of the severe financial impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which is in contradiction to the widely acclaimed Kerala model: Good health at low cost. However, it is important to look beyond the out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) and CHE to the possible pathways and identify the triggers that make families vulnerable to CHE. The identified pathways include a primary and secondary loop. The primary pathway describes the direct path by which families experience CHE. These include: 1) factors related to the pre-event period that increase the likelihood of experiencing CHE, such as being from the lower socio-economic strata (SES), past financial losses or loans that leave families with no financial shock absorber at the time of illness; 2) factors related to the acute event, diagnosis, treatment and hospitalization and expenditures incurred for the same and; 3) factors related to the post-event period such as loss of gainful employment and means of financing both the acute period and the long-term management particularly through distress financing. The secondary pathway arises from the primary and includes: 1) the impact of distress financing and; 2) the long- and short- term consequences of CHE. These factors ultimately result in a vicious cycle of debt and poverty through non-compliance and repeat acute events. Summary This paper outlines the direct and indirect pathways by which patients with ACS and their families are trapped in a vicious cycle of debt and poverty. It also contradicts the prevailing

  10. A Review of Chronic and Acute Physical Activity Participation on Neuroelectric Measures of Brain Health and Cognition during Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Charles H.; Kamijo, Keita; Scudder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing body of research has detailed the beneficial relation of chronic participation in- and acute responses to- physical activity on aspects of cognition that underlie scholastic achievement. Here, we review the relevant neuroelectric findings on this beneficial relation in children, providing support for the influence of physical activity on specific cognitive processes that comprise academic performance. Method A review of studies examining physical activity and neuroelectric concomitants of cognition during childhood is described. When applicable, research involving adult populations is also described to better inform on this relationship in children. Results Collectively, the data support a beneficial relation of chronic and acute participation in physical activity to brain health and cognition. The results suggest more effective allocation of cognitive processes involved in stimulus engagement and action monitoring during tasks requiring variable amounts of cognitive control in children. Conclusion Physical activity may influence brain health and cognition in children, leading to enhanced scholastic performance and greater overall effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:21281669

  11. Valdecoxib provides effective pain relief following acute ankle sprain.

    PubMed

    Diaz, J A; Cuervo, C; Valderrama, A M; Kohles, J

    2006-01-01

    We sought to determine whether valdecoxib is as effective as diclofenac in treating acute ankle sprain. Patients (n=202) with acute first- and second-degree ankle sprain were randomized to valdecoxib (40 mg twice daily on day 1 followed by 40 mg once daily on days 2-7) or diclofenac (75 mg twice daily). The primary efficacy end-point was the Patient's Assessment of Ankle Pain visual analogue scale (VAS, 0-100 mm) value on day 4. Valdecoxib was as efficacious as diclofenac in treating the signs and symptoms of acute ankle sprain. The mean VAS reduction in ankle pain on day 4 was not different between groups; the two-sided 95% confidence interval for the between-group difference was within the prespecified limit for non-inferiority (10 mm). There were no significant differences between groups for all secondary efficacy end-points. The two treatments were similarly effective and well tolerated for treatment of acute ankle sprain.

  12. ACUTE-TO-CHRONIC ESTIMATION (ACE V 2.0) WITH TIME-CONCENTRATION-EFFECT MODELS: USER MANUAL AND SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ellersieck, Mark R., Amha Asfaw, Foster L. Mayer, Gary F. Krause, Kai Sun and Gunhee Lee. 2003. Acute-to-Chronic Estimation (ACE v2.0) with Time-Concentration-Effect Models: User Manual and Software. EPA/600/R-03/107. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Envi...

  13. Comparing the effects of rapid and gradual cooling on body temperature and inflammatory response following acute hyperthermia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperthermia negatively impacts human and animal health, and extreme cases can result in mortality if recovery is not appropriately managed. The study objective was to determine the effects of rapid versus gradual cooling on body temperature and the inflammatory response following exposure to acute ...

  14. Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2016 ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2006 [accessed 2017 ...

  15. Thyroid receptor β involvement in the effects of acute nicotine on hippocampus-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Leach, Prescott T; Kenney, Justin W; Connor, David A; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common despite adverse health effects. Nicotine's effects on learning may contribute to addiction by enhancing drug-context associations. Effects of nicotine on learning could be direct or could occur by altering systems that modulate cognition. Because thyroid signaling can alter cognition and nicotine/smoking may change thyroid function, nicotine could affect learning through changes in thyroid signaling. These studies investigate the functional contributions of thyroid receptor (TR) subtypes β and α1 to nicotine-enhanced learning and characterize the effects of acute nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels. We conducted a high throughput screen of transcription factor activity to identify novel targets that may contribute to the effects of nicotine on learning. Based on these results, which showed that combined nicotine and learning uniquely acted to increase TR activation, we identified TRs as potential targets of nicotine. Further analyses were conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels, but no changes were seen. Next, to determine the role of TRβ and TRα1 in the effects of nicotine on learning, mice lacking the TRβ or TRα1 gene and wildtype littermates were administered acute nicotine prior to fear conditioning. Nicotine enhanced contextual fear conditioning in TRα1 knockout mice and wildtypes from both lines but TRβ knockout mice did not show nicotine-enhanced learning. This finding supports involvement of TRβ signaling in the effect of acute nicotine on hippocampus-dependent memory. Acute nicotine enhances learning and these effects may involve processes regulated by the transcription factor TRβ.

  16. Assessment of the Acute and Chronic Health Hazards of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids.

    PubMed

    Wattenberg, Elizabeth V; Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Suchomel, Ashley E; Sweet, Jessica T; Vold, Elizabeth M; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about how hydraulic fracturing affects public health because this activity involves handling large volumes of fluids that contain toxic and carcinogenic constituents, which are injected under high pressure through wells into the subsurface to release oil and gas from tight shale formations. The constituents of hydraulic fracturing fluids (HFFs) present occupational health risks because workers may be directly exposed to them, and general public health risks because of potential air and water contamination. Hazard identification, which focuses on the types of toxicity that substances may cause, is an important step in the complex health risk assessment of hydraulic fracturing. This article presents a practical and adaptable tool for the hazard identification of HFF constituents, and its use in the analysis of HFF constituents reported to be used in 2,850 wells in North Dakota between December 2009 and November 2013. Of the 569 reported constituents, 347 could be identified by a Chemical Abstract Service Registration Number (CASRN) and matching constituent name. The remainder could not be identified either because of trade secret labeling (210) or because of an invalid CASRN (12). Eleven public databases were searched for health hazard information on thirteen health hazard endpoints for 168 identifiable constituents that had at least 25 reports of use. Health hazard counts were generated for chronic and acute endpoints, including those associated with oral, inhalation, ocular, and dermal exposure. Eleven of the constituents listed in the top 30 by total health hazard count were also listed in the top 30 by reports of use. This includes naphthalene, which along with benzyl chloride, has the highest health hazard count. The top 25 constituents reportedly used in North Dakota largely overlap with those reported for Texas and Pennsylvania, despite different geologic formations, target resources (oil vs. gas), and disclosure requirements

  17. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  18. Contextual factors associated with health care service utilization for children with acute childhood illnesses in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lilford, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the independent contribution of individual, community and state-level factors to health care service utilization for children with acute childhood illnesses in Nigeria. Materials and methods The study was based on secondary analyses of cross-sectional population-based data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to the data on 6,427 under-five children who used or did not use health care service when they were sick (level 1), nested within 896 communities (level 2) from 37 states (level 3). Results About one-quarter of the mothers were between 15 and 24 years old and almost half of them did not have formal education (47%). While only 30% of the children utilized health service when they were sick, close to 67% lived in the rural area. In the fully adjusted model, mothers with higher education attainment (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.63; 95% credible interval [CrI] = 1.31–2.03), from rich households (aOR = 1.76; 95% CrI = 1.35–2.25), with access to media (radio, television or magazine) (aOR = 1.18; 95% CrI = 1.08–1.29), and engaging in employment (aOR = 1.18; 95% CrI = 1.02–1.37) were significantly more likely to have used healthcare services for acute childhood illnesses. On the other hand, women who experienced difficulty getting to health facilities (aOR = 0.87; 95% CrI = 0.75–0.99) were less likely to have used health service for their children. Conclusions Our findings highlight that utilization of healthcare service for acute childhood illnesses was influenced by not only maternal factors but also community-level factors, suggesting that public health strategies should recognise this complex web of individual composition and contextual composition factors to guide provision of healthcare services. Such interventions could include: increase in female school enrolment, provision of interest-free loans for small and medium scale enterprises, introduction of

  19. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DOCUMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Health and Environmental Effects Documents (HEEDS) are prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). This document series is intended to support listings under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as to provide health-related limits and goals for emergency and remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency Program Office files are evaluated as they pertain to potential human health, aquatic life and environmental effects of hazardous waste constituents. Several quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. For systemic toxicants, these include Reference Doses (RfDs) for chronic and subchronic exposures for both the inhalation and oral exposures. In the case of suspected carcinogens, RfDs may not be estimated. Instead, a carcinogenic potency factor, or q1*, is provided. These potency estimates are derived for both oral and inhalation exposures where possible. In addition, unit risk estimates for air and drinking water are presented based on inhalation and oral data, respectively. Reportable quantities (RQs) based on both chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity are derived. The RQ is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified under CERCLA.

  1. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) and Medicare reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Douglas P.; Draper, Elizabeth A.

    1984-01-01

    This article describes the potential for the acute physiology score (APS) of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II, to be used as a severity adjustment to diagnosis-related groups (DRG's) or other diagnostic classifications. The APS is defined by a relative value scale applied to 12 objective physiologic variables routinely measured on most hospitalized patients shortly after hospital admission. For intensive care patients, APS at admission is strongly related to subsequent resource costs of intensive care for 5,790 consecutive admissions to 13 large hospitals, across and within diagnoses. The APS could also be used to evaluate quality of care, medical technology, and the response to changing financial incentives. PMID:10311080

  2. Effect of solcoseryl on antitumour action and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Danysz, A; Sołtysiak-Pawluczuk, D; Czyzewska-Szafran, H; Jedrych, A; Jastrzebski, Z

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo effect of Solcoseryl on the antitumour activity and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs was examined. It was found that Solcoseryl does not inhibit the antineoplastic effectiveness of the drugs against transplantable P 388 leukaemia in mice. Studies of the effect of Solcoseryl on acute toxicity of selected antineoplastic drugs in mice revealed that the biostimulator could exert a modifying influence. The prior administration of Solcoseryl significantly decreases the acute toxicity of methotrexate but has no effect on acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, increases the acute toxicity of bleomycin and vinblastine and has no effect on acute toxicity of methotrexate and mitoxantron. On the other hand, Solcoseryl administered simultaneously with the antineoplastic drugs increases acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and mitoxantron. The protective effect of the biostimulator noted exclusively against acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil was also observed after multiple administration of this anticancer drug.

  3. Perceived Control Alters the Effect of Acute Stress on Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Bhanji, Jamil P.; Kim, Eunbin S.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2015-01-01

    We often encounter setbacks while pursuing our goals. Success requires that we cope with these negative outcomes and choose to persist in spite of them. For example, learners may be more likely to continue a course after failing an assessment if they control their emotional reactions to the setback and study harder. However, the ability to effectively cope with the negative emotion inherent in such setbacks can be compromised by acute stress present in daily life (e.g., struggles in the household), which can subsequently lead to problems with persisting with a goal. The present study examined whether increasing the perception of control over setbacks (e.g., belief that a setback was caused by a correctable mistake rather than uncontrollable factors) can guard against the influence of a prior acute stressor on reactions to setbacks. Participants underwent a socially-evaluated cold water stress or a non-stress control procedure. Afterwards, they performed a behavioral task designed to measure persistence through controllable and uncontrollable setbacks. We observed that exposure to an acute stressor led to a detrimental effect on decision making by decreasing persistence behavior. Importantly, we also observed that the perception of control protected against the effect of preexisting stress and helped promote persistence. That is, stress impaired persistence through uncontrollable setbacks, but the impairment was alleviated by presenting setbacks as controllable. The findings demonstrate a potential avenue for improving the maintenance of goals aimed at behavior change, which can be susceptible to effects of stress. PMID:26726915

  4. Effects of acute exercise on long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Labban, Jeffrey D; Etnier, Jennifer L

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: exercise prior to exposure, exercise after exposure, or no-exercise. Exercise consisted of 30 min on a cycle ergometer including 20 min at moderate intensity. Only the exercise prior group recalled significantly more than the control group (p < .05). Differences among the exercise groups failed to reach significance (p = .09). Results indicated that acute exercise positively influenced recall and that exercise timing relative to memory task may have an impact on this effect.

  5. The Protective Effects of Buzui on Acute Alcoholism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Da-Chao; Gao, Shu-di; Hu, Xiao-yu; Yi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of a traditional buzui recipe in anti-inebriation treatment. Buzui consists of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Chebulae, Fructus Mume, Fructus Crataegi, Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli, and Excrementum Bombycis. The buzui mixture was delivered by gavage, and ethanol was delivered subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of buzui on the righting reflex, inebriation rates, and the survival curve are depicted. Blood alcohol concentrations, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were recorded. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, were also measured. Our results demonstrated that a traditional buzui recipe showed significant effects on promoting wakefulness and the prevention of acute alcohol intoxication, accelerating the metabolism of alcohol in the liver and reducing the oxidative damage caused by acute alcoholism. PMID:26884793

  6. The effect of menthol on acute experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi-Pirbaluti, Masoumeh; Motaghi, Ehsan; Bozorgi, Homan

    2017-03-18

    Menthol is an aromatic compound with high antiinflammatory activity. The purpose of the current research is to investigate the effectiveness of menthol on acetic acid induced acute colitis in rats. Animals were injected with menthol (20 and 50 and 80mg/kg, i.p.) 24h prior to induction of colitis for 3 consecutive days. Menthol at medium and higher doses similar to dexamethasone as a reference drug significantly reduced body weight loss, macroscopic damage score, ulcer area, colon weight, colon length and improved hematocrit in rats with colitis. The histopathological examination also confirmed anti-colitic effects of menthol. Menthol also reduced significantly the colonic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in inflamed colons. Thus, the findings of the current study provide evidence that menthol may be beneficial in patients suffering from acute ulcerative colitis.

  7. Health Promotion: An Effective Tool for Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Preetha, GS

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion is very relevant today. There is a global acceptance that health and social wellbeing are determined by many factors outside the health system which include socioeconomic conditions, patterns of consumption associated with food and communication, demographic patterns, learning environments, family patterns, the cultural and social fabric of societies; sociopolitical and economic changes, including commercialization and trade and global environmental change. In such a situation, health issues can be effectively addressed by adopting a holistic approach by empowering individuals and communities to take action for their health, fostering leadership for public health, promoting intersectoral action to build healthy public policies in all sectors and creating sustainable health systems. Although, not a new concept, health promotion received an impetus following Alma Ata declaration. Recently it has evolved through a series of international conferences, with the first conference in Canada producing the famous Ottawa charter. Efforts at promoting health encompassing actions at individual and community levels, health system strengthening and multi sectoral partnership can be directed at specific health conditions. It should also include settings-based approach to promote health in specific settings such as schools, hospitals, workplaces, residential areas etc. Health promotion needs to be built into all the policies and if utilized efficiently will lead to positive health outcomes. PMID:22529532

  8. Spaceflight Sensorimotor Analogs: Simulating Acute and Adaptive Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Reschke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes in sensorimotor function during spaceflight are reflected by spatial disorientation, motion sickness, gaze destabilization and decrements in balance, locomotion and eye-hand coordination that occur during and following transitions between different gravitational states. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-synthesis of data from spaceflight analogs to evaluate their effectiveness in simulating adaptive changes in sensorimotor function. METHODS. The analogs under review were categorized as either acute analogs used to simulate performance decrements accompanied with transient changes, or adaptive analogs used to drive sensorimotor learning to altered sensory feedback. The effectiveness of each analog was evaluated in terms of mechanisms of action, magnitude and time course of observed deficits compared to spaceflight data, and the effects of amplitude and exposure duration. RESULTS. Parabolic flight has been used extensively to examine effects of acute variation in gravitational loads, ranging from hypergravity to microgravity. More recently, galvanic vestibular stimulation has been used to elicit acute postural, locomotor and gaze dysfunction by disrupting vestibular afferents. Patient populations, e.g., with bilateral vestibular loss or cerebellar dysfunction, have been proposed to model acute sensorimotor dysfunction. Early research sponsored by NASA involved living onboard rotating rooms, which appeared to approximate the time course of adaptation and post-exposure recovery observed in astronauts following spaceflight. Exposure to different bed-rest paradigms (6 deg head down, dry immersion) result in similar motor deficits to that observed following spaceflight. Shorter adaptive analogs have incorporated virtual reality environments, visual distortion paradigms, exposure to conflicting tilt-translation cues, and exposure to 3Gx centrifugation. As with spaceflight, there is considerable variability in responses to most of the analogs

  9. The acute (cerebro)vascular effects of statins.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Vincent; Endres, Matthias

    2009-08-01

    The introduction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, i.e., statins, constitutes a milestone in the prevention of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease. The effects of statins extend far beyond their effects on cholesterol levels: pleiotropic effects include vasoprotective mechanisms, comprising improved endothelial function, increased bioavailability of nitric oxide, immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties, stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques, as well as antioxidant and stem cell-regulating capacities. Large clinical trials have clearly demonstrated that statins reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Recent experimental and clinical data have demonstrated that in addition to risk reduction, statins may also improve outcome after stroke and myocardial infarction, even when statins were administered after the event. Moreover, abrupt discontinuation of statin therapy after acute cardio- or cerebrovascular events may impair vascular function and increase morbidity and mortality. Beyond stroke, statin treatment also has been shown to provide protective effects in critically ill patients, e.g., after major surgery, sepsis, or in patients at high-vascular risk. However, although large randomized controlled trials are missing, ongoing trials will clarify the impact of acute statin treatment in these conditions. Although evidence is presently limited, acute statin therapy is emerging as a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of the critically ill. Until now, statins were only available as oral drugs. An IV formulation may be warranted for acute treatment of severely ill patients, for example, those who are unable to swallow or scheduled for surgery. Hydrophilic statins would be suitable for an IV formulation and have been safely tested in healthy volunteers.

  10. Effect of roxithromycin on acute toxoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, H R; Pechere, J C

    1987-01-01

    Roxithromycin effectively treated acute peritoneal murine toxoplasmosis. After five doses, starting 24 h after challenge, the 100 and 50% survival doses were 540 and 336 mg/kg per day, respectively. After 14 doses, starting 3 h after challenge, the 50% survival dose was 360 mg/kg per day. Toxoplasma gondii was recovered from the brain in 59 and 28% of surviving mice treated with 5 and 14 doses, respectively. PMID:3662475

  11. Effects of Acute Stress on Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Wemm, Stephanie E; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2017-03-01

    The study examined the effects of a social stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) on 24 male and 32 female college students' affective and physiological reactivity and their subsequent performance on a decision-making task (Iowa Gambling Task). The 56 participants were randomly assigned to a social stressor or a control condition. Compared to controls, participants in the stress condition responded with higher heart rates and skin conductance responses, reported more negative affect, and on the decision-making task made less advantageous choices. An exploratory regression analysis revealed that among men higher levels of heart rate were positively correlated with riskier choices on the Iowa Gambling Task, whereas for women this relationship was curvilinear. Exploratory correlational analyses showed that lower levels of skin conductance within the stress condition were associated with greater levels of substance use and gambling. The results suggest that the presence of a stressor may generally result in failure to attend to the full range of possible consequences of a decision. The relationship pattern between the degree of stress responding and successful decision making may be different for men and women.

  12. Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.

    PubMed

    Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2012-10-01

    The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (P<0.05). It is concluded that acute active and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably.

  13. Potent health effects of pomegranate

    PubMed Central

    Zarfeshany, Aida; Asgary, Sedigheh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions. PMID:24800189

  14. Nurses' perceptions of multidisciplinary team work in acute health-care.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Anita; Caldwell, Kay

    2006-12-01

    Multidisciplinary teamwork is viewed as one of the key processes through which care is managed in the British National Health Service, and yet is often viewed as one of the most problematic. Working in a multidisciplinary team requires many skills, which involves understanding not only one's own role but also the role of other professionals. The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of multidisciplinary teamwork in acute health-care. Nineteen nurses were interviewed using the critical incident approach to obtain their perceptions of multidisciplinary teamwork. Direct observation was conducted to record interactions between nurses and health-care professionals in multidisciplinary teams. In total, 14 meetings were attended in elder care and orthopaedics and seven in acute medicine. The findings of this study identified three barriers that hindered teamwork: (i) differing perceptions of teamwork; (ii) different levels of skills acquisitions to function as a team member; and (iii) the dominance of medical power that influenced interaction in teams. Thus, education establishments and nursing managers need to ensure that the acquisition of team-playing skills is an integral part of continued professional development.

  15. Ready, aim fire! Mental health nurses under siege in acute inpatient facilities.

    PubMed

    Ward, Louise

    2013-04-01

    It has been clearly acknowledged and well-documented that physical, emotional, and psychological violence is a central theme and an expected workplace hazard for registered nurses working in acute inpatient mental health care facilities. Limited research, however, has focused on how registered nurses have been able to cope within this environment and adequately protect themselves from harm. A critical feminist research project recently explored the lived experience of 13 Australian, female, registered nurses working in a busy metropolitan acute inpatient mental health care facility. "Fear" was exposed as the precursor to violence and aggression, both "fear as experienced by the nurse" and "fear as experienced by the patient." The participants reported experiencing a sense of fear when they could not accurately or confidently anticipate a patient response or reaction. They identified this relationship with fear as being "part of the job" and part of the unpredictable nature of caring for people experiencing complex distortions in thinking and behavior. The participants believed, however, that additional workplace pressures complicated the therapeutic environment, resulting in a distraction from patient care and observation. This distraction could lead to nurse-patient miscommunication and the potential for violence. This article discusses a major theme to emerge from this study, "Better the devil you know!" The theme highlights how mental health nurses cope with violence and why they choose to continue working in this complex care environment.

  16. Design Considerations for Post-Acute Care mHealth: Patient Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sanger, Patrick; Hartzler, Andrea; Lober, William B.; Evans, Heather L.; Pratt, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Many current mobile health applications (“apps”) and most previous research have been directed at management of chronic illnesses. However, little is known about patient preferences and design considerations for apps intended to help in a post-acute setting. Our team is developing an mHealth platform to engage patients in wound tracking to identify and manage surgical site infections (SSI) after hospital discharge. Post-discharge SSIs are a major source of morbidity and expense, and occur at a critical care transition when patients are physically and emotionally stressed. Through interviews with surgical patients who experienced SSI, we derived design considerations for such a post-acute care app. Key design qualities include: meeting basic accessibility, usability and security needs; encouraging patient-centeredness; facilitating better, more predictable communication; and supporting personalized management by providers. We illustrate our application of these guiding design considerations and propose a new framework for mHealth design based on illness duration and intensity. PMID:25954465

  17. Glucocorticoid therapy-induced memory deficits: acute versus chronic effects.

    PubMed

    Coluccia, Daniel; Wolf, Oliver T; Kollias, Spyros; Roozendaal, Benno; Forster, Adrian; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2008-03-26

    Conditions with chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels are usually associated with declarative memory deficits. Considerable evidence suggests that long-term glucocorticoid exposure may cause cognitive impairment via cumulative and long-lasting influences on hippocampal function and morphology. However, because elevated glucocorticoid levels at the time of retention testing are also known to have direct impairing effects on memory retrieval, it is possible that such acute hormonal influences on retrieval processes contribute to the memory deficits found with chronic glucocorticoid exposure. To investigate this issue, we examined memory functions and hippocampal volume in 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were treated either chronically (5.3 +/- 1.0 years, mean +/- SE) with low to moderate doses of prednisone (7.5 +/- 0.8 mg, mean +/- SE) or without glucocorticoids. In both groups, delayed recall of words learned 24 h earlier was assessed under conditions of either elevated or basal glucocorticoid levels in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. Although the findings in this patient population did not provide evidence for harmful effects of a history of chronic prednisone treatment on memory performance or hippocampal volume per se, acute prednisone administration 1 h before retention testing to either the steroid or nonsteroid group impaired word recall. Thus, these findings indicate that memory deficits observed under chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels result, at least in part, from acute and reversible glucocorticoid effects on memory retrieval.

  18. Effects of acute hippocampal stimulation on EEG dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sandeep P; Sackellares, J Chris; Shiau, Deng-Shan; Norman, Wendy M; Dance, Linda K; Pardalos, Panos M; Principe, Jose C; Carney, Paul R

    2006-01-01

    Progressive preictal dynamical convergence and postictal divergence of dynamical EEG descriptors among brain regions has been reported in human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in a rodent model of TLE. There are also reports of anticonvulsant effects of high frequency stimulation of the hippocampus in humans. We postulate that this anticonvulsant effect is due to dynamical resetting by the electrical stimulation. The following study investigated the effects of acute hippocampal electrical stimulation on dynamical transitions in the brain of a spontaneously seizing animal model of TLE to test the hypothesis of divergence in dynamical values by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus.

  19. Public Health Lessons from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome a Decade Later

    PubMed Central

    Butler-Jones, David; Tsang, Thomas; Yu, Wang

    2013-01-01

    The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in 2002–2003 exacted considerable human and economic costs from countries involved. It also exposed major weaknesses in several of these countries in coping with an outbreak of a newly emerged infectious disease. In the 10 years since the outbreak, in addition to the increase in knowledge of the biology and epidemiology of this disease, a major lesson learned is the value of having a national public health institute that is prepared to control disease outbreaks and designed to coordinate a national response and assist localities in their responses. PMID:23739634

  20. An innovative, multidisciplinary, process-driven approach to acute stroke in a community health system network.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Richard D; To, Chiu Yuen; Gordon, Vickie; Stover, Carrie; Dunne, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of death and disability in the United States, yet it is undertreated by many major medical centers across the country. Timely recognition and treatment of acute ischemic stroke remains a challenge due to confusing clinical presentations, hospital logistics, communication barriers among providers, and lack of standardized treatment algorithms. By creating a system-wide Code Stroke protocol, St. John Providence Health System improved documentation, increased intravenous tissue plasminogen activator delivery, reduced specialist call-back times, improved door-to-computer tomography scan and door-to-needle time, and identified appropriate patients for endovascular therapy.

  1. Analysis of weekend effect on 30-day mortality among patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Noad, Rebecca; Stevenson, Michael; Herity, Niall A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Several publications have demonstrated increased 30-day mortality in patients admitted on Saturdays or Sundays compared with weekdays. We sought to determine whether this was true for two different cohorts of patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and results Thirty-day mortality data were obtained for 3757 patients who had been admitted to the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust with acute MI between 2009 and 2015. They were subdivided into those presenting with ST elevation MI (n=2240) and non-ST elevation MI (n= 1517). We observed no excess 30-day mortality in those admitted over weekends. Conclusion Excess mortality in patients admitted at weekends is not a universal finding. This may mean that that there are patient subgroups with proportionately greater weekend hazard and points to the need for more detailed understanding of the weekend effect.

  2. Exploring the Relationships between the Electronic Health Record System Components and Patient Outcomes in an Acute Hospital Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggley, Shirley L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the electronic health record system components and patient outcomes in an acute hospital setting, given that the current presidential administration has earmarked nearly $50 billion to the implementation of the electronic health record. The relationship between the…

  3. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute bronchitis, your health care provider will ask about your symptoms and listen to your breathing. You may also have other tests. Treatments include rest, fluids, and aspirin (for adults) or ...

  4. The effects of acute sleep deprivation during residency training.

    PubMed

    Bartle, E J; Sun, J H; Thompson, L; Light, A I; McCool, C; Heaton, S

    1988-08-01

    Verbal and symbol concentration, learning, problem solving, clear thinking, manual skills, and memory were tested in 42 surgical residents to assess the effects of acute sleep deprivation on specific neuropsychological parameters. A series of eight neuropsychological tests--digit symbols, digit vigilance, story memory, trail making, PASAT, Raven matrices, delayed story, and pegboard--and a questionnaire on mood states were completed by the residents both when fatigued (less than 4 hours of sleep: mean, 2.0 +/- 1.5 hours) and when rested (more than 4 hours of sleep: mean, 6.5 +/- 1.0 hours), with at least 7 days between tests. In order to eliminate the effects of learning from the first test series, randomization of residents was performed so that one half were first evaluated when rested and one half when fatigued. ANOVA, multiple regression analysis, and the Student t test were used to assess differences. In the acute sleep-deprived state, residents were less vigorous and more fatigued, depressed, tense, confused, and angry (p less than 0.05) than they were in rested state. Despite these changes in mood, however, the responses on all of the functional tests were no different statistically in those who were rested and those who were fatigued (even in those with less than 2 hours' sleep). We conclude that acute sleep deprivation of less than 4 hours alters mood state but does not change performance in test situations in which concentration, clear thinking, and problem solving are important.

  5. Effects of acute ingestion of salbutamol during submaximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Collomp, K; Candau, R; Collomp, R; Carra, J; Lasne, F; Préfaut, C; De Ceaurriz, J

    2000-10-01

    To assess the eventual effects of acute oral salbutamol intake on performance and metabolism during submaximal exercise, nine healthy volunteers completed two cycling trials at a power corresponding to 80-85% VO2max, after either placebo (Pla) or salbutamol (Sal, 6 mg) treatment, according to a double-blind randomized protocol. Blood samples were collected both at rest and during exercise (5 min-, 10 min-, 15 min-exhaustion) for C-peptide, FFA, lactate and blood glucose measurements. Cycling performance was significantly improved in the Sal vs. Pla trials (p < 0.05). After Sal intake, resting C-peptide, lactate, FFA and blood glucose values were higher whereas exercise lactate and free fatty acid concentrations were greater during and at the conclusion of the exercise period (p < 0.05). These results suggest that acute salbutamol ingestion improved performance during submaximal exercise probably through an enhancement of the overall contribution to energy production from both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms.

  6. The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED).

    PubMed

    Woodall, George M; Smith, Roy L

    2008-11-15

    The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED) is currently used by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to support risk assessments for the Residual Risk Program. An assessment of the residual risk is required to be performed at a specified time (typically 8 years) following the promulgation of a technology-based Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT) standard. The goal of the Residual Risk Program is to assure that the risk that remains after MACT standards are implemented (i.e., the "residual risk") is acceptable, and if not, to propose additional regulations to mitigate those risks. ATHED maintains all available reference values for each chemical as separate data records, and includes values for all exposure durations (acute, short-term, subchronic and chronic). These values are used as benchmarks to determine acceptable exposure levels to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. ATHED also provides useful background information on the uncertainty and/or modifying factors that were applied in the derivation of each reference value, as well as the point of departure and the critical study/studies. To facilitate comparisons across durations for a specific chemical, ATHED data can be graphically presented.

  7. Effects on health of air pollution: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Harari, Sergio; Martinelli, Ida; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution is a complex and ubiquitous mixture of pollutants including particulate matter, chemical substances and biological materials. There is growing awareness of the adverse effects on health of air pollution following both acute and chronic exposure, with a rapidly expanding body of evidence linking air pollution with an increased risk of respiratory (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents). Elderly subjects, pregnant women, infants and people with prior diseases appear especially susceptible to the deleterious effects of ambient air pollution. The main diseases associated with exposure to air pollutants will be summarized in this narrative review.

  8. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  9. Health effects of dietary phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Küllenberg, Daniela; Taylor, Lenka A; Schneider, Michael; Massing, Ulrich

    2012-01-05

    Beneficial effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs) have been mentioned since the early 1900's in relation to different illnesses and symptoms, e.g. coronary heart disease, inflammation or cancer. This article gives a summary of the most common therapeutic uses of dietary PLs to provide an overview of their approved and proposed benefits; and to identify further investigational needs.From the majority of the studies it became evident that dietary PLs have a positive impact in several diseases, apparently without severe side effects. Furthermore, they were shown to reduce side effects of some drugs. Both effects can partially be explained by the fact that PL are highly effective in delivering their fatty acid (FA) residues for incorporation into the membranes of cells involved in different diseases, e.g. immune or cancer cells. The altered membrane composition is assumed to have effects on the activity of membrane proteins (e.g. receptors) by affecting the microstructure of membranes and, therefore, the characteristics of the cellular membrane, e.g. of lipid rafts, or by influencing the biosynthesis of FA derived lipid second messengers. However, since the FAs originally bound to the applied PLs are increased in the cellular membrane after their consumption or supplementation, the FA composition of the PL and thus the type of PL is crucial for its effect. Here, we have reviewed the effects of PL from soy, egg yolk, milk and marine sources. Most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals and only limited evidence is available for the benefit of PL supplementation in humans. More research is needed to understand the impact of PL supplementation and confirm its health benefits.

  10. [Access to medicines prescribed for acute health conditions in adults in South and Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Cechin, Isabel Carolina Coelho Flores; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; Silveira, Denise Silva da; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study within Brazil's Project for the Expansion and Consolidation of Family Health, 2005, with the objective of universal and free access to the medication prescribed in the last medical appointment for acute health problems and to estimate the degree to which access may have improved with inclusion of the medicines in prevailing policies and programs. The sample included 4,060 adults living in the area of primary health care units in 41 municipalities in South and Northeast Brazil. Access was greater in the South (83.2%) than in the Northeast (71%), and free access was similar (37%), with a greater share by the Family Health Program (FHP) when compared to the traditional model, especially in the Northeast. Some 60% of prescribed medicines and 50% of those on the National List of Essential Medicines (RENAME) were paid for. No variation was observed in the proportion of medicines present on the prevailing RENAME list and access. However, 40% of the medicines that were paid for can currently be obtained through the Popular Pharmacy Program. The latter program appears to emerge as a new way to guarantee access to medicines prescribed in the health system.

  11. Effects of acute bouts of exercise on cognition.

    PubMed

    Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2003-03-01

    A review was conducted of studies that assessed the effects of acute bouts of physical activity on adults' cognitive performance. Three groups of studies were constituted on the basis of the type of exercise protocol employed. Each group was then evaluated in terms of information-processing theory. It was concluded that submaximal aerobic exercise performed for periods up to 60 min facilitate specific aspects of information processing; however, extended exercise that leads to dehydration compromises both information processing and memory functions. The selective effects of exercise on cognitive performance are explained in terms of Sanders' [Acta Psychol. 53 (1983) 61] cognitive-energetic model.

  12. Care Transitions in Long-term Care and Acute Care: Health Information Exchange and Readmission Rates.

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Brian; Ko, Kelly J; Alvarez del Castillo, Rodolfo

    2015-09-30

    Care transitions between settings are a well-known cause of medical errors. A key component of transition is information exchange, especially in long-term care (LTC). However, LTC is behind other settings in adoption of health information technologies (HIT). In this article, we provide some brief background information about care transitions in LTC and concerns related to technology. We describe a pilot project using HIT and secure messaging in LTC to facilitate electronic information exchange during care transitions. Five LTC facilities were included, all located within Oklahoma and serviced by the same regional health system. The study duration was 20 months. Both inpatient readmission and return emergency department (ED) visit rates were lower than baseline following implementation. We provide discussion of positive outcomes, lessons learned, and limitations. Finally, we offer implications for practice and research for implementation of HIT and information exchange across care settings that may contribute to reduction in readmission rates in acute care and ED settings.

  13. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Bahareh; Nakhsaz, Alireza; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) were evaluated using forced swim test (FST). In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals), antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of drugs were examined using FST and tail suspension test (TST). Locomotor activity and motor coordination were studied using open field and rotarod tests, respectively. Results: Acute treatment with crocin (40 mg/kg) and crocetin (20 and 40 mg/kg) produced antidepressant-like effect in FST without affecting the baseline locomotion in mice. Sub-acute oral administration of crocin significantly decreased immobility time only at the highest dose (100 mg/kg). Crocetin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was able to decrease immobility time in FST and TST. Locomotor activity and coordination of mice were not affected by crocin or crocetin. Conclusion: Since higher doses of crocin was required to show antidepressant effects, more efficacy of crocetin may be concluded. This observation provides further support for metabolism of crocin to crocetin following oral administration. PMID:26468466

  14. Remote effects of acute kidney injury in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Gardner, David S; De Brot, Simone; Dunford, Louise J; Grau-Roma, Llorenc; Welham, Simon J M; Fallman, Rebecca; O'Sullivan, Saoirse E; Oh, Weng; Devonald, Mark A J

    2016-02-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious condition with no specific treatment. An episode of AKI may affect organs distant from the kidney, further increasing the morbidity associated with AKI. The mechanism of organ cross talk after AKI is unclear. The renal and immune systems of pigs and humans are alike. Using a preclinical animal (porcine) model, we tested the hypothesis that early effects of AKI on distant organs is by immune cell infiltration, leading to inflammatory cytokine production, extravasation, and edema. In 29 pigs exposed to either sham surgery or renal ischemia-reperfusion (control, n = 12; AKI, n = 17), we assessed remote organ (liver, lung, brain) effects in the short (from 2- to 48-h reperfusion) and longer term (5 wk later) using immunofluorescence (for leukocyte infiltration, apoptosis), a cytokine array, tissue elemental analysis (e.g., electrolytes), blood hematology and chemistry (e.g., liver enzymes), and PCR (for inflammatory markers). AKI elicited significant, short-term (∼24 h) increments in enzymes indicative of acute liver damage (e.g. , AST: ALT ratio; P = 0.02) and influenced tissue biochemistry in some remote organs (e.g., lung tissue [Ca(2+)] increased; P = 0.04). These effects largely resolved after 48 h, and no further histopathology, edema, apoptosis, or immune cell infiltration was noted in the liver, lung, or hippocampus in the short and longer term. AKI has subtle biochemical effects on remote organs in the short term, including a transient increment in markers of acute liver damage. These effects resolved by 48 h, and no further remote organ histopathology, apoptosis, edema, or immune cell infiltration was noted.

  15. Resistance to changing practice from pro re nata prescriptions to patient group directions in acute mental health settings.

