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Sample records for acute health effects

  1. Formaldehyde exposure and acute health effects study

    SciTech Connect

    Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.; Michaud, J.P.; Bronnimann, D. )

    1989-01-01

    To assess the effects of formaldehyde exposures on health, exposure groups were defined using baseline exposure and health questionnaires. Formaldehyde concentrations were poorly correlated with these exposure classifications, perhaps due to the time delay between classification and monitoring. The 151 households reported here had a mean HCHO concentration of 35 (S.E. 1.5 and median 30) {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Passive samplers prepared in our lab were calibrated in a chamber to derive an estimated sampling rate of 0.311 {mu}g/(mg {center dot} m{sup {minus}3} {center dot} hr). They were also compared to commercially available samplers inside of the homes, with a correlation coefficient of 0.896 and mean difference of 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. In this report of initial findings from an ongoing study, daily symptoms and peak expiratory flow measurements were compared with an HCHO exposure classification based on the median measured concentrations. None of the symptoms groups were related to HCHO exposure when controlling for age and sex. There was a significant relationship between HCHO exposure and variability in peak expiratory flows that was dependent on age group. It may be especially important to assess the variability in reactive individuals and children to determine the short-term effects of HCHO exposures and possible long-term consequences.

  2. Toxicological dose assessment and acute health effect criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, A.C.; White, B.

    1992-01-01

    The use of hazardous materials requires the means of assessing doses from postulated accidental exposures to the hazardous materials. Hazardous materials include radiological and toxicological substances. Health effects are often divided into either acute (short term exposure) or chronic (long-term-exposure)-categories. Dose assessments and health effects are used in Hazard Classification, Safety Analysis Reports and Unreviewed Safety Question Determinations. The use of hazardous substances requires a means of assessing the potential health effects from exposure. Two types of toxicological data exist. The first is measured effects from human exposure, either accidentally or studies. The second consists of data from toxicity and lethality studies on mammals, often mice or rats. Because the data for human exposure is severely limited, an approach is needed that uses basic toxicity and lethality data from animal studies to estimate acute health effects in humans. The approach chosen is the one suggested jointly by the EPA, FEMA, and DOT in their Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis'', December 1987.

  3. Toxicological dose assessment and acute health effect criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, A.C.; White, B.

    1992-09-01

    The use of hazardous materials requires the means of assessing doses from postulated accidental exposures to the hazardous materials. Hazardous materials include radiological and toxicological substances. Health effects are often divided into either acute (short term exposure) or chronic (long-term-exposure)-categories. Dose assessments and health effects are used in Hazard Classification, Safety Analysis Reports and Unreviewed Safety Question Determinations. The use of hazardous substances requires a means of assessing the potential health effects from exposure. Two types of toxicological data exist. The first is measured effects from human exposure, either accidentally or studies. The second consists of data from toxicity and lethality studies on mammals, often mice or rats. Because the data for human exposure is severely limited, an approach is needed that uses basic toxicity and lethality data from animal studies to estimate acute health effects in humans. The approach chosen is the one suggested jointly by the EPA, FEMA, and DOT in their ``Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis``, December 1987.

  4. Indoor air pollution: Acute adverse health effects and host susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Zummo, S.M.; Karol, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Increased awareness of the poor quality of indoor air compared with outdoor air has resulted in a significant amount of research on the adverse health effects and mechanisms of action of indoor air pollutants. Common indoor air agents are identified, along with resultant adverse health effects, mechanisms of action, and likely susceptible populations. Indoor air pollutants range from biological agents (such as dust mites) to chemical irritants (such as nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, and isocyanates). These agents may exert their effects through allergic as well as nonallergic mechanisms. While the public does not generally perceive poor indoor air quality as a significant health risk, increasing reports of illness related to indoor air and an expanding base of knowledge on the health effects of indoor air pollution are likely to continue pushing the issue to the forefront.

  5. Acute health effects of accidental chlorine gas exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to report the course of an accidental release of chlorine gas that occurred in a factory in Gumi-si, South Korea, on March 5, 2013. We describe the analysis results of 2 patients hospitalized because of chlorine-induced acute health problems, as well as the clinical features of 209 non-hospitalized patients. Methods We analyzed the medical records of the 2 hospitalized patients admitted to the hospital, as well as the medical records and self-report questionnaires of 209 non-hospitalized patients completed during outpatient treatment. Results Immediately after the exposure, the 2 hospitalized patients developed acute asthma-like symptoms such as cough and dyspnea, and showed restrictive and combined pattern ventilatory defects on the pulmonary function test. The case 1 showed asthma-like symptoms over six months and diurnal variability in peak expiratory flow rate was 56.7%. In case 2, his FEV1 after treatment (93%) increased by 25% compared to initial FEV1 (68%). Both cases were diagnosed as chlorine-induced reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) on the basis of these clinical features. The most frequent chief complaints of the 209 non-hospitalized patients were headache (22.7%), followed by eye irritation (18.2%), nausea (11.2%), and sore throat (10.8%), with asymptomatic patients accounting for 36.5%. The multiple-response analysis of individual symptom revealed headache (42.4%) to be the most frequent symptom, followed by eye irritation (30.5%), sore throat (30.0%), cough (29.6%), nausea (27.6%), and dizziness (27.3%). Conclusions The 2 patients hospitalized after exposure to chlorine gas at the leakage site showed a clinical course corresponding to RADS. All of the 209 non-hospitalized patients only complained of symptoms of the upper airways and mucous membrane irritation. PMID:25852940

  6. Comparison of Acute Health Effects From Exposures to Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Mehus, Aaron A.; Reed, Rustin J.; Lee, Vivien S. T.; Littau, Sally R.; Hu, Chengcheng; Lutz, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the comparative acute health effects associated with exposures to diesel and 75% biodiesel/25% diesel (B75) blend fuel emissions. Methods: We analyzed multiple health endpoints in 48 healthy adults before and after exposures to diesel and B75 emissions in an underground mine setting—lung function, lung and systemic inflammation, novel biomarkers of exposure, and oxidative stress were assessed. Results: B75 reduced respirable diesel particulate matter by 20%. Lung function declined significantly more after exposure to diesel emissions. Lung inflammatory cells along with sputum and plasma inflammatory mediators increased significantly to similar levels with both exposures. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative stress, was not significantly changed after either exposure. Conclusions: Use of B75 lowered respirable diesel particulate matter exposure and some associated acute health effects, although lung and systemic inflammation were not reduced compared with diesel use. PMID:26147538

  7. Acute health effects after exposure to chlorine gas released after a train derailment⋆

    PubMed Central

    Van Sickle, David; Wenck, Mary Anne; Belflower, Amy; Drociuk, Dan; Ferdinands, Jill; Holguin, Fernando; Svendsen, Erik; Bretous, Lena; Jankelevich, Shirley; Gibson, James J.; Garbe, Paul; Moolenaar, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    In January 2005, a train derailment on the premises of a textile mill in South Carolina released 42 to 60 tons of chlorine gas in the middle of a small town. Medical records and autopsy reports were reviewed to describe the clinical presentation, hospital course, and pathology observed in persons hospitalized or deceased as a result of chlorine gas exposure. Eight persons died before reaching medical care; of the 71 persons hospitalized for acute health effects as a result of chlorine exposure, 1 died in the hospital. The mean age of the hospitalized persons was 40 years (range, 4 months-76 years); 87% were male. The median duration of hospitalization was 4 days (range, 1-29 days). Twenty-five (35%) persons were admitted to the intensive care unit; the median length of stay was 3 days. Many surviving victims developed significant pulmonary signs and severe airway inflammation; 41 (58%) hospitalized persons met Po2/Fio2 criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome or acute lung injury. During their hospitalization, 40 (57%) developed abnormal x-ray findings, 74% of those within the first day. Hypoxia on room air and Po2/Fio2 ratio predicted severity of outcome as assessed by the duration of hospitalization and the need for intensive care support. This community release of chlorine gas caused widespread exposure and resulted in significant acute health effects and substantial health care requirements. Pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas analysis provided early indications of outcome severity. PMID:19041527

  8. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  9. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12–16 Hz), and beta (16–25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children. PMID:27656629

  10. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12–16 Hz), and beta (16–25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  11. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children. PMID:27656629

  12. Self-Reported Acute Health Effects and Exposure to Companion Animals.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Dufour, A P; Sams, E A; Wade, T J

    2016-06-01

    To understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms [e.g. gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, dermatological], it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar animals can result in a variety of health symptoms related to infection, irritation and allergy; however, few studies have examined this association in a large-scale cohort setting. Cross-sectional data collected from 50 507 participants in the United States enrolled from 2003 to 2009 were used to examine associations between animal contact and acute health symptoms during a 10-12 day period. Fixed-effects multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confident intervals (CI) for associations between animal exposures and outcomes of GI illness, respiratory illness and skin/eye symptoms. Two-thirds of the study population (63.2%) reported direct contact with animals, of which 7.7% had contact with at least one unfamiliar animal. Participants exposed to unfamiliar animals had significantly higher odds of self-reporting all three acute health symptoms, when compared to non-animal-exposed participants (GI: AOR = 1.4, CI = 1.2-1.7; respiratory: AOR = 1.5, CI = 1.2-1.8; and skin/eye: AOR = 1.9, CI = 1.6-2.3), as well as when compared to participants who only had contact with familiar animals. Specific contact with dogs, cats or pet birds was also significantly associated with at least one acute health symptom; AORs ranged from 1.1 to 1.5, when compared to participants not exposed to each animal. These results indicate that contact with animals, especially unfamiliar animals, was significantly associated with GI, respiratory and skin/eye symptoms. Such associations could be attributable to zoonotic infections and allergic reactions. Etiological models for acute health symptoms should consider contact with companion animals, particularly exposure to unfamiliar animals

  13. Acute effects of summer air pollution on respiratory health of asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Gielen, M H; van der Zee, S C; van Wijnen, J H; van Steen, C J; Brunekreef, B

    1997-06-01

    In the early summer of 1995, the acute respiratory effects of ambient air pollution were studied in a panel of 61 children, ages 7 to 13 yr, of whom 77% were taking asthma medication. Peak flow was measured twice daily with MiniWright meters at home and the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms and medication use was registered daily by the parents in a diary. Exposure to air pollution was characterized by the ambient concentrations of ozone, PM10, and black smoke. During the study period, maximal 1-h ozone concentrations never exceeded 130 microg/m3, and 24-h black smoke and PM10 concentrations were never higher than 41 and 60 microg/m3 respectively. Associations of air pollution and health outcomes were evaluated using time series analysis. After adjusting for pollen, time trend, and day of the week, black smoke in particular was associated with acute respiratory symptoms and with medication use. Less strong associations were found for PM10 and ozone. These results suggest that in this panel of children, most of whom had asthma, relatively low levels of particulate matter and ozone in ambient air are able to increase symptoms and medication use.

  14. Effects of acute and chronic hypohydration on kidney health and function.

    PubMed

    Feehally, John; Khosravi, Maryam

    2015-09-01

    The kidneys play a critical role in the homeostasis of body fluid tonicity and effective circulating volume. Renal homeostatic mechanisms are frequently challenged in acutely ill people. Fluid depletion causing hypovolemia may result in renal hypoperfusion that, if left untreated, may lead to acute kidney failure. Some populations, notably older people and neonates, are less tolerant of extremes in fluid loading and deprivation, similar to those with established chronic kidney disease. Risk of kidney injury during fluid depletion is increased by medications including diuretics, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and renin-angiotensin system blockers. There is no consistent evidence indicating that lower-than-average fluid intake can cause chronic kidney disease, nor accelerate progression of established kidney disease. Increasing consumption of sugar-containing beverages is, however, a major concern for kidney health as a precursor of obesity and diabetes. There is no evidence that high dietary protein intake can cause chronic kidney disease, nor accelerate progression of established kidney disease. Idiosyncratic, adverse renal responses have been described with creatine supplements. There are only a few clinical conditions for which high fluid intake should be considered. These include recurrent kidney stones or urinary tract infections and, possibly, polycystic kidney disease. PMID:26290296

  15. Effects of acute and chronic hypohydration on kidney health and function.

    PubMed

    Feehally, John; Khosravi, Maryam

    2015-09-01

    The kidneys play a critical role in the homeostasis of body fluid tonicity and effective circulating volume. Renal homeostatic mechanisms are frequently challenged in acutely ill people. Fluid depletion causing hypovolemia may result in renal hypoperfusion that, if left untreated, may lead to acute kidney failure. Some populations, notably older people and neonates, are less tolerant of extremes in fluid loading and deprivation, similar to those with established chronic kidney disease. Risk of kidney injury during fluid depletion is increased by medications including diuretics, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and renin-angiotensin system blockers. There is no consistent evidence indicating that lower-than-average fluid intake can cause chronic kidney disease, nor accelerate progression of established kidney disease. Increasing consumption of sugar-containing beverages is, however, a major concern for kidney health as a precursor of obesity and diabetes. There is no evidence that high dietary protein intake can cause chronic kidney disease, nor accelerate progression of established kidney disease. Idiosyncratic, adverse renal responses have been described with creatine supplements. There are only a few clinical conditions for which high fluid intake should be considered. These include recurrent kidney stones or urinary tract infections and, possibly, polycystic kidney disease.

  16. Modeling the acute health effects of astronauts from exposure to large solar particle events.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowen; Kim, Myung-Hee Y; McClellan, Gene E; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-04-01

    Radiation exposure from Solar Particle Events (SPE) presents a significant health concern for astronauts for exploration missions outside the protection of the Earth's magnetic field, which could impair their performance and result in the possibility of failure of the mission. Assessing the potential for early radiation effects under such adverse conditions is of prime importance. Here we apply a biologically based mathematical model that describes the dose- and time-dependent early human responses that constitute the prodromal syndromes to consider acute risks from SPEs. We examine the possible early effects on crews from exposure to some historically large solar events on lunar and/or Mars missions. The doses and dose rates of specific organs were calculated using the Baryon radiation transport (BRYNTRN) code and a computerized anatomical man model, while the hazard of the early radiation effects and performance reduction were calculated using the Radiation-Induced Performance Decrement (RIPD) code. Based on model assumptions we show that exposure to these historical events would cause moderate early health effects to crew members inside a typical spacecraft or during extra-vehicular activities, if effective shielding and medical countermeasure tactics were not provided. We also calculate possible even worse cases (double intensity, multiple occurrences in a short period of time, etc.) to estimate the severity, onset and duration of various types of early illness. Uncertainties in the calculation due to limited data on relative biological effectiveness and dose-rate modifying factors for protons and secondary radiation, and the identification of sensitive sites in critical organs are discussed.

  17. Modeling the acute health effects of astronauts from exposure to large solar particle events.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowen; Kim, Myung-Hee Y; McClellan, Gene E; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-04-01

    Radiation exposure from Solar Particle Events (SPE) presents a significant health concern for astronauts for exploration missions outside the protection of the Earth's magnetic field, which could impair their performance and result in the possibility of failure of the mission. Assessing the potential for early radiation effects under such adverse conditions is of prime importance. Here we apply a biologically based mathematical model that describes the dose- and time-dependent early human responses that constitute the prodromal syndromes to consider acute risks from SPEs. We examine the possible early effects on crews from exposure to some historically large solar events on lunar and/or Mars missions. The doses and dose rates of specific organs were calculated using the Baryon radiation transport (BRYNTRN) code and a computerized anatomical man model, while the hazard of the early radiation effects and performance reduction were calculated using the Radiation-Induced Performance Decrement (RIPD) code. Based on model assumptions we show that exposure to these historical events would cause moderate early health effects to crew members inside a typical spacecraft or during extra-vehicular activities, if effective shielding and medical countermeasure tactics were not provided. We also calculate possible even worse cases (double intensity, multiple occurrences in a short period of time, etc.) to estimate the severity, onset and duration of various types of early illness. Uncertainties in the calculation due to limited data on relative biological effectiveness and dose-rate modifying factors for protons and secondary radiation, and the identification of sensitive sites in critical organs are discussed. PMID:19276707

  18. Acute health effects in a community after a release of hydrofluoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, J.S.; Brender, J.D.; Sanderson, L.M.; Perrotta, D.M.; Beauchamp, R.A. )

    1991-05-01

    {approximately} 3,000 persons were evacuated from a Texas community after 24,036 kg (53,000 lb) of caustic hydrofluoric acid (HF) were released from a nearby petrochemical plant. Emergency room and hospital records of 939 persons who were seen at two area hospitals were reviewed. Most persons who presented at the emergency rooms were female (56%) or black (60%), and their mean age was 33.9 y. The most frequently reported symptoms were eye irritation (41.5%), burning throat (21%), headache (20.6%), and shortness of breath (19.4%). Physical examination results were normal for 49% of the cases; however, irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, skin, and lungs were noted on other exams. Decreased pulmonary function was demonstrated by pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in the first second, less than 80% of predicted value, 42.3%); hypoxemia (pO2 less than 80 mm Hg, 17.4%) and hypocalcemia (less than 8.5 mg/dl, 16.3%) were also noted. Ninety-four (10%) of the cases were hospitalized, and more than 83% of all cases were discharged with a primary diagnosis of HF exposure. There are several reports of individuals who are acutely and chronically exposed to HF; however, we are unaware of other published reports that describe exposure of a community to HF. This incident represented a unique opportunity to study the immediate health impact on a community of residents who were exposed to a hazardous materials release. Results of this analysis suggest that (a) initial health problems should be followed up, (b) any long-term health effects of HF exposure must be assessed, and (c) the health impact on the population at risk should be determined.

  19. Acute health effects associated with exposure to volcanic air pollution (vog) from increased activity at Kilauea Volcano in 2008.

    PubMed

    Longo, Bernadette M; Yang, Wei; Green, Joshua B; Crosby, Frederick L; Crosby, Vickie L

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Kilauea Volcano on the island of Hawai'i increased eruption activity and emissions of sulfurous volcanic air pollution called vog. The purpose of this study was to promptly assess for a relative increase in cases of medically diagnosed acute illnesses in an exposed Hawaiian community. Using a within-clinic retrospective cohort design, comparisons were made for visits of acute illnesses during the 14 wk prior to the increased volcanic emissions (low exposure) to 14 wk of high vog exposure when ambient sulfur dioxide was threefold higher and averaged 75 parts per billion volume per day. Logistic regression analysis estimated effect measures between the low- and high-exposure cohorts for age, gender, race, and smoking status. There were statistically significant positive associations between high vog exposure and visits for medically diagnosed cough, headache, acute pharyngitis, and acute airway problems. More than a sixfold increase in odds was estimated for visits with acute airway problems, primarily experienced by young Pacific Islanders. These findings suggest that the elevated volcanic emissions in 2008 were associated with increased morbidity of acute illnesses in age and racial subgroups of the general Hawaiian population. Continued investigation is crucial to fully assess the health impact of this natural source of sulfurous air pollution. Culturally appropriate primary- and secondary-level health prevention initiatives are recommended for populations in Hawai'i and volcanically active areas worldwide. PMID:20818536

  20. Acute health effects of ambient air pollution: the ultrafine particle hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Utell, M J; Frampton, M W

    2000-01-01

    A strong and consistent association has been observed between adjusted mortality rates and ambient particle concentration. The strongest associations are seen for respiratory and cardiac deaths, particularly among the elderly. Particulate air pollution is also associated with asthma exacerbations, increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased medication use, and increased hospital admissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently promulgated a new national ambient air quality standard for fine particles, and yet the mechanisms for health effects at such low particle mass concentrations remain unclear. Hypotheses to identify the responsible particles have focused on particle acidity, particle content of transition metals, bioaerosols, and ultrafine particles. Because ultrafine particles are efficiently deposited in the respiratory tract and may be important in initiating airway inflammation, we have initiated clinical studies with ultrafine carbon particles in healthy subjects. These studies examine the role of ultrafines in: (1) the induction of airway inflammation; (2) expression of leukocyte and endothelial adhesion molecules in blood; (3) the alteration of blood coagulability; and (4) alteration in cardiac electrical activity. These events could lead to exacerbation of underlying cardiorespiratory disease. For example, airway inflammation may activate endothelium and circulating leukocytes, and induce a systemic acute phase response with transient hypercoagulability; this could explain the epidemiologic linkages between pollutant exposures and cardiovascular events. These approaches should be useful in identifying mechanisms for pollutant-induced respiratory and systemic effects, and in providing data for determining appropriate air quality standards.

  1. Using Personal Sensors to Assess the Exposome and Acute Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Foraster, Maria; Martinez, David; Cisneros, Andres

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The exposome encompasses the totality of human environmental exposures. Recent developments in sensor technology have made it possible to better measure personal exposure to environmental pollutants and other factors. We aimed to discuss and demonstrate the recent developments in personal sensors to measure multiple exposures and possible acute health responses, and discuss the main challenges ahead. Methods: We searched for a range of sensors to measure air pollution, noise, temperature, UV, physical activity, location, blood pressure, heart rate and lung function and to obtain information on green space and emotional status/mood and put it on a person. Results and Conclusions: We discussed the recent developments and main challenges for personal sensors to measure multiple exposures. We found and put together a personal sensor set that measures a comprehensive set of personal exposures continuously over 24 h to assess part of the current exposome and acute health responses. We obtained data for a whole range of exposures and some acute health responses, but many challenges remain to apply the methodology for extended time periods and larger populations including improving the ease of wear, e.g., through miniaturization and extending battery life, and the reduction of costs. However, the technology is moving fast and opportunities will come closer for further wide spread use to assess, at least part of the exposome. PMID:25101766

  2. Modeling Acute Health Effects of Astronauts from Exposure to Large Solar Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    In space exploration outside the Earth s geomagnetic field, radiation exposure from solar particle events (SPE) presents a health concern for astronauts, that could impair their performance and result in possible failure of the mission. Acute risks are of special concern during extra-vehicular activities because of the rapid onset of SPE. However, most SPEs will not lead to acute risks but can lead to mission disruption if accurate projection methods are not available. Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS) is a group of clinical syndromes developing acutely (within several seconds to 3 days) after high dose whole-body or significant partial-body ionizing radiation exposures. The manifestation of these syndromes reflects the disturbance of physiological processes of various cellular groups damaged by radiation. Hematopoietic cells, skin, epithelium, intestine, and vascular endothelium are among the most sensitive tissues of human body to ionizing radiation. Most ARS symptoms are directly related to these tissues and other systems (nervous, endocrine, and cardiovascular, etc.) with coupled regulations. Here we report the progress in bio-mathematical models to describe the dose and time-dependent early human responses to ionizing radiation. The responses include lymphocyte depression, granulocyte modulation, fatigue and weakness syndrome, and upper gastrointestinal distress. The modest dose and dose-rates of SPEs are predicted to lead to large sparing of ARS, however detailed experimental data on a range of proton dose-rates for organ doses from 0.5 to 2 Gy is needed to validate the models. We also report on the ARRBOD code that integrates the BRYNTRN and SUMDOSE codes, which are used to estimate the SPE organ doses for astronauts under various space travel scenarios, with our models of ARS. The more recent effort is to provide easy web access to space radiation risk assessment using the ARRBOD code.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of the community-based management of severe acute malnutrition by community health workers in southern Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Puett, Chloe; Sadler, Kate; Alderman, Harold; Coates, Jennifer; Fiedler, John L; Myatt, Mark

    2013-07-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding the community-based management of severe acute malnutrition (CMAM) to a community-based health and nutrition programme delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in southern Bangladesh. The cost-effectiveness of this model of treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of the 'standard of care' for SAM (i.e. inpatient treatment), augmented with community surveillance by CHWs to detect cases, in a neighbouring area. An activity-based cost model was used, and a societal perspective taken, to include all costs incurred in the programme by providers and participants for the management of SAM in both areas. Cost data were coupled with programme effectiveness data. The community-based strategy cost US$26 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, compared with US$1344 per DALY averted for inpatient treatment. The average cost to participant households for their child to recover from SAM in community treatment was one-sixth that of inpatient treatment. These results suggest that this model of treatment for SAM is highly cost-effective and that CHWs, given adequate supervision and training, can be employed effectively to expand access to treatment for SAM in Bangladesh. PMID:22879522

  4. Effective strategies for population studies of acute air-pollution health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lippman, M.

    1989-01-01

    A series of field studies involving repetitive functional measurements in relatively small populations of healthy children and adults engaged in normal outdoor activities has shown that significant decrements in respiratory function are associated with exposures to ozone (O3) at concentrations below the national ambient air quality standard. The ability to detect such effects can be attributed, at least in part, to the study design criteria used, which emphasized maximization of signal-to-noise ratios. Locations were selected to ensure relatively high exposures to relatively uniformly distributed secondary pollutants, with minimal exposure to local sources of primary pollutants. Populations were selected that would be engaged in active recreation out of doors. Populations of healthy persons were used to minimize variability in baseline function. It was found that the magnitude of the O{sub 3}-associated decrements in respiratory function was dependent on the variability in sensitivity to O{sub 3} among the population, the minute ventilation during outdoor activity, and the duration of the outdoor exposure.

  5. Effective strategies for population studies of acute air pollution health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M. )

    1989-05-01

    A series of field studies involving repetitive functional measurements in relatively small populations of healthy children and adults engaged in normal outdoor activities has shown that significant decrements in respiratory function are associated with exposures to ozone (O3) at concentrations below the national ambient air quality standard. The ability to detect such effects can be attributed, at least in part, to the study design criteria used, which emphasized maximization of signal-to-noise ratios. Locations were selected to ensure relatively high exposures to relatively uniformly distributed secondary pollutants, with minimal exposure to local sources of primary pollutants. Populations were selected that would be engaged in active recreation out of doors. Populations of healthy persons were used to minimize variability in baseline function. We found that the magnitude of the O{sub 3}-associated decrements in respiratory function was dependent on the variability in sensitivity to O{sub 3} among the population, the minute ventilation during outdoor activity, and the duration of the outdoor exposure. We also concluded that the O{sub 3}-associated responses were potentiated by the presence of other air pollutants.

  6. Peak exposures to nitrogen dioxide and study design to detect their acute health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, I.F.; Andrews, L.R.

    1986-04-01

    Findings on continuous exposure to nitrogen dioxide by persons cooking a meal on a gas stove are presented. In addition, peak levels of NO/sub 2/ at different heights above the floor and at various distances from the stove while the range and oven are in operation are reported for 24 homes. A study design to detect the health effects of short-term exposures to high levels of nitrogen dioxide ranging from 0.20 ppm to over 1.5 ppm on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects is described. The continuous exposure to nitrogen dioxide of the study subjects before, during and after cooking a dinner on a gas stove is determined using a continuous nitrogen dioxide monitoring instrument. Lung-function tests are performed and symptom questionnaires are administered throughout the study period to assess both health effects and changes in pulmonary function associated with the above exposures.

  7. Spatial variable selection methods for investigating acute health effects of fine particulate matter components.

    PubMed

    Boehm Vock, Laura F; Reich, Brian J; Fuentes, Montserrat; Dominici, Francesca

    2015-03-01

    Multi-site time series studies have reported evidence of an association between short term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, but the effect size varies across the United States. Variability in the effect may partially be due to differing community level exposure and health characteristics, but also due to the chemical composition of PM which is known to vary greatly by location and time. The objective of this article is to identify particularly harmful components of this chemical mixture. Because of the large number of highly-correlated components, we must incorporate some regularization into a statistical model. We assume that, at each spatial location, the regression coefficients come from a mixture model with the flavor of stochastic search variable selection, but utilize a copula to share information about variable inclusion and effect magnitude across locations. The model differs from current spatial variable selection techniques by accommodating both local and global variable selection. The model is used to study the association between fine PM (PM <2.5μm) components, measured at 115 counties nationally over the period 2000-2008, and cardiovascular emergency room admissions among Medicare patients.

  8. Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Nawaz, Haq; Farooqui, Sadia Zohra; Khuwaja, Urooj Bakht; Najam-ul-Hassan; Jafri, Syed Nadim; Lutfi, Shahid Ali; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2006-01-01

    Background On July 27 2003, a ship carrying crude oil run aground near Karachi and after two weeks released 37,000 tons of its cargo into the sea. Oil on the coastal areas and fumes in air raised health concerns among people. We assessed the immediate health impact of oil spill from the tanker Tasman Spirit on residents of the affected coastline in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We conducted a study consisting of an exposed group including adults living in houses on the affected shoreline and two control groups (A and B) who lived at the distance of 2 km and 20 km away from the sea, respectively. We selected households through systematic sampling and interviewed an adult male and female in each household about symptoms relating to eyes, respiratory tract, skin and nervous system, smoking, allergies, beliefs about the effect on their health and anxiety about the health effects. We used logistic regression procedures to model each symptom as an outcome and the exposure status as an independent variable while adjusting for confounders. We also used linear regression procedure to assess the relationship exposure status with symptoms score; calculated by summation of all symptoms. Results Overall 400 subjects were interviewed (exposed, n = 216; group A, n = 83; and group B, n = 101). The exposed group reported a higher occurrence of one or more symptoms compared to either of the control groups (exposed, 96% vs. group A, 70%, group B 85%; P < 0.001). Mean summary symptom scores were higher among the exposed group (14.5) than control group A (4.5) and control group B (3.8, P < 0.001). Logistic regression models indicated that there were statistically significant, moderate-to-strong associations (Prevalence ORs (POR) ranging from 2.3 to 37.0) between the exposed group and the symptoms. There was a trend of decreasing symptom-specific PORs with increase in distance from the spill site. Multiple linear regression model revealed strong relationship of exposure status with the

  9. Acute health effects after accidental exposure to styrene from drinking water in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; Bellido-Blasco, Juan; Villamarin-Vazquez, Jose-Luis; Aranda-Mares, Jose-Luis; Font-Cardona, Nuria; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2003-01-01

    Objectives We studied subjective health symptoms in a population accidentally exposed to high styrene concentrations in drinking tap water. The contamination occurred during the reparation of a water tank. Methods Residents of 27 apartments in two buildings using the contaminated water were contacted. A questionnaire on subjective symptoms was administered to 84 out of 93 persons living in the apartments at the time of the accident. Styrene concentration was measured in samples of water collected two days after the accident. The means of exposure associated with appearance of symptoms were examined through case-control analyses. Results Styrene in water reached concentrations up to 900 μg/L. Symptoms were reported by 46 persons (attack rate 55 %). The most frequent symptoms were irritation of the throat (26%), nose (19%), eyes (18%) and the skin (14%). General gastrointestinal symptoms were observed with 11% reporting abdominal pain and 7% diarrhea. The factors most strongly associated with symptoms were drinking tap water (OR = 7.8, 95% CI 1.3–48), exposure to vapors from the basement (OR = 10.4, 2.3–47) and eating foods prepared with tap water (OR = 8.6, 1.9–40). All residents in the ground floor reported symptoms. Conclusions This accidental contamination led to very high styrene concentrations in water and was related to a high prevalence of subjective symptoms of the eyes, respiratory tract and skin. Similar exposures have been described in workers but not in subjects exposed at their residence. Various gastrointestinal symptoms were also observed in this population probably due to a local irritative effect. PMID:12777181

  10. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions? Method: Participants (N = 169) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusion: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:27774084

  11. ACUTE RESPIRATORY HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON ASTHMATIC CHILDREN IN US INNER CITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Children with asthma in inner-city communities may be particularly vulnerable to adverse effects of air pollution because of their airways disease and exposure to relatively high levels of motor vehicle emissions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between fluc...

  12. A retrospective study on acute health effects due to volcanic ash exposure during the eruption of Mount Etna (Sicily) in 2002

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mount Etna, located in the eastern part of Sicily (Italy), is the highest and most active volcano in Europe. During the sustained eruption that occurred in October-November 2002 huge amounts of volcanic ash fell on a densely populated area south-east of Mount Etna in Catania province. The volcanic ash fall caused extensive damage to infrastructure utilities and distress in the exposed population. This retrospective study evaluates whether or not there was an association between ash fall and acute health effects in exposed local communities. Methods We collected the number and type of visits to the emergency department (ED) for diseases that could be related to volcanic ash exposure in public hospitals of the Province of Catania between October 20 and November 7, 2002. We compared the magnitude of differences in ED visits between the ash exposure period in 2002 and the same period of the previous year 2001. Results We observed a significant increase of ED visits for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and ocular disturbances during the ash exposure time period. Conclusions There was a positive association between exposure to volcanic ash from the 2002 eruption of Mount Etna and acute health effects in the Catania residents. This study documents the need for public health preparedness and response initiatives to protect nearby populations from exposure to ash fall from future eruptions of Mount Etna. PMID:23924394

  13. Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

    To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 μg/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

  14. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  15. Health Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapter . Additional information regarding the health effects of climate change and references to supporting literature can be found ... globalchange.gov/engage/activities-products/NCA3/technical-inputs . Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health ...

  16. FINE PARTICLES ARE MORE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED THAN COARSE PARTICLES WITH ACUTE REPIRATORY HEALTH EFFECTS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have reported associations between airborne particles and a range of respiratory outcomes from symptoms to mortality. Current attention has been focused on the characteristics of these particles responsible for the adverse health effects. We have reanalyzed three...

  17. Development of an Acute Care Plastic Surgery Service in the Saskatoon Health Region: Effects on flexor tendon management

    PubMed Central

    Wilgenbusch, Chelsea S; Dust, Peter W; Sunderland, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acute care surgery model has gained favour in general surgery, but has yet to be widely adopted in other specialties. An Acute Care Plastic Surgery (ACS) Service was recently implemented in the Saskatoon Health Region in an effort to improve trauma care. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of ACS on the management of flexor tendon lacerations. The authors hypothesize that ACS has resulted in more timely intervention, improved outcomes and decreased ‘after hours’ surgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients treated for flexor tendon lacerations from 2007 to 2013 was performed. Patients were stratified into two groups based on whether they received treatment before (group A) or after (group B) ACS implementation. Variables included dates and times of patient referral, consultation and tendon repair; postoperative complications; and admissions. A surgeon survey was administered on the perceived impact of ACS. RESULTS: Group A was more likely to have surgery performed after hours (P=0.0019) and be admitted to hospital (P=0.0211) compared with group B. Time from referral to consultation and injury-to-surgery interval were slightly increased post-ACS (Group B). Surgeons were highly satisfied with the new system, citing benefits to patients and surgeons. CONCLUSION: ACS was designed to improve trauma care, while favourably impacting surgeon workload. Surprisingly, the injury-to-surgery interval was slightly increased. However, this was not clinically significant and did not lead to increased postoperative complications. This finding was likely due to a favourable change in practice patterns observed after ACS implementation. ACS has resulted in fewer hospital admissions, decreased after-hours surgeries and improved surgeon satisfaction. PMID:26361628

  18. Is the tobacco control movement misrepresenting the acute cardiovascular health effects of secondhand smoke exposure? An analysis of the scientific evidence and commentary on the implications for tobacco control and public health practice

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    While chronic exposure to secondhand smoke has been well recognized as a cause of heart disease in nonsmokers, there has been recent speculation about the potential acute cardiovascular effects of transient exposure to secondhand smoke among nonsmokers; in particular, the possibility that such exposure could increase the risk of acute myocardial infarction even in an otherwise healthy nonsmoker. This paper reviews the claims being made by a number of anti-smoking and public health groups regarding the acute cardiovascular effects of secondhand smoke exposure among otherwise healthy adults, analyzes the validity of these claims based on a review of the scientific evidence, and discusses the implications of the findings for tobacco control and public health practice. Based on the analysis, it appears that a large number of anti-smoking organizations are making inaccurate claims that a single, acute, transient exposure to secondhand smoke can cause severe and even fatal cardiovascular events in healthy nonsmokers. The dissemination of inaccurate information by anti-smoking groups to the public in support of smoking bans is unfortunate because it may harm the tobacco control movement by undermining its credibility, reputation, and effectiveness. Disseminating inaccurate information also represents a violation of basic ethical principles that are a core value of public health practice that cannot and should not be sacrificed, even for a noble end such as protecting nonsmokers from secondhand smoke exposure. How the tobacco control movement responds to this crisis of credibility will go a long way towards determining the future effectiveness of the movement and its ability to continue to save lives and protect the public's health. PMID:17927828

  19. Older adults experiences of rehabilitation in acute health care.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Anita; Tattersall, Kirsty; Murphy, Susana; Davenport, Neil; Craik, Christine; Caldwell, Kay; McIntyre, Anne

    2007-09-01

    Rehabilitation is a key component of nursing and allied healthcare professionals' roles in most health and social care settings. This paper reports on stage 2 of an action research project to ascertain older adult's experience of rehabilitation. Twenty postdischarge interviews were conducted and the interview transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. All older adults discharged from an acute older acute rehabilitation ward to their own homes in the community were eligible to participate. The only exclusion criterion was older adults who were thought to be unable to give consent to participate by the nurse in charge and the researcher. Whilst 92 older adults were eligible to participate in this research study, only 20 were interviewed. The findings from this study suggest that older adults valued communication with health professionals but were aware of their time constraints that hindered communication. This study suggests that both nurses and allied health professionals are not actively providing rehabilitative services to promote health and well-being, which contradicts the focus of active ageing. Furthermore, there was evidence of unmet needs on discharge, and older adults unable to recall the professions that were involved in their interventions and the rationale for therapy input. It is suggested that further research is needed to explore the effectiveness of allied health rehabilitation in the acute setting. This study highlights the need for further research into older adults' perceptions of the rehabilitation process in the acute setting.

  20. The acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa flavanols on mood, cognitive and cardiovascular health in young healthy adults: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Massee, Laura A.; Ried, Karin; Pase, Matthew; Travica, Nikolaj; Yoganathan, Jaesshanth; Scholey, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Kennedy, Greg; Sali, Avni; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa supplementation has been associated with benefits to cardiovascular health. However, cocoa's effects on cognition are less clear. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial (n = 40, age M = 24.13 years, SD = 4.47 years) was conducted to investigate the effects of both acute (same-day) and sub-chronic (daily for four-weeks) 250 mg cocoa supplementation on mood and mental fatigue, cognitive performance and cardiovascular functioning in young, healthy adults. Assessment involved repeated 10-min cycles of the Cognitive Demand Battery (CDB) encompassing two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Sevens), a Rapid Visual Information Processing task, and a mental fatigue scale over the course of half an hour. The Swinburne University Computerized Cognitive Assessment Battery (SUCCAB) was also completed to evaluate cognition. Cardiovascular function included measuring both peripheral and central blood pressure and cerebral blood flow. At the acute time point, consumption of cocoa significantly improved self-reported mental fatigue and performance on the Serial Sevens task in cycle one of the CDB. No other significant effects were found. This trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (Trial ID: ACTRN12613000626763). Accessible via http://www.anzctr.org.au/TrialSearch.aspx?searchTxt=ACTRN12613000626763&ddlSearch=Registered. PMID:26042037

  1. Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Rudell, B.; Wass, U.; Horstedt, P.; Levin, J. O.; Lindahl, R.; Rannug, U.; Sunesson, A. L.; Ostberg, Y.; Sandstrom, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non- smoking subjects (age 21-53) participated in the study. Each subject was exposed six times for 1 hour in a specially designed exposure chamber: once to air, once to unfiltered DDE, and once to DDE filtered with the four different cabin air filters. Particle concentrations during exposure to unfiltered DDE were kept at 300 micrograms/m3. Two of the filters were particle filters. The other two were particle filters combined with active charcoal filters that might reduce certain gaseous components. Subjective symptoms were recorded and nasal airway lavage (NAL), acoustic rhinometry, and lung function measurements were performed. RESULTS: The two particle filters decreased the concentrations of diesel exhaust particles by about half, but did not reduce the intensity of symptoms induced by exhaust. The combination of active charcoal filters and a particle filter significantly reduced the symptoms and discomfort caused by the diesel exhaust. The most noticable differences in efficacy between the filters were found in the reduction of detection of an unpleasant smell from the diesel exhaust. In this respect even the two charcoal filter combinations differed significantly. The efficacy to reduce symptoms may depend on the abilities of the filters investigated to reduce certain hydrocarbons. No acute effects on NAL, rhinometry, and lung function variables were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the use of active charcoal filters, and a particle filter, clearly reduced the intensity of symptoms induced by diesel exhaust. Complementary studies on vehicle

  2. Health effects of acute exposure to air pollution. Part I: Healthy and asthmatic subjects exposed to diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Holgate, Stephen T; Sandström, Thomas; Frew, Anthony J; Stenfors, Nikolai; Nördenhall, Charlotta; Salvi, Sundeep; Blomberg, Anders; Helleday, Ragnberth; Söderberg, Margaretha

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of short-term exposure to diluted diesel exhaust on inflammatory parameters in human airways. We previously exposed control subjects for 1 hour to a high ambient concentration of diesel exhaust (particle concentration 300 pg/m3--a level comparable with that found in North Sea ferries, highway underpasses, etc). Although these exposures did not have any measurable effect on standard indices of lung function, there was a marked neutrophilic inflammatory response in the airways accompanied by increases in blood neutrophil and platelet counts. Endothelial adhesion molecules were upregulated, and the expression of interleukin 8 messenger RNA (IL-8 mRNA*) was increased in a pattern consistent with neutrophilia. Individuals with asthma have inflamed airways and are clinically more sensitive to air pollutants than are control subjects. The present study was designed to assess whether this clinical sensitivity can be explained by acute neutrophilic inflammation or an increase in allergic airway inflammation resulting from diesel exhaust exposure. For this study, we used a lower concentration of diesel exhaust (100 microg/m3 PM10) for a 2-hour exposure. At this concentration, both the control subjects and those with asthma demonstrated a modest but statistically significant increase in airway resistance following exposure to diesel exhaust. This increase in airway resistance was associated with an increased number of neutrophils in the bronchial wash (BW) fluid obtained from control subjects (median after diesel exhaust 22.0 vs median after air 17.2; P = 0.015), as well as an increase in lymphocytes obtained through bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) (15.0% after diesel exhaust vs 12.3% after air; P = 0.017). Upregulation of the endothelial adhesion molecule P-selectin was noted in bronchial biopsy tissues from control subjects (65.4% of vessels after diesel exhaust vs 52.5% after air). There was also a significant increase in IL

  3. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home Diet and Nutrition The glucose effect in acute porphyrias The disorders Acute Intermittent ... are treated initially with the administration of carbohydrate/glucose. This therapy has its basis in the ability ...

  4. Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks in protecting health care workers from acute respiratory infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; MacDougall, Colin C.; Johnstone, Jennie; Copes, Ray A.; Schwartz, Brian; Garber, Gary E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conflicting recommendations exist related to which facial protection should be used by health care workers to prevent transmission of acute respiratory infections, including pandemic influenza. We performed a systematic review of both clinical and surrogate exposure data comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks for the prevention of transmissible acute respiratory infections. Methods: We searched various electronic databases and the grey literature for relevant studies published from January 1990 to December 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies and case–control studies that included data on health care workers wearing N95 respirators and surgical masks to prevent acute respiratory infections were included in the meta-analysis. Surrogate exposure studies comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks using manikins or adult volunteers under simulated conditions were summarized separately. Outcomes from clinical studies were laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection, influenza-like illness and workplace absenteeism. Outcomes from surrogate exposure studies were filter penetration, face-seal leakage and total inward leakage. Results: We identified 6 clinical studies (3 RCTs, 1 cohort study and 2 case–control studies) and 23 surrogate exposure studies. In the meta-analysis of the clinical studies, we found no significant difference between N95 respirators and surgical masks in associated risk of (a) laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection (RCTs: odds ratio [OR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64–1.24; cohort study: OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.03–6.41; case–control studies: OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.25–3.36); (b) influenza-like illness (RCTs: OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.19–1.41); or (c) reported workplace absenteeism (RCT: OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.57–1.50). In the surrogate exposure studies, N95 respirators were associated with less filter penetration, less face-seal leakage and less total inward leakage under laboratory experimental conditions

  5. The language of compassion in acute mental health care.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Paul; Gilbert, Paul; Gilbert, Jean; Gale, Corinne; Harvey, Kevin

    2013-06-01

    In this article we examine the language of compassion in acute mental health care in the United Kingdom. Compassion is commonly defined as being sensitive to the suffering of others and showing a commitment to relieve it, yet we know little about how this is demonstrated in health professional language and how it is situated in the context of acute mental health care services. We report on a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of 20 acute mental health practitioner interview narratives about compassion and find a striking depletion in the use of "compassionate mentality" words, despite the topic focus. The language used by these practitioners placed more emphasis on time pressures, care processes, and organizational tensions in a way that might compromise best practice and point to the emergence of a "production-line mentality."

  6. Acute Health Delivery, Energy Impact, and Rural Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Lonna; And Others

    To examine what changes occurred in the acute health care delivery systems of rural Texas energy impact communities from 1978 to 1983, a retrospective survey was used to acquire data from which a database could be generated that could provide information for community and state policy decisions. From a pool of communities chosen by a panel of…

  7. Health effects of chemical products.

    PubMed

    Steensberg, J

    1982-01-01

    An outline is given of the data on human health effects that are needed as a foundation for the administration of legislation on chemical substances and products. Danish data on mortality and morbidity from acute poisoning and some published clinical studies are presented. Serious problems may persist in subgroups of the population and the prevention of acute poisoning is still a basic aim of this legislation. Allergic reactions to chemicals are discussed. Not all sensitized individuals can be protected but steps should be taken to prevent contact with the sensitizing agents that are of the greatest public health importance. Chronic health effects following exposure to chemicals have influenced the recent strengthening of regulations but carcinogenic risks especially are extremely difficult for administrative and political systems to handle in an approximately rational way. While we are reducing the use of suspected carcinogenic chemicals our populations must, however, be given a greater appreciation of the cancer risk problem, particularly the fact that we cannot eliminate all cancer risks. Biological monitoring of human populations is a necessary supplement to the traditional registration of diseases as part of our health surveillance systems. Fortunately our societies have been able to pay increasing attention to the long-term public health consequences of exposures to chemical factors in our environment. PMID:6236969

  8. Acute Health Impact of Air Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, T.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, M.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution not only has long term health impact, but can affect health through acute exposure. This paper, using air pollution index (API) as overall evaluation of air quality, blood pressure and vital capacity as health outcomes, focuses on the acute health impact of air pollution in China. Current result suggests that after controlling smoking history, occupational exposure, income and education, API is positively associated with blood pressure and negatively associated with vital capacity. The associations became stronger for people with hypertension or pulmonary functional diseases, which indicates that these people are more sensitive to air pollution. Among three pollutants which API measures, that is inhalable particles (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), PM10 is most statistically associated with blood pressure increase and vital capacity decrease. Further study will focusing on the following two questions. The first question is how various time lags affect the associations among API, blood pressure and vital capacity. The second question is how differently people in various cohorts reacts to acute exposure to air pollution. The differences in reactions of blood pressure and vital capacity between people in urban and rural areas, genders, various age cohorts, distinct income and education groups will be further studied.

  9. Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of: 1) physician-based education and activation, 2) a rehabilitation program developed by Aviva Canada (a group of property and casualty insurance providers), and 3) the legislated standard of care in the Canadian province of Ontario: the Pre-approved Framework Guideline for Whiplash developed by the Financial Services Commission of Ontario. Methods/Design The economic evaluation will use participant-level data from the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial and will be conducted from the societal perspective over the trial's one-year follow-up. Resource use (costs) will include all health care goods and services, and benefits provided during the trial's 1-year follow-up. The primary health effect will be the quality-adjusted life year. We will identify the most cost-effective intervention using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental net-benefit. Confidence ellipses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves will represent uncertainty around these statistics, respectively. A budget impact analysis will assess the total annual impact of replacing the current legislated standard of care with each of the other interventions. An expected value of perfect information will determine the maximum research expenditure Canadian society should be willing to pay for, and inform priority setting in, research of WAD management. Discussion Results will provide health care decision makers with much needed economic evidence on common interventions for acute whiplash management. Trial Registration http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00546806 [Trial registry date: October 18, 2007; Date first patient was randomized: February 27, 2008] PMID

  10. Health utility indexes in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Gencer, Baris; Rodondi, Nicolas; Auer, Reto; Nanchen, David; Räber, Lorenz; Klingenberg, Roland; Pletscher, Mark; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Matter, Christian M; Lüscher, Thomas F; Mach, François; Perneger, Thomas V; Girardin, François R

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have been associated with lower health utilities (HUs) compared with the general population. Given the prognostic improvements after ACS with the implementation of coronary angiography (eg, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)), contemporary HU values derived from patient-reported outcomes are needed. Methods We analysed data of 1882 patients with ACS 1 year after coronary angiography in a Swiss prospective cohort. We used the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scale (VAS) to derive HU indexes. We estimated the effects of clinical factors on HU using a linear regression model and compared the observed HU with the average values of individuals of the same sex and age in the general population. Results Mean EQ-5D HU 1-year after coronary angiography for ACS was 0.82 (±0.16) and mean VAS was 0.77 (±0.18); 40.9% of participants exhibited the highest utility values. Compared with population controls, the mean EQ-5D HU was similar (expected mean 0.82, p=0.58) in patients with ACS, but the mean VAS was slightly lower (expected mean 0.79, p<0.001). Patients with ACS who are younger than 60 years had lower HU than the general population (<0.001). In patients with ACS, significant differences were found according to the gender, education and employment status, diabetes, obesity, heart failure, recurrent ischaemic or incident bleeding event and participation in cardiac rehabilitation (p<0.01). Conclusions At 1 year, patients with ACS with coronary angiography had HU indexes similar to a control population. Subgroup analyses based on patients' characteristics and further disease-specific instruments could provide better sensitivity for detecting smaller variations in health-related quality of life. PMID:27252878

  11. Acute care inpatients with long-term delayed-discharge: evidence from a Canadian health region

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute hospital discharge delays are a pressing concern for many health care administrators. In Canada, a delayed discharge is defined by the alternate level of care (ALC) construct and has been the target of many provincial health care strategies. Little is known on the patient characteristics that influence acute ALC length of stay. This study examines which characteristics drive acute ALC length of stay for those awaiting nursing home admission. Methods Population-level administrative and assessment data were used to examine 17,111 acute hospital admissions designated as alternate level of care (ALC) from a large Canadian health region. Case level hospital records were linked to home care administrative and assessment records to identify and characterize those ALC patients that account for the greatest proportion of acute hospital ALC days. Results ALC patients waiting for nursing home admission accounted for 41.5% of acute hospital ALC bed days while only accounting for 8.8% of acute hospital ALC patients. Characteristics that were significantly associated with greater ALC lengths of stay were morbid obesity (27 day mean deviation, 99% CI = ±14.6), psychiatric diagnosis (13 day mean deviation, 99% CI = ±6.2), abusive behaviours (12 day mean deviation, 99% CI = ±10.7), and stroke (7 day mean deviation, 99% CI = ±5.0). Overall, persons with morbid obesity, a psychiatric diagnosis, abusive behaviours, or stroke accounted for 4.3% of all ALC patients and 23% of all acute hospital ALC days between April 1st 2009 and April 1st, 2011. ALC patients with the identified characteristics had unique clinical profiles. Conclusions A small number of patients with non-medical days waiting for nursing home admission contribute to a substantial proportion of total non-medical days in acute hospitals. Increases in nursing home capacity or changes to existing funding arrangements should target the sub-populations identified in this

  12. Worrying About Terrorism and Other Acute Environmental Health Hazard Events

    PubMed Central

    Babcock-Dunning, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To better understand why some people worry more about terrorism compared with others, we measured how much US residents worried about a terrorist event in their area and examined the association of their fears with their concerns about acute and chronic hazards and other correlates. Methods. In 2008 (n = 600) and 2010 (n = 651), we performed a random-digit dialing national landline telephone survey. We asked about worries about terrorism and 5 other environmental health hazard issues. We also collected demographic and socioeconomic data. Results. Only 15% worried “a great deal” about a terrorist event in their area and 18% to 33% were greatly concerned about other environmental issues. Fear about acute hazard events was a stronger predictor of a great deal of concern about terrorism than were age, race/ethnicity, gender, educational achievement, and other correlates. Conclusions. Those who worried most about acute environmental health hazard events were most likely to worry about terrorism. Also, those who were older, poorer, Blacks, or Latinos, or who lived in populous urban areas felt they were most vulnerable to terrorist attacks. We recommend methods to involve US citizens as part of disaster planning. PMID:22397346

  13. Communication and care in an acute cancer center: the effects of patients' willingness to communicate about health, health-care environment perceptions, and health status on information seeking, participation in care practices, and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin B; Frey, Lawrence R

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the role of willingness to communicate about health (WTCH) among older patients in a state-of-the-art cancer center. Specifically, relationships were examined between patients' WTCH and their information seeking, perceptions of coping activities the center offered, and satisfaction with the center. The study also explored how those relationships may be mediated by patients' perceptions of the health-care environment and their health status. The results indicated that WTCH may play an important role in predicting information-seeking behaviors, perceived helpfulness of center-sponsored activities, and overall satisfaction with care received at the center. Evidence also was found that perceptions of the health-care environment mediated cancer patients' WTCH. The implications of these findings for communication theory and application, as well as limitations and future directions for research, are discussed.