    PubMed

    Price, O; Baker, J A

    2013-09-01

    Poor practice associated with pro re nata (PRN) prescriptions in mental health is known to be common and can increase the risk of serious and potentially fatal side effects. A contributing factor to poor practice is the lack of a clear chain of accountability between the decision to prescribe and administer PRN prescriptions. To address this problem, a patient group direction (PGD) for acute behavioural disturbance (lorazepam 0.5-2 mg) and staff training materials were developed. The intention was to replace PRN prescriptions with the PGD in two mental health trusts. One of the potential benefits of this would be the removal of the contribution of PRN to high and combined dose antipsychotic prescriptions. This proposal, however, was met with significant resistance in both trusts and did not replace PRN as a result. A series of interviews and focus groups were conducted with 16 RMNs working in the two trusts, to explore the reasons why the PGD was met with resistance. Senior nurses perceived resistance to be associated with anxieties over increased responsibility for decision making. Junior nurses reported concerns regarding the medicalization of the nursing role, the paperwork associated with the PGD and the training approach used. Future efforts to implement PGDs in mental health settings must carefully consider the methods for engaging effectively with participating organizations, in terms of managing change and completing the necessary groundwork for successful implementation.

  16. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    PubMed Central

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-01-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There is no current method of measuring human body odor, other than by human panel studies of expert judges of air quality. Human body odors have been quantitated in terms of the "olf" which is the amount of air pollution produced by the average person. Another quantitative unit of odorants is the "decipol," which is the perceived level of pollution produced by the average human ventilated by 10 L/sec of unpolluted air or its equivalent level of dissatisfaction from nonhuman air pollutants. The standard regulatory approach, focusing on individual constituents or chemicals, is not likely to be successful in adequately controlling odorants in indoor air. Besides the current approach of setting minimum ventilation standards to prevent health effects due to indoor air pollution, a standard based on the olf or decipol unit might be more efficacious as well as simpler to measure. PMID:1821378

  17. Health Effects of Shift Work

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    More than 13.5 million American workers, close to 20 percent of the work force, are assigned to evening or night shifts. In some industries such as automobile, petrochemical and textile manufacturing the proportion of shift workers is greater than 50 percent. As the popularity of shift work and other “alternative work schedules” grows, concern is increasing over the disturbance created in the lives of workers and their families by these economically and socially useful innovations. Twenty percent of workers are unable to tolerate shift work. Daily physiologic variations termed circadian rhythms are interactive and require a high degree of phase relationship to produce subjective feelings of wellbeing. Disturbance of these activities, circadian desynchronization, whether from passage over time zones or from shift rotation, results in health effects such as disturbance of the quantity and quality of sleep, disturbance of gastrointestinal and other organ system activities, and aggravation of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and thyrotoxicosis. Worker selection can reduce the number of health problems resulting from shift work. The periodic examination of shift workers is recommended. PMID:6962577

  18. Effects of diazoxide in experimental acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Andrade, Roberta; Kunitake, Tiago; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Machado, Marcel C C; Souza, Heraldo Possolo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effects of diazoxide on the mortality, pancreatic injury, and inflammatory response in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (200–400 g) were divided randomly into two groups. Fifteen minutes before surgery, animals received physiological (0.9%) saline (3 mL/kg) (control group) or 45 mg/kg diazoxide (treatment group) via the intravenous route. Acute pancreatitis was induced by injection of 2.5% sodium taurocholate via the biliopancreatic duct. Mortality (n=38) was observed for 72 h and analyzed by the Mantel–Cox Log-rank test. To study pancreatic lesions and systemic inflammation, rats (10 from each group) were killed 3 h after acute pancreatitis induction; ascites volume was measured and blood as well as pancreases were collected. Pancreatic injury was assessed according to Schmidt’s scale. Cytokine expression in plasma was evaluated by the multiplex method. RESULTS: Mortality at 72 h was 33% in the control group and 60% in the treatment group (p=0.07). Ascites volumes and plasma levels of cytokines between groups were similar. No difference was observed in edema or infiltration of inflammatory cells in pancreatic tissues from either group. However, necrosis of acinar cells was lower in the treatment group compared to the control group (3.5 vs. 3.75, p=0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with diazoxide can reduce necrosis of acinar cells in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis, but does not affect the inflammatory response or mortality after 72 h. PMID:28273237

  19. Acute effects of ethanol on renal folate clearance in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.; McMartin, K.E.

    1986-03-05

    Studies of the renal clearance of folic acid in primates demonstrate net reabsorption of folate by a saturable system. The acute administration of ethanol to rats causes a significant increase in urinary folate excretion. The mechanism for this effect is unknown and thus the effect of acute administration of ethanol on the renal absorption and urinary clearance of folate was studied in rats. Folic acid was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats via continuous intravenous infusion in doses ranging from 3-75 micromoles/kg and renal clearance relative to inulin was determined. The effects of various dose levels of ethanol on these parameters were then determined. At a dose of 15 micromoles/kg, the renal clearance of folate relative to that of inulin was about 0.65 mg/min. At a plasma ethanol level about 100 mg/dl, the renal clearance of folate was not markedly altered. These results suggests that there is net reabsorption of folate in the rat kidney and that moderate doses of ethanol have little effect on renal effect on renal folate reabsorption.

  20. Health Effects of Petroleum Coke

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Significant quantities of fugitive dust from pet coke storage and handling operations present a health risk. EPA’s research suggests that petcoke does not pose a different health risk than similar-sized particulate matter (PM10).

  1. The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Hillman, C H; Pontifex, M B; Raine, L B; Castelli, D M; Hall, E E; Kramer, A F

    2009-03-31

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indexes of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included 20 preadolescent participants (age=9.5+/-0.5 years; eight female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 min of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e. walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further support the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan.

  2. Health- and vegetative-based effect screening values for ethylene.

    PubMed

    Erraguntla, Neeraja K; Grant, Roberta L

    2015-11-05

    potential cancer risk. Therefore, the short-term ESL for air permit reviews and air monitoring evaluations is the vegetation-based ESL of 1200 ppb as it is more than a magnitude lower than the health-based acute ESL of 150,000 ppb. Similar to the acute derivation, the chronic evaluation resulted in the derivation of a chronic vegetation based ESL of 30 ppb that was much lower than the chronic ESL of 1600 ppb. In summary, the TCEQ's acute and chronic ESLs for vegetation will protect the general public from short-term and long-term adverse health and welfare effects. The general public includes children, the elderly, pregnant women, and people with pre-existing health conditions.

  3. Health Effects of Climate Change (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Health Effects The Basics Changes in ...

  4. [Effective access to health services: operationalizing universal health coverage].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán; Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    The right to health and its operational form, as an organized social response to health: the right to health protection, are the mainstay for the global push towards universal health coverage. The path to achieve this goal is particular to each country and relates to the baseline and specific context in relation to what is feasible. In practical terms, universal coverage involves the correlation between demand and supply of services (promotion, prevention, and care), expressed by the ability for each individual to make use of services when these are required. In those terms universal coverage is then effective access. The objective of the paper is to explore the conceptualization of effective access to health services and propose a definition that allows its operationalization thereof. This definition considers key elements of supply and demand of services, including the availability of resources and adequate provision (quality), as well as barriers to use them.

  5. Effects of Mental Health Benefits Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926

  6. Overview of systematic reviews: yoga as a therapeutic intervention for adults with acute and chronic health conditions.

    PubMed

    McCall, Marcy C; Ward, Alison; Roberts, Nia W; Heneghan, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Overview the quality, direction, and characteristics of yoga interventions for treatment of acute and chronic health conditions in adult populations. Methods. We searched for systematic reviews in 10 online databases, bibliographic references, and hand-searches in yoga-related journals. Included reviews satisfy Oxman criteria and specify yoga as a primary intervention in one or more randomized controlled trials for treatment in adults. The AMSTAR tool and GRADE approach evaluated the methodological quality of reviews and quality of evidence. Results. We identified 2202 titles, of which 41 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 26 systematic reviews satisfied inclusion criteria. Thirteen systematic reviews include quantitative data and six papers include meta-analysis. The quality of evidence is generally low. Sixteen different types of health conditions are included. Eleven reviews show tendency towards positive effects of yoga intervention, 15 reviews report unclear results, and no, reviews report adverse effects of yoga. Yoga appears most effective for reducing symptoms in anxiety, depression, and pain. Conclusion. Although the quality of systematic reviews is high, the quality of supporting evidence is low. Significant heterogeneity and variability in reporting interventions by type of yoga, settings, and population characteristics limit the generalizability of results.

  7. Overview of Systematic Reviews: Yoga as a Therapeutic Intervention for Adults with Acute and Chronic Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Marcy C.; Ward, Alison; Roberts, Nia W.; Heneghan, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Overview the quality, direction, and characteristics of yoga interventions for treatment of acute and chronic health conditions in adult populations. Methods. We searched for systematic reviews in 10 online databases, bibliographic references, and hand-searches in yoga-related journals. Included reviews satisfy Oxman criteria and specify yoga as a primary intervention in one or more randomized controlled trials for treatment in adults. The AMSTAR tool and GRADE approach evaluated the methodological quality of reviews and quality of evidence. Results. We identified 2202 titles, of which 41 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 26 systematic reviews satisfied inclusion criteria. Thirteen systematic reviews include quantitative data and six papers include meta-analysis. The quality of evidence is generally low. Sixteen different types of health conditions are included. Eleven reviews show tendency towards positive effects of yoga intervention, 15 reviews report unclear results, and no, reviews report adverse effects of yoga. Yoga appears most effective for reducing symptoms in anxiety, depression, and pain. Conclusion. Although the quality of systematic reviews is high, the quality of supporting evidence is low. Significant heterogeneity and variability in reporting interventions by type of yoga, settings, and population characteristics limit the generalizability of results. PMID:23762174

  8. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients.

  9. [Acute and long-term effects of ecstasy].

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Julie; Marie-Claire, Cynthia; Noble, Florence

    2004-10-23

    Side effects in the short term Recreational use of Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA), a synthetic drug, has considerably increased over the last decade. Since its appearance it is associated with the rave culture, but its use has spread to other social settings. The drug produces euphoria and empathy, but can lead to side effects, notably acute, potentially lethal, toxicity (malignant hyperthermia and/or hepatitis). Neurotoxicity in the long-term Moreover, MDMA has been shown to induce long-term deleterious effects and provoke neurotoxic affecting the serotoninergic system. However, the psychopathological consequences of such neurotoxicity are still controversial, particularly since many ecstasy consumers are multi-drug users. A complex pharmacological profile The mechanism of action of MDMA involves various neurobiological systems (serotonin, dopamine, noradrenalin), that may all interact.

  10. Background on health effects of acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.

    1989-02-01

    This introduction to the 1987 NIEHS-EPA Symposium on the Health Effects of Acid Aerosols reviews the state of our knowledge on this topic as of the close of the 1984 NIEHS Conference on the Health Effects of Acid Precipitation and the results of some key studies completed since that time. These studies, together with the results of the studies presented in the papers that follow, provide a substantial increment in our knowledge of the health effects of acid aerosols.

  11. Evaluating the impact of depression, anxiety & autonomic function on health related quality of life, vocational functioning and health care utilisation in acute coronary syndrome patients: the ADVENT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent and co-morbid in acute coronary syndrome patients. Somatic and cognitive subtypes of depression and anxiety in acute coronary syndrome have been shown to be associated with mortality although their association with patient outcomes is unknown, as are the mechanisms that underpin these associations. We are conducting a prospective cohort study which aims to examine in acute coronary syndrome patients: (1) the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life outcomes; (2) how somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety relate to long term vocational functioning and healthcare utilisation; and (3) the role of the autonomic nervous system assessed by heart rate variability as a moderator of these associations. Methods Patients are being screened after index admission for acute coronary syndrome at a single, high volume centre, MonashHeart, Monash Health, Victoria, Australia. The inclusion criterion is all patients aged > 21 years old and fluent in English admitted to MonashHeart, Monash Health with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The primary outcome is mean health related quality of life (Short Form-36) Physical and Mental Health Summary scores at 12 and 24 months in subtypes with somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Depressive domains are assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Cardiac Depression Scale. Anxiety is measured using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Crown Crisp Phobic Anxiety questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include clinical variables, healthcare service utilisation and vocational functioning. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a prospective cohort study which will investigate the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life, long-term vocational functioning and health service use, and the role of the autonomic nervous system in

  12. Protective effects of endothelin-1 on acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kogire, M; Inoue, K; Higashide, S; Takaori, K; Echigo, Y; Gu, Y J; Sumi, S; Uchida, K; Imamura, M

    1995-06-01

    Endothelin-1, a 21-residue peptide isolated from vascular endothelial cells, has a broad spectrum of actions. To clarify the involvement of endothelin-1 in acute pancreatitis, we examined the effects of endothelin-1 and its receptor antagonist BQ-123 on cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. Rats were infused intravenously with heparin-saline (control), endothelin-1 (100 pmol/kg/hr), cerulein (5 micrograms/kg/hr), or cerulein plus endothelin-1 for 3.5 hr. In another experiment, cerulein or cerulein plus BQ-123 (3 mg/kg/hr) was infused. Infusion of cerulein caused hyperamylasemia and pancreatic edema. Endothelin-1, when infused with cerulein, decreased the extent of pancreatic edema with a significant increase in the pancreatic dry- to wet-weight ratio. Histological changes induced by cerulein were markedly attenuated when endothelin-1 was given with cerulein. In contrast, endothelin-receptor blockade with BQ-123 further augmented pancreatic edema caused by cerulein. The extent of inflammatory cell infiltration was greater than BQ-123 was given with cerulein. Endothelin-1 or BQ-123 had no influence on hyperamylasemia. This study suggests that endothelin-1 has protective effects on experimental acute pancreatitis.

  13. Acute effects of a glucose energy drink on behavioral control.

    PubMed

    Howard, Meagan A; Marczinski, Cecile A

    2010-12-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of glucose energy drinks (e.g., Amp, Monster, and Red Bull) in the past decade, particularly among high school and college students. However, little laboratory research has examined the acute objective and subjective effects of energy drinks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a glucose energy drink (Red Bull) on cognitive functioning. Participants (N = 80) were randomly assigned to one of five conditions: 1.8 ml/kg energy drink, 3.6 ml/kg energy drink, 5.4 ml/kg energy drink, placebo beverage, or no drink. Participants completed a well-validated behavioral control task (the cued go/no-go task) and subjective measures of stimulation, sedation, and mental fatigue both before and 30 minutes following beverage administration. The results indicated that compared with the placebo and no drink conditions, the energy drink doses decreased reaction times on the behavioral control task, increased subjective ratings of stimulation and decreased ratings of mental fatigue. Greatest improvements in reaction times and subjective measures were observed with the lowest dose and improvements diminished as the dose increased. The findings suggest that energy drink consumption can improve cognitive performance on a behavioral control task, potentially explaining the dramatic rise in popularity of these controversial new beverages.

  14. Chemopreventive effects of resveratrol in a rat model of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Cristina; Holguín-Arévalo, María S; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Rodríguez, Ana B; Pariente, José A

    2014-02-01

    In the past decades, a greater understanding of acute pancreatitis has led to improvement in mortality rates. Nevertheless, this disease continues to be a health care system problem due to its economical costs. Future strategies such as antioxidant supplementation could be very promising, regarding to beginning and progression of the disease. For this reason, this study was aimed at assessing the effect of exogenous administration of resveratrol during the induction process of acute pancreatitis caused by the cholecystokinin analog cerulein in rats. Resveratrol pretreatment reduced histological damage induced by cerulein treatment, as well as hyperamylasemia and hyperlipidemia. Altered levels of corticosterone, total antioxidant status, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly reverted to control levels by the administration of resveratrol. Lipid peroxidation was also counteracted; nevertheless, superoxide dismutase enzyme was overexpressed due to resveratrol pretreatment. Related to immune response, resveratrol pretreatment reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β levels and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 levels. In addition, pretreatment with resveratrol in cerulein-induced pancreatitis rats was able to reverse, at least partially, the abnormal calcium signal induced by treatment with cerulein. In conclusion, this study confirms antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties of resveratrol as chemopreventive in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

  15. Acute and chronic effects of four commercial herbicide formulations on Ceriodaphnia dubia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ort, M. P.; Fairchild, J.F.; Finger, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    Toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to determine acute (48 h) and chronic (7-day survival and reproduction) effects of four commonly used herbicide formulations. The 48-h LC50s in decreasing order of toxicity were 14.36 mg/L (Micro-Tech®), 15.93 mg/L (Bicep®), 32.99 mg/L (Extrazine®), and 35.36 mg/L (Lexone®). Reduced reproduction was detected at concentrations below 48-h LC50s for three of the formulations. The 7-day chronic values (ChV) based on reproduction were 17.68 mg/L (Micro-Tech®), 8.84 mg/L (Bicep®), 17.68 mg/L (Extrazine®), and 8.84 mg/L (Lexone®). The acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) for Micro-Tech® (0.81), Bicep® (1.80), Extrazine® (1.86), and Lexone® (4.00) indicate a relatively narrow range between acute and chronic sensitivity in daphnids. A comparison of these response data to environmental concentrations suggests these herbicides are not likely to directly impact invertebrates. Potential impacts on plants and human health should be of primary ecological and regulatory concern.

  16. Comparison of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation IV to predict intensive care unit mortality

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Bashu Dev; Shrestha, Gentle S.; Pradhan, Bishwas; Amatya, Roshana

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical assessment of severity of illness is an essential component of medical practice to predict the outcome of critically ill-patient. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) model is one of the widely used scoring systems. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the Performance of APACHE II and IV scoring systems in our Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Settings and Design: A prospective study in 6 bedded ICU, including 76 patients all above 15 years. Subjects and Methods: APACHE II and APACHE IV scores were calculated based on the worst values in the first 24 h of admission. All enrolled patients were followed, and outcome was recorded as survivors or nonsurvivors. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 17. Results: The mean APACHE score was significantly higher among nonsurvivors than survivors (P < 0.005). Discrimination for APACHE II and APACHE IV was fair with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73 and 0.79 respectively. The cut-off point with best Youden index for APACHE II was 17 and for APACHE IV was 85. Above cut-off point, mortality was higher for both models (P < 0.005). Hosmer–Lemeshow Chi-square coefficient test showed better calibration for APACHE II than APACHE IV. A positive correlation was seen between the models with Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.748 (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Discrimination was better for APACHE IV than APACHE II model however Calibration was better for APACHE II than APACHE IV model in our study. There was good correlation between the two models observed in our study. PMID:25722550

  17. A critical narrative analysis of shared decision-making in acute inpatient mental health care.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Gemma; Felton, Anne; Morgan, Alastair; Stickley, Theo; Willis, Martin; Diamond, Bob; Houghton, Philip; Johnson, Beverley; Dumenya, John

    2016-01-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM) is a high priority in healthcare policy and is complementary to the recovery philosophy in mental health care. This agenda has been operationalised within the Values-Based Practice (VBP) framework, which offers a theoretical and practical model to promote democratic interprofessional approaches to decision-making. However, these are limited by a lack of recognition of the implications of power implicit within the mental health system. This study considers issues of power within the context of decision-making and examines to what extent decisions about patients' care on acute in-patient wards are perceived to be shared. Focus groups were conducted with 46 mental health professionals, service users, and carers. The data were analysed using the framework of critical narrative analysis (CNA). The findings of the study suggested each group constructed different identity positions, which placed them as inside or outside of the decision-making process. This reflected their view of themselves as best placed to influence a decision on behalf of the service user. In conclusion, the discourse of VBP and SDM needs to take account of how differentials of power and the positioning of speakers affect the context in which decisions take place.

  18. Pulmonary Health Effects of Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Tara M.; Bailey, Kristina L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are associated with numerous lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, lung cancer and interstitial lung diseases. Efforts are ongoing to ascertain contributing factors to these negative respiratory outcomes and improve monitoring of environmental factors leading to disease. In this review, recently published studies investigating the deleterious effects of occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are discussed. Recent findings Occupational exposures to numerous agricultural environment aerosols, including pesticides, fungi, and bacteria are associated with impaired respiratory function and disease. Increases in certain farming practices, including mushroom and greenhouse farming, present new occupational exposure concerns. Improved detection methods may provide opportunities to better monitor safe exposure levels to known lung irritants. Summary In the agricultural industry, occupational exposures to organic and inorganic aerosols lead to increased risk for lung disease amongst workers. Increased awareness of respiratory risks and improved monitoring of agricultural environments are necessary to limit pulmonary health risks to exposed populations. PMID:26761627

  19. Side effects of using nitrates to treat heart failure and the acute coronary syndromes, unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Thadani, Udho; Ripley, Toni L

    2007-07-01

    Nitrates are potent venous dilators and anti-ischemic agents. They are widely used for the relief of chest pain and pulmonary congestion in patients with acute coronary syndromes and heart failure. Nitrates, however, do not reduce mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Combination of nitrates and hydralazine when given in addition to beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce mortality and heart failure hospitalizations in patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction who are of African-American origin. Side effects during nitrate therapy are common but are less well described in the literature compared with the reported side effects in patients with stable angina pectoris. The reported incidence of side effects varies highly among different studies and among various disease states. Headache is the most commonly reported side effect with an incidence of 12% in acute heart failure, 41-73% in chronic heart failure, 3-19% in unstable angina and 2-26% in acute myocardial infarction. The reported incidence of hypotension also differs: 5-10% in acute heart failure, 20% in chronic heart failure, 9% in unstable angina and < 1-48% in acute myocardial infarction, with the incidence being much higher with concomitant nitrate therapy plus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Reported incidence of dizziness is as low as 1% in patients with acute myocardial infarction to as high as 29% in patients with heart failure. Severe headaches and/or symptomatic hypotension may necessitate discontinuation of nitrate therapy. Severe life threatening hypotension or even death may occur when nitrates are used in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction associated with right ventricular dysfunction or infarction, or with concomitant use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine. Despite the disturbing observational reports in the literature that continuous and prolonged use of nitrates may lead to

  20. Health Effects and Energy Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1975-01-01

    The United States will continue to have a high energy demand to maintain our present life style. The development of a national health policy statement that would serve to coordinate federal programs for research and regulation of environmental health is suggested. (BT)

  1. Efficacy of Acute Intermittent Hypoxia on Physical Function and Health Status in Humans with Spinal Cord Injury: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Astorino, Todd A.; Harness, Eric T.; White, Ailish C.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a loss of motor and sensory function and is consequent with reductions in locomotion, leading to a relatively sedentary lifestyle which predisposes individuals to premature morbidity and mortality. Many exercise modalities have been employed to improve physical function and health status in SCI, yet they are typically expensive, require many trained clinicians to implement, and are thus relegated to specialized rehabilitation centers. These characteristics of traditional exercise-based rehabilitation in SCI make their application relatively impractical considering the time-intensive nature of these regimens and patients' poor access to exercise. A promising approach to improve physical function in persons with SCI is exposure to acute intermittent hypoxia (IH) in the form of a small amount of sessions of brief, repeated exposures to low oxygen gas mixtures interspersed with normoxic breathing. This review summarizes the clinical application of IH in humans with SCI, describes recommended dosing and potential side effects of IH, and reviews existing data concerning the efficacy of relatively brief exposures of IH to modify health and physical function. Potential mechanisms explaining the effects of IH are also discussed. Collectively, IH appears to be a safe, time-efficient, and robust approach to enhance physical function in chronic, incomplete SCI. PMID:26167303

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life, Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Image in Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Baytan, Birol; Aşut, Çiğdem; Çırpan Kantarcıoğlu, Arzu; Sezgin Evim, Melike; Güneş, Adalet Meral

    2016-01-01

    Objective: With increasing survival rates in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), the long-term side effects of treatment have become important. Our aim was to investigate health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, and self-image among ALL survivors. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients diagnosed with ALL and their siblings were enrolled. The Kovacs Children’s Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryTM were used for collecting data. ANOVA tests were used to determine if there were any significant differences between groups. Results: ALL survivors had higher depression, more anxiety symptoms, lower quality of life, and more negative self-image when compared to their siblings. Conclusion: Continuous diagnostic and interventional mental health services might be necessary for possible emotional side effects of treatment during and after the treatment. Rehabilitation and follow-up programs should be implemented for children during and after treatment for ALL. PMID:27094799

  3. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Sarah M.; Lupis, Sarah B.; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M.

    2016-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed towards understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body’s capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and sleep quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women’s stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e., having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal HPA functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation. PMID:26414625

  4. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  5. Acute and neuropathic orofacial antinociceptive effect of eucalyptol.

    PubMed

    Melo Júnior, José de Maria de Albuquerque de; Damasceno, Marina de Barros Mamede Vidal; Santos, Sacha Aubrey Alves Rodrigues; Barbosa, Talita Matias; Araújo, João Ronielly Campêlo; Vieira-Neto, Antonio Eufrásio; Wong, Deysi Viviana Tenazoa; Lima-Júnior, Roberto César Pereira; Campos, Adriana Rolim

    2017-04-01

    Terpenes have a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antinociceptive action. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of eucalyptol are well established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of eucalyptol on acute and neuropathic orofacial pain in rodent models. Acute orofacial and corneal nociception was induced with formalin, capsaicin, glutamate and hypertonic saline in mice. In another series, animals were pretreated with capsazepine or ruthenium red to evaluate the involvement of TRPV1 receptors in the effect of eucalyptol. In a separate experiment, perinasal tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ were measured. Rats were pretreated with eucalyptol before induction of temporomandibular joint pain with formalin or mustard oil. In another experiment, rats were submitted to infraorbital nerve transection (IONX) to induce chronic pain, followed by induction of mechanical hypersensitivity using Von Frey hairs. Locomotor performance was evaluated with the open-field test, and molecular docking was conducted on the TRPV1 channel. Pretreatment with eucalyptol significantly reduced formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors in all mouse strains, but response was more homogenous in the Swiss strain. Eucalyptol produced antinociceptive effects in all tests. The effect was sensitive to capsazepine but not to ruthenium red. Moreover, eucalyptol significantly reduced IFN-γ levels. Matching the results of the experiment in vivo, the docking study indicated an interaction between eucalyptol and TRPV1. No locomotor activity changes were observed. Our study shows that eucalyptol may be a clinically relevant aid in the treatment of orofacial pain, possibly by acting as a TRPV1 channel antagonist.

  6. Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment Costs from the Perspective of the Supplementary Health System

    PubMed Central

    Teich, Vanessa; Piha, Tony; Fahham, Lucas; Squiassi, Haline Bianca; Paloni, Everton de Matos; Miranda, Paulo; Araújo, Denizar Vianna

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is defined as a “group of clinical symptoms compatible with acute myocardial ischemia”, representing the leading cause of death worldwide, with a high clinical and financial impact. In this sense, the development of economic studies assessing the costs related to the treatment of ACS should be considered. Objective To evaluate costs and length of hospital stay between groups of patients treated for ACS undergoing angioplasty with or without stent implantation (stent+ / stent-), coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and treated only clinically (Clinical) from the perspective of the Brazilian Supplementary Health System (SHS). Methods A retrospective analysis of medical claims of beneficiaries of health plans was performed considering hospitalization costs and length of hospital stay for management of patients undergoing different types of treatment for ACS, between Jan/2010 and Jun/2012. Results The average costs per patient were R$ 18,261.77, R$ 30,611.07, R$ 37,454.94 and R$ 40,883.37 in the following groups: Clinical, stent-, stent+ and CABG, respectively. The average costs per day of hospitalization were R$ 1,987.03, R$ 4,024.72, R$ 6,033.40 and R$ 2,663.82, respectively. The average results for length of stay were 9.19 days, 7.61 days, 6.19 days and 15.20 days in these same groups. The differences were significant between all groups except Clinical and stent- and between stent + and CABG groups for cost analysis. Conclusion Hospitalization costs of SCA are high in the Brazilian SHS, being significantly higher when interventional procedures are required. PMID:26559980

  7. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  8. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES...

  9. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  10. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES...

  11. Effective access to health care in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective access measures are intended to reflect progress toward universal health coverage. This study proposes an operative approach to measuring effective access: in addition to the lack of financial protection, the willingness to make out-of-pocket payments for health care signifies a lack of effective access to pre-paid services. Methods Using data from a nationally representative health survey in Mexico, effective access at the individual level was determined by combining financial protection and effective utilization of pre-paid health services as required. The measure of effective access was estimated overall, by sex, by socioeconomic level, and by federal state for 2006 and 2012. Results In 2012, 48.49% of the Mexican population had no effective access to health services. Though this represents an improvement since 2006, when 65.9% lacked effective access, it still constitutes a major challenge for the health system. Effective access in Mexico presents significant heterogeneity in terms of federal state and socioeconomic level. Conclusions Measuring effective access will contribute to better target strategies toward universal health coverage. The analysis presented here highlights a need to improve quality, availability, and opportuneness (location and time) of health services provision in Mexico. PMID:24758691

  12. Acute off-target effects of neural circuit manipulations.

    PubMed

    Otchy, Timothy M; Wolff, Steffen B E; Rhee, Juliana Y; Pehlevan, Cengiz; Kawai, Risa; Kempf, Alexandre; Gobes, Sharon M H; Ölveczky, Bence P

    2015-12-17

    Rapid and reversible manipulations of neural activity in behaving animals are transforming our understanding of brain function. An important assumption underlying much of this work is that evoked behavioural changes reflect the function of the manipulated circuits. We show that this assumption is problematic because it disregards indirect effects on the independent functions of downstream circuits. Transient inactivations of motor cortex in rats and nucleus interface (Nif) in songbirds severely degraded task-specific movement patterns and courtship songs, respectively, which are learned skills that recover spontaneously after permanent lesions of the same areas. We resolve this discrepancy in songbirds, showing that Nif silencing acutely affects the function of HVC, a downstream song control nucleus. Paralleling song recovery, the off-target effects resolved within days of Nif lesions, a recovery consistent with homeostatic regulation of neural activity in HVC. These results have implications for interpreting transient circuit manipulations and for understanding recovery after brain lesions.

  13. A review of the health effects of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.S.; White, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the health effects of cadmium is presented. Overexposure to cadmium produces numerous acute and chronic effects. Cases of acute poisoning resemble metal-fume poisoning. The first and most distinctive indication of chronic effects is renal tubular dysfunction characterized by proteinuria. Other chronic effects include liver damage, emphysema, osteomalacia, neurological impairment, testicular, pancreatic, and adrenal damage, and anemia. Tumorigenic effects have been observed in animals, and excessive prostatic and lung cancer has been observed in worker studies. In vitro and in vivo mutagenic effects have been noted. Cadmium has been shown to cause hypertension in animals; however, it is unclear whether it is capable of causing similar effects in exposed human populations. Normal urinary excretion is less than 2 micrograms/day and correlates with exposure. Normal blood concentration is below 10 ng/gm of whole blood, and although levels are elevated in exposed groups, there is no apparent direct correlation. Hair values correlate well with exposure. Occupational and environmental standards are discussed.

  14. Assessing the effectiveness of health care cost containment measures: evidence from the market for rehabilitation care.

    PubMed

    Ziebarth, Nicolas R

    2014-03-01

    This study empirically evaluates the effectiveness of different health care cost containment measures. The measures investigated were introduced in Germany in 1997 to reduce moral hazard and public health expenditures in the market for rehabilitation care. Of the analyzed measures, doubling the daily copayments was clearly the most effective cost containment measure, resulting in a reduction in utilization of about [Formula: see text] . Indirect measures such as allowing employers to cut federally mandated sick pay or paid vacation during inpatient post-acute care stays did not significantly reduce utilization. There is evidence neither for adverse health effects nor for substitution effects in terms of more doctor visits.

  15. Inhibitory effect of anethole in nonimmune acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Domiciano, Talita Perdigão; Dalalio, Márcia Machado de Oliveira; Silva, Expedito Leite; Ritter, Alessandra Mileni Versuti; Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Ramos, Fernando Seara; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2013-04-01

    Anethole [1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)benzene] occurs naturally as a major component of the essential oil of star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f., family Illiciaceae), comprising more than 90 % of its volatile components. Studies showed that this substance has antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and anesthetic properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory properties of anethole in animal models of nonimmune acute inflammation such as croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced pleurisy were investigated. The investigated parameters were edema formation, leukocyte migration, and inflammatory mediators involved. Oral administration of anethole at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg reduced both the volume of pleural exudates and the number of migrated leukocytes. Levels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGE2) in the inflammatory exudate were reduced by treatment with anethole, but levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were not significantly altered. In ear edema, the oral treatment with anethole inhibited the formation of exudate and the activity of myeloperoxidase, but not after topical administration. These results suggest that the anethole may be effective in controlling some nonimmune acute inflammation-related disease, probably by an inhibitory action on production and/or release of PGE2 and NO.

  16. Effect of dexamethasone on brain oedema following acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, A K; Mohammad, Q D; Ullah, M A; Ahsan, M M; Rahman, A; Shakoor, M A

    2011-07-01

    A randomized clinical trial was conducted to asses the effects of dexamethasone on brain oedema following acute ischemic stroke in the departments of Medicine of different hospitals from July, 2003 to December, 2006. A total of 60 patients were included in the study. They were divided into two groups keeping the similarity regarding the age, sex and severity of the stroke between two groups. There were 30 patients in experimental group and 30 in control group. The level of consciousness was compared by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on 3rd, 7th and 10th day of intervention and improvement was found in both the groups, but the improvement of level of consciousness was statistically significant in Dexamethasone treated group. The volume of hypodense area did not differ significantly in two groups in CT scans before and after treatment (p=0.74). The study results demonstrate that Dexamethasone improves the level of consciousness in acute ischemic stroke associated with brain oedema but did not reduce volume of hypodense area.

  17. Effects of clotrimazol on the acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Cekic, Arif Burak; Alhan, Etem; Usta, Arif; Türkyılmaz, Serdar; Kural, Birgül Vanizor; Erçin, Cengiz

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of clotrimazol (CLTZ) on acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) induced by glycodeoxycholic acid in rats. Rats were divided into five groups as sham + saline, sham + CLTZ, sham + polyethylene glycol, ANP + saline, and ANP + CLTZ. ANP in rats was induced by glycodeoxycholic acid. The extent of acinar cell injury, mortality, systemic cardiorespiratory variables, functional capillary density (FCD), renal/hepatic functions, and changes in some enzyme markers for pancreatic and lung tissue were investigated during ANP in rats. The use of CLTZ after the induction of ANP resulted in a significant decrease in the mortality rate, pancreatic necrosis, and serum activity of amylase, alanine aminotransferase, interleukin-6, lactate dehydrogenase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, serum concentration of urea, and tissue activity of myeloperoxidase, and malondialdehyde in the pancreas and lung and a significant increase in concentrations of calcium, blood pressure, urine output, pO2, and FCD. This study showed that CLTZ demonstrated beneficial effect on the course of ANP in rats. Therefore, it may be used in the treatment of acute pancreatitis.

  18. Differential Acute Effects of Selenomethionine and Sodium Selenite on the Severity of Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Franziska; Oldorff, Lisa; Besselt, Karolin; Kipp, Anna Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The European population is only suboptimally supplied with the essential trace element selenium. Such a selenium status is supposed to worsen colitis while colitis-suppressive effects were observed with adequate or supplemented amounts of both organic selenomethionine (SeMet) and inorganic sodium selenite. In order to better understand the effect of these selenocompounds on colitis development we examined colonic phenotypes of mice fed supplemented diets before the onset of colitis or during the acute phase. Colitis was induced by treating mice with 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for seven days. The selenium-enriched diets were either provided directly after weaning (long-term) or were given to mice with a suboptimal selenium status after DSS withdrawal (short-term). While long-term selenium supplementation had no effect on colitis development, short-term selenite supplementation, however, resulted in a more severe colitis. Colonic selenoprotein expression was maximized in all selenium-supplemented groups independent of the selenocompound or intervention time. This indicates that the short-term selenite effect appears to be independent from colonic selenoprotein expression. In conclusion, a selenite supplementation during acute colitis has no health benefits but may even aggravate the course of disease. PMID:25867950

  19. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise: Effect on Young People's Cardiometabolic Health and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon B; Dring, Karah J; Nevill, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    With only a quarter of young people currently meeting physical activity guidelines, two key areas of concern are the effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health and cognition. Despite the fact that physical activity in young people is typically high intensity and intermittent in nature, much of the literature examines traditional endurance-type exercise. This review provides an update on the effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on young people's cardiometabolic health and cognition. High-intensity intermittent exercise has acute beneficial effects on endothelial function and postprandial lipemia and chronic positive effects on weight management. In addition, there is emerging evidence regarding chronic benefits on the blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests beneficial acute and chronic effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on cognition. However, further research is required in both cardiometabolic health and cognition, particularly regarding the impact of school-based interventions in adolescents.