  14. Cognitive influences on health symptoms from acute chemical exposure.

    PubMed

    Dalton, P

    1999-11-01

    Symptom reports, perceived adverse health effects, and public health concerns are increasingly precipitated by the perception of chemical odors. This study examined the interaction between health cognitions, odor perception, and symptom reports. A group of 180 healthy men and women were exposed to 1 of 3 ambient odors, normatively rated as healthful (methyl salicylate, or wintergreen), harmful (butanol or alcohol), and ambiguous (isobomyl acetate, or balsam), after receiving 1 of 3 odorant characterizations (harmful, healthful, and neutral). Individuals given a harmful bias reported significantly more health symptoms following exposure and more intense odor and irritation during exposure than did those given a neutral or healthful bias. The overall pattern of results suggests that many of the health-related effects of exposure to odorants are mediated not by a direct agency of odors but by cognitive variables, such as mental models of the relationship between environmental odors and health.

  15. Acute marijuana effects on social conversation.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S T; Stitzer, M L

    1986-01-01

    The present study assessed the acute effects of smoked marijuana on social conversation. Speech quantity was recorded continuously in seven moderate marijuana users during separate 1 h experimental sessions following the paced smoking of 0, 1.01, 1.84, and 2.84% THC marijuana cigarettes. Subjects engaged in conversation with undrugged partners who smoked placebo marijuana cigarettes. The active marijuana produced significant decreases in speech quantity, increases in heart rate, and increases in self-reports of "high" and sedation. Partners showed no effects in speech quantity or self-reports of drug effects that were systematically related to the doses administered to the subject pair members. The effects on speech quantity observed in the present study after acute dosing are similar to the effects on social conversation reported previously during chronic marijuana dosing. Marijuana appears to be an exception to the general rule that drugs of abuse increase verbal interaction.

  16. Effect of Low Perceived Social Support on Health Outcomes in Young Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results From the VIRGO (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients) Study

    PubMed Central

    Bucholz, Emily M.; Strait, Kelly M.; Dreyer, Rachel P.; Geda, Mary; Spatz, Erica S.; Bueno, Hector; Lichtman, Judith H.; D'Onofrio, Gail; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Social support is an important predictor of health outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but social support varies by sex and age. Differences in social support could account for sex differences in outcomes of young patients with AMI. Methods and Results Data from the Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients (VIRGO) study, an observational study of AMI patients aged ≤55 years in the United States and Spain, were used for this study. Patients were categorized as having low versus moderate/high perceived social support using the ENRICHD Social Support Inventory. Outcomes included health status (Short Form‐12 physical and mental component scores), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire), and angina‐related quality of life (Seattle Angina Questionnaire) evaluated at baseline and 12 months. Among 3432 patients, 21.2% were classified as having low social support. Men and women had comparable levels of social support at baseline. On average, patients with low social support reported lower functional status and quality of life and more depressive symptoms at baseline and 12 months post‐AMI. After multivariable adjustment, including baseline health status, low social support was associated with lower mental functioning, lower quality of life, and more depressive symptoms at 12 months (all P<0.001). The relationship between low social support and worse physical functioning was nonsignificant after adjustment (P=0.6). No interactions were observed between social support, sex, or country. Conclusion Lower social support is associated with worse health status and more depressive symptoms 12 months after AMI in both young men and women. Sex did not modify the effect of social support. PMID:25271209

  17. Acute effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions: results from APHEA 2 project. Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R W; Anderson, H R; Sunyer, J; Ayres, J; Baccini, M; Vonk, J M; Boumghar, A; Forastiere, F; Forsberg, B; Touloumi, G; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    2001-11-15

    The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-respiratory disease (65+ yr) controlling for environmental factors and temporal patterns were investigated. Summary PM(10) effect estimates (percentage change in mean number of daily admissions per 10 microg/m(3) increase) were asthma (0-14 yr) 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.3), asthma (15-64 yr) 1.1% (0.3, 1.8), and COPD plus asthma and all-respiratory (65+ yr) 1.0% (0.4, 1.5) and 0.9% (0.6, 1.3). The combined estimates for Black Smoke tended to be smaller and less precisely estimated than for PM(10). Variability in the sizes of the PM(10) effect estimates between cities was also investigated. In the 65+ groups PM(10) estimates were positively associated with annual mean concentrations of ozone in the cities. For asthma admissions (0-14 yr) a number of city-specific factors, including smoking prevalence, explained some of their variability. This study confirms that particle concentrations in European cities are positively associated with increased numbers of admissions for respiratory diseases and that some of the variation in PM(10) effect estimates between cities can be explained by city characteristics.

  18. Managing patients with behavioral health problems in acute care: balancing safety and financial viability.

    PubMed

    Rape, Cyndy; Mann, Tammy; Schooley, John; Ramey, Jana

    2015-01-01

    With a recent decrease in community resources for the mental health population, acute care facilities must seek creative, cost-effective ways to protect and care for these vulnerable individuals. This article describes 1 facility's journey to maintaining patient and staff safety while reducing cost. Success factors of this program include staff engagement, environmental modifications, and a nurse-driven, sitter-reduction process. PMID:25479169

  19. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    PubMed

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  20. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca

    PubMed Central

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A.; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8–13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30–50 and 50–100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca’s chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  1. [Acute exposure to vanadium-containing dusts: the health effects and biological monitoring in a group of workers employed in boiler maintenance].

    PubMed

    Todaro, A; Bronzato, R; Buratti, M; Colombi, A

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe an episode of acute intoxication due to inhalation of vanadium-containing dusts in a group of 10 workers during maintenance work inside a boiler of an oil-fired electricity power station. Historical, clinical and biological monitoring data concerning the acute exposure phase and subsequent checks are presented. The appearance of irritative symptoms of the upper airways, green tongue (in 6 out of 10 subjects) and the values of urinary excretion of vanadium (means = 92, D.S. = 47 micrograms/l: limits 20-270 micrograms/l) indicated acute vanadium exposure. With the use of appropriate individual protection devices and shorter shifts, 2 weeks after the episode there was a complete remission of the symptoms and a return of urinary vanadium concentrations to 38, D.S. = 26 micrograms/l. Checks made 6 months, 1 and 2 years later did not reveal any alterations in the general blood chemistry parameters and the urinary vanadium concentrations were below 1 microgram/l (reference value). As already often reported in the literature, this episode confirms the danger involved in working in the presence of fuel oil residues or ashes and the need to adopt appropriate prevention measures. PMID:1770872

  2. Effects of acute caffeine administration on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Dewey, Amber M; Briatico, Laura N

    2010-12-01

    Acute caffeine administration has physiological, behavioral, and subjective effects. Despite its widespread use, few studies have described the impact of caffeine consumption in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute caffeine administration in adolescents. We measured cardiovascular responses and snack food intake after acute administration of 0 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg of caffeine. We also compared usual food intake and subjective effects of caffeine between high- and low-caffeine consumers. Finally, we conducted a detailed analysis of caffeine sources and consumption levels. We found main effects of caffeine dose on heart rate (HR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), with HR decreasing and DBP increasing with increasing caffeine dose. There were significant interactions among gender, caffeine use, and time on DBP. High caffeine consumers (>50 mg/day) reported using caffeine to stay awake and drinking coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks more than low consumers (<50 mg/day). Boys were more likely than girls to report using getting a rush, more energy, or improved athletic performance from caffeine. Finally, when we examined energy and macronutrient intake, we found that caffeine consumption was positively associated with laboratory energy intake, specifically from high-sugar, low-fat foods and also positively associated with protein and fat consumption outside of the laboratory. When taken together, these data suggest that acute caffeine administration has a broad range of effects in adolescents and that the magnitude of these effects is moderated by gender and chronic caffeine consumption. PMID:21186925

  3. The effect of some drugs on acute toxoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamadto, H H; Rashed, S M; Marii, N E; Sobhy, M M; el-Ridi, A M; el-Fakahany, A F

    1989-12-01

    The effect of some chemotherapeutics, on the course of acute toxoplasmosis in experimentally infected mice was studied. Obtained results showed that, praziquantel, levamisole had no effect on acute toxoplasmosis, while trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and clindamycin showed some prophylactic effect on acute toxoplasmosis in mice. PMID:2788673

  4. Acute effects of meals, noise and nightwork.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Miles, C

    1986-08-01

    An experimental study of the acute effects of meals, noise and nightwork showed that there was a post-meal impairment in detection of targets in a cognitive vigilance task. This was found both during the day and at night, although certain features of the results suggested that the day and night effects were not equivalent. Noise increased the number of false alarms but reduced the post-meal impairment in hit rate. Subjects with low levels of trait or state anxiety showed the greatest post-lunch impairments in performance, but this effect was reduced when the meal was eaten at night.

  5. Effect of acute and fractionated irradiation on hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Seolhwa; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Insub; Kim, Jin Kyu; Roh, Changhyun

    2012-08-08

    Ionizing radiation has become an inevitable health concern emanating from natural sources like space travel and from artificial sources like medical therapies. In general, exposure to ionizing radiation such as γ-rays is one of the methods currently used to stress specific model systems. In this study, we elucidated the long-term effect of acute and fractionated irradiation on DCX-positive cells in hippocampal neurogenesis. Groups of two-month-old C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at acute dose (5 Gy) or fractional doses (1 Gy × 5 times and 0.5 Gy × 10 times). Six months after exposure to γ-irradiation, the hippocampus was analyzed. Doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry was used to measure changes of neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The number of DCX-positive cells was significantly decreased in all acute and fractionally irradiation groups. The long-term changes in DCX-positive cells triggered by radiation exposure showed a very different pattern to the short-term changes which tended to return to the control level in previous studies. Furthermore, the number of DCX-positive cells was relatively lower in the acute irradiation group than the fractional irradiation groups (approximately 3.6-fold), suggesting the biological change on hippocampal neurogenesis was more susceptible to being damaged by acute than fractional irradiation. These results suggest that the exposure to γ-irradiation as a long-term effect can trigger biological responses resulting in the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis.

  6. Severe acute respiratory syndrome: a challenge for public health practice in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A; Abdullah, A

    2003-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is now a global challenge affecting more than 8000 patients in different continents. The dictum of public health practice especially for infectious disease is "prevention better than cure". It is especially true for SARS as the treatment strategies remain diverse and experimental. Maintaining a healthy and hygienic environment can be one of the effective public health measures to combat infectious disease. The major challenge is that some of the most important public health measures are to be taken outside the health sector. The community also needs to be strengthened and equipped with the health skills to promote better health and hygiene. There is also the need to create a supportive environment conducive to health for long term sustainability. The WHO approach of promoting health through setting approach would be one possible solution to face the challenge. This paper will describe some of the public health initiatives in Hong Kong through "setting approach" and "community development model" in helping the society fight against SARS. With the emergence of SARS, this might be the time to globalise public health medicine as an important component of medical practice. PMID:12933766

  7. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  8. Acrolein health effects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, B.L.; Beall, C.M.; Ellis, H.V. III; Baker, L.H.; Herndon, B.L.

    1981-09-01

    Health effects literature primarily related to inhalation exposures to acrolein was collected, evaluated, tabulated, and summarized. Approximately 125 documents were collected from computerized and manual literature searches covering the period 1911-1981. Pharmacologists and an M.D. epidemiologist rated the documents according to their applicabality to the study and their methodology. The approximately 45 documents considered useful for deriving a range of concern for human exposure to acrolein from automotive emissions were tabulated. The pages of tables detail the results of acute, repeated dose, and chronic testing of mice, hamsters, rats, guinea pigs, chickens, rabbits, cats, monkeys, dogs, and humans as well as human occupational and accidental studies. Most of the documents evaluated are described in an annotated bibliography.

  9. Profile of acute poisoning in three health districts of Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Kasule, Mary

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background This study sought to characterise acute poisoning cases seen in three health districts of Botswana. Method A retrospective review of patients’ records was conducted and included patients treated from January 2004 to December 2005. Data on the demographic status of the patients, information about the poisonous agent(s) involved, and the circumstances and outcomes of the poisoning incidents were recorded on a pre-tested data collection form. Results A total of 590 cases of acute poisoning were included in the analysis. The most affected age category was that of children aged less than six years, who constituted 33.4% of the cases. Most incidents were recorded in the urban district of Gaborone. Seventy-eight percent (78%) of the incidents were accidental, with the remainder being intentional. The poisonous agents involved were pharmaceuticals (26.6%), natural toxins (25.6%), household products (14.6%), foods (14.4%), alcohol (6.9%), traditional medicines (4.7%), unspecified agents (3.2%), and agrochemicals (2.7%). The most common route of poison exposure was by oral (82.2%), followed by dermal contact (16.5%), while the inhalation of gases occurred in 1.2% of cases. An incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths were recorded over the two-year period. Conclusion In conclusion, it can be stated that acute poisoning involved mainly young children and resulted in an incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths over the two-year period. There were differences based on age category, gender and residence of the victims, the types of toxic agents involved, as well as the circumstances and the outcomes of the poisoning incidents. Given the fact that pharmaceuticals, natural toxins, household products and foods were the agents most commonly involved, targeted interventions should take these differences into account in addressing the problem of acute poisoning.

  10. [Acute tonsillopharyngitis: the effectiveness of topical therapy].

    PubMed

    Nosulya, E V; Kim, I A; Chernykh, N M; Karnoukhova, O A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a furasol sore throat gargle solution for the treatment of acute tonsillopharyngitis. Forty patients presenting with acute tonsillopharyngitis were allocated to two groups, 20 subjects in each, by means of independent sequential randomization. Prior to the onset of the treatment, all the patients were examined for determining the species composition of pharyngeal microflora with the use of an «AutoScan4 System» analyzer («Siemens», USA) and estimating the resistance to antibacterial preparations (by the disk diffusion method). All the participants of the study were prescribed antibacterial therapy. In the patients of group 1 (study group), the antibacterial treatment of acute tonsillopharyngitis was supplemented by a furasol sore throat gargle solution whereas those of group 2 (controls) were treated without topical therapy. The quantitative evaluation of the severity of manifestations of the disease before and after the treatment was based on a 5-point visual-analog scale. It was shown that systemic antibacterial therapy resulted in the consistent decrease of the frequency of occurrence of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic microflora in the patients comprising both groups. Treatment with a furasol sore throat gargle solution did not lead to the appearance of bacterial species alien to the oropharynx, nor was it accompanied by the impairment of resistance of its mucous membrane to the colonization by microorganisms. The results of the study give evidence of the well apparent regression of the subjective signs of tonsillopharyngitis and the inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane of the pharynx in the patients given the topical treatment in the form of a furasol sore throat gargle solution in addition to antibacterial therapy. It is concluded that a furasol sore throat gargle solution can be recommended for the introduction into the combined treatment of the patients

  11. Acute marijuana effects on human risk taking.

    PubMed

    Lane, Scott D; Cherek, Don R; Tcheremissine, Oleg V; Lieving, Lori M; Pietras, Cythia J

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies have established a relationship between marijuana use and risky behavior in natural settings. A limited number of laboratory investigations of marijuana effects on human risk taking have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the acute effects of smoked marijuana on human risk taking, and to identify behavioral mechanisms that may be involved in drug-induced changes in the probability of risky behavior. Using a laboratory measure of risk taking designed to address acute drug effects, 10 adults were administered placebo cigarettes and three doses of active marijuana cigarettes (half placebo and half 1.77%; 1.77%; and 3.58% Delta9-THC) in a within-subject repeated-measures experimental design. The risk-taking task presented subjects with a choice between two response options operationally defined as risky and nonrisky. Data analyses examined cardiovascular and subjective effects, response rates, distribution of choices between the risky and nonrisky option, and first-order transition probabilities of trial-by-trial data. The 3.58% THC dose increased selection of the risky response option, and uniquely shifted response probabilities following both winning and losing outcomes following selection of the risky option. Acute marijuana administration thereby produced measurable changes in risky decision making under laboratory conditions. Consistent with previous risk-taking studies, shifts in trial-by-trial response probabilities at the highest dose suggested a change in sensitivity to both reinforced and losing risky outcomes. Altered sensitivity to consequences may be a mechanism in drug-induced changes in risk taking. Possible neurobiological sites of action related to THC are discussed.

  12. [Health effects of electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Use of electricity causes extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and wireless communication devices emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Average ELF-MF exposure is mainly determined by high voltage power lines and transformers at home or at the workplace, whereas RF-EMF exposure is mainly caused by devices operating close to the body (mainly mobile and cordless phones). Health effects of EMF are controversially discussed. The IARC classified ELF-MF and RF-EMF as possible carcinogenic. Most consistent epidemiological evidence was found for an association between ELF-MF and childhood leukaemia. If causal, 1 - 4 percent of all childhood leukaemia cases could be attributed to ELF-MF. Epidemiological research provided some indications for an association between ELF-MF and Alzheimer's diseases as well as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, although not entirely consistent. Regarding mobile phones and brain tumours, some studies observed an increased risk after heavy or long term use on the one hand. On the other hand, brain tumour incidence was not found to have increased in the last decade in Sweden, England or the US. Acute effects of RF-EMF on non-specific symptoms of ill health seem unlikely according to randomized and double blind provocation studies. However, epidemiological research on long term effects is still limited. Although from the current state of the scientific knowledge a large individual health risk from RF-EMF exposure is unlikely, even a small risk would have substantial public health relevance because of the widespread use of wireless communication technologies.

  13. After-effects of acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Regan, S G

    1988-01-01

    Female, Long-Evans hooded rats (N = 10, 4 months of age) were given ethanol via intragastric intubation in doses of 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 g/kg (repeated measures design). After-effects (hypothermia, free operant activity, motor performance) were measured at six, twelve and sixteen hours, respectively, for the above doses and were compared to the effects observed after the intubation of equivolume amounts of tap water. The after-effects of ethanol on rectal temperature were varied. Both rotarod performance and free operant activity were impaired after each of the above doses of ethanol. Blood ethanol analyses revealed low blood levels of ethanol (range 6.6 +/- 1.5 to 24.6 +/- 3.4 mg/100 ml) at the time behavioral tests were performed. Thus, quantifiable behavioral impairment was observed after blood ethanol values had declined following acute intoxication episodes. These changes may be related to "hangover" symptomatology in man and may serve as a model for investigating the influence of a variety of factors related to drug dosage, rate of ethanol ingestion, type of alcoholic beverage, and prophylactic or acute intervention therapeutics.

  14. [Telemedicine in acute stroke care--a health economics view].

    PubMed

    Günzel, F; Theiss, S; Knüppel, P; Halberstadt, S; Rose, G; Raith, M

    2010-05-01

    Specialized stroke units offer optimal treatment of patients with an acute stroke. Unfortunately, their installation is limited by an acute lack of experienced neurologists and the small number of stroke patients in sparsely populated rural areas. This problem is increasingly being solved by the use of telemedicine, so that neurological expertise is made available to basic and regular care. It has been demonstrated by national and international pilot studies that solidly based and rapid decisions can be made by telemedicine regrading the use of thrombolysis, as the most important acute treatment, but also of other interventions. So far studies have only evaluated improvement in the quality of care achieved by networking, but not of any lasting effect on any economic benefit. Complementary to a medical evaluation, the qualitative economic assessment presented here of German and American concepts of telemetric care indicate no difference in efficacy between various ways of networking. Most noteworthy, when comparing two large American and German studies, is the difference in their priorities. While the American networks achieved targeted improvements in efficacy of care that go beyond the immediate wishes of the doctors involved, this was of only secondary importance in the German studies. Also, in contrast to several American networks, the German telemetry networks have not tended to be organized for future growth. In terms of economic benefits, decentralized organized networks offer a greater potential of efficacy than purely local ones. Furthermore, the integration of inducements into the design of business models is a fundamental factor for achieving successful and lasting existence, especially within a highly competitive market.

  15. Health Effects of Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... For example, existing investments in research on air pollution and respiratory disease; characteristics of vector range; and effects of acute and chronic exposure to agricultural chemicals are yielding important research advances that may ...

  16. Acute toxic effects of fragrance products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, J H

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate whether fragrance products can produce acute toxic effects in mammals, we allowed groups of male Swiss-Webster mice to breathe the emissions of five commercial colognes or toilet water for 1 h. We used the ASTM-E-981 test method to evaluate sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation. We used a computerized version of this test to measure the duration of the break at the end of inspiration and the duration of the pause at the end of expiration. Decreases in expiratory flow velocity indicated airflow limitation. We subjected the mice to a functional observational battery to probe for changes in nervous system function. The emissions of these fragrance products caused various combinations of sensory irritation, pulmonary irritation, decreases in expiratory airflow velocity, as well as alterations of the functional observational battery indicative of neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicity was more severe after mice were repeatedly exposed to the fragrance products. Evaluation of one of the test atmospheres with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed the presence of chemicals for which irritant and neurotoxic properties had been documented previously. In summary, some fragrance products emitted chemicals that caused a variety of acute toxicities in mice.

  17. Serum and salivary cardiac analytes in acute myocardial infarction related to oral health status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Campbell, Charles; Kinane, Denis F.; McDevitt, John T.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of an increased emphasis on the potential to utilize biomarkers in saliva for systemic diseases, the issue of existing oral disease is an important consideration that could adversely affect the interpretation of diagnostic results obtained from saliva. We addressed the question does a patient's oral inflammation status confound biomarker levels used in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that multiple serum biomarkers and a few salivary biomarkers reflected the cardiac event. Importantly, oral health of the individual had minimal impact on the validity of the serum or salivary biomarker effectiveness.

  18. Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982): Assessment of New Findings on Sulfur Dioxide and Acute Exposure Health Effects in Asthmatic Individuals (1994)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to the document Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982) focuses on evaluation of newly available controlled human exposure studies of acute (a\\1h) sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure effects on pulmonary ...

  19. Acrolein health effects.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O; Roney, N; Taylor, J; Ashizawa, A; Lumpkin, M H; Plewak, D J

    2008-08-01

    Acrolein is a chemical used as an intermediate reactive aldehyde in chemical industry. It is used for synthesis of many organic substances, methionine production, and methyl chloride refrigerant. The general population is exposed to acrolein via smoking, second-hand smoke, exposure to wood and plastic smoke. Firefighters and population living or working in areas with heavy automotive traffic may expose to higher level of acrolein via inhalation of smoke or automotive exhaust. Degradation of acrolein in all environmental media occurs rapidly, therefore, environmental accumulation is not expected. Acrolein degrade in 6A days when applied to surface water, and it has not been found as a contaminant in municipal drinking water. Acrolein vapor may cause eye, nasal and respiratory tract irritations in low level exposure. A decrease in breathing rate was reported by volunteers acutely exposed to 0.3A ppm of acrolein. At similar level, mild nasal epithelial dysplasia, necrosis, and focal basal cell metaplasia have been observed in rats. The acrolein effects on gastrointestinal mucosa in the animals include epithelial hyperplasia, ulceration, and hemorrhage. The severity of the effects is dose dependent. Acrolein induces the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal irritations by inducing the release of peptides in nerve terminals innervating these systems. Levels of acrolein between 22 and 249 ppm for 10 min induced a dose-related decrease in substance P (a short-chain polypeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator).

  20. Health effects associated with waterpipe smoking

    PubMed Central

    El-Zaatari, Ziad M; Chami, Hassan A; Zaatari, Ghazi S

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is widely held that waterpipe smoking (WPS) is not associated with health hazards. However, several studies have documented the uptake of several toxicants and carcinogens during WPS that is strongly associated with harmful health effects. This paper reviews the literature on the health effects of WPS. Data sources Three databases-PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE-were searched until August 2014 for the acute and long-term health effects of WPS using the terms ‘waterpipe’ and its synonyms (hookah, shisha, goza, narghileh, arghileh and hubble-bubble) in various spellings. Study selection We included original clinical studies, case reports and systematic reviews and focused on clinical human studies. ∼10% of the identified studies met the selection criteria. Data extraction Data were abstracted by all three authors and summarised into tables. Abstracted data included study type, results and methodological limitations and were analysed jointly by all three authors. Data synthesis WPS acutely leads to increased heart rate, blood pressure, impaired pulmonary function and carbon monoxide intoxication. Chronic bronchitis, emphysema and coronary artery disease are serious complications of long-term use. Lung, gastric and oesophageal cancer are associated with WPS as well as periodontal disease, obstetrical complications, osteoporosis and mental health problems. Conclusions Contrary to the widely held misconception, WPS is associated with a variety of adverse short-term and long-term health effects that should reinforce the need for stronger regulation. In addition, this review highlights the limitations of the published work, which is mostly cross-sectional or retrospective. Prospective studies should be undertaken to assess the full spectrum of health effects of WPS, particularly in view of its growing popularity and attractiveness to youth. PMID:25661414

  1. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  2. Cumulative Adversity Sensitizes Neural Response to Acute Stress: Association with Health Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Tsou, Kristen A; Ansell, Emily B; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative adversity (CA) increases stress sensitivity and risk of adverse health outcomes. However, neural mechanisms underlying these associations in humans remain unclear. To understand neural responses underlying the link between CA and adverse health symptoms, the current study assessed brain activity during stress and neutral-relaxing states in 75 demographically matched, healthy individuals with high, mid, and low CA (25 in each group), and their health symptoms using the Cornell Medical Index. CA was significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (P=0.01) in all participants. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results indicated significant associations between CA scores and increased stress-induced activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, insula, striatum, right amygdala, hippocampus, and temporal regions in all 75 participants (p<0.05, whole-brain corrected). In addition to these regions, the high vs low CA group comparison revealed decreased stress-induced activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the high CA group (p<0.01, whole-brain corrected). Specifically, hypoactive medial OFC and hyperactive right hippocampus responses to stress were each significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (p<0.01). Furthermore, an inverse correlation was found between activity in the medial OFC and right hippocampus (p=0.01). These results indicate that high CA sensitizes limbic–striatal responses to acute stress and also identifies an important role for stress-related medial OFC and hippocampus responses in the effects of CA on increasing vulnerability to adverse health consequences. PMID:24051900

  3. Assessing strategic behaviour within the acute sector of the National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Chaston, I

    1994-01-01

    The creation of the internal market has merely been the latest progression in the change processes confronting the NHS over recent years as the UK Government searches for new ways of expanding patient output while concurrently restricting provision of additional financial resources. To assist in the implementation of change, acute sector providers have introduced managerial concepts from the private sector such as strategic planning. It is not clear, however, whether these techniques are appropriate or effective in the management of health-care services. A survey was undertaken to gain the perspectives of middle managers in acute units on the degree to which senior management involves them in determining performance goals and strategic plans. Results indicate that in most units, the orientation of senior management is to retain control over key issues associated with strategic planning and to minimize the degree to which the workforce is involved in any decision-making processes. Reviewing these results relative to the service-sector management theories concerning the options of industrializing or employee empowerment strategies indicates that senior management in the acute sector is operating a production-line service output philosophy. Although this orientation may meet the immediate needs of the UK Government, a review of how this strategic philosophy has severely weakened Western firms' position in world markets provides a basis for examining whether greater economic advantages might accrue to Britain by redirecting the management of change in the NHS towards a strategic philosophy based on employee empowerment.

  4. The Effect of Entry Regulation in the Health Care Sector: the Case of Home Health.

    PubMed

    Polsky, Daniel; David, Guy; Yang, Jianing; Kinosian, Bruce; Werner, Rachel

    2014-02-01

    The consequences of government regulation in the post-acute care sector are not well understood. We examine the effect of entry regulation on quality of care in home health care by analyzing the universe of hospital discharges during 2006 for publicly insured beneficiaries (about 4.5 million) and subsequent home health admissions to determine whether there is a significant difference in home health utilization, hospital readmission rates, and health care expenditures in states with and without Certificate of Need laws (CON) regulating entry. We identify these effects by looking across regulated and nonregulated states within Hospital Referral Regions, which characterize well-defined health care markets and frequently cross state boundaries. We find that CON states use home health less frequently, but system-wide rehospitalization rates, overall Medicare expenditures, and home health practice patterns are similar. Removing CON for home health would have negligible system-wide effects on health care costs and quality.

  5. The Effect of Entry Regulation in the Health Care Sector: the Case of Home Health

    PubMed Central

    Polsky, Daniel; David, Guy; Yang, Jianing; Kinosian, Bruce; Werner, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of government regulation in the post-acute care sector are not well understood. We examine the effect of entry regulation on quality of care in home health care by analyzing the universe of hospital discharges during 2006 for publicly insured beneficiaries (about 4.5 million) and subsequent home health admissions to determine whether there is a significant difference in home health utilization, hospital readmission rates, and health care expenditures in states with and without Certificate of Need laws (CON) regulating entry. We identify these effects by looking across regulated and nonregulated states within Hospital Referral Regions, which characterize well-defined health care markets and frequently cross state boundaries. We find that CON states use home health less frequently, but system-wide rehospitalization rates, overall Medicare expenditures, and home health practice patterns are similar. Removing CON for home health would have negligible system-wide effects on health care costs and quality. PMID:24497648

  6. Human health effects of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Kampa, Marilena; Castanas, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O(3)), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed.

  7. Acute and chronic respiratory effects of sodium borate particulate exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Wegman, D H; Eisen, E A; Hu, X; Woskie, S R; Smith, R G; Garabrant, D H

    1994-01-01

    This study examined work-related chronic abnormality in pulmonary function and work-related acute irritant symptoms associated with exposure to borate dust in mining and processing operations. Chronic effects were examined by pulmonary function at the beginning and end of a 7-year interval. Time-specific estimates of sodium borate particulate exposures were used to estimate cumulative exposure during the study interval. Change in pulmonary function over the 7 years was found unrelated to the estimate of cumulative exposure during that interval. Exposure-response associations also were examined with respect to short-term peak exposures and incidence of five symptoms of acute respiratory irritation. Hourly measures of health outcome and continuous measures of particulate exposure were made on each subject throughout the day. Whenever a subject reported one of the irritant symptoms, a symptom intensity score was also recorded along with the approximate time of onset. The findings indicated that exposure-response relationships were present for each of the specific symptoms at several symptom intensity levels. The associations were present when exposure was estimated by both day-long and short-term (15-min) time-weighted average exposures. Associations persisted after taking account of smoking, age, and the presence of a common cold. No significant difference in response rate was found between workers exposed to different types of sodium borate dusts. PMID:7889871

  8. Acute health impacts of airborne particles estimated from satellite remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoxi; Liu, Yang; Hu, Mu; Pan, Xiaochuan; Shi, Jing; Chen, Feng; He, Kebin; Koutrakis, Petros; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to monitor air quality from space at global, continental, national and regional scales. Most current research focused on developing empirical models using ground measurements of the ambient particulate. However, the application of satellite-based exposure assessment in environmental health is still limited, especially for acute effects, because the development of satellite PM(2.5) model depends on the availability of ground measurements. We tested the hypothesis that MODIS AOD (aerosol optical depth) exposure estimates, obtained from NASA satellites, are directly associated with daily health outcomes. Three independent healthcare databases were used: unscheduled outpatient visits, hospital admissions, and mortality collected in Beijing metropolitan area, China during 2006. We use generalized linear models to compare the short-term effects of air pollution assessed by ground monitoring (PM(10)) with adjustment of absolute humidity (AH) and AH-calibrated AOD. Across all databases we found that both AH-calibrated AOD and PM(10) (adjusted by AH) were consistently associated with elevated daily events on the current day and/or lag days for cardiovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, and COPD. The relative risks estimated by AH-calibrated AOD and PM(10) (adjusted by AH) were similar. Additionally, compared to ground PM(10), we found that AH-calibrated AOD had narrower confidence intervals for all models and was more robust in estimating the current day and lag day effects. Our preliminary findings suggested that, with proper adjustment of meteorological factors, satellite AOD can be used directly to estimate the acute health impacts of ambient particles without prior calibrating to the sparse ground monitoring networks. PMID:23220016

  9. Acute health impacts of airborne particles estimated from satellite remote sensing✩

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaoxi; Liu, Yang; Hu, Mu; Pan, Xiaochuan; Shi, Jing; Chen, Feng; He, Kebin; Koutrakis, Petros; Christiani, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to monitor air quality from space at global, continental, national and regional scales. Most current research focused on developing empirical models using ground measurements of the ambient particulate. However, the application of satellite-based exposure assessment in environmental health is still limited, especially for acute effects, because the development of satellite PM2.5 model depends on the availability of ground measurements. We tested the hypothesis that MODIS AOD (aerosol optical depth) exposure estimates, obtained from NASA satellites, are directly associated with daily health outcomes. Three independent healthcare databases were used: unscheduled outpatient visits, hospital admissions, and mortality collected in Beijing metropolitan area, China during 2006. We use generalized linear models to compare the short-term effects of air pollution assessed by ground monitoring (PM10) with adjustment of absolute humidity (AH) and AH-calibrated AOD. Across all databases we found that both AH-calibrated AOD and PM10 (adjusted by AH) were consistently associated with elevated daily events on the current day and/or lag days for cardiovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, and COPD. The relative risks estimated by AH-calibrated AOD and PM10 (adjusted by AH) were similar. Additionally, compared to ground PM10, we found that AH-calibrated AOD had narrower confidence intervals for all models and was more robust in estimating the current day and lag day effects. Our preliminary findings suggested that, with proper adjustment of meteorological factors, satellite AOD can be used directly to estimate the acute health impacts of ambient particles without prior calibrating to the sparse ground monitoring networks. PMID:23220016

  10. Acute health impacts of airborne particles estimated from satellite remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoxi; Liu, Yang; Hu, Mu; Pan, Xiaochuan; Shi, Jing; Chen, Feng; He, Kebin; Koutrakis, Petros; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to monitor air quality from space at global, continental, national and regional scales. Most current research focused on developing empirical models using ground measurements of the ambient particulate. However, the application of satellite-based exposure assessment in environmental health is still limited, especially for acute effects, because the development of satellite PM(2.5) model depends on the availability of ground measurements. We tested the hypothesis that MODIS AOD (aerosol optical depth) exposure estimates, obtained from NASA satellites, are directly associated with daily health outcomes. Three independent healthcare databases were used: unscheduled outpatient visits, hospital admissions, and mortality collected in Beijing metropolitan area, China during 2006. We use generalized linear models to compare the short-term effects of air pollution assessed by ground monitoring (PM(10)) with adjustment of absolute humidity (AH) and AH-calibrated AOD. Across all databases we found that both AH-calibrated AOD and PM(10) (adjusted by AH) were consistently associated with elevated daily events on the current day and/or lag days for cardiovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, and COPD. The relative risks estimated by AH-calibrated AOD and PM(10) (adjusted by AH) were similar. Additionally, compared to ground PM(10), we found that AH-calibrated AOD had narrower confidence intervals for all models and was more robust in estimating the current day and lag day effects. Our preliminary findings suggested that, with proper adjustment of meteorological factors, satellite AOD can be used directly to estimate the acute health impacts of ambient particles without prior calibrating to the sparse ground monitoring networks.

  11. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals#

    EPA Science Inventory

    Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animalsWhitney S. Krueger1,2, Elizabeth D. Hilborn2, Timothy J. Wade21Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA2Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Research and Development, U...

  12. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary Radiation Emergencies & Your Health Possible Health Effects Contamination and Exposure Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) Cutaneous Radiation ... Decision Making in Radiation Emergencies Protective Actions Internal Contamination Clinical Reference (ICCR) Application Psychological First Aid in ...

  13. Aflatrem: a tremorgenic mycotoxin with acute neurotoxic effects.

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, J J; Cameron, J E; Cole, R J

    1985-01-01

    Tremorgenic mycotoxins induce neurologic symptoms ranging from mental confusion to tremors, seizures and death, and are apparently the only class of mycotoxins with significant central nervous system activity. Tremorgens have been implicated in a number of neurologic diseases of cattle collectively known as staggers syndromes, and pose significant agricultural and health problems for both cattle and humans. Although the effects of tremorgens are thought to result from transient perturbations of amino acid neurotransmitter release mechanisms, there is reason to believe that acute exposures to toxins with such synaptic effects may result in degeneration of neuronal fiber processes. To test this hypothesis, rats were given a single tremorgenic (3 mg/kg, IP) dose of aflatrem, and kinetics of amino acid neurotransmitter uptake was assessed in isolated hippocampal nerve terminals at 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks after injection. Results indicate a decrease in the capacity of the GABA and glutamate uptake systems, which was interpreted as a loss of nerve terminals. The affinity constants suggest a decrease in release of these transmitters as well. In addition to its transient influence on transmitter release, a single low dose of aflatrem is able to induce degeneration of neuronal processes in hippocampal neurotransmitter systems and therefore represents a long-term health threat. PMID:2867895

  14. Reengineering acute episodic and chronic care delivery: the Geisinger Health System experience.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Jonathan R; Casale, Alfred S; Steele, Glenn D; Toms, Steven A

    2012-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) represents an evolution in clinical decision-making research that allows for the study of heterogeneous groups of patients with complex diseases processes. It has foundations in decision science, reliability science, and health care policy research. Health care finance will increasingly rely on CER for guidance in the coming years. There is increasing awareness of the importance of decreasing unwarranted variation in health care delivery. In the past 7 years, Geisinger Health System has performed broad reengineering of its acute episodic and chronic care delivery models utilizing macrosystem-level application of CER principles. These provider-driven process initiatives have resulted in significant improvement across all segments of care delivery, improved patient outcomes, and notable cost containment. These programs have led to the creation of novel pricing models, and when "hardwired" throughout a care delivery system, they can lead to correct medical decision making by 100% of providers in all patient encounters. Neurosurgery as a specialty faces unique challenges and opportunities with respect to broad adoption and application of CER techniques. PMID:22746233

  15. Reengineering acute episodic and chronic care delivery: the Geisinger Health System experience.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Jonathan R; Casale, Alfred S; Steele, Glenn D; Toms, Steven A

    2012-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) represents an evolution in clinical decision-making research that allows for the study of heterogeneous groups of patients with complex diseases processes. It has foundations in decision science, reliability science, and health care policy research. Health care finance will increasingly rely on CER for guidance in the coming years. There is increasing awareness of the importance of decreasing unwarranted variation in health care delivery. In the past 7 years, Geisinger Health System has performed broad reengineering of its acute episodic and chronic care delivery models utilizing macrosystem-level application of CER principles. These provider-driven process initiatives have resulted in significant improvement across all segments of care delivery, improved patient outcomes, and notable cost containment. These programs have led to the creation of novel pricing models, and when "hardwired" throughout a care delivery system, they can lead to correct medical decision making by 100% of providers in all patient encounters. Neurosurgery as a specialty faces unique challenges and opportunities with respect to broad adoption and application of CER techniques.

  16. Summary review of the health effects associated with propylene oxide: health-issue assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report provides a brief summary of the data available on the health effects of exposure to propylene oxide. Emphasis is placed on determining whether there is evidence to suggest that propylene oxide exerts effects on human health under conditions and at concentrations commonly experienced by the general public. Both acute and chronic effects are addressed, including general toxicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity. To place the health effects discussion in perspective, the report also summarizes air-quality aspects of propylene oxide in the United States, including sources, distribution, fate, and concentrations associated with certain point sources.

  17. 2013 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel Status Review for: The Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure, The Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs), The Risk Of Degenerative Tissue Or Other Health Effects From Radiation Exposure, and The Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) was impressed with the strong research program presented by the scientists and staff associated with NASA's Space Radiation Program Element and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The presentations given on-site and the reports of ongoing research that were provided in advance indicated the potential Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS) and were extensively discussed by the SRP. This new data leads the SRP to recommend that a higher priority should be placed on research designed to identify and understand these risks at the mechanistic level. To support this effort the SRP feels that a shift of emphasis from Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) and carcinogenesis to CNS-related endpoints is justified at this point. However, these research efforts need to focus on mechanisms, should follow pace with advances in the field of CNS in general and should consider the specific comments and suggestions made by the SRP as outlined below. The SRP further recommends that the Space Radiation Program Element continue with its efforts to fill the vacant positions (Element Scientist, CNS Risk Discipline Lead) as soon as possible. The SRP also strongly recommends that NASA should continue the NASA Space Radiation Summer School. In addition to these broad recommendations, there are specific comments/recommendations noted for each risk, described in detail below.

  18. Knowledge, attitude and practice factors in childhood acute respiratory infections in a peninsular Malaysia health district.

    PubMed

    Vasanthamala, A; Arokiasamy, J T

    1989-01-01

    This study compares the knowledge, attitudes and practice of mothers in two ethnic groups with regard to acute respiratory infections (ARI) in their child. Most had traditional beliefs as to the cause of ARI with only a minority knowing the causes. Most mothers were aware of the effect of frequent attacks of ARI on the health status of their child and of the importance of early treatment. Reasons for their becoming worried during an episode of ARI in their child indicated that problems of distance, transportation and arrangements for care of their other children predominate. A large proportion of the respondents felt that their present knowledge of ARI was inadequate and were thus interested in obtaining more information. PMID:2620023

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practice factors in childhood acute respiratory infections in a peninsular Malaysia health district.

    PubMed

    Vasanthamala, A; Arokiasamy, J T

    1989-01-01

    This study compares the knowledge, attitudes and practice of mothers in two ethnic groups with regard to acute respiratory infections (ARI) in their child. Most had traditional beliefs as to the cause of ARI with only a minority knowing the causes. Most mothers were aware of the effect of frequent attacks of ARI on the health status of their child and of the importance of early treatment. Reasons for their becoming worried during an episode of ARI in their child indicated that problems of distance, transportation and arrangements for care of their other children predominate. A large proportion of the respondents felt that their present knowledge of ARI was inadequate and were thus interested in obtaining more information.

  20. Health Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Song, Ki-Hoon; Chung, Jin-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a unique element with distinct physical characteristics and toxicity whose importance in public health is well recognized. The toxicity of arsenic varies across its different forms. While the carcinogenicity of arsenic has been confirmed, the mechanisms behind the diseases occurring after acute or chronic exposure to arsenic are not well understood. Inorganic arsenic has been confirmed as a human carcinogen that can induce skin, lung, and bladder cancer. There are also reports of its significant association to liver, prostate, and bladder cancer. Recent studies have also suggested a relationship with diabetes, neurological effects, cardiac disorders, and reproductive organs, but further studies are required to confirm these associations. The majority of research to date has examined cancer incidence after a high exposure to high concentrations of arsenic. However, numerous studies have reported various health effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of arsenic. An assessment of the health effects to arsenic exposure has never been performed in the South Korean population; thus, objective estimates of exposure levels are needed. Data should be collected on the biological exposure level for the total arsenic concentration, and individual arsenic concentration by species. In South Korea, we believe that biological exposure assessment should be the first step, followed by regular health effect assessments. PMID:25284195

  1. Forward and inverse electroencephalographic modeling in health and in acute traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Andrei; Goh, S.Y. Matthew; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Chambers, Micah C.; Kikinis, Ron; Van Horn, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective EEG source localization is demonstrated in three cases of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) with progressive lesion loads using anatomically faithful models of the head which account for pathology. Methods Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes were used to generate head models via the finite element method (FEM). A total of 25 tissue types—including 6 types accounting for pathology— were included. To determine the effects of TBI upon source localization accuracy, a minimum-norm operator was used to perform inverse localization and to determine the accuracy of the latter. Results The importance of using a more comprehensive number of tissue types is confirmed in both health and in TBI. Pathology omission is found to cause substantial inaccuracies in EEG forward matrix calculations, with lead field sensitivity being underestimated by as much as ~200% in (peri-) contusional regions when TBI-related changes are ignored. Failing to account for such conductivity changes is found to misestimate substantial localization error by up to 35 mm. Conclusions Changes in head conductivity profiles should be accounted for when performing EEG modeling in acute TBI. Significance Given the challenges of inverse localization in TBI, this framework can benefit neurotrauma patients by providing useful insights on pathophysiology. PMID:23746499

  2. Public health response systems in-action: learning from local health departments' experiences with acute and emergency incidents.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jennifer C; Yang, Jane E; Crawley, Adam W; Biesiadecki, Laura; Aragón, Tomás J

    2013-01-01

    As part of their core mission, public health agencies attend to a wide range of disease and health threats, including those that require routine, acute, and emergency responses. While each incident is unique, the number and type of response activities are finite; therefore, through comparative analysis, we can learn about commonalities in the response patterns that could improve predictions and expectations regarding the resources and capabilities required to respond to future acute events. In this study, we interviewed representatives from more than 120 local health departments regarding their recent experiences with real-world acute public health incidents, such as infectious disease outbreaks, severe weather events, chemical spills, and bioterrorism threats. We collected highly structured data on key aspects of the incident and the public health response, particularly focusing on the public health activities initiated and community partners engaged in the response efforts. As a result, we are able to make comparisons across event types, create response profiles, and identify functional and structural response patterns that have import for future public health preparedness and response. Our study contributes to clarifying the complexity of public health response systems and our analysis reveals the ways in which these systems are adaptive to the character of the threat, resulting in differential activation of functions and partners based on the type of incident. Continued and rigorous examination of the experiences of health departments throughout the nation will refine our very understanding of what the public health response system is, will enable the identification of organizational and event inputs to performance, and will allow for the construction of rich, relevant, and practical models of response operations that can be employed to strengthen public health systems. PMID:24236137

  3. Public Health Response Systems In-Action: Learning from Local Health Departments’ Experiences with Acute and Emergency Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jennifer C.; Yang, Jane E.; Crawley, Adam W.; Biesiadecki, Laura; Aragón, Tomás J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of their core mission, public health agencies attend to a wide range of disease and health threats, including those that require routine, acute, and emergency responses. While each incident is unique, the number and type of response activities are finite; therefore, through comparative analysis, we can learn about commonalities in the response patterns that could improve predictions and expectations regarding the resources and capabilities required to respond to future acute events. In this study, we interviewed representatives from more than 120 local health departments regarding their recent experiences with real-world acute public health incidents, such as infectious disease outbreaks, severe weather events, chemical spills, and bioterrorism threats. We collected highly structured data on key aspects of the incident and the public health response, particularly focusing on the public health activities initiated and community partners engaged in the response efforts. As a result, we are able to make comparisons across event types, create response profiles, and identify functional and structural response patterns that have import for future public health preparedness and response. Our study contributes to clarifying the complexity of public health response systems and our analysis reveals the ways in which these systems are adaptive to the character of the threat, resulting in differential activation of functions and partners based on the type of incident. Continued and rigorous examination of the experiences of health departments throughout the nation will refine our very understanding of what the public health response system is, will enable the identification of organizational and event inputs to performance, and will allow for the construction of rich, relevant, and practical models of response operations that can be employed to strengthen public health systems. PMID:24236137

  4. Health Effects of Tsunamis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods PSAs Hurricanes Before a Hurricane ... Other Related Links Information for Professionals and Response Workers Health Care Professionals Response and Cleanup Workers Hurricanes PSAs ...

  5. Potential human health effects of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Adverse human health effects, namely acute and chronic respiratory effects, can occur from the pre-deposition phase of the acid rain phenomenon due to inhalation of acidic particles and gases. State-of-the-art methodology to evaluate these effects is just now being applied to this question. The major post-deposition effect of the acid rain phenomenon is to acidify water, increasing solubility and subsequent human exposure to mercury, lead, cadmium, and aluminum. Acidification increases bioconversion of mercury to methylmercury, a highly toxic compound, which accumulates in fish, increasing the risk to toxicity in people who eat fish. Increase in water and soil content of lead and cadmium increases human exposure to these metals which become additive to other sources presently under regulatory control. The potential adverse health effects of increased human exposure to aluminum is not known at the present time. Deficiencies in the identification of the contribution of pre-deposition of air pollutants and post-deposition mobilization of toxic metals to the recognized potential health effects of the involved toxic substances is due to the fact that scientists have not addressed these specific questions. 113 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity–induced plasticity with specific cognitive training–induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  7. Health effects of embedded depleted uranium.

    PubMed

    McClain, David E; Benson, Kimberly A; Dalton, Tom K; Ejnik, John; Emond, Christy A; Hodge, Shelly J; Kalinich, John F; Landauer, Michael R; Livengood, David R; Miller, Alexandra C; Pellmar, Terry C; Stewart, Michael D; Villa, Vilmar; Xu, Jiaquan

    2002-02-01

    The health effects of embedded fragments of depleted uranium (DU) are being investigated to determine whether current surgical fragment-removal policies are appropriate for this metal. The authors studied rodents implanted with DU pellets as well as cultured human cells exposed to DU compounds. Results indicate that uranium from implanted DU fragments distributes to tissues distant from implantation sites, including bone, kidney, muscle, and liver. Despite levels of uranium in kidney that would be nephrotoxic after acute exposure, no histological or functional kidney toxicity was observed with embedded DU, indicating that the kidney adapts when exposed chronically. Nonetheless, further studies of the long-term health impact are needed. DU is mutagenic and transforms human osteoblastic cells into a tumorigenic phenotype. It alters neurophysiological parameters in rat hippocampus, crosses the placental barrier, and enters fetal tissue. Preliminary data also indicate decreased rodent litter size when animals are bred 6 months or longer after DU implantation. PMID:11873491

  8. Mechanical Thrombectomy in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In Ontario, current treatment for eligible patients who have an acute ischemic stroke is intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). However, there are some limitations and contraindications to IVT, and outcomes may not be favourable for patients with stroke caused by a proximal intracranial occlusion. An alternative is mechanical thrombectomy with newer devices, and a number of recent studies have suggested that this treatment is more effective for improving functional independence and clinical outcomes. The objective of this health technology assessment was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new-generation mechanical thrombectomy devices (with or without IVT) compared to IVT alone (if eligible) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature, limited to randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy using stent retrievers and thromboaspiration devices for patients with acute ischemic stroke. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We developed a Markov decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy (with or without IVT) versus IVT alone (if eligible), calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios using a 5-year time horizon, and conducted sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the estimates. Results There was a substantial, statistically significant difference in rate of functional independence (GRADE: high quality) between those who received mechanical thrombectomy (with or without IVT) and IVT alone (odds ratio [OR] 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.88–3.04). We did not observe a difference in mortality (GRADE: moderate quality) (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.60–1.07) or symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (GRADE: moderate quality) (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.66–1.87). In the base-case cost-utility analysis, which had a 5 year time horizon, the costs and effectiveness for

  9. Do pollution time-series studies contain uncontrolled or residual confounding by risk factors for acute health events?

    PubMed

    Bukowski, John

    2008-07-01

    Acute health effects from air pollution are based largely on weak associations identified in time-series studies comparing daily air pollution levels to daily mortality. Much of this mortality is due to cardiovascular disease. Time-series studies have many potential limitations, but are not thought to be confounded by traditional cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking status or hypertension) because these chronic risk factors are not obviously associated with daily pollution levels. However, acute psychobehavioral variants of these risk factors (e.g., smoking patterns and episodes of stress on any given day) are plausible confounders for the associations observed in time-series studies, given that time-series studies attempt to predict acute rather than chronic health outcomes. There is a fairly compelling literature on the strong link between cardiovascular events and daily "triggers" such as stress. Stress-related triggers are plausibly associated with daily pollution levels through surrogate stressors such as ambient temperature, daily workload, local traffic congestion, or other correlates of air pollution. For example, variables such as traffic congestion and industrial activity increase both stress-related health events and air pollution, suggesting the potential for classical confounding. Support for this argument is illustrated through examples of the well-demonstrated relationship between emotional stress and heart attack/stroke.

  10. A safe electric medical bed for an acute inpatient behavioral health care setting.

    PubMed

    Wagner, John J; Ingram, Todd N

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process of developing a safe electric bed for a traditional acute care adult behavioral health inpatient unit. Many articles and studies exist related to creating a safe environment on acute care psychiatric units, but very few address the use of electric hospital beds. The process of adapting a traditional electric bed for inpatient use by the nursing management team of the Behavioral Health Service at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics is described, including specific safety features in the prototype bed. Policy changes during implementation and safety data after 12 months of bed use on the units are also presented. Results indicate that traditional electric hospital beds can be safely adapted for use on traditional acute care psychiatric units.