  20. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    PubMed

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  1. Impact of Advanced Health Care Directives on Treatment Decisions by Physicians in Patients with Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Chaudhry, Saqib A.; Connelly, Bo; Abott, Emily; Janjua, Tariq; Kim, Stanley H.; Miley, Jefferson T.; Rodriguez, Gustavo J.; Uzun, Guven; Watanabe, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    of directives). Intravenous medication and defibrillation for cardiac arrest was withheld in 29% (compared with 19%) of the treatment decisions in the presence of advance health care directives. The two attorney raters found the description of acceptable outcome inadequate in 14 and 21 of 28 advance health care directives reviewed, respectively. The overall mean kappa for agreement regarding adequacy of documentation was modest (43%) for “does the advance health care directive specify which treatments the patient would choose, or refuse to receive if they were diagnosed with an acute, terminal condition?” and lowest (3%) for “description of acceptable outcome”. Conclusions We did not find any prominent differences in most “routine complexity,” “moderate complexity,” or “high complexity” treatment decisions in patient management in the presence of advance health care directives. Presence of advance health care directives also did not reduce the prominent variance among physicians in treatment decisions. PMID:23552508

  2. Diurnal Spectral Sensitivity of the Acute Alerting Effects of Light

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shadab A.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Aeschbach, Daniel; Brainard, George C.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated short-wavelength sensitivity for the acute alerting response to nocturnal light exposure. We assessed daytime spectral sensitivity in alertness, performance, and waking electroencephalogram (EEG). Design: Between-subjects (n = 8 per group). Setting: Inpatient intensive physiologic monitoring unit. Participants: Sixteen healthy young adults (mean age ± standard deviation = 23.8 ± 2.7 y). Interventions: Equal photon density exposure (2.8 × 1013 photons/cm2/s) to monochromatic 460 nm (blue) or 555 nm (green) light for 6.5 h centered in the middle of the 16-h episode of wakefulness during the biological day. Results were compared retrospectively to 16 individuals who were administered the same light exposure during the night. Measurements and Results: Daytime and nighttime 460-nm light exposure significantly improved auditory reaction time (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and reduced attentional lapses (P < 0.05), and improved EEG correlates of alertness compared to 555-nm exposure. Whereas subjective sleepiness ratings did not differ between the two spectral conditions during the daytime (P > 0.05), 460-nm light exposure at night significantly reduced subjective sleepiness compared to 555-nm light exposure at night (P < 0.05). Moreover, nighttime 460-nm exposure improved alertness to near-daytime levels. Conclusions: The alerting effects of short-wavelength 460-nm light are mediated by counteracting both the circadian drive for sleepiness and homeostatic sleep pressure at night, but only via reducing the effects of homeostatic sleep pressure during the day. Citation: Rahman SA; Flynn-Evans EE; Aeschbach D; Brainard GC; Czeisler CA; Lockley SW. Diurnal spectral sensitivity of the acute alerting effects of light. SLEEP 2014;37(2):271-281. PMID:24501435

  3. Protective effects of rhubarb on experimental severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu-Qing; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Ito, Tetsuhide; Qian, Jia-Ming

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of rhubarb on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats. METHODS: Severe acute pancreatitis was induced by two intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (40 μg/kg body weight) plus 5-h restraint water-immersion stress. Rhubarb (75-150 mg/kg) was orally fed before the first cerulein injection. The degree of pancreatic edema, serum amylase level, local pancreatic blood flow (PBF), and histological alterations were investigated. The effects of rhubarb on pancreatic exocrine secretion in this model were evaluated by comparing with those of somatostatin. RESULTS: In the Cerulein + Stress group, severe edema and diffuse hemorrhage in the pancreas were observed, the pancreatic wet weight (11.60 ± 0.61 g/Kg) and serum amylase (458 490 ± 43 100 U/L) were markedly increased (P < 0.01 vs control). In the rhubarb (150 mg/kg) treated rats, necrosis and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration in the pancreas were significantly reduced (P < 0.01), and a marked decrease (50%) in serum amylase levels was also observed (P < 0.01). PBF dropped to 38% (93 ± 5 mL/min per 100 g) of the control in the Cerulein + Stress group and partly recovered in the Cerulein + Stress + Rhubarb 150 mg group (135 ± 12 mL/min per 100 g) (P < 0.01). The pancreatic exocrine function was impaired in the SAP rats. The amylase levels of pancreatic juice were reduced in the rats treated with rhubarb or somatostatin, comparing with that of untreated SAP group. The bicarbonate concentration of pancreatic juice was markedly elevated only in the rhubarb-treated group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Rhubarb can exert protective effects on SAP, probably by inhibiting the inflammation of pancreas, improving pancreatic microcirculation, and altering exocrine secretion. PMID:15052683

  4. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-04-10

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources.

  5. An Investigation of the Interaction Effects of Acute Self-Esteem and Perceived Competence on Conformity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-22

    On the basis of previous research on conformity it was predicted that subjects who were subjected to acute self - esteem manipulations and perceived...a demonstration of the interaction effects of acute self - esteem and perceived competence. Acute self - esteem manipulations (high, low or no) were...role in conformity. The main effect of self - esteem and the interaction of self - esteem and perceived competence did not prove significant. Results were

  6. Building on a national health information technology strategic plan for long-term and post-acute care: comments by the Long Term Post Acute Care Health Information Technology Collaborative.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gregory L; Alwan, Majd; Batshon, Lynne; Bloom, Shawn M; Brennan, Richard D; Derr, John F; Dougherty, Michelle; Gruhn, Peter; Kirby, Annessa; Manard, Barbara; Raiford, Robin; Serio, Ingrid Johnson

    2011-07-01

    The LTPAC (Long Term Post Acute Care) Health Information Technology (HIT) Collaborative consists of an alliance of long-term services and post-acute care stakeholders. Members of the collaborative are actively promoting HIT innovations in long-term care settings because IT adoption for health care institutions in the United States has become a high priority. One method used to actively promote HIT is providing expert comments on important documents addressing HIT adoption. Recently, the Office of the National Coordinator for HIT released a draft of the Federal Health Information Technology Strategic Plan 2011-2015 for public comment. The following brief is intended to inform about recommendations and comments made by the Collaborative on the strategic plan.

  7. Assessing chronic fish health: An application to a case of an acute exposure to chemically treated crude oil.

    PubMed

    Mauduit, F; Domenici, P; Farrell, A P; Lacroix, C; Le Floch, S; Lemaire, P; Nicolas-Kopec, A; Whittington, M; Zambonino-Infante, J L; Claireaux, G

    2016-09-01

    Human alteration of marine ecosystems is substantial and growing. Yet, no adequate methodology exists that provides reliable predictions of how environmental degradation will affect these ecosystems at a relevant level of biological organization. The primary objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate a fish's capacity to face a well-established environmental challenge, an exposure to chemically dispersed oil, and characterize the long-term consequences. Therefore, we applied high-throughput, non-lethal challenge tests to assess hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed as proxies for a fish's functional integrity. These whole animal challenge tests were implemented before (1 month) and after (1 month) juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) had been acutely exposed (48h) to a mixture containing 0.08gL(-1) of weathered Arabian light crude oil plus 4% dispersant (Corexit© EC9500A), a realistic exposure concentration during an oil spill. In addition, experimental populations were then transferred into semi-natural tidal mesocosm ponds and correlates of Darwinian fitness (growth and survival) were monitored over a period of 4 months. Our results revealed that fish acutely exposed to chemically dispersed oil remained impaired in terms of their hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance, but not in temperature susceptibility for 1 month post-exposure. Nevertheless, these functional impairments had no subsequent ecological consequences under mildly selective environmental conditions since growth and survival were not impacted during the mesocosm pond study. Furthermore, the earlier effects on fish performance were presumably temporary because re-testing the fish 10 months post-exposure revealed no significant residual effects on hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed. We propose that the functional proxies and correlates of Darwinian fitness used here provide a useful

  8. Developing a market orientation in the Health Service: a survey of acute NHS Trusts in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Laing, A W; Galbraith, A

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the introduction of the quasi market mechanism into the Health Service has required that managers within NHS trusts acquire new managerial skills relating to market operations and, more importantly, reorientate their organizations towards the marketplace. Examines the pattern of development which has occurred within acute trusts across Scotland in the past three years, and argues that managers in the majority of trusts have developed a remarkably robust and relevant conceptualization of the nature and application of marketing within the NHS, reflecting the difficulties managers have faced in selling the concept of marketing to a generally sceptical body of clinicians. Notes, in part owing to such professional scepticism, that the development of marketing as an implementable approach to operations has lagged significantly behind the managerial conceptualization, although this cannot be attributed solely to resistance from clinicians and other health care professionals. Rather, suggests that such limited progress in implementing a market orientation reflects a range of "structural" barriers, both within individual trusts and the specific market environment faced by trusts.

  9. The exposure to and health effects of antimony

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: This minireview describes the health effects of antimony exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to antimony on physiological function and well-being. Methods: The criteria used in the current minireview for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Articles were classified from an acute and chronic exposure and toxicity thrust. Results: The proportion of utilised and non-utilised articles was tabulated. Antimony toxicity is dependent on the exposure dose, duration, route (breathing, eating, drinking, or skin contact), other chemical exposures, age, sex, nutritional status, family traits, life style, and state of health. Chronic exposure to antimony in the air at levels of 9 mg/m3 may exacerbate irritation of the eyes, skin, and lungs. Long-term inhalation of antimony can potentiate pneumoconiosis, altered electrocardiograms, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers, results which were confirmed in laboratory animals. Although there were investigations of the effect of antimony in sudden infant death syndrome, current findings suggest no link. Antimony trioxide exposure is predominant in smelters. Mining and exposure via glass working, soldering, and brazing are also important. Conclusion: Antimony has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being and measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure of the like. Its biological monitoring in the workplace is essential. PMID:20165605

  10. Effect of acute smoke exposure on hepatic protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Garrett, R J; Jackson, M A

    1979-05-01

    In vivo hepatic protein synthesis was monitored in female rats under control and smoke-exposed conditions. During the 15 min period after i.v. administration of [3H]proline protein synthesis was 206 +/- 35 nmol of proline per mg of DNA for sham-control animals. When animals were subjected to acute exposure to cigarette smoke, protein synthesis was inhibited and the extent of inhibition was positively correlated with the dosage of smoke (32%, 15 puffs; 66%, 60 puffs). The inhibitory effect of whole smoke on protein synthesis was unaltered by passing the smoke through either charcoal or cambridge filters. Carbon monoxide in smoke is not removed by either type of filter. At a level comparable to that in cigarette smoke carbon monoxide depressed hepatic protein synthesis to the same extent as did whole or filtered smoke.

  11. Investigation of acute stroke: what is the most effective strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Dunbabin, D. W.; Sandercock, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques of investigation of acute stroke syndromes have progressed rapidly in recent years, outpacing developments in effective stroke treatment. The clinician is thus faced with a variety of tests, each with different cost implications and each altering management to a greater or lesser extent. This review will concentrate on the basic tests which should be performed for all strokes (full blood count, ESR, biochemical screen, blood glucose, cholesterol, syphilis serology, chest X-ray and electrocardiogram). Additional tests may be required in selected cases: CT scan to diagnose 'non-stroke' lesions, to exclude cerebral haemorrhage if anti-haemostatic therapy is planned, and to detect strokes which may require emergency intervention (such as cerebellar stroke with hydrocephalus); echocardiography to detect cardiac sources of emboli; and in a few cases lumbar puncture and specialized haematological tests. Other tests, which are currently research tools, may be suitable for widespread use in the future including NMR, SPECT and PET scanning. PMID:2062773

  12. Health-related QOL in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Doll, Helen; Miravitlles, Marc

    2005-01-01

    There is a lack of emphasis on health-related QOL (HR-QOL) changes associated with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (CB) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this review is to examine the use of HR-QOL instruments to evaluate acute exacerbation of CB or COPD, so as to form recommendations for future research.A literature search of papers published between 1966 and July 2003 identified more than 300 articles that used acute exacerbation of CB or COPD as the search term. However, only 21 of these studies employed HR-QOL measures as predictors of outcome or in the assessment of the impact, evolution or treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD or CB. A variety of HR-QOL measures were used, both generic and disease specific. The disease-specific St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), devised for patients with stable CB and with a recall period of 1-12 months, was the most widely used measure, with the Chronic Respiratory disease Questionnaire (CRQ) and the Baseline and Transitional Dyspnoea Index (BDI, TDI) being the only other disease-specific measures used. Most measures, both generic and disease specific, performed adequately when used during acute exacerbation of CB or COPD and indicated poor HR-QOL during acute exacerbation, which improved on resolution of the exacerbation. Relationships were evident between HR-QOL during an acute exacerbation and various outcomes, including post-exacerbation functional status, hospital re- admission for acute exacerbation or COPD, and mortality. There is a need for studies of treatments for acute exacerbation of CB or COPD to include an appropriate HR-QOL instrument to aid in the stratification of patients so as to target the right treatment to the right patient group. While a new instrument could be developed to measure HR-QOL during acute exacerbation of CB or COPD, currently available disease-specific measures such as the CRQ and the SGRQ appear to be acceptable to patients during acute

  13. Health Effects of Energy Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William; Tatu, Calin; Pavlovic, Nikola; Bunnell, Joseph; Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources (coal, oil, and natural gas) are among the cornerstones of modern industrial society. The exploitation of these resources, however, is not without costs. Energy materials may contain harmful chemical substances that, if mobilized into air, water, or soil, can adversely impact human health and environmental quality. In order to address the issue of human exposure to toxic substances derived from energy resources, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program developed a project entitled 'Impacts of Energy Resources on Human Health and Environmental Quality.' The project is intended to provide policymakers and the public with the scientific information needed to weigh the human health and environmental consequences of meeting our energy needs. This fact sheet discusses several areas where the USGS Energy Resources Program is making scientific advances in this endeavor.

  14. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a

  15. Acute effects of coffee on QT interval in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The coronary endothelial function is recognized to have an important role in the physiology of the diastolic ventricular relaxation, a phase of the heart cycle that influences the electrocardiographic QT interval. Endothelial function is investigated in vivo by flow mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery and has proven to be a strong predictor of both coronary endothelial function and cardiovascular events. It has been reported that coffee acutely induces FMD changes. In particular, the brachial artery FMD seems to decrease after caffeinated coffee (CC) and to increase after decaffeinated coffee (DC) ingestion. Since the cardiovascular effects of coffee are still a debated matter, this study aimed at investigating with a randomized, double-blind crossover design, if the QT interval of adult healthy subjects (19 males and 21 females) changes in the hour following CC or DC ingestion. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the hour following the ingestion of CC; the heart rate significantly increased 30 minutes after CC ingestion. A significant increase of the QT duration was observed one hour after DC ingestion (398.9 ± 3.8 vs 405.3 ± 3.7 msec; P < 0.05), not after CC. The QT interval corrected for heart rate did not significantly change following CC or DC ingestion. In conclusion, despite CC and DC previously demonstrated to influence the FMD they do not seem to induce a significant unfavourable acute change of the left ventricular repolarization. Further investigations are required to elucidate the effects of coffee in subjects with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21288364

  16. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  17. Review of the health effects of wildland fire smoke on wildland firefighters and the public.

    PubMed

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Reinhardt, Timothy E; Domitrovich, Joe; Broyles, George; Adetona, Anna M; Kleinman, Michael T; Ottmar, Roger D; Naeher, Luke P

    2016-01-01

    Each year, the general public and wildland firefighters in the US are exposed to smoke from wildland fires. As part of an effort to characterize health risks of breathing this smoke, a review of the literature was conducted using five major databases, including PubMed and MEDLINE Web of Knowledge, to identify smoke components that present the highest hazard potential, the mechanisms of toxicity, review epidemiological studies for health effects and identify the current gap in knowledge on the health impacts of wildland fire smoke exposure. Respiratory events measured in time series studies as incidences of disease-caused mortality, hospital admissions, emergency room visits and symptoms in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients are the health effects that are most commonly associated with community level exposure to wildland fire smoke. A few recent studies have also determined associations between acute wildland fire smoke exposure and cardiovascular health end-points. These cardiopulmonary effects were mostly observed in association with ambient air concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). However, research on the health effects of this mixture is currently limited. The health effects of acute exposures beyond susceptible populations and the effects of chronic exposures experienced by the wildland firefighter are largely unknown. Longitudinal studies of wildland firefighters during and/or after the firefighting career could help elucidate some of the unknown health impacts of cumulative exposure to wildland fire smoke, establish occupational exposure limits and help determine the types of exposure controls that may be applicable to the occupation.

  18. The Effect of Health Information Technology on Health Care Provider Communication: A Mixed-Method Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Background Communication failures between physicians and nurses are one of the most common causes of adverse events for hospitalized patients, as well as a major root cause of all sentinel events. Communication technology (ie, the electronic medical record, computerized provider order entry, email, and pagers), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used. Increasing use of health information and communication technologies is likely to affect communication between nurses and physicians. Objective The purpose of this study is to describe, in detail, how health information and communication technologies facilitate or hinder communication between nurses and physicians with the ultimate goal of identifying how we can optimize the use of these technologies to support effective communication. Effective communication is the process of developing shared understanding between communicators by establishing, testing, and maintaining relationships. Our theoretical model, based in communication and sociology theories, describes how health information and communication technologies affect communication through communication practices (ie, use of rich media; the location and availability of computers) and work relationships (ie, hierarchies and team stability). Therefore we seek to (1) identify the range of health information and communication technologies used in a national sample of medical-surgical acute care units, (2) describe communication practices and work relationships that may be influenced by health information and communication technologies in these same settings, and (3) explore how differences in health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships between physicians and nurses influence communication. Methods This 4-year study uses a sequential mixed

  19. Health and environmental effects document for batteries: 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    An evaluation is presented of the ecological and health effects of the near-term electric storage batteries (lead/acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron) as related to electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The storage battery technology is considered in its totality, and emissions are estimated for the complete cycle. For estimating quantities of various emissions, the market penetration is assumed to be 3 x 10/sup 6/ Pb/acid battery-powered vehicles and 8 x 10/sup 6/ each of the Ni/Zn and Ni/Fe battery-powered vehicles on the road by the year 2000. Ecological effects are assessed using the Estimated Permissible Concentration (EPC) approach. Pb, S, Cu, Ni, Cd, Zn, and Sb appear to be the most hazardous emission constituents and exceed EPC values for protection of ecology in one or more of the battery-related industries. More definitive, quantitative estimates of damage to the biota and to the ecosystem are not feasible because of paucity of relevant information. Health effects as a result of increased levels of lead, arsenic, and cadmium in the environment and risks of exposure to arsine, stibine, and antimony trioxide released during charging are assessed. Health effects among the occupationally exposed are also assessed using the toxicological models. Acute and chronic effects of exposure to stibine, arsine, and antimony trioxide are described.

  20. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    PubMed

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  1. Potential effects on health of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, A. . Whittington Hospital); Parry, M. . Environmental Change Unit)

    1993-12-01

    Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability of adequate preventive and curative facilities for diseases that may be effected by climate change. Nevertheless, it is of importance to consider the potential health impacts of global climate change for a number of reasons. It is also important to monitor diseases which could be effected by climate change in order to detect changes in incidence as early as possible and study possible interactions with other factors. It seems likely that the possible impacts on health of climate change will be a major determinant of the degree to which policies aimed at reducing global warming are followed, as perceptions of the effect of climate change to human health and well-being are particularly likely to influence public opinion. The potential health impacts of climate change can be divided into direct (primary) and indirect (secondary and tertiary) effects. Primary effects are those related to the effect of temperature on human well-being and disease. Secondary effects include the impacts on health of changes in food production, availability of water and of sea level rise. A tertiary level of impacts can also be hypothesized.

  2. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  3. Nurse-patient interaction in acute adult inpatient mental health units: a review and synthesis of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Horsfall, Jan; Deacon, Maureen

    2012-02-01

    Mental health nurses work with acutely unwell patients, and the busy setting is characterised by unpredictable events. This paper is a report of a review conducted to identify, analyse and synthesize research in adult acute inpatient mental health units, which focused on nurse-patient interaction. Several electronic databases were searched using relevant keywords to identify studies published from 1999-present. Qualitative studies published in English were included if they specifically investigated nurse-patient interaction in acute inpatient care in adult settings. Eighteen studies were included (23 papers). Findings were grouped into the following six categories: 1) sophisticated communication; 2) subtle discriminations; 3) managing security parameters; 4) ordinary communication; 5) reliance on colleagues; and 6) personal characteristics. These studies of acute inpatient mental health units reveal that nurse communication involves interpersonal approaches and modalities that exemplify highly developed communication and personal skills designed specifically for this challenging setting. Further quality research should focus on the conditions that enable the development of therapeutic interactional skills and the relationship of these skills to the nuanced context in which they are practiced.

  4. People Create Health: Effective Health Promotion is a Creative Process

    PubMed Central

    Cloninger, C. Robert; Cloninger, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Effective health promotion involves the creative cultivation of physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. Efforts at health promotion produce weak and inconsistent benefits when it does not engage people to express their own goals and values. Likewise, health promotion has been ineffective when it relies only on instruction about facts regarding a healthy lifestyle, or focuses on reduction of disease rather than the cultivation of well-being. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies and experimental interventions shows that improvements in subjective well-being lead to short-term and long-term reductions in medical morbidity and mortality, as well as to healthier functioning and longevity. However, these effects are inconsistent and weak (correlations of about 0.15). The most consistent and strong predictor of both subjective well-being and objective health status in longitudinal studies is a creative personality profile characterized by being highly self-directed, cooperative, and self-transcendent. There is a synergy among these personality traits that enhances all aspects of the health and happiness of people. Experimental interventions to cultivate this natural creative potential of people are now just beginning, but available exploratory research has shown that creativity can be enhanced and the changes are associated with widespread and profound benefits, including greater physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. In addition to benefits mediated by choice of diet, physical activity, and health care utilization, the effect of a creative personality on health may be partly mediated by effects on the regulation of heart rate variability. Creativity promotes autonomic balance with parasympathetic dominance leading to a calm alert state that promotes an awakening of plasticities and intelligences that stress inhibits. We suggest that health, happiness, and meaning can be cultivated by a complex adaptive process that enhances healthy functioning

  5. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of health care].

    PubMed

    Strnad, L

    1990-01-01

    health workers and community as a whole. Besides the needful enlargement of sources, these complicated questions are resolvable in observing unity of medical, organizational and economical rationality on all levels of health service management and in all health institutions. This is also the way how to improve the efficiency of health care. The term of efficiency in relation to the health services. In economics, the efficiency is the ratio between the achieved result (effect) and the expenditure of a specified amount of resources. Mathematically, this ratio is expressed as follows: efficiency = end-result/costs Linked to the Health care, the efficiency may be understood also differently from its economic term.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  6. WHY DO THE ACUTE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OT TOLUENE IN RATS DEPEND ON THE ROUTE OF EXPOSURE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite evidence suggesting that the acute effects of organic solvents are related to their concentration in the brain, we have observed route-dependent differences in the acute behavioral effects of toluene. Whereas inhaled toluene disrupts the performance of rats on a visual si...

  7. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cocaine on the Spontaneous Behavior of Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Branch, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effects of acute and daily cocaine on spontaneous behavior patterns of pigeons. After determining the acute effects of a range of doses, 9 pigeons were divided into three groups that received one of three doses of cocaine daily, either 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 mg/kg cocaine. Measures were taken of spontaneous…

  8. Staff nurse perceptions of the impact of mentalization-based therapy skills training when working with borderline personality disorder in acute mental health: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Warrender, D

    2015-10-01

    People diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly prevalent in acute mental health wards, with staff nurses identifying a challenge in working with people who can be significantly distressed. This has contributed to a negative stereotype verging on stigmatization. Mentalization-based therapy (MBT) is a psychological therapy which has been shown to be of benefit to people with a diagnosis of BPD, yet it has been utilized and evaluated only in partial hospitalization and outpatient settings. Despite this, most people diagnosed with BPD will continue to be treated in generic inpatient settings such as acute mental health. Mentalization-based therapy skills training (MBT-S) is a new and cost-effective 2-day workshop aiming to provide generalist practitioners with MBT skills for use in generic settings. This study aimed to capture staff perceptions of the impact of MBT-S on their practice when working with people with a diagnosis of BPD in acute mental health. Through two focus groups, this study assessed the perceptions of nine staff nurses. An interpretive phenomenological approach was utilized in data analysis. Participants found the approach easy to grasp, improving of consistency between staff and flexible in its use in planned or 'off the cuff' discussions. MBT-S promoted empathy and humane responses to self-harm, impacted on participants ability to tolerate risk and went some way to turning the negative perception of BPD through changing the notion of patients as 'deliberately difficult'. Staff felt empowered and more confident in working with people with a diagnosis of BPD. The positive implication for practice was the ease in which the approach was adopted and participants perception of MBT-S as an empowering skill set which also contributed to attitudinal change. In acute mental health environments, which may not have the resources to provide long-term structured treatments to patients, MBT-S could be viewed as ideal as participants

  9. Effect of Dynamic Meditation on Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema

    2016-02-01

    Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.

  10. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    PubMed

    Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.

  11. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of crew resource management training in acute care domains.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Angela; O'Connor, Paul; Keogh, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    The healthcare industry has seen an increase in the adoption of team training, such as crew resource management (CRM), to improve teamwork and coordination within acute care medical teams. A meta-analysis was carried out in order to quantify the effects of CRM training on reactions, learning, behaviour and clinical care outcomes. Biases in the research evidence are identified and recommendations for training development and evaluation are presented. PUBMED, EMBASE and PsychInfo were systematically searched for all relevant papers. Peer reviewed papers published in English between January 1985 and September 2013, which present empirically based studies focusing on interventions to improve team effectiveness in acute health care domains, were included. A total of 20 CRM-type team training evaluation studies were found to fulfil the a priori criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Overall, CRM trained participants responded positively to CRM (mean score 4.25 out of a maximum of 5), the training had large effects on participants' knowledge (d=1.05), a small effect on attitudes (d=0.22) and a large effect on behaviours (d=1.25). There was insufficient evidence to support an effect on clinical care outcomes or long term impacts. The findings support the premise that CRM training can positively impact teamwork in healthcare and provide estimates of the expected effects of training. However, there is a need for greater precision in outcome assessment, improved standardisation of methods and measures, and more robust research design. Stronger evidence of effectiveness will require multi-level, multicentre, multispecialty and longitudinal studies.

  12. Effect of air pollution on athlete health and performance.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth William

    2012-05-01

    Unfavourable effects on the respiratory and the cardiovascular systems from short-term and long-term inhalation of air pollution are well documented. Exposure to freshly generated mixed combustion emissions such as those observed in proximity to roadways with high volumes of traffic and those from ice-resurfacing equipment are of particular concern. This is because there is a greater toxicity from freshly generated whole exhaust than from its component parts. The particles released from emissions are considered to cause oxidative damage and inflammation in the airways and the vascular system, and may be related to decreased exercise performance. However, few studies have examined this aspect. Several papers describe deleterious effects on health from chronic and acute air pollution exposure. However, there has been no research into the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on athletic performance and a paucity of studies that describe the effects of acute exposure on exercise performance. The current knowledge of exercising in the high-pollution environment and the consequences that it may have on athlete performance are reviewed.

  13. Acute effects of shock-type vibration transmitted to the hand-arm system.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, N; Dupuis, H; Hartung, E

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the project was to find out whether shock-type vibration of hand-tools compared to non-impulsive vibration has stronger acute effects on the hand-arm system and therefore needs a stricter evaluation from the occupational health point of view in comparison with the requirements of the Draft International Standard ISO-DIS 5349. Under laboratory conditions, subjects were exposed to simulated vibration of hand-tools (grinder, chain saw, hammer-drill, pneumatic hammer, rivet hammer and nailer). The following evaluation criteria were used: biomechanical transmissibility of the hand-arm system (wrist, elbow joint, shoulder joint); muscle-activity (m. flexor carpi ulnaris, m. biceps, m. triceps); peripheral circulation (skin temperature) and subjective perception (comparison of intensity of standard and test vibrations). The results show no significant difference in acute effects on the hand-arm system between impulsive and non-impulsive type vibrations of the hand-tools tested with respect to the chosen vibration level, short-time exposure (up to 8 min) and evaluation criteria. In summary, therefore, it may be concluded that for the evaluation of shock-type vibration of the hand-tools tested, it is justified to use the existing Draft International Standard ISO-DIS 5349.

  14. An overview of health effects on noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Y.

    1988-12-01

    Although noise can damage the inner ear and cause other pathological changes, its most common negative effects are non-somatic, such as a perception of noisiness and disturbance of daily activities. According to the definition of health by WHO, this should be considered as a health hazard. These health effects of noise can be classified into the following three categories: (I) hearing loss, perception of noisiness and masking are produced along the auditory pathway and are thus direct and specific effects of noise; (II) interference with performance, rest and sleep, a feeling of discomfort and some physiological effects are produced as indirect and non-specific effects via reticular formation of the midbrain; (III) annoyance is not merely a feeling of unpleasantness but the feeling of being bothered or troubled, and includes the development of a particular attitude toward the noise source. Individual or group behavioral responses will be evoked when annoyance develops. Annoyance and behavioral response are integrated and composite effects. The health effects of noise are modified by many factors related to both the noise and the individual. Noise level, frequency spectrum, duration and impulsiveness modify the effects. Sex, age, health status and mental character also have an influence on the effects. Direct effects of noise are most dependent on the physical nature of the noise and least dependent on human factors. Indirect effects are more dependent, and integrated effects most dependent, on human factors.

  15. Antidepressant Effects of Mallotus oppositifolius in Acute Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Kukuia, Kennedy K. E.; Mante, Priscilla K.; Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Adongo, Donatus W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Mallotus oppositifolius (MOE), a plant used for CNS conditions in Ghana, was investigated for acute antidepressant effects in the forced swimming (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST). Results. In both FST and TST, MOE (10, 30, and 100 mg kg−1) significantly decreased immobility periods and frequencies. A 3-day pretreatment with 200 mg kg−1, i.p., para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, reversed the decline in immobility and the increase of swimming score induced by MOE in the modified FST. Pretreatment with reserpine alone (1 mg kg−1), α-methyldopa alone (400 mg kg−1, i.p.), or a combination of both drugs failed to reverse the decline in immobility or the increase in swimming score caused by the extract in the modified FST. The extract potentiated the frequency of head twitch responses induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine. Pretreatment with d-serine (600 mg kg−1, i.p.), glycine/NMDA agonist, abolished the behavioural effects of MOE while d-cycloserine (2.5 mg kg−1, i.p.), a glycine/NMDA partial agonist, potentiated it in both TST and modified FST. Conclusion. The extract exhibited antidepressant effects in mice which is mediated by enhancement of serotoninergic neurotransmission and inhibition of glycine/NMDA receptor activation. PMID:25045543

  16. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  17. Health Effects Assessment for Carbon Tetrachloride (1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  18. Association of acute adverse effects with high local SAR induced in the brain from prolonged RF head and neck hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibzadeh, F.; Verhaart, R. F.; Verduijn, G. M.; Fortunati, V.; Rijnen, Z.; Franckena, M.; van Rhoon, G. C.; Paulides, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    To provide an adequate level of protection for humans from exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to assure that any adverse health effects are avoided. The basic restrictions in terms of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) were prescribed by IEEE and ICNIRP. An example of a therapeutic application of non-ionizing EMF is hyperthermia (HT), in which intense RF energy is focused at a target region. Deep HT in the head and neck (H&N) region involves inducing energy at 434 MHz for 60 min on target. Still, stray exposure of the brain is considerable, but to date only very limited side-effects were observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the stringency of the current basic restrictions by relating the induced EM dose in the brain of patients treated with deep head and neck (H&N) HT to the scored acute health effects. We performed a simulation study to calculate the induced peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (psSAR10g) in the brains of 16 selected H&N patients who received the highest SAR exposure in the brain, i.e. who had the minimum brain-target distance and received high forwarded power during treatment. The results show that the maximum induced SAR in the brain of the patients can exceed the current basic restrictions (IEEE and ICNIRP) on psSAR10g for occupational environments by 14 times. Even considering the high local SAR in the brain, evaluation of acute effects by the common toxicity criteria (CTC) scores revealed no indication of a serious acute neurological effect. In addition, this study provides pioneering quantitative human data on the association between maximum brain SAR level and acute adverse effects when brains are exposed to prolonged RF EMF.

  19. Acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Elfering, Achim; Zahno, Jasmine; Taeymans, Jan; Blasimann, Angela; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV) training to identify possible explanations for preventive effects against musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this quasi-experimental pilot study. Acute physiological and psychological effects of SR-WBV training were examined using electromyography of descending trapezius (TD) muscle, heart rate variability (HRV), different skin parameters (temperature, redness and blood flow) and self-report questionnaires. All subjects conducted a sham SR-WBV training at a low intensity (2 Hz with noise level 0) and a verum SR-WBV training at a higher intensity (6 Hz with noise level 4). They were tested before, during and after the training. Conclusions were drawn on the basis of analysis of variance. RESULTS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this study (age = 22.4 ± 2.1 years; body mass index = 21.6 ± 2.2 kg/m2). Muscular activity of the TD and energy expenditure rose during verum SR-WBV compared to baseline and sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). Muscular relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than at baseline and after sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). During verum SR-WBV the levels of HRV were similar to those observed during sham SR-WBV. The same applies for most of the skin characteristics, while microcirculation of the skin of the middle back was higher during verum compared to sham SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Skin redness showed significant changes over the three measurement points only in the middle back area (P = 0.022). There was a significant rise from baseline to verum SR-WBV (0.86 ± 0.25 perfusion units; P = 0.008). The self-reported chronic pain grade indicators of pain, stiffness, well-being, and muscle relaxation showed a mixed pattern across conditions. Muscle and joint stiffness (P = 0.018) and muscular relaxation did significantly change from baseline to different conditions of SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Moreover

  20. Health insurance in California, its effect on public health nursing.

    PubMed

    Russell, Marion E

    2013-01-01

    Health insurance coverage and the means by which it is paid have been topics of intense interest in recent years, but in the United States, creation of a uniform system for provision of medical care has been debated for nearly a century. During the Great Depression, before large group insurance plans, workers who formerly had been able to adequately support their families found themselves without employment or in low income jobs that barely put food on the table and a roof over their heads. Medical care was a luxury they could not afford. Health professionals suffered the effects of the economy too. Published in Public Health Nursing in 1936, this paper reflects a time period when the ravages of the Great Depression were manifest. California had received an influx of poor, migrant workers from other states hoping to provide for their families as pickers, canners, and manual laborers. The author, Marion E. Russell, described a 1935 health insurance proposal to cover all state residents. Selected excerpts illustrate differences in philosophy still evident in current considerations of national health care reform, particularly as related to mandated coverage. Russell worked in the State Relief Administration in San Francisco.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of Out-of-Hospital Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Acute Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Thokala, Praveen; Goodacre, Steve; Ward, Matt; Penn-Ashman, Jerry; Perkins, Gavin D.

    2015-01-01

    Study objective We determine the cost-effectiveness of out-of-hospital continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compared with standard care for adults presenting to emergency medical services with acute respiratory failure. Methods We developed an economic model using a United Kingdom health care system perspective to compare the costs and health outcomes of out-of-hospital CPAP to standard care (inhospital noninvasive ventilation) when applied to a hypothetical cohort of patients with acute respiratory failure. The model assigned each patient a probability of intubation or death, depending on the patient’s characteristics and whether he or she had out-of-hospital CPAP or standard care. The patients who survived accrued lifetime quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and health care costs according to their age and sex. Costs were accrued through intervention and hospital treatment costs, which depended on patient outcomes. All results were converted into US dollars, using the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development purchasing power parities rates. Results Out-of-hospital CPAP was more effective than standard care but was also more expensive, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £20,514 per QALY ($29,720/QALY) and a 49.5% probability of being cost-effective at the £20,000 per QALY ($29,000/QALY) threshold. The probability of out-of-hospital CPAP’s being cost-effective at the £20,000 per QALY ($29,000/QALY) threshold depended on the incidence of eligible patients and varied from 35.4% when a low estimate of incidence was used to 93.8% with a high estimate. Variation in the incidence of eligible patients also had a marked influence on the expected value of sample information for a future randomized trial. Conclusion The cost-effectiveness of out-of-hospital CPAP is uncertain. The incidence of patients eligible for out-of-hospital CPAP appears to be the key determinant of cost-effectiveness. PMID:25737210

  2. Refugee children: mental health and effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field.

  3. Nanoparticles: health effects--pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Gwinn, Maureen R; Vallyathan, Val

    2006-12-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, the prospects for using engineered nanomaterials with diameters of < 100 nm in industrial applications, medical imaging, disease diagnoses, drug delivery, cancer treatment, gene therapy, and other areas have progressed rapidly. The potential for nanoparticles (NPs) in these areas is infinite, with novel new applications constantly being explored. The possible toxic health effects of these NPs associated with human exposure are unknown. Many fine particles generally considered "nuisance dusts" are likely to acquire unique surface properties when engineered to nanosize and may exhibit toxic biological effects. Consequently, the nuisance dust may be transported to distant sites and could induce adverse health effects. In addition the beneficial uses of NPs in drug delivery, cancer treatment, and gene therapy may cause unintentional human exposure. Because of our lack of knowledge about the health effects associated with NP exposure, we have an ethical duty to take precautionary measures regarding their use. In this review we highlight the possible toxic human health effects that can result from exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) generated by anthropogenic activities and their cardiopulmonary outcomes. The comparability of engineered NPs to UFPs suggests that the human health effects are likely to be similar. Therefore, it is prudent to elucidate their toxicologic effect to minimize occupational and environmental exposure. Highlighting the human health outcomes caused by UFPs is not intended to give a lesser importance to either the unprecedented technologic and industrial rewards of the nanotechnology or their beneficial human uses.

  4. Effectiveness of total worker health interventions.

    PubMed

    Anger, W Kent; Elliot, Diane L; Bodner, Todd; Olson, Ryan; Rohlman, Diane S; Truxillo, Donald M; Kuehl, Kerry S; Hammer, Leslie B; Montgomery, Dede

    2015-04-01

    Total Worker Health (TWH) was introduced and the term was trademarked in 2011 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to formally signal the expansion of traditional occupational safety and health (OSH) to include wellness and well-being. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and other databases using keywords TWH, health promotion, health protection, and variants for articles meeting the criteria of (a) employing both occupational safety and/or health (OSH, or health protection) and wellness and/or well-being (health promotion, or HP) in the same intervention study, and (b) reporting both OSH and HP outcomes. Only 17 published studies met these criteria. All but 1 of the 17 TWH interventions improved risk factors for injuries and/or chronic illnesses, and 4 improved 10 or more risk factors. Several TWH interventions reported sustained improvements for over a year, although only 1 is readily available for dissemination. These results suggest that TWH interventions that address both injuries and chronic diseases can improve workforce health effectively and more rapidly than the alternative of separately employing more narrowly focused programs to change the same outcomes in serial fashion. These 17 articles provide useful examples of how TWH interventions can be structured. The promise of simultaneous improvements in safety, health, and well-being leads to the call to pursue TWH research to identify and disseminate best practices.