  11. Health Literacy and Mortality: A Cohort Study of Patients Hospitalized for Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Candace D; Cawthon, Courtney; Kripalani, Sunil; Liu, Dandan; Storrow, Alan B; Roumie, Christianne L

    2015-01-01

    Background More than 30% of patients hospitalized for heart failure are rehospitalized or die within 90 days of discharge. Lower health literacy is associated with mortality among outpatients with chronic heart failure; little is known about this relationship after hospitalization for acute heart failure. Methods and Results Patients hospitalized for acute heart failure and discharged home between November 2010 and June 2013 were followed through December 31, 2013. Nurses administered the Brief Health Literacy Screen at admission; low health literacy was defined as Brief Health Literacy Screen ≤9. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were time to first rehospitalization and, separately, time to first emergency department visit within 90 days of discharge. Cox proportional hazards models determined their relationships with health literacy, adjusting for age, gender, race, insurance, education, comorbidity, and hospital length of stay. For the 1379 patients, average age was 63.1 years, 566 (41.0%) were female, and 324 (23.5%) had low health literacy. Median follow-up was 20.7 months (interquartile range 12.8 to 29.6 months), and 403 (29.2%) patients died. Adjusted hazard ratio for death among patients with low health literacy was 1.34 (95% CI 1.04, 1.73, P=0.02) compared to Brief Health Literacy Screen >9. Within 90 days of discharge, there were 415 (30.1%) rehospitalizations and 201 (14.6%) emergency department visits, with no evident association with health literacy. Conclusions Lower health literacy was associated with increased risk of death after hospitalization for acute heart failure. There was no evident relationship between health literacy and 90-day rehospitalization or emergency department visits. PMID:25926328

  12. Fear of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) among Health Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Kwong-Lo, Rosalie S. Y.; Mak, Christine W. Y.; Wong, Joe S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined fear related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among 2 samples of hospital staff in Hong Kong. Sample 1 included health care workers (n = 82) and was assessed during the peak of the SARS epidemic. Sample 2 included hospital staff who recovered from SARS (n = 97). The results show that participants in…

  13. Sensory and Cognitive Effects of Acute Exposure to Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Nancy; Kipen, Howard; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Zhang, Junfeng; Weisel, Clifford; Laumbach, Robert; Kelly-McNeil, Kathie; Olejeme, Kelechi; Lioy, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Some epidemiologic studies have reported compromised cognitive and sensory performance among individuals exposed to low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Objectives We hypothesized a dose–response increase in symptom severity and reduction in sensory and cognitive performance in response to controlled H2S exposures. Methods In separate exposure sessions administered in random order over three consecutive weeks, 74 healthy subjects [35 females, 39 males; mean age (± SD) = 24.7 ± 4.2; mean years of education = 16.5 ± 2.4], were exposed to 0.05, 0.5, and 5 ppm H2S. During each exposure session, subjects completed ratings and tests before H2S exposure (baseline) and during the final hour of the 2-hr exposure period. Results Dose–response reduction in air quality and increases in ratings of odor intensity, irritation, and unpleasantness were observed. Total symptom severity was not significantly elevated across any exposure condition, but anxiety symptoms were significantly greater in the 5-ppm than in the 0.05-ppm condition. No dose–response effect was observed for sensory or cognitive measures. Verbal learning was compromised during each exposure condition. Conclusions Although some symptoms increased with exposure, the magnitude of these changes was relatively minor. Increased anxiety was significantly related to ratings of irritation due to odor. Whether the effect on verbal learning represents a threshold effect of H2S or an effect due to fatigue across exposure requires further investigation. These acute effects in a healthy sample cannot be directly generalized to communities where individuals have other health conditions and concomitant exposures. PMID:18197303

  14. Effects of an acute seizure on associative learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Holley, Andrew J; Lugo, Joaquin N

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that inducing several seizures or continuous seizures in neonatal or adult rats results in impairments in learning and memory. The impact of a single acute seizure on learning and memory has not been investigated in mice. In this study, we exposed adult 129SvEvTac mice to the inhalant flurothyl until a behavioral seizure was induced. Our study consisted of 4 experiments where we examined the effect of one seizure before or after delay fear conditioning. We also included a separate cohort of animals that was tested in the open field after a seizure to rule out changes in locomotor activity influencing the results of memory tests. Mice that had experienced a single seizure 1h, but not 6h, prior to training showed a significant impairment in associative conditioning to the conditioned stimulus when compared with controls 24h later. There were no differences in freezing one day later for animals that experienced a single seizure 1h after associative learning. We also found that an acute seizure reduced activity levels in an open-field test 2h but not 24h later. These findings suggest that an acute seizure occurring immediately before learning can have an effect on the recall of events occurring shortly after that seizure. In contrast, an acute seizure occurring shortly after learning appears to have little or no effect on long-term memory. These findings have implications for understanding the acute effects of seizures on the acquisition of new knowledge.

  15. Mental and social health during and after acute emergencies: emerging consensus?

    PubMed Central

    van Ommeren, Mark; Saxena, Shekhar; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2005-01-01

    Mental health care programmes during and after acute emergencies in resource-poor countries have been considered controversial. There is no agreement on the public health value of the post-traumatic stress disorder concept and no agreement on the appropriateness of vertical (separate) trauma-focused services. A range of social and mental health intervention strategies and principles seem, however, to have the broad support of expert opinion. Despite continuing debate, there is emerging agreement on what entails good public health practice in respect of mental health. In terms of early interventions, this agreement is exemplified by the recent inclusion of a "mental and social aspects of health" standard in the Sphere handbook's revision on minimal standards in disaster response. This affirmation of emerging agreement is important and should give clear messages to health planners. PMID:15682252

  16. Acute respiratory effects of summer smog in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Cuijpers, C E; Swaen, G M; Wesseling, G; Wouters, E F

    1994-06-01

    In 535 primary school children we studied the effects of exposure to summer smog on respiratory health. Baseline measurements were performed during low air pollution levels (max. 24-h concentrations of SO2, O3 and NO2 were 55, 49 and 58 micrograms/m3, respectively) consisting of lung function measurements using spirometry and the forced oscillation technique (FOT) and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, determined by a written questionnaire. During a summer smog episode, 212 randomly chosen children were re-examined, characterised by 8-h ozone levels > 120 micrograms/m3 (max. 163 micrograms/m3) and 1-h ozone levels > 160 micrograms/m3 (max. 215 micrograms/m3). Overall, small decrements were observed in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), (P < 0.05) and the forced expiratory volume between 25 and 75% of the vital capacity (FEF25-75%) (P < 0.01). On the contrary, there was a statistically significant decrease in resistance parameters. No increases were observed in the prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms. In conclusion, in this study we found small inconsistent changes in lung function and no increase of respiratory symptoms after short-time exposure to moderately high ozone levels.

  17. Untargeted LC-MS Metabolomics of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Differentiates Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome from Health

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Charles R.; Karnovsky, Alla; Kovach, Melissa A.; Standiford, Theodore J.; Burant, Charles F.; Stringer, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a significant hazard to human health and is clinically challenging because there are no prognostic biomarkers and no effective pharmacotherapy. The lung compartment metabolome may detail the status of the local environment that could be useful in ARDS biomarker discovery and the identification of drug target opportunities. However, neither the utility of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as a biofluid for metabolomics nor the optimal analytical platform for metabolite identification are established. To address this, we undertook a study to compare metabolites in BALF samples from patients with ARDS and healthy controls using a newly developed liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectroscopy (MS) platform for untargeted metabolomics. Following initial testing of three different high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns, we determined that reversed phase (RP)-LC and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), were the most informative chromatographic methods because they yielded the most and highest quality data. Following confirmation of metabolite identification, statistical analysis resulted in 37 differentiating metabolites in the BALF of ARDS compared with health across both analytical platforms. Pathway analysis revealed networks associated with amino acid metabolism, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, phospholipids and purine metabolism in the ARDS BALF. The complementary analytical platforms of RPLC and HILIC-LC generated informative, insightful metabolomics data of the ARDS lung environment. PMID:24289193

  18. Public Health Consequences on Vulnerable Populations from Acute Chemical Releases

    PubMed Central

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen F.

    2008-01-01

    Data from a large, multi-state surveillance system on acute chemical releases were analyzed to describe the type of events that are potentially affecting vulnerable populations (children, elderly and hospitalized patients) in order to better prevent and plan for these types of incidents in the future. During 2003–2005, there were 231 events where vulnerable populations were within ¼ mile of the event and the area of impact was greater than 200 feet from the facility/point of release. Most events occurred on a weekday during times when day care centers or schools were likely to be in session. Equipment failure and human error caused a majority of the releases. Agencies involved in preparing for and responding to chemical emergencies should work with hospitals, nursing homes, day care centers, and schools to develop policies and procedures for initiating appropriate protective measures and managing the medical needs of patients. Chemical emergency response drills should involve the entire community to protect those that may be more susceptible to harm. PMID:21572842

  19. Management of acute respiratory infections by community health volunteers: experience of Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC).

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Abdullahel

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of management practices for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in improving the competency of community health volunteers in diagnosing and treating acute respiratory infections among children. METHODS: Data were collected by a group of research physicians who observed the performance of a sample of 120 health volunteers in 10 sub-districts in Bangladesh in which Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) had run a community-based ARI control programme since mid-1992. Standardized tests were conducted until the 95% interphysician reliability on the observation of clinical examination was achieved. FINDINGS:The sensitivity, specificity, and overall agreement rates in diagnosing and treating ARIs were significantly higher among the health volunteers who had basic training and were supervised routinely than among those who had not. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis and treatment of ARIs at the household level in developing countries are possible if intensive basic training and the close supervision of service providers are ensured. PMID:12764514

  20. Potential health effects of space radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.

    1993-01-01

    Crewmembers on missions to the Moon or Mars will be exposed to radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, and possibly solar particle events. The potential health hazards due to these space radiations must be considered carefully to ensure the success of space exploration. Because there is no human radioepidemiological data for acute and late effects of high-LET (Linear-Energy-Transfer) radiation, the biological risks of energetic charged particles have to be estimated from experimental results on animals and cultured cells. Experimental data obtained to date indicate that charged particle radiation can be much more effective than photons in causing chromosome aberrations, cell killing, mutation, and tumor induction. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) varies with biological endpoints and depends on the LET of heavy ions. Most lesions induced by low-LET radiation can be repaired in mammalian cells. Energetic heavy ions, however, can produce large complex DNA damages, which may lead to large deletions and are irreparable. For high-LET radiation, therefore, there are less or no dose rate effects. Physical shielding may not be effective in minimizing the biological effects on energetic heavy ions, since fragments of the primary particles can be effective in causing biological effects. At present the uncertainty of biological effects of heavy particles is still very large. With further understanding of the biological effects of space radiation, the career doses can be kept at acceptable levels so that the space radiation environment need not be a barrier to the exploitation of the promise of space.

  1. Acute and long-term effects of cannabis use: a review.

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Roux, Perrine; Rolland, Benjamin; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Lançon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis remains the most commonly used and trafficked illicit drug in the world. Its use is largely concentrated among young people (15- to 34-year-olds). There is a variety of cannabis use patterns, ranging from experimental use to dependent use. Men are more likely than women to report both early initiation and frequent use of cannabis. Due to the high prevalence of cannabis use, the impact of cannabis on public health may be significant. A range of acute and chronic health problems associated with cannabis use has been identified. Cannabis can frequently have negative effects in its users, which may be amplified by certain demographic and/or psychosocial factors. Acute adverse effects include hyperemesis syndrome, impaired coordination and performance, anxiety, suicidal ideations/tendencies, and psychotic symptoms. Acute cannabis consumption is also associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, especially fatal collisions. Evidence indicates that frequent and prolonged use of cannabis can be detrimental to both mental and physical health. Chronic effects of cannabis use include mood disorders, exacerbation of psychotic disorders in vulnerable people, cannabis use disorders, withdrawal syndrome, neurocognitive impairments, cardiovascular and respiratory and other diseases.

  2. [New welding processes and health effects of welding].

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, G Marina; Maestrelli, Piero

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some of the recent developments in the control technology to enhance capability of Pulse Gas Metal Arc Welding. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processing has been also considered. FSW is a new solid-state joining technique. Heat generated by friction at the rotating tool softens the material being welded. FSW can be considered a green and energy-efficient technique without deleterious fumes, gas, radiation, and noise. Application of new welding processes is limited and studies on health effects in exposed workers are lacking. Acute and chronic health effects of conventional welding have been described. Metal fume fever and cross-shift decline of lung function are the main acute respiratory effects. Skin and eyes may be affected by heat, electricity and UV radiations. Chronic effects on respiratory system include chronic bronchitis, a benign pneumoconiosis (siderosis), asthma, and a possible increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Pulmonary infections are increased in terms of severity, duration, and frequency among welders.

  3. Practical legal and ethical considerations for the provision of acute disaster mental health services.

    PubMed

    Call, John A; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jenuwine, Michael J; Flynn, Brian W

    2012-01-01

    Mental health professionals who provide emergency psychosocial assistance in the immediate aftermath of disasters do so in the midst of crisis and chaos. Common roles undertaken by disaster mental health professionals include treating existing conditions of disaster survivors and providing psychosocial support to front line responders and those acutely affected. Other roles include participating in multidisciplinary health care teams as well as monitoring and supporting team members' mental health. When, in the immediate aftermath of a disaster, mental health professionals provide such assistance, they may take on legal and ethical responsibilities that they are not fully aware of or do not fully comprehend. Unfortunately, not much has been written about these obligations, and professional organizations have provided little guidance. Thus, the purpose of the present article is to outline and discuss an analysis framework and suggest recommendations that mental health professionals can use to help guide their actions during the chaos immediate post disaster.

  4. Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy with ceftriaxone for acute tonsillopharyngitis: efficacy, patient satisfaction, cost effectiveness, and safety

    PubMed Central

    Al Alawi, Samah; Abdulkarim, Somaya; Elhennawy, Hazem; Al-Mansoor, Anwar; Al Ansari, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Background Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is the administration of intravenous antimicrobial therapy to patients in an outpatient setting. It may be used for patients who have infections that require parenteral treatment but who are otherwise stable enough to not require admission as inpatients. Objective We aimed to review the treatment of patients with acute tonsillopharyngitis at the OPAT health care clinic in the Bahrain Defense Force Royal Medical Services (BDF-RMS), with regard to efficacy, patient satisfaction, cost effectiveness, and safety. Methods A retrospective case notes review was conducted for all patients admitted to the OPAT clinic in the BDF-RMS with acute tonsillopharyngitis treated with ceftriaxone, between March 2012 and March 2014. Results In the period between March 2012 and March 2014, 97 patients with acute tonsillopharyngitis were treated with ceftriaxone for a minimum of 3 days at the OPAT clinic. In total, 94.8% of patients completed the prescribed course of ceftriaxone. Total cure was achieved in 89.7% of patients. Usage of the OPAT clinic led to cost savings of 10,693 BD, while total bed days saved were 301 over the 2-year period examined by this study. Participants in the program expressed high satisfaction rates, and the average (± standard deviation) score on a patient satisfaction survey was 4.41 (± 0.31) out of a total of 5. This study highlights the efficacy, patient satisfaction, cost effectiveness, and safety of the OPAT clinic service for the treatment of acute tonsillopharyngitis with ceftriaxone. We found a 45.5% drop in admission rate for acute tonsillopharyngitis after starting the OPAT service clinic and that 301 bed days were saved through this treatment. Conclusion This study showed that the management of acute tonsillopharyngitis with ceftriaxone in the OPAT clinic is safe, clinically effective, and cost effective, with low rates of complications/readmissions and high levels of patient

  5. Acute low back problems in adults: assessment and treatment. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.

    PubMed

    1994-12-01

    This Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians contains highlights from the Clinical Practice Guideline version of Acute Low Back Problems in Adults, which was developed by a private-sector panel of health care providers and consumers. The Quick Reference Guide is an example of how a clinician might implement the panel's findings and recommendations on the management of acute low back problems in working-age adults. Topics covered include the initial assessment of patients presenting with acute low back problems, identification of red flags that may indicate the presence of a serious underlying medical condition, initial management, special studies and diagnostic considerations, and further management considerations. Instructions for clinical testing for sciatic tension, recommendations for sitting and unassisted lifting, tests for identification of clinical pathology, and algorithms for patient management are included.

  6. Hydrogen cyanide health effects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, B.L.; Baker, L.H.; Herndon, B.L.; Ellis, H.V. III; Horn, E.M.

    1981-09-01

    Health effects literature primarily related to inhalation exposures to hydrogen cyanide was collected, evaluated, tabulated and summarized. Approximately 170 documents were collected from computerized and manual literature searches covering the period 1899-1981. Pharmacologists and an M.D. epidemiologist rated the documents according to their applicability to the study and their methodology. The approximately 20 documents considered useful for deriving a range of concern for human exposure to hydrogen cyanide from automotive emissions were tabulated. The 25 pages of tables detail the results of acute and repeated dose testing of mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, monkeys, dogs, goats, donkeys and humans as well as human occupational studies. Most of the documents evaluated are described in an annotated bibliography.

  7. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  8. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  9. Correlation of oral health of children with acute leukemia during the induction phase

    PubMed Central

    Dholam, Kanchan P.; Gurav, Sandeep; Dugad, Jinesh; Banavli, Shripad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of acute leukemia's- a common childhood malignancy, involves intensive and powerful multi-drug chemotherapeutic regime. Oral lesions are a common complication in these patients affecting oral health status. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate and assess the oral health status of newly diagnosed leukemic pediatric patients during induction phase and its correlation to outcome of induction therapy. Material Methods: Oral examinations was done in 33 children between the age group of 5-15 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myloblastic leukemia (AML), who were undergoing chemotherapy. Oral Hygiene Index- Simplified, (OHI-S) decayed missing filled teeth index (def/DMFT), Loe and Sillness index for gingiva, and complete blood count at first and fourth week of induction phase were recorded for each patient. The changes in the oral health status were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: During an induction phase it was observed that level of OHI-S (P = 0.002), Loe and Sillness index (P = 0.003), def/DMFT index (P = 0.076), platelet count (P = 0.00) increased significantly and no significant difference was noted in hemoglobin (P = 0.4) and total leucocytes count (P = 0.11). Conclusion: It was observed that, although oral health status had significantly worsened, the induction outcome was not affected. PMID:25006282

  10. Educating Mental Health Clinicians About Sensory Modulation to Enhance Clinical Practice in a Youth Acute Inpatient Mental Health Unit: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Julie; McKenna, Brian; Jackson, Brian; Hitch, Danielle; Benitez, Jessica; McLennan, Cathy; Furness, Trentham

    2016-07-01

    There is an emergence of literature describing effective sensory modulation (SM) interventions to de-escalate violence and aggression among mental health inpatients. However, the evidence is limited to adult settings, with the effect of SM in youth acute settings unknown. Yet, before SM may be used as a de-escalation intervention in youth acute settings, multidisciplinary staff need to be educated about and supported in the clinical application of SM. In the current study, an online SM education package was developed to assist mental health staff understand SM. This was blended with action learning sets (ALS), small group experiential opportunities consisting staff and consumers to learn about SM resources, and the support of SM trained nurses. The aims of the study were to evaluate the effectiveness of this SM education intervention in (a) transferring knowledge of SM to staff, and (b) translating this knowledge into practice in a youth acute inpatient mental health unit. A mixed methods research design with an 11-item pre- and post-education questionnaire was used along with three-month follow-up focus groups. The SM education improved understanding about SM (all 11-items p ≤ 0.004, r ≥ 0.47). Three-months after SM education, four themes evident in the focus group data emerged about the practice and process of SM; (1) translating of learning into practice, (2) SM in practice, (3) perceptions of SM benefits, and (4) limitations of SM. A blended SM education process enhanced clinical practice in the unit, yet participants were mindful of limitations of SM in situations of distress or escalating agitation. PMID:27253182

  11. Recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute inpatient mental health settings in Australia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Dhital, Deepa; Ireland, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Recovery-oriented care acknowledges the unique journey that consumers lead with the aim of regaining control of their lives in order to live a good life. Recovery has become a dominant policy-directed model of many mental health care organizations, but in older-adult acute mental health inpatient settings, nurses do not have a clear description of how to be recovery-oriented. The aims of this study were to determine the extent to which elements of existing nursing practice resemble the domains of recovery-oriented care and provide a baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented mental health care provision. An exploratory, qualitative research design was used to meet the research aims. A purposive sample of mental health nurses (N = 12) participated in focus groups in three older-adult inpatient settings in Australia. A general inductive approach was used to analyze the qualitative data. The mental health nurses in this study readily discussed aspects of their current practice within the recovery domains. They described pragmatic ways to promote a culture of hope, collaborative partnerships, meaningful engagement, autonomy and self-determination, and community participation and citizenship. Nurses also discussed challenges and barriers to recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute mental health settings. This study identified a reasonable baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented older-adult mental healthcare provision. A concerted drive focused on recovery education is required to effectively embed a recovery-orientated paradigm into older-adult mental health settings.

  12. Is racecadotril effective for acute diarrhea in children? -First update.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Josefina; Cifuentes, Lorena

    2016-05-06

    This article updates the December 2015 Living FRISBEE (Living FRISBEE: Living FRIendly Summary of the Body of Evidence using Epistemonikos), based on the detection of two systematic reviews not identified in the previous version. Gastroenteritis or acute watery diarrhea is usually a self-limited disease, but it is still associated to substantial healthcare costs and remains a frequent demand for medical care. Racecadotril, an intestinal enkephalinase inhibitor, has been used as treatment because it would decrease the duration of acute diarrhea and fluid loss. However there is still no evidence supporting its routine use. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified five systematic reviews including nine randomized trials relevant for our question. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded racecadotril probably reduces the duration of acute diarrhea in pediatric patients, without increasing adverse effects.

  13. Is racecadotril effective for acute diarrhea in children? -First update.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Josefina; Cifuentes, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    This article updates the December 2015 Living FRISBEE (Living FRISBEE: Living FRIendly Summary of the Body of Evidence using Epistemonikos), based on the detection of two systematic reviews not identified in the previous version. Gastroenteritis or acute watery diarrhea is usually a self-limited disease, but it is still associated to substantial healthcare costs and remains a frequent demand for medical care. Racecadotril, an intestinal enkephalinase inhibitor, has been used as treatment because it would decrease the duration of acute diarrhea and fluid loss. However there is still no evidence supporting its routine use. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified five systematic reviews including nine randomized trials relevant for our question. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded racecadotril probably reduces the duration of acute diarrhea in pediatric patients, without increasing adverse effects. PMID:26731112

  14. Acute mental health service delivery to Indigenous women: What is known?

    PubMed

    Bradley, Pat; Dunn, Sandra; Lowell, Anne; Nagel, Tricia

    2015-12-01

    The Australian College of Mental Health Nurses directs that mental health nurses must 'enable cultural safety in practice, taking into account age, gender, spirituality, ethnicity and health values'. The present study is a review of the existing literature undertaken in order to identify current knowledge and knowledge gaps regarding the experience of Indigenous women in acute mental health inpatient facilities. In particular, studies that identified environments and practices promoting the development of culturally-safe healing spaces for Indigenous women, and studies that identified women's experience of seclusion, were sought. The results showed that there is little literature directly relevant to Indigenous women's experiences of inpatient mental health units in Australia. The present study consolidates existing knowledge and knowledge gaps, and advances the argument for gender-disaggregated future research. Implications for professional practice and service development are also noted.

  15. Enhancing adult therapeutic interpersonal relationships in the acute health care setting: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Kornhaber, Rachel; Walsh, Kenneth; Duff, Jed; Walker, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic interpersonal relationships are the primary component of all health care interactions that facilitate the development of positive clinician–patient experiences. Therapeutic interpersonal relationships have the capacity to transform and enrich the patients’ experiences. Consequently, with an increasing necessity to focus on patient-centered care, it is imperative for health care professionals to therapeutically engage with patients to improve health-related outcomes. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO databases of peer-reviewed research, limited to the English language with search terms developed to reflect therapeutic interpersonal relationships between health care professionals and patients in the acute care setting. This study found that therapeutic listening, responding to patient emotions and unmet needs, and patient centeredness were key characteristics of strategies for improving therapeutic interpersonal relationships. PMID:27789958

  16. Acute Achilles tendinopathy: effect of pain control on leg stiffness.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, J; Kokalj, A

    2014-03-01

    Tendinopathies are a major cause of disability in the athletic population; the main purpose of the treatment of these injuries is to reduce pain and improve function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NSAIDs on leg stiffness of patients suffering acute unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. Twenty-eight eligible male athletes (aged 39.1 ± 10.3 y) suffering acute Achilles tendinopathy were treated with etoricoxib (120 mg oral once daily) during 7 days. Pain (100-mm visual analogue scale-VAS), analgesic effect (percentage of 100-mm VAS reduction), and leg stiffness were evaluated pre- and post- anti-inflammatory treatment. Results of this study showed that over the 7-day treatment period, etoricoxib provided significant relief of Achilles tendon pain (VAS) compared to that experienced at baseline: 54.5 ± 21.6 and 24.5 ± 24.8, respectively (p<0.001). Leg stiffness showed a significant improvement after one-week NSAID therapy: LSR 0.89 ± 0.1 vs. 0.97 ± 0.1; (p=0.02). In conclusion, findings of this study demonstrated that patients suffering acute unilateral Achilles tendinopathy increased their leg stiffness of the affected side after oral anti-inflammatory therapy. Effective control of tendon pain in the acute phase of such sports-related injuries may contribute to improve capabilities associated with high performance like leg stiffness. PMID:24583548

  17. Increased systolic blood pressure reactivity to acute stress is related with better self-reported health

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Bradley J.; O'Brien, Shaun; Hazi, Agnes; Kent, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The stress reactivity hypothesis posits that the magnitude of cardiovascular reactions to acute stress tasks is related with future blood pressure status, heart hypertrophy, and atherosclerosis. We assessed the stress reactivity hypothesis and aimed to identify which physiological indices (blood pressure, heart-rate, cortisol, salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA)) related to self-reported mental and physical health. We also assessed if physiological reactions elicited by an acute stressor were more related than basal assessments. Participants provided physiological samples, self-reported stress and health-data before and after an assessed 5–7 minute academic oral presentation. In hierarchical regression models, increased systolic and reduced sIgA reactivity was associated with better perceptions of mental health. Reactivity data were more related to self-reported data than basal data. In line with the only 2 studies to assess the reactivity hypothesis with self-perceived health, increased systolic reactivity was best associated with better perceived physical and mental health. The findings suggest that increased SBP reactivity may also be associated with positive health outcomes. Further research is required to determine if increased or decreased sIgA reactivity is most predictive of future morbidity. PMID:25391460

  18. Health Effects of Climate Change (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  19. Infectious Etiologies of Acute Febrile Illness among Patients Seeking Health Care in South-Central Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Matthew R.; Blair, Patrick J.; Touch, Sok; Sokhal, Buth; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Williams, Maya; Richards, Allen L.; Burgess, Timothy H.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Putnam, Shannon D.

    2012-01-01

    The agents of human febrile illness can vary by region and country suggesting that diagnosis, treatment, and control programs need to be based on a methodical evaluation of area-specific etiologies. From December 2006 to December 2009, 9,997 individuals presenting with acute febrile illness at nine health care clinics in south-central Cambodia were enrolled in a study to elucidate the etiologies. Upon enrollment, respiratory specimens, whole blood, and serum were collected. Testing was performed for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. Etiologies were identified in 38.0% of patients. Influenza was the most frequent pathogen, followed by dengue, malaria, and bacterial pathogens isolated from blood culture. In addition, 3.5% of enrolled patients were infected with more than one pathogen. Our data provide the first systematic assessment of the etiologies of acute febrile illness in south-central Cambodia. Data from syndromic-based surveillance studies can help guide public health responses in developing nations. PMID:22302857

  20. Infectious etiologies of acute febrile illness among patients seeking health care in south-central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Matthew R; Blair, Patrick J; Touch, Sok; Sokhal, Buth; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Williams, Maya; Richards, Allen L; Burgess, Timothy H; Wierzba, Thomas F; Putnam, Shannon D

    2012-02-01

    The agents of human febrile illness can vary by region and country suggesting that diagnosis, treatment, and control programs need to be based on a methodical evaluation of area-specific etiologies. From December 2006 to December 2009, 9,997 individuals presenting with acute febrile illness at nine health care clinics in south-central Cambodia were enrolled in a study to elucidate the etiologies. Upon enrollment, respiratory specimens, whole blood, and serum were collected. Testing was performed for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. Etiologies were identified in 38.0% of patients. Influenza was the most frequent pathogen, followed by dengue, malaria, and bacterial pathogens isolated from blood culture. In addition, 3.5% of enrolled patients were infected with more than one pathogen. Our data provide the first systematic assessment of the etiologies of acute febrile illness in south-central Cambodia. Data from syndromic-based surveillance studies can help guide public health responses in developing nations.

  1. Health effects of air pollution and the Japanese compensation law

    SciTech Connect

    Namekata, T.; Duv Florey, C.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Part 1. Individual Presentations: I. Gas Cooking and Respiratory Disease in Children, II. Health Effects of Fossil Fuel Combustion Compared With Effects of Energy Shortages, III. Daily Symptoms of Lung Function in Relation to Air Pollution: A Study in West Berlin 1982/83, IV. Studies of the Acute Effects of London Smog, and Their Relevance to Present-Day Conditions, V. Epidemiological Issues on Air Pollution in the Japanese Pollution-Related Health Damage Compensation Law. Part 2. Panel Discussion: Epidemiological Issues on Air Pollution in the Japanese Pollution-Related Health Damage Compensation Law; Problems in Air Pollution Epidemiology; Exposure Criteria for Compensation; Problems in the Use of Respiratory Symptoms Questionnaires; Legal and Policy Issues in the Japanes Compensation Law. Part 3. Background Information: I. Legal and Policy Issues in the Japanese Compensation Law. II. Reappraisal of Air Pollution/Health Effects Studies in Japan.

  2. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E

    2013-12-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations.

  3. Health effects of oxygenated fuels.

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, M G

    1993-01-01

    The use of oxygenated fuels is anticipated to increase over the next decades. This paper reviews the toxicological and exposure information for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), a fuel additive, and methanol, a replacement fuel, and discusses the possible health consequences of exposure of the general public to these compounds. For MTBE, the health effects information available is derived almost exclusively from rodent studies, and the exposure data are limited to a few measurements at some service stations. Based on these data, it appears unlikely that the normal population is at high risk of exposure to MTBE vapor. However, in the absence of health and pharmacokinetic data in humans or in nonhuman primates, this conclusion is not strongly supported. Similarly, there are a number of uncertainties to take into consideration in estimating human risk from the use of methanol as a fuel. Although methanol may be toxic to humans at concentrations that overwhelm certain enzymes involved in methanol metabolism, the data available provide little evidence to indicate that exposure to methanol vapors from the use of methanol as a motor vehicle fuel will result in adverse health effects. The uncertainties in this conclusion are based on the lack of information on dose-response relationship at reasonable, projected exposure levels and of studies examining end points of concern in sensitive species. In developing a quantitative risk assessment, more needs to be known about health effects in primates or humans and the range of exposure expected for the general public for both compounds. PMID:8020439

  4. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. School-Based Mental Health Program Evaluation: Children's School Outcomes and Acute Mental Health Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Mandell, David S.; Hadley, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of school-based mental health programs on children's school outcomes and the utilization of acute mental health services. Methods: The study sample included 468 Medicaid-enrolled children aged 6 to 17 years who were enrolled 1 of 2 school-based mental health programs (SBMHs) in a metropolitan area…

  6. Mental health nurses' perceptions of good work in an acute setting.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Jackson, Debra; Hunt, Glenn E

    2012-10-01

    Frequently, research and conference papers explore difficult or problematic areas of practice that can inadvertently render daily nursing accomplishments invisible and create the perception of a discipline in crisis. In this qualitative study, we explore the views of registered nurses about achievements in the workplace and good nursing work in an acute inpatient mental health setting in Sydney, Australia. Mental health nurses were asked a series of questions about their experiences and understanding of what constitutes good nursing work as well as their sense of optimism about their work. A total of 40 structured face-to-face interviews were completed. Among the responses to questions about achievements and good nursing practice, five broad themes were identified: i) teamwork; (ii) interpersonal interactions with patients; (iii) providing practical and holistic support to patients; (iv) patients' mental health improvements; and (v) optimism-pessimism continuum. Findings contribute to a discussion of good nursing work in acute mental health settings, as well as self-perceptions of optimism and hopefulness, which are important contributors to positive, supportive health-care settings and patient recovery.

  7. The effects of acute and chronic stress on diabetes control.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2012-10-23

    Stress is an important contributor to pathological conditions in humans. Hormonal changes that occur during acute and chronic stress situations can affect glucose homeostasis in both healthy people and in those with diabetes. Several studies have reported a negative effect of acute stress on maintenance of blood glucose concentrations in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The effect of stress on glycemic control in people with diabetes may be related to a direct effect of stress hormones on blood glucose levels and an indirect effect of stress on patient behaviors related to diabetes treatment and monitoring and meal and exercise plans. In contrast, there is no clear evidence that stressful life events promote the development of diabetes in children or in adults. Stress hyperglycemia, the development of hyperglycemia during acute illness, represents another interesting connection between the stress system and glucose homeostasis. A large body of evidence supports an association between stress hyperglycemia and increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Interestingly, there is some evidence supporting a beneficial effect of insulin in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to intensive care units. Finally, stress can influence the development of type 2 diabetes indirectly by promoting obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23092890

  8. ACUTE-TO-CHRONIC ESTIMATION (ACE V 2.0) WITH TIME-CONCENTRATION-EFFECT MODELS: USER MANUAL AND SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ellersieck, Mark R., Amha Asfaw, Foster L. Mayer, Gary F. Krause, Kai Sun and Gunhee Lee. 2003. Acute-to-Chronic Estimation (ACE v2.0) with Time-Concentration-Effect Models: User Manual and Software. EPA/600/R-03/107. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Envi...

  9. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  10. Health effects of smokeless tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-28

    Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

  11. Acute IOP elevation with scleral suction: effects on retrobulbar haemodynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, A; Joos, K; Kay, M; Evans, D; Shetty, R; Sponsel, W E; Martin, B

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Mechanical and vascular factors may both contribute to glaucoma. This study investigated the relation of mechanical to vascular factors by examining how acute IOP elevation altered flow velocities in the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries. METHODS: IOP was elevated from a baseline near 14 to approximately 45 mm Hg using suction ophthalmodynamometry. During recovery from scleral suction, IOP fell to near 8 mm Hg. At each IOP, peak systolic and end diastolic velocities (PSV and EDV) were measured in the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries using colour Doppler imaging (Siemens Quantum 2000). Eleven healthy people served as subjects. RESULTS: Acute elevation in IOP had no effect upon PSV, EDV, or the derived resistance index in the ophthalmic artery: flow velocities in this vessel were identical at IOP of 8 mm Hg or 45 mm Hg. In contrast, in the central retinal artery, PSV and EDV fell, and the resistance index rose, in steady progression as IOP was acutely elevated (each p < 0.01). At IOP of 45 mm Hg, EDV was virtually absent and the resistance index was very nearly 1.0. CONCLUSION: Ophthalmic arterial haemodynamics are unrelated to acute fluctuations of the IOP over a wide range, suggesting that ocular hypertension itself cannot induce vascular dysfunction in this artery. In contrast, flow velocities in the central retinal artery were highly IOP dependent, implying that haemodynamic and mechanical factors are closely linked in this vascular bed. PMID:9059269

  12. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  13. The habitus of 'rescue' and its significance for implementation of rapid response systems in acute health care.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Nicola; Humphrey, Charlotte; Sandall, Jane

    2014-11-01

    The need to focus on patient safety and improve the quality and consistency of medical care in acute hospital settings has been highlighted in a number of UK and international reports. When patients on a hospital ward become acutely unwell there is often a window of opportunity for staff, patients and relatives to contribute to the 'rescue' process by intervening in the trajectory of clinical deterioration. This paper explores the social and institutional processes associated with the practice of rescue, and implications for the implementation and effectiveness of rapid response systems (RRSs) within acute health care. An ethnographic case study was conducted in 2009 in two UK hospitals (focussing on the medical directorates in each organisation). Data collection involved 180 h of observation, 35 staff interviews (doctors, nurses, health care assistants and managers) and documentary review. Analysis was informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice and his relational concept of the 'field' of the general medical ward. Three themes illustrated the nature of rescue work within the field and collective rules which guided associated occupational distinction practices: (1) the 'dirty work' of vital sign recording and its distinction from diagnostic (higher order) interpretive work; (2) the moral order of legitimacy claims for additional help; and (3) professional deference and the selective managerial control of rescue work. The discourse of rescue provided a means of exercising greater control over clinical uncertainty. The acquisition of 'rescue capital' enabled the social positioning of health care assistants, nurses and doctors, and shaped use of the RRS on the wards. Boundary work, professional legitimation and jurisdictional claims defined the social practice of rescue, as clinical staff had to balance safety, professional and organisational concerns within the field. This paper offers a nuanced understanding of patient safety on the front-line, challenging notions of

  14. The habitus of 'rescue' and its significance for implementation of rapid response systems in acute health care.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Nicola; Humphrey, Charlotte; Sandall, Jane

    2014-11-01

    The need to focus on patient safety and improve the quality and consistency of medical care in acute hospital settings has been highlighted in a number of UK and international reports. When patients on a hospital ward become acutely unwell there is often a window of opportunity for staff, patients and relatives to contribute to the 'rescue' process by intervening in the trajectory of clinical deterioration. This paper explores the social and institutional processes associated with the practice of rescue, and implications for the implementation and effectiveness of rapid response systems (RRSs) within acute health care. An ethnographic case study was conducted in 2009 in two UK hospitals (focussing on the medical directorates in each organisation). Data collection involved 180 h of observation, 35 staff interviews (doctors, nurses, health care assistants and managers) and documentary review. Analysis was informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice and his relational concept of the 'field' of the general medical ward. Three themes illustrated the nature of rescue work within the field and collective rules which guided associated occupational distinction practices: (1) the 'dirty work' of vital sign recording and its distinction from diagnostic (higher order) interpretive work; (2) the moral order of legitimacy claims for additional help; and (3) professional deference and the selective managerial control of rescue work. The discourse of rescue provided a means of exercising greater control over clinical uncertainty. The acquisition of 'rescue capital' enabled the social positioning of health care assistants, nurses and doctors, and shaped use of the RRS on the wards. Boundary work, professional legitimation and jurisdictional claims defined the social practice of rescue, as clinical staff had to balance safety, professional and organisational concerns within the field. This paper offers a nuanced understanding of patient safety on the front-line, challenging notions of

  15. Thyroid receptor β involvement in the effects of acute nicotine on hippocampus-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Leach, Prescott T; Kenney, Justin W; Connor, David A; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common despite adverse health effects. Nicotine's effects on learning may contribute to addiction by enhancing drug-context associations. Effects of nicotine on learning could be direct or could occur by altering systems that modulate cognition. Because thyroid signaling can alter cognition and nicotine/smoking may change thyroid function, nicotine could affect learning through changes in thyroid signaling. These studies investigate the functional contributions of thyroid receptor (TR) subtypes β and α1 to nicotine-enhanced learning and characterize the effects of acute nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels. We conducted a high throughput screen of transcription factor activity to identify novel targets that may contribute to the effects of nicotine on learning. Based on these results, which showed that combined nicotine and learning uniquely acted to increase TR activation, we identified TRs as potential targets of nicotine. Further analyses were conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels, but no changes were seen. Next, to determine the role of TRβ and TRα1 in the effects of nicotine on learning, mice lacking the TRβ or TRα1 gene and wildtype littermates were administered acute nicotine prior to fear conditioning. Nicotine enhanced contextual fear conditioning in TRα1 knockout mice and wildtypes from both lines but TRβ knockout mice did not show nicotine-enhanced learning. This finding supports involvement of TRβ signaling in the effect of acute nicotine on hippocampus-dependent memory. Acute nicotine enhances learning and these effects may involve processes regulated by the transcription factor TRβ. PMID:25666034

  16. Thyroid Receptor β Involvement in the Effects of Acute Nicotine on Hippocampus-Dependent Memory

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Prescott T.; Kenney, Justin W.; Connor, David; Gould, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is common despite adverse health effects. Nicotine’s effects on learning may contribute to addiction by enhancing drug-context associations. Effects of nicotine on learning could be direct or could occur by altering systems that modulate cognition. Because thyroid signaling can alter cognition and nicotine/smoking may change thyroid function, nicotine could affect learning through changes in thyroid signaling. These studies investigate the functional contributions of thyroid receptor (TR) subtypes β and α1 to nicotine-enhanced learning and characterize the effects of acute nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels. We conducted a high throughput screen of transcription factor activity to identify novel targets that may contribute to the effects of nicotine on learning. Based on these results, which showed that combined nicotine and learning uniquely acted to increase TR activation, we identified TRs as potential targets of nicotine. Further analyses were conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels, but no changes were seen. Next, to determine the role of TRβ and TRα1 in the effects of nicotine on learning, mice lacking the TRβ or TRα1 gene and wildtype littermates were administered acute nicotine prior to fear conditioning. Nicotine enhanced contextual fear conditioning in TRα1 knockout mice and wildtypes from both lines but TRβ knockout mice did not show nicotine-enhanced learning. This finding supports involvement of TRβ signaling in the effect of acute nicotine on hippocampus-dependent memory. Acute nicotine enhances learning and these effects may involve processes regulated by the transcription factor TRβ. PMID:25666034

  17. [Health effects of living habits].

    PubMed

    Vuori, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    Single healthy living habits such as non-smoking and regular physical activity decrease the risk of common non-communicable diseases, unsuccessful aging and premature death to a small to moderate degree. Their cumulative effects are, however, large. Only a small minority of people adhere well to all healthy living habits or even the healthiest ones. Consequently, the population attributable fractions of major public health problems due to unhealthy lifestyles are large. Substantial improvement of public health calls for policies and programs to influence the root causes of the lifestyles in the multiple environments and systems where they are developed, maintained, and changed.

  18. The Protective Effects of Buzui on Acute Alcoholism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Da-Chao; Gao, Shu-di; Hu, Xiao-yu; Yi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of a traditional buzui recipe in anti-inebriation treatment. Buzui consists of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Chebulae, Fructus Mume, Fructus Crataegi, Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli, and Excrementum Bombycis. The buzui mixture was delivered by gavage, and ethanol was delivered subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of buzui on the righting reflex, inebriation rates, and the survival curve are depicted. Blood alcohol concentrations, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were recorded. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, were also measured. Our results demonstrated that a traditional buzui recipe showed significant effects on promoting wakefulness and the prevention of acute alcohol intoxication, accelerating the metabolism of alcohol in the liver and reducing the oxidative damage caused by acute alcoholism. PMID:26884793

  19. Effects of acute exercise on long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Labban, Jeffrey D; Etnier, Jennifer L

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: exercise prior to exposure, exercise after exposure, or no-exercise. Exercise consisted of 30 min on a cycle ergometer including 20 min at moderate intensity. Only the exercise prior group recalled significantly more than the control group (p < .05). Differences among the exercise groups failed to reach significance (p = .09). Results indicated that acute exercise positively influenced recall and that exercise timing relative to memory task may have an impact on this effect.

  20. Pathways to catastrophic health expenditure for acute coronary syndrome in Kerala: ‘Good health at low cost’?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Universal health coverage through the removal of financial and other barriers to access, particularly for people who are poor, is a global priority. This viewpoint describes the many pathways to catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) for patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) based on two case studies and the thematic analysis of field notes regarding 210 patients and their households from a study based in Kerala, India. Discussion There is evidence of the severe financial impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which is in contradiction to the widely acclaimed Kerala model: Good health at low cost. However, it is important to look beyond the out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) and CHE to the possible pathways and identify the triggers that make families vulnerable to CHE. The identified pathways include a primary and secondary loop. The primary pathway describes the direct path by which families experience CHE. These include: 1) factors related to the pre-event period that increase the likelihood of experiencing CHE, such as being from the lower socio-economic strata (SES), past financial losses or loans that leave families with no financial shock absorber at the time of illness; 2) factors related to the acute event, diagnosis, treatment and hospitalization and expenditures incurred for the same and; 3) factors related to the post-event period such as loss of gainful employment and means of financing both the acute period and the long-term management particularly through distress financing. The secondary pathway arises from the primary and includes: 1) the impact of distress financing and; 2) the long- and short- term consequences of CHE. These factors ultimately result in a vicious cycle of debt and poverty through non-compliance and repeat acute events. Summary This paper outlines the direct and indirect pathways by which patients with ACS and their families are trapped in a vicious cycle of debt and poverty. It also contradicts the prevailing

  1. Spaceflight Sensorimotor Analogs: Simulating Acute and Adaptive Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Reschke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes in sensorimotor function during spaceflight are reflected by spatial disorientation, motion sickness, gaze destabilization and decrements in balance, locomotion and eye-hand coordination that occur during and following transitions between different gravitational states. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-synthesis of data from spaceflight analogs to evaluate their effectiveness in simulating adaptive changes in sensorimotor function. METHODS. The analogs under review were categorized as either acute analogs used to simulate performance decrements accompanied with transient changes, or adaptive analogs used to drive sensorimotor learning to altered sensory feedback. The effectiveness of each analog was evaluated in terms of mechanisms of action, magnitude and time course of observed deficits compared to spaceflight data, and the effects of amplitude and exposure duration. RESULTS. Parabolic flight has been used extensively to examine effects of acute variation in gravitational loads, ranging from hypergravity to microgravity. More recently, galvanic vestibular stimulation has been used to elicit acute postural, locomotor and gaze dysfunction by disrupting vestibular afferents. Patient populations, e.g., with bilateral vestibular loss or cerebellar dysfunction, have been proposed to model acute sensorimotor dysfunction. Early research sponsored by NASA involved living onboard rotating rooms, which appeared to approximate the time course of adaptation and post-exposure recovery observed in astronauts following spaceflight. Exposure to different bed-rest paradigms (6 deg head down, dry immersion) result in similar motor deficits to that observed following spaceflight. Shorter adaptive analogs have incorporated virtual reality environments, visual distortion paradigms, exposure to conflicting tilt-translation cues, and exposure to 3Gx centrifugation. As with spaceflight, there is considerable variability in responses to most of the analogs

  2. Health effect levels for risk assessment of childhood exposure to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Joyce S; Benson, Robert; Schoof, Rosalind A; Hook, Gene C

    2004-04-01

    Health risks to children from chemicals in soil and consumer products have become a regulatory focus in the U.S. This study reviews short-term health effect levels for arsenic exposure in young children (i.e., 0-6 years old). Acute health effects are described mostly in adults in case reports of arsenic poisoning from water or food and in studies of medicinal arsenic treatment. Several epidemiological studies report health effects from subchronic arsenic exposure in children primarily from drinking water in developing countries. Acute health effects typically include gastrointestinal, neurological, and skin effects, and in a few cases facial edema and cardiac arrhythmia. Dermatoses are most consistently reported in both adults and children with subchronic exposure. With low exposure, the prevalence and severity of disease generally increases with age (i.e., length of exposure) and arsenic dose. The available data collectively indicate a lowest-observed-adverse-effect level around 0.05mg/kg-day for both acute and subchronic exposure. At low doses, children do not appear to be more sensitive than adults on a dose-per-body-weight basis, although data for acute exposures are limited and uncertainties exist for quantifying potential neurological or vascular effects at low-level subchronic exposures. Based on these data, possible reference levels for acute and subchronic exposure in young children are 0.015 and 0.005mg/kg-day, respectively.

  3. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    PubMed Central

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  4. REINFORCEMENT ENHANCING EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE VIA ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Michael, Valerie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. Methods We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”) on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10 ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled “36 mg/ml”) or placebo (“0”) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one’s own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Results Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Conclusions Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. PMID:26070455

  5. Influence of age, previous health status, and severity of acute illness on outcome from intensive care.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, J R; Brun-Buisson, C; Trunet, P; Latournerie, J; Chantereau, S; Rapin, M

    1982-09-01

    Age, previous health status (HS), and severity of acute illness were assessed prospectively on 228 unselected patients admitted over 1 yr to the multidisciplinary ICU, to determine their influence on outcome. One hundred and fifty patients (66%) were discharged from the ICU, but the survival rate fell to 50% at 6 months, and was similar after 1 yr (49%). Over a 6-month period, there was improved HS in survivors which gradually leveled off. Compared to prior HS, the final HS was worsened in 37% of survivors. Three factors were important predictors of late survival: age under 50, good previous HS, and less than two visceral failures. We conclude that evaluation of ICU outcome should provide information on 6-month survival and HS and include important variables as age, previous HS, and severity of acute illness. PMID:7105766

  6. Assessment of the Acute and Chronic Health Hazards of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids.

    PubMed

    Wattenberg, Elizabeth V; Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Suchomel, Ashley E; Sweet, Jessica T; Vold, Elizabeth M; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about how hydraulic fracturing affects public health because this activity involves handling large volumes of fluids that contain toxic and carcinogenic constituents, which are injected under high pressure through wells into the subsurface to release oil and gas from tight shale formations. The constituents of hydraulic fracturing fluids (HFFs) present occupational health risks because workers may be directly exposed to them, and general public health risks because of potential air and water contamination. Hazard identification, which focuses on the types of toxicity that substances may cause, is an important step in the complex health risk assessment of hydraulic fracturing. This article presents a practical and adaptable tool for the hazard identification of HFF constituents, and its use in the analysis of HFF constituents reported to be used in 2,850 wells in North Dakota between December 2009 and November 2013. Of the 569 reported constituents, 347 could be identified by a Chemical Abstract Service Registration Number (CASRN) and matching constituent name. The remainder could not be identified either because of trade secret labeling (210) or because of an invalid CASRN (12). Eleven public databases were searched for health hazard information on thirteen health hazard endpoints for 168 identifiable constituents that had at least 25 reports of use. Health hazard counts were generated for chronic and acute endpoints, including those associated with oral, inhalation, ocular, and dermal exposure. Eleven of the constituents listed in the top 30 by total health hazard count were also listed in the top 30 by reports of use. This includes naphthalene, which along with benzyl chloride, has the highest health hazard count. The top 25 constituents reportedly used in North Dakota largely overlap with those reported for Texas and Pennsylvania, despite different geologic formations, target resources (oil vs. gas), and disclosure requirements

  7. Assessment of the Acute and Chronic Health Hazards of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids.

    PubMed

    Wattenberg, Elizabeth V; Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Suchomel, Ashley E; Sweet, Jessica T; Vold, Elizabeth M; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about how hydraulic fracturing affects public health because this activity involves handling large volumes of fluids that contain toxic and carcinogenic constituents, which are injected under high pressure through wells into the subsurface to release oil and gas from tight shale formations. The constituents of hydraulic fracturing fluids (HFFs) present occupational health risks because workers may be directly exposed to them, and general public health risks because of potential air and water contamination. Hazard identification, which focuses on the types of toxicity that substances may cause, is an important step in the complex health risk assessment of hydraulic fracturing. This article presents a practical and adaptable tool for the hazard identification of HFF constituents, and its use in the analysis of HFF constituents reported to be used in 2,850 wells in North Dakota between December 2009 and November 2013. Of the 569 reported constituents, 347 could be identified by a Chemical Abstract Service Registration Number (CASRN) and matching constituent name. The remainder could not be identified either because of trade secret labeling (210) or because of an invalid CASRN (12). Eleven public databases were searched for health hazard information on thirteen health hazard endpoints for 168 identifiable constituents that had at least 25 reports of use. Health hazard counts were generated for chronic and acute endpoints, including those associated with oral, inhalation, ocular, and dermal exposure. Eleven of the constituents listed in the top 30 by total health hazard count were also listed in the top 30 by reports of use. This includes naphthalene, which along with benzyl chloride, has the highest health hazard count. The top 25 constituents reportedly used in North Dakota largely overlap with those reported for Texas and Pennsylvania, despite different geologic formations, target resources (oil vs. gas), and disclosure requirements

  8. Continuous quality improvement in acute health care: creating a holistic and integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Sewell, N

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the range of quality activity in a National Health Service hospital trust, using a staff questionnaire survey, self-assessment against the Baldrige Quality Award criteria, and the application of the SERVQUAL approach to service quality assessment. Reviews the acute health care quality programme literature. Finds that there are needs for greater integration of quality effort, to engage with patients in a more meaningful manner, and to achieve greater commitment and involvement from clinicians and managers. Identifies lack of time and resources as a major barrier to greater application of quality programmes. Explores ways of developing a more holistic and integrated programme of quality improvement. Describes the creation and implementation of a model for continuous improvement in health care quality.

  9. [Health effects of environmental noise exposure].

    PubMed

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In the EU 27 countries about 100 million persons are exposed to road traffic noise above 55 dB (LDEN) according to the European Environment Agency. Exposure to railway noise affects 16 million individuals, aircraft noise 4 million and industry noise 1 million persons. Although the proportion of people reporting to be annoyed by noise exposure is substantial, health effects of noise is rarely an issue in general practitioners' consultations. According to stress models chronic noise exposure results in an increased allostatic load by direct physiological responses as well as psychological stress responses including sleep disturbances. In relation to acute and chronic noise exposure an increase of blood pressure was observed in epidemiological studies. An association between ischemic heart diseases and noise exposure was observed in various studies. However, the data is less consistent for other cardiovascular diseases and for cognitive effects in children. The association between metabolic syndrome and noise has rarely been investigated so far. Recently an association between road traffic noise and diabetes was observed in a Danish cohort study. Given the plausibility for a noise effect, general practitioners should consider noise exposure in patients with increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:24297857

  10. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Islambulchilar, Mina; Asvadi, Iraj; Sanaat, Zohreh; Esfahani, Ali; Sattari, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally). Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years). The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05) increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05) lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes. PMID:25789226

  11. Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2014 Mar 5]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ... Office on Smoking and Health, 2006 [accessed 2014 Mar 5]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ...

  12. Reasons and circumstances for the late notification of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) cases in health facilities in Luanda

    PubMed Central

    Macama, Arciolanda; Okeibunor, Joseph; Grando, Silvia; Djibaoui, Karim; Yameogo, Robert Koudounoaga; Morais, Alda; Gasasira, Alex Ntale; Mbaye, Salla; Mihigo, Richard; Nshimirimana, Deo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As the polio eradication effort enters the end game stage, surveillance for Acute Flaccid Paralysis in children becomes a pivotal tool. Thus given the gaps in AFP surveillance as identified in the cases of late notification, this study was designed to explore the reasons and circumstances responsible for late notification of AFP and collection of inadequate stools (more than 14 days of onset of paralysis until collection of the 2nd stool specimen) of AFP cases in health facilities equipped to manage AFP cases. Methods Eleven AFP cases with inadequate stools were reported from January 2 to July 8, 2012 - Epidemiological Weeks 1-27. The families of these cases were interviewed with an in-depth interview guide. The staff of the seven health units, where they later reported, was also enlisted for the study which used in-depth interview guide in eliciting information from them. Results Ignorance and wrong perception of the etiology of the cases as well as dissatisfaction with the health units as the major reasons for late reporting of AFP cases. The first port of call is usually alternative health care system such as traditional healers and spiritualists because the people hold the belief that the problem is spiritually induced. The few, who make it to health units, are faced with ill equipped rural health workers who wait for the arrival of more qualified staff, who may take days to do so. Conclusion An understanding of the health seeking behavior of the population is germane to effective AFP surveillance. There is thus a need to tailor AFP surveillance to the health seeking behavior of the populations and expand it to community structures. PMID:25426197

  13. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Ready, aim fire! Mental health nurses under siege in acute inpatient facilities.

    PubMed

    Ward, Louise

    2013-04-01

    It has been clearly acknowledged and well-documented that physical, emotional, and psychological violence is a central theme and an expected workplace hazard for registered nurses working in acute inpatient mental health care facilities. Limited research, however, has focused on how registered nurses have been able to cope within this environment and adequately protect themselves from harm. A critical feminist research project recently explored the lived experience of 13 Australian, female, registered nurses working in a busy metropolitan acute inpatient mental health care facility. "Fear" was exposed as the precursor to violence and aggression, both "fear as experienced by the nurse" and "fear as experienced by the patient." The participants reported experiencing a sense of fear when they could not accurately or confidently anticipate a patient response or reaction. They identified this relationship with fear as being "part of the job" and part of the unpredictable nature of caring for people experiencing complex distortions in thinking and behavior. The participants believed, however, that additional workplace pressures complicated the therapeutic environment, resulting in a distraction from patient care and observation. This distraction could lead to nurse-patient miscommunication and the potential for violence. This article discusses a major theme to emerge from this study, "Better the devil you know!" The theme highlights how mental health nurses cope with violence and why they choose to continue working in this complex care environment. PMID:23566191

  15. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Bahareh; Nakhsaz, Alireza; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) were evaluated using forced swim test (FST). In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals), antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of drugs were examined using FST and tail suspension test (TST). Locomotor activity and motor coordination were studied using open field and rotarod tests, respectively. Results: Acute treatment with crocin (40 mg/kg) and crocetin (20 and 40 mg/kg) produced antidepressant-like effect in FST without affecting the baseline locomotion in mice. Sub-acute oral administration of crocin significantly decreased immobility time only at the highest dose (100 mg/kg). Crocetin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was able to decrease immobility time in FST and TST. Locomotor activity and coordination of mice were not affected by crocin or crocetin. Conclusion: Since higher doses of crocin was required to show antidepressant effects, more efficacy of crocetin may be concluded. This observation provides further support for metabolism of crocin to crocetin following oral administration. PMID:26468466

  16. Effects of acute and chronic administration of neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on neuronal excitability in mice

    PubMed Central

    Svob Strac, Dubravka; Vlainic, Josipa; Samardzic, Janko; Erhardt, Julija; Krsnik, Zeljka

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) has been associated with important brain functions, including neuronal survival, memory, and behavior, showing therapeutic potential in various neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. However, the antagonistic effects of DHEAS on γ-amino-butyric acidA receptors and its facilitatory action on glutamatergic neurotransmission might lead to enhanced brain excitability and seizures and thus limit DHEAS therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to investigate possible age and sex differences in the neuronal excitability of the mice following acute and chronic DHEAS administration. Methods DHEAS was administered intraperitoneally in male and female adult and old mice either acutely or repeatedly once daily for 4 weeks in a 10 mg/kg dose. To investigate the potential proconvulsant properties of DHEAS, we studied the effects of acute and chronic DHEAS treatment on picrotoxin-, pentylentetrazole-, and N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced seizures in mice. The effects of acute and chronic DHEAS administration on the locomotor activity, motor coordination, and body weight of the mice were also studied. We also investigated the effects of DHEAS treatment on [3H]flunitrazepam binding to the mouse brain membranes. Results DHEAS did not modify the locomotor activity, motor coordination, body weight, and brain [3H]flunitrazepam binding of male and female mice. The results failed to demonstrate significant effects of single- and long-term DHEAS treatment on the convulsive susceptibility in both adult and aged mice of both sexes. However, small but significant changes regarding sex differences in the susceptibility to seizures were observed following DHEAS administration to mice. Conclusion Although our findings suggest that DHEAS treatment might be safe for various potential therapeutic applications in adult as well as in old age, they also support subtle interaction of DHEAS with male and female hormonal status

  17. Acute effects of ethanol on renal folate clearance in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.; McMartin, K.E.

    1986-03-05

    Studies of the renal clearance of folic acid in primates demonstrate net reabsorption of folate by a saturable system. The acute administration of ethanol to rats causes a significant increase in urinary folate excretion. The mechanism for this effect is unknown and thus the effect of acute administration of ethanol on the renal absorption and urinary clearance of folate was studied in rats. Folic acid was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats via continuous intravenous infusion in doses ranging from 3-75 micromoles/kg and renal clearance relative to inulin was determined. The effects of various dose levels of ethanol on these parameters were then determined. At a dose of 15 micromoles/kg, the renal clearance of folate relative to that of inulin was about 0.65 mg/min. At a plasma ethanol level about 100 mg/dl, the renal clearance of folate was not markedly altered. These results suggests that there is net reabsorption of folate in the rat kidney and that moderate doses of ethanol have little effect on renal effect on renal folate reabsorption.

  18. Exploring the Relationships between the Electronic Health Record System Components and Patient Outcomes in an Acute Hospital Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggley, Shirley L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the electronic health record system components and patient outcomes in an acute hospital setting, given that the current presidential administration has earmarked nearly $50 billion to the implementation of the electronic health record. The relationship between the…

  19. A service user-initiated project investigating the attitudes of mental health staff towards clients and services in an acute mental health unit.

    PubMed

    Tyson, P J

    2013-04-01

    Mental Health Service Users (MHSU) are becoming increasingly recognized as very valuable contributors to the research process. The current study originated from the idea of a group of MHSU within a service user and carer research group. They wanted to investigate the attitudes of mental health staff towards clients in an acute mental health setting, as well as their attitudes towards certain aspects of service. An amended version of the 'Attitudes Towards Acute Mental Health Scale' was sent to nursing and allied staff at an acute psychiatric unit within the Gloucestershire 2gether NHS Foundation Trust. Fifty-seven of the 200 anonymous questionnaires were returned. Generally positive opinions of MHSU were obtained, but there were divided opinions on questions regarding the aetiology of mental health problems (e.g. social vs. genetic determinants). Opinions on aspects of the admissions process, therapeutic aspects of care, the use of medication and the use of control and restraint techniques were also obtained. Demographic variables of staff age, status and years of experience in mental health were found to be associated with attitudes and opinions. This MHSU-initiated study has extended the literature on mental health staff attitudes towards clients and services in an acute mental health setting. This study is split into two parts, Part A is focused on the process of involving MHSU in this project, Part B is concerned with the empirical investigation.

  20. Effects of acute exposure to aluminum on cognition in humans.

    PubMed

    Molloy, D W; Standish, T I; Nieboer, E; Turnbull, J D; Smith, S D; Dubois, S

    2007-12-01

    There is epidemiological evidence suggesting an association between aluminum in drinking water and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and between aluminum in dialysate and dialysis dementia. The exact role of aluminum in the pathogenesis of these and other dementias is not clear. This study examined the acute effects of aluminum on cognitive function in patients with AD and related dementias and in age-matched and younger volunteers with normal cognitive function. Whether individuals with AD and/or the APOE epsilon4 genotype had enhanced gastrointestinal absorption of aluminum was tested, and whether individuals with elevated blood aluminum concentrations exhibited acute cognitive effects was determined. Subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of aluminum orally (Amphojel plus citrate) for 3 d followed by a 3-wk washout, and then 3 d of matched placebo administration, or vice versa. Serum aluminum levels were measured and the daily dose of Amphojel was adjusted to a target aluminum level between 50 and 150 microg/L. Neuropsychological tests were administered at baseline and 90 min after the third dose of Amphojel or placebo. There was a large interindividual variation in aluminum serum levels in all study groups after the same initial dose of Amphojel. There were no significant differences in neuropsychological test scores after aluminum ingestion in normal volunteers or in patients with cognitive impairment. There was no association between APOE epsilon4 genotype and aluminum absorption. The results did not support the hypothesis that aluminum ingested at these doses produces acute effects on cognition or adverse effects, nor did they reveal that AD patients are more vulnerable to such outcomes. Further inquiry is required to explore any possible association between aluminum and cognition, but controlled trials may be limited by safety concerns.

  1. Effective health care corporate compliance.

    PubMed

    Saum, T B; Byassee, J

    2000-01-01

    The pace and intensity of oversight and investigation of health care organizations has greatly increased at all levels. Well run organizations with ethical management committed to following all laws and regulations are still at risk for compliance violations and punitive penalties. Under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, organizations with an "effective" corporate compliance program may receive reduced penalties. The seven components of an effective program as defined in the guidelines are: (1) Standards and procedures; (2) oversight responsibilities; (3) employee training; (4) monitoring and auditing; (5) reporting systems; (6) enforcement and discipline; and (7) response and prevention. Lack of a compliance program needlessly exposes the organization to an avoidable risk of damage from non-compliance--whether intentional or not. Moreover, an effective program can contribute to the efficient operation of the organization and be a key piece of its corporate culture. PMID:10947465

  2. Effective health care corporate compliance.

    PubMed

    Saum, T B; Byassee, J

    2000-01-01

    The pace and intensity of oversight and investigation of health care organizations has greatly increased at all levels. Well run organizations with ethical management committed to following all laws and regulations are still at risk for compliance violations and punitive penalties. Under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, organizations with an "effective" corporate compliance program may receive reduced penalties. The seven components of an effective program as defined in the guidelines are: (1) Standards and procedures; (2) oversight responsibilities; (3) employee training; (4) monitoring and auditing; (5) reporting systems; (6) enforcement and discipline; and (7) response and prevention. Lack of a compliance program needlessly exposes the organization to an avoidable risk of damage from non-compliance--whether intentional or not. Moreover, an effective program can contribute to the efficient operation of the organization and be a key piece of its corporate culture.

  3. Potent health effects of pomegranate

    PubMed Central

    Zarfeshany, Aida; Asgary, Sedigheh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions. PMID:24800189

  4. Health Promotion: An Effective Tool for Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Preetha, GS

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion is very relevant today. There is a global acceptance that health and social wellbeing are determined by many factors outside the health system which include socioeconomic conditions, patterns of consumption associated with food and communication, demographic patterns, learning environments, family patterns, the cultural and social fabric of societies; sociopolitical and economic changes, including commercialization and trade and global environmental change. In such a situation, health issues can be effectively addressed by adopting a holistic approach by empowering individuals and communities to take action for their health, fostering leadership for public health, promoting intersectoral action to build healthy public policies in all sectors and creating sustainable health systems. Although, not a new concept, health promotion received an impetus following Alma Ata declaration. Recently it has evolved through a series of international conferences, with the first conference in Canada producing the famous Ottawa charter. Efforts at promoting health encompassing actions at individual and community levels, health system strengthening and multi sectoral partnership can be directed at specific health conditions. It should also include settings-based approach to promote health in specific settings such as schools, hospitals, workplaces, residential areas etc. Health promotion needs to be built into all the policies and if utilized efficiently will lead to positive health outcomes. PMID:22529532

  5. [Health effects of ultraviolet radiation].

    PubMed

    Ohnaka, T

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) occurs from both natural and artificial sources. The main natural source is the sun. On the other hand, artificial UVR sources are widely used in industry and also used in hospitals, laboratories, etc. because of their germicidal properties. They are even used for cosmetic purposes. UVR can be classified into three regions according to its wavelength: as UVA (320-400nm), UVB (320-280nm) and UVC (280-200nm). The UVC has the greatest health effect on humans among the three. The sun radiates a wide range of spectrum of electromagnetic radiation including the UVR, however the radiation below 290 nm in wavelength does not reach the surface of the earth for effective absorption by the stratospheric ozone layer. As a result, UVR from a natural source consists of only UVA and a part of UVB. On the other hand, artificial UVR sources include UVC region and have serious effects on the human body, especially on the skin and eyes. The health effects of UVR on humans can be beneficial or detrimental, depending on the amount and form of UVR, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed. It has been acknowledged that a long period of UVR deficiency may have harmful effects on the human body, such as the development of vitamin D deficiency and rickets in children due to a disturbance in the phosphorus and calcium metabolism. Appropriate measures to increase the amount of exposure to UVR, especially to UVB radiation by the use of sun bathing, the exposure to artificial UVR sources, etc. have shown to prevent disease states caused by UVR deficiency. The harmful effects of UVR consist of erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancer is commonly produced by UVR. In this review, various states of UV from solar radiation and the degree of exposure to UVR are introduced. The benefits and harmful health effects of

  6. Evaluation of acute sensory--motor effects and test sensitivity using termiticide workers exposed to chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Dick, R B; Steenland, K; Krieg, E F; Hines, C J

    2001-01-01

    Sensory and motor testing was performed on a group of termiticide workers primarily using chlorpyrifos-containing products to evaluate both the acute effects from current exposure and sensitivity of the measures to detect effects. The study group comprised 106 applicators and 52 nonexposed participants. Current exposure was measured by urinary concentrations of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) collected the morning of testing. The mean TCP value for the 106 applicators was 200 microg/g creatinine. Participants received 4--5 h of testing and were evaluated using a sensory--motor test battery recommended by a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-sponsored advisory panel to be appropriate for testing effects from pesticide exposures. Measurements testing olfactory dysfunction, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, vibrotactile sensitivity, tremor, manual dexterity, eye--hand coordination, and postural stability were analyzed. Study results indicated limited acute effects from exposure to chlorpyrifos using urinary TCP as a measure of current exposure. The effects occurred primarily on measures of postural sway in the eyes closed and soft-surface conditions, which suggests a possible subclinical effect involving the proprioceptive and vestibular systems. Several other tests of motor and sensory functions did not show any evidence of acute exposure effects, although statistically significant effects of urinary TCP on the Lanthony color vision test scores and one contrast sensitivity test score were found. The visual measures, however, were not significant when a step-down Bonferroni correction was applied. Information also is presented on the sensitivity of the measures to detect effects in an occupationally exposed population using standard error of the parameter estimates. PMID:11485841

  7. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE TREADMILL WALKING ON COGNITIVE CONTROL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hall, Eric E.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included twenty preadolescent participants (Age = 9.5 ± 0.5 years; 8 female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 minutes of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e., walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further supports the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:19356688

  8. Outpatient mental health service use by older adults after acute psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Proctor, Enola; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    This study described outpatient mental health service used by elderly patients discharged from acute inpatient psychiatric treatment for depression, assessed services barriers, and identified factors related to the use of outpatient mental health services. The sample consisted of 199 elderly patients discharged home from a geropsychiatric unit of an urban midwestern hospital. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with use of various mental health services. Almost three quarters of the elderly patients saw a psychiatrist within 6 weeks postdischarge, but few used other outpatient mental health services. The most frequently reported barriers to use included (1) cost of services, (2) personal belief that depression would improve on its own, and (3) lack of awareness of available services. The use of various outpatient services was differentially related to predisposing, need, and enabling factors. Female patients, those residing in rural areas, and those who wanted to solve their problems on their own were less likely to use outpatient mental health services. Patients who reported greater levels of functional impairment, resided in rural areas, and perceived that getting services required too much time were less likely to see a psychiatrist in the postacute period. African American patients were more likely than whites to use day treatment programs. This may be related to the fact that most day treatment centers were located in areas where the majority of residents were African Americans.

  9. [Access to medicines prescribed for acute health conditions in adults in South and Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Cechin, Isabel Carolina Coelho Flores; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; Silveira, Denise Silva da; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study within Brazil's Project for the Expansion and Consolidation of Family Health, 2005, with the objective of universal and free access to the medication prescribed in the last medical appointment for acute health problems and to estimate the degree to which access may have improved with inclusion of the medicines in prevailing policies and programs. The sample included 4,060 adults living in the area of primary health care units in 41 municipalities in South and Northeast Brazil. Access was greater in the South (83.2%) than in the Northeast (71%), and free access was similar (37%), with a greater share by the Family Health Program (FHP) when compared to the traditional model, especially in the Northeast. Some 60% of prescribed medicines and 50% of those on the National List of Essential Medicines (RENAME) were paid for. No variation was observed in the proportion of medicines present on the prevailing RENAME list and access. However, 40% of the medicines that were paid for can currently be obtained through the Popular Pharmacy Program. The latter program appears to emerge as a new way to guarantee access to medicines prescribed in the health system.

  10. Resistance to changing practice from pro re nata prescriptions to patient group directions in acute mental health settings.

    PubMed

    Price, O; Baker, J A

    2013-09-01

    Poor practice associated with pro re nata (PRN) prescriptions in mental health is known to be common and can increase the risk of serious and potentially fatal side effects. A contributing factor to poor practice is the lack of a clear chain of accountability between the decision to prescribe and administer PRN prescriptions. To address this problem, a patient group direction (PGD) for acute behavioural disturbance (lorazepam 0.5-2 mg) and staff training materials were developed. The intention was to replace PRN prescriptions with the PGD in two mental health trusts. One of the potential benefits of this would be the removal of the contribution of PRN to high and combined dose antipsychotic prescriptions. This proposal, however, was met with significant resistance in both trusts and did not replace PRN as a result. A series of interviews and focus groups were conducted with 16 RMNs working in the two trusts, to explore the reasons why the PGD was met with resistance. Senior nurses perceived resistance to be associated with anxieties over increased responsibility for decision making. Junior nurses reported concerns regarding the medicalization of the nursing role, the paperwork associated with the PGD and the training approach used. Future efforts to implement PGDs in mental health settings must carefully consider the methods for engaging effectively with participating organizations, in terms of managing change and completing the necessary groundwork for successful implementation. PMID:22957970

  11. The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodall, George M. Smith, Roy L.

    2008-11-15

    The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED) is currently used by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to support risk assessments for the Residual Risk Program. An assessment of the residual risk is required to be performed at a specified time (typically 8years) following the promulgation of a technology-based Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT) standard. The goal of the Residual Risk Program is to assure that the risk that remains after MACT standards are implemented (i.e., the 'residual risk') is acceptable, and if not, to propose additional regulations to mitigate those risks. ATHED maintains all available reference values for each chemical as separate data records, and includes values for all exposure durations (acute, short-term, subchronic and chronic). These values are used as benchmarks to determine acceptable exposure levels to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. ATHED also provides useful background information on the uncertainty and/or modifying factors that were applied in the derivation of each reference value, as well as the point of departure and the critical study/studies. To facilitate comparisons across durations for a specific chemical, ATHED data can be graphically presented.

  12. Acute effects of routine firefighting on lung function.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D; Distefano, S; Morse, L; Becker, C

    1986-01-01

    We undertook a study to determine the acute effects of routine firefighting on lung function and the relationship between these acute effects and nonspecific airway responsiveness. For 29 firefighters from a single fire station, we calculated the concentration of methacholine aerosol that caused a 100% increase in specific airway resistance (Pc100). Over an 8-week period we than measured FEV1 and FVC in each firefighter before and after each 24-hr workshift and after every fire. From 199 individual workshifts without fires, we calculated the mean +/- 2 SD across-workshift change in FEV1 and FVC for each firefighter. Eighteen of 76 measurements obtained within 2 hr after a fire (24%) showed a greater than 2 SD fall in FEV1 and/or FVC compared to two of 199 obtained after routine workshifts without fires (1%; p less than .001). On 13 of 18 occasions when spirometry decreased significantly, we obtained repeat spirometry (postshift) 3-18.5 hr after fires, and on four of these occasions FEV1 and/or FVC were still more than 2 SD below baseline. Decrements in spirometry occurred as often in firefighters with high Pc100s as in those with low Pc100s. In two firefighters in whom FEV1 and FVC fell by more than 10% after fires, we repeated measurements of methacholine sensitivity, and it was increased over the prestudy baseline. These findings suggest that routine firefighting is associated with a high incidence of acute decrements in lung function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients.

  14. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients. PMID:25271215

  15. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 4. Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret D.; Cole, Donald; Abelsohn, Alan; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    PESTICIDE EXPOSURE CAN CAUSE MANY DIFFERENT HEALTH EFFECTS, from acute problems such as dermatitis and asthma exacerbation to chronic problems such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer. The resulting clinical presentations are undifferentiated, and specific knowledge of the links to environmental exposures is often required for effective diagnosis. In this article we illustrate the use of the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Drugs and Diet), a history-taking tool that assists physicians in quickly identifying possible environmental exposures. We also provide clinical information on the epidemiology, clinical presentations, treatment and prevention of pesticide exposures. PMID:12054413

  16. Effects on health of air pollution: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Harari, Sergio; Martinelli, Ida; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution is a complex and ubiquitous mixture of pollutants including particulate matter, chemical substances and biological materials. There is growing awareness of the adverse effects on health of air pollution following both acute and chronic exposure, with a rapidly expanding body of evidence linking air pollution with an increased risk of respiratory (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents). Elderly subjects, pregnant women, infants and people with prior diseases appear especially susceptible to the deleterious effects of ambient air pollution. The main diseases associated with exposure to air pollutants will be summarized in this narrative review.

  17. Health effects of dietary phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Beneficial effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs) have been mentioned since the early 1900's in relation to different illnesses and symptoms, e.g. coronary heart disease, inflammation or cancer. This article gives a summary of the most common therapeutic uses of dietary PLs to provide an overview of their approved and proposed benefits; and to identify further investigational needs. From the majority of the studies it became evident that dietary PLs have a positive impact in several diseases, apparently without severe side effects. Furthermore, they were shown to reduce side effects of some drugs. Both effects can partially be explained by the fact that PL are highly effective in delivering their fatty acid (FA) residues for incorporation into the membranes of cells involved in different diseases, e.g. immune or cancer cells. The altered membrane composition is assumed to have effects on the activity of membrane proteins (e.g. receptors) by affecting the microstructure of membranes and, therefore, the characteristics of the cellular membrane, e.g. of lipid rafts, or by influencing the biosynthesis of FA derived lipid second messengers. However, since the FAs originally bound to the applied PLs are increased in the cellular membrane after their consumption or supplementation, the FA composition of the PL and thus the type of PL is crucial for its effect. Here, we have reviewed the effects of PL from soy, egg yolk, milk and marine sources. Most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals and only limited evidence is available for the benefit of PL supplementation in humans. More research is needed to understand the impact of PL supplementation and confirm its health benefits. PMID:22221489

  18. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  19. Effectiveness of chelation therapy with time after acute uranium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, J.L.; Ortega, A.; Llobet, J.M.; Corbella, J. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of increasing the time interval between acute uranium exposure and chelation therapy was studied in male Swiss mice. Gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3- benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) were administered ip at 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 24 hr after sc injection of 10 mg/kg of uranyl acetate dihydrate. Chelating agents were given at doses equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50 values. Daily elimination of uranium into urine and feces was determined for 4 days after which time the mice were killed, and the concentration of uranium was measured in kidney, spleen, and bone. The excretion of uranium was especially rapid in the first 24 hr. Treatment with Tiron or gallic acid at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly increased the total excretion of the metal. In kidney and bone, only administration of Tiron at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium injection, or gallic acid at 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly reduced tissue uranium concentrations. Treatment at later times (4 to 24 hr) did not increase the total excretion of the metal and did not decrease the tissue uranium concentrations 4 days after uranyl acetate administration. The results show that the length of time before initiating chelation therapy for acute uranium intoxication greatly influences the effectiveness of this therapy.

  20. Mustard gas toxicity: the acute and chronic pathological effects.

    PubMed

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2010-10-01

    Ever since it was first used in armed conflict, mustard gas (sulfur mustard, MG) has been known to cause a wide range of acute and chronic injuries to exposure victims. The earliest descriptions of these injuries were published during and in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, and a further series of accounts followed the Second World War. More recently, MG has been deployed in warfare in the Middle East and this resulted in large numbers of victims, whose conditions have been studied in detail at hospitals in the region. In this review, we bring together the older and more recent clinical studies on MG toxicity and summarize what is now known about the acute and chronic effects of the agent on the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other physiological systems. In the majority of patients, the most clinically serious long-term consequences of MG poisoning are on the respiratory system, but the effects on the skin and other systems also have a significant impact on quality of life. Aspects of the management of these patients are discussed.

  1. Acute effects of carbon monoxide on cardiac electrical stability

    SciTech Connect

    Verrier, R.L.; Mills, A.K.; Skornik, W.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the effects of acute carbon monoxide exposure on cardiac electrical stability. To obtain a comprehensive assessment, diverse biological models were employed. These involved cardiac electrical testing in the normal and ischemic heart in anesthetized and conscious dogs. The experimental plan was designed both to examine the direct effects of carbon monoxide exposure on the myocardium and to evaluate possible indirect influences through alterations in platelet aggregability or changes in central nervous system activity in the conscious animal. Our results indicate that exposure to relatively high levels of carbon monoxide, leading to carboxyhemoglobin concentrations of up to 20 percent, is without significant effect on ventricular electrical stability. This appears to be the case in the acutely ischemic heart as well as in the normal heart. It is important to note that the total exposure period was in the range of 90 to 124 minutes. The possibility that longer periods of exposure or exacerbation from nicotine in cigarette smoke could have a deleterious effect cannot be excluded. We also examined whether or not alterations in platelet aggregability due to carbon monoxide exposure could be a predisposing factor for cardiac arrhythmias. A model involving partial coronary artery stenosis was used to simulate the conditions under which platelet plugs could lead to myocardial ischemia and life-threatening arrhythmias. We found no changes either in the cycle frequency of coronary blood flow oscillations or in platelet aggregability during carbon monoxide exposure. Thus, carbon monoxide exposure does not appear to alter platelet aggregability or its effect on coronary blood flow during stenosis. In the final series of experiments, we examined the effects of carbon monoxide exposure in the conscious state.

  2. The acute extracellular flux (XF) assay to assess compound effects on mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruolan; Novick, Steven J; Mangum, James B; Queen, Kennedy; Ferrick, David A; Rogers, George W; Stimmel, Julie B

    2015-03-01

    Numerous investigations have linked mitochondrial dysfunction to adverse health outcomes and drug-induced toxicity. The pharmaceutical industry is challenged with identifying mitochondrial liabilities earlier in drug development and thereby reducing late-stage attrition. Consequently, there is a demand for reliable, higher-throughput screening methods for assessing the impact of drug candidates on mitochondrial function. The extracellular flux (XF) assay described here is a plate-based method in which galactose-conditioned HepG2 cells were acutely exposed to test compounds, then real-time changes in the oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate were simultaneously measured using a Seahorse Bioscience XF-96 analyzer. The acute XF assay was validated using marketed drugs known to modulate mitochondrial function, and data analysis was automated using a spline curve fitting model developed at GlaxoSmithKline. We demonstrate that the acute XF assay is a robust, sensitive screening platform for evaluating drug-induced effects on mitochondrial activity in whole cells.

  3. Health effects of shift work.

    PubMed

    LaDou, J

    1982-12-01

    More than 13.5 million American workers, close to 20 percent of the work force, are assigned to evening or night shifts. In some industries such as automobile, petrochemical and textile manufacturing the proportion of shift workers is greater than 50 percent. As the popularity of shift work and other "alternative work schedules" grows, concern is increasing over the disturbance created in the lives of workers and their families by these economically and socially useful innovations. Twenty percent of workers are unable to tolerate shift work. Daily physiologic variations termed circadian rhythms are interactive and require a high degree of phase relationship to produce subjective feelings of wellbeing. Disturbance of these activities, circadian desynchronization, whether from passage over time zones or from shift rotation, results in health effects such as disturbance of the quantity and quality of sleep, disturbance of gastrointestinal and other organ system activities, and aggravation of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and thyrotoxicosis. Worker selection can reduce the number of health problems resulting from shift work. The periodic examination of shift workers is recommended.

  4. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    PubMed Central

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-01-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There is no current method of measuring human body odor, other than by human panel studies of expert judges of air quality. Human body odors have been quantitated in terms of the "olf" which is the amount of air pollution produced by the average person. Another quantitative unit of odorants is the "decipol," which is the perceived level of pollution produced by the average human ventilated by 10 L/sec of unpolluted air or its equivalent level of dissatisfaction from nonhuman air pollutants. The standard regulatory approach, focusing on individual constituents or chemicals, is not likely to be successful in adequately controlling odorants in indoor air. Besides the current approach of setting minimum ventilation standards to prevent health effects due to indoor air pollution, a standard based on the olf or decipol unit might be more efficacious as well as simpler to measure. PMID:1821378

  5. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    PubMed

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-11-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There is no current method of measuring human body odor, other than by human panel studies of expert judges of air quality. Human body odors have been quantitated in terms of the "olf" which is the amount of air pollution produced by the average person. Another quantitative unit of odorants is the "decipol," which is the perceived level of pollution produced by the average human ventilated by 10 L/sec of unpolluted air or its equivalent level of dissatisfaction from nonhuman air pollutants. The standard regulatory approach, focusing on individual constituents or chemicals, is not likely to be successful in adequately controlling odorants in indoor air. Besides the current approach of setting minimum ventilation standards to prevent health effects due to indoor air pollution, a standard based on the olf or decipol unit might be more efficacious as well as simpler to measure.

  6. Health Effects of Shift Work

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    More than 13.5 million American workers, close to 20 percent of the work force, are assigned to evening or night shifts. In some industries such as automobile, petrochemical and textile manufacturing the proportion of shift workers is greater than 50 percent. As the popularity of shift work and other “alternative work schedules” grows, concern is increasing over the disturbance created in the lives of workers and their families by these economically and socially useful innovations. Twenty percent of workers are unable to tolerate shift work. Daily physiologic variations termed circadian rhythms are interactive and require a high degree of phase relationship to produce subjective feelings of wellbeing. Disturbance of these activities, circadian desynchronization, whether from passage over time zones or from shift rotation, results in health effects such as disturbance of the quantity and quality of sleep, disturbance of gastrointestinal and other organ system activities, and aggravation of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and thyrotoxicosis. Worker selection can reduce the number of health problems resulting from shift work. The periodic examination of shift workers is recommended. PMID:6962577

  7. Seasonal pattern of the acute mortality effects of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhengmin; Lin, Hung-Mo; Stewart, Walter F; Kong, Linli; Xu, Fen; Zhou, Denjin; Zhu, Zhicao; Liang, Shengwen; Chen, Weiqing; Shah, Nirav; Stetter, Christy; He, Qingci

    2010-04-01

    Evidence of seasonal variation of acute mortality effects of air pollution is inconsistent. The seasonal patterns of associations between daily mortality and daily mean concentrations of particulate matter 10 microm or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were examined using 4 yr of data (2001-2004) in Wuhan, China. Four distinct seasons occur in Wuhan, where approximately 4.5 million residents live in the city core area of 201 km2. Air pollution levels are higher and pollution ranges are wider in Wuhan than in most cities. Quasi-likelihood estimation within the context of the generalized additive models (natural spline [NS] models in R) was used to model the natural logarithm of the expected daily death counts as a function of the predictor variables. The estimates of the interaction between seasons and pollution were obtained from the main effects and pollutant season interaction models. It was found that the interactions between three pollutants and cause-specific mortality were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The strongest effects occurred consistently in winter for all-natural, cardiovascular, stroke, and respiratory mortality. Every 10-microg/m3 increase in PM10 daily concentration at lag 0-1 days was associated with an increase in all-natural mortality of 0.69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44-0.94%) for winter, 0.34% (95% CI: 0.00-0.69%) for spring, 0.45% (95% CI: -0.13 to 1.04%) for summer, and -0.21% (95% CI: -0.54 to 0.12%) for fall. The results show a clear seasonal pattern of acute mortality effects of ambient air pollution and the strongest effects occurred during winter in the study city.

  8. Overview of Systematic Reviews: Yoga as a Therapeutic Intervention for Adults with Acute and Chronic Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Marcy C.; Ward, Alison; Roberts, Nia W.; Heneghan, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Overview the quality, direction, and characteristics of yoga interventions for treatment of acute and chronic health conditions in adult populations. Methods. We searched for systematic reviews in 10 online databases, bibliographic references, and hand-searches in yoga-related journals. Included reviews satisfy Oxman criteria and specify yoga as a primary intervention in one or more randomized controlled trials for treatment in adults. The AMSTAR tool and GRADE approach evaluated the methodological quality of reviews and quality of evidence. Results. We identified 2202 titles, of which 41 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 26 systematic reviews satisfied inclusion criteria. Thirteen systematic reviews include quantitative data and six papers include meta-analysis. The quality of evidence is generally low. Sixteen different types of health conditions are included. Eleven reviews show tendency towards positive effects of yoga intervention, 15 reviews report unclear results, and no, reviews report adverse effects of yoga. Yoga appears most effective for reducing symptoms in anxiety, depression, and pain. Conclusion. Although the quality of systematic reviews is high, the quality of supporting evidence is low. Significant heterogeneity and variability in reporting interventions by type of yoga, settings, and population characteristics limit the generalizability of results. PMID:23762174

  9. Health- and vegetative-based effect screening values for ethylene.

    PubMed

    Erraguntla, Neeraja K; Grant, Roberta L

    2015-11-01

    potential cancer risk. Therefore, the short-term ESL for air permit reviews and air monitoring evaluations is the vegetation-based ESL of 1200 ppb as it is more than a magnitude lower than the health-based acute ESL of 150,000 ppb. Similar to the acute derivation, the chronic evaluation resulted in the derivation of a chronic vegetation based ESL of 30 ppb that was much lower than the chronic ESL of 1600 ppb. In summary, the TCEQ's acute and chronic ESLs for vegetation will protect the general public from short-term and long-term adverse health and welfare effects. The general public includes children, the elderly, pregnant women, and people with pre-existing health conditions.

  10. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation. PMID:26414625

  11. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  12. Health Effects of UV Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  13. Therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygenation in acute acoustic trauma.

    PubMed

    Vavrina, J; Müller, W

    1995-01-01

    Retrospectively 78 patients with uni- or bilateral acute acoustic trauma (AAT) were evaluated to assess the therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO). All subjects received saline or dextran (Rheomacodrex) infusions with Ginkgo extracts (Tebonin) and prednisone. Thirty six patients underwent additional hyperbaric oxygenation at a pressure of 2 atmospheres absolute for 60 minutes once daily. Both treatment groups were comparable as far as age, gender, initial hearing loss and prednisone dose are concerned. The delay of therapy onset was 15 hours in both groups and treatment was started within 72 hours in all cases. Control audiometry was performed after 6.5 days, when the HBO group had had 5 exposures to hyperbaric oxygenation. The average hearing gain in the group without HBO was 74.3 dB and in the group treated additionally with HBO 121.3 dB (P < 0.004). It is concluded, that hyperbaric oxygenation significantly improves hearing recovery after AAT. Therefore acute acoustic trauma with significant hearing threshold depression remains an otological emergency. Minimal therapy involving waiting for spontaneous recovery, which is mostly incomplete leaving a residual C5 or C6 and handicapping tinnitus, is not the treatment of choice. Randomized prospective clinical trials with a larger patient series are needed and further experimental studies are required to understand the physiological mechanisms of HBO responsible for the clinical success in AAT.

  14. A comparison of Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III scoring system in predicting mortality and length of stay at surgical intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Gilani, Mahryar Taghavi; Razavi, Majid; Azad, Azadeh Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Background: In critically ill patients, several scoring systems have been developed over the last three decades. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) are the most widely used scoring systems in the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic accuracy of SAPS II and APACHE II and APACHE III scoring systems in predicting short-term hospital mortality of surgical ICU patients. Materials and Methods: Prospectively collected data from 202 patients admitted to Mashhad University Hospital postoperative ICU were analyzed. Calibration was estimated using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. Discrimination was evaluated by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under a ROC curve (AUC). Result: Two hundred and two patients admitted on post-surgical ICU were evaluated. The mean SAPS II, APACHE II, and APACHE III scores for survivors were found to be significantly lower than of non-survivors. The calibration was best for APACHE II score. Discrimination was excellent for APACHE II (AUC: 0.828) score and acceptable for APACHE III (AUC: 0.782) and SAPS II (AUC: 0.778) scores. Conclusion: APACHE II provided better discrimination than APACHE III and SAPS II calibration was good at APACHE II and poor at APACHE III and SAPS II. Use of APACHE II was excellent in this post-surgical ICU. PMID:24791049

  15. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    PubMed

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing. PMID:18347823

  16. Life in acute mental health settings: experiences and perceptions of service users and nurses.

    PubMed

    Rose, D; Evans, J; Laker, C; Wykes, T

    2015-02-01

    Background. Acute psychiatric provision in the UK today as well as globally has many critics including service users and nurses. Method. Four focus groups, each meeting twice, were held separately for service users and nurses. The analysis was not purely inductive but driven by concerns with the social position of marginalised groups - both patients and staff. Results. The main themes were nurse/patient interaction and coercion. Service users and nurses conceptualised these differently. Service users found nurses inaccessible and uncaring, whereas nurses also felt powerless because their working life was dominated by administration. Nurses saw coercive situations as a reasonable response to factors 'internal' to the patient whereas for service users they were driven to extreme behaviour by the environment of the ward and coercive interventions were unnecessary and heavy handed. Conclusion. This study sheds new light on living and working in acute mental health settings today by comparing the perceptions of service users and nurses and deploying service user and nurse researchers. The intention is to promote better practice by providing a window on the perceptions of both groups. PMID:24330951

  17. The 2016 revision to the World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Arber, Daniel A; Orazi, Attilio; Hasserjian, Robert; Thiele, Jürgen; Borowitz, Michael J; Le Beau, Michelle M; Bloomfield, Clara D; Cazzola, Mario; Vardiman, James W

    2016-05-19

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues was last updated in 2008. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the identification of unique biomarkers associated with some myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemias, largely derived from gene expression analysis and next-generation sequencing that can significantly improve the diagnostic criteria as well as the prognostic relevance of entities currently included in the WHO classification and that also suggest new entities that should be added. Therefore, there is a clear need for a revision to the current classification. The revisions to the categories of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia will be published in a monograph in 2016 and reflect a consensus of opinion of hematopathologists, hematologists, oncologists, and geneticists. The 2016 edition represents a revision of the prior classification rather than an entirely new classification and attempts to incorporate new clinical, prognostic, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic data that have emerged since the last edition. The major changes in the classification and their rationale are presented here.

  18. Comparison of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation IV to predict intensive care unit mortality

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Bashu Dev; Shrestha, Gentle S.; Pradhan, Bishwas; Amatya, Roshana

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical assessment of severity of illness is an essential component of medical practice to predict the outcome of critically ill-patient. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) model is one of the widely used scoring systems. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the Performance of APACHE II and IV scoring systems in our Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Settings and Design: A prospective study in 6 bedded ICU, including 76 patients all above 15 years. Subjects and Methods: APACHE II and APACHE IV scores were calculated based on the worst values in the first 24 h of admission. All enrolled patients were followed, and outcome was recorded as survivors or nonsurvivors. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 17. Results: The mean APACHE score was significantly higher among nonsurvivors than survivors (P < 0.005). Discrimination for APACHE II and APACHE IV was fair with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73 and 0.79 respectively. The cut-off point with best Youden index for APACHE II was 17 and for APACHE IV was 85. Above cut-off point, mortality was higher for both models (P < 0.005). Hosmer–Lemeshow Chi-square coefficient test showed better calibration for APACHE II than APACHE IV. A positive correlation was seen between the models with Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.748 (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Discrimination was better for APACHE IV than APACHE II model however Calibration was better for APACHE II than APACHE IV model in our study. There was good correlation between the two models observed in our study. PMID:25722550

  19. Acute kidney injury: short-term and long-term effects.

    PubMed

    Doyle, James F; Forni, Lui G

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common cause of organ dysfunction in critically ill adults, with a single episode of AKI, regardless of stage, carrying a significant morbidity and mortality risk. Since the consensus on AKI nomenclature has been reached, data reflecting outcomes have become more apparent allowing investigation of both short- and long-term outcomes.Classically the short-term effects of AKI can be thought of as those reflecting an acute deterioration in renal function per se. However, the effects of AKI, especially with regard to distant organ function ("organ cross-talk"), are being elucidated as is the increased susceptibility to other conditions. With regards to the long-term effects, the consideration that outcome is a simple binary endpoint of dialysis or not, or survival or not, is overly simplistic, with the reality being much more complex.Also discussed are currently available treatment strategies to mitigate these adverse effects, as they have the potential to improve patient outcome and provide considerable economic health savings. Moving forward, an agreement for defining renal recovery is warranted if we are to assess and extrapolate the efficacy of novel therapies. Future research should focus on targeted therapies assessed by measure of long-term outcomes. PMID:27373891

  20. Differential acute effects of selenomethionine and sodium selenite on the severity of colitis.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Franziska; Oldorff, Lisa; Besselt, Karolin; Kipp, Anna Patricia

    2015-04-01

    The European population is only suboptimally supplied with the essential trace element selenium. Such a selenium status is supposed to worsen colitis while colitis-suppressive effects were observed with adequate or supplemented amounts of both organic selenomethionine (SeMet) and inorganic sodium selenite. In order to better understand the effect of these selenocompounds on colitis development we examined colonic phenotypes of mice fed supplemented diets before the onset of colitis or during the acute phase. Colitis was induced by treating mice with 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for seven days. The selenium-enriched diets were either provided directly after weaning (long-term) or were given to mice with a suboptimal selenium status after DSS withdrawal (short-term). While long-term selenium supplementation had no effect on colitis development, short-term selenite supplementation, however, resulted in a more severe colitis. Colonic selenoprotein expression was maximized in all selenium-supplemented groups independent of the selenocompound or intervention time. This indicates that the short-term selenite effect appears to be independent from colonic selenoprotein expression. In conclusion, a selenite supplementation during acute colitis has no health benefits but may even aggravate the course of disease. PMID:25867950

  1. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    PubMed

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  2. Improving the care for people with acute low-back pain by allied health professionals (the ALIGN trial): A cluster randomised trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Variability between clinical practice guideline recommendations and actual clinical practice exists in many areas of health care. A 2004 systematic review examining the effectiveness of guideline implementation interventions concluded there was a lack of evidence to support decisions about effective interventions to promote the uptake of guidelines. Further, the review recommended the use of theory in the development of implementation interventions. A clinical practice guideline for the management of acute low-back pain has been developed in Australia (2003). Acute low-back pain is a common condition, has a high burden, and there is some indication of an evidence-practice gap in the allied health setting. This provides an opportunity to develop and test a theory-based implementation intervention which, if effective, may provide benefits for patients with this condition. Aims This study aims to estimate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention to increase allied health practitioners' (physiotherapists and chiropractors in Victoria, Australia) compliance with a clinical practice guideline for acute non-specific low back pain (LBP), compared with providing practitioners with a printed copy of the guideline. Specifically, our primary objectives are to establish if the intervention is effective in reducing the percentage of acute non-specific LBP patients who are either referred for or receive an x-ray, and improving mean level of disability for patients three months post-onset of acute LBP. Methods The design of the study is a cluster randomised trial. Restricted randomisation was used to randomise 210 practices (clusters) to an intervention or control group. Practitioners in the control group received a printed copy of the guideline. Practitioners in the intervention group received a theory-based intervention developed to address prospectively identified barriers to practitioner compliance with the guideline. The intervention primarily consisted of

  3. Evaluating the impact of depression, anxiety & autonomic function on health related quality of life, vocational functioning and health care utilisation in acute coronary syndrome patients: the ADVENT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent and co-morbid in acute coronary syndrome patients. Somatic and cognitive subtypes of depression and anxiety in acute coronary syndrome have been shown to be associated with mortality although their association with patient outcomes is unknown, as are the mechanisms that underpin these associations. We are conducting a prospective cohort study which aims to examine in acute coronary syndrome patients: (1) the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life outcomes; (2) how somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety relate to long term vocational functioning and healthcare utilisation; and (3) the role of the autonomic nervous system assessed by heart rate variability as a moderator of these associations. Methods Patients are being screened after index admission for acute coronary syndrome at a single, high volume centre, MonashHeart, Monash Health, Victoria, Australia. The inclusion criterion is all patients aged > 21 years old and fluent in English admitted to MonashHeart, Monash Health with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The primary outcome is mean health related quality of life (Short Form-36) Physical and Mental Health Summary scores at 12 and 24 months in subtypes with somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Depressive domains are assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Cardiac Depression Scale. Anxiety is measured using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Crown Crisp Phobic Anxiety questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include clinical variables, healthcare service utilisation and vocational functioning. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a prospective cohort study which will investigate the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life, long-term vocational functioning and health service use, and the role of the autonomic nervous system in

  4. Assessment of potential health effects of dielectric gases

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Potential health effects of certain fluorinated hydrocarbons considered for gaseous dielectric applications have been examined. Toxicological data are lacking for some of the chemicals of interest. The most extensive studies relate to sulfur hexafluoride and octafluorocyclobutane, both of which appear to be rather nontoxic, for acute exposure situations. Mutagenicity studies with fruit flies have identified octafluorocyclobutane and perfluorobutene-2 as producing sex-linked recessive mutations in this organism. Certain products generated by electric discharge through the dielectric gas mixtures and trace contaminants produced during the manufacturing process may be more toxic than the parent compounds.

  5. [Effective access to health services: operationalizing universal health coverage].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán; Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    The right to health and its operational form, as an organized social response to health: the right to health protection, are the mainstay for the global push towards universal health coverage. The path to achieve this goal is particular to each country and relates to the baseline and specific context in relation to what is feasible. In practical terms, universal coverage involves the correlation between demand and supply of services (promotion, prevention, and care), expressed by the ability for each individual to make use of services when these are required. In those terms universal coverage is then effective access. The objective of the paper is to explore the conceptualization of effective access to health services and propose a definition that allows its operationalization thereof. This definition considers key elements of supply and demand of services, including the availability of resources and adequate provision (quality), as well as barriers to use them. PMID:26235780

  6. Reactive nitrogen and human health: acute and long-term implications.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Amir H; Patz, Jonathan A

    2002-03-01

    Reactive-nitrogen (Nr) has a wide variety of beneficial and detrimental effects on human health. The most important of the beneficial effects are increasing global and regional food supplies and increased nutritional quality of available foods. However, lack of adequate dietary intake of amino acids and proteins is a serious cause of malnutrition when food supplies are inadequate because of poverty, drought, floods, wars, and displacements of people as refugees. There is sufficient, though limited, quantitative data indicating that increased circulation of Nr in the environment is responsible for significant human health effects via other exposure pathways. Nr can lead to harmful health effects from airborne occupational exposures and population-wide indoor and outdoor air pollution exposures to nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Nr can also affect health via water pollution problems, including methemoglobinemia from contaminated ground water, eutrophication causing fish kills and algal blooms that can be toxic to humans, and via global warming. The environmental pollutants stemming from reactive nitrogen are ubiquitous, making it difficult to identify the extent to which Nr exerts a specific health effect. As all populations are susceptible, continued interdisciplinary investigations are needed to determine the extent and nature of the beneficial and harmful effects on human health of nitrogen-related pollutants and their derivatives. PMID:12078000

  7. Reactive nitrogen and human health: acute and long-term implications.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Amir H; Patz, Jonathan A

    2002-03-01

    Reactive-nitrogen (Nr) has a wide variety of beneficial and detrimental effects on human health. The most important of the beneficial effects are increasing global and regional food supplies and increased nutritional quality of available foods. However, lack of adequate dietary intake of amino acids and proteins is a serious cause of malnutrition when food supplies are inadequate because of poverty, drought, floods, wars, and displacements of people as refugees. There is sufficient, though limited, quantitative data indicating that increased circulation of Nr in the environment is responsible for significant human health effects via other exposure pathways. Nr can lead to harmful health effects from airborne occupational exposures and population-wide indoor and outdoor air pollution exposures to nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Nr can also affect health via water pollution problems, including methemoglobinemia from contaminated ground water, eutrophication causing fish kills and algal blooms that can be toxic to humans, and via global warming. The environmental pollutants stemming from reactive nitrogen are ubiquitous, making it difficult to identify the extent to which Nr exerts a specific health effect. As all populations are susceptible, continued interdisciplinary investigations are needed to determine the extent and nature of the beneficial and harmful effects on human health of nitrogen-related pollutants and their derivatives.

  8. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND... assessments and health effects studies. (a) ATSDR shall provide a report of the results of a health......

  9. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND... assessments and health effects studies. (a) ATSDR shall provide a report of the results of a health......

  10. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND... assessments and health effects studies. (a) ATSDR shall provide a report of the results of a health......

  11. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect.

    PubMed

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W; McGeary, John E; Monti, Peter M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2011-02-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marijuana on physiological and subjective stimulation, subjective intoxication, and self-reported negative and positive affect with 114 weekly marijuana smokers. Individuals were first tested under a baseline/no smoking condition and again under experimental condition. Relative to placebo, THC significantly increased arousal and confusion/bewilderment. However, the direction of effect on anxiety varied depending on instructional set: Anxiety increased after THC for those told placebo but decreased among other participants. Furthermore, marijuana users who expected more impairment from marijuana displayed more anxiety after smoking active marijuana, whereas those who did not expect the impairment became less anxious after marijuana. Both pharmacologic and stimulus expectancy main effects significantly increased positive affect. Frequent marijuana users were less anxious after smoking as compared to less frequent smokers. These findings show that expectancy instructions and pharmacology play independent roles in effects of marijuana on negative affect. Further studies examining how other individual difference factors impact marijuana's effects on mood are needed.

  12. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2013-01-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marijuana on physiological and subjective stimulation, subjective intoxication, and self-reported negative and positive affect with 114 weekly marijuana smokers. Individuals were first tested under a baseline/no smoking condition and again under experimental condition. Relative to placebo, THC significantly increased arousal and confusion/bewilderment. However, the direction of effect on anxiety varied depending on instructional set: Anxiety increased after THC for those told placebo but decreased among other participants. Furthermore, marijuana users who expected more impairment from marijuana displayed more anxiety after smoking active marijuana, whereas those who did not expect the impairment became less anxious after marijuana. Both pharmacologic and stimulus expectancy main effects significantly increased positive affect. Frequent marijuana users were less anxious after smoking as compared to less frequent smokers. These findings show that expectancy instructions and pharmacology play independent roles in effects of marijuana on negative affect. Further studies examining how other individual difference factors impact marijuana's effects on mood are needed. PMID:24319318

  13. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  14. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  15. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a

  16. A review of the health effects of smoking shisha.

    PubMed

    Kadhum, Murtaza; Sweidan, Abed; Jaffery, Ali Emad; Al-Saadi, Adam; Madden, Brendan

    2015-06-01

    There is emerging evidence, although at early stages, of various detrimental health effects after smoking shisha. With regard to the cardiovascular system, there is a significant acute rise in cardiovascular markers, such as heart rate and blood pressure. The long-term effects on the cardiovascular system are yet to be established. Shisha smoking has also been significantly associated with lung cancer. Various other forms of cancer have also been documented, but have not reached statistical significance and require further research. Finally, shisha smoking increases the risk of infection and has been associated with outbreaks in the Middle East. Therefore, with the increasing consumption of shisha in Europe, especially in the UK, more research is required to tackle this potential public health threat. PMID:26031977

  17. A review of the health effects of smoking shisha.

    PubMed

    Kadhum, Murtaza; Sweidan, Abed; Jaffery, Ali Emad; Al-Saadi, Adam; Madden, Brendan

    2015-06-01

    There is emerging evidence, although at early stages, of various detrimental health effects after smoking shisha. With regard to the cardiovascular system, there is a significant acute rise in cardiovascular markers, such as heart rate and blood pressure. The long-term effects on the cardiovascular system are yet to be established. Shisha smoking has also been significantly associated with lung cancer. Various other forms of cancer have also been documented, but have not reached statistical significance and require further research. Finally, shisha smoking increases the risk of infection and has been associated with outbreaks in the Middle East. Therefore, with the increasing consumption of shisha in Europe, especially in the UK, more research is required to tackle this potential public health threat.