  5. Acute Alcohol Consumption and Secondary Psychopathic Traits Increase Ratings of the Attractiveness and Health of Ethnic Ingroup Faces but Not Outgroup Faces

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ian J.; Gillespie, Steven M.; Leverton, Monica; Llewellyn, Victoria; Neale, Emily; Stevenson, Isobel

    2015-01-01

    Studies have consistently shown that both consumption of acute amounts of alcohol and elevated antisocial psychopathic traits are associated with an impaired ability for prepotent response inhibition. This may manifest as a reduced ability to inhibit prepotent race biased responses. Here, we tested the effects of acute alcohol consumption, and elevated antisocial psychopathic traits, on judgments of the attractiveness and health of ethnic ingroup and outgroup faces. In the first study, we show that following acute alcohol consumption, at a dose that is sufficient to result in impaired performance on tests of executive function, Caucasian participants judged White faces to be more attractive and healthier compared to when sober. However, this effect did not extend to Black faces. A similar effect was found in a second study involving sober Caucasian participants where secondary psychopathic traits were related to an intergroup bias in the ratings of attractiveness for White versus Black faces. These results are discussed in terms of a model which postulates that poor prefrontal functioning leads to increases in ingroup liking as a result of impaired abilities for prepotent response inhibition. PMID:25745403

  6. The acute effect of local homicides on children's cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the acute effect of exposure to a local homicide on the cognitive performance of children across a community. Data are from a sample of children age 5–17 y in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. The effect of local homicides on vocabulary and reading assessments is identified by exploiting exogenous variation in the relative timing of homicides and interview assessments among children in the same neighborhood but assessed at different times. Among African-Americans, the strongest results show that exposure to a homicide in the block group that occurs less than a week before the assessment reduces performance on vocabulary and reading assessments by between ∼0.5 and ∼0.66 SD, respectively. Main results are replicated using a second independent dataset from Chicago. Findings suggest the need for broader recognition of the impact that extreme acts of violence have on children across a neighborhood, regardless of whether the violence is witnessed directly. PMID:20547862

  7. Nonmicrowave health and ecological effects: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts due to the operation and construction of the Satellite Power System are discussed. The nonmicrowave health and ecological effects encompass impacts on the public, the terrestrial worker, the space worker, the ecology, and agriculture.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Endangerment Finding: Health Effects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View English or Spanish-language version of a fact sheet that highlights key effects that support EPA’s determination that current and future concentrations of greenhouse gases endanger public health.

  9. Acute health impact of the gas release at Lake Nyos, Cameroon, 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Peter J.; Kapila, Mukesh

    1989-11-01

    Available medical evidence on the acute health impact of the gas release at Lake Nyos is summarised, including the results of a survey of medical records of 845 survivors treated at Wum and Nkambe hospitals. The main clinical features were compatible with exposure to an asphyxiant gas such as CO 2 but confirmation of the identity of the gas or gases involved was not possible. Exposure to CO 2 over such a large inhabited area and reversible coma lasting for hours after CO 2 gassing do not appear to have been reported before. In some victims, blistering or ulceration of the skin was present which could not be readily explained by local injury from pressure, or burns from acid, or falling near fires. Further epidemiological studies on survivors are unlikely to be feasible, but the possibility of long-term anoxic brain damage among adults and children who had been rendered comatose by the gas should be considered, though overt evidence of major neurological or respiratory disability was not apparent in survivors in the weeks following the disaster. The inadequacy of the toxicological and forensic evidence obtained points to the need for the rapid mobilisation of medical scientists in future disasters of this kind.

  10. Non-cancer effects in acute radiation syndrome survivors in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Belyi, David; Kovalenko, Aleksander; Bazyka, Dmitrij; Bebeshko, Vladimir

    2010-06-01

    The 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred is known as the most severe nuclear disaster in the history of humankind. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was diagnosed in 237 persons but only 134 of those were confirmed, including 28 patients who died due to lethal total-body gamma-irradiation and severe skin injuries caused by beta/gamma-emitting radionuclides. A small group of ARS survivors offers an interesting observational insight pertinent to the on-going discussions about long-term non-cancer effects of ionizing radiation. This descriptive study summarizes more than 20 y of follow-up, makes attempts to offer a prognosis for the Chernobyl ARS survivors' health, and explores the link between the outcomes of interest and radiation exposure.

  11. The impact of telehealth monitoring on acute care hospitalization rates and emergency department visit rates for patients using home health skilled nursing care.

    PubMed

    Woods, Landace W; Snow, Susan W

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the design and results of a study to demonstrate the impact of telemonitoring on acute care hospitalization (ACH) and emergency department (ED) visit rates for a Medicare-certified home health agency (HHA). Sociodemographic characteristics did not significantly differ between patients in the baseline, control, and intervention groups. Patients in the telemonitoring group had a statistically lower rate of ACH and ED visit rates. Telemonitoring may be an effective strategy for HHAs to reduce hospitalization and ED visits for patients with cardiac and/or respiratory conditions.

  12. Are antibiotics a safe and effective treatment for acute uncomplicated appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Moraga, Felipe; Ahumada, Vanessa; Crovari, Fernando

    2016-01-26

    Acute appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdominal pain and the most frequent cause of emergency abdominal surgery. In the last two decades, growing evidence has been published about the use of antibiotics as the exclusive treatment for acute appendicitis. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified only one systematic review including one pertinent randomized trial. We generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of antibiotics to treat acute uncomplicated appendicitis may be less effective than appendectomy and probably increases major complications compared with appendectomy.

  13. Relationship between dose and health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, R.D.

    1984-09-01

    The health effects produced by chemicals depend on the inherent toxicity of the chemical and the dose received by the exposed individual. Health effects are modified by genetic make-up, life style, nutrition, and interaction with other chemicals. In some situations it may be difficult to impossible to determine through epidemiologic studies whether exposure to chemicals (naturally occurring or synthetic) has caused harm. For all practical purposes, the risk associated with minuscule doses of most chemicals is negligible.

  14. Acute Effect of Hookah Smoking on the Human Coronary Microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael D; Rezk-Hanna, Mary; Rader, Florian; Mason, O'Neil R; Tang, Xiu; Shidban, Sarah; Rosenberry, Ryan; Benowitz, Neal L; Tashkin, Donald P; Elashoff, Robert M; Lindner, Jonathan R; Victor, Ronald G

    2016-06-01

    Hookah (water pipe) smoking is a major new understudied epidemic affecting youth. Because burning charcoal is used to heat the tobacco product, hookah smoke delivers not only nicotine but also large amounts of charcoal combustion products, including carbon-rich nanoparticles that constitute putative coronary vasoconstrictor stimuli and carbon monoxide, a known coronary vasodilator. We used myocardial contrast echocardiography perfusion imaging with intravenous lipid shelled microbubbles in young adult hookah smokers to determine the net effect of smoking hookah on myocardial blood flow. In 9 hookah smokers (age 27 ± 5 years, mean ± SD), we measured myocardial blood flow velocity (β), myocardial blood volume (A), myocardial blood flow (A × β) as well as myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) before and immediately after 30 minutes of ad lib hookah smoking. Myocardial blood flow did not decrease with hookah smoking but rather increased acutely (88 ± 10 to 120 ± 19 a.u./s, mean ± SE, p = 0.02), matching a mild increase in MVO2 (6.5 ± 0.3 to 7.6 ± 0.4 ml·minute(-1), p <0.001). This was manifested primarily by increased myocardial blood flow velocity (0.7 ± 0.1 to 0.9 ± 0.1 second(-1), p = 0.01) with unchanged myocardial blood volume (133 ± 7 to 137 ± 7 a.u., p = ns), the same pattern of coronary microvascular response seen with a low-dose β-adrenergic agonist. Indeed, with hookah, the increased MVO2 was accompanied by decreased heart rate variability, an indirect index of adrenergic overactivity, and eliminated by β-adrenergic blockade (i.v. propranolol). In conclusion, nanoparticle-enriched hookah smoke either is not an acute coronary vasoconstrictor stimulus or its vasoconstrictor effect is too weak to overcome the physiologic dilation of coronary microvessels matching mild cardiac β-adrenergic stimulation.

  15. Fructose and Fructans: Opposite Effects on Health?

    PubMed

    Di Bartolomeo, Francesca; Van den Ende, Wim

    2015-09-01

    Fructans are fructose-based oligo-and polysaccharides of natural origin. Fructan and fructose species are sometimes confused by the great public, although they clearly have different biochemical and physiological properties. This review discusses aspects of the use of fructose and fructans in foods in the context of human health, with possible differential effects on cellular autophagy in cells of the human body. Although there are uncertainties on the daily levels of ingested fructose to be considered harmful to human health, there is an emerging consensus on the benefits of the use of fructans in functional foods, sustaining health via direct immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects or through indirect, prebiotic mechanisms.

  16. Achieving Effective Universal Health Coverage And Diagonal Approaches To Care For Chronic Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Bhadelia, Afsan; Atun, Rifat; Frenk, Julio

    2015-09-01

    Health systems in low- and middle-income countries were designed to provide episodic care for acute conditions. However, the burden of disease has shifted to be overwhelmingly dominated by chronic conditions and illnesses that require health systems to function in an integrated manner across a spectrum of disease stages from prevention to palliation. Low- and middle-income countries are also aiming to ensure health care access for all through universal health coverage. This article proposes a framework of effective universal health coverage intended to meet the challenge of chronic illnesses. It outlines strategies to strengthen health systems through a "diagonal approach." We argue that the core challenge to health systems is chronicity of illness that requires ongoing and long-term health care. The example of breast cancer within the broader context of health system reform in Mexico is presented to illustrate effective universal health coverage along the chronic disease continuum and across health systems functions. The article concludes with recommendations to strengthen health systems in order to achieve effective universal health coverage.

  17. Acute effects of tianeptine on circulating neurotransmitters and cardiovascular parameters.

    PubMed

    Lechin, Fuad; van der Dijs, Bertha; Hernández, Gerardo; Orozco, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Simon; Baez, Scarlet

    2006-03-01

    Tianeptine is a serotonin-uptake enhancer drug whose antidepressant effectiveness is based on its ability to reduce rather than increase serotonin availability at the synaptic cleft. This paradoxical neuropharmacological mechanism has raised doubt among neuropharmacologists and psychiatrists as to the role of tianeptine as a trusty-reliable antidepressant drug. This controversial issue led us to investigate the acute effects of a single, oral dose (12.5 mg) of this drug on circulating neurotransmitters and cardiovascular parameters in 50 healthy subjects. The drug provoked a striking and significant reduction of plasma noradrenaline (NA) and plasma serotonin (f-5-HT) while it increased plasma dopamine (DA) and platelet serotonin (p-5-HT) concentrations within the 4-h study period. No adrenaline (Ad) changes were registered. The NA/Ad ratio and the f-5-HT/p-5-HT ratio showed significant reduction throughout the test. Finally, although diastolic blood pressure (DBP) showed significant decrease, neither systolic blood pressure (SBP) nor heart rate (HR) showed significant change. These findings are consistent with the postulation that tianeptine reduces both neural sympathetic activity and parasympathetic activity without affecting adrenal sympathetic activity, enabling us to discuss the possible mechanisms involved in the antidepressant effects of tianeptine. The well-known fact that major depressed patients always show raised NA plus lower than normal p-5-HT levels, both disorders which are normalized by tianeptine, gives neurochemical support to the clinical improvement triggered by the drug in these patients. Summarizing, the results presented in this study demonstrate that tianeptine triggers significant reduction of circulating noradrenaline and plasma serotonin while increasing circulating dopamine and platelet serotonin. Other possible neuropharmacological effects are also discussed.

  18. Health effects of vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  19. The Effects of Massage Therapy on Pain Management in the Acute Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rose; White, Barb; Beckett, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Background Pain management remains a critical issue for hospitals and is receiving the attention of hospital accreditation organizations. The acute care setting of the hospital provides an excellent opportunity for the integration of massage therapy for pain management into the team-centered approach of patient care. Purpose and Setting This preliminary study evaluated the effect of the use of massage therapy on inpatient pain levels in the acute care setting. The study was conducted at Flagstaff Medical Center in Flagstaff, Arizona—a nonprofit community hospital serving a large rural area of northern Arizona. Method A convenience sample was used to identify research participants. Pain levels before and after massage therapy were recorded using a 0 – 10 visual analog scale. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for analysis of this descriptive study. Participants Hospital inpatients (n = 53) from medical, surgical, and obstetrics units participated in the current research by each receiving one or more massage therapy sessions averaging 30 minutes each. The number of sessions received depended on the length of the hospital stay. Result Before massage, the mean pain level recorded by the patients was 5.18 [standard deviation (SD): 2.01]. After massage, the mean pain level was 2.33 (SD: 2.10). The observed reduction in pain was statistically significant: paired samples t52 = 12.43, r = .67, d = 1.38, p < .001. Qualitative data illustrated improvement in all areas, with the most significant areas of impact reported being overall pain level, emotional well-being, relaxation, and ability to sleep. Conclusions This study shows that integration of massage therapy into the acute care setting creates overall positive results in the patient’s ability to deal with the challenging physical and psychological aspects of their health condition. The study demonstrated not only significant reduction in pain levels, but also the interrelatedness of pain, relaxation

  20. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  1. Emergency Care of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California Integrated Health System

    PubMed Central

    Sauser-Zachrison, Kori; Shen, Ernest; Ajani, Zahra; Neil, William P; Sangha, Navdeep; Gould, Michael K; Sharp, Adam L

    2016-01-01

    Context: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is underutilized for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Objective: To determine whether the probability of tPA administration for patients with ischemic stroke in an integrated health care system improved from 2009 to 2013, and to identify predictors of tPA administration. Design: Retrospective analysis of all ischemic stroke presentations to 14 Emergency Departments between 2009 and 2013. A generalized linear mixed-effects model identified patient and hospital predictors of tPA. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome was tPA administration; secondary outcomes were door-to-imaging and door-to-needle times and tPA-related bleeding complications. Results: Of the 11,630 patients, 3.9% received tPA. The likelihood of tPA administration increased with presentation in 2012 and 2013 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26–2.43; and OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.90–3.51), female sex (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.04–1.54), and ambulance arrival (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.76–2.67), and decreased with prior stroke (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.25–0.89) and increased age (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97–0.99). Likelihood varied by Medical Center (pseudo-intraclass correlation coefficient 13.5%). Among tPA-treated patients, median door-to-imaging time was 15 minutes (interquartile range, 9–23 minutes), and door-to-needle time was 73 minutes (interquartile range, 55–103 minutes). The rate of intracranial hemorrhage was 4.2% and 0.9% among tPA- and non-tPA treated patients (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Acute ischemic stroke care improved over time in this integrated health system. Better understanding of differences in hospital performance will have important quality-improvement and policy implications. PMID:27043833

  2. Safety and effectiveness of transdermal nicotine patch in smokers admitted with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Meine, Trip J; Patel, Manesh R; Washam, Jeffrey B; Pappas, Paul A; Jollis, James G

    2005-04-15

    An analysis of smokers admitted with acute coronary syndrome who received transdermal nicotine therapy and those who did not was performed. Propensity analysis was used to match patients. Transdermal nicotine therapy appears safe and does not have an effect on the mortality of patients with acute coronary syndromes.

  3. [Health effects of nanomaterials on next generation].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Ken; Shinkai, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Yanagita, Shinya; Umezawa, Masakazu; Yokota, Satoshi; Tainaka, Hitoshi; Oshio, Shigeru; Ihara, Tomomi; Sugamata, Masao

    2011-02-01

    In order to discuss the health effects of nanomaterials, we cannot disregard the research on the health effects of airborne particulates. It is said that many of the fine or ultrafine particles in airborne particulates originate from diesel vehicles in metropolitan areas. The results of not only animal experiments but many epidemiologic surveys and volunteer intervention experiments in humans are reported on the health effects of particles. Although the health effects of the particulate matter particle sizes below 10 µm (PM10) were investigated in the initial studies, recently even smaller particles have come to be regarded as questionable and research of the health effects of the minute particulate matter below 2.5 µm (PM2.5) has been done. However, our recent study about maternal exposure to diesel exhaust suggests that health effect study of PM0.1, particles below 0.1 µm (100 nm), namely nanoparticles, is necessary from now on. We are proceeding with the study of the health effects of various types of intentionally produced nanomaterials such as carbon black, carbon nanotube, fullerene and titanium dioxide, examining in particular their influence on next generation. Although there are differences in the sites affected and the seriousness of the damage, basically similar findings to DEPs mentioned above are being discovered in research on nanomaterials. Regardless of dosage and administration method, such as inhalation, endotracheal administration, nasal drip and subcutaneous administration, once nanomaterials enter the bloodstream of a pregnant mother mouse, they move to the offspring and have effects on them. The effects may appear as various symptoms in the process of growth after birth, and can sometimes lead to the onset and aggravation of serious diseases.

  4. FLUORIDE: A REVIEW OF USE AND EFFECTS ON HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Kanduti, Domen; Sterbenk, Petra; Artnik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Appropriate oral health care is fundamental for any individual’s health. Dental caries is still one of the major public health problems. The most effective way of caries prevention is the use of fluoride. Aim: The aim of our research was to review the literature about fluoride toxicity and to inform physicians, dentists and public health specialists whether fluoride use is expedient and safe. Methods: Data we used in our review were systematically searched and collected from web pages and documents published from different international institutions. Results: Fluoride occurs naturally in our environment but we consume it in small amounts. Exposure can occur through dietary intake, respiration and fluoride supplements. The most important factor for fluoride presence in alimentation is fluoridated water. Methods, which led to greater fluoride exposure and lowered caries prevalence, are considered to be one of the greatest accomplishments in the 20th century`s public dental health. During pregnancy, the placenta acts as a barrier. The fluoride, therefore, crosses the placenta in low concentrations. Fluoride can be transmitted through the plasma into the mother’s milk; however, the concentration is low. The most important action of fluoride is topical, when it is present in the saliva in the appropriate concentration. The most important effect of fluoride on caries incidence is through its role in the process of remineralization and demineralization of tooth enamel. Acute toxicity can occur after ingesting one or more doses of fluoride over a short time period which then leads to poisoning. Today, poisoning is mainly due to unsupervised ingestion of products for dental and oral hygiene and over-fluoridated water. Conclusion: Even though fluoride can be toxic in extremely high concentrations, it`s topical use is safe. The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) recommends a preventive topical use of fluoride supplements because of their

  5. Recording of hospitalizations for acute exacerbations of COPD in UK electronic health care records

    PubMed Central

    Rothnie, Kieran J; Müllerová, Hana; Thomas, Sara L; Chandan, Joht S; Smeeth, Liam; Hurst, John R; Davis, Kourtney; Quint, Jennifer K

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate identification of hospitalizations for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) within electronic health care records is important for research, public health, and to inform health care utilization and service provision. We aimed to develop a strategy to identify hospitalizations for AECOPD in secondary care data and to investigate the validity of strategies to identify hospitalizations for AECOPD in primary care data. Methods We identified patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) with linked Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES) data. We used discharge summaries for recent hospitalizations for AECOPD to develop a strategy to identify the recording of hospitalizations for AECOPD in HES. We then used the HES strategy as a reference standard to investigate the positive predictive value (PPV) and sensitivity of strategies for identifying AECOPD using general practice CPRD data. We tested two strategies: 1) codes for hospitalization for AECOPD and 2) a code for AECOPD other than hospitalization on the same day as a code for hospitalization due to unspecified reason. Results In total, 27,182 patients with COPD were included. Our strategy to identify hospitalizations for AECOPD in HES had a sensitivity of 87.5%. When compared with HES, using a code suggesting hospitalization for AECOPD in CPRD resulted in a PPV of 50.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 48.5%–51.8%) and a sensitivity of 4.1% (95% CI 3.9%–4.3%). Using a code for AECOPD and a code for hospitalization due to unspecified reason resulted in a PPV of 43.3% (95% CI 42.3%–44.2%) and a sensitivity of 5.4% (95% CI 5.1%–5.7%). Conclusion Hospitalization for AECOPD can be identified with high sensitivity in the HES database. The PPV and sensitivity of strategies to identify hospitalizations for AECOPD in primary care data alone are very poor. Primary care data alone should not be used to identify

  6. Effects of lysine-induced acute renal failure in dogs.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Kentaro; Adachi, Kenji; Sugimoto, Tetsuro; Chiba, Shuichi

    2006-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of lysine-induced acute renal failure. Female dogs received a lysine hydrochloride (lysine) of 4500 mg/kg/day (3.75 ml/kg/hr) for 3 consecutive days. The dogs were observed for clinical signs. Body weights were recorded, food consumption and water consumption calculated, and urinalysis and blood biochemistry were performed daily. Plasma samples for amino acid determinations were obtained from all dogs, which were necropsied on Day 3. Histopathological examinations were done on all test animals. Compound-related findings include the following. Blood biochemistry results showed increases in ammonia, blood urea nitrogen, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio, and creatinine. Urinary changes consisted of increases in urine volume, total protein, albumin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. In addition, macroscopic findings consisted of pale, congested capsule; microscopic findings consisted of hypertrophy of proximal convoluted tubule (mainly S1 segment), and degeneration/desquamation of urinary tubule (mainly S3 segment with hyaline casts) in the kidney. From these findings, it can be concluded that lysine is nephrotoxic in dogs. Nephrotoxicity of lysine may relate to direct tubular toxicity and to tubular obstruction.

  7. Acute effects of cigarette smoking on pattern electroretinogram.

    PubMed

    Gundogan, Fatih C; Durukan, A Hakan; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Sobaci, Gungor; Bayraktar, M Zeki

    2006-09-01

    In this study, acute effects of cigarette smoking on the pattern electroretinogram (PERG) were investigated. First, variability of the PERG was studied in a group of young male smokers (26 right eyes of 26 subjects). Then PERGs were investigated in a group of habitual smokers (17 right eyes of 17 subjects) in separate real smoking and sham smoking sessions. On each session PERGs were recorded pre-smoking (PS), immediately after smoking (IAS) and 5 min after smoking (5th) conditions. Real smoking significantly increased P50 amplitudes and decreased N95 latencies. Regarding P50 amplitudes in the real smoking sessions, the differences were significant between PS and IAS (PS: 3.3 +/- 0.5 muV, IAS: 3.7 +/- 0.7microV, P = 0.015) and between PS-5th (PS: 3.3 +/- 0.5microV, 5th: 4.1 +/- 0.9microV, P = 0.039). There was significant difference (P = 0.024) between N95 latencies of PS (98.5 +/- 6.9 ms) and IAS (94.7 +/- 5.1 ms) in the real smoking sessions. No statistically significant difference was observed in sham smoking sessions. Our results indicated, for the first time, that cigarette smoking may influence PERG amplitude and latency significantly in habitual smokers.

  8. Effects of acute spinalization on neurons of postural networks

    PubMed Central

    Zelenin, Pavel V.; Lyalka, Vladimir F.; Hsu, Li-Ju; Orlovsky, Grigori N.; Deliagina, Tatiana G.

    2016-01-01

    Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of postural corrections. Spinalization results in loss of postural functions, including disappearance of PLRs. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute spinalization on two populations of spinal neurons (F and E) mediating PLRs, which we characterized previously. For this purpose, in decerebrate rabbits spinalized at T12, responses of interneurons from L5 to stimulation causing PLRs before spinalization, were recorded. The results were compared to control data obtained in our previous study. We found that spinalization affected the distribution of F- and E-neurons across the spinal grey matter, caused a significant decrease in their activity, as well as disturbances in processing of posture-related sensory inputs. A two-fold decrease in the proportion of F-neurons in the intermediate grey matter was observed. Location of populations of F- and E-neurons exhibiting significant decrease in their activity was determined. A dramatic decrease of the efficacy of sensory input from the ipsilateral limb to F-neurons, and from the contralateral limb to E-neurons was found. These changes in operation of postural networks underlie the loss of postural control after spinalization, and represent a starting point for the development of spasticity. PMID:27302149

  9. Protective effect of vitamin E against acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; Feng, Yetong; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Yulai; Zhao, Lei

    2015-01-01

    It has been well-known for many years now that vitamin E is an essential nutrient; however, some of the physiological functions of this vitamin are still far from being understood. In recent years, a series of preclinical and clinical studies proposed a protective role of vitamin E on acute kidney injury (AKI), which has a high morbidity rate and mortality rate in clinical investigations. Based on the benefits associated with vitamin E, such as strong antioxidant function, low toxicity, rare side-effects, and low cost, this therapy strategy has garnered an extensive amount of interest in the scientific community for the development of new therapy modes against AKI. In this review, a concise overview of the application of vitamin E in the treatment of AKI is provided as well as a summary of a series of published data regarding the combination therapy modes and detailed therapy mechanisms of vitamin E-based therapy against AKI. At present, there are critical points of this therapy mode that are still in need of further clarification, meaning the current understanding of the role of vitamin E in the treatment of AKI remains incomplete. However, the development of more reliable pharmacological or biotechnical strategies with vitamin E for the eventual treatment of patients with AKI may guide the next chapter of vitamin E research.

  10. Cerebral blood flow effects of acute intravenous heroin administration.

    PubMed

    Kosel, Markus; Noss, Roger S; Hämmig, Robert; Wielepp, Peter; Bundeli, Petra; Heidbreder, Rebeca; Kinser, Jane A; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Fisch, Hans-Ulrich; Kayser, Sarah; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2008-04-01

    We examined acute effects of intravenous diacetylmorphine (heroin) administration - which induces a characteristic biphasic response: A short rush-sensation associated with intense pleasurable feelings followed by a subjectively different period of euphoria on cerebral blood flow. This was assessed in nine male heroin dependent patients participating in a heroin maintenance program in a setting resembling everyday pattern of heroin abuse. 99mTc-HMPAO was administered 45 s (rush) and 15 min (euphoria) after administration of i.v. heroin and 45 s after administration of saline (placebo). Plasma concentration of diacetylmorphine and its metabolites were measured with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Compared to the euphoria condition, rush was associated with blood flow increase in the left posterior cerebellar lobe, left anterior cingulate gyrus and right precuneus. Our results are in line with recent reports indicating that the cerebellum is an important component in functional brain systems subserving sensory and motor integration, learning, modulation of affect, motivation and social behaviour, which all play important roles in reinforcing properties of opioids.

  11. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao-xin; Han, Bing; Hou, Li-Min; An, Ting-Ting; Jia, Guang; Cheng, Zhuo-Xin; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Yi-Nan; Kong, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Jia; Wang, Yong-Wei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Pan, Shang-Ha; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight). Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP. PMID:27115738

  12. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao-Xin; Han, Bing; Hou, Li-Min; An, Ting-Ting; Jia, Guang; Cheng, Zhuo-Xin; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Yi-Nan; Kong, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Jia; Wang, Yong-Wei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Pan, Shang-Ha; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight). Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP.

  13. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  14. Health Effects of Sleep Deprivation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    to get full antidepressant benefit from sleep deprivation. Cole and Muller 63 reported that when elderly depressives (57-79 years old, average age 69...Cole MG, Miller HF: Sleep deprivation in the treatment of elderly depressed patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 243:308-313, 1976. 64. Collins WE: Some effects...1:207-216, 1972. 259. Salin-Pascual RJ, Ortega-Soto H, Huerto-Delgadillo L, et al: The effect of total sleep deprivation on plasma melatonin and

  15. Rare alleles within the CYP2E1 (MEOS system) could be associated with better short-term health outcome after acute methanol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Pelclova, Daniela; Seidl, Zdenek; Vaneckova, Manuela; Klempir, Jiri; Ruzicka, Evzen; Ridzon, Petr; Urban, Pavel; Fenclova, Zdenka; Petrik, Vit; Diblik, Pavel; Kuthan, Pavel; Miovsky, Michal; Janikova, Barbara; Adamkova, Vera; Zakharov, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    Genetic polymorphisms influence the metabolism of ethanol and methanol, but the potential effects of genetic predisposition on the clinical course, outcome and short-term health sequelae of acute methanol poisoning are unknown. To evaluate the role of the MEOS system in methanol poisoning, we analysed the effect of three polymorphisms (RsaI - rs2031920; PstI - rs3813867; insertion/deletion I/D) within the CYP2E1 enzyme (MEOS system) in 50 adult survivors of methanol poisoning and compared their genotype frequencies with 460 controls. The minor allele frequencies of all three polymorphisms were below 5% in both groups. We did not detect significant differences in the genotype frequencies between survivors of methanol poisoning and controls (p = 0.34 for the RsaI variant; p = 0.59 for the PstI variant and p = 0.21 for the I/D polymorphism). The carriers of at least one minor allele in the CYP2E1 gene had less severe clinical symptoms and better short-term outcome after acute poisoning. Variants within the CYP2E1 gene are likely not significant genetic determinants of acute methanol poisoning (if survivors are analysed), but they may influence the severity of methanol poisoning and its visual/central nervous system (CNS) outcome.

  16. Mount St Helens eruptions, May 18 to June 12, 1980. An overview of the acute health impact.

    PubMed

    Baxter, P J; Ing, R; Falk, H; French, J; Stein, G F; Bernstein, R S; Merchant, J A; Allard, J

    1981-12-04

    Thirty-five known deaths were caused by the landslide and lateral blast of the May 18 eruption of Mount St Helens and at least 23 persons are missing. In 18 of 23 cases that reached autopsy, asphyxiation from ash inhalation was the cause of death. A rapidly established hospital surveillance system detected increases in the number of emergency room (ER) visits and admissions for asthma and bronchitis in communities with the heaviest ashfall after the May 18 eruption and the eruptions on May 25 and June 12. There were also increases in the number of ER visits for ash-related eye complaints in some areas. laboratory studies indicated that the May 18 ash was not acutely toxic, but the respirable portion contained 3% to 7% of crystalline free silica, a potential pneumoconiosis hazard to certain heavily exposed occupational groups. Continuing volcanic activity of Mount St Helens and future eruption of other volcanoes in the Cascade Range may pose a variety of health hazards, including blast, ashfalls, flooding, damage to public utilities, and possible psychosocial effects.

  17. Diet effects on bumblebee health.

    PubMed

    Roger, Nathalie; Michez, Denis; Wattiez, Ruddy; Sheridan, Christopher; Vanderplanck, Maryse

    2017-01-01

    Among physiological processes, the maintenance of immunity is one of the most energetically costly in invertebrates. Disease resistance can be quantified by measuring immunocompetence, which is defined as the ability of an organism to mount an immune response, either in cellular, humoral or behavioural forms. In insects, immune capacity can be affected by a variety of factors including pesticides, genetic diversity or diet. Here we focus on an important species of domesticated pollinator, Bombus terrestris, and the potential impact of a poor pollen diet (low nutritional content and toxic) on its health. We investigate three responses at both colony and individual levels: behavioural, humoral and cellular. Our results show that poor pollen diets decrease larval and pupal masses and increase larval ejection as well as adult constitutive immunity (i.e., prophenoloxidase assays). The susceptibility of bumblebees to disease and infection might therefore be greater after a nutritive stress. These findings raise the importance of available plant hosts, especially floral plant species providing pollen with suitable nutritive quality (i.e., nutrient pollen content) for bumblebees.

  18. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were tabulated. Years 2001–10 gave the greatest match (45.9%) for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991–2000. Years 1971–80 and 1981–90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951–1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its biological monitoring in the workplace essential. PMID:20386622

  19. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Monisha; Tseten, Tenzin; Anbalagan, Naresh; Beeregowda, Krishnamurthy N.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metal toxicity has proven to be a major threat and there are several health risks associated with it. The toxic effects of these metals, even though they do not have any biological role, remain present in some or the other form harmful for the human body and its proper functioning. They sometimes act as a pseudo element of the body while at certain times they may even interfere with metabolic processes. Few metals, such as aluminium, can be removed through elimination activities, while some metals get accumulated in the body and food chain, exhibiting a chronic nature. Various public health measures have been undertaken to control, prevent and treat metal toxicity occurring at various levels, such as occupational exposure, accidents and environmental factors. Metal toxicity depends upon the absorbed dose, the route of exposure and duration of exposure, i.e. acute or chronic. This can lead to various disorders and can also result in excessive damage due to oxidative stress induced by free radical formation. This review gives details about some heavy metals and their toxicity mechanisms, along with their health effects. PMID:26109881

  20. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Jaishankar, Monisha; Tseten, Tenzin; Anbalagan, Naresh; Mathew, Blessy B; Beeregowda, Krishnamurthy N

    2014-06-01

    Heavy metal toxicity has proven to be a major threat and there are several health risks associated with it. The toxic effects of these metals, even though they do not have any biological role, remain present in some or the other form harmful for the human body and its proper functioning. They sometimes act as a pseudo element of the body while at certain times they may even interfere with metabolic processes. Few metals, such as aluminium, can be removed through elimination activities, while some metals get accumulated in the body and food chain, exhibiting a chronic nature. Various public health measures have been undertaken to control, prevent and treat metal toxicity occurring at various levels, such as occupational exposure, accidents and environmental factors. Metal toxicity depends upon the absorbed dose, the route of exposure and duration of exposure, i.e. acute or chronic. This can lead to various disorders and can also result in excessive damage due to oxidative stress induced by free radical formation. This review gives details about some heavy metals and their toxicity mechanisms, along with their health effects.

  1. A pilot study on the effect of acute tai chi practice on peripheral blood cytokine expression in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongtao; Howk, Cherie; Geib, Roy W

    2012-01-01

    Tai chi (TC) is a unique form of exercise having both mind and body components – focused mindfulness and physical movement. It is perhaps best known for its ability to prevent falls in elderly people. It is also thought to improve vitality, longevity, mental and physical health. Recent studies have demonstrated its effectiveness as an intervention for chronic diseases associated with the inflammatory process, such as arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. The objective of this study was to explore the modulatory effect of acute TC practice on anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in healthy volunteers.

  2. The stress-buffering effect of acute exercise: Evidence for HPA axis negative feedback.

    PubMed

    Zschucke, Elisabeth; Renneberg, Babette; Dimeo, Fernando; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Ströhle, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    According to the cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis, physically trained individuals show lower physiological and psychological responses to stressors other than exercise, e.g. psychosocial stress. Reduced stress reactivity may constitute a mechanism of action for the beneficial effects of exercise in maintaining mental health. With regard to neural and psychoneuroendocrine stress responses, the acute stress-buffering effects of exercise have not been investigated yet. A sample of highly trained (HT) and sedentary (SED) young men was randomized to either exercise on a treadmill at moderate intensity (60-70% VO2max; AER) for 30 min, or to perform 30 min of "placebo" exercise (PLAC). 90 min later, an fMRI experiment was conducted using an adapted version of the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST). The subjective and psychoneuroendocrine (cortisol and α-amylase) changes induced by the exercise intervention and the MIST were assessed, as well as neural activations during the MIST. Finally, associations between the different stress responses were analysed. Participants of the AER group showed a significantly reduced cortisol response to the MIST, which was inversely related to the previous exercise-induced α-amylase and cortisol fluctuations. With regard to the sustained BOLD signal, we found higher bilateral hippocampus (Hipp) activity and lower prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity in the AER group. Participants with a higher aerobic fitness showed lower cortisol responses to the MIST. As the Hipp and PFC are brain structures prominently involved in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, these findings indicate that the acute stress-buffering effect of exercise relies on negative feedback mechanisms. Positive affective changes after exercise appear as important moderators largely accounting for the effects related to physical fitness.

  3. Effect of the Interaction between Recanalization and Collateral Circulation on Functional Outcome in Acute Ischaemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mangiafico, Salvatore; Saia, Valentina; Nencini, Patrizia; Romani, Ilaria; Palumbo, Vanessa; Pracucci, Giovanni; Consoli, Arturo; Rosi, Andrea; Renieri, Leonardo; Nappini, Sergio; Limbucci, Nicola; Inzitari, Domenico; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Identification of patients with acute ischaemic stroke who could most benefit from arterial recanalization after endovascular treatment remains an unsettled issue. Although several classifications of collateral circulation have been proposed, the clinical role of collaterals is still debated. We evaluated the effect of the collateral circulation in relation to recanalization as a predictor of clinical outcome. Data were prospectively collected from 102 patients consecutively treated for proximal middle cerebral or internal carotid artery occlusion. The collateral circulation was evaluated with a novel semiquantitative-qualitative score, the Careggi collateral score (CCS), in six grades. Both CCS and recanalization grades (TICI) were analysed in relation to clinical outcome. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of interaction between recanalization and collateral circulation on clinical outcome. Out of the 102 patients, 37 (36.3%) had poor collaterals, and 65 (63.7%) had good collaterals. Patients with good collaterals had lower basal National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), more distal occlusion, smaller lesions at 24h CT scan and better functional outcome. After multivariate analysis, the interaction between recanalization and collateral grades was significantly stronger as a predictor of good outcome (OR 6.87, 95% CI 2.11 – 22.31) or death (OR 4.66, 95%CI 1.48 – 14.73) compared to the effect of the single variables. Collaterals showed an effect of interaction with the recanalization grade in determining a favourable clinical outcome. Assessment of the collateral circulation might help predict clinical results after recanalization in patients undergoing endovascular treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. PMID:25496680

  4. Radon-Induced Health Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, C. R.

    The following sections are included: * Lung Cancer * Studies of miners * Estimates of lifetime risk associated with indoor radon exposure * Factors that may affect risk estimates * Sex and age at exposure * Joint effect of radon and smoking * Exposure rate * Epidemiological studies of lung cancer and indoor radon exposure * Cancers Other Than Lung * Dosimetry * Epidemiological studies * Studies of miners * Indoor radon exposure * Concluding Remarks * References

  5. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  6. Cerebrolysin effects on neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Amiri-Nikpour, Mohammad Reza; Nazarbaghi, Surena; Ahmadi-Salmasi, Babak; Mokari, Tayebeh; Tahamtan, Urya; Rezaei, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebrolysin, a brain-derived neuropeptide, has been shown to improve the neurological outcomes of stroke, but no study has demonstrated its effect on cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to determine the cerebrolysin impact on the neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow. Methods In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 46 patients who had acute focal ischemic stroke were randomly assigned into two groups to receive intravenously either 30 mL of cerebrolysin diluted in normal saline daily for 10 days (n=23) or normal saline alone (n=23) adjunct to 100 mg of aspirin daily. All patients were examined using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and transcranial Doppler to measure the mean flow velocity and pulsatility index (PI) of their cerebral arteries at baseline as well as on days 30, 60, and 90. Results The patients’ mean age was 60±9.7 years, and 51.2% of patients were male. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on day 60 (median 10, interquartile range 9–11, P=0.008) and day 90 (median 11, interquartile range 10–13.5, P=0.001). The median of PI in the right middle cerebral artery was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on days 30, 60, and 90 (P<0.05). One patient in the cerebrolysin group and two patients in the placebo group died before day 30 (4.3% versus 8.7%). Conclusion Cerebrolysin can be useful to improve the neurological outcomes and the PI of middle cerebral artery in patients with acute focal ischemic stroke. PMID:25516711

  7. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  8. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs.

  9. Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J.; Young, M.