  18. Health Knowledge Effects: An Integrated Community Health Promotion Platform.

    PubMed

    Chang, I-Chiu; Lin, Chih-Yu; Tseng, Hsiao-Ting; Ho, Wen-Yu

    2016-03-01

    The Taiwanese government subsidizes healthcare providers offering preventive medicine to patients to help reduce the threats of chronic sickness and halt skyrocketing medical expenditures. Usually, nurses are the primary workers who perform community health promotion; however, because of the chronic shortage of working nurses, many Taiwan hospitals have closed wards and deferred the responsibility of promoting primary prevention. With a community health promotion platform integrating interactive response features and Web sites for community patients and hospital staff, a case hospital efficiently sustained the community health services. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the integrated community health promotion platform for conducting education. Fifty-four patients/residents were invited to join a quasi-experiment of health education, and a follow-up survey was conducted to assess the acceptance of the community health promotion platform from both the experimental group of learners/users and the hospital staff. The results showed that the community health promotion platform was effective in improving participant health awareness. The experimental group outperformed the control group, with higher posttest scores and longer knowledge retention. Furthermore, users indicated a high acceptance of the community health promotion platform. PMID:26657621

  19. Health Care Insurance, Financial Concerns, and Delays to Hospital Presentation in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Smolderen, Kim G.; Spertus, John A.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Tang, Fengming; Ross, Joseph S.; Ting, Henry H.; Alexander, Karen P.; Rathore, Saif S.; Chan, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    Context Little is known about how health insurance status affects decisions to seek care during emergency medical conditions like acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Objective To examine the association between lack of health insurance and financial concerns about accessing care among those with health insurance, and the time from symptom onset to hospital presentation (prehospital delays) during AMI. Design, Setting and Patients Multicenter, prospective registry of 3721 AMI patients enrolled between April, 2005 and December, 2008 from 24 U.S. hospitals. Health insurance status was categorized as uninsured, insured with financial concerns about accessing care, and insured without financial concerns. Insurance information was determined from medical records while financial concerns among those with health insurance were determined from structured interviews. Main Outcome Measure Prehospital delay times (≤2 hours, >2 to 6 hours, >6 hours), adjusted for demographic, clinical, social and psychological factors using hierarchical ordinal regression models. Results Of 3,721 patients, 738 (19.8%) were uninsured, and 689 (18.5%) were insured with financial concerns, and 2294 (61.7%) were insured without financial concerns. Uninsured and insured patients with financial concerns were more likely to delay seeking care during AMI, with prehospital delays >6 hours among 48.6% of uninsured patients, 44.6% of insured patients with financial concerns, and 39.3% of insured patients without financial concerns, as compared with prehospital delays of <2 hours among 27.5%, 33.5%, and 36.6% of those who were uninsured, insured with financial concerns, and insured without financial concerns, respectively (P <.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, both insurance with financial concerns and lack of insurance were associated with prehospital delays: insurance without financial concerns (reference); insurance with financial concerns, adjusted odds ratio [OR)], 1.21; 95% confidence

  20. The effectiveness of wellness programs as a strategy for cost containment in acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ginn, Gregory O

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of hospital-based wellness programs in lowering both the acuity of illness of patients and the total expenses of acute care hospitals from a strategic management perspective. The subjects for this cross-sectional study were 164 community hospitals in 27 urban areas of Texas. The findings show that, after controlling for size, the number of wellness programs was significantly and negatively related to both the acuity of illness and total expenses. Further, the number of wellness programs offered did not vary significantly by type of ownership. The study concludes that reimbursement policies designed to provide financial incentives to promote wellness have been effective and suggests future directions for the evolution of health care management. PMID:15816225

  1. Health Effects and Energy Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1975-01-01

    The United States will continue to have a high energy demand to maintain our present life style. The development of a national health policy statement that would serve to coordinate federal programs for research and regulation of environmental health is suggested. (BT)

  2. A review of the health effects of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.S.; White, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the health effects of cadmium is presented. Overexposure to cadmium produces numerous acute and chronic effects. Cases of acute poisoning resemble metal-fume poisoning. The first and most distinctive indication of chronic effects is renal tubular dysfunction characterized by proteinuria. Other chronic effects include liver damage, emphysema, osteomalacia, neurological impairment, testicular, pancreatic, and adrenal damage, and anemia. Tumorigenic effects have been observed in animals, and excessive prostatic and lung cancer has been observed in worker studies. In vitro and in vivo mutagenic effects have been noted. Cadmium has been shown to cause hypertension in animals; however, it is unclear whether it is capable of causing similar effects in exposed human populations. Normal urinary excretion is less than 2 micrograms/day and correlates with exposure. Normal blood concentration is below 10 ng/gm of whole blood, and although levels are elevated in exposed groups, there is no apparent direct correlation. Hair values correlate well with exposure. Occupational and environmental standards are discussed.

  3. WHY DO THE ACUTE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OT TOLUENE IN RATS DEPEND ON THE ROUTE OF EXPOSURE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite evidence suggesting that the acute effects of organic solvents are related to their concentration in the brain, we have observed route-dependent differences in the acute behavioral effects of toluene. Whereas inhaled toluene disrupts the performance of rats on a visual si...

  4. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cocaine on the Spontaneous Behavior of Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Branch, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effects of acute and daily cocaine on spontaneous behavior patterns of pigeons. After determining the acute effects of a range of doses, 9 pigeons were divided into three groups that received one of three doses of cocaine daily, either 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 mg/kg cocaine. Measures were taken of spontaneous…

  5. Building on a national health information technology strategic plan for long-term and post-acute care: comments by the Long Term Post Acute Care Health Information Technology Collaborative.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gregory L; Alwan, Majd; Batshon, Lynne; Bloom, Shawn M; Brennan, Richard D; Derr, John F; Dougherty, Michelle; Gruhn, Peter; Kirby, Annessa; Manard, Barbara; Raiford, Robin; Serio, Ingrid Johnson

    2011-07-01

    The LTPAC (Long Term Post Acute Care) Health Information Technology (HIT) Collaborative consists of an alliance of long-term services and post-acute care stakeholders. Members of the collaborative are actively promoting HIT innovations in long-term care settings because IT adoption for health care institutions in the United States has become a high priority. One method used to actively promote HIT is providing expert comments on important documents addressing HIT adoption. Recently, the Office of the National Coordinator for HIT released a draft of the Federal Health Information Technology Strategic Plan 2011-2015 for public comment. The following brief is intended to inform about recommendations and comments made by the Collaborative on the strategic plan. PMID:21667892

  6. Building on a national health information technology strategic plan for long-term and post-acute care: comments by the Long Term Post Acute Care Health Information Technology Collaborative.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gregory L; Alwan, Majd; Batshon, Lynne; Bloom, Shawn M; Brennan, Richard D; Derr, John F; Dougherty, Michelle; Gruhn, Peter; Kirby, Annessa; Manard, Barbara; Raiford, Robin; Serio, Ingrid Johnson

    2011-07-01

    The LTPAC (Long Term Post Acute Care) Health Information Technology (HIT) Collaborative consists of an alliance of long-term services and post-acute care stakeholders. Members of the collaborative are actively promoting HIT innovations in long-term care settings because IT adoption for health care institutions in the United States has become a high priority. One method used to actively promote HIT is providing expert comments on important documents addressing HIT adoption. Recently, the Office of the National Coordinator for HIT released a draft of the Federal Health Information Technology Strategic Plan 2011-2015 for public comment. The following brief is intended to inform about recommendations and comments made by the Collaborative on the strategic plan.

  7. Acute respiratory effects of low level summer smog in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Cuijpers, C E; Swaen, G M; Wesseling, G; Hoek, G; Sturmans, F; Wouters, E F

    1995-06-01

    We aimed to study the possible effects of exposure to a summer smog episode on the respiratory health of 212 school children. Furthermore, the suitability of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) to demonstrate such effects was evaluated. Acute respiratory symptoms were evaluated by questionnaire and lung function was assessed by spirometry and respiratory impedance measurements. For each child, comparisons were made between measurements performed at baseline (low levels of air pollutant: 55 micrograms.m-3 for SO2 and 58 micrograms.m-3 for NO2 (maximum 24 h means); O3 levels ranged from 2-56 micrograms.m-3 (8 h mean)); and after a summer smog episode (characterized by 8 h O3 levels > 120 micrograms.m-3 (163 micrograms.m-3) and 1 h levels > 160 micrograms.m-3 (215 micrograms.m-3). No significant effects were observed on the prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms. When individual changes in lung function indices (delta LF) were regressed on changes in previous day ozone (8 h mean) and changes in mean daily temperature (delta MTemp), using multiple linear regression analysis, a significant negative association was observed with peak expiratory flow (PEF), but not with other spirometry indices. Although significant associations were observed with reactance at 8 Hz (Xrs8), resonant frequency (f0) and frequency dependence of resistance (FD), the signs of the beta s were opposite to the direction expected when O3 adversely affected the impedance outcomes. In conclusion, in this study short-term exposure to moderately high levels of ozone did not result in clear adverse effects on the respiratory health of the children.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    PubMed

    Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.

  9. Assessing chronic fish health: An application to a case of an acute exposure to chemically treated crude oil.

    PubMed

    Mauduit, F; Domenici, P; Farrell, A P; Lacroix, C; Le Floch, S; Lemaire, P; Nicolas-Kopec, A; Whittington, M; Zambonino-Infante, J L; Claireaux, G

    2016-09-01

    Human alteration of marine ecosystems is substantial and growing. Yet, no adequate methodology exists that provides reliable predictions of how environmental degradation will affect these ecosystems at a relevant level of biological organization. The primary objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate a fish's capacity to face a well-established environmental challenge, an exposure to chemically dispersed oil, and characterize the long-term consequences. Therefore, we applied high-throughput, non-lethal challenge tests to assess hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed as proxies for a fish's functional integrity. These whole animal challenge tests were implemented before (1 month) and after (1 month) juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) had been acutely exposed (48h) to a mixture containing 0.08gL(-1) of weathered Arabian light crude oil plus 4% dispersant (Corexit© EC9500A), a realistic exposure concentration during an oil spill. In addition, experimental populations were then transferred into semi-natural tidal mesocosm ponds and correlates of Darwinian fitness (growth and survival) were monitored over a period of 4 months. Our results revealed that fish acutely exposed to chemically dispersed oil remained impaired in terms of their hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance, but not in temperature susceptibility for 1 month post-exposure. Nevertheless, these functional impairments had no subsequent ecological consequences under mildly selective environmental conditions since growth and survival were not impacted during the mesocosm pond study. Furthermore, the earlier effects on fish performance were presumably temporary because re-testing the fish 10 months post-exposure revealed no significant residual effects on hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed. We propose that the functional proxies and correlates of Darwinian fitness used here provide a useful

  10. Assessing chronic fish health: An application to a case of an acute exposure to chemically treated crude oil.

    PubMed

    Mauduit, F; Domenici, P; Farrell, A P; Lacroix, C; Le Floch, S; Lemaire, P; Nicolas-Kopec, A; Whittington, M; Zambonino-Infante, J L; Claireaux, G

    2016-09-01

    Human alteration of marine ecosystems is substantial and growing. Yet, no adequate methodology exists that provides reliable predictions of how environmental degradation will affect these ecosystems at a relevant level of biological organization. The primary objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate a fish's capacity to face a well-established environmental challenge, an exposure to chemically dispersed oil, and characterize the long-term consequences. Therefore, we applied high-throughput, non-lethal challenge tests to assess hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed as proxies for a fish's functional integrity. These whole animal challenge tests were implemented before (1 month) and after (1 month) juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) had been acutely exposed (48h) to a mixture containing 0.08gL(-1) of weathered Arabian light crude oil plus 4% dispersant (Corexit© EC9500A), a realistic exposure concentration during an oil spill. In addition, experimental populations were then transferred into semi-natural tidal mesocosm ponds and correlates of Darwinian fitness (growth and survival) were monitored over a period of 4 months. Our results revealed that fish acutely exposed to chemically dispersed oil remained impaired in terms of their hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance, but not in temperature susceptibility for 1 month post-exposure. Nevertheless, these functional impairments had no subsequent ecological consequences under mildly selective environmental conditions since growth and survival were not impacted during the mesocosm pond study. Furthermore, the earlier effects on fish performance were presumably temporary because re-testing the fish 10 months post-exposure revealed no significant residual effects on hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed. We propose that the functional proxies and correlates of Darwinian fitness used here provide a useful

  11. Health-related QOL in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Doll, Helen; Miravitlles, Marc

    2005-01-01

    There is a lack of emphasis on health-related QOL (HR-QOL) changes associated with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (CB) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this review is to examine the use of HR-QOL instruments to evaluate acute exacerbation of CB or COPD, so as to form recommendations for future research.A literature search of papers published between 1966 and July 2003 identified more than 300 articles that used acute exacerbation of CB or COPD as the search term. However, only 21 of these studies employed HR-QOL measures as predictors of outcome or in the assessment of the impact, evolution or treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD or CB. A variety of HR-QOL measures were used, both generic and disease specific. The disease-specific St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), devised for patients with stable CB and with a recall period of 1-12 months, was the most widely used measure, with the Chronic Respiratory disease Questionnaire (CRQ) and the Baseline and Transitional Dyspnoea Index (BDI, TDI) being the only other disease-specific measures used. Most measures, both generic and disease specific, performed adequately when used during acute exacerbation of CB or COPD and indicated poor HR-QOL during acute exacerbation, which improved on resolution of the exacerbation. Relationships were evident between HR-QOL during an acute exacerbation and various outcomes, including post-exacerbation functional status, hospital re- admission for acute exacerbation or COPD, and mortality. There is a need for studies of treatments for acute exacerbation of CB or COPD to include an appropriate HR-QOL instrument to aid in the stratification of patients so as to target the right treatment to the right patient group. While a new instrument could be developed to measure HR-QOL during acute exacerbation of CB or COPD, currently available disease-specific measures such as the CRQ and the SGRQ appear to be acceptable to patients during acute

  12. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise: Effect on Young People's Cardiometabolic Health and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon B; Dring, Karah J; Nevill, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    With only a quarter of young people currently meeting physical activity guidelines, two key areas of concern are the effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health and cognition. Despite the fact that physical activity in young people is typically high intensity and intermittent in nature, much of the literature examines traditional endurance-type exercise. This review provides an update on the effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on young people's cardiometabolic health and cognition. High-intensity intermittent exercise has acute beneficial effects on endothelial function and postprandial lipemia and chronic positive effects on weight management. In addition, there is emerging evidence regarding chronic benefits on the blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests beneficial acute and chronic effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on cognition. However, further research is required in both cardiometabolic health and cognition, particularly regarding the impact of school-based interventions in adolescents. PMID:27399821

  13. Developing a market orientation in the Health Service: a survey of acute NHS Trusts in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Laing, A W; Galbraith, A

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the introduction of the quasi market mechanism into the Health Service has required that managers within NHS trusts acquire new managerial skills relating to market operations and, more importantly, reorientate their organizations towards the marketplace. Examines the pattern of development which has occurred within acute trusts across Scotland in the past three years, and argues that managers in the majority of trusts have developed a remarkably robust and relevant conceptualization of the nature and application of marketing within the NHS, reflecting the difficulties managers have faced in selling the concept of marketing to a generally sceptical body of clinicians. Notes, in part owing to such professional scepticism, that the development of marketing as an implementable approach to operations has lagged significantly behind the managerial conceptualization, although this cannot be attributed solely to resistance from clinicians and other health care professionals. Rather, suggests that such limited progress in implementing a market orientation reflects a range of "structural" barriers, both within individual trusts and the specific market environment faced by trusts.

  14. Antitumoral effect of Ocoxin on acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Elena; Hernández-García, Susana; Sanz, Eduardo; Pandiella, Atanasio

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous hematological malignancy whose incidence is growing in developed countries. In the relapse setting, very limited therapeutic options are available and in most cases only palliative care can be offered to patients. The effect of a composite formulation that contains several antioxidants, Ocoxin Oral solution (OOS), was tested in this condition. When analyzed in vitro, OOS exhibited anti-AML action that was both time and dose dependent. In vivo OOS induced a ralentization of tumor growth that was due to a decrease in cell proliferation. Such effect could, at least partially, be due to an increase in the cell cycle inhibitor p27, although other cell cycle proteins seemed to be altered. Besides, OOS induced an immunomodulatory effect through the induction of IL6. When tested in combination with other therapeutic agents normally used in the treatment of AML patients, OOS demonstrated a higher antiproliferative action, suggesting that it may be used in combination with those standard of care treatments to potentiate their antiproliferative action in the AML clinic. PMID:26756220

  15. Antidepressant Effects of Mallotus oppositifolius in Acute Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Kukuia, Kennedy K. E.; Mante, Priscilla K.; Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Adongo, Donatus W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Mallotus oppositifolius (MOE), a plant used for CNS conditions in Ghana, was investigated for acute antidepressant effects in the forced swimming (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST). Results. In both FST and TST, MOE (10, 30, and 100 mg kg−1) significantly decreased immobility periods and frequencies. A 3-day pretreatment with 200 mg kg−1, i.p., para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, reversed the decline in immobility and the increase of swimming score induced by MOE in the modified FST. Pretreatment with reserpine alone (1 mg kg−1), α-methyldopa alone (400 mg kg−1, i.p.), or a combination of both drugs failed to reverse the decline in immobility or the increase in swimming score caused by the extract in the modified FST. The extract potentiated the frequency of head twitch responses induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine. Pretreatment with d-serine (600 mg kg−1, i.p.), glycine/NMDA agonist, abolished the behavioural effects of MOE while d-cycloserine (2.5 mg kg−1, i.p.), a glycine/NMDA partial agonist, potentiated it in both TST and modified FST. Conclusion. The extract exhibited antidepressant effects in mice which is mediated by enhancement of serotoninergic neurotransmission and inhibition of glycine/NMDA receptor activation. PMID:25045543

  16. Effects of chronic parasitosis on women's health.

    PubMed

    Santiso, R

    1997-07-01

    million people are annually infected by malaria, a parasitic disease caused by Protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Malaria is transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito and is highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions located between 40 degrees latitude North and 30 degrees latitude South. It causes acute attacks that leave the human body in such a poor state that health problems resulting from these attacks become chronic. Due to the high mortality and morbidity associated with it, malaria is considered the most serious of tropical diseases and a major public-health dilemma. Pregnant women are at high risk of becoming infected, as well as children in their first years of life. In pregnant women, malaria can cause anemia which can be the major cause of maternal mortality, especially during the first pregnancy. Malaria can also cause fetal anemia which frequently results in retarded intrauterine growth and low birth weight. Prophylactic treatment with antimalarial drugs during pregnancy is recommended in areas where the disease is endemic. The prophylactic treatment should focus primarily on primiparous women who are most susceptible. Chloroquine is safe and effective for antimalarial prophylaxis, and is not teratogenic. Proguanil is also safe for prophylactic use during pregnancy, particularly in areas where P. falciparum is resistant to chloroquine. Mefloquine may be used during the third trimester of pregnancy, only if other antimalarial drugs are unavailable or ineffective.

  17. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of crew resource management training in acute care domains.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Angela; O'Connor, Paul; Keogh, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    The healthcare industry has seen an increase in the adoption of team training, such as crew resource management (CRM), to improve teamwork and coordination within acute care medical teams. A meta-analysis was carried out in order to quantify the effects of CRM training on reactions, learning, behaviour and clinical care outcomes. Biases in the research evidence are identified and recommendations for training development and evaluation are presented. PUBMED, EMBASE and PsychInfo were systematically searched for all relevant papers. Peer reviewed papers published in English between January 1985 and September 2013, which present empirically based studies focusing on interventions to improve team effectiveness in acute health care domains, were included. A total of 20 CRM-type team training evaluation studies were found to fulfil the a priori criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Overall, CRM trained participants responded positively to CRM (mean score 4.25 out of a maximum of 5), the training had large effects on participants' knowledge (d=1.05), a small effect on attitudes (d=0.22) and a large effect on behaviours (d=1.25). There was insufficient evidence to support an effect on clinical care outcomes or long term impacts. The findings support the premise that CRM training can positively impact teamwork in healthcare and provide estimates of the expected effects of training. However, there is a need for greater precision in outcome assessment, improved standardisation of methods and measures, and more robust research design. Stronger evidence of effectiveness will require multi-level, multicentre, multispecialty and longitudinal studies.

  18. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  19. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES...

  20. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES...

  1. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  2. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  3. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  4. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  5. PPARα mediates acute effects of palmitoylethanolamide on sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Khasabova, Iryna A.; Xiong, Yee; Coicou, Lia G.; Piomelli, Daniele; Seybold, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The amplitude of the depolarization-evoked Ca2+ transient is larger in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from tumor-bearing mice compared to that of neurons from naive mice, and the change is mimicked by co-culturing DRG neurons with the fibrosarcoma cells used to generate the tumors (Khasabova et al., 2007). The effect of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a ligand for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα), was determined on the evoked-Ca2+ transient in the co-culture condition. The level of PEA was reduced in DRG cells from tumor-bearing mice as well as those co-cultured with fibrosarcoma cells. Pretreatment with PEA, a synthetic PPARα agonist (GW7647), or ARN077, an inhibitor of the enzyme that hydrolyses PEA, acutely decreased the amplitude of the evoked Ca2+ transient in small DRG neurons co-cultured with fibrosarcoma cells. The PPARα antagonist GW6471 blocked the effect of each. In contrast, the PPARα agonist was without effect in the control condition, but the antagonist increased the amplitude of the Ca2+ transient suggesting that PPARα receptors are saturated by endogenous ligand under basal conditions. Effects of drugs on mechanical sensitivity in vivo paralleled their effects on DRG neurons in vitro. Local injection of ARN077 decreased mechanical hyperalgesia in tumor-bearing mice, and the effect was blocked by GW6471. These data support the conclusion that the activity of DRG neurons is rapidly modulated by PEA through a PPARα-dependent mechanism. Moreover, agents that increase the activity of PPARα may provide a therapeutic strategy to reduce tumor-evoked pain. PMID:22972997

  6. [Acute Toxic Effects of Bromate on Aquatic Organisms].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Liu, Dong-mei; Zhang, Wen-juan; Cui, Fu-yi

    2016-02-15

    Acute toxic effects of potassium bromate, sodium bromate and potassium bromide on luminescent bacteria, water flea, green alga and zebrafish were studied using standard toxic testing methods. The results showed that the pollutants had no effect on the luminous intensity of luminescent bacteria. The 96 h EC5. of potassium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 738.18 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 on Daphnia magna and Moina was 154.01 mg x L(-1) was 161.80 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 198 52 mg x L(-1), 175.68 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 931.4 mg x L(-1). The 96 h EC50 of sodium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 540.26 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 Daphnia magna and Moina was 127.90 mg x L(-1), 111.07 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 161.80 mg x L(-1), 123.47 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 1065.6 mg x L(-1). But the effects of potassium bromide on the above several kinds of aquatic organisms were far smaller than those of potassium bromate and sodium bromate. The toxic effects on test organisms were due to the impacts of bromate after the comparison of different pollutants, and the effects were more obvious with the increase of exposure time. The order of sensitivity to the toxic effects of bromate was Daphnia magna, Moina > Scenedesmus obliquus > zebrafish > Chlorella vulgaris, luminescent bacteria. PMID:27363170

  7. Background on health effects of acid aerosols.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, M

    1989-02-01

    This introduction to the 1987 NIEHS-EPA Symposium on the Health Effects of Acid Aerosols reviews the state of our knowledge on this topic as of the close of the 1984 NIEHS Conference on the Health Effects of Acid Precipitation (Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 63) and the results of some key studies completed since that time. These studies, together with the results of the studies presented in the papers that follow, provide a substantial increment in our knowledge of the health effects of acid aerosols.

  8. Background on health effects of acid aerosols.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M

    1989-01-01

    This introduction to the 1987 NIEHS-EPA Symposium on the Health Effects of Acid Aerosols reviews the state of our knowledge on this topic as of the close of the 1984 NIEHS Conference on the Health Effects of Acid Precipitation (Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 63) and the results of some key studies completed since that time. These studies, together with the results of the studies presented in the papers that follow, provide a substantial increment in our knowledge of the health effects of acid aerosols. PMID:2707208

  9. [Health effects of indoor molds].

    PubMed

    Buzina, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Molds are found almost everywhere in the environment. Their airborne propagules (conidia, spores, hyphal fragments) can--under certain circumstances--cause a variety of health problems like mycotic infections, allergies, asthma, irritations or toxic syndromes. PMID:18030548

  10. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    PubMed

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  11. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    PubMed

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research. PMID:26967029

  12. A multinational health professional perspective of the prevalence of mood disorders in patients with acute and chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Upton, Dominic; Solowiej, Kazia; Woo, Kevin Y

    2014-12-01

    Recent research has started to identify mood disorders and problems associated with acute and chronic wounds, which have been shown to contribute to delayed healing, poor patient well-being and a reduced quality of life. Furthermore, mood disorders have been shown to have a negative impact on financial costs for service providers and the wider society in terms of treatment and sickness absence. This study aimed to survey a multinational sample of health professionals to explore their perspective and awareness of mood disorders amongst acute and chronic wound patients. Responses were received from n = 908 health professionals working in Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe, North America and South America. A strong awareness of the prevalence of mood disorders appeared to be widespread among the health professionals across the world, in addition to a view on the potential factors contributing to these problems with mood. Despite this, it was thought that few patients were actually receiving treatment for their mood disorders. Implications for clinical practice include the need for health professionals to engage actively with their patients to enable them to learn from their experiences. Studies that explore the benefits of treatments and techniques appropriate for minimising mood disorders in patients with wounds would provide empirical evidence for health professionals to make recommendations for patients with acute and chronic wounds.

  13. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-04-10

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources.

  14. Responding to a "window of opportunity": the detection and management of aged abuse in an acute and subacute health care setting.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Lynette; Posenelli, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Aged abuse can manifest as physical harm, sexual assault, intimidation, blackmail, and social deprivation, misappropriation of funds or property, and neglect. The extent of the problem is difficult to assess in health settings due to underreporting and the fragility and reluctance of the elderly in being able to discuss the issue with health care providers. This appears to be related to the fact that perpetrators are frequently family members with resulting issues of aged dependency, family loyalty, and fear of the consequences of reporting. Of equal importance is a general lack of community understanding of aged abuse, including health professionals who frequently lack the confidence in screening and management to respond appropriately when aged abuse is suspected. Staff knowledge and skills emerge as a deficit in the detection of elder abuse and staff education has been identified as an effective means of improving the recognition of the abused elderly person in acute hospital settings. In addition, there remains a need for effective screening protocols. The aim of this study was to explore the recognition of aged abuse in an acute and subacute hospital setting. This has implications for effective management and community linkage as well as strengthening the knowledge base of issues related to this vulnerable group. The study included a survey and interview with hospital staff to explore their response to aged abuse over a retrospective twelve-month period. PMID:20182983

  15. Association of acute adverse effects with high local SAR induced in the brain from prolonged RF head and neck hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Adibzadeh, F; Verhaart, R F; Verduijn, G M; Fortunati, V; Rijnen, Z; Franckena, M; van Rhoon, G C; Paulides, M M

    2015-02-01

    To provide an adequate level of protection for humans from exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to assure that any adverse health effects are avoided. The basic restrictions in terms of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) were prescribed by IEEE and ICNIRP. An example of a therapeutic application of non-ionizing EMF is hyperthermia (HT), in which intense RF energy is focused at a target region. Deep HT in the head and neck (H&N) region involves inducing energy at 434 MHz for 60 min on target. Still, stray exposure of the brain is considerable, but to date only very limited side-effects were observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the stringency of the current basic restrictions by relating the induced EM dose in the brain of patients treated with deep head and neck (H&N) HT to the scored acute health effects. We performed a simulation study to calculate the induced peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (psSAR₁₀g) in the brains of 16 selected H&N patients who received the highest SAR exposure in the brain, i.e. who had the minimum brain-target distance and received high forwarded power during treatment. The results show that the maximum induced SAR in the brain of the patients can exceed the current basic restrictions (IEEE and ICNIRP) on psSAR₁₀g for occupational environments by 14 times. Even considering the high local SAR in the brain, evaluation of acute effects by the common toxicity criteria (CTC) scores revealed no indication of a serious acute neurological effect. In addition, this study provides pioneering quantitative human data on the association between maximum brain SAR level and acute adverse effects when brains are exposed to prolonged RF EMF.

  16. Association of acute adverse effects with high local SAR induced in the brain from prolonged RF head and neck hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibzadeh, F.; Verhaart, R. F.; Verduijn, G. M.; Fortunati, V.; Rijnen, Z.; Franckena, M.; van Rhoon, G. C.; Paulides, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    To provide an adequate level of protection for humans from exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to assure that any adverse health effects are avoided. The basic restrictions in terms of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) were prescribed by IEEE and ICNIRP. An example of a therapeutic application of non-ionizing EMF is hyperthermia (HT), in which intense RF energy is focused at a target region. Deep HT in the head and neck (H&N) region involves inducing energy at 434 MHz for 60 min on target. Still, stray exposure of the brain is considerable, but to date only very limited side-effects were observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the stringency of the current basic restrictions by relating the induced EM dose in the brain of patients treated with deep head and neck (H&N) HT to the scored acute health effects. We performed a simulation study to calculate the induced peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (psSAR10g) in the brains of 16 selected H&N patients who received the highest SAR exposure in the brain, i.e. who had the minimum brain-target distance and received high forwarded power during treatment. The results show that the maximum induced SAR in the brain of the patients can exceed the current basic restrictions (IEEE and ICNIRP) on psSAR10g for occupational environments by 14 times. Even considering the high local SAR in the brain, evaluation of acute effects by the common toxicity criteria (CTC) scores revealed no indication of a serious acute neurological effect. In addition, this study provides pioneering quantitative human data on the association between maximum brain SAR level and acute adverse effects when brains are exposed to prolonged RF EMF.

  17. The exposure to and health effects of antimony

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: This minireview describes the health effects of antimony exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to antimony on physiological function and well-being. Methods: The criteria used in the current minireview for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Articles were classified from an acute and chronic exposure and toxicity thrust. Results: The proportion of utilised and non-utilised articles was tabulated. Antimony toxicity is dependent on the exposure dose, duration, route (breathing, eating, drinking, or skin contact), other chemical exposures, age, sex, nutritional status, family traits, life style, and state of health. Chronic exposure to antimony in the air at levels of 9 mg/m3 may exacerbate irritation of the eyes, skin, and lungs. Long-term inhalation of antimony can potentiate pneumoconiosis, altered electrocardiograms, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers, results which were confirmed in laboratory animals. Although there were investigations of the effect of antimony in sudden infant death syndrome, current findings suggest no link. Antimony trioxide exposure is predominant in smelters. Mining and exposure via glass working, soldering, and brazing are also important. Conclusion: Antimony has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being and measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure of the like. Its biological monitoring in the workplace is essential. PMID:20165605

  18. Are antibiotics a safe and effective treatment for acute uncomplicated appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Moraga, Felipe; Ahumada, Vanessa; Crovari, Fernando

    2016-01-26

    Acute appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdominal pain and the most frequent cause of emergency abdominal surgery. In the last two decades, growing evidence has been published about the use of antibiotics as the exclusive treatment for acute appendicitis. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified only one systematic review including one pertinent randomized trial. We generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of antibiotics to treat acute uncomplicated appendicitis may be less effective than appendectomy and probably increases major complications compared with appendectomy.

  19. Are antibiotics a safe and effective treatment for acute uncomplicated appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Moraga, Felipe; Ahumada, Vanessa; Crovari, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdominal pain and the most frequent cause of emergency abdominal surgery. In the last two decades, growing evidence has been published about the use of antibiotics as the exclusive treatment for acute appendicitis. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified only one systematic review including one pertinent randomized trial. We generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of antibiotics to treat acute uncomplicated appendicitis may be less effective than appendectomy and probably increases major complications compared with appendectomy. PMID:26817927

  20. Cost-effectiveness of Out-of-Hospital Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Acute Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Thokala, Praveen; Goodacre, Steve; Ward, Matt; Penn-Ashman, Jerry; Perkins, Gavin D.

    2015-01-01

    Study objective We determine the cost-effectiveness of out-of-hospital continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compared with standard care for adults presenting to emergency medical services with acute respiratory failure. Methods We developed an economic model using a United Kingdom health care system perspective to compare the costs and health outcomes of out-of-hospital CPAP to standard care (inhospital noninvasive ventilation) when applied to a hypothetical cohort of patients with acute respiratory failure. The model assigned each patient a probability of intubation or death, depending on the patient’s characteristics and whether he or she had out-of-hospital CPAP or standard care. The patients who survived accrued lifetime quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and health care costs according to their age and sex. Costs were accrued through intervention and hospital treatment costs, which depended on patient outcomes. All results were converted into US dollars, using the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development purchasing power parities rates. Results Out-of-hospital CPAP was more effective than standard care but was also more expensive, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £20,514 per QALY ($29,720/QALY) and a 49.5% probability of being cost-effective at the £20,000 per QALY ($29,000/QALY) threshold. The probability of out-of-hospital CPAP’s being cost-effective at the £20,000 per QALY ($29,000/QALY) threshold depended on the incidence of eligible patients and varied from 35.4% when a low estimate of incidence was used to 93.8% with a high estimate. Variation in the incidence of eligible patients also had a marked influence on the expected value of sample information for a future randomized trial. Conclusion The cost-effectiveness of out-of-hospital CPAP is uncertain. The incidence of patients eligible for out-of-hospital CPAP appears to be the key determinant of cost-effectiveness. PMID:25737210

  1. Review of the health effects of wildland fire smoke on wildland firefighters and the public.

    PubMed

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Reinhardt, Timothy E; Domitrovich, Joe; Broyles, George; Adetona, Anna M; Kleinman, Michael T; Ottmar, Roger D; Naeher, Luke P

    2016-01-01

    Each year, the general public and wildland firefighters in the US are exposed to smoke from wildland fires. As part of an effort to characterize health risks of breathing this smoke, a review of the literature was conducted using five major databases, including PubMed and MEDLINE Web of Knowledge, to identify smoke components that present the highest hazard potential, the mechanisms of toxicity, review epidemiological studies for health effects and identify the current gap in knowledge on the health impacts of wildland fire smoke exposure. Respiratory events measured in time series studies as incidences of disease-caused mortality, hospital admissions, emergency room visits and symptoms in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients are the health effects that are most commonly associated with community level exposure to wildland fire smoke. A few recent studies have also determined associations between acute wildland fire smoke exposure and cardiovascular health end-points. These cardiopulmonary effects were mostly observed in association with ambient air concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). However, research on the health effects of this mixture is currently limited. The health effects of acute exposures beyond susceptible populations and the effects of chronic exposures experienced by the wildland firefighter are largely unknown. Longitudinal studies of wildland firefighters during and/or after the firefighting career could help elucidate some of the unknown health impacts of cumulative exposure to wildland fire smoke, establish occupational exposure limits and help determine the types of exposure controls that may be applicable to the occupation.

  2. Acute effects of acrolein in human volunteers during controlled exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Aishwarya M.; Johanson, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Johnny C.; Palmberg, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Ernstgård, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde mainly formed by combustion. The critical effect is considered to be irritation of the eyes and airways; however, the scarce data available make it difficult to assess effect levels. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine thresholds for acute irritation for acrolein. Methods: Nine healthy volunteers of each sex were exposed at six occasions for 2 h at rest to: clean air, 15 ppm ethyl acetate (EA), and 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm acrolein with and without EA (15 ppm) to mask the potential influence of odor. Symptoms related to irritation and central nervous system effects were rated on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Results: The ratings of eye irritation were slightly but significantly increased during exposure to acrolein in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001, Friedman test) with a median rating of 8 mm (corresponding to “hardly at all”) at the 0.1 ppm condition and with no influence from EA. No significant exposure-related effects were found for pulmonary function, or nasal swelling, nor for markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood (IL-6, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, and Clara cell protein) or induced sputum (cell count, differential cell count, IL-6 and IL-8). Blink frequency recorded by electromyography was increased during exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein alone but not during any of the other five exposure conditions. Conclusion: Based on subjective ratings, the present study showed minor eye irritation by exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein. PMID:26635308

  3. Acute effects of tianeptine on circulating neurotransmitters and cardiovascular parameters.

    PubMed

    Lechin, Fuad; van der Dijs, Bertha; Hernández, Gerardo; Orozco, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Simon; Baez, Scarlet

    2006-03-01

    Tianeptine is a serotonin-uptake enhancer drug whose antidepressant effectiveness is based on its ability to reduce rather than increase serotonin availability at the synaptic cleft. This paradoxical neuropharmacological mechanism has raised doubt among neuropharmacologists and psychiatrists as to the role of tianeptine as a trusty-reliable antidepressant drug. This controversial issue led us to investigate the acute effects of a single, oral dose (12.5 mg) of this drug on circulating neurotransmitters and cardiovascular parameters in 50 healthy subjects. The drug provoked a striking and significant reduction of plasma noradrenaline (NA) and plasma serotonin (f-5-HT) while it increased plasma dopamine (DA) and platelet serotonin (p-5-HT) concentrations within the 4-h study period. No adrenaline (Ad) changes were registered. The NA/Ad ratio and the f-5-HT/p-5-HT ratio showed significant reduction throughout the test. Finally, although diastolic blood pressure (DBP) showed significant decrease, neither systolic blood pressure (SBP) nor heart rate (HR) showed significant change. These findings are consistent with the postulation that tianeptine reduces both neural sympathetic activity and parasympathetic activity without affecting adrenal sympathetic activity, enabling us to discuss the possible mechanisms involved in the antidepressant effects of tianeptine. The well-known fact that major depressed patients always show raised NA plus lower than normal p-5-HT levels, both disorders which are normalized by tianeptine, gives neurochemical support to the clinical improvement triggered by the drug in these patients. Summarizing, the results presented in this study demonstrate that tianeptine triggers significant reduction of circulating noradrenaline and plasma serotonin while increasing circulating dopamine and platelet serotonin. Other possible neuropharmacological effects are also discussed.

  4. Health Effects of Energy Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William; Tatu, Calin; Pavlovic, Nikola; Bunnell, Joseph; Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources (coal, oil, and natural gas) are among the cornerstones of modern industrial society. The exploitation of these resources, however, is not without costs. Energy materials may contain harmful chemical substances that, if mobilized into air, water, or soil, can adversely impact human health and environmental quality. In order to address the issue of human exposure to toxic substances derived from energy resources, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program developed a project entitled 'Impacts of Energy Resources on Human Health and Environmental Quality.' The project is intended to provide policymakers and the public with the scientific information needed to weigh the human health and environmental consequences of meeting our energy needs. This fact sheet discusses several areas where the USGS Energy Resources Program is making scientific advances in this endeavor.

  5. Health and environmental effects document for batteries: 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    An evaluation is presented of the ecological and health effects of the near-term electric storage batteries (lead/acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron) as related to electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The storage battery technology is considered in its totality, and emissions are estimated for the complete cycle. For estimating quantities of various emissions, the market penetration is assumed to be 3 x 10/sup 6/ Pb/acid battery-powered vehicles and 8 x 10/sup 6/ each of the Ni/Zn and Ni/Fe battery-powered vehicles on the road by the year 2000. Ecological effects are assessed using the Estimated Permissible Concentration (EPC) approach. Pb, S, Cu, Ni, Cd, Zn, and Sb appear to be the most hazardous emission constituents and exceed EPC values for protection of ecology in one or more of the battery-related industries. More definitive, quantitative estimates of damage to the biota and to the ecosystem are not feasible because of paucity of relevant information. Health effects as a result of increased levels of lead, arsenic, and cadmium in the environment and risks of exposure to arsine, stibine, and antimony trioxide released during charging are assessed. Health effects among the occupationally exposed are also assessed using the toxicological models. Acute and chronic effects of exposure to stibine, arsine, and antimony trioxide are described.

  6. The Effect of Health Information Technology on Health Care Provider Communication: A Mixed-Method Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Background Communication failures between physicians and nurses are one of the most common causes of adverse events for hospitalized patients, as well as a major root cause of all sentinel events. Communication technology (ie, the electronic medical record, computerized provider order entry, email, and pagers), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used. Increasing use of health information and communication technologies is likely to affect communication between nurses and physicians. Objective The purpose of this study is to describe, in detail, how health information and communication technologies facilitate or hinder communication between nurses and physicians with the ultimate goal of identifying how we can optimize the use of these technologies to support effective communication. Effective communication is the process of developing shared understanding between communicators by establishing, testing, and maintaining relationships. Our theoretical model, based in communication and sociology theories, describes how health information and communication technologies affect communication through communication practices (ie, use of rich media; the location and availability of computers) and work relationships (ie, hierarchies and team stability). Therefore we seek to (1) identify the range of health information and communication technologies used in a national sample of medical-surgical acute care units, (2) describe communication practices and work relationships that may be influenced by health information and communication technologies in these same settings, and (3) explore how differences in health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships between physicians and nurses influence communication. Methods This 4-year study uses a sequential mixed

  7. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  8. Potential effects on health of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, A. . Whittington Hospital); Parry, M. . Environmental Change Unit)

    1993-12-01

    Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability of adequate preventive and curative facilities for diseases that may be effected by climate change. Nevertheless, it is of importance to consider the potential health impacts of global climate change for a number of reasons. It is also important to monitor diseases which could be effected by climate change in order to detect changes in incidence as early as possible and study possible interactions with other factors. It seems likely that the possible impacts on health of climate change will be a major determinant of the degree to which policies aimed at reducing global warming are followed, as perceptions of the effect of climate change to human health and well-being are particularly likely to influence public opinion. The potential health impacts of climate change can be divided into direct (primary) and indirect (secondary and tertiary) effects. Primary effects are those related to the effect of temperature on human well-being and disease. Secondary effects include the impacts on health of changes in food production, availability of water and of sea level rise. A tertiary level of impacts can also be hypothesized.

  9. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  10. Effective management of acute deep vein thrombosis: direct oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Roussin, A

    2015-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a manifestation of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and accounts for most venous thromboembolic events. Although DVT is not directly life-threatening, thrombi in the proximal veins of the leg can embolize to the lungs to form a pulmonary embolism, which may prove rapidly fatal. If untreated, DVT can also lead to significant morbidity, including development of post-thrombotic syndrome. Among many risk factors, surgery, hospitalization, older age and active cancer increase the risk of VTE, and a previous event increases the risk of recurrence. Early detection and effective clot resolution are vital in managing DVT. Conventional approaches to acute treatment of VTE involve initial fast-acting parenteral heparin overlapping with and followed by vitamin K antagonist therapy. However, vitamin K antagonists have a narrow therapeutic window, require regular monitoring, and have multiple food and drug interactions. Results from phase III clinical studies involving direct Factor Xa and IIa inhibitors suggest that these agents provide an alternative therapeutic option that overcomes some of the complications associated with conventional treatment with predictable pharmacological properties and convenient dosing schedules. Analysis of data from the rivaroxaban EINSTEIN studies also suggests that these agents have the potential to improve patient-reported treatment satisfaction and reduce the length of hospital stay compared with conventional therapy. This review considers these treatment options, suitable treatment durations to prevent recurrence, and the management of DVT treatment in challenging patient groups. PMID:24927023

  11. Acute effects of ethanol on left ventricular diastolic function.

    PubMed Central

    Kupari, M; Koskinen, P; Hynynen, M; Salmenperä, M; Ventilä, M

    1990-01-01

    Transmitral flow velocities were measured by Doppler echocardiography in nine healthy men who ingested 1 g/kg of ethanol within one hour. The measurements were made before the first drink and every hour thereafter for three hours. The peak mean (SE) blood ethanol concentration was 21.4 (1.0) mmol/l. Each man was also studied after drinking fruit juice. Ethanol increased the heart rate but did not change the peak transmitral velocities, the normalised peak filling rate, the deceleration of early flow, or the duration of relaxation as measured from the second heart sound to the peak early diastolic velocity. The ratio of the peak atrial to the peak early diastolic velocity rose from 0.41 (0.03) to 0.44 (0.03) after ethanol but remained unchanged after juice. The difference between juice and ethanol was independent of changes in heart rate. The fluid balance was more negative in the ethanol experiment (-727 (114) ml v -107 (70) ml), suggesting a reduction in preload, and the ethanol-induced net loss of fluid correlated with the concomitant change in the velocity ratio. A moderate dose of ethanol causes a small acute increase of the ratio of the peak atrial to the peak early diastolic velocity of mitral flow in healthy subjects. Although this change indicates altered diastolic function of the left ventricle, most of it may result from the diuretic effect of ethanol. Any major impairment of ventricular relaxation seems unlikely. PMID:2393610

  12. Effects of acute spinalization on neurons of postural networks

    PubMed Central

    Zelenin, Pavel V.; Lyalka, Vladimir F.; Hsu, Li-Ju; Orlovsky, Grigori N.; Deliagina, Tatiana G.

    2016-01-01

    Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of postural corrections. Spinalization results in loss of postural functions, including disappearance of PLRs. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute spinalization on two populations of spinal neurons (F and E) mediating PLRs, which we characterized previously. For this purpose, in decerebrate rabbits spinalized at T12, responses of interneurons from L5 to stimulation causing PLRs before spinalization, were recorded. The results were compared to control data obtained in our previous study. We found that spinalization affected the distribution of F- and E-neurons across the spinal grey matter, caused a significant decrease in their activity, as well as disturbances in processing of posture-related sensory inputs. A two-fold decrease in the proportion of F-neurons in the intermediate grey matter was observed. Location of populations of F- and E-neurons exhibiting significant decrease in their activity was determined. A dramatic decrease of the efficacy of sensory input from the ipsilateral limb to F-neurons, and from the contralateral limb to E-neurons was found. These changes in operation of postural networks underlie the loss of postural control after spinalization, and represent a starting point for the development of spasticity. PMID:27302149

  13. Acute ethanol effects on focal cerebral ischemia in fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y J; Yang, G Y; Ben-Joseph, O; Ross, B D; Chenevert, T L; Domino, E F

    1998-05-01

    The effects of acute ethanol intoxication were investigated in a rat model of unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion. Groups of 5 to 8 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 hr of left middle cerebral artery occlusion. All groups were deprived of food overnight and were pretreated intraperitoneally with 5% dextrose solution (10 ml/kg), 20% ethyl alcohol in 5% dextrose solution (2 g/kg), or 30% ethyl alcohol in a 5% dextrose solution (3 g/kg) 1 hr before middle cerebral artery occlusion. Regional cerebral blood flow during ipsilateral occlusion was approximately 9.1 to 10% of baseline in all groups. The mean % brain water content in control, 2 g/kg ethanol-treated groups, and 3 g/kg ethanol-treated groups were: in the ischemic core--81.6, 81.2, and 82.4; intermediate zone--80.5, 80.6, and 81.7; and outer zone--79.7, 79.7, and 80.8, respectively. Brain Na+ and K+ content in the three groups was related to water content, but much greater with ethanol pretreatment. The water content of the intermediate zones in the 3 g/kg ethanol-treated animals was significantly greater than in the control (p < 0.01 and 0.001) and the 2 g/kg ethanol-treated groups. One-way analysis of variance indicated a significant dose-effect relationship in which the lower dose of ethanol tended to reduce ischemic core water content, and the larger dose increased ischemic core water, compared with the control. None of the overnight fasted groups had any significant hyperglycemia. The group given 3 g/kg i.p. ethanol 1 hr before had exacerbated edema formation with a mean whole blood level of ethanol of approximately 230 mg/dl. The neurotoxic effects of high concentrations of ethanol were unrelated to any change in plasma glucose concentrations.

  14. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao-xin; Han, Bing; Hou, Li-Min; An, Ting-Ting; Jia, Guang; Cheng, Zhuo-Xin; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Yi-Nan; Kong, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Jia; Wang, Yong-Wei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Pan, Shang-Ha; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight). Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP. PMID:27115738

  15. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  16. The effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on bone metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ivaska, Kaisa K; Heliövaara, Maikki K; Ebeling, Pertti; Bucci, Marco; Huovinen, Ville; Väänänen, H Kalervo; Nuutila, Pirjo; Koistinen, Heikki A

    2015-01-01

    Insulin signaling in bone-forming osteoblasts stimulates bone formation and promotes the release of osteocalcin (OC) in mice. Only a few studies have assessed the direct effect of insulin on bone metabolism in humans. Here, we studied markers of bone metabolism in response to acute hyperinsulinemia in men and women. Thirty-three subjects from three separate cohorts (n=8, n=12 and n=13) participated in a euglycaemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study. Blood samples were collected before and at the end of infusions to determine the markers of bone formation (PINP, total OC, uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC)) and resorption (CTX, TRAcP5b). During 4 h insulin infusion (40 mU/m2 per min, low insulin), CTX level decreased by 11% (P<0.05). High insulin infusion rate (72 mU/m2 per min) for 4 h resulted in more pronounced decrease (−32%, P<0.01) whereas shorter insulin exposure (40 mU/m2 per min for 2 h) had no effect (P=0.61). Markers of osteoblast activity remained unchanged during 4 h insulin, but the ratio of uncarboxylated-to-total OC decreased in response to insulin (P<0.05 and P<0.01 for low and high insulin for 4 h respectively). During 2 h low insulin infusion, both total OC and ucOC decreased significantly (P<0.01 for both). In conclusion, insulin decreases bone resorption and circulating levels of total OC and ucOC. Insulin has direct effects on bone metabolism in humans and changes in the circulating levels of bone markers can be seen within a few hours after administration of insulin. PMID:26047829

  17. Effect of air pollution on athlete health and performance.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth William

    2012-05-01

    Unfavourable effects on the respiratory and the cardiovascular systems from short-term and long-term inhalation of air pollution are well documented. Exposure to freshly generated mixed combustion emissions such as those observed in proximity to roadways with high volumes of traffic and those from ice-resurfacing equipment are of particular concern. This is because there is a greater toxicity from freshly generated whole exhaust than from its component parts. The particles released from emissions are considered to cause oxidative damage and inflammation in the airways and the vascular system, and may be related to decreased exercise performance. However, few studies have examined this aspect. Several papers describe deleterious effects on health from chronic and acute air pollution exposure. However, there has been no research into the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on athletic performance and a paucity of studies that describe the effects of acute exposure on exercise performance. The current knowledge of exercising in the high-pollution environment and the consequences that it may have on athlete performance are reviewed.

  18. [Therapeutic modalities for the management of cough associated with acute respiratory viral infection, effective in an otolaryngologist's practice].

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, A I; Paniakina, M A; Korostelev, S A; Mitiuk, A M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness ascoril therapy in comparison with the treatment using the mucoactive agent lasolvan in the adult patients suffering from productive cough associated with acute viral respiratory infection. Patients and methods. The study included 120 patients suffering from productive cough associated with acute viral respiratory infection. They were divided into two groups. The patients comprising group 1 (n=6.) were treated with ascoril, those in group 2 (n=60) were given lasolvan. Results. The effectiveness of the treatment of cough in group 1 was found to be higher compared with that in group 2 (p<0.05); moreover, it was associated with better dynamics of certain indicators of the quality of life, such as the social activity level, vitality, and general health (p<0.05). The safety of the proposed treatment was confirmed by the absence of the adverse events throughout the entire treatment period.

  19. [Therapeutic modalities for the management of cough associated with acute respiratory viral infection, effective in an otolaryngologist's practice].

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, A I; Paniakina, M A; Korostelev, S A; Mitiuk, A M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness ascoril therapy in comparison with the treatment using the mucoactive agent lasolvan in the adult patients suffering from productive cough associated with acute viral respiratory infection. Patients and methods. The study included 120 patients suffering from productive cough associated with acute viral respiratory infection. They were divided into two groups. The patients comprising group 1 (n=6.) were treated with ascoril, those in group 2 (n=60) were given lasolvan. Results. The effectiveness of the treatment of cough in group 1 was found to be higher compared with that in group 2 (p<0.05); moreover, it was associated with better dynamics of certain indicators of the quality of life, such as the social activity level, vitality, and general health (p<0.05). The safety of the proposed treatment was confirmed by the absence of the adverse events throughout the entire treatment period. PMID:24781181

  20. Acute Alcohol Consumption and Secondary Psychopathic Traits Increase Ratings of the Attractiveness and Health of Ethnic Ingroup Faces but Not Outgroup Faces

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ian J.; Gillespie, Steven M.; Leverton, Monica; Llewellyn, Victoria; Neale, Emily; Stevenson, Isobel

    2015-01-01

    Studies have consistently shown that both consumption of acute amounts of alcohol and elevated antisocial psychopathic traits are associated with an impaired ability for prepotent response inhibition. This may manifest as a reduced ability to inhibit prepotent race biased responses. Here, we tested the effects of acute alcohol consumption, and elevated antisocial psychopathic traits, on judgments of the attractiveness and health of ethnic ingroup and outgroup faces. In the first study, we show that following acute alcohol consumption, at a dose that is sufficient to result in impaired performance on tests of executive function, Caucasian participants judged White faces to be more attractive and healthier compared to when sober. However, this effect did not extend to Black faces. A similar effect was found in a second study involving sober Caucasian participants where secondary psychopathic traits were related to an intergroup bias in the ratings of attractiveness for White versus Black faces. These results are discussed in terms of a model which postulates that poor prefrontal functioning leads to increases in ingroup liking as a result of impaired abilities for prepotent response inhibition. PMID:25745403

  1. People Create Health: Effective Health Promotion is a Creative Process

    PubMed Central

    Cloninger, C. Robert; Cloninger, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Effective health promotion involves the creative cultivation of physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. Efforts at health promotion produce weak and inconsistent benefits when it does not engage people to express their own goals and values. Likewise, health promotion has been ineffective when it relies only on instruction about facts regarding a healthy lifestyle, or focuses on reduction of disease rather than the cultivation of well-being. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies and experimental interventions shows that improvements in subjective well-being lead to short-term and long-term reductions in medical morbidity and mortality, as well as to healthier functioning and longevity. However, these effects are inconsistent and weak (correlations of about 0.15). The most consistent and strong predictor of both subjective well-being and objective health status in longitudinal studies is a creative personality profile characterized by being highly self-directed, cooperative, and self-transcendent. There is a synergy among these personality traits that enhances all aspects of the health and happiness of people. Experimental interventions to cultivate this natural creative potential of people are now just beginning, but available exploratory research has shown that creativity can be enhanced and the changes are associated with widespread and profound benefits, including greater physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. In addition to benefits mediated by choice of diet, physical activity, and health care utilization, the effect of a creative personality on health may be partly mediated by effects on the regulation of heart rate variability. Creativity promotes autonomic balance with parasympathetic dominance leading to a calm alert state that promotes an awakening of plasticities and intelligences that stress inhibits. We suggest that health, happiness, and meaning can be cultivated by a complex adaptive process that enhances healthy functioning

  2. Acute health impact of the gas release at Lake Nyos, Cameroon, 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Peter J.; Kapila, Mukesh

    1989-11-01

    Available medical evidence on the acute health impact of the gas release at Lake Nyos is summarised, including the results of a survey of medical records of 845 survivors treated at Wum and Nkambe hospitals. The main clinical features were compatible with exposure to an asphyxiant gas such as CO 2 but confirmation of the identity of the gas or gases involved was not possible. Exposure to CO 2 over such a large inhabited area and reversible coma lasting for hours after CO 2 gassing do not appear to have been reported before. In some victims, blistering or ulceration of the skin was present which could not be readily explained by local injury from pressure, or burns from acid, or falling near fires. Further epidemiological studies on survivors are unlikely to be feasible, but the possibility of long-term anoxic brain damage among adults and children who had been rendered comatose by the gas should be considered, though overt evidence of major neurological or respiratory disability was not apparent in survivors in the weeks following the disaster. The inadequacy of the toxicological and forensic evidence obtained points to the need for the rapid mobilisation of medical scientists in future disasters of this kind.

  3. Leadership support for ward managers in acute mental health inpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Gwen; McLaughlin, Sue

    2014-05-01

    This article shares findings of work undertaken with a group of mental health ward managers to consider their roles through workshops using an action learning approach. The tensions between the need to balance the burden of administrative tasks and act as clinical role models, leaders and managers are considered in the context of providing recovery-focused services. The group reviewed their leadership styles, broke down the administrative elements of their roles using activity logs, reviewed their working environments and considered how recovery focused they believed their wards to be. Findings support the notion that the ward manager role in acute inpatient settings is at times unmanageable. Administration is one aspect of the role for which ward managers feel unprepared and the high number of administrative tasks take them away from front line clinical care, leading to frustration. Absence from clinical areas reduces opportunities for role modeling good clinical practice to other staff. Despite the frustrations of administrative tasks, overall the managers thought they were supportive to their staff and that their wards were recovery focused. PMID:24779763

  4. Development of Inpatient Risk Stratification Models of Acute Kidney Injury for Use in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Matheny, Michael E.; Miller, Randolph A.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Waitman, Lemuel R.; Denny, Joshua C.; Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Dittus, Robert S.; Peterson, Josh F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI) are at risk for increased mortality and further medical complications. Evaluating these patients with a prediction tool easily implemented within an electronic health record (EHR) would identify high risk patients prior to the development of AKI, and could prevent iatrogenically induced episodes of AKI and improve clinical management. Methods We used structured clinical data acquired from an EHR to identify patients with normal kidney function for admissions from August 1st, 1999 to July 31st, 2003. Using administrative, computerized provider order entry, and laboratory test data, we developed a 3-level risk stratification model to predict each of two severity levels of in-hospital AKI as defined by RIFLE criteria. The severity levels were defined as 150% or 200% of baseline serum creatinine. Model discrimination and calibration was evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation. Results Cross-validation of the models resulted in area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curves of 0.75 (150% elevation) and 0.78 (200% elevation). Both models were adequately calibrated as measured by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test chi-squared values of 9.7 (p = 0.29) and 12.7 (p = 0.12), respectively. Conclusions We generated risk prediction models for hospital-acquired AKI using only commonly available electronic data. The models identify patients at high risk for AKI who might benefit from early intervention or increased monitoring. PMID:20354229

  5. Leadership support for ward managers in acute mental health inpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Gwen; McLaughlin, Sue

    2014-05-01

    This article shares findings of work undertaken with a group of mental health ward managers to consider their roles through workshops using an action learning approach. The tensions between the need to balance the burden of administrative tasks and act as clinical role models, leaders and managers are considered in the context of providing recovery-focused services. The group reviewed their leadership styles, broke down the administrative elements of their roles using activity logs, reviewed their working environments and considered how recovery focused they believed their wards to be. Findings support the notion that the ward manager role in acute inpatient settings is at times unmanageable. Administration is one aspect of the role for which ward managers feel unprepared and the high number of administrative tasks take them away from front line clinical care, leading to frustration. Absence from clinical areas reduces opportunities for role modeling good clinical practice to other staff. Despite the frustrations of administrative tasks, overall the managers thought they were supportive to their staff and that their wards were recovery focused.

  6. An overview of health effects on noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Y.

    1988-12-01

    Although noise can damage the inner ear and cause other pathological changes, its most common negative effects are non-somatic, such as a perception of noisiness and disturbance of daily activities. According to the definition of health by WHO, this should be considered as a health hazard. These health effects of noise can be classified into the following three categories: (I) hearing loss, perception of noisiness and masking are produced along the auditory pathway and are thus direct and specific effects of noise; (II) interference with performance, rest and sleep, a feeling of discomfort and some physiological effects are produced as indirect and non-specific effects via reticular formation of the midbrain; (III) annoyance is not merely a feeling of unpleasantness but the feeling of being bothered or troubled, and includes the development of a particular attitude toward the noise source. Individual or group behavioral responses will be evoked when annoyance develops. Annoyance and behavioral response are integrated and composite effects. The health effects of noise are modified by many factors related to both the noise and the individual. Noise level, frequency spectrum, duration and impulsiveness modify the effects. Sex, age, health status and mental character also have an influence on the effects. Direct effects of noise are most dependent on the physical nature of the noise and least dependent on human factors. Indirect effects are more dependent, and integrated effects most dependent, on human factors.

  7. Long Term and Spillover Effects of Health Shocks on Employment and Income

    PubMed Central

    García-Gómez, Pilar; van Kippersluis, Hans; O’Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    We use matching combined with difference-in-differences to identify the causal effects of sudden illness, represented by acute hospitalizations, on employment and income up to six years after the health shock using linked Dutch hospital and tax register data. An acute hospital admission lowers the employment probability by seven percentage points and results in a five percent loss of personal income two years after the shock. There is no subsequent recovery in either employment or income. There are large spillover effects: household income falls by 50 percent more than the income of the disabled person. PMID:25067853

  8. Effects of oral montelukast on airway function in acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Cýllý, A; Kara, A; Ozdemir, T; Oğüş, C; Gülkesen, K H

    2003-05-01

    Montelukast, a specific cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, has been shown to improve pulmonary function within 1 h of ingestion. This study was undertaken to compare the effects on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of oral montelukast added to intravenous steroid, intravenous steroid alone and placebo during the 24 h period following administration. Seventy asthmatic patients (FEV1 40-80% predicted and > or = 15% improvement after inhaled beta agonist) were enrolled in a single blind study to receive oral montelukast (10 mg) plus intravenous prednisolone (1 mg/kg), intravenous prednisolone (1 mg/kg) or placebo in a randomised fashion. The patients received one ofthe above three groups of medication before any other treatments. This was immediately followed by the aerosol treatments of 100 mcg of terbutaline sulphate divided into three doses during 1 h as described in the consensus statement. Thereafter, patients were observed for 24 h to document the effects on PEFR, Borg dyspnoea score and need for rescue medication. The primary end point was percentage change at different time points. Secondary end points were Borg dyspnoea score and use of rescue medication. Compared with placebo, montelukast added to the prednisolone group and the prednisolone alone group had significant percentage change from baseline in PEFR in the entire 24 h period (P<0.05). The difference in PEFR between montelukast plus prednisolone group and prednisolone group favoured the montelukast plus prednisolone group but did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, montelukast plus prednisolone group required less inhaled short-acting beta agonistthan other two groups. The results of this study indicate that adding montelukast to steroid in acute asthma may have some additive improvement in lung functions. PMID:12735671

  9. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  10. Health effects of tank cleaners.

    PubMed

    Lillienberg, L; Högstedt, B; Järvholm, B; Nilson, L

    1992-06-01

    A total of 29 tank cleaners and 31 referent controls participated in the study. In most cases, the tank cleaners were employed in small companies, usually specialized subcontractors such as firms only working in refineries cleaning oil tanks and handling oil spills. The air concentrations of hydrocarbons (HCs) in tanks containing residuals from heavy fuel oil were generally low, unless the oil was still warm. Addition of light fuel oil to facilitate the cleaning of tanks containing viscous, heavy fuel oils resulted in total airborne HC levels of 1000-1500 mg/m3. High levels of HC were measured in tanks with low-boiling petroleum fractions (naphtha and light fuel oils) of 1000-2600 mg/m3 (maximum). Today, most cleaners use air-supplied respirators or air-purifying respirator cartridges inside tanks with petroleum products or other chemicals. The exception is small firms handling fuel oils for heating purposes where only 50% of the workers use protective equipment regularly; the other workers only occasionally use protective equipment even if the air concentrations of HC are high. Protective equipment is rarely used in small, domestic tanks. Measurements of heart rate showed that tank cleaning is, at times, a highly strenuous job. No differences between tank cleaners and controls were found with respect to spirometry, liver enzymes, or frequency of micronuclei. Acute intoxications were not frequently reported in this group. However, this investigation may underestimate the true risk, as it is a cross-sectional study that found that exposures were highly variable, both quantitatively and qualitatively. In many cases, the tank cleaners knew very little about the potential hazards or the proper use of protective equipment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1605110

  11. Acute health problems related to the operation mounted to clean the Hebei Spirit oil spill in Taean, Korea.

    PubMed

    Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Hyoung Gon

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated acute health problems in people engaged in the operation mounted to clear the Hebei Spirit oil spill which occurred in December 2007 in Taean County, South Korea, and identified the risk factors associated with the development of symptoms. Eight hundred forty-six people engaged in the clean up operation for periods between 7 and 14 days were examined. Demographic information and risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire. Symptoms were classified into six categories: back pain, skin lesions, headache, and eye, neurovestibular, and respiratory symptoms. Residents and volunteers engaged in the Hebei Spirit oil spill clean up operation experienced acute health problems. Risk analyses revealed that more frequent and greater exposure was strongly associated with a higher occurrence of symptoms.

  12. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  13. The stress-buffering effect of acute exercise: Evidence for HPA axis negative feedback.

    PubMed

    Zschucke, Elisabeth; Renneberg, Babette; Dimeo, Fernando; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Ströhle, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    According to the cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis, physically trained individuals show lower physiological and psychological responses to stressors other than exercise, e.g. psychosocial stress. Reduced stress reactivity may constitute a mechanism of action for the beneficial effects of exercise in maintaining mental health. With regard to neural and psychoneuroendocrine stress responses, the acute stress-buffering effects of exercise have not been investigated yet. A sample of highly trained (HT) and sedentary (SED) young men was randomized to either exercise on a treadmill at moderate intensity (60-70% VO2max; AER) for 30 min, or to perform 30 min of "placebo" exercise (PLAC). 90 min later, an fMRI experiment was conducted using an adapted version of the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST). The subjective and psychoneuroendocrine (cortisol and α-amylase) changes induced by the exercise intervention and the MIST were assessed, as well as neural activations during the MIST. Finally, associations between the different stress responses were analysed. Participants of the AER group showed a significantly reduced cortisol response to the MIST, which was inversely related to the previous exercise-induced α-amylase and cortisol fluctuations. With regard to the sustained BOLD signal, we found higher bilateral hippocampus (Hipp) activity and lower prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity in the AER group. Participants with a higher aerobic fitness showed lower cortisol responses to the MIST. As the Hipp and PFC are brain structures prominently involved in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, these findings indicate that the acute stress-buffering effect of exercise relies on negative feedback mechanisms. Positive affective changes after exercise appear as important moderators largely accounting for the effects related to physical fitness.

  14. Emergency Care of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California Integrated Health System

    PubMed Central

    Sauser-Zachrison, Kori; Shen, Ernest; Ajani, Zahra; Neil, William P; Sangha, Navdeep; Gould, Michael K; Sharp, Adam L

    2016-01-01

    Context: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is underutilized for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Objective: To determine whether the probability of tPA administration for patients with ischemic stroke in an integrated health care system improved from 2009 to 2013, and to identify predictors of tPA administration. Design: Retrospective analysis of all ischemic stroke presentations to 14 Emergency Departments between 2009 and 2013. A generalized linear mixed-effects model identified patient and hospital predictors of tPA. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome was tPA administration; secondary outcomes were door-to-imaging and door-to-needle times and tPA-related bleeding complications. Results: Of the 11,630 patients, 3.9% received tPA. The likelihood of tPA administration increased with presentation in 2012 and 2013 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26–2.43; and OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.90–3.51), female sex (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.04–1.54), and ambulance arrival (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.76–2.67), and decreased with prior stroke (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.25–0.89) and increased age (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97–0.99). Likelihood varied by Medical Center (pseudo-intraclass correlation coefficient 13.5%). Among tPA-treated patients, median door-to-imaging time was 15 minutes (interquartile range, 9–23 minutes), and door-to-needle time was 73 minutes (interquartile range, 55–103 minutes). The rate of intracranial hemorrhage was 4.2% and 0.9% among tPA- and non-tPA treated patients (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Acute ischemic stroke care improved over time in this integrated health system. Better understanding of differences in hospital performance will have important quality-improvement and policy implications. PMID:27043833

  15. Cerebrolysin effects on neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Amiri-Nikpour, Mohammad Reza; Nazarbaghi, Surena; Ahmadi-Salmasi, Babak; Mokari, Tayebeh; Tahamtan, Urya; Rezaei, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebrolysin, a brain-derived neuropeptide, has been shown to improve the neurological outcomes of stroke, but no study has demonstrated its effect on cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to determine the cerebrolysin impact on the neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow. Methods In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 46 patients who had acute focal ischemic stroke were randomly assigned into two groups to receive intravenously either 30 mL of cerebrolysin diluted in normal saline daily for 10 days (n=23) or normal saline alone (n=23) adjunct to 100 mg of aspirin daily. All patients were examined using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and transcranial Doppler to measure the mean flow velocity and pulsatility index (PI) of their cerebral arteries at baseline as well as on days 30, 60, and 90. Results The patients’ mean age was 60±9.7 years, and 51.2% of patients were male. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on day 60 (median 10, interquartile range 9–11, P=0.008) and day 90 (median 11, interquartile range 10–13.5, P=0.001). The median of PI in the right middle cerebral artery was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on days 30, 60, and 90 (P<0.05). One patient in the cerebrolysin group and two patients in the placebo group died before day 30 (4.3% versus 8.7%). Conclusion Cerebrolysin can be useful to improve the neurological outcomes and the PI of middle cerebral artery in patients with acute focal ischemic stroke. PMID:25516711

  16. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress. PMID:27635201

  17. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress.

  18. Effect of Dextran 40 and aprotinin on experimental acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Crocket, K V; Reising, J R; Wirman, J A; Gau, N; Joffe, S N

    1984-03-01

    This study examines and compares the prophylactic role of aprotinin and Dextran 40 in acute pancreatitis. Experimental acute pancreatitis was induced in 70 male Wistar rats using the closed-duodenal-loop technique. The rats were randomly divided into four groups; sham operation, untreated acute pancreatitis, and therapy with aprotinin or Dextran 40. Samples of blood and urine were collected at the beginning and at the end of the 24-hr period for measurement of amylase and creatinine which allowed calculation of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR). Mortality in the aprotinin group was the same as the untreated rats (20%). Dextran 40 therapy was associated with a lower mortality rate (6.7%). Light microscopic examination confirmed that the histologic changes of acute pancreatitis were less severe in both the aprotinin- and Dextran 40-treated rats. The ACCR was elevated after Dextran 40 therapy, which was due mainly to high urinary amylase levels. These results suggest that Dextran 40 may have a prophylactic role in acute experimental pancreatitis but again emphasizes the high false-positive rate of the ACCR determination. PMID:6199589

  19. Systemic vascular effects of acute electrical baroreflex stimulation.

    PubMed

    Burgoyne, Steven; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios; Belenkie, Israel; Tyberg, John V

    2014-07-15

    We intended to determine if acute baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) increases venous capacitance and aortic conductance. BAT is effective in resistant hypertension, but its effect on the systemic vasculature is poorly understood. Left ventricular (LV) and aortic pressures and subdiaphragmatic aortic and caval flows (ultrasonic) were measured in six anesthetized dogs. Changes in abdominal blood volume (Vabdominal) were estimated as the integrated difference in abdominal aortic inflow and caval outflow. An electrode was implanted on the right carotid sinus. Data were measured during control and BAT. Next, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was infused and BAT was subsequently added. Finally, angiotensin II (ANG II) was infused, and three increased BAT currents were added. We found that BAT decreased mean aortic pressure (PAo) by 22.5 ± 1.3 mmHg (P < 0.001) and increased aortic conductance by 16.2 ± 4.9% (P < 0.01) and Vabdominal at a rate of 2.2 ± 0.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (P < 0.01). SNP decreased PAo by 17.4 ± 0.7 mmHg (P < 0.001) and increased Vabdominal at a rate of 2.2 ± 0.7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (P < 0.05). During the SNP infusion, BAT decreased PAo further, by 26.0 ± 2.1 mmHg (P < 0.001). ANG II increased PAo by 40.4 ± 3.5 mmHg (P = 0.001). When an increased BAT current was added, PAo decreased to baseline (P < 0.01) while aortic conductance increased from 62.3 ± 5.2% to 80.2 ± 3.3% (P < 0.05) of control. Vabdominal increased at a rate of 1.8 ± 0.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (P < 0.01), reversing the ANG II effects. In conclusion, BAT increases arterial conductance, decreases PAo, and increases venous capacitance even in the presence of powerful vasoactive drugs. Increasing venous capacitance may be an important effect of BAT in hypertension. PMID:24816258

  20. The health effects of economic insecurity.

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, R

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Interest in the health and behavioral effects of economic insecurity appears to vary with the performance of the economy. The current recession in the United States and Western Europe and growing unemployment in Eastern Europe make it timely to analytically review the recent research concerned with the health effects of economic contraction. METHODS. The research concerned with the health and behavioral effects of economic insecurity is organized by dependent variable and method. Rules for determining which effects are supported by strong and which by weak evidence are developed and applied to the literature. RESULTS. Evidence for effects on symptoms of psychological distress, seeking help for psychological distress, and nonspecific physiological illness is strong. Evidence for effects on suicide, child abuse, adverse birth outcomes, and heart disease is characterized as weak or sufficiently controversial to warrant skepticism. CONCLUSIONS. The health effects of economic security are undoubtedly mediated by economic policies. Estimating the effect of policy alternatives on the incidence of various outcomes is, however, very difficult given the current state of the research. The effect of rising unemployment on health in Eastern Europe cannot, moreover, be estimated from existing research. Effects estimated from Western economies probably do not generalize to situations in which the meaning of economic insecurity is conditioned by profound social and political reforms. PMID:1951825

  1. Rare alleles within the CYP2E1 (MEOS system) could be associated with better short-term health outcome after acute methanol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Pelclova, Daniela; Seidl, Zdenek; Vaneckova, Manuela; Klempir, Jiri; Ruzicka, Evzen; Ridzon, Petr; Urban, Pavel; Fenclova, Zdenka; Petrik, Vit; Diblik, Pavel; Kuthan, Pavel; Miovsky, Michal; Janikova, Barbara; Adamkova, Vera; Zakharov, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    Genetic polymorphisms influence the metabolism of ethanol and methanol, but the potential effects of genetic predisposition on the clinical course, outcome and short-term health sequelae of acute methanol poisoning are unknown. To evaluate the role of the MEOS system in methanol poisoning, we analysed the effect of three polymorphisms (RsaI - rs2031920; PstI - rs3813867; insertion/deletion I/D) within the CYP2E1 enzyme (MEOS system) in 50 adult survivors of methanol poisoning and compared their genotype frequencies with 460 controls. The minor allele frequencies of all three polymorphisms were below 5% in both groups. We did not detect significant differences in the genotype frequencies between survivors of methanol poisoning and controls (p = 0.34 for the RsaI variant; p = 0.59 for the PstI variant and p = 0.21 for the I/D polymorphism). The carriers of at least one minor allele in the CYP2E1 gene had less severe clinical symptoms and better short-term outcome after acute poisoning. Variants within the CYP2E1 gene are likely not significant genetic determinants of acute methanol poisoning (if survivors are analysed), but they may influence the severity of methanol poisoning and its visual/central nervous system (CNS) outcome.

  2. Intraoperative hypotension - a neglected causative factor in hospital-acquired acute kidney injury; a Mayo Clinic Health System experience revisited.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, Macaulay Amechi Chukwukadibia; Agbasi, Nneoma

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a relatively common complication of cardiothoracic surgery and has both short- and long-term survival implications, even when AKI does not progress to severe renal failure. Given that currently, there are no active effective treatments for AKI, other than renal replacement therapy when indicated, the focus of clinicians ought to be on prevention and risk factor management. In the AKI-surgery literature, there exists this general consensus that intraoperative hypotension (IH) following hypotensive anesthesia (HA) or controlled hypotension (CH) in the operating room has no significant short-term and long-term impacts on renal function. In this review, we examine the basis for this consensus, exposing some of the flaws of the clinical study data upon which this prevailing consensus is based. We then describe our experiences in the last decade at the Mayo Clinic Health System, Eau Claire, in Northwestern Wisconsin, USA, with two selected case presentations to highlight the contribution of IH as a potent yet preventable cause of post-operative AKI. We further highlight the causative although neglected role of IH in precipitating postoperative AKI in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We show additional risk factors associated with this syndrome and further make a strong case for the elimination of IH as an achievable mechanism to reduce overall, the incidence of hospital acquired AKI. We finally posit that as the old saying goes, prevention is indeed better than cure. PMID:26468476

  3. Intraoperative hypotension - a neglected causative factor in hospital-acquired acute kidney injury; a Mayo Clinic Health System experience revisited

    PubMed Central

    Onuigbo, Macaulay Amechi Chukwukadibia; Agbasi, Nneoma

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a relatively common complication of cardiothoracic surgery and has both short- and long-term survival implications, even when AKI does not progress to severe renal failure. Given that currently, there are no active effective treatments for AKI, other than renal replacement therapy when indicated, the focus of clinicians ought to be on prevention and risk factor management. In the AKI-surgery literature, there exists this general consensus that intraoperative hypotension (IH) following hypotensive anesthesia (HA) or controlled hypotension (CH) in the operating room has no significant short-term and long-term impacts on renal function. In this review, we examine the basis for this consensus, exposing some of the flaws of the clinical study data upon which this prevailing consensus is based. We then describe our experiences in the last decade at the Mayo Clinic Health System, Eau Claire, in Northwestern Wisconsin, USA, with two selected case presentations to highlight the contribution of IH as a potent yet preventable cause of post-operative AKI. We further highlight the causative although neglected role of IH in precipitating postoperative AKI in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We show additional risk factors associated with this syndrome and further make a strong case for the elimination of IH as an achievable mechanism to reduce overall, the incidence of hospital acquired AKI. We finally posit that as the old saying goes, prevention is indeed better than cure. PMID:26468476

  4. Refugee children: mental health and effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field.

  5. Refugee children: mental health and effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field. PMID:23307563

  6. Nonmicrowave health and ecological effects: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts due to the operation and construction of the Satellite Power System are discussed. The nonmicrowave health and ecological effects encompass impacts on the public, the terrestrial worker, the space worker, the ecology, and agriculture.

  7. RNAi-mediated silencing of hepatic Alas1 effectively prevents and treats the induced acute attacks in acute intermittent porphyria mice.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Makiko; Gan, Lin; Chen, Brenden; Kadirvel, Senkottuvelan; Yu, Chunli; Phillips, John D; New, Maria I; Liebow, Abigail; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Querbes, William; Desnick, Robert J

    2014-05-27

    The acute hepatic porphyrias are inherited disorders of heme biosynthesis characterized by life-threatening acute neurovisceral attacks. Factors that induce the expression of hepatic 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1) result in the accumulation of the neurotoxic porphyrin precursors 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG), which recent studies indicate are primarily responsible for the acute attacks. Current treatment of these attacks involves i.v. administration of hemin, but a faster-acting, more effective, and safer therapy is needed. Here, we describe preclinical studies of liver-directed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting Alas1 (Alas1-siRNAs) in a mouse model of acute intermittent porphyria, the most common acute hepatic porphyria. A single i.v. dose of Alas1-siRNA prevented the phenobarbital-induced biochemical acute attacks for approximately 2 wk. Injection of Alas1-siRNA during an induced acute attack significantly decreased plasma ALA and PBG levels within 8 h, more rapidly and effectively than a single hemin infusion. Alas1-siRNA was well tolerated and a therapeutic dose did not cause hepatic heme deficiency. These studies provide proof-of-concept for the clinical development of RNA interference therapy for the prevention and treatment of the acute attacks of the acute hepatic porphyrias.

  8. Effect of Acute Surgical Stress on Serum Ghrelin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kontoravdis, Nikolaos; Vassilikostas, George; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Pappas, Apostolos; Seretis, Charalampos; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Koronakis, Nikolaos; Chrysikos, John; Karanikas, George; Manouras, Ioannis; Legakis, Ioanis; Voros, Dionysios

    2012-01-01

    Background Ghrelin is an appetite hormone that influences the gastrointestinal function and regulates energy metabolism. Growing evidence also suggests that this hormone plays a central role in immune modulation. Each surgical operation is followed by a series of inflammatory and metabolic changes that constitute the stress response. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of stress during different types of abdominal surgery in ghrelin serum levels. Methods An overall of 25 patients were prospectively allocated in two groups based on the type of surgical operation. Group A (n = 10) patients were scheduled to undergo cholecystectomy, whereas Group B (n = 15) patients underwent colectomy. Serum ghrelin concentrations were evaluated in each patient preoperatively, after the induction of general anesthesia and tracheal intubation, one and five hours after the beginning of surgery and the morning of the first and second postoperative day. Results In both groups serum ghrelin concentrations reached their peak level at 24 hr (Group A: 8.4 ± 3.4 ng/mL; Group B: 7.4 ± 1.8 ng/mL) and these values were significantly higher than those in the preoperative period (Group A: 5.0 ±1.5 ng/mL; Group B: 4.8 ± 0.6 ng/mL) (P < 0.05). Forty eight hours after surgery the levels of ghrelin returned to their preoperative status. Patients’ gender, age, ASA score and type of surgical procedure did not influence the serum ghrelin levels. Conclusions Serum ghrelin concentration appears to elevate in response to surgical stress. Future studies are needed to improve comprehension of the mechanisms underlying responses of this hormone to acute surgical stress and to evaluate their possible clinical implications.

  9. Effects of Montelukast in an Experimental Model of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Angı, Serkan; Eken, Hüseyin; Kılıc, Erol; Karaköse, Oktay; Balci, Gürhan; Somuncu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We evaluated the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of Montelukast on pancreatic damage in an experimental acute pancreatitis model created by cerulein in rats before and after the induction of pancreatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats each. The study groups were: the Cerulein (C) group, the Cerulein + early Montelukast (CMe) group, the Cerulein + late Montelukast (CMl) group, and the Control group. The pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, leukocyte, hematocrit, pancreatic amylase, and lipase values were measured in the arterial blood samples taken immediately before rats were killed. RESULTS There were statistically significant differences between the C group and the Control group in the values of pancreatic amylase, lipase, blood leukocyte, hematocrit, pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, and pancreatic water content, and also in each of the values of edema, inflammation, vacuolization, necrosis, and total histopathological score (P<0.05). When the CMl group and C group were compared, no statistically significant differences were found in any parameter analyzed. When the CMe group was compared with the C group, pancreatic amylase, lipase, pH, PO2, pCO2, HCO3, pancreatic water content, histopathological edema, inflammation, and total histopathological score values were significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). Finally, when the CMe group and the Control group were compared, significant differences were found in all except 2 (leukocyte and pO2) parameters (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Leukotriene receptor antagonists used in the late phases of pancreatitis might not result in any benefit; however, when they are given in the early phases or prophylactically, they may decrease pancreatic damage. PMID:27479458

  10. Low dose acute alcohol effects on GABAA receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Martin; Hanchar, H. Jacob; Olsen, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are the main inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors and have long been implicated in mediating at least part of the acute actions of ethanol. For example, ethanol and GABAergic drugs including barbiturates and benzodiazepines share many pharmacological properties. Besides the prototypical synaptic GABAAR subtypes, nonsynaptic GABAARs have recently emerged as important regulators of neuronal excitability. While high doses (≥100 mM) of ethanol have been reported to enhance activity of most GABAAR subtypes, most abundant synaptic GABAARs are essentially insensitive to ethanol concentrations that occur during social ethanol consumption (<30 mM). However, extrasynaptic δ and β3 subunit-containing GABAARs, associated in the brain with α4or α6 subunits, are sensitive to low millimolar ethanol concentrations, as produced by drinking half a glass of wine. Additionally, we found that a mutation in the cerebellar α6 subunit (α6R100Q), initially reported in rats selectively bred for increased alcohol sensitivity, is sufficient to produce increased alcohol-induced motor impairment and further increases of alcohol sensitivity in recombinant α6β3δ receptors. Furthermore, the behavioral alcohol antagonist Ro15-4513 blocks the low dose alcohol enhancement on α4/6/β3δ receptors, without reducing GABA-induced currents. In binding assays α4β3δ GABAARs bind [3H] Ro15-4513 with high affinity, and this binding is inhibited, in an apparently competitive fashion, by low ethanol concentrations, as well as analogs of Ro15-4513 that are active to antagonize ethanol or Ro15-4513’s block of ethanol. We conclude that most low to moderate dose alcohol effects are mediated by alcohol actions on alcohol/Ro15-4513 binding sites on GABAAR subtypes. PMID:16814864

  11. Acute effects of smoking on QT dispersion in healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Yazdani, Shahrooz; Ghaidari, Mohamad Esmail; Asadpour-Piranfar, Mohammad; Bahrololoumi-Bafruee, Negar; Golabchi, Allahyar; Azhari, Amirhossein

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cigarette smoking increases the risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death (SCD). QT dispersion (QTD) is an important predictor of cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effect of smoking a single standard cigarette containing 1.7 mg nicotine on QT interval and QTD in healthy smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS The study sample population consisted of 40 healthy male hospital staff, including 20 smokers and 20 nonsmokers. They were asked to refrain from smoking at least 6 h before attending the study. A 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG), recorded at paper speed of 50 mm/s, was obtained from all participants before and 10 min after smoking of a single complete cigarette. QT interval, corrected QT interval, QTD, and corrected QT dispersion (QTcD) were measured before and after smoking. RESULTS Smokers and nonsmokers did not have any significant differences in heart rate (HR) (before smoking = 67.35 ± 5.14 vs. 67.70 ± 5.07, after smoking = 76.70 ± 6.50 vs. 76.85 ± 6.50, respectively), QTD (before smoking = 37.75 ± 7.16 vs. 39.15 ± 6.55, after smoking = 44.75 ± 11.97 vs. 45.50 ± 9.58, respectively), and QTcD (before smoking = 39.85 ± 7.40 vs. 41.55 ± 6.57, after smoking = 50.70 ± 14.31 vs. 51.50 ± 11.71, respectively). However, after smoking a single cigarette, HR, mean QTD, and QTcD significantly increased (all had P value <0.001) in comparison to the measures before smoking. CONCLUSION Smoking of a single complete cigarette in both smokers and nonsmokers results in significant QTD increase, which can cause arrhythmia and SCD. PMID:25161676

  12. Acute exposure to acid fog. Effects on mucociliary clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Laube, B.L.; Bowes, S.M. III; Links, J.M.; Thomas, K.K.; Frank, R. )

    1993-05-01

    Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance from the trachea (n = 4) and small airways (n = 7) of young healthy male adults after an acute exposure to H2SO4 fog (MMAD = 10.3 microns; pH = 2.0; liquid water content = 481 +/- 65 mg/m3; osmolarity = 30 mOsm). Acid fog (AF) or saline fog (SF) (10.9 microns; 492 +/- 116 mg/m3; 30 mOsm) was administered for 40 min of unencumbered breathing (no mouth-piece) at rest and for 20 min of exercise sufficient to produce oronasal breathing. Fog exposures were followed by a methacholine (MCh) challenge (a measure of airway reactivity) or inhalation of technetium-99M radioaerosol (MMAD = 3.4 microns) on 2 study days each. Changes in symptoms and forced ventilatory function were also assessed. Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. Symptoms, forced ventilatory function, and MCh response were unaffected by either fog. Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). Outer zone clearance was more rapid in six of seven subjects after AF (0.22 +/- 0.15% removal/min) compared with that after SF (0.01 +/- 0.09% removal/min).

  13. Effects of Montelukast in an Experimental Model of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Angı, Serkan; Eken, Hüseyin; Kılıç, Erol; Karaköse, Oktay; Balci, Gürhan; Somuncu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of Montelukast on pancreatic damage in an experimental acute pancreatitis model created by cerulein in rats before and after the induction of pancreatitis. Materials/Methods Forty rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats each. The study groups were: the Cerulein (C) group, the Cerulein + early Montelukast (CMe) group, the Cerulein + late Montelukast (CMl) group, and the Control group. The pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, leukocyte, hematocrit, pancreatic amylase, and lipase values were measured in the arterial blood samples taken immediately before rats were killed. Results There were statistically significant differences between the C group and the Control group in the values of pancreatic amylase, lipase, blood leukocyte, hematocrit, pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, and pancreatic water content, and also in each of the values of edema, inflammation, vacuolization, necrosis, and total histopathological score (P<0.05). When the CMl group and C group were compared, no statistically significant differences were found in any parameter analyzed. When the CMe group was compared with the C group, pancreatic amylase, lipase, pH, PO2, pCO2, HCO3, pancreatic water content, histopathological edema, inflammation, and total histopathological score values were significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). Finally, when the CMe group and the Control group were compared, significant differences were found in all except 2 (leukocyte and pO2) parameters (P<0.05). Conclusions Leukotriene receptor antagonists used in the late phases of pancreatitis might not result in any benefit; however, when they are given in the early phases or prophylactically, they may decrease pancreatic damage. PMID:27479458

  14. Creating effective messages about environmental health.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Michele; Tres, Alejandra; Aronin, Ruben

    2005-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention supported research coordinated by the Association of Environmental Health Academic Programs (AEHAP) for the purpose of developing effective messages about environmental health. The purpose of these messages would be to increase the visibility of the environmental health profession and improve the public's awareness and understanding of the role played by the profession in protecting the public's health. To accomplish this task, AEHAP first collaborated with a marketing team to develop initial test messages. The core message revolved around five major themes: effects of pollution, susceptible populations, economics and prevention, homeland security, and specific environmental health issues. The draft messages were tested in three focus group settings: 1) policy makers, 2) environmental health professionals, and 3) the general public. This paper reports a finding that there is a perceptual gap among environmental health professionals, policy makers, and the public. This gap is part of why there is a compelling need for the environmental health community to develop and disseminate more effective messages about the profession.

  15. Predicting the acute behavioral effects in rats inhaling toluene (or up to 24 hrs: Inhaled vs. internal dose metrics.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute toxicity oftoluene, a model volatile organic compound (VOC), depends on the concentration (C) and duration (t) ofexposure, and guidelines for acute exposures have traditionally used ext relationships to extrapolate protective and/or effective concentrations across durat...

  16. The effect of acute effort on EEG in healthy young and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Helena; Deslandes, Andrea; Silveira, Heitor; Ribeiro, Pedro; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Pompeu, Fernando; Laks, Jerson

    2011-01-01

    The effects of physical exercise on mental health have been extensively investigated, mainly in older people. Recent studies have looked into the acute effect of exercise on the brain using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). We assessed EEG power and mood changes after 20 min of aerobic exercise in elderly (N = 10) and young (N = 19) healthy individuals. Both groups showed improvement in total mood disturbance (TMD) post exercise (young: P = 0.03; elderly: P = 0.02). Only the young group showed significant improvement in anger (P = 0.05) and vigor (P = 0.006). Comparison pre versus post-exercise for each group separately revealed significant changes in the young group (an increase in alpha, beta-1 and beta-2 activity in Brodmann areas 24, 33 and 23, respectively). However, the elderly group did not show significant changes. An inverse correlation was found between alpha asymmetry and STAI (rs = -0.50; P = 0.029) in the young group. On the other hand, a significant correlation between beta-1 activity and TMD was observed in the elderly group (rs = 0.67; P = 0.045). We conclude that acute exercise can have distinct effects on brain activity and mood variables in young individuals when compared with elderly adults. However, additional studies are necessary to further investigate the role of exercise intensity in these results.

  17. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  18. Behavioral effects of acute and long-term administration of catnip (Nepeta cataria) in mice.

    PubMed

    Massoco, C O; Silva, M R; Gorniak, S L; Spinosa, M S; Bernardi, M M

    1995-12-01

    Catnip or catmint (Nepeta cataria) is a plant used extensively to treat human diseases and in toys for pets. We investigated the effects of acute and long-term administration of the plant on some behaviors of mice. The plant was fed as 10% of the normal diet for 2 h/d for 1 or 7 d. Acute and long-term dosing increased both rearing and locomotion frequencies observed in an open field. Acute exposure to catnip increased stereotyped behavior and susceptibility to seizures, did not interfere with haloperidol-induced catalepsy, and decreased sleeping time after sodium pentobarbital administration. Long-term exposure induced tolerance to stereotypic behavior, catalepsy and sleeping time, and increased the susceptibility to seizures induced by picrotoxin and strychnine. An amphetamine-like effect of catnip was suggested to explain the acute effects, while dispositional and functional adaptative changes were considered involved with the long-term effects.

  19. Achieving Effective Universal Health Coverage And Diagonal Approaches To Care For Chronic Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Bhadelia, Afsan; Atun, Rifat; Frenk, Julio

    2015-09-01

    Health systems in low- and middle-income countries were designed to provide episodic care for acute conditions. However, the burden of disease has shifted to be overwhelmingly dominated by chronic conditions and illnesses that require health systems to function in an integrated manner across a spectrum of disease stages from prevention to palliation. Low- and middle-income countries are also aiming to ensure health care access for all through universal health coverage. This article proposes a framework of effective universal health coverage intended to meet the challenge of chronic illnesses. It outlines strategies to strengthen health systems through a "diagonal approach." We argue that the core challenge to health systems is chronicity of illness that requires ongoing and long-term health care. The example of breast cancer within the broader context of health system reform in Mexico is presented to illustrate effective universal health coverage along the chronic disease continuum and across health systems functions. The article concludes with recommendations to strengthen health systems in order to achieve effective universal health coverage. PMID:26355053

  20. Achieving Effective Universal Health Coverage And Diagonal Approaches To Care For Chronic Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Bhadelia, Afsan; Atun, Rifat; Frenk, Julio

    2015-09-01

    Health systems in low- and middle-income countries were designed to provide episodic care for acute conditions. However, the burden of disease has shifted to be overwhelmingly dominated by chronic conditions and illnesses that require health systems to function in an integrated manner across a spectrum of disease stages from prevention to palliation. Low- and middle-income countries are also aiming to ensure health care access for all through universal health coverage. This article proposes a framework of effective universal health coverage intended to meet the challenge of chronic illnesses. It outlines strategies to strengthen health systems through a "diagonal approach." We argue that the core challenge to health systems is chronicity of illness that requires ongoing and long-term health care. The example of breast cancer within the broader context of health system reform in Mexico is presented to illustrate effective universal health coverage along the chronic disease continuum and across health systems functions. The article concludes with recommendations to strengthen health systems in order to achieve effective universal health coverage.

  1. Adverse health effects of outdoor air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Luke; Rea, William; Smith-Willis, Patricia; Fenyves, Ervin; Pan, Yaqin

    2006-08-01

    Much research on the health effects of outdoor air pollution has been published in the last decade. The goal of this review is to concisely summarize a wide range of the recent research on health effects of many types of outdoor air pollution. A review of the health effects of major outdoor air pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, acid gases, metals, volatile organics, solvents, pesticides, radiation and bioaerosols is presented. Numerous studies have linked atmospheric pollutants to many types of health problems of many body systems including the respiratory, cardiovascular, immunological, hematological, neurological and reproductive/ developmental systems. Some studies have found increases in respiratory and cardiovascular problems at outdoor pollutant levels well below standards set by such agencies as the US EPA and WHO. Air pollution is associated with large increases in medical expenses, morbidity and is estimated to cause about 800,000 annual premature deaths worldwide [Cohen, A.J., Ross Alexander, H., Ostro, B., Pandey, K.D., Kryzanowski, M., Kunzail, N., et al., 2005. The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 68: 1-7.]. Further research on the health effects of air pollution and air pollutant abatement methods should be very helpful to physicians, public health officials, industrialists, politicians and the general public. PMID:16730796

  2. Health effects of vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  3. Health effects of vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals. PMID:19279075

  4. Mapping acute systemic effects of inhaled particulate matter and ozone: multiorgan gene expression and glucocorticoid activity.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Errol M; Vladisavljevic, Djordje; Mohottalage, Susantha; Kumarathasan, Prem; Vincent, Renaud

    2013-09-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between air pollution and adverse effects that extend beyond respiratory and cardiovascular disease, including low birth weight, appendicitis, stroke, and neurological/neurobehavioural outcomes (e.g., neurodegenerative disease, cognitive decline, depression, and suicide). To gain insight into mechanisms underlying such effects, we mapped gene profiles in the lungs, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, cerebral hemisphere, and pituitary of male Fischer-344 rats immediately and 24h after a 4-h exposure by inhalation to particulate matter (0, 5, and 50mg/m(3) EHC-93 urban particles) and ozone (0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm). Pollutant exposure provoked differential expression of genes involved in a number of pathways, including antioxidant response, xenobiotic metabolism, inflammatory signalling, and endothelial dysfunction. The mRNA profiles, while exhibiting some interorgan and pollutant-specific differences, were remarkably similar across organs for a set of genes, including increased expression of redox/glucocorticoid-sensitive genes and decreased expression of inflammatory genes, suggesting a possible hormonal effect. Pollutant exposure increased plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and the glucocorticoid corticosterone, confirming activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and there was a corresponding increase in markers of glucocorticoid activity. Although effects were transient and presumably represent an adaptive response to acute exposure in these healthy animals, chronic activation and inappropriate regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with adverse neurobehavioral, metabolic, immune, developmental, and cardiovascular effects. The experimental data are consistent with epidemiological associations of air pollutants with extrapulmonary health outcomes and suggest a mechanism through which such health effects may be induced.

  5. FLUORIDE: A REVIEW OF USE AND EFFECTS ON HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Kanduti, Domen; Sterbenk, Petra; Artnik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Appropriate oral health care is fundamental for any individual’s health. Dental caries is still one of the major public health problems. The most effective way of caries prevention is the use of fluoride. Aim: The aim of our research was to review the literature about fluoride toxicity and to inform physicians, dentists and public health specialists whether fluoride use is expedient and safe. Methods: Data we used in our review were systematically searched and collected from web pages and documents published from different international institutions. Results: Fluoride occurs naturally in our environment but we consume it in small amounts. Exposure can occur through dietary intake, respiration and fluoride supplements. The most important factor for fluoride presence in alimentation is fluoridated water. Methods, which led to greater fluoride exposure and lowered caries prevalence, are considered to be one of the greatest accomplishments in the 20th century`s public dental health. During pregnancy, the placenta acts as a barrier. The fluoride, therefore, crosses the placenta in low concentrations. Fluoride can be transmitted through the plasma into the mother’s milk; however, the concentration is low. The most important action of fluoride is topical, when it is present in the saliva in the appropriate concentration. The most important effect of fluoride on caries incidence is through its role in the process of remineralization and demineralization of tooth enamel. Acute toxicity can occur after ingesting one or more doses of fluoride over a short time period which then leads to poisoning. Today, poisoning is mainly due to unsupervised ingestion of products for dental and oral hygiene and over-fluoridated water. Conclusion: Even though fluoride can be toxic in extremely high concentrations, it`s topical use is safe. The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) recommends a preventive topical use of fluoride supplements because of their

  6. Effects of Acute Stress on Decision Making under Ambiguous and Risky Conditions in Healthy Young Men.

    PubMed

    Cano-López, Irene; Cano-López, Beatriz; Hidalgo, Vanesa; González-Bono, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Acute stress and decision making (DM) interact in life - although little is known about the role of ambiguity and risk in this interaction. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of acute stress on DM under various conditions. Thirty-one young healthy men were randomly distributed into two groups: experimental and control. DM processes were evaluated before and after an experimental session. For the experimental group, the session consisted of an acute stress battery; and the protocol was similar for the control group but the instructions were designed to minimize acute stress. Cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded 30 minutes before the DM tasks and during the experimental session. Cortisol, glucose, mood responses, and personality factors were also assessed. Acute stress was found to enhance disadvantageous decisions under ambiguous conditions (F(1, 29) = 4.16, p = .05, η2 p = .13), and this was mainly explained by the stress induced cortisol response (26.1% of variance, F(1, 30) = 11.59, p = .002). While there were no significant effects under risky conditions, inhibition responses differed between groups (F(1, 29) = 4.21, p = .05, η2 p = .13) and these differences were explained by cardiovascular and psychological responses (39.1% of variance, F(3, 30) = 7.42, p < .001). Results suggest that DM tasks could compete with cognitive resources after acute stress and could have implications for intervention in acute stress effects on DM in contexts such as addiction or eating disorders. PMID:27644414

  7. Association of serum interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score with clinical outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Swaroopa, Deme; Bhaskar, Kakarla; Mahathi, T.; Katkam, Shivakrishna; Raju, Y. Satyanarayana; Chandra, Naval; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Studies on potential biomarkers in experimental models of acute lung injury (ALI) and clinical samples from patients with ALI have provided evidence to the pathophysiology of the mechanisms of lung injury and predictor of clinical outcome. Because of the high mortality and substantial variability in outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), identification of biomarkers such as cytokines is important to determine prognosis and guide clinical decision-making. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have included thirty patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit diagnosed with ARDS, and serum samples were collected on day 1 and 7 and were analyzed for serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 by ELISA method, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring was done on day 1. Results: The mortality in the patients observed with ARDS was 34%. APACHE II score was significantly higher in nonsurvivors as compared to survivors. There were no significant differences in gender and biochemical and hematological parameters among the survivors and nonsurvivors. Serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels on day 1 were significantly higher in all the ARDS patients as compared to healthy controls and these levels were returned to near-normal basal levels on day 7. The serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels measured on day 7 were of survivors. As compared to survivors, the IL-6 and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors measured on day 1. Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated a significant positive correlation of APACHE II with IL-8. By using APACHE II score, IL-6, and IL-8, the receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted and the provided predictable accuracy of mortality (outcome) was 94%. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the importance of measuring the cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with ARDS in predicting the clinical outcome. PMID:27688627

  8. Association of serum interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score with clinical outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Swaroopa, Deme; Bhaskar, Kakarla; Mahathi, T.; Katkam, Shivakrishna; Raju, Y. Satyanarayana; Chandra, Naval; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Studies on potential biomarkers in experimental models of acute lung injury (ALI) and clinical samples from patients with ALI have provided evidence to the pathophysiology of the mechanisms of lung injury and predictor of clinical outcome. Because of the high mortality and substantial variability in outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), identification of biomarkers such as cytokines is important to determine prognosis and guide clinical decision-making. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have included thirty patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit diagnosed with ARDS, and serum samples were collected on day 1 and 7 and were analyzed for serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 by ELISA method, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring was done on day 1. Results: The mortality in the patients observed with ARDS was 34%. APACHE II score was significantly higher in nonsurvivors as compared to survivors. There were no significant differences in gender and biochemical and hematological parameters among the survivors and nonsurvivors. Serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels on day 1 were significantly higher in all the ARDS patients as compared to healthy controls and these levels were returned to near-normal basal levels on day 7. The serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels measured on day 7 were of survivors. As compared to survivors, the IL-6 and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors measured on day 1. Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated a significant positive correlation of APACHE II with IL-8. By using APACHE II score, IL-6, and IL-8, the receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted and the provided predictable accuracy of mortality (outcome) was 94%. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the importance of measuring the cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with ARDS in predicting the clinical outcome.

  9. National Veterans Health Administration inpatient risk stratification models for hospital-acquired acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Robert M; VanHouten, Jacob P; Siew, Edward D; Eden, Svetlana K; Fihn, Stephan D; Nielson, Christopher D; Peterson, Josh F; Baker, Clifton R; Ikizler, T Alp; Speroff, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) is a potentially preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Identifying high-risk patients prior to the onset of kidney injury is a key step towards AKI prevention. Materials and Methods A national retrospective cohort of 1,620,898 patient hospitalizations from 116 Veterans Affairs hospitals was assembled from electronic health record (EHR) data collected from 2003 to 2012. HA-AKI was defined at stage 1+, stage 2+, and dialysis. EHR-based predictors were identified through logistic regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) regression, and random forests, and pair-wise comparisons between each were made. Calibration and discrimination metrics were calculated using 50 bootstrap iterations. In the final models, we report odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and importance rankings for predictor variables to evaluate their significance. Results The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the different model outcomes ranged from 0.746 to 0.758 in stage 1+, 0.714 to 0.720 in stage 2+, and 0.823 to 0.825 in dialysis. Logistic regression had the best AUC in stage 1+ and dialysis. Random forests had the best AUC in stage 2+ but the least favorable calibration plots. Multiple risk factors were significant in our models, including some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, blood pressure medications, antibiotics, and intravenous fluids given during the first 48 h of admission. Conclusions This study demonstrated that, although all the models tested had good discrimination, performance characteristics varied between methods, and the random forests models did not calibrate as well as the lasso or logistic regression models. In addition, novel modifiable risk factors were explored and found to be significant. PMID:26104740

  10. The dopaminergic response to acute stress in health and psychopathology: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vaessen, Thomas; Hernaus, Dennis; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse

    2015-09-01

    Previous work in animals has shown that dopamine (DA) in cortex and striatum plays an essential role in stress processing. For the first time, we systematically reviewed the in vivo evidence for DAergic stress processing in health and psychopathology in humans. All studies included (n studies=25, n observations=324) utilized DA D2/3 positron emission tomography and measured DAergic activity during an acute stress challenge. The evidence in healthy volunteers (HV) suggests that physiological, but not psychological, stress consistently increases striatal DA release. Instead, increased medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) DAergic activity in HV was observed during psychological stress. Across brain regions, stress-related DAergic activity was correlated with the physiological and psychological intensity of the stressor. The magnitude of stress-induced DA release was dependent on rearing conditions, personality traits and genetic variations in several SNPs. In psychopathology, preliminary evidence was found for stress-related dorsal striatal DAergic hyperactivity in psychosis spectrum and a blunted response in chronic cannabis use and pain-related disorders, but results were inconsistent. Physiological stress-induced DAergic activity in striatum in HV may reflect somatosensory properties of the stressor and readiness for active fight-or-flight behavior. DAergic activity in HV in the ventral striatum and mPFC may be more related to expectations about the stressor and threat evaluation, respectively. Future studies with increased sample size in HV and psychopathology assessing the functional relevance of stress-induced DAergic activity, the association between cortical and subcortical DAergic activity and the direct comparison of different stressors are necessary to conclusively elucidate the role of the DA system in the stress response.

  11. Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J.; Young, M.

    1996-09-01

    CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

  12. Specific Effects of Acute Moderate Exercise on Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davranche, Karen; McMorris, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The main issue of this study was to determine whether cognitive control is affected by acute moderate exercise. Twelve participants [4 females (VO[subscript 2 max]=42 ml/kg/min) and 8 males (VO[subscript 2 max]=48 ml/kg/min)] performed a Simon task while cycling at a carefully controlled workload intensity corresponding to their individual…

  13. EFFECTS OF ACUTE PYRETHROID EXPOSURE ON THERMOREGULATION IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroid insecticides produce acute neurotoxicity in mammals. According to the FQPA mandate, the USEPA is required to consider the risk of cumulative toxicity posed to humans through exposure to pyrethroid mixtures. Thermoregulatory response (TR) is being used to determine if t...

  14. Medical treatment of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mayerle, Julia; Simon, Peter; Lerch, Markus M

    2004-12-01

    Eighty percent of all cases of acute pancreatitis are linked etiologically to gallstone disease or caused by immoderate alcohol consumption. No specific causal treatment for acute pancreatitis exists. Early prognostic factors that indicate severe disease are three or more signs on organ failure scores according to Ranson, Imrie, or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) 11, extrapancreatic complications of the disease, or the detection of pancreatic necrosis on CT scans. Elevated CRP levels above 130 mg/L can also predict a severe course of acute pancreatitis. The essential medical treatment for acute pancreatitis is the correction of hypovolemia. Moreover, relief of often severe visceral pain is a high priority. Prophylactic antibiotics should be restricted to patients with necrotizing pancreatitis, infected necrosis, or other infectious complications. Enteral nutrition has no adverse effect compared with parenteral nutrition during the course of acute pancreatitis, and is probably beneficial in regard to outcome.