    1996-09-01

    CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

  10. Acute Effects of Eccentric Overload on Concentric Front Squat Performance.

    PubMed

    Munger, Cameron N; Archer, David C; Leyva, Whitney D; Wong, Megan A; Coburn, Jared W; Costa, Pablo B; Brown, Lee E

    2017-01-30

    Eccentric overload is used to enhance performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of eccentric overload on concentric front squat performance. Twenty resistance-trained males (age=23.80±1.82yrs, ht=176.95±5.21cm, mass=83.49±10.43kg, 1 Repetition Maximum [1RM] front squat=131.02±21.32kg) volunteered. A dynamic warm-up and warm-up sets of front squat were performed. Eccentric hooks were added to the barbell. They descended for 3 seconds, until eccentric hooks released, and performed the concentric phase as fast as possible. There were three randomly-ordered conditions with the concentric phase always at 90% 1RM and the eccentric phase at 105%, 110%, and 120% of 1RM. Two repetitions were performed for each condition. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine differences. For peak velocity, there were main effects for time and condition (P<0.05), where post (1.01±0.10m/s) was greater than pre (0.96±0.11m/s) and 120% (1.03±1.11m/s) was greater than 105% (0.99±0.13m/s). For peak power, there was a main effect for condition where 120% (2225.00±432.37W) was greater than 105% (2021.84±563.53W). For peak ground reaction force, there were main effects for time and condition, where post was greater than pre and 120% was greater than 105%. For rate of force development, there was no interaction or main effects. Eccentric overload enhanced concentric velocity and power, therefore it can be used by strength coaches and athletes during the power phase of a training program. It can also be used to prescribe supramaximal loads and could be a tool to supplement the clean exercise because the front squat is a precursor.

  11. Children, adolescents, and the media: health effects.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2012-06-01

    The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media.

  12. National Veterans Health Administration inpatient risk stratification models for hospital-acquired acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Robert M; VanHouten, Jacob P; Siew, Edward D; Eden, Svetlana K; Fihn, Stephan D; Nielson, Christopher D; Peterson, Josh F; Baker, Clifton R; Ikizler, T Alp; Speroff, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) is a potentially preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Identifying high-risk patients prior to the onset of kidney injury is a key step towards AKI prevention. Materials and Methods A national retrospective cohort of 1,620,898 patient hospitalizations from 116 Veterans Affairs hospitals was assembled from electronic health record (EHR) data collected from 2003 to 2012. HA-AKI was defined at stage 1+, stage 2+, and dialysis. EHR-based predictors were identified through logistic regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) regression, and random forests, and pair-wise comparisons between each were made. Calibration and discrimination metrics were calculated using 50 bootstrap iterations. In the final models, we report odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and importance rankings for predictor variables to evaluate their significance. Results The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the different model outcomes ranged from 0.746 to 0.758 in stage 1+, 0.714 to 0.720 in stage 2+, and 0.823 to 0.825 in dialysis. Logistic regression had the best AUC in stage 1+ and dialysis. Random forests had the best AUC in stage 2+ but the least favorable calibration plots. Multiple risk factors were significant in our models, including some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, blood pressure medications, antibiotics, and intravenous fluids given during the first 48 h of admission. Conclusions This study demonstrated that, although all the models tested had good discrimination, performance characteristics varied between methods, and the random forests models did not calibrate as well as the lasso or logistic regression models. In addition, novel modifiable risk factors were explored and found to be significant. PMID:26104740

  13. The dopaminergic response to acute stress in health and psychopathology: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vaessen, Thomas; Hernaus, Dennis; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse

    2015-09-01

    Previous work in animals has shown that dopamine (DA) in cortex and striatum plays an essential role in stress processing. For the first time, we systematically reviewed the in vivo evidence for DAergic stress processing in health and psychopathology in humans. All studies included (n studies=25, n observations=324) utilized DA D2/3 positron emission tomography and measured DAergic activity during an acute stress challenge. The evidence in healthy volunteers (HV) suggests that physiological, but not psychological, stress consistently increases striatal DA release. Instead, increased medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) DAergic activity in HV was observed during psychological stress. Across brain regions, stress-related DAergic activity was correlated with the physiological and psychological intensity of the stressor. The magnitude of stress-induced DA release was dependent on rearing conditions, personality traits and genetic variations in several SNPs. In psychopathology, preliminary evidence was found for stress-related dorsal striatal DAergic hyperactivity in psychosis spectrum and a blunted response in chronic cannabis use and pain-related disorders, but results were inconsistent. Physiological stress-induced DAergic activity in striatum in HV may reflect somatosensory properties of the stressor and readiness for active fight-or-flight behavior. DAergic activity in HV in the ventral striatum and mPFC may be more related to expectations about the stressor and threat evaluation, respectively. Future studies with increased sample size in HV and psychopathology assessing the functional relevance of stress-induced DAergic activity, the association between cortical and subcortical DAergic activity and the direct comparison of different stressors are necessary to conclusively elucidate the role of the DA system in the stress response.

  14. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress. PMID:27635201

  15. Health effects of indebtedness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, millions of households have been left with debts that they are unable to manage. Indebtedness may impair the wellbeing of those affected by it for years to come. This systematic review focuses on the long-term consequences of indebtedness on health. Methods The method used in the paper is a systematic review. First, bibliographic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles. Second, the references and citations of the included articles were searched for additional articles. Results The results from our sample of 33 peer-reviewed studies demonstrate serious health effects related to indebtedness. Individuals with unmet loan payments had suicidal ideation and suffered from depression more often than those without such financial problems. Unpaid financial obligations were also related to poorer subjective health and health-related behaviour. Debt counselling and other programmes to mitigate debt-related stress are needed to alleviate the adverse effects of indebtedness on health. Conclusions The results demonstrate that indebtedness has serious effects on health. PMID:24885280

  16. [Phospholipids: properties and health effects].

    PubMed

    Torres García, Jairo; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-09-12

    Phospholipids are amphipathic lipids, which are found in all the cell membranes, organized as a lipid bilayer. They belong to the glycerol-derived lipids, showing a similar structure as triglycerides. The current interest of them comes from its effectiveness to incorporate different fatty acids in the cell membrane, as they exhibit better absorption and utilization than triglycerides. In this paper, the bibliographical data published about the benefits of the phospholipids in inflammatory processes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, liver disease and as an antioxidants transporter is reviewed.

  17. Association of serum interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score with clinical outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Swaroopa, Deme; Bhaskar, Kakarla; Mahathi, T.; Katkam, Shivakrishna; Raju, Y. Satyanarayana; Chandra, Naval; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Studies on potential biomarkers in experimental models of acute lung injury (ALI) and clinical samples from patients with ALI have provided evidence to the pathophysiology of the mechanisms of lung injury and predictor of clinical outcome. Because of the high mortality and substantial variability in outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), identification of biomarkers such as cytokines is important to determine prognosis and guide clinical decision-making. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have included thirty patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit diagnosed with ARDS, and serum samples were collected on day 1 and 7 and were analyzed for serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 by ELISA method, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring was done on day 1. Results: The mortality in the patients observed with ARDS was 34%. APACHE II score was significantly higher in nonsurvivors as compared to survivors. There were no significant differences in gender and biochemical and hematological parameters among the survivors and nonsurvivors. Serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels on day 1 were significantly higher in all the ARDS patients as compared to healthy controls and these levels were returned to near-normal basal levels on day 7. The serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels measured on day 7 were of survivors. As compared to survivors, the IL-6 and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors measured on day 1. Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated a significant positive correlation of APACHE II with IL-8. By using APACHE II score, IL-6, and IL-8, the receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted and the provided predictable accuracy of mortality (outcome) was 94%. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the importance of measuring the cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with ARDS in predicting the clinical outcome. PMID:27688627

  18. Acute effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism on vascular function in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H; English, Mark; Talcott, Susanne; Jaffe, Iris Z; Christou, Demetra D

    2016-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation by aldosterone may regulate vascular function in health or contribute to vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease. Whether the effects are beneficial or detrimental to vascular function appear to be dependent on the integrity of the vascular endothelium and whether the responses are short-term or chronic. Acute modulation of MR activation has resulted in conflicting outcomes on vascular function in young healthy adults. Little is known about the vascular role of aldosterone and MR activation in healthy human aging. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether acute inhibition of MR by the selective antagonist eplerenone, influences vascular function in healthy older adults. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in 22 adults (61±1 years; mean±SE, 53-79 years) who were free from overt clinical cardiovascular disease. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation and endothelium-independent dilation to sublingual nitroglycerin (0.4 mg) following eplerenone (100 mg/dose, 2 doses, 24h between doses) or placebo. In response to acute MR antagonism, flow-mediated dilation decreased by 19% (from 6.9±0.5 to 5.6±0.6%, P=0.02; placebo vs. eplerenone). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity also decreased following MR antagonism based on the ratio of phosphorylated eNOS(Ser1177) to total eNOS (1.53±0.08 vs. 1.29±0.06, P=0.02). Nitroglycerin-induced dilation and blood pressure were unaffected (nitroglycerin-induced dilation: 21.9±1.9 vs. 21.0±1.5%, P=0.5 and systolic/diastolic blood pressure: 135/77±4/2 vs. 134/77±4/2 mmHg, P≥0.6). In conclusion, acute MR antagonism impairs vascular endothelial function in healthy older adults without influencing vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to exogenous nitric oxide or blood pressure.

  19. Acute Effect of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonism on Vascular Function in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H.; English, Mark; Talcott, Susanne; Jaffe, Iris Z.; Christou, Demetra D.

    2015-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation by aldosterone may regulate vascular function in health or contribute to vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease. Whether the effects are beneficial or detrimental to vascular function appear to be dependent on the integrity of the vascular endothelium and whether the responses are short-term or chronic. Acute modulation of MR activation has resulted in conflicting outcomes on vascular function in young healthy adults. Little is known about the vascular role of aldosterone and MR activation in healthy human aging. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether acute inhibition of MR by the selective antagonist eplerenone, influences vascular function in healthy older adults. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in 22 adults (61±1 y; mean ± SE, 53–79 y) who were free from overt clinical cardiovascular disease. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation and endothelium-independent dilation to sublingual nitroglycerin (0.4mg) following eplerenone (100 mg/dose, 2 doses, 24 hours between doses) or placebo. In response to acute MR antagonism, flow-mediated dilation decreased by 19% (from 6.9±0.5 to 5.6±0.6 %, P=0.02; placebo vs. eplerenone). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity also decreased following MR antagonism based on the ratio of phosphorylated eNOSSer1177 to total eNOS (1.53±0.08 vs. 1.29±0.06, P=0.02). Nitroglycerin-induced dilation and blood pressure were unaffected (nitroglycerin-induced dilation: 21.9±1.9 vs. 21.0±1.5 %, P=0.5 and systolic/diastolic blood pressure: 135/77±4/2 vs. 134/77± 4/2 mmHg, P ≥0.6). In conclusion, acute MR antagonism impairs vascular endothelial function in healthy older adults without influencing vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to exogenous nitric oxide or blood pressure. PMID:26639352

  20. The effect of acute effort on EEG in healthy young and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Helena; Deslandes, Andrea; Silveira, Heitor; Ribeiro, Pedro; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Pompeu, Fernando; Laks, Jerson

    2011-01-01

    The effects of physical exercise on mental health have been extensively investigated, mainly in older people. Recent studies have looked into the acute effect of exercise on the brain using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). We assessed EEG power and mood changes after 20 min of aerobic exercise in elderly (N = 10) and young (N = 19) healthy individuals. Both groups showed improvement in total mood disturbance (TMD) post exercise (young: P = 0.03; elderly: P = 0.02). Only the young group showed significant improvement in anger (P = 0.05) and vigor (P = 0.006). Comparison pre versus post-exercise for each group separately revealed significant changes in the young group (an increase in alpha, beta-1 and beta-2 activity in Brodmann areas 24, 33 and 23, respectively). However, the elderly group did not show significant changes. An inverse correlation was found between alpha asymmetry and STAI (rs = -0.50; P = 0.029) in the young group. On the other hand, a significant correlation between beta-1 activity and TMD was observed in the elderly group (rs = 0.67; P = 0.045). We conclude that acute exercise can have distinct effects on brain activity and mood variables in young individuals when compared with elderly adults. However, additional studies are necessary to further investigate the role of exercise intensity in these results.

  1. Acute and chronic effects of ketamine on semantic priming: modeling schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Ana; Brandner, Brigitta; Klaassen, Elissa; Cregg, Roman; Nagaratnam, Mayavaty; Bromley, Lesley M; Das, Ravi K; Rossell, Susan L; Morgan, Celia J A; Curran, H Valerie

    2009-04-01

    Acute administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy volunteers; furthermore, a window on ketamine's chronic effects is provided by regular recreational users. The current study utilized both acute ketamine administration in healthy volunteers and chronic ketamine abusers to investigate semantic processing, one of the key cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Semantic processing was examined using a semantic priming paradigm. In experiment 1, acute effects of low (75 ng/mL) and high (150 ng/mL) ketamine doses were compared in a placebo-controlled double-blind independent group design with 48 participants. In experiment 2, 19 regular recreational ketamine users were compared with 19 ketamine-naive polydrug controls and 26 non-drug-using controls. In both experiments, semantic priming parameters were manipulated to distinguish between ketamine's effects on (1) automatic and strategic processing and (2) the facilitation and inhibition components of semantic priming for strongly (directly) related primes and targets. Acute effects of ketamine on semantic priming for weakly (indirectly) related primes and targets were also assessed in experiment 1. Acutely, ketamine impaired the employment of strategic mechanisms but not automatic processing within both the direct and indirect semantic priming tasks. Acute ketamine administration also induced clear schizophrenia-like symptoms. Schizotypy traits in the cognitive and perceptual domains tended to correlate with increased semantic priming in long-term ketamine users. In summary, acute and chronic ketamine-induced changes partially mirrored the findings on semantic priming in schizophrenia.

  2. Acute exposure to acid fog. Effects on mucociliary clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Laube, B.L.; Bowes, S.M. III; Links, J.M.; Thomas, K.K.; Frank, R. )

    1993-05-01

    Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance from the trachea (n = 4) and small airways (n = 7) of young healthy male adults after an acute exposure to H2SO4 fog (MMAD = 10.3 microns; pH = 2.0; liquid water content = 481 +/- 65 mg/m3; osmolarity = 30 mOsm). Acid fog (AF) or saline fog (SF) (10.9 microns; 492 +/- 116 mg/m3; 30 mOsm) was administered for 40 min of unencumbered breathing (no mouth-piece) at rest and for 20 min of exercise sufficient to produce oronasal breathing. Fog exposures were followed by a methacholine (MCh) challenge (a measure of airway reactivity) or inhalation of technetium-99M radioaerosol (MMAD = 3.4 microns) on 2 study days each. Changes in symptoms and forced ventilatory function were also assessed. Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. Symptoms, forced ventilatory function, and MCh response were unaffected by either fog. Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). Outer zone clearance was more rapid in six of seven subjects after AF (0.22 +/- 0.15% removal/min) compared with that after SF (0.01 +/- 0.09% removal/min).

  3. Effects of Montelukast in an Experimental Model of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Angı, Serkan; Eken, Hüseyin; Kılıç, Erol; Karaköse, Oktay; Balci, Gürhan; Somuncu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of Montelukast on pancreatic damage in an experimental acute pancreatitis model created by cerulein in rats before and after the induction of pancreatitis. Materials/Methods Forty rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats each. The study groups were: the Cerulein (C) group, the Cerulein + early Montelukast (CMe) group, the Cerulein + late Montelukast (CMl) group, and the Control group. The pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, leukocyte, hematocrit, pancreatic amylase, and lipase values were measured in the arterial blood samples taken immediately before rats were killed. Results There were statistically significant differences between the C group and the Control group in the values of pancreatic amylase, lipase, blood leukocyte, hematocrit, pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, and pancreatic water content, and also in each of the values of edema, inflammation, vacuolization, necrosis, and total histopathological score (P<0.05). When the CMl group and C group were compared, no statistically significant differences were found in any parameter analyzed. When the CMe group was compared with the C group, pancreatic amylase, lipase, pH, PO2, pCO2, HCO3, pancreatic water content, histopathological edema, inflammation, and total histopathological score values were significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). Finally, when the CMe group and the Control group were compared, significant differences were found in all except 2 (leukocyte and pO2) parameters (P<0.05). Conclusions Leukotriene receptor antagonists used in the late phases of pancreatitis might not result in any benefit; however, when they are given in the early phases or prophylactically, they may decrease pancreatic damage. PMID:27479458

  4. Predicting the acute behavioral effects in rats inhaling toluene (or up to 24 hrs: Inhaled vs. internal dose metrics.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute toxicity oftoluene, a model volatile organic compound (VOC), depends on the concentration (C) and duration (t) ofexposure, and guidelines for acute exposures have traditionally used ext relationships to extrapolate protective and/or effective concentrations across durat...

  5. Perseverative thoughts and subjective health complaints in adolescence: Mediating effects of perceived stress and negative affects.

    PubMed

    Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Józan, Anna; Morgan, Antony; Szemenyei, Eszter; Urbán, Róbert; Reinhardt, Melinda; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as trait rumination and worry can influence somatic health. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between perseverative thoughts and somatic complaints, and the possible mediating effects of perceived stress, negative and positive affectivity in adolescence. Having an acute or a chronic condition was also assessed to be controlled for and to reveal their effects on symptom reporting. Three hundred and six adolescents from 7th to 12th grade with mean age of 16.33 (SD = 1.29) participated in the study. Mediation analysis suggested that impact of trait-like perseverative thoughts on complaints were mediated by perceived stress and negative affectivity. Having an acute condition had also an effect on symptom reporting through increased negative affectivity. Our results highlight that ruminations or worry as stable intrapersonal characteristics are relevant processes in health and can be potential targets in prevention programmes in adolescence.

  6. 21 CFR 320.28 - Correlation of bioavailability with an acute pharmacological effect or clinical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Correlation of bioavailability with an acute..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Determining the Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products §...

  7. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  8. Protective Effect of Pretreatment with Acenocoumarol in Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Warzecha, Zygmunt; Sendur, Paweł; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Dembiński, Marcin; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Olszanecki, Rafał; Tomaszewska, Romana; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-10-12

    Coagulation is recognized as a key player in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of the current research was to examine the effect of pretreatment with acenocoumarol on the development of acute pancreatitis (AP) evoked by cerulein.

  9. Acute and chronic effects of rat colon after photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassy, T.; Breiter, N.; Sroka, Ronald; Ernst, Helmut

    1994-03-01

    After clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) and radiotherapy (RT) of the colon carcinoma acute and late damages on adjacent normal tissue were seen. Therefore it was the aim of this experimental study to investigate these damages on normal colon tissue of rats after PDT in comparison with RT. Within the first hours after PDT the endoscopic examination showed a severe acute damage. The histopathological examination showed that the acute ulceration depends on the energy density applied within the first three days. This study indicates different progresses of acute effects after PDT and RT, respectively. Late damages were observed only by RT in contrast to PDT. Synthetic diet prevents acute damages after PDT. However, the synthetic diet after RT can prevent the late damage for the duration of the diet administration.

  10. Effect of sesame oil against acetaminophen-induced acute oxidative hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Wan, Chang-Hsin; Liu, Li-Lian; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2008-08-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes acute liver injury or even death in both humans and experimental animals. We investigated the effect of sesame oil on APAP-induced acute liver injury. Male Wistar rats were given APAP (1,000 mg/kg; orally) to induce acute liver injury. Acetaminophen significantly increased aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical generation levels; it also induced glutathione depletion. Sesame oil (8 mL/kg; orally) did not alter the gastric absorption of APAP, but it inhibited all the parameters altered by APAP and protected the rats against APAP-induced acute liver injury. We hypothesize that sesame oil maintained the intracellular glutathione levels, reduced reactive oxygen species levels, and inhibited lipid peroxidation in rats with APAP-induced acute liver injury.

  11. Health effects of outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. PMID:21841106

  12. The economic costs of radiation-induced health effects: Estimation and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    This effort improves the quantitative information available for use in evaluating actions that alter health risks due to population exposure to ionizing radiation. To project the potential future costs of changes in health effects risks, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) constructed a probabilistic computer model, Health Effects Costs Model (HECOM), which utilizes the health effect incidence estimates from accident consequences models to calculate the discounted sum of the economic costs associated with population exposure to ionizing radiation. Application of HECOM to value-impact and environmental impact analyses should greatly increase the quality of the information available for regulatory decision making. Three major types of health effects present risks for any population sustaining a significant radiation exposure: acute radiation injuries (and fatalities), latent cancers, and impairments due to genetic effects. The literature pertaining to both incidence and treatment of these health effects was reviewed by PNL and provided the basis for developing economic cost estimates. The economic costs of health effects estimated by HECOM represent both the value of resources consumed in diagnosing, treating, and caring for the patient and the value of goods not produced because of illness or premature death due to the health effect. Additional costs to society, such as pain and suffering, are not included in the PNL economic cost measures since they do not divert resources from other uses, are difficult to quantify, and do not have a value observable in the marketplace. 83 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Effects of Health Literacy and Social Capital on Health Information Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention.

  14. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  15. Health Effects of Unemployment Benefit Program Generosity

    PubMed Central

    Glymour, M. Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. Methods. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Results. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b = 0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio = 2.777; 95% CI = 2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits = −0.124; 95% CI = −0.197, −0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Conclusions. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men. PMID:25521897

  16. Effect of acute and delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cyanide whole blood levels during acute cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lawson-Smith, P; Jansen, E C; Hilsted, L; Johnsen, A H; Hyldegaard, O

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide and carbon monoxide, which are often found in fire victims, are toxic gases emitted from fires. Cyanide and carbon monoxide have similar molecular structure. Cyanide binds to the enzyme cytochrome oxidase a, a3 similar to carbon monoxide, thus blocking the mitochondrial respiration chain causing depletion of adenosine triphosphate. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is recommended for treating carbon monoxide poisoning. The therapeutic effect is due to a high oxygen pressure removing carbon monoxide from the cells. We hypothesise that HBO2 induces changes in whole-blood-cyanide by a competitive mechanism forcing cyanide out of cellular tissues. A rat model was developed to study this effect. Female Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with a fentanyl + fluanizone combination and midazolam given subcutaneously (s.c.). Rats were poisoned with 5.4 mg/kg KCN injected intra-peritoneally in Group 1 and intra-arterially in Group 2. Blood samples were taken immediately after poisoning, and at one and a half, three and five hours. Blood was drawn from a jugular vein in Group 1 and from a femoral artery in Group 2. Group 1 rats were divided into a control group of 12 rats without HBO2, 10 rats had acute HBO2 immediately after poisoning and a group of 10 rats had HBO2 one and a half hours after poisoning. Group 2 rats were divided into a control group and an acute HBO2 group, with 10 rats in both groups. Whole-blood-cyanide concentrations were measured using the Conway method based on diffusion and the subsequent formation of cyanocobalamin measured by a spectrophotometer. Results showed that whole-blood-cyanide concentration in Group 1 controls and acute HBO2 initially rose and then fell towards zero. In rats treated with delayed HBO2, the reduction in whole-blood-cyanide concentration was significantly less as compared to controls and acute HBO2-treated rats. Group 2 controls whole-blood-cyanide concentration decreased towards zero throughout the observation period. However

  17. Effects of Gelam and Acacia honey acute administration on some biochemical parameters of Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since ancient times, honey has been used for medicinal purposes in many cultures; it is one of the oldest and most enduring substances used in wound management. Scientific evidence for its efficacy is widely studied, but systemic safety studies are still lacking. It is essential to study the impact of consumption of honey on the health and proper development of the consumer. Therefore, the present study was designed to observe the effects of acute administration (14 days) of Gelam honey (GH), a wild harvesting honey and Acacia honey (AH), a beekeeping honey, on male and female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methods An acute oral study was performed following OECD test guideline 423, with minor modifications. In the study, GH, AH and sucrose (S) were administered at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Animals were observed for the next 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Clinical biochemistry, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results Rats fed with honey did not exhibit any abnormal signs or deaths. Results showed a decrease in weight gain and energy efficiency, but significantly increased in total food intake and total calories in female rats fed with GH, compared to control (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, a significant increase in body weight was observed in male rats in all honey-treated groups. Male rats fed with AH significantly decreased in total food intake, total calories and energy efficiency. Both male and female rats fed with GH displayed a significant decrease in triglycerides compared to control group. Hepatic and renal function levels were within acceptable range. The gross necropsy analysis did not reveal changes in any of the organs examined. Conclusions Our results suggest that acute consumption of GH and AH at 2000 mg/kg body weight of male and female SD rats has some discrepancy

  18. Specific Effects of Acute Moderate Exercise on Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davranche, Karen; McMorris, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The main issue of this study was to determine whether cognitive control is affected by acute moderate exercise. Twelve participants [4 females (VO[subscript 2 max]=42 ml/kg/min) and 8 males (VO[subscript 2 max]=48 ml/kg/min)] performed a Simon task while cycling at a carefully controlled workload intensity corresponding to their individual…

  19. Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-05-01

    This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are treated first. Then, regional effects of air pollution, including acid rain, are analyzed. Finally, potential global impacts are examined. Occupational health concerns considered include exposure to noise, dust, asbestos, mercury, and combustion products, and resulting injury and disease. Local effects considered include noise; air and water emissions of coal storage piles, solid waste operations, and cooling systems. Air pollution, once an acute local problem, is now a regional concern. Acute and chronic direct health effects are considered. Special attention is given to potential effects of radionuclides in coal and of acid rain. Finally, potential global impacts associated with carbon dioxide emissions are considered. 88 references, 9 tables.

  20. Health Effects of Toxicants: Online Knowledge Support ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Research in toxicology generates vast quantities of data which reside on the Web and are subsequently appropriated and utilized to support further research. This data includes a broad spectrum of information about chemical, biological and radiological agents which can affect health, the nature of the effects, treatment, regulatory measures, and more. Online resources are created and housed by a variety of institutions, including libraries and government agencies. This paper focuses on three such institutions and the tools they offer to the public: the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and its Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Reference is also made to other relevant organizations. A review of online public data sources and data resources on health effects of toxicants offered by NLM, EPA and OECD..

  1. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health

    PubMed Central

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases. PMID:27618093

  2. THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC DECLINE

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Ralph; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Saxton, Katherine; Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Subbaraman, Meenakshi; LeWinn, Kaja; Anderson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The recent recession and lingering high unemployment will likely lead to a burst of research studying the health effects of economic decline. We aim to inform that work by summarizing empirical research concerned with those effects. We separate the studies into groups defined by questions asked, mechanisms invoked, and outcomes studied. We conclude that although much research shows that undesirable job and financial experiences increase the risk of psychological and behavioral disorder, many other suspected associations remain poorly studied or unsupported. The intuition that mortality increases when the economy declines, for example, appears wrong. We note that the research informs public health programming by identifying risk factors, such as job loss, made more frequent by economic decline. The promise that the research would identify health costs and benefits of economic policy choices, however, remains unfulfilled and will likely remain so without stronger theory and greater methodological agreement. PMID:21054175

  3. Radium in the environment: exposure pathways and health effects.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Buchner, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive element in the environment that can exist as several isotopes. Little information is available on the acute (short-term) non-cancer effects in humans. Radium exposure has resulted in acute leukopenia, anemia, necrosis of the jaw, and other effects. Cancer is the major effect of concern. Radium, via oral exposure, is known to cause bone, head, and nasal passage tumors in humans. The US Environmental Protection Agency has not classified radium for carcinogenicity.

  4. Comparison of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II risk scores in patients with acute myocardial infarction who require mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Eran, Oren; Novack, Victor; Gilutz, Harel; Zahger, Doron

    2011-02-01

    The ability to provide an accurate prognosis in an intensive care unit is of major importance. Numerous risk scores have been developed to predict hospital mortality based on demographic, physiologic, and clinical data. These scores were universally developed in general medical or surgical intensive care units. Patients admitted to a cardiac care unit differ in many aspects from those admitted to general medical intensive care units. Few patients require mechanical ventilation and prolonged intensive care. Performance of risk scores developed for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in this subgroup is unknown. We prospectively studied 51 consecutive patients who were admitted to a cardiac care unit from September 2006 to March 2008 for AMI and received mechanical ventilation for >24 hours. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction, and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk scores were calculated for each patient. Mortality rates were extrapolated based on these 3 risk scores. Twenty-two of 51 patients (43%) died in hospital. Age, mean arterial pressure, urea, albumin, hemoglobin, need for vasopressors, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were predictive of mortality. APACHE II and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events scores were higher in nonsurvivors but Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score was not predictive of mortality. APACHE II score had the highest value for area under receiver operator characteristics curve for mortality prediction. In conclusion, patients with AMI requiring mechanical ventilation have a high mortality rate. This risk is predicted by co-morbidities better than by direct cardiac parameters. Consequently, conventional AMI risk scores do not perform well in this very sick population and the APACHE II score better predicts their short-term outcome.

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life Dynamics of HIV-positive South African Women up to ART Initiation: Evidence from the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Garrett, Nigel; Werner, Lise; Burns, Jonathan K.; Mpanza, Lindiwe; Mlisana, Koleka; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Karim, Salim S. Abdool

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term dynamics in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among HIV-positive persons from acute infection. From 2004, 160 women were enrolled into the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study at two sites in the province of KwaZulu-Natal and underwent 3–6 monthly HRQoL assessments using the functional assessment of HIV infection (FAHI) instrument. Overall and 5 sub-scale FAHI scores [physical well-being (PWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional and global well-being (FGWB), social well-being (SWB) and cognitive functioning (CF)] were calculated up to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and scores at enrollment were compared to the acute, early and established infection phases. Mixed-effects regression models adjusting for behavioral and clinical factors were applied to assess HRQoL trends and the proportion of women meeting minimally important differences was calculated. Our analyses revealed that overall/sub-scale scores improved over time, except from PWB and CF. A higher educational status, contraceptive use and a higher BMI were the strongest predictors of higher overall/sub-scale FAHI scores. CD4 count and HIV viral load were strongly associated with PWB and CF, but not overall FAHI and other sub-scales. Women newly diagnosed with acute HIV infection face profound HRQoL challenges. While early ART delivery may be important for PWB and CF, factors such as education, contraception provision and good nutritional status should be promoted to maximize HRQoL in HIV positive individuals. PMID:24368630

  6. Health-related quality of life dynamics of HIV-positive South African women up to ART initiation: evidence from the CAPRISA 002 acute infection cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Andrew; Garrett, Nigel; Werner, Lise; Burns, Jonathan K; Mpanza, Lindiwe; Mlisana, Koleka; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2014-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term dynamics in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among HIV-positive persons from acute infection. From 2004, 160 women were enrolled into the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study at two sites in the province of KwaZulu-Natal and underwent 3-6 monthly HRQoL assessments using the functional assessment of HIV infection (FAHI) instrument. Overall and 5 sub-scale FAHI scores [physical well-being (PWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional and global well-being (FGWB), social well-being (SWB) and cognitive functioning (CF)] were calculated up to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and scores at enrollment were compared to the acute, early and established infection phases. Mixed-effects regression models adjusting for behavioral and clinical factors were applied to assess HRQoL trends and the proportion of women meeting minimally important differences was calculated. Our analyses revealed that overall/sub-scale scores improved over time, except from PWB and CF. A higher educational status, contraceptive use and a higher BMI were the strongest predictors of higher overall/sub-scale FAHI scores. CD4 count and HIV viral load were strongly associated with PWB and CF, but not overall FAHI and other sub-scales. Women newly diagnosed with acute HIV infection face profound HRQoL challenges. While early ART delivery may be important for PWB and CF, factors such as education, contraception provision and good nutritional status should be promoted to maximize HRQoL in HIV positive individuals.

  7. Valuation effects of health cost containment measures.

    PubMed

    Strange, M L; Ezzell, J R

    2000-01-01

    This study reports the findings of research into the valuation effects of health cost containment activities by publicly traded corporations. The motivation for this study was employers' increasing cost of providing health care insurance to their employees and employers' efforts to contain those costs. A 1990 survey of corporate health benefits indicated that these costs represented 25 percent of employers' net earnings and this would rise by the year 2000 if no actions were taken to reduce cost. Health cost containment programs that are implemented by firms should be seen by shareholders as a wealth maximizing effort. As such, this should be reflected in share price. This study employed standard event study methodology where the event is a media announcement or report regarding an attempt by a firm to contain the costs of providing health insurance and other health related benefits to employees. It examined abnormal returns on a number of event days and for a number of event intervals. Of the daily and interval returns that are least significant at the 10 percent level, virtually all are negative. Cross-sectional analysis shows that the abnormal returns are related negatively to a unionization variable.

  8. Effectiveness of the Complete Health Improvement Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Mathew; Melancon, Jim; Sneed, Demarcus; Nunning, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Currently, heart disease and diabetes dominate society as the leading cause of death for Americans. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a lifestyle enhancement program on factors related to the development of heart disease. The Wabash Valley Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP) is a community-based lifestyle change program with…

  9. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BFRs are a broad class of compounds providing fire safety. Because of high production and usage and recent findings that they are ubiquitous in environmental samples and biota, concerns exist about potential health effects. Some of the major commercial products, such as tetrabr...

  10. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Niewold, T.A.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes, negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants, they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached. Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need; and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations. PMID:16252337

  11. Vulnerabilities to Temperature Effects on Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admissions in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bo Yeon; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Suji; Heo, Seulkee; Jo, Kyunghee; Kim, Jinsun; Park, Man Sik

    2015-11-13

    Most previous studies have focused on the association between acute myocardial function (AMI) and temperature by gender and age. Recently, however, concern has also arisen about those most susceptible to the effects of temperature according to socioeconomic status (SES). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI by subpopulations (gender, age, living area, and individual SES) in South Korea. The Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI) database was used to examine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI during 2004-2012. We analyzed the increase in AMI hospital admissions both above and below a threshold temperature using Poisson generalized additive models (GAMs) for hot, cold, and warm weather. The Medicaid group, the lowest SES group, had a significantly higher RR of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.07-1.76) for heat and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04-1.20) for cold among subgroups, while also showing distinctly higher risk curves than NHI for both hot and cold weather. In additions, females, older age group, and those living in urban areas had higher risks from hot and cold temperatures than males, younger age group, and those living in rural areas.

  12. The acute effects of nicotine on positive and negative affect in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Kassel, Jon D; Evatt, Daniel P; Greenstein, Justin E; Wardle, Margaret C; Yates, Marisa C; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2007-08-01

    Although adolescent cigarette smoking remains a critical public health concern, little is known about the reinforcing mechanisms governing smoking in this vulnerable population. To assess predictions derived from both positive and negative reinforcement models of drug use, the authors measured the acute effects of nicotine, as administered via tobacco cigarettes, on both positive and negative affect in a group of 15- to 18-year-old smokers. A matched group of nonsmokers served as a comparison group. Findings revealed that whereas adolescents who smoked a cigarette experienced reductions in both positive and negative affect, the observed reductions in negative affect were moderated by nicotine content of the cigarette (high yield vs. denicotinized), level of nicotine dependence, level of baseline craving, and smoking expectancies pertinent to negative affect regulation. Nonsmokers experienced no change in affect over the 10-min assessment period, and no interaction effects were observed for positive affect. Overall, the findings conform to a negative reinforcement model of nicotine effects and strongly suggest that, even among young light smokers, nicotine dependence and resultant withdrawal symptomatology may serve as motivating factors governing smoking behavior.

  13. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment: a Delphi consensus.

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Escherich, Gabriele; Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Halsey, Christina; Hough, Rachael; Jeha, Sima; Kato, Motohiro; Liang, Der-Cherng; Mikkelsen, Torben Stamm; Möricke, Anja; Niinimäki, Riitta; Piette, Caroline; Putti, Maria Caterina; Raetz, Elizabeth; Silverman, Lewis B; Skinner, Roderick; Tuckuviene, Ruta; van der Sluis, Inge; Zapotocka, Ester

    2016-06-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis, asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, arterial hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, seizures, depressed level of consciousness, methotrexate-related stroke-like syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, high-dose methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14 toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall assessment of outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment, these expert opinion-based definitions will allow reliable comparisons of frequencies and severities of acute toxic effects across treatment protocols, and facilitate international research on cause, guidelines for treatment adaptation, preventive strategies, and development of consensus algorithms for reporting on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment.

  14. Secondary analysis of data can inform care delivery for Indigenous women in an acute mental health inpatient unit.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Pat; Cunningham, Teresa; Lowell, Anne; Nagel, Tricia; Dunn, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    There is a paucity of research exploring Indigenous women's experiences in acute mental health inpatient services in Australia. Even less is known of Indigenous women's experience of seclusion events, as published data are rarely disaggregated by both indigeneity and gender. This research used secondary analysis of pre-existing datasets to identify any quantifiable difference in recorded experience between Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, and between Indigenous women and Indigenous men in an acute mental health inpatient unit. Standard separation data of age, length of stay, legal status, and discharge diagnosis were analysed, as were seclusion register data of age, seclusion grounds, and number of seclusion events. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data, and where warranted, inferential statistical methods used SPSS software to apply analysis of variance/multivariate analysis of variance testing. The results showed evidence that secondary analysis of existing datasets can provide a rich source of information to describe the experience of target groups, and to guide service planning and delivery of individualized, culturally-secure mental health care at a local level. The results are discussed, service and policy development implications are explored, and suggestions for further research are offered.

  15. Acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on human memory function: a critical review of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Bossong, Matthijs G; Jager, Gerry; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Allen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cannabis produces a diverse range of effects, including impairments in learning and memory. These effects are exerted through action on the endocannabinoid system, which suggests involvement of this system in human cognition. Learning and memory deficits are core symptoms of psychiatric and neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, and may also be related to endocannabinoid dysfunction in these disorders. However, before new research can focus on potential treatments that work by manipulating the endocannabinoid system, it needs to be elucidated how this system is involved in symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Here we review neuroimaging studies that investigated acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on human learning and memory function, both in adults and in adolescents. Overall, results of these studies show that cannabis use is associated with a pattern of increased activity and a higher level of deactivation in different memory-related areas. This could reflect either increased neural effort ('neurophysiological inefficiency') or a change in strategy to maintain good task performance. However, the interpretation of these findings is significantly hampered by large differences between study populations in cannabis use in terms of frequency, age of onset, and time that subjects were abstinent from cannabis. Future neuroimaging studies should take these limitations into account, and should focus on the potential of cannabinoid compounds for treatment of cognitive symptoms in psychiatric disorders.

  16. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  17. Respiratory health effects of indoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Perez-Padilla, R; Schilmann, A; Riojas-Rodriguez, H

    2010-09-01

    Domestic pollution is relevant to health because people spend most of their time indoors. One half of the world's population is exposed to high concentrations of solid fuel smoke (biomass and coal) that are produced by inefficient open fires, mainly in the rural areas of developing countries. Concentrations of particulate matter in kitchens increase to the range of milligrams per cubic meter during cooking. Solid fuel smoke possesses the majority of the toxins found in tobacco smoke and has also been associated with a variety of diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women, acute respiratory infection in children and lung cancer in women (if exposed to coal smoke). Other tobacco smoke-associated diseases, such as tuberculosis, asthma, respiratory tract cancer and interstitial lung diseases, may also be associated with solid fuel smoke inhalation, but evidence is limited. As the desirable change to clean fuels is unlikely, efforts have been made to use efficient, vented wood or coal stoves, with varied success due to inconsistent acceptance by the community.

  18. A clinical training unit for diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections: an intervention for primary health care physicians in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bojalil, R; Guiscafré, H; Espinosa, P; Viniegra, L; Martínez, H; Palafox, M; Gutiérrez, G

    1999-01-01

    In Tlaxcala State, Mexico, we determined that 80% of children who died from diarrhoea or acute respiratory infections (ARI) received medical care before death; in more than 70% of the cases this care was provided by a private physician. Several strategies have been developed to improve physicians' primary health care practices but private practitioners have only rarely been included. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of in-service training on the case management of diarrhoea and ARI among under-5-year-olds provided by private and public primary physicians. The training consisted of a five-day course of in-service practice during which physicians diagnosed and treated sick children attending a centre and conducted clinical discussions of cases under guidance. Each training course was limited to six physicians. Clinical performance was evaluated by observation before and after the courses. The evaluation of diarrhoea case management covered assessment of dehydration, hydration therapy, prescription of antimicrobial and other drugs, advice on diet, and counselling for mothers; that of ARI case management covered diagnosis, decisions on antimicrobial therapy, use of symptomatic drugs, and counselling for mothers. In general the performance of public physicians both before and after the intervention was better than that of private doctors. Most aspects of the case management of children with diarrhoea improved among both groups of physicians after the course; the proportion of private physicians who had five or six correct elements out of six increased from 14% to 37%: for public physicians the corresponding increase was from 53% to 73%. In ARI case management, decisions taken on antimicrobial therapy and symptomatic drug use improved in both groups; the proportion of private physicians with at least three correct elements out of four increased from 13% to 42%, while among public doctors the corresponding increase was from 43% to 78%. Hands

  19. The Effects of Inhaled Steroids on Recurrent Wheeze After Acute Bronchiolitis

    PubMed Central

    Green, Patricia; Aronoff, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Acute bronchiolitis infection during infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma later in life. The objective of this study was to determine if inhaled steroids are effective in preventing the development of recurrent wheeze or asthma following acute bronchiolitis. Methods. Multiple databases and bibliographies of selected references were searched. Inclusion required (a) a randomized controlled trial of inhaled steroids and control group, (b) at least 2 weeks duration of therapy started during the acute phase of disease, and (c) identification of the rate of recurrent wheeze or asthma at least 6 months after therapy. Results. Of 1410 studies reviewed, 8 reports were included in this meta-analysis (748 patients). The overall odds ratio for developing recurrent wheeze or asthma with treatment versus without treatment was 1.02 (95% confidence interval = 0.58-1.81). Conclusions. A course of inhaled steroids after acute bronchiolitis is not effective in preventing recurrent wheeze or asthma. PMID:27335972

  20. The effect of acute discontinuation of total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Wagman, L D; Newsome, H H; Miller, K B; Thomas, R B; Weir, G C

    1986-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of acute discontinuation (AD) of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on serum glucose, insulin, and glucagon levels and on the generation of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Fifty studies were performed in 48 patients. In none of the 30 studies of 1 hour duration nor in the 20 studies of 8 hours duration was there a single episode of symptomatic hypoglycemia. One patient had a glucose below normal (60 mg/dl) during the first hour after AD. Glucose and insulin concentrations were elevated at the start of TPN discontinuation but returned to normal values within 60 minutes and remained there during the successive 7 hours of study. Although glucagon levels were slightly elevated at zero time, no significant decrease occurred. There was no evidence for counter-regulation based on the patterns of glucose and hormone levels. With some restrictions, acute discontinuation is a safe, rapid method of ending a prolonged TPN infusion. PMID:3094465

  1. Effects of environmental change on wildlife health

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Duffus, Amanda L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental change has negatively affected most biological systems on our planet and is becoming of increasing concern for the well-being and survival of many species. At an organism level, effects encompass not only endocrine disruptions, sex-ratio changes and decreased reproductive parameters, but also include teratogenic and genotoxic effects, immunosuppression and other immune-system impairments that can lead directly to disease or increase the risk of acquiring disease. Living organisms will strive to maintain health by recognizing and resolving abnormal situations, such as the presence of invading microorganisms or harmful peptides, abnormal cell replication and deleterious mutations. However, fast-paced environmental changes may pose additional pressure on immunocompetence and health maintenance, which may seriously impact population viability and persistence. Here, we outline the importance of a functional immune system for survival and examine the effects that exposure to a rapidly changing environment might exert on immunocompetence. We then address the various levels at which anthropogenic environmental change might affect wildlife health and identify potential deficits in reproductive parameters that might arise owing to new immune challenges in the context of a rapidly changing environment. Throughout the paper, a series of examples and case studies are used to illustrate the impact of environmental change on wildlife health. PMID:19833653

  2. Paradoxical Effect of Hyperoncotic Albumin in Acutely Burned Children

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    lob (gnil respiratory acidosis : but within a few hours, she suffered a I 12 2.880 1,8) 1(0.0 cardiac arrest and (tied. Acute tubular necrosis and...only minimally, and the acidosis er- stitial pulmonary edema were found at autopsy. sisted. Thirty-six hours postburn, the patient suffered the first...urea fluids and protein as fluid infusion proceeds (1). .4 nitrogen 48 mg/di. The hyperkalemia was treated with glucose, Certainly, the most

  3. Sleep disruption and its effect on lymphocyte redeployment following an acute bout of exercise.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Lesley A; Simpson, Richard J; Malone, Eva; Florida-James, Geraint D

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disruption and deprivation are common in contemporary society and have been linked with poor health, decreased job performance and increased life-stress. The rapid redeployment of lymphocytes between the blood and tissues is an archetypal feature of the acute stress response, but it is not known if short-term perturbations in sleep architecture affect lymphocyte redeployment. We examined the effects of a disrupted night sleep on the exercise-induced redeployment of lymphocytes and their subtypes. 10 healthy male cyclists performed 1h of cycling at a fixed power output on an indoor cycle ergometer, following a night of undisrupted sleep (US) or a night of disrupted sleep (DS). Blood was collected before, immediately after and 1h after exercise completion. Lymphocytes and their subtypes were enumerated using direct immunofluorescence assays and 4-colour flow cytometry. DS was associated with elevated concentrations of total lymphocytes and CD3(-)/CD56(+) NK-cells. Although not affecting baseline levels, DS augmented the exercise-induced redeployment of CD8(+) T-cells, with the naïve/early differentiated subtypes (KLRG1(-)/CD45RA(+)) being affected most. While the mobilisation of cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets (NK cells, CD8(+) T-cells γδ T-cells), tended to be larger in response to exercise following DS, their enhanced egress at 1h post-exercise was more marked. This occurred despite similar serum cortisol and catecholamine levels between the US and DS trials. NK-cells redeployed with exercise after DS retained their expression of perforin and Granzyme-B indicating that DS did not affect NK-cell 'arming'. Our findings indicate that short-term changes in sleep architecture may 'prime' the immune system and cause minor enhancements in lymphocyte trafficking in response to acute dynamic exercise.

  4. Effects of recreational soccer on physical fitness and health indices in sedentary healthy and unhealthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chamari, K; Slimani, M; Shephard, RJ; Yousfi, N; Tabka, Z; Bouhlel, E

    2016-01-01

    Recreational soccer (RS) is becoming a popular alternative to the classical continuous exercise mode used for the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in untrained people. The objective of this paper was to conduct a detailed systematic review of the literature, identifying the physiological responses to RS and the training effects of RS on aerobic fitness and health in untrained healthy individuals and clinical patients. PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases were searched using terms related to recreational soccer. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCT) that assessed acute physiological responses to RS or the training effects of RS on physical fitness and health in sedentary, untrained subjects of any age or health status. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria; seven examined the acute response to RS, and 28 assessed training effects. Clear evidence was found that RS had positive effects on many health-related indices and variables, including VO2max (gains of 7-16%), blood pressure (reductions of 6-13 mmHg), body composition (decreased fat mass and improved indices of bone health), and metabolic and cardiac function. These positive effects were observed in both healthy individuals and clinical patients, irrespective of age or sex. Although this review provides clear evidence of the positive effects of RS on health, most studies had limitations of methodology (an average PEDro score < 6). Furthermore, many of the training studies were from a small number of research groups. Future studies should be extended to other countries and institutions to ensure generality of the results. Regular RS training leads to significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations and gains of health both in sedentary individuals and clinical patients at all ages, suggesting that RS is a potentially highly motivational method to enhance population health

  5. Estrogen Effects after a Crush Muscle Injury and Acute Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2015-0007 Estrogen Effects after a Crush Muscle Injury and Acute Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia Dr. Barbara St...after a Crush Muscle Injury and Acute Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA7014-10-2-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...pressure equivalent to an altitude of 8,000 feet , which is considered high altitude, and lacks abundant supplemental oxygen systems, en route care

  6. Non-cancer health effects of pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, M.; Kerr, K.J.; Sanin, L.H.; Cole, D.C.; Bassil, K.L.; Vakil, C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether there are associations between exposure to pesticides and 4 chronic non-cancer health effects: dermatologic, neurologic, reproductive, and genotoxic effects. DATA SOURCES We searched PreMedline, MEDLINE, and LILACS using the key word pesticide combined with the term for the specific health effect being searched. Reviewers scanned the references of all articles for additional relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION Studies since 1992 were assessed using structured inclusion and quality-of-methods criteria. Studies scoring <4 on a 7-point global methodologic quality scale were excluded. In total, 124 studies were included. These studies had a mean quality score of 4.88 out of 7. SYNTHESIS Strong evidence of association with pesticide exposure was found for all neurologic outcomes, genotoxicity, and 4 of 6 reproductive effects: birth defects, fetal death, altered growth, and other outcomes. Exposure to pesticides generally doubled the level of genetic damage as measured by chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes. Only a few high-quality studies focused on the dermatologic effects of pesticides. In some of these studies, rates of dermatitis were higher among those who had had high exposure to pesticides on the job. CONCLUSION Evidence from research on humans consistently points to positive associations between pesticide exposure and 3 of the 4 non-cancer health outcomes studied. Physicians have a dual role in educating individual patients about the risks of exposure and in reducing exposure in the community by advocating for restrictions on use of pesticides. PMID:17934035

  7. Acute effect of fine particulate matter on mortality in three southeastern states 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mihye; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies on acute effects of air pollution have generally been limited to larger cities, leaving questions about rural populations behind. Recently, we had developed a spatiotemporal model to predict daily PM2.5 level at a 1 km2 using satellite aerosol optical depth data. Based on the results from the model, we applied a case-crossover study to evaluate the acute effect of PM2.5 on mortality in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia between 2007 and 2011. Mortality data were acquired from the departments of public health in the states and modeled PM2.5 exposures were assigned to the zip code of residence of each decedent. We performed various stratified analyses by age, sex, race, education, cause of death, residence, and EPA standards. We also compared results of analyses using our modeled PM2.5 levels and those imputed daily from the nearest monitoring station. 848,270 non-accidental death records were analyzed and we found each 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 (mean lag0 and lag1) was associated with a 1.56% (1.19, 1.94) increase in daily deaths. Cardiovascular disease (2.32%, 1.57–3.07) showed the highest effect estimate. Blacks (2.19%, 1.43–2.96) and persons with education ≤8 yr (3.13%, 2.08–4.19) were the most vulnerable populations. The effect of PM2.5 on mortality still exists in zip code areas that meet the PM2.5 EPA annual standard (2.06%, 1.97–2.15). The effect of PM2.5 below both EPA daily and annual standards was 2.08% (95% CI = 1.99 to 2.17). Our results showed more power and suggested that the PM2.5 effects on rural populations have been underestimated due to selection bias and information bias. We have demonstrated that our AOD-based exposure models can be successfully applied to epidemiologic studies. This will add new study populations in rural areas, and will confer more generalizability to conclusions from such studies. PMID:26306925

  8. The effects of acute stress on Pavlovian-instrumental transfer in rats.

    PubMed

    Pielock, Steffi M; Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Pavlovian stimuli invigorate ongoing instrumental action, a phenomenon termed the Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) effect. Acute stressors can markedly enhance the release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and CRF injection into the nucleus accumbens increases the PIT effect. However, it is unknown whether acute stressors by themselves would amplify the PIT effect. Here, we examined the effects of acute stressors on PIT. Rats first received Pavlovian and instrumental training, and then the impact of the Pavlovian stimuli on instrumental responding was analyzed in the subsequent PIT test. Acute stressors were applied prior to the PIT test. Because the effects of acute stressors critically depend on stressor type and time of day, we used two acute stressors that involved one or several distinct stressors (denoted here as "single" vs. "multiple" stressors) applied either in the light or the dark period of the light:dark cycle. The results revealed that single and multiple stressors applied in the light period did not alter the PIT effect--that is, the ability of an appetitive Pavlovian stimulus to enhance leverpressing--or the basal leverpress rate. When applied in the dark period, single and multiple stressors also did not alter the PIT effect, but they did markedly reduce the basal leverpress rate. Diazepam pretreatment did not counteract the declines in basal instrumental responding in the PIT test that were induced by either a single or multiple stressors. Our findings suggest that acute stressors were unable to amplify the incentive salience of reward-predictive Pavlovian stimuli to activate instrumental responding, but, depending on the time of day of stressor exposure, they did reduce basal instrumental responding.

  9. Mental health effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender

    2015-01-01

    We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change.

  10. Gender Differences in the Trajectory of Recovery in Health Status Among Young Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results From the VIRGO Study

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Rachel P.; Wang, Yongfei; Strait, Kelly M.; Lorenze, Nancy P.; D’Onofrio, Gail; Bueno, Héctor; Lichtman, Judith H.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the excess risk of mortality in young women (≤55 years) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), little is known about young women’s health status (symptoms, functioning, quality of life) during the first year of recovery after an AMI. We examined gender differences in health status over time from baseline to 12-months post AMI. Methods and Results A total of 3,501 AMI patients (67% women) aged 18-55 years were enrolled from 103 United States/24 Spanish hospitals. Data were obtained by medical record abstraction/patient interviews at baseline hospitalization, 1- and 12-months post AMI. Health status was measured by generic [Short Form-12 (SF-12), and disease specific [Seattle angina questionnaire (SAQ)] measures. We compared health status scores at all three time points, and utilized longitudinal linear mixed effects analyses to examine the independent effect of gender, adjusting for time and selected covariates. Women had significantly lower health status scores than men at each assessment (all P-values <0.0001). Following adjustment for time and all covariates, women had SF-12 physical/mental summary scores that were −0.96 (95% CI: −1.59, −0.32) and −2.36 points lower (95% CI: −2.99, −1.72) than men, as well as worse SAQ physical limitations (−2.44 points lower; 95% CI: −3.53, −1.34), more angina (−1.03 points lower; 95% CI: −1.98, −0.07), and poorer quality of life (−3.51 points lower; 95% CI: −4.80, −2.22) than men. Conclusions Although both genders recover similarly following AMI, women have poorer scores than men on all health status measures; a difference that persisted throughout the entire year after discharge. PMID:25862743

  11. Health Effects of Climate Change | Science Inventory | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Kathy Sykes provided a general overview of the health effects and the Clean Power Plan expected health benefits while Wayne Cascio discussed the health effects of wildland fires. The Surgeon General requested that the National Prevention representatives from EPA, Kathy Sykes and Wayne Cascio, provide a presentation on the health effects of climate change.

  12. Adverse health effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Hartgens, Fred

    2010-06-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic drugs derived from testosterone. Illegally, these drugs are regularly self-administered by body builders and power lifters to enhance their sportive performance. Adverse side effects of AAS include sexual dysfunction, alterations of the cardiovascular system, psyche and behavior, and liver toxicity. However, severe side effects appear only following prolonged use of AAS at high dose and their occurrence is limited. Occasionally, AAS abuse may be linked to certain social and psychological traits of the user, like low self-esteem, low self-confidence, suffered hostility, childhood conduct disorder, and tendency to high-risk behavior. The overwhelming stereotype about AAS is that these compounds cause aggressive behavior in males. However, the underlying personality traits of a specific subgroup of the AAS abusers, who show aggression and hostility, may be relevant, as well. Use of AAS in combination with alcohol largely increases the risk of violence and aggression. The dependence liability of AAS is very low, and withdrawal effects are relatively mild. Based on the scores for acute and chronic adverse health effects, the prevalence of use, social harm and criminality, AAS were ranked among 19 illicit drugs as a group of drugs with a relatively low harm.

  13. Protective effect of antibiotics on mortality risk from acute respiratory infections in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, V M; Koopman, J S; Garrido, F J; Bazúa, L F; Ibarra, J M; Stetler, H C

    1992-01-01

    A case-control study of mortality from acute respiratory infections (ARI) among children under five years of age was conducted in Naucalpan, an urban-suburban area of Mexico City, and in rural localities of Tlaxcala, Mexico. The study found that ARI deaths tended to occur in the poorest neighborhoods; 78% of the deceased study subjects were infants under six months old; and 68% of the deaths occurred at home. Comparison of the data for cases (fatalities) and control children who had severe ARI but recovered showed that failure to receive antibiotics was associated with death (odds ratio 28.5, 95% confidence interval 2.1-393.4). This antibiotic effect was controlled for numerous potentially confounding factors. It is evident that antibiotics had a much greater effect in the early days of the illness than later on. In general, the findings strongly support PAHO/WHO primary health care strategies--including such strategies as standardized management of severe ARI cases--that seek to reduce childhood ARI mortality.

  14. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    González-Ponce, Herson Antonio; Martínez-Saldaña, María Consolación; Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients and contain high levels of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha extracts against APAP-induced ALF. In addition, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of these extracts. Fruit extracts (800 mg/kg/day, orally) were given prophylactically to male Wistar rats before intoxication with APAP (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Rat hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 20 mmol/L APAP, and necrosis was assessed by LDH leakage. Opuntia robusta had significantly higher levels of antioxidants than Opuntia streptacantha. Both extracts significantly attenuated APAP-induced injury markers AST, ALT and ALP and improved liver histology. The Opuntia extracts reversed APAP-induced depletion of liver GSH and glycogen stores. In cultured hepatocytes, Opuntia extracts significantly reduced leakage of LDH and cell necrosis, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Both extracts appeared to be superior to NAC when used therapeutically. We conclude that Opuntia extracts are hepatoprotective and can be used as a nutraceutical to prevent ALF. PMID:27782042

  15. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage.

    PubMed

    González-Ponce, Herson Antonio; Martínez-Saldaña, María Consolación; Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando

    2016-10-04

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients and contain high levels of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha extracts against APAP-induced ALF. In addition, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of these extracts. Fruit extracts (800mg/kg/day, orally) were given prophylactically to male Wistar rats before intoxication with APAP (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Rat hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 20mmol/LAPAP, and necrosis was assessed by LDH leakage. Opuntia robusta had significantly higher levels of antioxidants than Opuntia streptacantha. Both extracts significantly attenuated APAP-induced injury markers AST, ALT and ALP and improved liver histology. The Opuntia extracts reversed APAP-induced depletion of liver GSH and glycogen stores. In cultured hepatocytes, Opuntia extracts significantly reduced leakage of LDH and cell necrosis, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Both extracts appeared to be superior to NAC when used therapeutically. We conclude that Opuntia extracts are hepatoprotective and can be used as a nutraceutical to prevent ALF.

  16. Health advisory values for drinking water contaminants and the methodology for determining acute exposure values.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Joyce Morrissey; Lipscomb, John C

    2002-04-08

    The Health Advisory (HA) Program of the Office of Water provides informal technical guidance to Federal, State and local officials responsible for protecting health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. Under this program, first initiated in 1985, HA values are developed for 1-day, 10-day, longer-term (approx. 7 years) and lifetime exposures based on data describing non- cancer endpoints of toxicity. For substances that are known or probable human carcinogens, lifetime HAs are not recommended. In these situations, the HA document provides an estimate of the drinking water concentration that is equivalent to a l0(-4) 10(-6) cancer risk. US EPA has HA documents for over 175 chemicals dating from 1987 to 1998. A tabular summary of HA values can be accessed through the EPA Office of Science and Technology (OST) web page. The HA support documents provide a concise technical summary of and references for information on chemical, physical and toxicological properties, analytical methods, and treatment technologies. Some of the lifetime HA and cancer values in the HA documents may no longer agree with the most recent Agency assessment for Reference Dose (RfD) and cancer effects. However, the lifetime HA and cancer values presented in the HA tables have been updated to correspond with agency consensus values as presented in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  17. Health Effects of the 2003 Southern California Wildfires on Children

    PubMed Central

    Künzli, Nino; Avol, Ed; Wu, Jun; Gauderman, W. James; Rappaport, Ed; Millstein, Joshua; Bennion, Jonathan; McConnell, Rob; Gilliland, Frank D.; Berhane, Kiros; Lurmann, Fred; Winer, Arthur; Peters, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: In late October 2003, Southern California wildfires burned more than 3,000 km2. The wildfires produced heavy smoke that affected several communities participating in the University of Southern California Children's Health Study (CHS). Objectives: To study the acute effects of fire smoke on the health of CHS participants. Methods: A questionnaire was used to assess smoke exposure and occurrence of symptoms among CHS high-school students (n = 873; age, 17–18 yr) and elementary-school children (n = 5,551; age, 6–7 yr), in a total of 16 communities. Estimates of particulate matter (PM10) concentrations during the 5 d with the highest fire activity were used to characterize community smoke level. Main Results: All symptoms (nose, eyes, and throat irritations; cough; bronchitis; cold; wheezing; asthma attacks), medication usage, and physician visits were associated with individually reported exposure differences within communities. Risks increased monotonically with the number of reported smoky days. For most outcomes, reporting rates between communities were also associated with the fire-related PM10 levels. Associations tended to be strongest among those without asthma. Individuals with asthma were more likely to take preventive action, such as wearing masks or staying indoors during the fire. Conclusions: Exposure to wildfire smoke was associated with increased eye and respiratory symptoms, medication use, and physician visits. PMID:16946126

  18. Alcohol’s Effects on Lung Health and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Simet, Samantha M.; Sisson, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that people with alcohol use disorder (AUD) not only may develop physical dependence but also may experience devastating long-term health problems. The most common and identifiable alcohol-associated health problems include liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, cardiomyopathies, neuropathies, and dementia. However, the lung also is adversely affected by alcohol abuse, a fact often overlooked by clinicians and the public. Individuals with AUD are more likely to develop pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Increased susceptibility to these and other pulmonary infections is caused by impaired immune responses in people with AUD. The key immune cells involved in combating pulmonary conditions such as pneumonia, TB, RSV infection, and ARDS are neutrophils, lymphocytes, alveolar macrophages, and the cells responsible for innate immune responses. Researchers are only now beginning to understand how alcohol affects these cells and how these effects contribute to the pathophysiology of pulmonary diseases in people with AUD. PMID:26695745

  19. Anticoagulation and antiplatelet effects of semax under conditions of acute and chronic immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Grigorjeva, M E; Lyapina, L A

    2010-07-01

    The effects of semax on anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, and platelet components of the anticoagulation system were studied on albino rats under conditions of acute and chronic immobilization stress. Semax exhibited a protective antistress effect after repeated intranasal administration under conditions of hypercoagulation developing in response to immobilization stress of different degree. The effect manifested in stimulation of the anticoagulation system.

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of health care teams.

    PubMed

    Mickan, Sharon M

    2005-05-01

    While it is recognised that effective health care teams are associated with quality patient care, the literature is comparatively sparse in defining the outcomes of effective teamwork. This literature review of the range of organisational, team and individual benefits of teamwork complements an earlier article which summarised the antecedent conditions for (input) and team processes (throughput) of effective teams. This article summarises the evidence for a range of outcome measures of effective teams. Organisational benefits of teamwork include reduced hospitalisation time and costs, reduced unanticipated admissions, better accessibility for patients, and improved coordination of care. Team benefits include efficient use of health care services, enhanced communication and professional diversity. Patients report benefits of enhanced satisfaction, acceptance of treatment and improved health outcomes. Finally, team members report enhanced job satisfaction, greater role clarity and enhanced well-being. Due to the inherent complexity of teamwork, a constituency model of team evaluation is supported where key stakeholders identify and measure the intended benefits of a team.

  1. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Epidemic and Change of People's Health Behavior in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Xiaodong; Li, Shiyue; Wang, Chunhong; Chen, Xiaoqing; Wu, Xiaomin

    2004-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) has become a new worldwide epidemic whose origin was until recently unknown. It is the unpredictable nature of this epidemic that makes people want answers to some important questions about what they can do to protect themselves. This study presents an inquiry into peoples knowledge and self-reported…

  2. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide upon Cognitive Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, V. E.; Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Lam, C. W.; Young, M.; Satish, U.; Basner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) originates from human metabolism and typically remains about 10-fold higher in concentration on the International Space Station (ISS) than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the ISS that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control CO2 below 3 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached, and there is evidence that CO2 has effects at levels below the threshold for headaches. This concern appears to be substantiated in reports that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. Therefore, we set out to determine if decision-making under volatile, uncertain, confusing and ambiguous circumstances, where feedback is delayed or absent, is correlated with low levels of CO2 during acute exposures (several hours) in crew-like subjects and to determine if additional cognitive domains are sensitive to concentrations of CO2 at, or below, current ISS levels by using a test battery that is currently available onboard ISS. We enrolled 22 volunteers (8 females, 14 males) between the ages of 30-55 (38.8 +/- 7.0) years whose training and professional experience reflect that of the astronaut corps. Subjects were divided among 4 study

  3. Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nowak, David J; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Bodine, Allison; Greenfield, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Trees remove air pollution by the interception of particulate matter on plant surfaces and the absorption of gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. However, the magnitude and value of the effects of trees and forests on air quality and human health across the United States remains unknown. Computer simulations with local environmental data reveal that trees and forests in the conterminous United States removed 17.4 million tonnes (t) of air pollution in 2010 (range: 9.0-23.2 million t), with human health effects valued at 6.8 billion U.S. dollars (range: $1.5-13.0 billion). This pollution removal equated to an average air quality improvement of less than one percent. Most of the pollution removal occurred in rural areas, while most of the health impacts and values were within urban areas. Health impacts included the avoidance of more than 850 incidences of human mortality and 670,000 incidences of acute respiratory symptoms.

  4. Neurophysiologic Analysis of the Effects of Interactive Tailored Health Videos on Attention to Health Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung A.

    2011-01-01

    Web-based tailored approaches hold much promise as effective means for delivering health education and improving public health. This study examines the effects of interactive tailored health videos on attention to health messages using neurophysiological changes measured by Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (EKG). Sixty-eight…

  5. Health Effects of Noise Exposure in Children.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Clark, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    Environmental noise exposure, such as road traffic noise and aircraft noise, is associated with a range of health outcomes in children. Children demonstrate annoyance responses to noise, and noise is also related to lower well-being and stress responses, such as increased levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Noise does not cause more serious mental health problems, but there is growing evidence for an association with increased hyperactivity symptoms. Studies also suggest that noise might cause changes in cardiovascular functioning, and there is some limited evidence for an effect on low birth weight. There is robust evidence for an effect of school noise exposure on children's cognitive skills such as reading and memory, as well as on standardised academic test scores. Environmental noise does not usually reach levels that are likely to affect children's hearing; however, increasing use of personal electronic devices may leave some children exposed to harmful levels of noise.

  6. Characteristics of effective health care managers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherryl W

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of traditional and contemporary management theories. Concerns, characteristics, and skills of effective managers are also presented. Further, a self-assessment (survey) of 7 highly effective health care managers in a South Georgia community was conducted to determine their ratings on 6 management indices. The assessment or Scale of Transformational Leadership uses a Likert-type scale to allow for the evaluation of managers. The scale contains 6 management elements for assessment: attention, meaning, trust, self, vision, and feeling. Individual ratings and group summary skills rating are presented. Findings revealed the order of managerial importance of the elements as follows (from highest to lowest): Management of Trust, Management of Attention, Management of Self, Management of Feeling, Management of Meaning, and Management of Risk. As a second tier, the final ratings are corroborated by health care management interns.

  7. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  8. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally.

  9. Effect of acute stress on auditory processing: a systematic review of human studies.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Zahra; Kolb, Bryan E; Mohajerani, Majid H

    2017-01-01

    Stress is an integral part of modern life. Although there is a large body of literature regarding the harmful effects of chronic stress on different aspects of human life, acute stress is the most common form of stress, resulting from the demands and pressures of the recent past and the anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. In spite of its pervasive nature, less attention has been paid to the impact of acute stress on sensory processing than to the consequences of chronic stress, particularly concerning auditory processing. In this systematic review, the impact of experimental acute stress on the auditory processing of healthy adults was investigated. The results revealed the adverse effects of acute physical and psychological stresses on auditory processing. According to the open field of research on stress and the auditory system and the high possibility of experiencing different types of acute stresses in various life environments, including testing places, it seems that more investigations are needed to identify and manage different types of acute stresses in both clinical and research situations.

  10. Effect of Diazepam on Severity of Acute Pancreatitis: Possible Involvement of Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Alireza; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Safaei, Azadeh; Taheri, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a lethal inflammatory condition of pancreas with high mortality rate. There is a pressing need for research to explore active agents and novel mechanisms involving in the treatment of pancreatitis. Clinical studies have shown after the initial acinar cell injury plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated in patients with acute pancreatitis and the degree of cytokine elevation correlates with disease severity. Diazepam may decrease interleukin release from macrophages, suppress neutrophil activities, and exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. So it is expected that in vivo pretreatment of acute pancreatitis with different doses of diazepam can attenuate its severity. Thus, we evaluated the effects of diazepam, intraperitoneally (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg i.p.), intracerebroventricularly (ICV 10 μg), and concurrently with flumazenil (1 mg/kg) on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Interestingly, the pretreatment with diazepam (5 mg/kg i.p.) reduced significantly the inflammatory response of acute pancreatitis by ameliorating pancreatic edema, amylase and lipase serum levels, myeloperoxidase activity, pancreatic TNF-alpha, and pathological alteration compared to control group. Diazepam i.c.v. was ineffective, suggesting that central benzodiazepine receptors have no significant role in this property. These results demonstrate that pretreatment with diazepam exhibits anti-inflammatory property in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis possibly through peripheral benzodiazepine receptors. PMID:23956866

  11. [Cardioprotective effect of GABA derivatives in acute alcohol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2006-01-01

    Cardioprotective properties of GABA analogs under conditions of acute alcoholic intoxication have been studied using the following functional tests: volume loads, tests for adrenoreactivity, and maximum isometric load. The experiments showed that a 32% aqueous ethanol solution intraperitoneally injected in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a cardiotoxic action, which is manifested by a decrease in the inotropic reserve in load tests. Citrocard (50 mg/kg), phenibut (50 mg/kg), and piracetam (200 mg/kg) prevent the alcohol-induced myocardium injury, as shown by the heart contractility retained on a higher level in the test group than in the control group.

  12. [Effect of Ikaros in B Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Ying; Bai, Hai

    2015-08-01

    The Ikaros - a DNA-binding zinc finger protein, acting as a regulator of chromatin remodeling and gene transcription, is crucial for regulating the development and function of the immune system and acting as a master regulator of hematopoietic differentiation. Function-loss mutations of IKZF1, gene encoding Ikaros are frequent in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and are associated with a poor prognosis. This review briefly summarizes the available data regarding the structure and function of Ikaros, the role of Ikaros as a tumor suppressor in B-ALL, and its regulation mechanism.

  13. Therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the course of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Warzecha, Z; Ceranowicz, P; Dembinski, A; Cieszkowski, J; Kusnierz-Cabala, B; Tomaszewska, R; Kuwahara, A; Kato, I

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that pretreatment with ghrelin exhibits protective effect in the gut. Administration of ghrelin reduces gastric mucosal damage, as well as inhibits the development of experimental pancreatitis. However, this protective effect requires administration of ghrelin before gastric or pancreatic damage and thus has a limited clinical value. The aim of present study was to assess the influence of ghrelin administered after development of acute pancreatitis on the course of this disease. Acute pancreatitis was induced by cerulein. Ghrelin was administered twice a day for 1, 2, 4, 6 or 9 days at the dose of 4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose. The first dose of ghrelin was given 24 hours after last injection of cerulein. The severity of acute pancreatitis was assessed between 0 h and 10 days after cessation of cerulein administration. Administration of caerulein led to the development of acute edematous pancreatitis and maximal severity of this disease was observed 24 hours after induction of pancreatitis. Treatment with ghrelin reduced morphological signs of pancreatic damage such as pancreatic edema, leukocyte infiltration and vacuolization of acinar cells, and led to earlier regeneration of the pancreas. Also biochemical indexes of the severity of acute pancreatitis, serum activity of lipase and amylase were significantly reduced in animals treated with ghrelin. These effects were accompanied by an increase in the pancreatic DNA synthesis and a decrease in serum level of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1b. Administration of ghrelin improved pancreatic blood flow in rats with acute pancreatitis. We conclude that: (1) treatment with ghrelin exhibits therapeutic effect in caerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis; (2) this effect is related, at least in part, to the improvement of pancreatic blood flow, reduction in proinflammatory interleukin-1beta and stimulation of pancreatic cell proliferation.

  14. Acute adverse event signalling scheme using the Saskatchewan Administrative health care utilization datafiles: results for two benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Rawson, N S; Rawson, M J

    1999-01-01

    Linked administrative health care utilization databases offer potential benefits for postmarketing surveillance. The value of the Saskatchewan datafiles in an acute adverse event signalling scheme has been evaluated using two benzodiazepines. The first 20,000 patients dispensed lorazepam and the first 8525 patients dispensed alprazolam were followed through the datafiles over the year after their initial prescription of the relevant drug, and all medical services occurring during treatment were recorded. The most frequent adverse drug reactions to benzodiazepines are drowsiness, depression, impaired intellectual function and memory, lethargy, impaired coordination, dizziness, nausea and/or vomiting, skin rash, and respiratory disturbance. Data from our study showed that sleep disorders, depressive disorders, dizziness and/or vertigo, respiratory symptoms, esophagus and stomach disorders, and inflammatory skin conditions occurred significantly more often in the first 30 days after the initial prescription than in the succeeding six months in both drug groups, indicating that they are important adverse events. There are several limitations to the methodology; however, the results of the analysis indicate that the use of administrative health care utilization datafiles in a systematic assessment to signal potential acute adverse drug reactions is a feasible proposition, but further studies are required to assess whether events are real adverse reactions.

  15. Reduced acute inpatient care was largest savings component of Geisinger Health System's patient-centered medical home.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Daniel D; Khan, Nazmul; Tomcavage, Janet; Graf, Thomas R; Davis, Duane E; Steele, Glenn D

    2015-04-01

    Early evidence suggests that the patient-centered medical home has the potential to improve patient outcomes while reducing the cost of care. However, it is unclear how this care model achieves such desirable results, particularly its impact on cost. We estimated cost savings associated with Geisinger Health System's patient-centered medical home clinics by examining longitudinal clinic-level claims data from elderly Medicare patients attending the clinics over a ninety-month period (2006 through the first half of 2013). We also used these data to deconstruct savings into its main components (inpatient, outpatient, professional, and prescription drugs). During this period, total costs associated with patient-centered medical home exposure declined by approximately 7.9 percent; the largest source of this savings was acute inpatient care ($34, or 19 percent savings per member per month), which accounts for about 64 percent of the total estimated savings. This finding is further supported by the fact that longer exposure was also associated with lower acute inpatient admission rates. The results of this study suggest that patient-centered medical homes can lead to sustainable, long-term improvements in patient health outcomes and the cost of care.

  16. Acute service delivery in a police-mental health program for children exposed to violence and trauma.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert A; Rosenheck, Robert A; Berkowitz, Steven J; Marans, Steven R

    2005-01-01

    The Child Development Community Policing Program represents a national model of community-based collaboration between police and mental health professionals for violence-exposed and traumatized children. Administrative data from clinical records of a 24-hour consultation service were examined through stepwise multivariate logistic regression to identify child and event characteristics associated with a direct, in-person response at the time of police contact. Of 2361 children, 809 (34.3%) received a direct, in-person response. Relative to Caucasian children, Hispanic youth were more likely to receive this form of response (OR = 1.36). An acute clinical response was more likely for incidents of gang involvement (OR = 8.12), accidents (OR = 5.21), felony assaults (OR = 2.97), property crimes (OR = 2.30), family violence (OR = 1.53) and psychiatric crises (OR = 1.29). Acute response was less likely when juvenile conduct problems (OR = 0.61), fires (OR = 0.59), child maltreatment (OR = 0.57), and domestic violence (OR = 0.44) were involved. Incidents that were more severe or involved a primary mental health component were related to utilization of intensive CDCP resources.