  15. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  16. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Monisha; Tseten, Tenzin; Anbalagan, Naresh; Beeregowda, Krishnamurthy N.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metal toxicity has proven to be a major threat and there are several health risks associated with it. The toxic effects of these metals, even though they do not have any biological role, remain present in some or the other form harmful for the human body and its proper functioning. They sometimes act as a pseudo element of the body while at certain times they may even interfere with metabolic processes. Few metals, such as aluminium, can be removed through elimination activities, while some metals get accumulated in the body and food chain, exhibiting a chronic nature. Various public health measures have been undertaken to control, prevent and treat metal toxicity occurring at various levels, such as occupational exposure, accidents and environmental factors. Metal toxicity depends upon the absorbed dose, the route of exposure and duration of exposure, i.e. acute or chronic. This can lead to various disorders and can also result in excessive damage due to oxidative stress induced by free radical formation. This review gives details about some heavy metals and their toxicity mechanisms, along with their health effects. PMID:26109881

  17. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were tabulated. Years 2001–10 gave the greatest match (45.9%) for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991–2000. Years 1971–80 and 1981–90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951–1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its biological monitoring in the workplace essential. PMID:20386622

  18. Effects of Gelam and Acacia honey acute administration on some biochemical parameters of Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since ancient times, honey has been used for medicinal purposes in many cultures; it is one of the oldest and most enduring substances used in wound management. Scientific evidence for its efficacy is widely studied, but systemic safety studies are still lacking. It is essential to study the impact of consumption of honey on the health and proper development of the consumer. Therefore, the present study was designed to observe the effects of acute administration (14 days) of Gelam honey (GH), a wild harvesting honey and Acacia honey (AH), a beekeeping honey, on male and female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methods An acute oral study was performed following OECD test guideline 423, with minor modifications. In the study, GH, AH and sucrose (S) were administered at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Animals were observed for the next 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Clinical biochemistry, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results Rats fed with honey did not exhibit any abnormal signs or deaths. Results showed a decrease in weight gain and energy efficiency, but significantly increased in total food intake and total calories in female rats fed with GH, compared to control (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, a significant increase in body weight was observed in male rats in all honey-treated groups. Male rats fed with AH significantly decreased in total food intake, total calories and energy efficiency. Both male and female rats fed with GH displayed a significant decrease in triglycerides compared to control group. Hepatic and renal function levels were within acceptable range. The gross necropsy analysis did not reveal changes in any of the organs examined. Conclusions Our results suggest that acute consumption of GH and AH at 2000 mg/kg body weight of male and female SD rats has some discrepancy

  19. Radon-Induced Health Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, C. R.

    The following sections are included: * Lung Cancer * Studies of miners * Estimates of lifetime risk associated with indoor radon exposure * Factors that may affect risk estimates * Sex and age at exposure * Joint effect of radon and smoking * Exposure rate * Epidemiological studies of lung cancer and indoor radon exposure * Cancers Other Than Lung * Dosimetry * Epidemiological studies * Studies of miners * Indoor radon exposure * Concluding Remarks * References

  20. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs.

  1. The acute effects of vibration training on balance and stability amongst soccer players.

    PubMed

    Cloak, Ross; Nevill, Alan; Wyon, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Acute whole body vibration training (WBVT) is a tool used amongst coaches to improve performance prior to activity. Its effects on other fitness components, such as balance and stability, along with how different populations respond are less well understood. The aim of the current research is to determine the effect of acute WBVT on balance and stability amongst elite and amateur soccer players. Forty-four healthy male soccer players (22 elite and 22 amateur) were assigned to a treatment or control group. The intervention group then performed 3 × 60 seconds static squat on vibration platform at 40 Hz (±4 mm) with Y balance test (YBT) scores and dynamic postural stability index (DPSI) measured pre and post. DPSI was significantly lower in the elite players in the acute WBVT compared to amateur players (F1, 40= 6.80; P = 0.013). YBT anterior reach distance showed a significant improvement in both amateur and elite players in the acute WBVT group (F1, 40= 32.36; P < 0.001). The improvement in DPSI amongst the elite players indicates a difference in responses to acute high frequency vibration between elite and amateur players during a landing stability task. The results indicate that acute WBVT improves anterior YBT reach distances through a possible improvement in flexibility amongst both elite and amateur players. In conclusion, acute WBVT training appears to improve stability amongst elite soccer players in comparison to amateur players, the exact reasoning behind this difference requires further investigation.

  2. Clinical review: the hospital of the future - building intelligent environments to facilitate safe and effective acute care delivery.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Brian W; Litell, John M; Herasevich, Vitaly; Gajic, Ognjen

    2012-12-12

    The translation of knowledge into rational care is as essential and pressing a task as the development of new diagnostic or therapeutic devices, and is arguably more important. The emerging science of health care delivery has identified the central role of human factor ergonomics in the prevention of medical error, omission, and waste. Novel informatics and systems engineering strategies provide an excellent opportunity to improve the design of acute care delivery. In this article, future hospitals are envisioned as organizations built around smart environments that facilitate consistent delivery of effective, equitable, and error-free care focused on patient-centered rather than provider-centered outcomes.

  3. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  4. Effects of the Neurac® technique in patients with acute-phase subacromial impingement syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of the Neurac technique on shoulder pain, function, and range of motion in patients with acute-phase subacromial impingement syndrome. [Subjects] Thirteen patients (seven females and six males) with acute-phase subacromial impingement syndrome participated in this study. [Methods] Shoulder pain, function, and range of motion were assessed before and after the application of the Neurac technique. [Results] Pain and function scores were significantly lower after than before the Neurac intervention. Shoulder range of motion was significantly greater after Neurac intervention than before it. [Conclusion] The Neurac technique is a useful intervention for patients with acute-phase subacromial impingement syndrome. PMID:26157230

  5. Acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on human memory function: a critical review of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Bossong, Matthijs G; Jager, Gerry; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Allen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cannabis produces a diverse range of effects, including impairments in learning and memory. These effects are exerted through action on the endocannabinoid system, which suggests involvement of this system in human cognition. Learning and memory deficits are core symptoms of psychiatric and neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, and may also be related to endocannabinoid dysfunction in these disorders. However, before new research can focus on potential treatments that work by manipulating the endocannabinoid system, it needs to be elucidated how this system is involved in symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Here we review neuroimaging studies that investigated acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on human learning and memory function, both in adults and in adolescents. Overall, results of these studies show that cannabis use is associated with a pattern of increased activity and a higher level of deactivation in different memory-related areas. This could reflect either increased neural effort ('neurophysiological inefficiency') or a change in strategy to maintain good task performance. However, the interpretation of these findings is significantly hampered by large differences between study populations in cannabis use in terms of frequency, age of onset, and time that subjects were abstinent from cannabis. Future neuroimaging studies should take these limitations into account, and should focus on the potential of cannabinoid compounds for treatment of cognitive symptoms in psychiatric disorders.

  6. Children, adolescents, and the media: health effects.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2012-06-01

    The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media.

  7. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment: a Delphi consensus.

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Escherich, Gabriele; Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Halsey, Christina; Hough, Rachael; Jeha, Sima; Kato, Motohiro; Liang, Der-Cherng; Mikkelsen, Torben Stamm; Möricke, Anja; Niinimäki, Riitta; Piette, Caroline; Putti, Maria Caterina; Raetz, Elizabeth; Silverman, Lewis B; Skinner, Roderick; Tuckuviene, Ruta; van der Sluis, Inge; Zapotocka, Ester

    2016-06-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis, asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, arterial hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, seizures, depressed level of consciousness, methotrexate-related stroke-like syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, high-dose methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14 toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall assessment of outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment, these expert opinion-based definitions will allow reliable comparisons of frequencies and severities of acute toxic effects across treatment protocols, and facilitate international research on cause, guidelines for treatment adaptation, preventive strategies, and development of consensus algorithms for reporting on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment. PMID:27299279

  8. [Phospholipids: properties and health effects].

    PubMed

    Torres García, Jairo; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-09-12

    Phospholipids are amphipathic lipids, which are found in all the cell membranes, organized as a lipid bilayer. They belong to the glycerol-derived lipids, showing a similar structure as triglycerides. The current interest of them comes from its effectiveness to incorporate different fatty acids in the cell membrane, as they exhibit better absorption and utilization than triglycerides. In this paper, the bibliographical data published about the benefits of the phospholipids in inflammatory processes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, liver disease and as an antioxidants transporter is reviewed.

  9. The effect of acute discontinuation of total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Wagman, L D; Newsome, H H; Miller, K B; Thomas, R B; Weir, G C

    1986-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of acute discontinuation (AD) of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on serum glucose, insulin, and glucagon levels and on the generation of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Fifty studies were performed in 48 patients. In none of the 30 studies of 1 hour duration nor in the 20 studies of 8 hours duration was there a single episode of symptomatic hypoglycemia. One patient had a glucose below normal (60 mg/dl) during the first hour after AD. Glucose and insulin concentrations were elevated at the start of TPN discontinuation but returned to normal values within 60 minutes and remained there during the successive 7 hours of study. Although glucagon levels were slightly elevated at zero time, no significant decrease occurred. There was no evidence for counter-regulation based on the patterns of glucose and hormone levels. With some restrictions, acute discontinuation is a safe, rapid method of ending a prolonged TPN infusion. PMID:3094465

  10. The acute effects of nicotine on positive and negative affect in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Kassel, Jon D; Evatt, Daniel P; Greenstein, Justin E; Wardle, Margaret C; Yates, Marisa C; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2007-08-01

    Although adolescent cigarette smoking remains a critical public health concern, little is known about the reinforcing mechanisms governing smoking in this vulnerable population. To assess predictions derived from both positive and negative reinforcement models of drug use, the authors measured the acute effects of nicotine, as administered via tobacco cigarettes, on both positive and negative affect in a group of 15- to 18-year-old smokers. A matched group of nonsmokers served as a comparison group. Findings revealed that whereas adolescents who smoked a cigarette experienced reductions in both positive and negative affect, the observed reductions in negative affect were moderated by nicotine content of the cigarette (high yield vs. denicotinized), level of nicotine dependence, level of baseline craving, and smoking expectancies pertinent to negative affect regulation. Nonsmokers experienced no change in affect over the 10-min assessment period, and no interaction effects were observed for positive affect. Overall, the findings conform to a negative reinforcement model of nicotine effects and strongly suggest that, even among young light smokers, nicotine dependence and resultant withdrawal symptomatology may serve as motivating factors governing smoking behavior.

  11. Vulnerabilities to Temperature Effects on Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admissions in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Bo Yeon; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Suji; Heo, Seulkee; Jo, Kyunghee; Kim, Jinsun; Park, Man Sik

    2015-01-01

    Most previous studies have focused on the association between acute myocardial function (AMI) and temperature by gender and age. Recently, however, concern has also arisen about those most susceptible to the effects of temperature according to socioeconomic status (SES). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI by subpopulations (gender, age, living area, and individual SES) in South Korea. The Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI) database was used to examine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI during 2004–2012. We analyzed the increase in AMI hospital admissions both above and below a threshold temperature using Poisson generalized additive models (GAMs) for hot, cold, and warm weather. The Medicaid group, the lowest SES group, had a significantly higher RR of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.07–1.76) for heat and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04–1.20) for cold among subgroups, while also showing distinctly higher risk curves than NHI for both hot and cold weather. In additions, females, older age group, and those living in urban areas had higher risks from hot and cold temperatures than males, younger age group, and those living in rural areas. PMID:26580643

  12. The acute effects of nicotine on positive and negative affect in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Kassel, Jon D; Evatt, Daniel P; Greenstein, Justin E; Wardle, Margaret C; Yates, Marisa C; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2007-08-01

    Although adolescent cigarette smoking remains a critical public health concern, little is known about the reinforcing mechanisms governing smoking in this vulnerable population. To assess predictions derived from both positive and negative reinforcement models of drug use, the authors measured the acute effects of nicotine, as administered via tobacco cigarettes, on both positive and negative affect in a group of 15- to 18-year-old smokers. A matched group of nonsmokers served as a comparison group. Findings revealed that whereas adolescents who smoked a cigarette experienced reductions in both positive and negative affect, the observed reductions in negative affect were moderated by nicotine content of the cigarette (high yield vs. denicotinized), level of nicotine dependence, level of baseline craving, and smoking expectancies pertinent to negative affect regulation. Nonsmokers experienced no change in affect over the 10-min assessment period, and no interaction effects were observed for positive affect. Overall, the findings conform to a negative reinforcement model of nicotine effects and strongly suggest that, even among young light smokers, nicotine dependence and resultant withdrawal symptomatology may serve as motivating factors governing smoking behavior. PMID:17696710

  13. Perseverative thoughts and subjective health complaints in adolescence: Mediating effects of perceived stress and negative affects.

    PubMed

    Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Józan, Anna; Morgan, Antony; Szemenyei, Eszter; Urbán, Róbert; Reinhardt, Melinda; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as trait rumination and worry can influence somatic health. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between perseverative thoughts and somatic complaints, and the possible mediating effects of perceived stress, negative and positive affectivity in adolescence. Having an acute or a chronic condition was also assessed to be controlled for and to reveal their effects on symptom reporting. Three hundred and six adolescents from 7th to 12th grade with mean age of 16.33 (SD = 1.29) participated in the study. Mediation analysis suggested that impact of trait-like perseverative thoughts on complaints were mediated by perceived stress and negative affectivity. Having an acute condition had also an effect on symptom reporting through increased negative affectivity. Our results highlight that ruminations or worry as stable intrapersonal characteristics are relevant processes in health and can be potential targets in prevention programmes in adolescence.

  14. Health effects of indebtedness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, millions of households have been left with debts that they are unable to manage. Indebtedness may impair the wellbeing of those affected by it for years to come. This systematic review focuses on the long-term consequences of indebtedness on health. Methods The method used in the paper is a systematic review. First, bibliographic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles. Second, the references and citations of the included articles were searched for additional articles. Results The results from our sample of 33 peer-reviewed studies demonstrate serious health effects related to indebtedness. Individuals with unmet loan payments had suicidal ideation and suffered from depression more often than those without such financial problems. Unpaid financial obligations were also related to poorer subjective health and health-related behaviour. Debt counselling and other programmes to mitigate debt-related stress are needed to alleviate the adverse effects of indebtedness on health. Conclusions The results demonstrate that indebtedness has serious effects on health. PMID:24885280

  15. Effects of Acute Low Back Pain on Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Min Kyun; Lee, Sang Sook

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes in static and dynamic postural control after the development of acute low back pain. Methods Thirty healthy right-handed volunteers were divided into three groups; the right back pain group, the left back pain group, and the control group. 0.5 mL of 5% hypertonic saline was injected into L4-5 paraspinal muscle for 5 seconds to cause muscle pain. The movement of the center of gravity (COG) during their static and dynamic postural control was measured with their eyes open and with their eyes closed before and 2 minutes after the injection. Results The COGs for the healthy adults shifted to the right quadrant and the posterior quadrant during their static and dynamic postural control test (p<0.05). The static and dynamic instability index while they had their eyes closed was significantly increased than when they had their eyes open with and without acute back pain. After pain induction, their overall and anterior/posterior instability was increased in both the right back pain group and the left back pain group during the static postural control test (p<0.05). A right deviation and a posterior deviation of the COG still remained, and the posterior deviation was greater in the right back pain group (p<0.05). Conclusion The static instability, particularly the anterior/posterior instability was increased in the presence of acute low back pain, regardless of the visual information and the location of pain. PMID:23526750

  16. [Passive smoking. Effects on health].

    PubMed

    Trédaniel, J; Zalcman, G; Boffetta, P; Hirsch, A

    1993-05-15

    Passive smoking--also called involuntary or environmental smoking--is the exposure of non-smokers to the tobacco smoke released by smokers. The physico-chemical composition of tobacco smoke, and notably its contents in toxic and carcinogenic substances, is the same in the secondary stream between puffs as in the primary stream released by the smoker. The pathogenic effects of passive smoking are increasingly well known and accepted. A high incidence of respiratory tract infections and of chronic respiratory and asthmatic symptoms is observed in children. In adults, passive smoking seems to be one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Its repercussions on the respiratory tracts is difficult to evaluate, but there are marked by an increase of respiratory symptoms and perhaps of chronic obstructive lung diseases. Finally, it is now recognized that passive smoking is a major risk factor for primary lung cancer in non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke. PMID:8235360

  17. Acute effect upon pulmonary function of low level exposure to phenol-formaldehyde-resin-coated wood.

    PubMed

    Imbus, H R; Tochilin, S J

    1988-09-01

    In order to determine whether phenol-formaldehyde-resin-coated wood particles would cause an acute decline in pulmonary function, 176 workers in 2 oriented strandboard production plants were given respiratory questionnaires and pulmonary function tests before and during their work shifts. Measurements of dust and adsorbed formaldehyde were made on the same day as the pulmonary function tests. Measured formaldehyde levels were low, and measured dust levels were low to moderate. There was no evidence of an acute effect upon pulmonary function.

  18. Effect of Yi Gong San Decoction on Iron Homeostasis in a Mouse Model of Acute Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qin; Guan, Yu; Xia, Lemin; Wang, Zhicheng; Jiang, Yiling; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jianying; Wang, Guohua; Pu, Yiqiong; Xia, Jing; Luo, Meihong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Yi Gong San (YGS) decoction on iron homeostasis and the possible underlying mechanisms in a mouse model of acute inflammation in this study. Our findings suggest that YGS regulates iron homeostasis by downregulating the level of HAMP mRNA, which may depend on regulation of the IL-6/STAT3 or BMP/HJV/SMAD pathway during acute inflammation. PMID:27143982

  19. Health-related quality of life dynamics of HIV-positive South African women up to ART initiation: evidence from the CAPRISA 002 acute infection cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Andrew; Garrett, Nigel; Werner, Lise; Burns, Jonathan K; Mpanza, Lindiwe; Mlisana, Koleka; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2014-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term dynamics in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among HIV-positive persons from acute infection. From 2004, 160 women were enrolled into the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study at two sites in the province of KwaZulu-Natal and underwent 3-6 monthly HRQoL assessments using the functional assessment of HIV infection (FAHI) instrument. Overall and 5 sub-scale FAHI scores [physical well-being (PWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional and global well-being (FGWB), social well-being (SWB) and cognitive functioning (CF)] were calculated up to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and scores at enrollment were compared to the acute, early and established infection phases. Mixed-effects regression models adjusting for behavioral and clinical factors were applied to assess HRQoL trends and the proportion of women meeting minimally important differences was calculated. Our analyses revealed that overall/sub-scale scores improved over time, except from PWB and CF. A higher educational status, contraceptive use and a higher BMI were the strongest predictors of higher overall/sub-scale FAHI scores. CD4 count and HIV viral load were strongly associated with PWB and CF, but not overall FAHI and other sub-scales. Women newly diagnosed with acute HIV infection face profound HRQoL challenges. While early ART delivery may be important for PWB and CF, factors such as education, contraception provision and good nutritional status should be promoted to maximize HRQoL in HIV positive individuals.

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life Dynamics of HIV-positive South African Women up to ART Initiation: Evidence from the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Garrett, Nigel; Werner, Lise; Burns, Jonathan K.; Mpanza, Lindiwe; Mlisana, Koleka; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Karim, Salim S. Abdool

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term dynamics in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among HIV-positive persons from acute infection. From 2004, 160 women were enrolled into the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study at two sites in the province of KwaZulu-Natal and underwent 3–6 monthly HRQoL assessments using the functional assessment of HIV infection (FAHI) instrument. Overall and 5 sub-scale FAHI scores [physical well-being (PWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional and global well-being (FGWB), social well-being (SWB) and cognitive functioning (CF)] were calculated up to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and scores at enrollment were compared to the acute, early and established infection phases. Mixed-effects regression models adjusting for behavioral and clinical factors were applied to assess HRQoL trends and the proportion of women meeting minimally important differences was calculated. Our analyses revealed that overall/sub-scale scores improved over time, except from PWB and CF. A higher educational status, contraceptive use and a higher BMI were the strongest predictors of higher overall/sub-scale FAHI scores. CD4 count and HIV viral load were strongly associated with PWB and CF, but not overall FAHI and other sub-scales. Women newly diagnosed with acute HIV infection face profound HRQoL challenges. While early ART delivery may be important for PWB and CF, factors such as education, contraception provision and good nutritional status should be promoted to maximize HRQoL in HIV positive individuals. PMID:24368630

  1. Predicting Levels of Policy Advocacy Engagement Among Acute-Care Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Bruce S; Nyamathi, Adeline; Heidemann, Gretchen; Bird, Melissa; Ward, Cathy Rogers; Brown-Saltzman, Katherine; Duan, Lei; Kaplan, Charles

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to describe the factors that predict health professionals' engagement in policy advocacy. The researchers used a cross-sectional research design with a sample of 97 nurses, 94 social workers, and 104 medical residents from eight hospitals in Los Angeles. Bivariate correlations explored whether seven predictor scales were associated with health professionals' policy advocacy engagement and revealed that five of the eight factors were significantly associated with it (p < .05). The factors include patient advocacy engagement, eagerness, skills, tangible support, and organizational receptivity. Regression analysis examined whether the seven scales, when controlling for sociodemographic variables and hospital site, predicted levels of policy advocacy engagement. Results revealed that patient advocacy engagement (p < .001), eagerness (p < .001), skills (p < .01), tangible support (p < .01), perceived effectiveness (p < .05), and organizational receptivity (p < .05) all predicted health professional's policy advocacy engagement. Ethical commitment did not predict policy advocacy engagement. The model explained 36% of the variance in policy advocacy engagement. Limitations of the study and its implications for future research, practice, and policy are discussed.

  2. Predicting Levels of Policy Advocacy Engagement Among Acute-Care Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Bruce S; Nyamathi, Adeline; Heidemann, Gretchen; Bird, Melissa; Ward, Cathy Rogers; Brown-Saltzman, Katherine; Duan, Lei; Kaplan, Charles

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to describe the factors that predict health professionals' engagement in policy advocacy. The researchers used a cross-sectional research design with a sample of 97 nurses, 94 social workers, and 104 medical residents from eight hospitals in Los Angeles. Bivariate correlations explored whether seven predictor scales were associated with health professionals' policy advocacy engagement and revealed that five of the eight factors were significantly associated with it (p < .05). The factors include patient advocacy engagement, eagerness, skills, tangible support, and organizational receptivity. Regression analysis examined whether the seven scales, when controlling for sociodemographic variables and hospital site, predicted levels of policy advocacy engagement. Results revealed that patient advocacy engagement (p < .001), eagerness (p < .001), skills (p < .01), tangible support (p < .01), perceived effectiveness (p < .05), and organizational receptivity (p < .05) all predicted health professional's policy advocacy engagement. Ethical commitment did not predict policy advocacy engagement. The model explained 36% of the variance in policy advocacy engagement. Limitations of the study and its implications for future research, practice, and policy are discussed. PMID:27151835

  3. Sleep disruption and its effect on lymphocyte redeployment following an acute bout of exercise.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Lesley A; Simpson, Richard J; Malone, Eva; Florida-James, Geraint D

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disruption and deprivation are common in contemporary society and have been linked with poor health, decreased job performance and increased life-stress. The rapid redeployment of lymphocytes between the blood and tissues is an archetypal feature of the acute stress response, but it is not known if short-term perturbations in sleep architecture affect lymphocyte redeployment. We examined the effects of a disrupted night sleep on the exercise-induced redeployment of lymphocytes and their subtypes. 10 healthy male cyclists performed 1h of cycling at a fixed power output on an indoor cycle ergometer, following a night of undisrupted sleep (US) or a night of disrupted sleep (DS). Blood was collected before, immediately after and 1h after exercise completion. Lymphocytes and their subtypes were enumerated using direct immunofluorescence assays and 4-colour flow cytometry. DS was associated with elevated concentrations of total lymphocytes and CD3(-)/CD56(+) NK-cells. Although not affecting baseline levels, DS augmented the exercise-induced redeployment of CD8(+) T-cells, with the naïve/early differentiated subtypes (KLRG1(-)/CD45RA(+)) being affected most. While the mobilisation of cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets (NK cells, CD8(+) T-cells γδ T-cells), tended to be larger in response to exercise following DS, their enhanced egress at 1h post-exercise was more marked. This occurred despite similar serum cortisol and catecholamine levels between the US and DS trials. NK-cells redeployed with exercise after DS retained their expression of perforin and Granzyme-B indicating that DS did not affect NK-cell 'arming'. Our findings indicate that short-term changes in sleep architecture may 'prime' the immune system and cause minor enhancements in lymphocyte trafficking in response to acute dynamic exercise.

  4. TOBACCO ABUSE AND ITS HEALTH EFFECT.

    PubMed

    Dunga, Jacob Amos; Adamu, Yakubu; Kida, Ibrahim Musa; Alasiya, Datonya; Jibrin, Yusuf; Sabo, Umar; Ukoli, Christian; Chuhwak, C H; Musa, Jafiada Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is still one of the most important risk factor for Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and an estimated 90% of causes of lung cancer are attributable toTobacco smocking and equally 90% of peripheral vascular disease in non-diabetic population is attributable to Tobacco smoking, despite the health effect there is disturbing figures of people who take up smoking habit daily and increase level of failed quit smoking attempts. Environment and genetics still plays major role, and various forms of tobacco is used worldwide and its health consequence has been highlighted. Monitoring tobacco use and prevention policies through effective tax laws is paramount to reduction of the tobacco health effects in our environments. PMID:27487614

  5. The economic costs of radiation-induced health effects: Estimation and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    This effort improves the quantitative information available for use in evaluating actions that alter health risks due to population exposure to ionizing radiation. To project the potential future costs of changes in health effects risks, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) constructed a probabilistic computer model, Health Effects Costs Model (HECOM), which utilizes the health effect incidence estimates from accident consequences models to calculate the discounted sum of the economic costs associated with population exposure to ionizing radiation. Application of HECOM to value-impact and environmental impact analyses should greatly increase the quality of the information available for regulatory decision making. Three major types of health effects present risks for any population sustaining a significant radiation exposure: acute radiation injuries (and fatalities), latent cancers, and impairments due to genetic effects. The literature pertaining to both incidence and treatment of these health effects was reviewed by PNL and provided the basis for developing economic cost estimates. The economic costs of health effects estimated by HECOM represent both the value of resources consumed in diagnosing, treating, and caring for the patient and the value of goods not produced because of illness or premature death due to the health effect. Additional costs to society, such as pain and suffering, are not included in the PNL economic cost measures since they do not divert resources from other uses, are difficult to quantify, and do not have a value observable in the marketplace. 83 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Health effects of outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. PMID:21841106

  7. Disability, Health Insurance Coverage, and Utilization of Acute Health Services in the United States. Disability Statistics Report 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPlante, Mitchell P.

    This report uses data from the 1989 National Health Interview Survey to estimate health insurance coverage of children and nonelderly adults with disabilities and their utilization of physician and hospital care as a function of health insurance status. In part 1, national statistics on disability and insurance status are provided for different…

  8. Tobacco use prevention and health facilitator effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Young, R L; Elder, J P; Green, M; de Moor, C; Wildey, M B

    1988-11-01

    Tobacco prevention programs often use peers to teach refusal skills to other adolescents. College undergraduate health facilitators delivered a tobacco prevention intervention to sixth and seventh grade students in six schools. Outside observers evaluated facilitators in seven categories: being prepared, maintaining class control, keeping students' attention, encouraging participation, communication, relating to students, and working well in a team. Facilitators were rated highly in all categories. Higher rated health facilitators had more effect in reducing tobacco use than poorly rated facilitators. Facilitators who worked well in a team, related well to students, and were well-prepared were especially effective in positively influencing program outcomes.

  9. Radium in the environment: exposure pathways and health effects.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Buchner, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive element in the environment that can exist as several isotopes. Little information is available on the acute (short-term) non-cancer effects in humans. Radium exposure has resulted in acute leukopenia, anemia, necrosis of the jaw, and other effects. Cancer is the major effect of concern. Radium, via oral exposure, is known to cause bone, head, and nasal passage tumors in humans. The US Environmental Protection Agency has not classified radium for carcinogenicity.

  10. Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-05-01

    This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are treated first. Then, regional effects of air pollution, including acid rain, are analyzed. Finally, potential global impacts are examined. Occupational health concerns considered include exposure to noise, dust, asbestos, mercury, and combustion products, and resulting injury and disease. Local effects considered include noise; air and water emissions of coal storage piles, solid waste operations, and cooling systems. Air pollution, once an acute local problem, is now a regional concern. Acute and chronic direct health effects are considered. Special attention is given to potential effects of radionuclides in coal and of acid rain. Finally, potential global impacts associated with carbon dioxide emissions are considered. 88 references, 9 tables.

  11. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    González-Ponce, Herson Antonio; Martínez-Saldaña, María Consolación; Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients and contain high levels of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha extracts against APAP-induced ALF. In addition, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of these extracts. Fruit extracts (800 mg/kg/day, orally) were given prophylactically to male Wistar rats before intoxication with APAP (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Rat hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 20 mmol/L APAP, and necrosis was assessed by LDH leakage. Opuntia robusta had significantly higher levels of antioxidants than Opuntia streptacantha. Both extracts significantly attenuated APAP-induced injury markers AST, ALT and ALP and improved liver histology. The Opuntia extracts reversed APAP-induced depletion of liver GSH and glycogen stores. In cultured hepatocytes, Opuntia extracts significantly reduced leakage of LDH and cell necrosis, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Both extracts appeared to be superior to NAC when used therapeutically. We conclude that Opuntia extracts are hepatoprotective and can be used as a nutraceutical to prevent ALF. PMID:27782042

  12. [Cost effectiveness and health sector reform].

    PubMed

    Musgrove, P

    1995-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of a health intervention is an estimate of the relation between what it costs to be provided, and the improvement in health which results from such intervention. Health may improve because the incidence of illness or injury is reduced, because death is avoided or delayed, or because the duration or severity of disability is limited. The calculation of this health benefit combines objective factors, such as the age at incidence and whether or not the outcome is death, with subjective factors such as the severity of disability, the judgement as to the value of life lived at different ages, and the rate at which the future is discounted. The construction and interpretation of the estimate are explained. Also, the paper examines whether the concept of cost-effectiveness is consistent with ethical norms such as equity, and concludes that they are not in conflict. Finally, it addresses the question of how to incorporate cost-effectiveness into a health sector reform, and possible ways to implement it.

  13. Health Effects of Unemployment Benefit Program Generosity

    PubMed Central

    Glymour, M. Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. Methods. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Results. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b = 0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio = 2.777; 95% CI = 2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits = −0.124; 95% CI = −0.197, −0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Conclusions. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men. PMID:25521897

  14. Effects of Health Literacy and Social Capital on Health Information Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention. PMID:26166008

  15. Effects of Health Literacy and Social Capital on Health Information Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention.

  16. Mechanisms of the acute effects of inhaled ozone in humans.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Philip A

    2016-12-01

    Ambient air ozone (O3) is generated photochemically from oxides of nitrogen and volatile hydrocarbons. Inhaled O3 causes remarkably reversible acute lung function changes and inflammation. Approximately 80% of inhaled O3 is deposited on the airways. O3 reacts rapidly with CC double bonds in hydrophobic airway and alveolar surfactant-associated phospholipids and cholesterol. Resultant primary ozonides further react to generate bioactive hydrophilic products that also initiate lipid peroxidation leading to eicosanoids and isoprostanes of varying electrophilicity. Airway surface liquid ascorbate and urate also scavenge O3. Thus, inhaled O3 may not interact directly with epithelial cells. Acute O3-induced lung function changes are dominated by involuntary inhibition of inspiration (rather than bronchoconstriction), mediated by stimulation of intraepithelial nociceptive vagal C-fibers via activation of transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 cation channels by electrophile (e.g., 4-oxo-nonenal) adduction of TRPA1 thiolates enhanced by PGE2-stimulated sensitization. Acute O3-induced neutrophilic airways inflammation develops more slowly than the lung function changes. Surface macrophages and epithelial cells are involved in the activation of epithelial NFkB and generation of proinflammatory mediators such as IL-6, IL-8, TNFa, IL-1b, ICAM-1, E-selectin and PGE2. O3-induced partial depolymerization of hyaluronic acid and the release of peroxiredoxin-1 activate macrophage TLR4 while oxidative epithelial cell release of EGFR ligands such as TGFa or EGFR transactivation by activated Src may also be involved. The ability of lipid ozonation to generate potent electrophiles also provides pathways for Nrf2 activation and inhibition of canonical NFkB activation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio and Weidong Wu. PMID:27451958

  17. Antipsychotic effect of milieu in the acute treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S; Khan, A

    1990-07-01

    We studied 35 patients meeting DSM-III criteria for schizophrenia, paranoid or undifferentiated type, chronic with acute exacerbation. All were treated in hospital, 13 on a psychiatric intensive care unit, and 22 on an open ward. The former unit is a more structured and less stimulating one. We found those patients treated on that ward to show greater improvement in BPRS ratings during the first 2 days of hospitalization compared to the open-ward group, despite similar doses of medication being utilized. Additionally, this improvement was noted to occur among BPRS items comprising a psychotic subscale.

  18. Acute pulmonary effects of ultrafine particles in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Oberdörster, G; Finkelstein, J N; Johnston, C; Gelein, R; Cox, C; Baggs, R; Elder, A C

    2000-08-01

    important difference from the behavior of larger particles. Furthermore, the pulmonary toxicity of the ultrafine Teflon fumes could be prevented by adapting the animals with short 5-minute exposures on 3 days prior to a 15-minute exposure. This shows the importance of preexposure history in susceptibility to acute effects of ultrafine particles. Aging of the fresh Teflon fumes for 3.5 minutes led to a predicted coagulation resulting in particles greater than 100 nm that no longer caused toxicity in exposed animals. This result is consistent with greater toxicity of ultrafine particles compared with accumulation-mode particles. When establishing dose-response relationships for intratracheally instilled titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of the size of the urban ultrafine particles (20 nm) and of the urban accumulation-mode particles (250 nm), we observed significantly greater pulmonary inflammatory response to ultrafine TiO2 in rats and mice. The greater toxicity of the ultrafine TiO2 particles correlated well with their greater surface area per mass. Ultrafine particles of carbon, platinum, iron, iron oxide, vanadium, and vanadium oxide were generated by electric spark discharge and characterized to obtain particles of environmental relevance for study. The CMD of the ultrafine carbon particles was approximately 26 nm, and that of the metal particles was 15 to 20 nm, with geometric standard deviations (GSDs) of 1.4 to 1.7. For ultrafine carbon particles, approximately 100 micrograms/m3 is equivalent to 12 x 10(6) particles/cm3. Homogeneous coagulation of these ultrafine particles in an animal exposure chamber occurred rapidly at 1 x 10(7) particles/cm3, so that particles quickly grew to sizes greater than 100 nm. Thus, controlled aging of ultrafine carbon particles allowed the generation of accumulation-mode carbon particles (due to coagulation growth) for use in comparative toxicity studies. We also developed a technique to generate ultrafine particles consisting of the

  19. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health

    PubMed Central

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases. PMID:27618093

  20. The effects of income inequality on health.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C

    1999-01-01

    Much of the discussion about individual and group differences in illness and life expectancy has focused on the effects of individual characteristics, both status and behavioural. This is also characteristic of much of the literature, which attempts to explain why men have higher rates of disease and lower life expectancy than women. After a period in which 'social policy was no longer such an important part of preventive health policy', there is now renewed interest in the influence of the socioeconomic environment on health. Indeed, recently compiled evidence indicates that increasing income inequality is likely to have adverse effects on the community's health. These findings highlight the potential dangers of policy changes which accelerate social and economic divisions.

  1. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; Dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases. PMID:27618093

  2. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; Dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-09-08

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases.

  3. Pleuritic Chest Pain in a Young Female: A Reminder for Acute Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Alaa M.; Stroncek, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Chest pain is one of the most common reasons for emergency department visits. Emergency medicine doctors should focus their initial assessment on patients' stability. History, physical examination, and ancillary testing should exclude serious causes such as acute coronary syndrome, acute aortic syndromes, pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, esophageal perforation, and rupture as well as pericardial tamponade. Young age should not be used alone as a predictor of a benign condition. Below we present a case of a 24-year-old female who was found to have ascending aortic dissection and was sent for emergent surgery. PMID:25247097

  4. Human Motor Cortex Functional Changes in Acute Stroke: Gender Effects

    PubMed Central

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Pino, Giovanni; Ranieri, Federico; Lotti, Fiorenza; Florio, Lucia; Capone, Fioravante

    2016-01-01

    The acute phase of stroke is accompanied by functional changes in the activity and interplay of both hemispheres. In healthy subjects, gender is known to impact the functional brain organization. We investigated whether gender influences also acute stroke functional changes. In thirty-five ischemic stroke patients, we evaluated the excitability of the affected (AH) and unaffected hemisphere (UH) by measuring resting and active motor threshold (AMT) and motor-evoked potential amplitude under baseline conditions and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of AH. We also computed an index of the excitability balance between the hemispheres, laterality indexes (LI), to evidence hemispheric asymmetry. AMT differed significantly between AH and UH only in the male group (p = 0.004), not in females (p > 0.200), and both LIAMT and LIRMT were significantly higher in males than in females (respectively p = 0.033 and p = 0.042). LTP-like activity induced by iTBS in AH was more frequent in females. Gender influences the functional excitability changes that take place after human stroke and the level of LTP that can be induced by repetitive stimulation. This knowledge is of high value in the attempt of individualizing to different genders any non-invasive stimulation strategy designed to foster stroke recovery. PMID:26858590

  5. Valuation effects of health cost containment measures.

    PubMed

    Strange, M L; Ezzell, J R

    2000-01-01

    This study reports the findings of research into the valuation effects of health cost containment activities by publicly traded corporations. The motivation for this study was employers' increasing cost of providing health care insurance to their employees and employers' efforts to contain those costs. A 1990 survey of corporate health benefits indicated that these costs represented 25 percent of employers' net earnings and this would rise by the year 2000 if no actions were taken to reduce cost. Health cost containment programs that are implemented by firms should be seen by shareholders as a wealth maximizing effort. As such, this should be reflected in share price. This study employed standard event study methodology where the event is a media announcement or report regarding an attempt by a firm to contain the costs of providing health insurance and other health related benefits to employees. It examined abnormal returns on a number of event days and for a number of event intervals. Of the daily and interval returns that are least significant at the 10 percent level, virtually all are negative. Cross-sectional analysis shows that the abnormal returns are related negatively to a unionization variable. PMID:10961833

  6. Valuation effects of health cost containment measures.

    PubMed

    Strange, M L; Ezzell, J R

    2000-01-01

    This study reports the findings of research into the valuation effects of health cost containment activities by publicly traded corporations. The motivation for this study was employers' increasing cost of providing health care insurance to their employees and employers' efforts to contain those costs. A 1990 survey of corporate health benefits indicated that these costs represented 25 percent of employers' net earnings and this would rise by the year 2000 if no actions were taken to reduce cost. Health cost containment programs that are implemented by firms should be seen by shareholders as a wealth maximizing effort. As such, this should be reflected in share price. This study employed standard event study methodology where the event is a media announcement or report regarding an attempt by a firm to contain the costs of providing health insurance and other health related benefits to employees. It examined abnormal returns on a number of event days and for a number of event intervals. Of the daily and interval returns that are least significant at the 10 percent level, virtually all are negative. Cross-sectional analysis shows that the abnormal returns are related negatively to a unionization variable.

  7. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BFRs are a broad class of compounds providing fire safety. Because of high production and usage and recent findings that they are ubiquitous in environmental samples and biota, concerns exist about potential health effects. Some of the major commercial products, such as tetrabr...

  8. Effectiveness of the Complete Health Improvement Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Mathew; Melancon, Jim; Sneed, Demarcus; Nunning, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Currently, heart disease and diabetes dominate society as the leading cause of death for Americans. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a lifestyle enhancement program on factors related to the development of heart disease. The Wabash Valley Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP) is a community-based lifestyle change program with…

  9. Use of QSARs in international decision-making frameworks to predict health effects of chemical substances.

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Mark T D; Jaworska, Joanna S; Walker, John D; Comber, Michael H I; Watts, Christopher D; Worth, Andrew P

    2003-01-01

    This article is a review of the use of quantitative (and qualitative) structure-activity relationships (QSARs and SARs) by regulatory agencies and authorities to predict acute toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other health effects. A number of SAR and QSAR applications, by regulatory agencies and authorities, are reviewed. These include the use of simple QSAR analyses, as well as the use of multivariate QSARs, and a number of different expert system approaches. PMID:12896862

  10. Gender Differences in the Trajectory of Recovery in Health Status Among Young Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results From the VIRGO Study

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Rachel P.; Wang, Yongfei; Strait, Kelly M.; Lorenze, Nancy P.; D’Onofrio, Gail; Bueno, Héctor; Lichtman, Judith H.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the excess risk of mortality in young women (≤55 years) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), little is known about young women’s health status (symptoms, functioning, quality of life) during the first year of recovery after an AMI. We examined gender differences in health status over time from baseline to 12-months post AMI. Methods and Results A total of 3,501 AMI patients (67% women) aged 18-55 years were enrolled from 103 United States/24 Spanish hospitals. Data were obtained by medical record abstraction/patient interviews at baseline hospitalization, 1- and 12-months post AMI. Health status was measured by generic [Short Form-12 (SF-12), and disease specific [Seattle angina questionnaire (SAQ)] measures. We compared health status scores at all three time points, and utilized longitudinal linear mixed effects analyses to examine the independent effect of gender, adjusting for time and selected covariates. Women had significantly lower health status scores than men at each assessment (all P-values <0.0001). Following adjustment for time and all covariates, women had SF-12 physical/mental summary scores that were −0.96 (95% CI: −1.59, −0.32) and −2.36 points lower (95% CI: −2.99, −1.72) than men, as well as worse SAQ physical limitations (−2.44 points lower; 95% CI: −3.53, −1.34), more angina (−1.03 points lower; 95% CI: −1.98, −0.07), and poorer quality of life (−3.51 points lower; 95% CI: −4.80, −2.22) than men. Conclusions Although both genders recover similarly following AMI, women have poorer scores than men on all health status measures; a difference that persisted throughout the entire year after discharge. PMID:25862743

  11. The effects of time following acute growth hormone administration on metabolic and power output measures during acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Irving, Brian A; Patrie, James T; Anderson, Stacey M; Watson-Winfield, Deidre D; Frick, Kirsten I; Evans, William S; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Weltman, Arthur

    2004-09-01

    We examined the effects of GH infusion on metabolism and performance measures during acute exercise. Nine males [(X+/-SEM): age 23.7+/-1.9 yr, height 182.6+/-1.6 cm, weight 77.3+/- 2.6 kg, percent fat 17.7+/-1.9%, peak oxygen consumption 37.9 +/- 2.9 ml/kg.min] completed six 30-min randomly assigned bicycle ergometer exercise trials at a power output midway between the lactate threshold and peak oxygen consumption. In five of the six trials, the subjects received a recombinant humanGHinfusion (10 microg/kg, 6-min square wave pulse) at 0800 h, followed by a 30-min exercise trial initiated at one of the following times: 0845, 0930, 1015, 1100, or 1145 h. During one of the six trials, the subject received a saline infusion followed by a 30-min exercise trial initiated at 0845 h. Mixed-effect, repeated-measures ANOVA analyses corrected for multiple comparisons revealed that there were no significant condition effects for total work, caloric expenditure, heart rate response, the blood lactate response, or ratings of perceived exertion response. However, acute GH administration resulted in a lower exercise oxygen consumption without a drop-off in power output. We conclude that the time of exercise initiation after GH infusion does not affect total work, caloric expenditure, heart rate response, blood lactate response, or ratings of perceived exertion but reduces oxygen consumption in response to 30 min of constant load exercise at an intensity above the lactate threshold. The last outcome may suggest that GH administration can improve exercise economy.

  12. The contribution of electrophysiology to knowledge of the acute and chronic effects of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Little, H J

    1999-12-01

    This review describes the effects of ethanol on the components of neuronal transmission and the relationship of such effects to the behavioural actions of ethanol. The concentrations of ethanol with acute actions on voltage-sensitive ion channels are first described, then the actions of ethanol on ligand-gated ion channels, including those controlled by cholinergic receptors, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors, the various excitatory amino acid receptors, and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Acute effects of ethanol are then described on brain areas thought to be involved in arousal and attention, the reinforcing effects of ethanol, the production of euphoria, the actions of ethanol on motor control, and the amnesic effects of ethanol; the acute effects of ethanol demonstrated by EEG studies are also discussed. Chronic effects of alcohol on neuronal transmission are described in the context of the various components of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome, withdrawal hyperexcitability, dysphoria and anhedonia, withdrawal anxiety, craving, and relapse drinking. Electrophysiological studies on the genetic influences on the effects of ethanol are discussed, particularly the acute actions of ethanol and electrophysiological differences reported in individuals predisposed to alcoholism. The conclusion notes the concentration of studies on the classical transmitters, with relative neglect of the effects of ethanol on peptides and on neuronal interactions between brain areas and integrated patterns of neuronal activity. PMID:10665833

  13. Functional biomarkers for the acute effects of alcohol on the central nervous system in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Zoethout, Remco W M; Delgado, Wilson L; Ippel, Annelies E; Dahan, Albert; van Gerven, Joop M A

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) effects of acute alcohol administration have been frequently assessed. Such studies often use a wide range of methods to study each of these effects. Unfortunately, the sensitivity of these tests has not completely been ascertained. A literature search was performed to recognize the most useful tests (or biomarkers) for identifying the acute CNS effects of alcohol in healthy volunteers. All tests were grouped in clusters and functional domains. Afterwards, the effect of alcohol administration on these tests was scored as improvement, impairment or as no effect. Furthermore, dose–response relationships were established. A total number of 218 studies, describing 342 different tests (or test variants) were evaluated. Alcohol affected a wide range of CNS domains. Divided attention, focused attention, visuo-motor control and scales of feeling high and of subjective drug effects were identified as the most sensitive functional biomarkers for the acute CNS effects of alcohol. The large number of CNS tests that are used to determine the effects of alcohol interferes with the identification of the most sensitive ones and of drug–response relationships. Our results may be helpful in selecting rational biomarkers for studies investigating the acute CNS effects of alcohol or for future alcohol- interaction studies. PMID:21284693

  14. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  15. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored. PMID:16521670

  16. Effects of acute and chronic inhalation of paint thinner in mice: behavioral and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Fifel, Karim; Bennis, Mohamed; Ba-M'hamed, Saâdia

    2014-06-01

    Abuse of volatile inhalants has become a worldwide issue mainly among adolescents of low income social class. Acute and chronic exposure to these substances results in serious neurological and behavioral impairments. Although real exposure consists largely of simultaneous inhalation of multiple solvents, the vast majority of basic research studies have evaluated the actions of a single volatile component leaving the behavioral and neuronal effects of chemical mixture not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the acute behavioral effects of 300, 450 and 600 ppm of paint thinner inhalation on anxiety, locomotor activity and spatial memory. Additionally, the cognitive impairments related to chronic exposure of the same concentrations of thinner for 45 days were assessed. To understand the neuronal correlates of acute exposure to thinner, we used c-Fos immunohistochemistry as an endogenous marker of neuronal activation following 600 ppm of thinner. The results reveal that (i) chronically thinner exposed mice showed cognitive deficits in Morris water maze and object recognition tasks; (ii) acute inhalation of thinner induces a wide range of behavioral changes. These changes include an anxiolytic effect toward the aversive environmental bright light and a dose dependent effect on explorative locomotion. The wide range of behavioral alterations induced by acute thinner inhalation is consistent with the widespread distribution of thinner-induced c-Fos expression in multiple brain structures.

  17. Effects of acute and chronic inhalation of paint thinner in mice: behavioral and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Fifel, Karim; Bennis, Mohamed; Ba-M'hamed, Saâdia

    2014-06-01

    Abuse of volatile inhalants has become a worldwide issue mainly among adolescents of low income social class. Acute and chronic exposure to these substances results in serious neurological and behavioral impairments. Although real exposure consists largely of simultaneous inhalation of multiple solvents, the vast majority of basic research studies have evaluated the actions of a single volatile component leaving the behavioral and neuronal effects of chemical mixture not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the acute behavioral effects of 300, 450 and 600 ppm of paint thinner inhalation on anxiety, locomotor activity and spatial memory. Additionally, the cognitive impairments related to chronic exposure of the same concentrations of thinner for 45 days were assessed. To understand the neuronal correlates of acute exposure to thinner, we used c-Fos immunohistochemistry as an endogenous marker of neuronal activation following 600 ppm of thinner. The results reveal that (i) chronically thinner exposed mice showed cognitive deficits in Morris water maze and object recognition tasks; (ii) acute inhalation of thinner induces a wide range of behavioral changes. These changes include an anxiolytic effect toward the aversive environmental bright light and a dose dependent effect on explorative locomotion. The wide range of behavioral alterations induced by acute thinner inhalation is consistent with the widespread distribution of thinner-induced c-Fos expression in multiple brain structures. PMID:24218105

  18. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Epidemic and Change of People's Health Behavior in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Xiaodong; Li, Shiyue; Wang, Chunhong; Chen, Xiaoqing; Wu, Xiaomin

    2004-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) has become a new worldwide epidemic whose origin was until recently unknown. It is the unpredictable nature of this epidemic that makes people want answers to some important questions about what they can do to protect themselves. This study presents an inquiry into peoples knowledge and self-reported…

  19. The prevalence, management and outcome for acute wounds identified in a wound care survey within one English health care district.

    PubMed

    Vowden, Kathryn R; Vowden, Peter

    2009-02-01

    This paper reports the characteristics and local management of 826 acute wounds identified during an audit across all health care providers serving the population of Bradford, UK. Of the wounds encountered 303 were traumatic wounds and 237 primary closures with smaller numbers of other acute wound types. Of the 303 traumatic wounds 174 occurred in women (57.4%). Men predominated in the under 45s (65M:26F), this being largely accounted for by hand and finger trauma (n = 62) particularly in patients of working age (M32:F12). Women predominated in the over 65s (50M:130F), this being largely accounted for by lower limb traumatic wounds (M24:F91), the majority of these being in patients 65 and over (M14:F82). In this sub-group of 96 patients 25 had wounds of 6 weeks or longer duration, only 3 had undergone Doppler assessment and only 2 received compression bandaging. Typically these wounds were of recent origin and small in size (under 1 week and less than 5 cm2 in surface area) however exceptions occurred where 10 people had wounds over 25 cm2 in area while 3 wounds had been present for over 5 years. 101 (12.2%) of the encountered wounds were considered to be infected although the practice of wound swabbing in the presence of presumed infection seemed inadequate with 37.6% of all infected acute wounds not being swabbed while 97 non-infected wounds were swabbed. Where wounds were swabbed 4.5% were found to be MRSA positive. Across all acute wound types (with the sole exception of primary closures) antimicrobial wound dressings were the most prevalent form of dressing and covered 56 (55.4%) of all infected wounds.

  20. Effects of recreational soccer on physical fitness and health indices in sedentary healthy and unhealthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chamari, K; Slimani, M; Shephard, RJ; Yousfi, N; Tabka, Z; Bouhlel, E

    2016-01-01

    Recreational soccer (RS) is becoming a popular alternative to the classical continuous exercise mode used for the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in untrained people. The objective of this paper was to conduct a detailed systematic review of the literature, identifying the physiological responses to RS and the training effects of RS on aerobic fitness and health in untrained healthy individuals and clinical patients. PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases were searched using terms related to recreational soccer. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCT) that assessed acute physiological responses to RS or the training effects of RS on physical fitness and health in sedentary, untrained subjects of any age or health status. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria; seven examined the acute response to RS, and 28 assessed training effects. Clear evidence was found that RS had positive effects on many health-related indices and variables, including VO2max (gains of 7-16%), blood pressure (reductions of 6-13 mmHg), body composition (decreased fat mass and improved indices of bone health), and metabolic and cardiac function. These positive effects were observed in both healthy individuals and clinical patients, irrespective of age or sex. Although this review provides clear evidence of the positive effects of RS on health, most studies had limitations of methodology (an average PEDro score < 6). Furthermore, many of the training studies were from a small number of research groups. Future studies should be extended to other countries and institutions to ensure generality of the results. Regular RS training leads to significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations and gains of health both in sedentary individuals and clinical patients at all ages, suggesting that RS is a potentially highly motivational method to enhance population health

  1. Effects of recreational soccer on physical fitness and health indices in sedentary healthy and unhealthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hammami, A; Chamari, K; Slimani, M; Shephard, R J; Yousfi, N; Tabka, Z; Bouhlel, E

    2016-06-01

    Recreational soccer (RS) is becoming a popular alternative to the classical continuous exercise mode used for the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in untrained people. The objective of this paper was to conduct a detailed systematic review of the literature, identifying the physiological responses to RS and the training effects of RS on aerobic fitness and health in untrained healthy individuals and clinical patients. PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases were searched using terms related to recreational soccer. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCT) that assessed acute physiological responses to RS or the training effects of RS on physical fitness and health in sedentary, untrained subjects of any age or health status. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria; seven examined the acute response to RS, and 28 assessed training effects. Clear evidence was found that RS had positive effects on many health-related indices and variables, including VO2max (gains of 7-16%), blood pressure (reductions of 6-13 mmHg), body composition (decreased fat mass and improved indices of bone health), and metabolic and cardiac function. These positive effects were observed in both healthy individuals and clinical patients, irrespective of age or sex. Although this review provides clear evidence of the positive effects of RS on health, most studies had limitations of methodology (an average PEDro score < 6). Furthermore, many of the training studies were from a small number of research groups. Future studies should be extended to other countries and institutions to ensure generality of the results. Regular RS training leads to significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations and gains of health both in sedentary individuals and clinical patients at all ages, suggesting that RS is a potentially highly motivational method to enhance population health

  2. Mechanics of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium: effects of acute and chronic myocardial edema.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ketaki V; Laine, Glen A; Stewart, Randolph H; Cox, Charles S; Quick, Christopher M; Allen, Steven J; Fischer, Uwe M

    2008-06-01

    Myocardial interstitial edema forms as a result of several disease states and clinical interventions. Acute myocardial interstitial edema is associated with compromised systolic and diastolic cardiac function and increased stiffness of the left ventricular chamber. Formation of chronic myocardial interstitial edema results in deposition of interstitial collagen, which causes interstitial fibrosis. To assess the effect of myocardial interstitial edema on the mechanical properties of the left ventricle and the myocardial interstitium, we induced acute and chronic interstitial edema in dogs. Acute myocardial edema was generated by coronary sinus pressure elevation, while chronic myocardial edema was generated by chronic pulmonary artery banding. The pressure-volume relationships of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium and left ventricular chamber for control animals were compared with acutely and chronically edematous animals. Collagen content of nonedematous and chronically edematous animals was also compared. Generating acute myocardial interstitial edema resulted in decreased left ventricular chamber compliance compared with nonedematous animals. With chronic edema, the primary form of collagen changed from type I to III. Left ventricular chamber compliance in animals made chronically edematous was significantly higher than nonedematous animals. The change in primary collagen type secondary to chronic left ventricular myocardial interstitial edema provides direct evidence for structural remodeling. The resulting functional adaptation allows the chronically edematous heart to maintain left ventricular chamber compliance when challenged with acute edema, thus preserving cardiac function over a wide range of interstitial fluid pressures. PMID:18375722

  3. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days); and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels. PMID:25029646

  4. Central effect of histamine in a rat model of acute trigeminal pain.

    PubMed

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Khalilzadeh, Emad; Hamzeh-Gooshchi, Nasrin; Seiednejhad-Yamchi, Sona

    2008-01-01

    In conscious rats implanted with an intracerebroventricular (icv) cannula, effect of icv injections of histamine, chlorpheniramine (H(1)-receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (H(2)-receptor blocker) was investigated in a rat model of acute trigeminal pain. Acute trigeminal pain was induced by putting a drop of 5 M NaCl solution on the corneal surface of the eye and the numbers of eye wipes were counted during the first 30 s. Histamine (20, 40 microg) and chlorpheniramine (80 microg) significantly decreased the numbers of eye wipes. Ranitidine alone had no effect. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine did not change the histamine-induced analgesia, whereas the histamine effect on pain was inhibited with ranitidine pretreatment. These results indicate that the brain histamine, through central H(2) receptors, may be involved in the modulation of the acute trigeminal pain in rats.

  5. Health and environmental effects profile for acrolein

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for acrolein was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Acrolein was determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), defined as the amount of a chemical to which humans can be exposed on a daily basis over an extended period of time (usually a lifetime) without suffering a deleterious effect, for acrolein is 1.09 mg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for acrolein is 10.

  6. Effects of environmental change on wildlife health

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Duffus, Amanda L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental change has negatively affected most biological systems on our planet and is becoming of increasing concern for the well-being and survival of many species. At an organism level, effects encompass not only endocrine disruptions, sex-ratio changes and decreased reproductive parameters, but also include teratogenic and genotoxic effects, immunosuppression and other immune-system impairments that can lead directly to disease or increase the risk of acquiring disease. Living organisms will strive to maintain health by recognizing and resolving abnormal situations, such as the presence of invading microorganisms or harmful peptides, abnormal cell replication and deleterious mutations. However, fast-paced environmental changes may pose additional pressure on immunocompetence and health maintenance, which may seriously impact population viability and persistence. Here, we outline the importance of a functional immune system for survival and examine the effects that exposure to a rapidly changing environment might exert on immunocompetence. We then address the various levels at which anthropogenic environmental change might affect wildlife health and identify potential deficits in reproductive parameters that might arise owing to new immune challenges in the context of a rapidly changing environment. Throughout the paper, a series of examples and case studies are used to illustrate the impact of environmental change on wildlife health. PMID:19833653

  7. A change in culture: violence prevention in an acute behavioral health setting.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Suzanne Barnum; Taylor-Trujillo, Ann

    2012-01-01

    A multilayered implementation of safety measures in an inpatient psychiatric facility created a sustained change in culture related to patient and staff safety. The model was developed over a 5-year period in a freestanding 80-bed behavioral health facility that is part of a Level II trauma center in the Midwest. The model has nine components that the nursing leadership team saw as integral to maintaining a safe environment. The nine elements include trauma-informed care principles, aggression management, code event review, leadership involvement, quality feedback, recovery orientation, patient assessment, education, and collaboration. The metrics collected to determine the effectiveness of the model included patient violence events and staff injuries. This article describes the development of this model and its impact on the reduction of patient violence events and staff injuries at this facility. The recommendations include considerations for the replication of this model at other facilities.

  8. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide Upon Cognitive Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Ryder, V. E.; Lam, C. W.; Statish, U.; Basner, M.

    2016-01-01

    controlled at levels that are well below current spacecraft limits. Our study will extend the earlier study to determine if crew-like subjects are similarly effected by CO2. In addition to employing the Strategic Management Simulation tool, we will use the Cognition battery of psychometric measures that are being utilized aboard the ISS. It will be important to learn, by using Cognition, if additional cognitive domains are sensitive to concentrations of CO2 at or below limits currently controlled by flight rules. While spaceflight Cognition data will greatly enhance the knowledge base related to inflight behavioral health and performance, some of the measures may be influenced by fatigue (related to sleep deprivation and or workload) and changes in circadian rhythms. Therefore our use of this battery of tests in a well-controlled, ground-based study that is free of these potential confounding influences will establish a baseline terrestrial data set against which Cognition data collected in flight may be assessed. The findings from this study will be useful to the NASA Toxicology Office and the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology, which assists NASA in setting environmental standards, for revision of the SMAC for CO2, and for designing further studies on effects of CO2 upon cognitive functions.

  9. Acute effects of exposure to 56Fe and 16O particles on learning and memory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although it has been shown that exposure to HZE particles disrupts cognitive performance when tested 2-4 weeks after irradiation, it has not been determined whether exposure to HZE particles can exert acute effects on cognitive performance; i.e., effects within 4-48 hrs after exposure. The present ...

  10. Acute Effect of Decaffeinated Coffee on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaushik, Vidya S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of decaffeinated coffee on the cardiovascular exercise performance in nine healthy volunteers was evaluated in a double-blind randomized fashion. The heart rate, blood pressure, and duration of exercise were unchanged, and no arrhythmias or ischemic changes were seen on the electrocardiogram after drinking decaffeinated coffee. It was concluded that decaffeinated coffee has no discernible, acute, adverse cardiovascular effects. PMID:3339645

  11. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  12. ASSESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BEHAVIORAL EFFECT OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE IN HUMANS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing interest in being able to evaluate potential benefit-cost relationships of controlling exposure to toxic substances. Behavioral effects of acute toluene exposure could be subjected to benefit-cost analysis if it's effects were quantitatively compared to tho...

  13. A QUANTITATIVE COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE INHALED TOLUENE IN HUMAN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of acute exposure to toluene have been explored more thoroughly than other hydrocarbon solvents. These effects have been experimentally studied in humans and other species, e.g., rats, as well as in a number of in vitro preparations. The existence ofdosimetric and eff...

  14. Coral reef health response to chronic and acute changes in water quality in St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Rosmin S; Brandt, Marilyn E; Wilson Grimes, Kristin R; Smith, Tyler B

    2016-10-15

    It is suspected that land cover alteration on the southern coast of St. Thomas, USVI has increased runoff, degrading nearshore water quality and coral reef health. Chronic and acute changes in water quality, sediment deposition, and coral health metrics were assessed in three zones based upon perceived degree of human influence. Chlorophyll (p<0.0001) and turbidity (p=0.0113) were significantly higher in nearshore zones and in the high impact zone during heavy precipitation. Net sediment deposition and terrigenous content increased in nearshore zones during periods of greater precipitation and port activity. Macroalgae overgrowth significantly increased along a gradient of decreasing water quality (p<0.0001). Coral bleaching in all zones peaked in November with a regional thermal stress event (p<0.0001). However, mean bleaching prevalence was significantly greater in the most impacted zone compared to the offshore zone (p=0.0396), suggesting a link between declining water quality and bleaching severity. PMID:27499526

  15. Coral reef health response to chronic and acute changes in water quality in St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Rosmin S; Brandt, Marilyn E; Wilson Grimes, Kristin R; Smith, Tyler B

    2016-10-15

    It is suspected that land cover alteration on the southern coast of St. Thomas, USVI has increased runoff, degrading nearshore water quality and coral reef health. Chronic and acute changes in water quality, sediment deposition, and coral health metrics were assessed in three zones based upon perceived degree of human influence. Chlorophyll (p<0.0001) and turbidity (p=0.0113) were significantly higher in nearshore zones and in the high impact zone during heavy precipitation. Net sediment deposition and terrigenous content increased in nearshore zones during periods of greater precipitation and port activity. Macroalgae overgrowth significantly increased along a gradient of decreasing water quality (p<0.0001). Coral bleaching in all zones peaked in November with a regional thermal stress event (p<0.0001). However, mean bleaching prevalence was significantly greater in the most impacted zone compared to the offshore zone (p=0.0396), suggesting a link between declining water quality and bleaching severity.

  16. Interprofessional care co-ordinators: the benefits and tensions associated with a new role in UK acute health care.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Jackie; Meyer, Julienne; Glynn, Michael; Bentley, Jane; Reeves, Scott

    2003-08-01

    While more flexible models of service delivery are being introduced in UK health and social care, little is known about the impact of new roles, particularly support worker roles, on the work of existing practitioners. This action research study aimed to explore the impact of one such new role, that of interprofessional care co-ordinators (IPCCs). The general (internal) medical service of a UK hospital uses IPCCs to provide support to the interprofessional team and, in doing so, promote efficiency of acute bed use. Using a range of methods, mainly qualitative, this action research study sought to explore the characteristics and impact of the role on interprofessional team working. While the role's flexibility, autonomy and informality contributed to success in meeting its intended objectives, these characteristics also caused some tensions with interprofessional colleagues. These benefits and tensions mirror wider issues associated with the current modernisation agenda in UK health care. PMID:12834925

  17. Acute effects of cigarette smoke exposure on experimental skin flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.; Jenkins, R.A.; Kurihara, K.; Schultz, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    Random vascular patterned caudally based McFarlane-type skin flaps were elevated in groups of Fischer 344 rats. Groups of rats were then acutely exposed on an intermittent basis to smoke generated from well-characterized research filter cigarettes. Previously developed smoke inhalation exposure protocols were employed using a Maddox-ORNL inhalation exposure system. Rats that continued smoke exposure following surgery showed a significantly greater mean percent area of flap necrosis compared with sham-exposed groups or control groups not exposed. The possible pathogenesis of this observation as well as considerations and correlations with chronic human smokers are discussed. Increased risks of flap necrosis by smoking in the perioperative period are suggested by this study.

  18. The effects of acute social isolation on long-term social recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Leser, Noam; Wagner, Shlomo

    2015-10-01

    The abilities to recognize individual animals of the same species and to distinguish them from other individuals are the basis for all mammalian social organizations and relationships. These abilities, termed social recognition memory, can be explored in mice and rats using their innate tendency to investigate novel social stimuli more persistently than familiar ones. Using this methodology it was found that social recognition memory is mediated by a specific neural network in the brain, the activity of which is modulated by several molecules, such the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin. During the last 15 years several independent studies have revealed that social recognition memory of mice and rats depends upon their housing conditions. Specifically, long-term social recognition memory cannot be formed as shortly as few days following social isolation of the animal. This rapid and reversible impairment caused by acute social isolation seems to be specific to social memory and has not been observed in other types of memory. Here we review these studies and suggest that this unique system may serve for exploring of the mechanisms underlying the well-known negative effects of partial or perceived social isolation on human mental health.

  19. Effects of Biofreeze and chiropractic adjustments on acute low back pain: a pilot study☆

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, John; Enix, Dennis; Snyder, Brian; Giggey, Kristan; Tepe, Rodger

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective This randomized controlled study was designed to determine the pain-relieving effect of Biofreeze (Performance Health Inc., Export, PA) body surface application and chiropractic adjustments on subjects with acute low back pain (LBP). Methods The data were collected at the baseline, 2 weeks after treatment, and 4 weeks after treatment for final analyses. Diversified manual adjustments were provided by licensed chiropractors twice a week for 4 weeks to both control and experimental groups. Biofreeze was applied to the lower back area 3 times a day for 4 weeks in the experimental group. Outcome assessments included visual analog scale, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, heart rate variability for stress, and electromyography for low back muscle activity. Results A total of 36 subjects were recruited in the study (25 male). The average age was 34 years. Significant pain reduction was found after each week of treatment in the experimental group (P < .05). The Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire did not show significant changes in both groups. There were no significant differences for pain reduction in the control group. Heart rate variability analysis showed no significant change (P > .05) in the experimental group after 4 weeks of Biofreeze and chiropractic adjustments. There were no statistically significant changes in the electromyography readings between the 2 groups. Conclusion Biofreeze combined with chiropractic adjustment showed significant reduction in LBP. PMID:19674721

  20. Ameliorative effect of aspalathin from rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) on acute oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Sudji, Ikhwan Resmala; Wang, Erjia; Joubert, Elizabeth; van Wyk, Ben-Erik; Wink, Michael

    2013-02-15

    Rooibos leaves and fine stems (Aspalathus linearis; Fabaceae) are increasingly enjoyed as herbal tea, largely in fermented (oxidised) red-brown form, but also in unfermented (unoxidised) green form. Rooibos is rich in antioxidant polyphenols, with the dihydrochalcone, aspalathin, as a major active ingredient. We used Caenorhabditis elegans as model organism to investigate the effect of rooibos extracts against oxidative stress in vivo. In a high glucose environment, C. elegans treated with rooibos extract exhibited an extended lifespan. Furthermore, green rooibos was a more potent antioxidant than red rooibos, probably due to its substantially higher aspalathin content. In addition, rooibos decreased acute oxidative damage caused by the superoxide anion radical generator, juglone, with aspalathin playing a major role in improving the survival rate of C. elegans. Quantitative real-time PCR results demonstrated that aspalathin targets stress and ageing related genes, reducing the endogenous intracellular level of ROS. These findings suggest that rooibos increases stress resistance and promotes longevity under stress, probably mediated via a regulation of the DAF-16/FOXO insulin-like signalling pathway, supporting some of the health claims put forward for rooibos tea. PMID:23218401

  1. Non-cancer health effects of pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, M.; Kerr, K.J.; Sanin, L.H.; Cole, D.C.; Bassil, K.L.; Vakil, C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether there are associations between exposure to pesticides and 4 chronic non-cancer health effects: dermatologic, neurologic, reproductive, and genotoxic effects. DATA SOURCES We searched PreMedline, MEDLINE, and LILACS using the key word pesticide combined with the term for the specific health effect being searched. Reviewers scanned the references of all articles for additional relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION Studies since 1992 were assessed using structured inclusion and quality-of-methods criteria. Studies scoring <4 on a 7-point global methodologic quality scale were excluded. In total, 124 studies were included. These studies had a mean quality score of 4.88 out of 7. SYNTHESIS Strong evidence of association with pesticide exposure was found for all neurologic outcomes, genotoxicity, and 4 of 6 reproductive effects: birth defects, fetal death, altered growth, and other outcomes. Exposure to pesticides generally doubled the level of genetic damage as measured by chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes. Only a few high-quality studies focused on the dermatologic effects of pesticides. In some of these studies, rates of dermatitis were higher among those who had had high exposure to pesticides on the job. CONCLUSION Evidence from research on humans consistently points to positive associations between pesticide exposure and 3 of the 4 non-cancer health outcomes studied. Physicians have a dual role in educating individual patients about the risks of exposure and in reducing exposure in the community by advocating for restrictions on use of pesticides. PMID:17934035

  2. Use effective communication channels. Health education.

    PubMed

    Hubley, J

    1988-03-01

    This article describes different ways of communicating health education. Individual and group counseling are the most effective ways of changing people's behavior. It is a method by which, it could relieve anxieties, and offer better ways that explain information and help people make decisions on sexual and risk behavior subjects. Drawings, cartoons, visual aids and magazines could be of help in discussions. In the discussion of sensitive and embarrassing topics, it is much better for the use of traditional drama, storytelling, puppets etc. Leaflets and poster use are useful in the back up on counseling and health education programs. Establishing a health education regarding the struggle on AIDS takes time and effort, and it is best that counselors or educators are able to share their experiences and evaluate limited programs on this matter.

  3. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making. PMID:27679566

  4. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making. PMID:27679566

  5. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cannabinoids on Human Cognition-A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Broyd, Samantha J; van Hell, Hendrika H; Beale, Camilla; Yücel, Murat; Solowij, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with impaired cognition during acute intoxication as well as in the unintoxicated state in long-term users. However, the evidence has been mixed and contested, and no systematic reviews of the literature on neuropsychological task-based measures of cognition have been conducted in an attempt to synthesize the findings. We systematically review the empirical research published in the past decade (from January 2004 to February 2015) on acute and chronic effects of cannabis and cannabinoids and on persistence or recovery after abstinence. We summarize the findings into the major categories of the cognitive domains investigated, considering sample characteristics and associations with various cannabis use parameters. Verbal learning and memory and attention are most consistently impaired by acute and chronic exposure to cannabis. Psychomotor function is most affected during acute intoxication, with some evidence for persistence in chronic users and after cessation of use. Impaired verbal memory, attention, and some executive functions may persist after prolonged abstinence, but persistence or recovery across all cognitive domains remains underresearched. Associations between poorer performance and a range of cannabis use parameters, including a younger age of onset, are frequently reported. Little further evidence has emerged for the development of tolerance to the acutely impairing effects of cannabis. Evidence for potential protection from harmful effects by cannabidiol continues to increase but is not definitive. In light of increasing trends toward legalization of cannabis, the knowledge gained from this body of research needs to be incorporated into strategies to minimize harm. PMID:26858214

  6. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making.

  7. Acute and training effects of resistance exercise on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, J Derek; Figueroa, Arturo

    2016-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a non-invasive method to evaluate heart rate (HR) regulation by the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. In this review, we discuss the effect of resistance exercise both acutely and after training on HRV in healthy individuals and in those with diseases characterized by autonomic dysfunction, such as hypertension and fibromyalgia. HR recovery after exercise is influenced by parasympathetic reactivation and sympathetic recovery to resting levels. Therefore, examination of HRV in response to acute exercise yields valuable insight into autonomic cardiovascular modulation and possible underlying risk for disease. Acute resistance exercise has shown to decrease cardiac parasympathetic modulation more than aerobic exercise in young healthy adults suggesting an increased risk for cardiovascular dysfunction after resistance exercise. Resistance exercise training appears to have no effect on resting HRV in healthy young adults, while it may improve parasympathetic modulation in middle-aged adults with autonomic dysfunction. Acute resistance exercise appears to decrease parasympathetic activity regardless of age. This review examines the acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on HRV in young and older adults.

  8. Reduced acute inpatient care was largest savings component of Geisinger Health System's patient-centered medical home.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Daniel D; Khan, Nazmul; Tomcavage, Janet; Graf, Thomas R; Davis, Duane E; Steele, Glenn D

    2015-04-01

    Early evidence suggests that the patient-centered medical home has the potential to improve patient outcomes while reducing the cost of care. However, it is unclear how this care model achieves such desirable results, particularly its impact on cost. We estimated cost savings associated with Geisinger Health System's patient-centered medical home clinics by examining longitudinal clinic-level claims data from elderly Medicare patients attending the clinics over a ninety-month period (2006 through the first half of 2013). We also used these data to deconstruct savings into its main components (inpatient, outpatient, professional, and prescription drugs). During this period, total costs associated with patient-centered medical home exposure declined by approximately 7.9 percent; the largest source of this savings was acute inpatient care ($34, or 19 percent savings per member per month), which accounts for about 64 percent of the total estimated savings. This finding is further supported by the fact that longer exposure was also associated with lower acute inpatient admission rates. The results of this study suggest that patient-centered medical homes can lead to sustainable, long-term improvements in patient health outcomes and the cost of care.

  9. Reduced acute inpatient care was largest savings component of Geisinger Health System's patient-centered medical home.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Daniel D; Khan, Nazmul; Tomcavage, Janet; Graf, Thomas R; Davis, Duane E; Steele, Glenn D

    2015-04-01

    Early evidence suggests that the patient-centered medical home has the potential to improve patient outcomes while reducing the cost of care. However, it is unclear how this care model achieves such desirable results, particularly its impact on cost. We estimated cost savings associated with Geisinger Health System's patient-centered medical home clinics by examining longitudinal clinic-level claims data from elderly Medicare patients attending the clinics over a ninety-month period (2006 through the first half of 2013). We also used these data to deconstruct savings into its main components (inpatient, outpatient, professional, and prescription drugs). During this period, total costs associated with patient-centered medical home exposure declined by approximately 7.9 percent; the largest source of this savings was acute inpatient care ($34, or 19 percent savings per member per month), which accounts for about 64 percent of the total estimated savings. This finding is further supported by the fact that longer exposure was also associated with lower acute inpatient admission rates. The results of this study suggest that patient-centered medical homes can lead to sustainable, long-term improvements in patient health outcomes and the cost of care. PMID:25847647

  10. Five Years of Acute Stroke Unit Care: Comparing ASU and Non-ASU Admissions and Allied Health Involvement.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Isobel J; Evans, Malcolm; McMullen-Roach, Sarah; Marquez, Jodie; Parsons, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Background. Evidence indicates that Stroke Units decrease mortality and morbidity. An Acute Stroke Unit (ASU) provides specialised, hyperacute care and thrombolysis. John Hunter Hospital, Australia, admits 500 stroke patients each year and has a 4-bed ASU. Aims. This study investigated hospital admissions over a 5-year period of all strokes patients and of all patients admitted to the 4-bed ASU and the involvement of allied health professionals. Methods. The study retrospectively audited 5-year data from all stroke patients admitted to John Hunter Hospital (n = 2525) and from nonstroke patients admitted to the ASU (n = 826). The study's primary outcomes were admission rates, length of stay (days), and allied health involvement. Results. Over 5 years, 47% of stroke patients were admitted to the ASU. More male stroke patients were admitted to the ASU (chi(2) = 5.81; P = 0.016). There was a trend over time towards parity between the number of stroke and nonstroke patients admitted to the ASU. When compared to those admitted elsewhere, ASU stroke patients had a longer length of stay (z = -8.233; P = 0.0000) and were more likely to receive allied healthcare. Conclusion. This is the first study to report 5 years of ASU admissions. Acute Stroke Units may benefit from a review of the healthcare provided to all stroke patients. The trends over time with respect to the utilisation of the John Hunter Hospitall's ASU have resulted in a review of the hospitall's Stroke Unit and allied healthcare.

  11. Physical activity and late effects in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia long-term survivors.

    PubMed

    Bertorello, N; Manicone, R; Galletto, C; Barisone, E; Fagioli, F

    2011-08-01

    In the present study the authors evaluated therapy-related long-term adverse effects and physical activity in a cohort of long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), diagnosed in their center between March 1991 and August 2000, treated according to the AIEOP (Associazione Italiana di Ematologia e Oncologia Pediatrica) ALL 91 or 95 study protocol and regularly seen in the authors' long-term follow-up unit. The authors analyzed the long-term sequelae of major body systems in this cohort of subjects and administered an "ad hoc" questionnaire concerning sport. The authors found that 70 patients out of 102 (68.5%) showed no late effects, 10% presented only instrumental or neuropsychological test abnormalities, and 21.5% had 1 or more clinical late sequelae. None of the evidenced late effects represented a contraindication to do physical activity. Sixty-one percent of survivors do physical activity, most of them regularly. Sixty-one percent of males and 18.5% of females (P < .005) do competitive sport (sports rates are similar to those of the general age-matched population). Nearly all subjects spontaneously choose to do sport and think physical exercise is an important and useful resource for their health. The authors conclude that the more recent therapy regimens for leukemia treatment, excluding bone marrow transplantation, do not seem to cause such late effects as to prevent survivors from doing sport. Therefore, in the care of ALL survivors, physical activity is not only not contraindicated, but should also be promoted as much as possible. The development of specific educational programs is warranted as part of the care of cancer survivors.

  12. Short-run effects of job loss on health conditions, health insurance, and health care utilization.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jessamyn; Stevens, Ann Huff

    2015-09-01

    Job loss in the United States is associated with reductions in income and long-term increases in mortality rates. This paper examines the short-run changes in health, health care access, and health care utilization after job loss that lead to these long-term effects. Using a sample with more than 10,000 individual job losses and longitudinal data on a wide variety of health-related outcomes, we show that job loss results in worse self-reported health, activity limitations, and worse mental health, but is not associated with statistically significant increases in a variety of specific chronic conditions. Among the full sample of workers, we see reductions in insurance coverage, but little evidence of reductions in health care utilization after job loss. Among the subset of displaced workers with chronic conditions and those for whom the lost job was their primary source of insurance we do see reductions in doctor's visits and prescription drug usage. PMID:26250651

  13. Mental health effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender

    2015-01-01

    We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change.

  14. Mental health effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender

    2015-01-01

    We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change. PMID:26023264

  15. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann

    ., Wan, X.S., Nuth, M., Davis, J., Ko, Y.-H., Sayers, C.M., Baran, M., Ware, J.H. and Kennedy, A.R. Dietary antioxidants protect hematopoietic cells and improve animal survival following total body irradiation. Radiation Res. (in press) [9] Kennedy, A.R., Davis, J.G., Carlton, W. and Ware, J.H. Effects of dietary antioxidant supplementation on the development of malignancies and other neoplastic lesions in mice exposed to proton or iron ion radiation. Radiation Res. (submitted) [10] Kennedy, A.R. The Status of Human Trials Utilizing Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate from Soybeans. In: Soy in Health and Disease Prevention, edited by Michihiro Sugano, CRC Press Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, Chapter 12, pp. 207-223, 2005. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS; This work was supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute through NASA NCC 9-58.

  16. Gender differences in pre-event health status of young patients with acute myocardial infarction: A VIRGO study analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Rachel P; Smolderen, Kim G; Strait, Kelly M; Beltrame, John F; Lichtman, Judith H; Lorenze, Nancy P; D’Onofrio, Gail; Bueno, Héctor; Krumholz, Harlan M; Spertus, John A

    2015-01-01

    Aims We assessed gender differences in pre-event health status (symptoms, functioning, quality of life) in young patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and whether or not this association persists following sequential adjustment for important covariates. We also evaluated the interaction between gender and prior coronary artery disease (CAD), given that aggressive symptom control is a cornerstone of care in those with known coronary disease. Methods and Results A total of 3,501 AMI patients (2,349 women) aged 18–55 years were enrolled from 103 United States/24 Spanish hospitals (2008–2012). Clinical/health status information was obtained by medical record abstraction and patient interviews. Pre-event health status was measured by generic [Short Form-12 (SF-12), EuroQoL [EQ-5D)] and disease-specific [Seattle angina questionnaire (SAQ)] measures. T-test/chi-square and multivariable linear/logistic regression analysis was utilized, sequentially adjusting for covariates. Women had more co-morbidities and significantly lower generic mean health scores than men [SF-12 physical health =43±12 vs. 46±11 and mental health= 44±13 vs. 48±11]; EQ-5D utility index=0.7±0.2 vs. 0.8±0.2, and visual analog scale=63±22 vs. 67±20, P<0.0001 for all. Their disease-specific health status was also worse, with more angina [SAQ angina frequency=83±22 vs. 87±18], worse physical function [physical limitation=78±27 vs. 87±21] and poorer quality of life [55±25 vs. 60±22, P<0.0001 for all]. In multivariable analysis, the association between female gender and worse generic physical/mental health persisted, as well as worse disease-specific physical limitation and quality of life. The interaction between gender and prior CAD was not significant in any of the health status outcomes. Conclusion Young women have worse pre-event health status as compared with men, regardless of their CAD history. While future studies of gender differences should adjust for baseline health

  17. Effects of acute aspartame and acute alcohol ingestion upon the cognitive performance of pilots.

    PubMed

    Stokes, A F; Belger, A; Banich, M T; Taylor, H

    1991-07-01

    Anecdotal evidence has associated the artificial sweetener aspartame with a number of symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. There are, however, little scientific data concerning the effect of aspartame upon complex mental operations such as those necessary for flying an aircraft. Thirteen pilots were tested in a double-blind study using the SPARTANS cognitive test battery of aviation-relevant information-processing tasks. These tasks relate to perceptual-motor abilities, spatial abilities, working memory, attentional performance, risk taking, processing flexibility, planning and sequencing ability. Subjects were tested over five sessions consisting of pretest and posttest controls and three randomly ordered treatment sessions. The treatment conditions involved an aspartame dose of 50 mg/kg body weight, a placebo condition, and an ethyl alcohol (0.1% BAL) condition as the positive control. No detectable performance decrements were associated with the aspartame condition, although decrements in psychomotor and spatial abilities were detected in the ethanol condition. Results were found to be consistent with prior flight-simulator studies of alcohol, but do not appear to support the concerns expressed in anecdotal testimony regarding the deleterious effects of aspartame upon cognitive performance.

  18. Acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Graves, Nancy S

    2013-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a common infectious disease syndrome, causing a combination of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. There are more than 350 million cases of acute gastroenteritis in the United States annually and 48 million of these cases are caused by foodborne bacteria. Traveler's diarrhea affects more than half of people traveling from developed countries to developing countries. In adult and pediatric patients, the prevalence of Clostridium difficile is increasing. Contact precautions, public health education, and prudent use of antibiotics are necessary goals in decreasing the prevalence of Clostridium difficle. Preventing dehydration or providing appropriate rehydration is the primary supportive treatment of acute gastroenteritis.

  19. Non-cancer effects of chemical agents on children's health.

    PubMed

    Röösli, Martin

    2011-12-01

    This paper provides an overview about the non-cancer health effects for children from relevant chemical agents in our environment. In addition, a meta-analysis was conducted on the association between sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and maternal smoking during pregnancy as well as postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In children, birth deformities, neurodevelopment, reproductive outcomes and respiratory system are mainly affected by chemical exposures. According to recent systematic reviews, evidence is sufficient for cognitive impairments caused by low lead exposure levels. Evidence for neurotoxicity from prenatal methylmercury exposure is sufficient for high exposure levels and limited for low levels. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and related toxicants results in cognitive and motor deficits. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm birth, foetal growth deficit and SIDS. The meta-analytic pooled risk estimate for SIDS based on 15 studies is 2.94 (95% confidence interval: 2.43-3.57). Postnatal exposure to ETS was found to increase the SIDS risk by a factor of 1.72 (95% CI: 1.28-2.30) based on six studies which took into account maternal smoking during pregnancy. Additionally, postnatal ETS exposure causes acute respiratory infections, ear problems, respiratory symptoms, more severe asthma, and it slows lung growth. These health effects are also of concern for postnatal exposure to ambient and indoor air pollution. Children differ from adults with respect to several aspects which are relevant for assessing their health risk. Thus, independent evaluation of toxicity in childhood populations is essential. PMID:21906619

  20. Clinical effects of laparotomy with perioperative continuous peritoneal lavage and postoperative hemofiltration in patients with severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The elevated serum and peritoneal cytokine concentrations responsible for the systemic response syndrome (SIRS) and multiorgan failure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis lead to high morbidity and mortality rates. Prompted by reports underlining the importance of reducing circulating inflammatory mediators in severe acute pancreatitis, we designed this study to evaluate the efficiency of laparotomy followed by continuous perioperative peritoneal lavage combined with postoperative continuous venovenous diahemofiltration (CVVDH) in managing critically ill patients refractory to intensive care therapy. As the major clinical outcome variables we measured morbidity, mortality and changes in the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score and cytokine concentrations in serum and peritoneal lavage fluid over time. Methods From a consecutive group of 23 patients hospitalized for acute pancreatitis, we studied 6 patients all with Apache II scores ≥19, who underwent emergency surgery for acute complications (5 for an abdominal compartment syndrome and 1 for septic shock) followed by continuous perioperative peritoneal lavage and postoperative CVVDH. CVVDH was started within 12 hours after surgery and maintained for at least 72 hours, until the multiorgan dysfunction syndrome improved. Samples were collected from serum, peritoneal lavage fluid and CVVDH dialysate for cytokine assay. Apache II scores were measured daily and their association with cytokine levels was assessed. Results All six patients tolerated CVVDH well, and the procedure lasted a mean 6 days (range, 3-12). Five patients survived and one died of Acinetobacter infection after surgery (mortality rate 16.6%). The mean APACHE II score was ≥ 19 (range 19-22) before laparotomy and decreased significantly during peritoneal lavage and postoperative CVVDH (P = 0.013 by matched-pairs Students t-test). The decrease in cytokine concentrations in serum and lavage fluid was

  1. Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nowak, David J; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Bodine, Allison; Greenfield, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Trees remove air pollution by the interception of particulate matter on plant surfaces and the absorption of gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. However, the magnitude and value of the effects of trees and forests on air quality and human health across the United States remains unknown. Computer simulations with local environmental data reveal that trees and forests in the conterminous United States removed 17.4 million tonnes (t) of air pollution in 2010 (range: 9.0-23.2 million t), with human health effects valued at 6.8 billion U.S. dollars (range: $1.5-13.0 billion). This pollution removal equated to an average air quality improvement of less than one percent. Most of the pollution removal occurred in rural areas, while most of the health impacts and values were within urban areas. Health impacts included the avoidance of more than 850 incidences of human mortality and 670,000 incidences of acute respiratory symptoms.

  2. The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: insights from neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Bjork, James M; Gilman, Jodi M

    2014-09-01

    Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development and maintenance of addiction. These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures implicated in motivation and behavior control, and that chronic intoxication is correlated with structural and functional abnormalities in these same structures, where some elements of these decrements normalize with extended sobriety. In this review, we will summarize recent findings about acute human brain responses to alcohol using neuroimaging techniques, and how they might explain behavioral effects of alcohol intoxication. We then briefly address how chronic alcohol intoxication (as inferred from cross-sectional differences between various drinking populations and controls) may yield individual brain differences between drinking subjects that may confound interpretation of acute alcohol administration effects. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'.

  3. Acute Liver and Renal Failure: A Rare Adverse Effect Exclusive to Intravenous form of Amiodarone

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Prerna; Suman, Saurav; Acharya, Saurav; Matta, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic drug which is highly effective against a wide spectrum of ventricular tachyarrhythmias making it irreplaceable in certain group of patients. We report an unusual case of acute liver and renal failure within 24 hours of initiation of intravenous (IV) amiodarone which resolved after stopping the medication. The mechanism of acute liver and renal toxicity is not clearly known but is believed to be secondary to amiodarone induced (relative) hypotension, idiosyncratic reaction to the drug, and toxicity of the vector that carries the medication, polysorbate-80. In this case review, we discuss the hyperacute drug toxicity caused by IV amiodarone being a distinctly different entity compared to the adverse effects shown by oral amiodarone and support the suggestion that oral amiodarone can be safely administered even in patients who manifest acute hepatitis with the IV form. PMID:27672457

  4. Acute Liver and Renal Failure: A Rare Adverse Effect Exclusive to Intravenous form of Amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Robin; Dogra, Prerna; Suman, Saurav; Acharya, Saurav; Matta, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic drug which is highly effective against a wide spectrum of ventricular tachyarrhythmias making it irreplaceable in certain group of patients. We report an unusual case of acute liver and renal failure within 24 hours of initiation of intravenous (IV) amiodarone which resolved after stopping the medication. The mechanism of acute liver and renal toxicity is not clearly known but is believed to be secondary to amiodarone induced (relative) hypotension, idiosyncratic reaction to the drug, and toxicity of the vector that carries the medication, polysorbate-80. In this case review, we discuss the hyperacute drug toxicity caused by IV amiodarone being a distinctly different entity compared to the adverse effects shown by oral amiodarone and support the suggestion that oral amiodarone can be safely administered even in patients who manifest acute hepatitis with the IV form. PMID:27672457

  5. Acute Liver and Renal Failure: A Rare Adverse Effect Exclusive to Intravenous form of Amiodarone

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Prerna; Suman, Saurav; Acharya, Saurav; Matta, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic drug which is highly effective against a wide spectrum of ventricular tachyarrhythmias making it irreplaceable in certain group of patients. We report an unusual case of acute liver and renal failure within 24 hours of initiation of intravenous (IV) amiodarone which resolved after stopping the medication. The mechanism of acute liver and renal toxicity is not clearly known but is believed to be secondary to amiodarone induced (relative) hypotension, idiosyncratic reaction to the drug, and toxicity of the vector that carries the medication, polysorbate-80. In this case review, we discuss the hyperacute drug toxicity caused by IV amiodarone being a distinctly different entity compared to the adverse effects shown by oral amiodarone and support the suggestion that oral amiodarone can be safely administered even in patients who manifest acute hepatitis with the IV form.

  6. Effect of edaravone on favorable outcome in patients with acute cerebral large vessel occlusion: subanalysis of RESCUE-Japan Registry.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Yuki; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Egashira, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Manabu; Uchida, Kazutaka; Kageyama, Hirohito; Tomogane, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The data of the nationwide prospective registry of acute cerebral large vessel occlusion (LVO; RESCUE-Japan Registry) were analyzed to know the effect of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, on clinical outcome at 90 days after onset. In this registry, patients with acute cerebral LVO admitted within 24 h after onset were prospectively registered. The effect of various factors including endovascular treatment (EVT), intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA), and other medication including edaravone on favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-1) was analyzed. Of the 1,454 registered patients, 1,442 patients (99.2%) had the information of edaravone were analyzed. In total, edaravone group had more patients with favorable outcome compared to non-edaravone group (22.9% vs. 13.8%, p = 0.0006). Edaravone increased favorable outcome in patients treated with IV rt-PA (29.4% vs. 11.1%, p = 0.0107), but not with EVT (21.2% vs. 13.9%, p = 0.309). Logistic regression analysis revealed that higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission [odds ratio (OR) 0.875, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.858-0.894] and advanced age (OR 0.963, 95%CI 0.952-0.975) were significantly related to unfavorable outcome. In contrast, IV rt-PA (OR 2.489, 95%CI 1.867-3.319), EVT (OR 1.375, 95%CI 1.013-1.865), and edaravone (OR 1.483, 95%CI 1.027-2.143) were significantly associated with favorable outcome. This analysis indicated that IV rt-PA, EVT, and edaravone were effective to obtain favorable outcome in patients with acute LVO. Combination IV rt-PA with edaravone was more effective. PMID:25739433

  7. Acute effects of breaking up prolonged sitting on fatigue and cognition: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Wennberg, Patrik; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Wheeler, Michael; Howard, Bethany; Dempsey, Paddy C; Lambert, Gavin; Eikelis, Nina; Larsen, Robyn; Sethi, Parneet; Occleston, Jessica; Hernestål-Boman, Jenny; Ellis, Kathryn A; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the acute effects of uninterrupted sitting with sitting interrupted by brief bouts of light-intensity walking on self-reported fatigue, cognition, neuroendocrine biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk markers in overweight/obese adults. Design Randomised two-condition crossover trial. Setting Laboratory study conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 19 overweight/obese adults (45–75 years). Interventions After an initial 2 h period seated, participants consumed a meal-replacement beverage and completed (on 2 days separated by a 6-day washout period) each condition over the next 5 h: uninterrupted sitting (sedentary condition) or sitting with 3 min bouts of light-intensity walking every 30 min (active condition). Primary outcome measures Self-reported fatigue, executive function and episodic memory at 0 h, 4 h and 7 h. Secondary outcome measures Neuroendocrine biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk markers (blood collections at 0 h, 4 h and 7 h, blood pressure and heart rate measured hourly and interstitial glucose measured using a continuous glucose monitoring system). Results During the active condition, fatigue levels were lower at 4 h (−13.32 (95% CI −23.48 to −3.16)) and at 7 h (−10.73 (95% CI −20.89 to −0.58)) compared to the sedentary condition. Heart rate was higher at 4 h (4.47 (95% CI 8.37 to 0.58)) and at 7 h (4.32 (95% CI 8.21 to 0.42)) during the active condition compared to the sedentary condition. There were no significant differences between conditions by time for other variables. In the sedentary condition, changes in fatigue scores over time correlated with a decrease in heart rate and plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and an increase in plasma dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG). Conclusions Interrupting prolonged sitting with light-intensity walking breaks may be an effective fatigue countermeasure acutely. Fatigue levels corresponded with the heart rate and neuroendocrine biomarker

  8. Health Effects of Noise Exposure in Children.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Clark, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    Environmental noise exposure, such as road traffic noise and aircraft noise, is associated with a range of health outcomes in children. Children demonstrate annoyance responses to noise, and noise is also related to lower well-being and stress responses, such as increased levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Noise does not cause more serious mental health problems, but there is growing evidence for an association with increased hyperactivity symptoms. Studies also suggest that noise might cause changes in cardiovascular functioning, and there is some limited evidence for an effect on low birth weight. There is robust evidence for an effect of school noise exposure on children's cognitive skills such as reading and memory, as well as on standardised academic test scores. Environmental noise does not usually reach levels that are likely to affect children's hearing; however, increasing use of personal electronic devices may leave some children exposed to harmful levels of noise. PMID:26231366

  9. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited. PMID:25115476

  10. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  11. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally.

  12. Different effects of tianeptine pretreatment in rats exposed to acute stress and repeated severe stress.

    PubMed

    Kasar, M; Mengi, M; Yildirim, E A; Yurdakos, E

    2009-04-01

    In this study we aim to discuss the relationship between stress and learning and emotionality in an experimental model using two different stress conditions: acute stress (single restraint stress for 20 min) and repeated severe stress (6-h daily restraint for 21 days). We studied the effects of tianeptine, which has been suggested to have anxiolytic and cognition-enhancing effects under stressful conditions. After acute stress, the increase in the duration of immobility (F = 5.753 and 3.664) in the open field and holeboard tests and the decrease in rearing (F = 3.891) in the holeboard test were significant when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Results for repeated severe stress showed that in both the open field and holeboard tests the decrease in rearing (F = 4.494 and 4.530, respectively), increase in the duration of immobility (F = 6.069 and 4.742, respectively) and decrease in head dips (F = 4.938) in the holeboard test were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The group pretreated with tianeptine showed no significant difference from controls for either acute or repeated severe stress conditions. In the Morris water maze test, acute stress led to a prolongation of average escape latency, which indicated a spatial learning deficit. Treatment with tianeptine prior to acute stress prevented this spatial deficit. Repeated severe stress also led to spatial learning deficits in rats, but this deficit was not prevented by treatment with tianeptine. Our study demonstrates that pretreatment with tianeptine had different effects on stress-induced spatial learning deficits under acute and repeated stress conditions, while the effects on emotionality and anxiety-like behavior were similar. The mechanisms implicated in stress-induced emotional and memory deficits will be discussed.

  13. Effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide on treatment of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ozer Cakir, Ozlem; Esen, Hasan; Toker, Aysun; Ataseven, Huseyin; Demir, Ali; Polat, Hakki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research continues to develop novel therapeutic modalities that particularly focus on the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. This study aimed to assess the effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide, alone or in combination, on pancreatic enzymes, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, histopathology and apoptosis of pancreas cells, using a model of experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. Objectives: We aimed to demonstrate effects of diclofenac sodium, octreotide and their combined use on pancreatic enzymes, activity of pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, histopathology and apoptosis of pancreas on treatment of caerulin-induced experimental acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Caerulin-induced acute pancreatitis model was created using a total of 58 male BALB-C mice of 25 gr in seven groups. Serum amylase, lipase levels and pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity were examined as well as apoptotic values in pancreatic acinar cells through TUNNEL method. Histopathology of pancreas was evaluated for presence of edema, hemorrhage, parenchymal necrosis, fat necrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and fibrosis. Results: In the diclofenac sodium group, apoptotic values in the pancreatic acinar cells were found to be statistically lower than in the acute pancreatitis group in terms of parenchymal necrosis and hemorrhage scores (P = 0.007, P = 0.002, and P = 0.052, respectively). No statistically significant differences were found in serum level of amylase, lipase, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity and the other histopathological scores (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Diclofenac sodium, a cost-effective agent with a favorable side-effect profile, may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Findings of this study suggest a better efficacy for diclofenac sodium monotherapy as compared to octreotide alone or octreotide/diclofenac combination. PMID:26770346

  14. Comparative effectiveness research on patients with acute ischemic stroke using Markov decision processes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several methodological issues with non-randomized comparative clinical studies have been raised, one of which is whether the methods used can adequately identify uncertainties that evolve dynamically with time in real-world systems. The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of different combinations of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatments and combinations of TCM and Western medicine interventions in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) by using Markov decision process (MDP) theory. MDP theory appears to be a promising new method for use in comparative effectiveness research. Methods The electronic health records (EHR) of patients with AIS hospitalized at the 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine between May 2005 and July 2008 were collected. Each record was portioned into two "state-action-reward" stages divided by three time points: the first, third, and last day of hospital stay. We used the well-developed optimality technique in MDP theory with the finite horizon criterion to make the dynamic comparison of different treatment combinations. Results A total of 1504 records with a primary diagnosis of AIS were identified. Only states with more than 10 (including 10) patients' information were included, which gave 960 records to be enrolled in the MDP model. Optimal combinations were obtained for 30 types of patient condition. Conclusion MDP theory makes it possible to dynamically compare the effectiveness of different combinations of treatments. However, the optimal interventions obtained by the MDP theory here require further validation in clinical practice. Further exploratory studies with MDP theory in other areas in which complex interventions are common would be worthwhile. PMID:22400712

  15. Acute effects of diurnal temperature range on mortality in 8 Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ang; Meng, Xia; Chen, Renjie; Kuang, Xingya; Duan, Xiaoli; Kan, Haidong

    2014-09-15

    Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is a meteorological indicator closely associated with global climate change. There have been no multicity studies in China addressing the DTR-related health impact. We hypothesized that an increase of DTR is associated with higher daily mortality with a potential lag of effect, and investigated the acute effects of DTR on total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in 8 large Chinese cities from 2001 to 2010. We first calculated city-specific effect of DTR in the full year, the cool season (November to the next April) and the warm season (May to October) separately using a semi-parametric generalized additive model; then we pooled the city-specific estimates with meta analysis. After adjusting for long-term and seasonal trends, temperature, relative humidity and air pollution levels, we found statistically significant associations between DTR and daily mortality, especially in cool seasons. A 1 °C increment of DTR on lag-day 1 corresponded to a 0.42% (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.70) increase in total non-accidental mortality, 0.45% (95% CI, 0.26 to 0.65) increase in cardiovascular mortality, and a 0.76% (95% CI, 0.24 to 1.29) increase in respiratory mortality in cool seasons. Deaths among females and elderly (≥ 65 years) were more strongly associated with DTR than among males and younger people (<65 years). Our analysis suggests that DTR is a potential trigger for death in China. Our findings may have important implications for the climate policies in the country. PMID:24937494

  16. Representing and Retrieving Patients' Falls Risk Factors and Risk for Falls among Adults in Acute Care through the Electronic Health Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Jann

    2013-01-01

    Defining fall risk factors and predicting fall risk status among patients in acute care has been a topic of research for decades. With increasing pressure on hospitals to provide quality care and prevent hospital-acquired conditions, the search for effective fall prevention interventions continues. Hundreds of risk factors for falls in acute care…

  17. Neurophysiologic Analysis of the Effects of Interactive Tailored Health Videos on Attention to Health Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung A.

    2011-01-01

    Web-based tailored approaches hold much promise as effective means for delivering health education and improving public health. This study examines the effects of interactive tailored health videos on attention to health messages using neurophysiological changes measured by Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (EKG). Sixty-eight…

  18. Cognitive and physiological effects of an acute physical activity intervention in elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Katja; Schmidt, Mirko; Conzelmann, Achim; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute physical activity intervention that included cognitive engagement on executive functions and on cortisol level in young elementary school children. Half of the 104 participating children (6–8 years old) attended a 20-min sport sequence, which included cognitively engaging and playful forms of physical activity. The other half was assigned to a resting control condition. Individual differences in children's updating, inhibition, and shifting performance as well as salivary cortisol were assessed before (pre-test), immediately after (post-test), and 40 min after (follow-up) the intervention or control condition, respectively. Results revealed a significantly stronger improvement in inhibition in the experimental group compared to the control group, while it appeared that acute physical activity had no specific effect on updating and shifting. The intervention effect on inhibition leveled out 40 min after physical activity. Salivary cortisol increased significantly more in the experimental compared to the control group between post-test and follow-up and results support partly the assumed inverted U-shaped relationship between cortisol level and cognitive performance. In conclusion, results indicate that acute physical activity that includes cognitive engagement may have immediate positive effects on inhibition, but not necessarily on updating and shifting in elementary school children. This positive effect may partly be explained through cortisol elevation after acute physical activity. PMID:25566148

  19. Impact of integrated health system changes, accelerated due to an earthquake, on emergency department attendances and acute admissions: a Bayesian change-point analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Philip J; Hamilton, Greg J; Deely, Joanne M; Ardagh, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To chart emergency department (ED) attendance and acute admission following a devastating earthquake in 2011 which lead to Canterbury's rapidly accelerated integrated health system transformations. Design Interrupted time series analysis, modelling using Bayesian change-point methods, of ED attendance and acute admission rates over the 2008–2014 period. Setting ED department within the Canterbury District Health Board; with comparison to two other district health boards unaffected by the earthquake within New Zealand. Participants Canterbury's health system services ∼500 000 people, with around 85 000 ED attendances and 37 000 acute admissions per annum. Main outcome measures De-seasoned standardised population ED attendance and acute admission rates overall, and stratified by age and sex, compared before and after the earthquake. Results Analyses revealed five global patterns: (1) postearthquake, there was a sudden and persisting decrease in the proportion of the population attending the ED; (2) the growth rate of ED attendances per head of population did not change between the pre-earthquake and postearthquake periods; (3) postearthquake, there was a sudden and persisting decrease in the proportion of the population admitted to hospital; (4) the growth rate of hospital admissions per head of the population declined between pre-earthquake and postearthquake periods and (5) the most dramatic reduction in hospital admissions growth after the earthquake occurred among those aged 65+ years. Extrapolating from the projected and fitted deseasoned rates for December 2014, ∼676 (16.8%) of 4035 projected hospital admissions were avoided. Conclusions While both necessarily and opportunistically accelerated, Canterbury's integrated health systems transformations have resulted in a dramatic and sustained reduction in ED attendances and acute hospital admissions. This natural intervention experiment, triggered by an earthquake, demonstrated that

  20. Acute and subacute effects of urban air pollution on cardiopulmonary emergencies and mortality: time series studies in Austrian cities.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Rabczenko, Daniel

    2013-10-02

    Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years) were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover) on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death). Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m³ on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic) and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards.

  1. Acclimation and acute temperature effects on population differences in oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Baris, Tara Z; Crawford, Douglas L; Oleksiak, Marjorie F

    2016-01-15

    Temperature changes affect metabolism on acute, acclamatory, and evolutionary time scales. To better understand temperature's affect on metabolism at these different time scales, we quantified cardiac oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in three Fundulus taxa acclimated to 12 and 28°C and measured at three acute temperatures (12, 20, and 28°C). The Fundulus taxa (northern Maine and southern Georgia F. heteroclitus, and a sister taxa, F. grandis) were used to identify evolved changes in OxPhos. Cardiac OxPhos metabolism was quantified by measuring six traits: state 3 (ADP and substrate-dependent mitochondrial respiration); E state (uncoupled mitochondrial activity); complex I, II, and IV activities; and LEAK ratio. Acute temperature affected all OxPhos traits. Acclimation only significantly affected state 3 and LEAK ratio. Populations were significantly different for state 3. In addition to direct effects, there were significant interactions between acclimation and population for complex I and between population and acute temperature for state 3. Further analyses suggest that acclimation alters the acute temperature response for state 3, E state, and complexes I and II: at the low acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at low assay temperatures, and at the high acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at high assay temperatures. Closer examination of the data also suggests that differences in state 3 respiration and complex I activity between populations were greatest between fish acclimated to low temperatures when assayed at high temperatures, suggesting that differences between the populations become more apparent at the edges of their thermal range. PMID:26582639

  2. Chronic hyperleptinemia induces resistance to acute natriuretic and NO-mimetic effects of leptin.

    PubMed

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Wojtak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Apart from controlling energy balance, leptin, secreted by adipose tissue, is also involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Previous studies have demonstrated that acutely administered leptin stimulates natriuresis and vascular nitric oxide (NO) production and that these effects are impaired in obese animals. However, the mechanism of resistance to leptin is not clear. Because obesity is associated with chronically elevated leptin, we examined if long-term hyperleptinemia impairs acute effects of leptin on sodium excretion and NO production in the absence of obesity. Hyperleptinemia was induced in lean rats by administration of exogenous leptin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg/day for 7 days, and then acute effect<