  17. Pulmonary Health Effects of Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Ozlem Kar; Zhang, Jingjing; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review Air pollution continues to be a major public health concern affecting nine out of ten individuals living in urban areas worldwide. Exposure to air pollution is the ninth leading risk factor for cardiopulmonary mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the current literature for the most recent updates on health effects of specific air pollutants and their impact on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and respiratory infection. Recent findings A total of 53 publications were reviewed to establish new insights as to how air pollution is associated with pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Considerable past evidence suggests that air pollution is an important factor that enhances pulmonary disease, while also causing greater harm in susceptible populations, such as children, the elderly and those of low socio-economic status worldwide. Asthma, COPD, lung cancer and respiratory infections all seem to be exacerbated due to exposure to a variety of environmental air pollutants with the greatest effects due to particulate matter (PM), ozone and nitrogen oxides. New publications reviewed reaffirm these findings. Summary Continued vigilence will be essential to lessen the effects of air pollution on human health and pulmonary disease. Cooperation at a multi-national level will be required on the part of governments, industry, energy-based enterprises and the public working together to solve our air quality issues at the local, national and global level. PMID:26761628

  18. Gender differences in pre-event health status of young patients with acute myocardial infarction: A VIRGO study analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Rachel P; Smolderen, Kim G; Strait, Kelly M; Beltrame, John F; Lichtman, Judith H; Lorenze, Nancy P; D’Onofrio, Gail; Bueno, Héctor; Krumholz, Harlan M; Spertus, John A

    2015-01-01

    Aims We assessed gender differences in pre-event health status (symptoms, functioning, quality of life) in young patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and whether or not this association persists following sequential adjustment for important covariates. We also evaluated the interaction between gender and prior coronary artery disease (CAD), given that aggressive symptom control is a cornerstone of care in those with known coronary disease. Methods and Results A total of 3,501 AMI patients (2,349 women) aged 18–55 years were enrolled from 103 United States/24 Spanish hospitals (2008–2012). Clinical/health status information was obtained by medical record abstraction and patient interviews. Pre-event health status was measured by generic [Short Form-12 (SF-12), EuroQoL [EQ-5D)] and disease-specific [Seattle angina questionnaire (SAQ)] measures. T-test/chi-square and multivariable linear/logistic regression analysis was utilized, sequentially adjusting for covariates. Women had more co-morbidities and significantly lower generic mean health scores than men [SF-12 physical health =43±12 vs. 46±11 and mental health= 44±13 vs. 48±11]; EQ-5D utility index=0.7±0.2 vs. 0.8±0.2, and visual analog scale=63±22 vs. 67±20, P<0.0001 for all. Their disease-specific health status was also worse, with more angina [SAQ angina frequency=83±22 vs. 87±18], worse physical function [physical limitation=78±27 vs. 87±21] and poorer quality of life [55±25 vs. 60±22, P<0.0001 for all]. In multivariable analysis, the association between female gender and worse generic physical/mental health persisted, as well as worse disease-specific physical limitation and quality of life. The interaction between gender and prior CAD was not significant in any of the health status outcomes. Conclusion Young women have worse pre-event health status as compared with men, regardless of their CAD history. While future studies of gender differences should adjust for baseline health

  19. Thyroid toxicants: assessing reproductive health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Gloria D; Choksi, Neepa Y; Moore, John A; Shelby, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    A thyroid toxicant workshop sponsored by the National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction convened on 28-29 April 2003 in Alexandria, Virginia. The purpose of this workshop was to examine and discuss chemical-induced thyroid dysfunction in experimental animals and the relevance of reproductive and developmental effects observed for prediction of adverse effects in humans. Presentations highlighted and compared reproductive and developmental effects of thyroid hormones in humans and rodents. Rodent models of thyroid system dysfunction were presented. Animal testing protocols were reviewed, taking into account protocol designs that allow extrapolation to possible human health effects. Potential screening methods to assess toxicant-induced thyroid dysfunction were outlined, and postnatal bioassays of thyroid-related effects were discussed. PMID:14998754

  20. Effect of Thoracentesis on Intubated Patients with Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Matthew B; Serna-Gallegos, Derek; Ault, Mark; Khan, Ahsan; Chung, Rex; Ley, Eric J; Melo, Nicolas; Margulies, Daniel R

    2016-03-01

    Pleural effusions occur frequently in mechanically ventilated patients, but no consensus exists regarding the clinical benefit of effusion drainage. We sought to determine the impact of thoracentesis on gas exchange in patients with differing severities of acute lung injury (ALI). A retrospective analysis was conducted on therapeutic thoracenteses performed on intubated patients in an adult surgical intensive care unit of a tertiary center. Effusions judged by ultrasound to be 400 mL or larger were drained. Subjects were divided into groups based on their initial P:F ratios: normal >300, ALI 200 to 300, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) <200. Baseline characteristics, physiologic variables, arterial blood gases, and ventilator settings before and after the intervention were analyzed. The primary end point was the change in measures of oxygenation. Significant improvements in P:F ratios (mean ± SD) were seen only in patients with ARDS (50.4 ± 38.5, P = 0.001) and ALI (90.6 ± 161.7, P = 0.022). Statistically significant improvement was observed in the pO2 (31.1, P = 0.005) and O2 saturation (4.1, P < 0.001) of the ARDS group. The volume of effusion removed did not correlate with changes in individual patient's oxygenation. These data support the role of therapeutic thoracentesis for intubated patients with abnormal P:F ratios.

  1. Effects of acute salbutamol intake during a Wingate test.

    PubMed

    Collomp, K; Le Panse, B; Portier, H; Lecoq, A-M; Jaffre, C; Beaupied, H; Richard, O; Benhamou, L; Courteix, D; De Ceaurriz, J

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the impact of acute salbutamol intake on performance and selected hormonal and metabolic variables during supramaximal exercise, 13 recreational male athletes performed two 30-second Wingate tests after either placebo (PLA, lactose) or salbutamol (SAL, 4 mg) oral administration, according to a double-blind and randomized protocol. Blood samples collected at rest, end of the Wingate test, recovery (5, 10, 15 min) were tested for growth hormone (GH), insulin (INS), blood glucose (GLU), and lactate determination. We found the peak and mean power performed significantly increased after SAL vs. PLA (PPSAL: 896 +/- 46; PPPLA: 819 +/- 57 W; MPSAL: 585 +/- 27; MPPLA: 534 +/- 35 W, p < 0.05), whereas no change was observed in the fatigue index. Blood glucose and INS were significantly increased by SAL at rest, at the end of the Wingate test, and during the 5 first minutes of recovery (p < 0.05). Plasma GH was significantly decreased by SAL (p < 0.05) during the recovery whereas end-exercise and recovery blood lactate tended but were not significantly increased after SAL vs. PLA. From these data, acute salbutamol intake at therapeutical dosage did appear to improve peak power and mean power during a supramaximal exercise, but the mechanisms involved need further investigation.

  2. Human health effects of ozone reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Modification of the stratosphere, such as a reduction in its equilibrium ozone content, could produce direct and indirect effects on human health. The direct hazard to humans would be caused by an increase in the cumulative amount of UV radiation reaching the earth's surface in the range of 285 to 340 nm, encompassing the UV-B or erythemal wavelength region of 280 to 320 nm. Exposing the susceptible human population to an increased total UV dosage of shorter wavelengths could increase skin cancer incidence. Although effects would be delayed by decades, for each 1% decrease in ozone the expected increase in skin cancer incidence would be on the order of 2%.

  3. Functional biomarkers for the acute effects of alcohol on the central nervous system in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Zoethout, Remco W M; Delgado, Wilson L; Ippel, Annelies E; Dahan, Albert; van Gerven, Joop M A

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) effects of acute alcohol administration have been frequently assessed. Such studies often use a wide range of methods to study each of these effects. Unfortunately, the sensitivity of these tests has not completely been ascertained. A literature search was performed to recognize the most useful tests (or biomarkers) for identifying the acute CNS effects of alcohol in healthy volunteers. All tests were grouped in clusters and functional domains. Afterwards, the effect of alcohol administration on these tests was scored as improvement, impairment or as no effect. Furthermore, dose–response relationships were established. A total number of 218 studies, describing 342 different tests (or test variants) were evaluated. Alcohol affected a wide range of CNS domains. Divided attention, focused attention, visuo-motor control and scales of feeling high and of subjective drug effects were identified as the most sensitive functional biomarkers for the acute CNS effects of alcohol. The large number of CNS tests that are used to determine the effects of alcohol interferes with the identification of the most sensitive ones and of drug–response relationships. Our results may be helpful in selecting rational biomarkers for studies investigating the acute CNS effects of alcohol or for future alcohol- interaction studies. PMID:21284693

  4. Acute antimicrobial pesticide-related illnesses among workers in health-care facilities - California, Louisiana, Michigan, and Texas, 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    2010-05-14

    Antimicrobial pesticides (e.g., sterilizers, disinfectants, and sanitizers) are chemicals used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms on inanimate objects and surfaces. Health-care facilities use antimicrobial pesticides to prevent pathogen transmission from contaminated environmental surfaces. Occupational exposures to antimicrobial pesticides are known to cause adverse health effects. To assess the nature and frequency of such exposures in health-care settings, CDC analyzed data from pesticide poisoning surveillance programs in California, Louisiana, Michigan, and Texas (the only four states that regularly collect data on antimicrobial pesticide-related illness) for the period 2002-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which identified 401 cases of work-related illness associated with antimicrobial pesticide exposures in health-care facilities. Most cases were identified through workers compensation systems (61%) and occurred among females (82%) and persons aged 25-54 years (73%). The most frequent occupations reported were janitors/housekeepers (24%) and nursing/medical assistants (16%). The reported mechanism of injury usually was splashes/spills (51%). The eyes were the most common organ/system affected (55%); only 15% of the 265 persons who had exposures while handling antimicrobial pesticides reported using eye protection. Reported symptoms were mostly mild and temporary. One fatality due to acute asthma and subsequent cardiopulmonary collapse was identified. Health-care facilities should educate workers about antimicrobial pesticide hazards, promote the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) as appropriate, and implement effective risk communication strategies for antimicrobial pesticide use to prevent bystander exposure. Improved design of handling equipment might prevent handler and bystander exposure.

  5. Effects of caffeine on human health.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, P; Jordan, S; Eastwood, J; Rotstein, J; Hugenholtz, A; Feeley, M

    2003-01-01

    Caffeine is probably the most frequently ingested pharmacologically active substance in the world. It is found in common beverages (coffee, tea, soft drinks), in products containing cocoa or chocolate, and in medications. Because of its wide consumption at different levels by most segments of the population, the public and the scientific community have expressed interest in the potential for caffeine to produce adverse effects on human health. The possibility that caffeine ingestion adversely affects human health was investigated based on reviews of (primarily) published human studies obtained through a comprehensive literature search. Based on the data reviewed, it is concluded that for the healthy adult population, moderate daily caffeine intake at a dose level up to 400 mg day(-1) (equivalent to 6 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) in a 65-kg person) is not associated with adverse effects such as general toxicity, cardiovascular effects, effects on bone status and calcium balance (with consumption of adequate calcium), changes in adult behaviour, increased incidence of cancer and effects on male fertility. The data also show that reproductive-aged women and children are 'at risk' subgroups who may require specific advice on moderating their caffeine intake. Based on available evidence, it is suggested that reproductive-aged women should consume

  6. Ameliorative effect of aspalathin from rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) on acute oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Sudji, Ikhwan Resmala; Wang, Erjia; Joubert, Elizabeth; van Wyk, Ben-Erik; Wink, Michael

    2013-02-15

    Rooibos leaves and fine stems (Aspalathus linearis; Fabaceae) are increasingly enjoyed as herbal tea, largely in fermented (oxidised) red-brown form, but also in unfermented (unoxidised) green form. Rooibos is rich in antioxidant polyphenols, with the dihydrochalcone, aspalathin, as a major active ingredient. We used Caenorhabditis elegans as model organism to investigate the effect of rooibos extracts against oxidative stress in vivo. In a high glucose environment, C. elegans treated with rooibos extract exhibited an extended lifespan. Furthermore, green rooibos was a more potent antioxidant than red rooibos, probably due to its substantially higher aspalathin content. In addition, rooibos decreased acute oxidative damage caused by the superoxide anion radical generator, juglone, with aspalathin playing a major role in improving the survival rate of C. elegans. Quantitative real-time PCR results demonstrated that aspalathin targets stress and ageing related genes, reducing the endogenous intracellular level of ROS. These findings suggest that rooibos increases stress resistance and promotes longevity under stress, probably mediated via a regulation of the DAF-16/FOXO insulin-like signalling pathway, supporting some of the health claims put forward for rooibos tea.

  7. Clinical effectiveness in the diagnosis and acute management of pediatric nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Van Batavia, Jason P; Tasian, Gregory E

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis has risen over the past few decades leading to a growing public health burden. Children and adolescents represent a unique patient population secondary to their higher risks from radiation exposure as compared to adults, high risk of recurrence, and longer follow up time given their longer life expectancies. Ultrasound imaging is the first-line modality for diagnosing suspected nephrolithiasis in children. Although data is limited, the best evidence based medicine supports the use of alpha-blockers as first-line MET in children, especially when stones are small and in a more distal ureteral location. Surgical management of pediatric nephrolithiasis is similar to that in adults with ESWL and URS first-line for smaller stones and PCNL reserved for larger renal stone burden. Clinical effectiveness in minimizing risks in children and adolescents with nephrolithiasis centers around ED pathways that limit CT imaging, strict guidance to ALARA principles or use of US during surgical procedures, and education of both patients and families on the risks of repeat ionizing radiation exposures during follow up and acute colic events.

  8. Acute toxicity and effects analysis of endosulfan sulfate to freshwater fish species.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M; Gardinali, Piero R; Castro, Joffre

    2011-02-01

    Endosulfan sulfate is a persistent environmental metabolite of endosulfan, an organochlorine insecticide-acaricide presently registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. There is, however, limited acute fish toxicity data for endosulfan sulfate. This study determines the acute toxicity (LC₅₀s and LC₁₀s) of endosulfan sulfate to three inland Florida native fish species (mosquitofish [Gambusia affinis]; least killifish [Heterandria formosa]; and sailfin mollies [Poecilia latipinna]) as well as fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Ninety-six-h acute toxicity tests were conducted with each fish species under flow-through conditions. For all of the above-mentioned fish species, 96-h LC₅₀ estimates ranged from 2.1 to 3.5 μg/L endosulfan sulfate. The 96-h LC₁₀ estimates ranged from 0.8 to 2.1 μg/L endosulfan sulfate. Of all of the fish tested, the least killifish appeared to be the most sensitive to endosulfan sulfate exposure. The above-mentioned data were combined with previous acute toxicity data for endosulfan sulfate and freshwater fish for an effects analysis. The effects analysis estimated hazardous concentrations expected to exceed 5, 10, and 50% of the fish species' acute LC₅₀ or LC₁₀ values (HC₅, HC₁₀, and HC₅₀). The endosulfan sulfate freshwater-fish acute tests were also compared with the available freshwater-fish acute toxicity data for technical endosulfan. Technical endosulfan is a mixture of α- and β-endosulfan. The LC₅₀s had a wider range for technical endosulfan, and their distribution produced a lower HC₁₀ than for endosulfan sulfate. The number of freshwater-fish LC₅₀s for endosulfan sulfate is much smaller than the number available for technical endosulfan, reflecting priorities in examining the toxicity of the parent compounds of pesticides. The toxicity test results and effects analyses provided acute effect values for endosulfan sulfate and freshwater fish that might be applied

  9. Renal Protective Effects of 17β-Estradiol on Mice with Acute Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Ma, Liang; Zhou, Li; Fu, Ping

    2016-10-18

    Aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) is a progressive kidney disease caused by a Chinese herb containing aristolochic acid. Excessive death of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) characterized the acute phase of AAN. Therapies for acute AAN were limited, such as steroids and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs)/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). It was interesting that, in acute AAN, female patients showed relative slower progression to renal failure than males. In a previous study, female hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) was found to attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective role of E2 in acute AAN. Compared with male C57BL/6 mice of acute AAN, lower serum creatinine (SCr) and less renal injury, together with RTEC apoptosis in females, were found. Treatment with E2 in male AAN mice reduced SCr levels and attenuated renal tubular injury and RTEC apoptosis. In the mice kidney tissue and human renal proximal tubule cells (HK-2 cells), E2 both attenuated AA-induced cell apoptosis and downregulated the expression of phosphor-p53 (Ser15), p53, and cleaved-caspase-3. This study highlights that E2 exhibited protective effects on the renal injury of acute AAN in male mice by reducing RTEC apoptosis, which might be related to inhibiting the p53 signaling pathway.

  10. Mechanics of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium: effects of acute and chronic myocardial edema.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ketaki V; Laine, Glen A; Stewart, Randolph H; Cox, Charles S; Quick, Christopher M; Allen, Steven J; Fischer, Uwe M

    2008-06-01

    Myocardial interstitial edema forms as a result of several disease states and clinical interventions. Acute myocardial interstitial edema is associated with compromised systolic and diastolic cardiac function and increased stiffness of the left ventricular chamber. Formation of chronic myocardial interstitial edema results in deposition of interstitial collagen, which causes interstitial fibrosis. To assess the effect of myocardial interstitial edema on the mechanical properties of the left ventricle and the myocardial interstitium, we induced acute and chronic interstitial edema in dogs. Acute myocardial edema was generated by coronary sinus pressure elevation, while chronic myocardial edema was generated by chronic pulmonary artery banding. The pressure-volume relationships of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium and left ventricular chamber for control animals were compared with acutely and chronically edematous animals. Collagen content of nonedematous and chronically edematous animals was also compared. Generating acute myocardial interstitial edema resulted in decreased left ventricular chamber compliance compared with nonedematous animals. With chronic edema, the primary form of collagen changed from type I to III. Left ventricular chamber compliance in animals made chronically edematous was significantly higher than nonedematous animals. The change in primary collagen type secondary to chronic left ventricular myocardial interstitial edema provides direct evidence for structural remodeling. The resulting functional adaptation allows the chronically edematous heart to maintain left ventricular chamber compliance when challenged with acute edema, thus preserving cardiac function over a wide range of interstitial fluid pressures.

  11. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days); and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels. PMID:25029646

  12. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzidine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzidine was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Enviromental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Benzidine has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for benzidine is 234.13 (mg/kg/day) for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for benzidine 100.

  13. World Health Organization Grade II Oligodendroglioma Occurring after Successful Treatment for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang-In; Park, Dong-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Park, Jung-Yul; Chung, Yong-Gu

    2016-01-01

    When treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), secondary neoplasms are a significant long term problem. Radiation is generally accepted to be a major cause of the development of secondary neoplasms. Following treatment for ALL, a variety of secondary tumors, including brain tumors, hematologic malignancies, sarcomas, thyroid cancers, and skin cancers have been reported. However, oligodendroglioma as a secondary neoplasm is extremely rare. Herein we present a case of secondary oligodendroglioma occurring 13 years after the end of ALL treatment. PMID:27867928

  14. Protective effects of imipramine in murine endotoxin-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Jie-ming; Summah, Hanssa; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Ying-gang; Jiang, Hong-ni

    2010-07-25

    The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine has recently emerged as a cytoprotective agent, exerting beneficial effects in inflammatory tissue injury. The present study aimed to investigate therapeutic effects of imipramine in murine model of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. Mice were administrated intraperitoneally with LPS (lipopolysaccharide) from Escherichia coli or vehicle. Imipramine was administrated intraperitoneally 30 min before LPS challenge. Pretreatment of mice with imipramine reduced lethality. Impramine also significantly attenuated lung inflammation, lung edema, MPO (myeloperoxidase) activity, lung tissue pathological changes and nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding activity. The results of this study suggest that imipramine can exert protective effects in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury by suppressing nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated expression of inflammatory genes. Thus, imipramine could be a potential novel therapeutic agent for the treatment for acute lung injury.

  15. Central effect of histamine in a rat model of acute trigeminal pain.

    PubMed

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Khalilzadeh, Emad; Hamzeh-Gooshchi, Nasrin; Seiednejhad-Yamchi, Sona

    2008-01-01

    In conscious rats implanted with an intracerebroventricular (icv) cannula, effect of icv injections of histamine, chlorpheniramine (H(1)-receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (H(2)-receptor blocker) was investigated in a rat model of acute trigeminal pain. Acute trigeminal pain was induced by putting a drop of 5 M NaCl solution on the corneal surface of the eye and the numbers of eye wipes were counted during the first 30 s. Histamine (20, 40 microg) and chlorpheniramine (80 microg) significantly decreased the numbers of eye wipes. Ranitidine alone had no effect. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine did not change the histamine-induced analgesia, whereas the histamine effect on pain was inhibited with ranitidine pretreatment. These results indicate that the brain histamine, through central H(2) receptors, may be involved in the modulation of the acute trigeminal pain in rats.

  16. Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Rosell, Magdalena S

    2006-02-01

    Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish; vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely, but the empirical evidence largely relates to the nutritional content and health effects of the average diet of well-educated vegetarians living in Western countries, together with some information on vegetarians in non-Western countries. In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables. In terms of nutrients, vegetarian diets are usually rich in carbohydrates, n-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and Mg, and relatively low in protein, saturated fat, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, retinol, vitamin B(12) and Zn; vegans may have particularly low intakes of vitamin B(12) and low intakes of Ca. Cross-sectional studies of vegetarians and vegans have shown that on average they have a relatively low BMI and a low plasma cholesterol concentration; recent studies have also shown higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than in non-vegetarians. Cohort studies of vegetarians have shown a moderate reduction in mortality from IHD but little difference in other major causes of death or all-cause mortality in comparison with health-conscious non-vegetarians from the same population. Studies of cancer have not shown clear differences in cancer rates between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. More data are needed, particularly on the health of vegans and on the possible impacts on health of low intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and vitamin B(12). Overall, the data suggest that the health of Western vegetarians is good and similar to that of comparable non-vegetarians.

  17. A QUANTITATIVE COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE INHALED TOLUENE IN HUMAN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of acute exposure to toluene have been explored more thoroughly than other hydrocarbon solvents. These effects have been experimentally studied in humans and other species, e.g., rats, as well as in a number of in vitro preparations. The existence ofdosimetric and eff...

  18. Acute effects of exposure to 56Fe and 16O particles on learning and memory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although it has been shown that exposure to HZE particles disrupts cognitive performance when tested 2-4 weeks after irradiation, it has not been determined whether exposure to HZE particles can exert acute effects on cognitive performance; i.e., effects within 4-48 hrs after exposure. The present ...

  19. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  20. ASSESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BEHAVIORAL EFFECT OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE IN HUMANS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing interest in being able to evaluate potential benefit-cost relationships of controlling exposure to toxic substances. Behavioral effects of acute toluene exposure could be subjected to benefit-cost analysis if it's effects were quantitatively compared to tho...

  1. [Time series studies of air pollution by fires and the effects on human health].

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2013-11-01

    Burnoffs (intentional fires for agricultural purposes) and forest fires of large proportions have been observed in various regions of the planet. Exposure to high levels of air pollutants emitted by fires can be responsible for various harmful effects on human health. In this article, the literature on estimating acute effects of air pollution on human health by fires in the regions with the highest number of fires on the planet, using a time series approach is summarized. An attempt was made to identify gaps in knowledge. The study consisted of a narrative review, in which the characteristics of the selected studies were grouped by regions of the planet with a higher incidence of burnoffs: Amazon, America, Australia and Asia. The results revealed a large number of studies in Australia, few studies in the Amazon and great heterogeneity in the results on the significant effects on human health.

  2. Health effects of toxicants: Online knowledge support

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Richard; de Marcellus, Sally; de Knecht, Joop; Leinala, Eeva

    2016-01-01

    Research in toxicology generates vast quantities of data which reside on the Web and are subsequently appropriated and utilized to support further research. This data includes a broad spectrum of information about chemical, biological and radiological agents which can affect health, the nature of the effects, treatment, regulatory measures, and more. Information is structured in a variety of formats, including traditional databases, portals, prediction models, and decision making support tools. Online resources are created and housed by a variety of institutions, including libraries and government agencies. This paper focuses on three such institutions and the tools they offer to the public: the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and its Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Reference is also made to other relevant organizations. PMID:26506572

  3. Health effects of toxicants: Online knowledge support.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Philip; Judson, Richard; de Marcellus, Sally; de Knecht, Joop; Leinala, Eeva

    2016-01-15

    Research in toxicology generates vast quantities of data which reside on the Web and are subsequently appropriated and utilized to support further research. This data includes a broad spectrum of information about chemical, biological and radiological agents which can affect health, the nature of the effects, treatment, regulatory measures, and more. Information is structured in a variety of formats, including traditional databases, portals, prediction models, and decision making support tools. Online resources are created and housed by a variety of institutions, including libraries and government agencies. This paper focuses on three such institutions and the tools they offer to the public: the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and its Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Reference is also made to other relevant organizations.

  4. Acute effects of cigarette smoke exposure on experimental skin flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.; Jenkins, R.A.; Kurihara, K.; Schultz, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    Random vascular patterned caudally based McFarlane-type skin flaps were elevated in groups of Fischer 344 rats. Groups of rats were then acutely exposed on an intermittent basis to smoke generated from well-characterized research filter cigarettes. Previously developed smoke inhalation exposure protocols were employed using a Maddox-ORNL inhalation exposure system. Rats that continued smoke exposure following surgery showed a significantly greater mean percent area of flap necrosis compared with sham-exposed groups or control groups not exposed. The possible pathogenesis of this observation as well as considerations and correlations with chronic human smokers are discussed. Increased risks of flap necrosis by smoking in the perioperative period are suggested by this study.

  5. [Effect of mexicor on oxidative stress in acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Golikov, A P; Davydov, B V; Rudnev, D V; Klychnikova, E V; Bykova, N S; Riabinin, V A; Polumiskov, V Iu; Nikolaeva, N Iu; Golikov, P P

    2005-01-01

    Mexicor (5% solution and capsules) was used in 40 of 80 conventionally treated patients with acute myocardial infarction. The drug was given intravenously for 5 days, than intramuscularly (6-9 mg/kg) for 9 days and orally (0.1 mg t.i.d.) thereafter until discharge. Severity of oxidative stress was evaluated by K coefficient. Calculation of this coefficient required data on degree of oxidation of lipids in blood serum, serum levels of diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, alpha-tocopherol and ceruloplasmin. These parameters as well as activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in erythrocytes were measured at admission, on days 2, 3, 7, 14 and at discharge. Mexicor treated compared with untreated (n=40) patients were characterized by diminished severity of oxidative stress at the account of lower levels of lipid peroxidation products and augmented compensatory potential of the endogenous antioxidant system.

  6. Review on the effects of exposure to spilled oils on human health.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Francisco; Méndez, Josefina; Pásaro, Eduardo; Laffon, Blanca

    2010-05-01

    Harmful effects of oil spills on diverse flora and fauna species have been extensively studied. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been compiled in the literature dealing with the repercussions of oil exposure on human health; most of them have focused on acute effects and psychological symptoms. The objective of this work was to gather all these studies and to analyze the possible consequences of this kind of complex exposure in the different aspects of human health. Studies found on this topic were related to the disasters of the Exxon Valdez, Braer, Sea Empress, Nakhodka, Erika, Prestige and Tasman Spirit oil tankers. The majority of them were cross-sectional; many did not include control groups. Acute effects were evaluated taking into account vegetative-nervous symptoms, skin and mucous irritations, and also psychological effects. Genotoxic damage and endocrine alterations were assessed only in individuals exposed to oil from Prestige. The results of the reviewed articles clearly support the need for biomonitoring human populations exposed to spilled oils, especially those individuals involved in the cleanup, in order to evaluate not only the possible immediate consequences for their health but also the medium- and long-term effects, and the effectiveness of the protective devices used.

  7. Impact of integrated health system changes, accelerated due to an earthquake, on emergency department attendances and acute admissions: a Bayesian change-point analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Philip J; Hamilton, Greg J; Deely, Joanne M; Ardagh, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To chart emergency department (ED) attendance and acute admission following a devastating earthquake in 2011 which lead to Canterbury's rapidly accelerated integrated health system transformations. Design Interrupted time series analysis, modelling using Bayesian change-point methods, of ED attendance and acute admission rates over the 2008–2014 period. Setting ED department within the Canterbury District Health Board; with comparison to two other district health boards unaffected by the earthquake within New Zealand. Participants Canterbury's health system services ∼500 000 people, with around 85 000 ED attendances and 37 000 acute admissions per annum. Main outcome measures De-seasoned standardised population ED attendance and acute admission rates overall, and stratified by age and sex, compared before and after the earthquake. Results Analyses revealed five global patterns: (1) postearthquake, there was a sudden and persisting decrease in the proportion of the population attending the ED; (2) the growth rate of ED attendances per head of population did not change between the pre-earthquake and postearthquake periods; (3) postearthquake, there was a sudden and persisting decrease in the proportion of the population admitted to hospital; (4) the growth rate of hospital admissions per head of the population declined between pre-earthquake and postearthquake periods and (5) the most dramatic reduction in hospital admissions growth after the earthquake occurred among those aged 65+ years. Extrapolating from the projected and fitted deseasoned rates for December 2014, ∼676 (16.8%) of 4035 projected hospital admissions were avoided. Conclusions While both necessarily and opportunistically accelerated, Canterbury's integrated health systems transformations have resulted in a dramatic and sustained reduction in ED attendances and acute hospital admissions. This natural intervention experiment, triggered by an earthquake, demonstrated that

  8. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cannabinoids on Human Cognition-A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Broyd, Samantha J; van Hell, Hendrika H; Beale, Camilla; Yücel, Murat; Solowij, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with impaired cognition during acute intoxication as well as in the unintoxicated state in long-term users. However, the evidence has been mixed and contested, and no systematic reviews of the literature on neuropsychological task-based measures of cognition have been conducted in an attempt to synthesize the findings. We systematically review the empirical research published in the past decade (from January 2004 to February 2015) on acute and chronic effects of cannabis and cannabinoids and on persistence or recovery after abstinence. We summarize the findings into the major categories of the cognitive domains investigated, considering sample characteristics and associations with various cannabis use parameters. Verbal learning and memory and attention are most consistently impaired by acute and chronic exposure to cannabis. Psychomotor function is most affected during acute intoxication, with some evidence for persistence in chronic users and after cessation of use. Impaired verbal memory, attention, and some executive functions may persist after prolonged abstinence, but persistence or recovery across all cognitive domains remains underresearched. Associations between poorer performance and a range of cannabis use parameters, including a younger age of onset, are frequently reported. Little further evidence has emerged for the development of tolerance to the acutely impairing effects of cannabis. Evidence for potential protection from harmful effects by cannabidiol continues to increase but is not definitive. In light of increasing trends toward legalization of cannabis, the knowledge gained from this body of research needs to be incorporated into strategies to minimize harm.

  9. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making. PMID:27679566

  10. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  11. The adverse health effects of oil spills: a review of the literature and a framework for medically evaluating exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Nassetta, William J

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, an explosion on an oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico killed 11 workers, injured 17 workers, and spilled an estimated 185 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf. Adverse effects on the health of cleanup workers, fishermen, and others as well as on the ecosystem are being studied. This paper reviews published studies of the adverse health effects due to previous oil spills. Acute effects have included: respiratory, eye, and skin symptoms; headache; nausea; dizziness; and tiredness or fatigue. Chronic effects have included: psychological disorders, respiratory disorders, genotoxic effects, and endocrine abnormalities. We also present a systematic approach to evaluating individuals exposed to oil spills.

  12. Effectiveness, tolerability and safety of azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® for acute bacterial conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Susannah; Sheikh, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Bacterial eye infections are commonly treated with topical antibiotics, despite limited evidence of effectiveness. Azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® is a new formulation of azithromycin in a gel polymer designed for use in acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Methods: We conducted systematic searches of the Cochrane Database of Clinical Trials, PubMed and Google Scholar to find randomized controlled trials of “azithromycin DuraSite®”. These searches of published literature were supplemented with searches for unpublished trials and trials in progress. Results: We found six reports of randomized controlled trials investigating the role of azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® for the management of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. The quality of these trials was judged to be moderate to high. These trials assessed effectiveness, tolerability and safety outcomes, but we found no trials looking at cost-effectiveness. DuraSite® is a relatively stable formulation and so azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® has a simpler dosing schedule than other available topical antibiotics. It appears to be similar to other topical antibiotics in its effectiveness, but minor side effects are quite common. Conclusion: Acute bacterial conjunctivitis is a relatively mild, typically self-limiting, infection. Antibiotics should seldom be required. If, however, a decision to prescribe antibiotics is made, azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® is likely to be broadly comparable in its effectiveness to most other antibiotics used to treat acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Further research is needed to determine its cost-effectiveness. PMID:20517467

  13. Acute buspirone dosing enhances abuse-related subjective effects of oral methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Pike, Erika; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    There is not an approved pharmacotherapy for treating methamphetamine use disorder. This study sought to determine the effects of acute buspirone treatment on the subjective and cardiovascular effects of oral methamphetamine in order to provide an initial assessment of the utility, safety, and tolerability of buspirone for managing methamphetamine use disorder. We predicted that acute buspirone administration would reduce the subjective effects of methamphetamine. We also predicted that the combination of buspirone and methamphetamine would be safe and well tolerated. Ten subjects completed the protocol, which tested three methamphetamine doses (0, 15, and 30mg) in combination with two buspirone doses (0 and 30mg) across 6 experimental sessions. Subjective effects and physiological measures were collected at regular intervals prior to and after dose administration. Methamphetamine produced prototypical subjective and cardiovascular effects. Acute buspirone administration increased some of the abuse-related subjective effects of methamphetamine and also attenuated some cardiovascular effects. The combination of oral methamphetamine and buspirone was safe and well tolerated. Acute buspirone administration may increase the abuse liability of oral methamphetamine. Chronic buspirone dosing studies remain to be conducted, but given preclinical findings and the outcomes of this work, the utility of buspirone for treating methamphetamine use disorder appears limited.

  14. Representing and Retrieving Patients' Falls Risk Factors and Risk for Falls among Adults in Acute Care through the Electronic Health Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Jann

    2013-01-01

    Defining fall risk factors and predicting fall risk status among patients in acute care has been a topic of research for decades. With increasing pressure on hospitals to provide quality care and prevent hospital-acquired conditions, the search for effective fall prevention interventions continues. Hundreds of risk factors for falls in acute care…

  15. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann

    ., Wan, X.S., Nuth, M., Davis, J., Ko, Y.-H., Sayers, C.M., Baran, M., Ware, J.H. and Kennedy, A.R. Dietary antioxidants protect hematopoietic cells and improve animal survival following total body irradiation. Radiation Res. (in press) [9] Kennedy, A.R., Davis, J.G., Carlton, W. and Ware, J.H. Effects of dietary antioxidant supplementation on the development of malignancies and other neoplastic lesions in mice exposed to proton or iron ion radiation. Radiation Res. (submitted) [10] Kennedy, A.R. The Status of Human Trials Utilizing Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate from Soybeans. In: Soy in Health and Disease Prevention, edited by Michihiro Sugano, CRC Press Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, Chapter 12, pp. 207-223, 2005. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS; This work was supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute through NASA NCC 9-58.

  16. [Cardioprotective effect of drugs with antioxidant activity in acute cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Stoliarova, V V

    2001-01-01

    The bioelectric cardiac activity was studied in the experiments on white mice with an acute cerebral blood circulation disorder. It was found that he resulting EEG changes possess a specific character, with the sympathoadrenal system stimulation playing an important role in the acute cerebrocardiac syndrome development. The antioxidant-type agents such as emoxypine (50 mg/kg), mexidol (50 mg/kg), and cytochrome C (10 mg/kg) produce a significant cardioprotective effect in the test animals with experimental cerebral ischemia, which was comparable with the effect of propranolol (obsidane) (0.1 mg/kg).

  17. Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease--priorities in prevention, diagnosis and management. A report of the CSANZ Indigenous Cardiovascular Health Conference, Alice Springs 2011.

    PubMed

    Rémond, M G W; Wheaton, G R; Walsh, W F; Prior, D L; Maguire, G P

    2012-10-01

    Three priority areas in the prevention, diagnosis and management of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) were identified and discussed in detail: 1. Echocardiography and screening/diagnosis of RHD – Given the existing uncertainty it remains premature to advocate for or to incorporate echocardiographic screening for RHD into Australian clinical practice. Further research is currently being undertaken to evaluate the potential for echocardiography screening. 2. Secondary prophylaxis – Secondary prophylaxis (long acting benzathine penicillin injections) must be seen as a priority. Systems-based approaches are necessary with a focus on the development and evaluation of primary health care-based or led strategies incorporating effective health information management systems. Better/novel systems of delivery of prophylactic medications should be investigated. 3. Management of advanced RHD – National centres of excellence for the diagnosis, assessment and surgical management of RHD are required. Early referral for surgical input is necessary with multidisciplinary care and team-based decision making that includes patient, family, and local health providers. There is a need for a national RHD surgical register and research strategy for the assessment, intervention and long-term outcome of surgery and other interventions for RHD.

  18. Comparison of acute behavioral effects of sustained-release and immediate-release methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Kollins, S H; Rush, C R; Pazzaglia, P J; Ali, J A

    1998-11-01

    The rate of onset of a drug's effect is an important determinant of its abuse potential. This experiment examined the acute behavioral effects of orally administered sustained-release methylphenidate (SR; 20-40 mg), immediate-release methylphenidate (IR; 20-40 mg), and placebo in 10 healthy volunteers. Drug effects were assessed before drug administration and periodically afterwards for 6 hr using drug-effect questionnaires and performance measures that are sensitive to the acute effects of stimulants. The IR formulation produced stimulant-like drug effects (e.g., increased ratings of "good effects") that generally varied as a function of dose and time. The SR formulation produced only transient effects on these measures. These findings are consistent with previous research on the influence of rate of onset using other drugs and suggest that the abuse potential of IR methylphenidate may be greater than that of SR methylphenidate.

  19. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  20. The Future of U.S. Health Care and Its Effect on Health Care Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildick, Sue; Kohler, Peter O.

    1998-01-01

    Traces trends in health care, including growth of managed care, increased consumer choice, and changes in administration and funding of academic health centers, and examines the challenges they create for teaching, research, and practice. The Oregon Health Plan and its effect on Oregon Health Sciences University are used for illustration. (MSE)

  1. Acute effects of breaking up prolonged sitting on fatigue and cognition: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Wennberg, Patrik; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Wheeler, Michael; Howard, Bethany; Dempsey, Paddy C; Lambert, Gavin; Eikelis, Nina; Larsen, Robyn; Sethi, Parneet; Occleston, Jessica; Hernestål-Boman, Jenny; Ellis, Kathryn A; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the acute effects of uninterrupted sitting with sitting interrupted by brief bouts of light-intensity walking on self-reported fatigue, cognition, neuroendocrine biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk markers in overweight/obese adults. Design Randomised two-condition crossover trial. Setting Laboratory study conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 19 overweight/obese adults (45–75 years). Interventions After an initial 2 h period seated, participants consumed a meal-replacement beverage and completed (on 2 days separated by a 6-day washout period) each condition over the next 5 h: uninterrupted sitting (sedentary condition) or sitting with 3 min bouts of light-intensity walking every 30 min (active condition). Primary outcome measures Self-reported fatigue, executive function and episodic memory at 0 h, 4 h and 7 h. Secondary outcome measures Neuroendocrine biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk markers (blood collections at 0 h, 4 h and 7 h, blood pressure and heart rate measured hourly and interstitial glucose measured using a continuous glucose monitoring system). Results During the active condition, fatigue levels were lower at 4 h (−13.32 (95% CI −23.48 to −3.16)) and at 7 h (−10.73 (95% CI −20.89 to −0.58)) compared to the sedentary condition. Heart rate was higher at 4 h (4.47 (95% CI 8.37 to 0.58)) and at 7 h (4.32 (95% CI 8.21 to 0.42)) during the active condition compared to the sedentary condition. There were no significant differences between conditions by time for other variables. In the sedentary condition, changes in fatigue scores over time correlated with a decrease in heart rate and plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and an increase in plasma dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG). Conclusions Interrupting prolonged sitting with light-intensity walking breaks may be an effective fatigue countermeasure acutely. Fatigue levels corresponded with the heart rate and neuroendocrine biomarker

  2. Summary review of health effects associated with naphthalene: health issue assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    Naphthalene is released into ambient air via industrial gaseous and particulate emissions, tobacco use, and through consumer use. The data base concerning exposure of humans via inhalation and associated health effects is virtually nonexistent. Overexposure often results in acute hemolytic anemia and has been associated with cataract formation. There are no available dose-response data. In laboratory animals, two principal target tissues have been identified: non-ciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells and eye tissue. The metabolite(s) responsible for Clara cell damage is unknown. There are no published studies involving inhalation exposure. Administration of naphthalene by routes other than inhalation has been shown to produce cataracts in rats, rabbits, and one mouse strain. Animal strains with pigmented eyes develop cataracts faster and more severely than albino strains. The likely causative agent is polyphenol oxydase, found only in pigmented eyes, that catalyzes the formation of 1,2-naphthoquione which binds to lens tissue. Negative results have been reported for gene mutations (Salmonella), unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes and microneuclei in mouse bone marrow. Limited teratology studies in rats and rabbits reported no gross abnormalities. In a single dose (300 mg/kg) study in mice, both maternal and fetal toxicity were reported.

  3. The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: insights from neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Bjork, James M; Gilman, Jodi M

    2014-09-01

    Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development and maintenance of addiction. These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures implicated in motivation and behavior control, and that chronic intoxication is correlated with structural and functional abnormalities in these same structures, where some elements of these decrements normalize with extended sobriety. In this review, we will summarize recent findings about acute human brain responses to alcohol using neuroimaging techniques, and how they might explain behavioral effects of alcohol intoxication. We then briefly address how chronic alcohol intoxication (as inferred from cross-sectional differences between various drinking populations and controls) may yield individual brain differences between drinking subjects that may confound interpretation of acute alcohol administration effects. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'.

  4. Acute and prolonged effects of clocinnamox and methoclocinnamox on nucleus accumbens dopamine overflow.

    PubMed

    Zernig, G; Fibiger, H C

    1998-01-01

    The mu opioid antagonist clocinnamox (CCAM) insurmountably inhibits opioid self-administration. In contrast, CCAM's prodrug, methoclocinnamox (MCCAM), acts as a weak partial agonist in this paradigm when given acutely and inhibits opioid self-administration for up to 5 days. In vivo microdialysis was employed to determine if these effects are paralleled in basal and opioid-stimulated dopamine (DA) overflow in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAC). When given acutely, CCAM (10 mg/kg s.c.) was essentially without effect. CCAM also markedly attenuated the overflow of DA induced by heroin (0.5 mg/kg s.c.; 200% of DA baseline) 24 h later. In contrast, MCCAM (10 mg/kg s.c.) acutely increased NAC DA overflow to 200-245% baseline within 30 min. NAC DA remained at this elevated level for the whole 3-h period of the experiment. Even after 24 h, NAC DA overflow of MCCAM-pretreated animals remained elevated at 165% of VEH-treated animals. Administration of heroin did not result in any further elevation of NAC DA release under these conditions. Thus, the suggested therapeutic profile of MCCAM, i.e., an acute partial agonistic reinforcing effect followed by antagonism of the reinforcing effects of subsequently abused opioids, was confirmed in NAC DA overflow, a neurochemical correlate of the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. The most parsimonious explanation for MCCAM's effect on NAC DA overflow is that it acted as an essentially irreversible partial agonist.

  5. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in a nutrient-controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Botero, Diego; Ebbeling, Cara B; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Creager, Mark A; Swain, Janis F; Feldman, Henry A; Ludwig, David S

    2009-09-01

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evaluate the acute effects of low-GI compared with high-GI diets on oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The crossover study comprised two 10-day in-patient admissions to a clinical research center. For the admissions, 12 overweight or obese (BMI: 27-45 kg/m(2)) male subjects aged 18-35 years consumed low-GI or high-GI diets controlled for potentially confounding nutrients. On day 7, after an overnight fast and then during a 5-h postprandial period, we assessed total antioxidant capacity (total and perchloric acid (PCA) protein-precipitated plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay) and oxidative stress status (urinary F(2alpha)-isoprostanes (F(2)IP)). On day 10, we measured cardiovascular disease risk factors. Under fasting conditions, total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher during the low-GI vs. high-GI diet based on total ORAC (11,736 +/- 668 vs. 10,381 +/- 612 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.002) and PCA-ORAC (1,276 +/- 96 vs. 1,210 +/- 96 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.02). Area under the postprandial response curve also differed significantly between the two diets for total ORAC and PCA-ORAC. No diet effects were observed for the other variables. Enhancement in plasma total antioxidant capacity occurs within 1 week on a low-GI diet, before changes in other risk factors, raising the possibility that this phenomenon may mediate, at least in part, the previously reported effects of GI on health.

  6. Comparative effectiveness research on patients with acute ischemic stroke using Markov decision processes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several methodological issues with non-randomized comparative clinical studies have been raised, one of which is whether the methods used can adequately identify uncertainties that evolve dynamically with time in real-world systems. The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of different combinations of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatments and combinations of TCM and Western medicine interventions in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) by using Markov decision process (MDP) theory. MDP theory appears to be a promising new method for use in comparative effectiveness research. Methods The electronic health records (EHR) of patients with AIS hospitalized at the 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine between May 2005 and July 2008 were collected. Each record was portioned into two "state-action-reward" stages divided by three time points: the first, third, and last day of hospital stay. We used the well-developed optimality technique in MDP theory with the finite horizon criterion to make the dynamic comparison of different treatment combinations. Results A total of 1504 records with a primary diagnosis of AIS were identified. Only states with more than 10 (including 10) patients' information were included, which gave 960 records to be enrolled in the MDP model. Optimal combinations were obtained for 30 types of patient condition. Conclusion MDP theory makes it possible to dynamically compare the effectiveness of different combinations of treatments. However, the optimal interventions obtained by the MDP theory here require further validation in clinical practice. Further exploratory studies with MDP theory in other areas in which complex interventions are common would be worthwhile. PMID:22400712

  7. A clinical training unit for diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections: an intervention for primary health care physicians in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Bojalil, R.; Guiscafré, H.; Espinosa, P.; Viniegra, L.; Martínez, H.; Palafox, M.; Gutiérrez, G.

    1999-01-01

    In Tlaxcala State, Mexico, we determined that 80% of children who died from diarrhoea or acute respiratory infections (ARI) received medical care before death; in more than 70% of the cases this care was provided by a private physician. Several strategies have been developed to improve physicians' primary health care practices but private practitioners have only rarely been included. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of in-service training on the case management of diarrhoea and ARI among under-5-year-olds provided by private and public primary physicians. The training consisted of a five-day course of in-service practice during which physicians diagnosed and treated sick children attending a centre and conducted clinical discussions of cases under guidance. Each training course was limited to six physicians. Clinical performance was evaluated by observation before and after the courses. The evaluation of diarrhoea case management covered assessment of dehydration, hydration therapy, prescription of antimicrobial and other drugs, advice on diet, and counselling for mothers; that of ARI case management covered diagnosis, decisions on antimicrobial therapy, use of symptomatic drugs, and counselling for mothers. In general the performance of public physicians both before and after the intervention was better than that of private doctors. Most aspects of the case management of children with diarrhoea improved among both groups of physicians after the course; the proportion of private physicians who had five or six correct elements out of six increased from 14% to 37%: for public physicians the corresponding increase was from 53% to 73%. In ARI case management, decisions taken on antimicrobial therapy and symptomatic drug use improved in both groups; the proportion of private physicians with at least three correct elements out of four increased from 13% to 42%, while among public doctors the corresponding increase was from 43% to 78%. Hands

  8. [Effects of sodium chloride on bone health].

    PubMed

    Sarić, Marija; Piasek, Martina

    2005-03-01

    This paper discusses the physiology of sodium effects on calcium metabolism and possible implications of increased salt intake on bone remodelling and bone mass. Osteoporosis is an increasing public health problem affecting more than 200 million of women around the world. The major complications of osteoporosis are fractures, which are frequently associated with high morbidity and mortality. A number of clinical, epidemiological and experimental studies aim at identifying lifestyle factors that may improve bone mass and prevent bone loss. Different nutrients are proposed to play a role in bone development during growth and in the maintenance of bone mass thereafter. However, the importance of sodium intake for bone health has not been elucidated. It is well known that high dietary sodium intake decreases renal calcium reabsorption, which in turn leads to a greater urinary calcium excretion. This effect has been demonstrated in studies in humans of all ages as well as in experimental animals. It is not clear to what extent sodium-induced calcium loss is compensated for by increased intestinal calcium absorption. It is suspected that, if not fully compensated, sustained hypercalciuria due to increased sodium intake may diminish bone mass. Postmenopausal women showed that increased dietary salt may indeed augment bone resorption. Sodium effects on bone mass in various studies are inconsistent and there is still no evidence that increased salt intake is a risk factor in the aetiology of osteoporosis A randomized longitudinal study of different sodium intake in two groups of subject could clarify the role of sodium in bone mass.

  9. Health effects of uranium: new research findings.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Buchner, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Recent plans for a nuclear renaissance in both established and emerging economies have prompted increased interest in uranium mining. With the potential for more uranium mining worldwide and a growth in the literature on the toxicology and epidemiology of uranium and uranium mining, we found it timely to review the current state of knowledge. Here, we present a review of the health effects of uranium mining, with an emphasis on newer findings (2005-2011). Uranium mining can contaminate air, water, and soil. The chemical toxicity of the metal constitutes the primary environmental health hazard, with the radioactivity of uranium a secondary concern. The update of the toxicologic evidence on uranium adds to the established findings regarding nephrotoxicity, genotoxicity, and developmental defects. Additional novel toxicologic findings, including some at the molecular level, are now emerging that raise the biological plausibility of adverse effects on the brain, on reproduction, including estrogenic effects, on gene expression, and on uranium metabolism. Historically, most epidemiology on uranium mining has focused on mine workers and radon exposure. Although that situation is still overwhelmingly true, a smaller emerging literature has begun to form around environmental exposure in residential areas near uranium mining and processing facilities. We present and critique such studies. Clearly, more epidemiologic research is needed to contribute to causal inference. As much damage is irreversible, and possibly cumulative, present efforts must be vigorous to limit environmental uranium contamination and exposure.

  10. Vibration on board and health effects.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Anker; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2014-01-01

    There is only limited knowledge of the exposure to vibrations of ships' crews and their risk of vibration-induced health effects. Exposure to hand-arm vibrations from the use of vibrating tools at sea does not differ from that in the land-based trades. However, in contrast to most other work places, seafarers are also exposed to vibrations to the feet when standing on vibrating surfaces on board. Anecdotal reports have related the development of "white feet" to local exposure to vibration, e.g. in mining, but this connection has not been investigated in the maritime setting. As known from studies of the health consequences of whole body vibrations in land-transportation, such exposure at sea may affect ships' passengers and crews. While the relation of back disorders to high levels of whole body vibration has been demonstrated among e.g. tractor drivers, there are no reported epidemiological evidence for such relation among seafarers except for fishermen, who, however, are also exposed to additional recognised physical risk factors at work. The assessment and reduction of vibrations by naval architects relates to technical implications of this impact for the ships' construction, but has limited value for the estimation of health risks because they express the vibration intensity differently that it is done in a medical context.

  11. Symptoms, functioning and quality of life after treatment in a residential sub-acute mental health service in Australia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kerry A; Rickwood, Debra J; Brown, Patricia M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess clients' and service providers' perspectives on changes in mental health after an admission to a residential recovery-focused, sub-acute service, in Australia. Clients were either step-up clients, entering the service directly from the community, or step-down clients who were transitioning from an inpatient unit to home. During the 30-month period of data collection (August 2011 to January 2014) all clients (N = 102) were invited to participate in the longitudinal study and 41 clients consented to be involved (38% response rate). At admission and exit, participants completed the Behaviour and Symptom Identification Scale (Basis-32) and service providers completed the Life Skills Profile-16 and Health of the Nations Outcome Scales. Follow-up data 3 months after exit were available for 12 clients, including the Basis-32 and a self-report measure of quality of life (Assessment of Quality of Life 8-dimension). Both client groups reported positive improvements between admission and exit in the areas of relation to self and others, psychosis, daily living and presence of depression or anxiety symptoms. Service providers reported gains for clients in the areas of self-care, level of symptoms and presence of social problems. At 3 months, clients generally reported positive quality of life, although there was no significant change in symptoms and functioning. This study demonstrates that after an admission to a sub-acute service, step-up clients experience an improvement in their symptoms and functioning, have avoided a hospital admission and are well enough to return home. Step-down clients also experience further improvements in their symptoms and functioning, indicating that the service has assisted them in their transition to independent living after a hospital admission. Sub-acute residential units provide a continuation of care for inpatients preparing to return home, and people with a mental health problem living in the

  12. Development and pretesting of an electronic learning module to train health care professionals on the use of the Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure to assess acute asthma severity

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Anab R; McKinney, Martha L; Gouin, Serge; Blais, Jean-Guy; Pusic, MV; Ducharme, Francine M

    2013-01-01

    electronic learning module met the clarity and quality requirements of a good teaching tool, with a demonstrated learning effect and high appreciation by health care professionals. Available in French and English, it is offered to facilitate implementation of PRAM-based acute pediatric asthma guidelines. PMID:24046819

  13. [The effects of noise on health].

    PubMed

    Cabaní, Fernando Tolosa

    2005-02-01

    This article is adapted from the inaugural speech which Dr. Tolosa made to the Royal Academy of Medicine in the Balearic Islands during the 2003 academic year. In his speech, he analyzed how the presence of sound in our environment is such a common factor in our daily lives that we are hardly aware of its effects. Sound provides experiences as pleasant as listening to music or birdsongs, or sound enables oral communication among people; but together with these agreeable auditory perceptions, bothersome, even harmful, noise is also present in our lives; this noise can limit our relationships and affect our health in an irreversible manner.

  14. Effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide on treatment of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ozer Cakir, Ozlem; Esen, Hasan; Toker, Aysun; Ataseven, Huseyin; Demir, Ali; Polat, Hakki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research continues to develop novel therapeutic modalities that particularly focus on the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. This study aimed to assess the effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide, alone or in combination, on pancreatic enzymes, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, histopathology and apoptosis of pancreas cells, using a model of experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. Objectives: We aimed to demonstrate effects of diclofenac sodium, octreotide and their combined use on pancreatic enzymes, activity of pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, histopathology and apoptosis of pancreas on treatment of caerulin-induced experimental acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Caerulin-induced acute pancreatitis model was created using a total of 58 male BALB-C mice of 25 gr in seven groups. Serum amylase, lipase levels and pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity were examined as well as apoptotic values in pancreatic acinar cells through TUNNEL method. Histopathology of pancreas was evaluated for presence of edema, hemorrhage, parenchymal necrosis, fat necrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and fibrosis. Results: In the diclofenac sodium group, apoptotic values in the pancreatic acinar cells were found to be statistically lower than in the acute pancreatitis group in terms of parenchymal necrosis and hemorrhage scores (P = 0.007, P = 0.002, and P = 0.052, respectively). No statistically significant differences were found in serum level of amylase, lipase, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity and the other histopathological scores (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Diclofenac sodium, a cost-effective agent with a favorable side-effect profile, may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Findings of this study suggest a better efficacy for diclofenac sodium monotherapy as compared to octreotide alone or octreotide/diclofenac combination. PMID:26770346

  15. Different effects of tianeptine pretreatment in rats exposed to acute stress and repeated severe stress.

    PubMed

    Kasar, M; Mengi, M; Yildirim, E A; Yurdakos, E

    2009-04-01

    In this study we aim to discuss the relationship between stress and learning and emotionality in an experimental model using two different stress conditions: acute stress (single restraint stress for 20 min) and repeated severe stress (6-h daily restraint for 21 days). We studied the effects of tianeptine, which has been suggested to have anxiolytic and cognition-enhancing effects under stressful conditions. After acute stress, the increase in the duration of immobility (F = 5.753 and 3.664) in the open field and holeboard tests and the decrease in rearing (F = 3.891) in the holeboard test were significant when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Results for repeated severe stress showed that in both the open field and holeboard tests the decrease in rearing (F = 4.494 and 4.530, respectively), increase in the duration of immobility (F = 6.069 and 4.742, respectively) and decrease in head dips (F = 4.938) in the holeboard test were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The group pretreated with tianeptine showed no significant difference from controls for either acute or repeated severe stress conditions. In the Morris water maze test, acute stress led to a prolongation of average escape latency, which indicated a spatial learning deficit. Treatment with tianeptine prior to acute stress prevented this spatial deficit. Repeated severe stress also led to spatial learning deficits in rats, but this deficit was not prevented by treatment with tianeptine. Our study demonstrates that pretreatment with tianeptine had different effects on stress-induced spatial learning deficits under acute and repeated stress conditions, while the effects on emotionality and anxiety-like behavior were similar. The mechanisms implicated in stress-induced emotional and memory deficits will be discussed.

  16. Therapeutic effectiveness of sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis plus hemoperfusion and continuous hemofiltration plus hemoperfusion for acute severe organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shou-liang; Wang, Dan; Jiang, Hong; Lei, Qing-feng; Zhu, Xiao-hua; Cheng, Jun-zhang

    2014-02-01

    There is no report on the effects of sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) plus hemoperfusion (HP) (SLED + HP) in patients with acute severe organophosphate (OP) poisoning (ASOPP). This study was designed to compare the therapeutic effectiveness between SLED + HP and continuous hemofiltration (CHF) plus HP (CHF + HP) in patients with ASOPP. In order to assess the two treatment methods, 56 patients with ASOPP were divided into CHF + HP group and SLED + HP group. The biochemical indicators, in-hospital duration, hemodynamic parameters, Acute Physiology, and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score, and survival and mortality rates were compared. In both groups after treatment, the levels of serum creatine kinase isozyme MB, creatine kinase, creatinine, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease, and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, and the APACHE II scores on the first, second, and seventh day decreased (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of serum acetylcholinesterase increased. The two groups showed no statistical differences in in-hospital duration, biochemical indicators, APACHE II score, hemodynamic parameters, survival rate, or the mortality rate (P > 0.05). In conclusion, SLED has similar hemodynamic stability to CHF and the two treatment methods have similar effects on ASOPP patients. More importantly, SLED plus HP is relatively economical and convenient for patients with ASOPP in clinical practice.

  17. Acute and subacute effects of urban air pollution on cardiopulmonary emergencies and mortality: time series studies in Austrian cities.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Rabczenko, Daniel

    2013-10-02

    Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years) were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover) on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death). Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m³ on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic) and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards.

  18. Acute and Subacute Effects of Urban Air Pollution on Cardiopulmonary Emergencies and Mortality: Time Series Studies in Austrian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Rabczenko, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years) were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover) on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death). Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m3 on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic) and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards. PMID:24157504

  19. Perspectives for integration into the local health system of community-based management of acute malnutrition in children under 5 years: a qualitative study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute malnutrition is a major cause of death among under-five children in low- and middle-income countries. United Nations agencies recommend the integration of community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) into the local health systems for sustainability. The objective of the study was to assess the preparedness of the health system to implement CMAM targeting children under-five years in two sub-districts of Bangladesh. Methods The assessment was performed through direct observation of 44 health centres, individual interviews of seven policy makers, three donors, four health and nutrition implementing partners, 29 health workers, and review of secondary data. Assessment themes, derived from the WHO six Building Blocks, were nutrition governance, nutrition financing, health service delivery, human resources, equipment and supply, referral, monitoring and supervision mechanism. They were subdivided into 16 criteria. Findings were compared with CMAM operational recommendations according to WHO, Valid International and Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance guidelines. Results The government of Bangladesh has developed inpatient and outpatient CMAM guidelines, and a policy offering free-of-charge health care for under-five children. Nutrition coordination was not under full government leadership. Most of funds (74%) dedicated to CMAM were provided by donors, for short-term interventions. Of the total 44 health centres assessed, 39 (88.6%) were active, among which 4 (10.2%) delivered inpatient services, 35 (89.8%) outpatient services, and 24 (61.5%) outreach services. These were regarded as opportunities to include CMAM activities. There were 48.9% vacant positions and the health workers were not trained for management of acute malnutrition. Equipment and supplies did not meet the operational recommendations for management of acute malnutrition. Conclusion Implementing CMAM through the health centres of both sub-districts would warrant

  20. Side effects induced by the acute levodopa challenge in Parkinson’s Disease and atypical parkinsonisms

    PubMed Central

    Mostile, Giovanni; Dibilio, Valeria; Sciacca, Giorgia; Contrafatto, Donatella; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Raciti, Loredana; Luca, Antonina; Zappia, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute levodopa challenge may be performed to predict levodopa chronic responsiveness. The aim of the study was to investigate frequency of side effects during the acute levodopa challenge in PD and atypical parkinsonisms. Methods We enrolled 34 de novo PD patients and 29 patients affected by atypical parkinsonisms (Multiple System Atrophy, MSA, n = 10; Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, PSP, n = 12 and Corticobasal Degeneration, CBD, n = 7) who underwent an acute levodopa challenge. Side effects occurring during test were recorded. Results Side effects were more frequent among atypical parkinsonisms as unique group when compared to PD patients (64.3% versus 23.5%; p-value 0.002) with an adjusted OR of 4.36 (95%CI 1.40–13.5). Each atypical parkinsonisms showed almost double occurrence of side effects (MSA 90%, PSP 41.7% and CBD 57%). Conclusions Side effects during acute levodopa challenge may be frequent in atypical parkinsonisms. This information could be useful in order to better prepare the patient for the test. Furthermore, it could represent a useful cue in differential diagnosis with PD. PMID:28207803

  1. Who experiences seclusion? An examination of demographics and duration in a public acute inpatient mental health service.

    PubMed

    Chavulak, Jacinta; Petrakis, Melissa

    2017-03-21

    Restrictive interventions such as seclusion may occur during an acute mental health crisis. Such interventions are experienced by people as traumatic and counter to recovery. The current study aimed to investigate the use of seclusion and who was secluded amongst patients presenting with psychotic symptomology. All acute inpatient admissions were examined across a 12-month period January-December 2013. Electronic and paper records were accessed and audited for all 655 admissions. There were 91 admissions that included a seclusion and 200 seclusion events. There were 79 unique patients who experienced seclusion. For those experiencing seclusion: two-thirds were male, 49% were either homeless or had no fixed abode, 32% received case management in the community prior to their inpatient stay, and 56% were unemployed or not in the workforce. The median and mode duration of seclusion was 4 h. By understanding seclusion interventions better, changes can be made to enhance practice. This descriptive research into seclusion has clarified the demographics of who is most likely to experience seclusion, for how long, and the implications for reducing restrictive interventions. How the social work role could contribute to reforms to protect and enhance the rights and well-being of marginalized members of our communities, at their most vulnerable, is considered.

  2. Effects of acute diabetes on rat cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Komesu, Marilena Chinali; Tanga, Marcelo Benetti; Buttros, Kemli Raquel; Nakao, Cristiano

    2004-10-01

    INTRODUCTION:: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic hyperglycaemic disorder. Complicated metabolic mechanisms and increased incidence of infections are clinical hallmarks, mostly associated with its chronicity. There is little information about the early pathological processes in diabetes. The objective of our study was to evaluate the healing process during early phases of experimental diabetes on rat skin. METHODS:: Alloxan induced diabetic rats were used. Non-injected animals were used as control. Punch byopsies on dorsal skin had histopathological evaluation of the healing areas made on days 1, 3 and 7 post-surgery. RESULTS:: The results showed that: (1) in diabetics, the inflammation, the initial healing phase, has a slow beginning and tends to last longer; and (2) diabetic animals showed lower density of neutrophils in healing areas up to 3 days after surgery, and in addition, after day 3, when the neutrophils should leave the healing area, and be replaced by macrophages, compared to controls, diabetic animals showed higher numbers of neutrophils. PRINCIPAL CONCLUSION:: Although diabetes is a chronic progressive disease, acute diabetes can be associated to subclinical alterations, and responsible for deficiencies in defense cells and in repair tissue failures.

  3. Effect of acute ethanol ingestion on fat absorption.

    PubMed

    Boquillon, M

    1976-12-01

    A test meal (300 mg casein, 600 mg sucrose, 100 mg corn oil, tracer dose of 9.10(3)H oleic acid) was given to fasting adult rats with intestinal lymph fistulas. One group received an acute oral dose of ethanol (3.2 g/kg body weight) simultaneously with the test meal. Controls received 2.5 ml of water instead of ethanol. Ingestion of ethanol temporarily delayed the removal of lipid radioactivity from the stomachs. More than 25% of radioactivity fed remained 8 hr after feeding whereas with control rats less than 10% of lipid radioactivity fed remained 6 hr after feeding. In controls and ethanol-treated rats, the amounts of exogenous lipids in the intestinal lumen and mucosa were low and similar enough. Quantities of endogenous and exogenous lipids found in the lymph collected during 24 hr after feeding were similar in the two groups, but the fat absorption peak was found after 6 hr in alcoholic rats and before 6 hr in controls. This delay was probably due to the retention of lipids in the stomach. More of the exogenous lipid was always transported by small particles moving in the region of alpha1 globulins in cellulose acetate electrophoresis than by larger particles remaining at the origin. This proportion was enhanced in the ethanol-treated animals. The larger fat particles were richer in endogenous fatty acids in alcohol-treated rats than in controls.

  4. Adverse Health Effects of Nighttime Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, M.

    2012-06-01

    The effects of poor lighting and glare on public safety are well-known, as are the harmful environmental effects on various species and the environment in general. What is less well-known is the potential harmful medical effects of excessive poor nighttime lighting. A significant body of research has been developed over the last few years regarding this problem. One of the most significant effects is the startling increased risk for breast cancer by excessive exposure to nighttime lighting. The mechanism is felt to be by disruption of the circadian rhythm and suppression of melatonin production from the pineal gland. Melatonin has an anticancer effect that is lost when its production is disrupted. I am in the process of developing a monograph that will summarize this important body of research, to be presented and endorsed by the American Medical Association, and its Council of Science and Public health. This paper is a brief overall summary of this little known potential harmful effect of poor and excessive nighttime lighting.

  5. L-theanine, unique amino acid of tea, and its metabolism, health effects, and safety.

    PubMed

    Türközü, Duygu; Şanlier, Nevin

    2017-05-24

    Tea has been a very popular beverage around the world for centuries. The reason that it is delicious, enabling hydration, showing warming and relaxing effect can be mentioned why it is consumed so much in addition to its prominent health effects. Although the catechins and caffeine are the primary bioactive components that are related with the health effects of the tea, the health effects of theanine amino acid, which is a nonproteinic amino acid special to tea, has become prominent in recent years. It has been known that the theanine amino acid in tea has positive effects especially on relaxing, cognitive performance, emotional status, sleep quality, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and common cold. The results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted on the safety of theanine express that L-theanine is reliable in general even if it is consumed too much with diet. However, it has not revealed a clear evidence-based result yet regarding theanine metabolism, health effects, and its safety. Within this frame, chemical structure of theanine, its biosynthesis, dietary sources, metabolism, health effects, and safety are discussed in present study.

  6. Acclimation and acute temperature effects on population differences in oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Baris, Tara Z; Crawford, Douglas L; Oleksiak, Marjorie F

    2016-01-15

    Temperature changes affect metabolism on acute, acclamatory, and evolutionary time scales. To better understand temperature's affect on metabolism at these different time scales, we quantified cardiac oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in three Fundulus taxa acclimated to 12 and 28°C and measured at three acute temperatures (12, 20, and 28°C). The Fundulus taxa (northern Maine and southern Georgia F. heteroclitus, and a sister taxa, F. grandis) were used to identify evolved changes in OxPhos. Cardiac OxPhos metabolism was quantified by measuring six traits: state 3 (ADP and substrate-dependent mitochondrial respiration); E state (uncoupled mitochondrial activity); complex I, II, and IV activities; and LEAK ratio. Acute temperature affected all OxPhos traits. Acclimation only significantly affected state 3 and LEAK ratio. Populations were significantly different for state 3. In addition to direct effects, there were significant interactions between acclimation and population for complex I and between population and acute temperature for state 3. Further analyses suggest that acclimation alters the acute temperature response for state 3, E state, and complexes I and II: at the low acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at low assay temperatures, and at the high acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at high assay temperatures. Closer examination of the data also suggests that differences in state 3 respiration and complex I activity between populations were greatest between fish acclimated to low temperatures when assayed at high temperatures, suggesting that differences between the populations become more apparent at the edges of their thermal range.

  7. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on isolated islets' insulin release.

    PubMed

    Zardooz, Homeira; Zahediasl, Saleh; Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Farrokhi, Babak; Nasiraei, Shiva; Kazeminezhad, Behrang; Gholampour, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets. Male Wistar rats were divided into two control and stressed groups; each further was allocated into fed and fasted groups. Stress was induced by communication box for one (acute), fifteen and thirty (chronic) days. After islet isolation, their number, size and insulin output were assessed. Plasma corticosterone level was determined. In fasted animals, acute stress increased basal and post stress plasma corticosterone level, while 30 days stress decreased it compared to day 1. In fed rats, acute stress increased only post stress plasma corticosterone concentration, however, after 15 days stress, it was decreased compared to day 1. Acute stress did not change insulin output; however, the insulin output was higher in the fed acutely stressed rats at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose than fasted ones. Chronic stress increased insulin output on day 15 in the fasted animals but decreased it on day 30 in the fed animals at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose. In the fasted control rats insulin output was lower than fed ones. In the chronic stressed rats insulin output at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose was higher in the fasted than fed rats. The number of islets increased in the fasted rats following 15 days stress. This study indicated that the response of the isolated islets from acute and chronically stressed rats are different and depends on the feeding status.

  8. Acclimation and acute temperature effects on population differences in oxidative phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Baris, Tara Z.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature changes affect metabolism on acute, acclamatory, and evolutionary time scales. To better understand temperature's affect on metabolism at these different time scales, we quantified cardiac oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in three Fundulus taxa acclimated to 12 and 28°C and measured at three acute temperatures (12, 20, and 28°C). The Fundulus taxa (northern Maine and southern Georgia F. heteroclitus, and a sister taxa, F. grandis) were used to identify evolved changes in OxPhos. Cardiac OxPhos metabolism was quantified by measuring six traits: state 3 (ADP and substrate-dependent mitochondrial respiration); E state (uncoupled mitochondrial activity); complex I, II, and IV activities; and LEAK ratio. Acute temperature affected all OxPhos traits. Acclimation only significantly affected state 3 and LEAK ratio. Populations were significantly different for state 3. In addition to direct effects, there were significant interactions between acclimation and population for complex I and between population and acute temperature for state 3. Further analyses suggest that acclimation alters the acute temperature response for state 3, E state, and complexes I and II: at the low acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at low assay temperatures, and at the high acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at high assay temperatures. Closer examination of the data also suggests that differences in state 3 respiration and complex I activity between populations were greatest between fish acclimated to low temperatures when assayed at high temperatures, suggesting that differences between the populations become more apparent at the edges of their thermal range. PMID:26582639

  9. Evaluation of indoor air pollution and its effect on human health in Beijing's rural areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Hansheng; Liu, Youcheng )

    1989-01-01

    Average exposures to SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, Inhalable Particles (IP), common bacteria and streptococci were monitored in 1986 in 24 new and old village households in the northern suburb of Beijing. Four hundred and fifty school children were also measured and observed for chronic and acute respiratory symptoms and illnesses, pulmonary function, immune response, carboxyhemoglobin level and eye response time to signals so as to evaluate the effects of rural indoor air pollution on human health. The results of air monitoring data showed that the new heating systems were effective in reducing the indoor concentrations of the measured pollutants by 23 to 76% in winter, but present concentrations still exceed China's Standard because of inadequate house design. Health outcomes suggested that children in the new village demonstrated signs of improvement for better health. The implications of different factors affecting indoor air pollution are evaluated and discussed.

  10. Delirium Detection and Impact of Comorbid Health Conditions in a Post-Acute Rehabilitation Hospital Setting

    PubMed Central

    Stelmokas, Julija; Gabel, Nicolette; Flaherty, Jennifer M.; Rayson, Katherine; Tran, Kathileen; Anderson, Jason R.; Bieliauskas, Linas A.

    2016-01-01

    Misdiagnosis and under-detection of delirium may occur in many medical settings. This is important to address as delirium clearly increases risk of morbidity and mortality in such settings. This study assessed whether Veterans who screened positive on a delirium severity measure (Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale; MDAS) differed from those with and without corresponding medical documentation of delirium in terms of cognitive functioning, psychiatric/medical history, and medication use. A medical record review of 266 inpatients at a VA post-acute rehabilitation unit found that 10.9% were identified as delirious according to the MDAS and/or medical records. Of the Veterans who screened positive on the MDAS (N = 19), 68.4% went undetected by medical screening. Undetected cases had a higher number of comorbid medical conditions as measured by the Age-Adjusted Charlson Index (AACI) scores (median = 9, SD = 3.15; U = 5.5, p = .003) than medically documented cases. For Veterans with a score of 7 or greater on the AACI, the general relative risk for delirium was 4.46. Delirium is frequently under-detected in a post-acute rehabilitation unit, particularly for Veterans with high comorbid illness. The relative risk of delirium is up to 4.46 for those with high medical burden, suggesting the need for more comprehensive delirium screening in these patients. PMID:27902744

  11. Chronic hyperleptinemia induces resistance to acute natriuretic and NO-mimetic effects of leptin.

    PubMed

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Wojtak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Apart from controlling energy balance, leptin, secreted by adipose tissue, is also involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Previous studies have demonstrated that acutely administered leptin stimulates natriuresis and vascular nitric oxide (NO) production and that these effects are impaired in obese animals. However, the mechanism of resistance to leptin is not clear. Because obesity is associated with chronically elevated leptin, we examined if long-term hyperleptinemia impairs acute effects of leptin on sodium excretion and NO production in the absence of obesity. Hyperleptinemia was induced in lean rats by administration of exogenous leptin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg/day for 7 days, and then acute effect of leptin (1mg/kg i.v.) was studied under general anesthesia. Leptin increased fractional sodium excretion and decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the renal medulla. In addition, leptin increased the level of NO metabolites and cyclic GMP in plasma and aortic wall. These acute effects of leptin were impaired in hyperleptinemic animals. In both control and hyperleptinemic groups the effect of leptin on Na(+) excretion and renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was abolished by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin, but not by protein kinase B/Akt inhibitor, triciribine,. In contrast, acute effect of leptin on NO metabolites and cGMP was abolished by triciribine but not by wortmannin. Leptin stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) in aortic tissue but not in the kidney, and this effect was comparable in control and hyperleptinemic groups. These results suggest that hyperleptinemia may mediate "renal" and "vascular" leptin resistance observed in obesity.

  12. Epidemiology of Health Effects of Radiofrequency Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ahlbom, Anders; Green, Adele; Kheifets, Leeka; Savitz, David; Swerdlow, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive review of epidemiologic studies about the effects of radiofrequency fields (RFs) on human health in order to summarize the current state of knowledge, explain the methodologic issues that are involved, and aid in the planning of future studies. There have been a large number of occupational studies over several decades, particularly on cancer, cardiovascular disease, adverse reproductive outcome, and cataract, in relation to RF exposure. More recently, there have been studies of residential exposure, mainly from radio and television transmitters, and especially focusing on leukemia. There have also been studies of mobile telephone users, particularly on brain tumors and less often on other cancers and on symptoms. Results of these studies to date give no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relation between RF exposure and any adverse health effect. On the other hand, the studies have too many deficiencies to rule out an association. A key concern across all studies is the quality of assessment of RF exposure. Despite the ubiquity of new technologies using RFs, little is known about population exposure from RF sources and even less about the relative importance of different sources. Other cautions are that mobile phone studies to date have been able to address only relatively short lag periods, that almost no data are available on the consequences of childhood exposure, and that published data largely concentrate on a small number of outcomes, especially brain tumor and leukemia. PMID:15579422

  13. Health effects of asbestos and nonasbestos fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Osinubi, O Y; Gochfeld, M; Kipen, H M

    2000-01-01

    Exposures to asbestos and synthetic fibers remain areas of great concern in the field of occupational lung disease. Despite extensive study, the health effects associated with fibers remains an area of substantial controversy. In particular, effects of fibers at relatively low doses, particularly for mesothelioma, remain a matter of evolving opinion, especially when integrated with the divergence of opinion on relative pathogenicity of different fiber types. Mechanistic studies continue to provide a window into pathogenesis and some hope for understanding dose-response relationships at the lower levels seen in contemporary Western workplaces and the general environment. Changes in clinical assessment based on use of new chest imaging techniques beyond the traditional plain film are also an area of evolution and begin to challenge B-reading as the definitive tool for noninvasive assessment of disease. Public health concerns have to a great extent been transported to the developing world where there is a strong trend toward increased use of asbestos, although it has been virtually eliminated from commerce in most developed countries. For nonasbestos fibers, the major unsettled issues are their relative potencies as carcinogens for the human lung and mesothelium and the need to sort out the relation between physical and chemical properties of these fibers and their pathogenicity. The recent discovery of "flock worker's lung" due to synthetic fibers once again alerts us to emerging diseases associated with new technologies. PMID:10931785

  14. Leveraging Big Data and Electronic Health Records to Enhance Novel Approaches to Acute Kidney Injury Research and Care.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Scott M; Goldstein, Stuart L; Bagshaw, Sean M

    2017-03-08

    While